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The boy's own toy-maker
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 Material Information
Title: The boy's own toy-maker a practical illustrated guide to the useful employment of leisure hours
Physical Description: xiv, 194 p. : ill. ; 18 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Landells, Ebenezer, 1808-1860
Griffith and Farran ( Publisher )
E.P. Dutton (Firm) ( Publisher )
Gilbert & Rivington ( Printer )
Publisher: Griffith and Farran
E.P. Dutton & Co.
Place of Publication: London
New York
Manufacturer: Gilbert and Rivington
Publication Date: [1892?]
Edition: 18th thousand, rev. and enl.
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Toy making -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Amusements -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Paper work -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Puzzles -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Archery -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Shipbuilding -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Scientific recreations -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Physical sciences -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Publishers' advertisements -- 1892   ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1892
Genre: Publishers' advertisements   ( rbgenr )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by E. Landells.
General Note: Date of publication from inscription.
General Note: Publisher's advertisements precede text.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002232747
notis - ALH3143
oclc - 191730821
System ID: UF00081179:00001

Full Text






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THE BOY'S OWN

TOY-MAKER.
















/



Uniform with the Boy's Own Toy-Maker."

With Two Hundred Engravings. Sixth Edition, price 2s. 6d., cloth.

THE GIRL'S OWN TOY-MAKER,

AND BOOK OF RECREATION.

By E. LANDELLS, assisted by his Daughter,
ALICE LANDELLS.


"One of those suggestive little books that become perfect treasures to
industrious children. To blend employment with amusement is one of
the arts of education, and while juveniles, guided by the engravings and,
directions, imagine they are constructing toys, they are really acquiring
industry, thought, construction, and order."-Art Journal.


GRIFPITH & PARRAN, LONDON.
E. P. DUTTON & CO., NEW YORK.













III- ,I


Fron,,fi iece,









THE BOY'S OWN


TOY-MAKER:


A PRACTICAL ILLUSTRATED GUIDE TO THE USEFUL
EMPLOYMENT OF LEISURE HOURS.


BY
E. LANDELLS,
AUTHOR OF "HOME PASTIME; OE, TIHE CHILD'S OWN TOY-MAKEE,"
"THE GIRL'S OWN TOY-MAKER," ETC.


EIGHTEENTH THOUSAND, REVISED AND ENLARGED,


WITH UPWARDS OF TWO HUNDRED ENGRAYINGS.


GRIFFITH AND FARRAN,
SUCCSESORB TO NEWBBRY AND rARRIS,
CORNER OF ST. PAUL'S CHURCHYARD, LONDON.
E. P. DUTTON & CO., NEW YORK.












































[ The rigs of Translation and of Reroduction are reserved.2
















CONTENTS.


Page
PREaF x
,, to Second Edition. xiii
to Tenth Edition xiv
PAPER TOYS 1
Paper Boat, No. 1 2
Paper Boat, No. 2 4
Comic Paper Mask 6
Pyramidical Hat 8
Paper Box 9
Fire Balloon 11
Parachute 12
Arrow Parachute 13
Kite 14
Second Kite 15
Cloth Kite. 18
Officer Kite 19
CARDBOARD TOYS. 20
The Race 21
The Fox Hunt 25,
The Thaumatrope 34
Card Racks 36
Pair of Steps 39
Horse and Cart 40
Soldiers Marching out of a
Fort 44
Rustic Cottage 49
BOATS 58
Thames Wherry 58


Page
Long Boat. 58
Pleasure Boat 60
Sailing Boat 62
Portsmouth Wherry .63
Lugsail 64
Boat with two Lugsails 64
Boat with three Lugsails 65
Cutter 65
Model of Cutter. 66
Deck 68
Companion, or Binnacle 68
Rudder and Tiller 68
Windlass and Bitts 69
Stands 69
Main-mast. 70
Cross-trees. 70
Top-mast 71
Bowsprit 71
Main-boom 71
Gaff 71
Yard. 72
Standing Rigging .73
Dead-Eyes. 74
Fore-stay 74
Running Rigging 75
The Sails 78
Schooner 82
Schooner-yacht 82










CONTENTS.


Page
Main and Top-mast 83
Square-sails 83
Bowsprit, &c. 84
Brig 85
Brig in full sail 85
Main-top 86
Masts 86
Ship 88
Clipper Ship 88
Bark 89
Mizen-mast 89
ARCHERY. 90
Cross-Bow. 90
Common Bow 91
Arrow 92
Target 92
Position 93
TIP-CAT. 94
POP-GUN 96
SLING 97
STILTS 98
ANGLING .100
Rods 100
Floats 105
Winch 107
Plumb 109
Fly-fishing .114
Flies 116
May-fly 118
Great White Moth .119
Bee-fly 119
Red Palmer 120
Landing Net 120
RABBIT HUTCHES 122
BIRD TRAPS 125


Page
BRICK TRAP 126
THE SPRINGLE 127
BATTLEDOOR AND
SHUTTLECOCK 130
TRAP, BAT, AND
BALL .133
BALLS 136
THE BOOMERANG 139
GOLFING .140
HOCKEY, OR CLUB 143
THE SUCKER .144
PRACTICAL PUZZLES.
The Chinese Cross 145
The Chinese Puzzle 147
The Maze, or Labyrinth 149
The Cardboard Puzzle 150
Moving the Knight over all
the Squares alternately 151
The Accommodating Square 152
The Divided Garden 152
The Army Square 153
The Japan Square Puzzle 153
The Square and CirclePuzzle 154
The Puzzle of Fourteen 155
The Card Square 156
Puzzle of the Two Fathers 156
The Nuns 157
The Double-headed Puzzle 158
Cutting out a Cross 159
Another Cross Puzzle. 160
The Glass and Coins 160
Another Glass Puzzle. 161
SCIENTIFIC TOYS. 162
Chemical.
To make a Crystal Basket 162










CONTENTS.


Page
How to make a Lead Tree. 163
How to make a Silver Tree. 163


Oxygen Gas
A Fiery Fountain
A Bleaching Apparatus
Burning Steel
Fire on Water
A Ghostly Flame
Invisible Ink
Coal Gas .
Coloured Fires
Electrical Toys


.164
.168
.168
.168
.169
.169
.170
.170
.171
172


To Electrify Brown Paper. 172
Electrified Glass 173
Electrified Sealing-Wax 173
An Electrical Machine 174
The Rubber 175
The Prime Conductor 176
To Work the Machine .177
The Electrical Jar 178
An Electric Kiss 178
An Imitation Shipwreck .179
A Mimic Thunderstorm 179
The Sportsman 180
An Electrical Waltz .181
The Electrical See-Saw 181


Page
Galvanic Toys 182
A Galvanic Battery .182
An Electric Telegraph 182
The Receiving Instru-
ments .183
The Battery .184
To Work the Telegraph. 184
An Electrotyping Machine. 185
How to make a Pair of Tele-
phones 186
Optical Toys 187
A Pin-hole Camera 187
A Garden Camera Obscura 187
The Kaleidoscope 188
A Shadow Pantomime 189
To Throw the Shadows
on the Screen 190
To Jump to and from the
Ceiling 191
The Invisible rendered Vi-
sible 191
To see through a Brick 191
To render Visible Invisible. 192
The Magic Lantern 192
Magnetic Toys 193
To make a Magnet 193












PREFACE.


THIs is a boy's book in which the author has tried
with his pen and pencil, to teach some useful things
for the pleasant time of play hours. It is a plain
book, which he hopes will be easily understood by
any boy old enough to be trusted with such common
tools as a penknife or a pair of scissors, and still be
equally.suited for the pastime of those who, of riper
age, aspire to manlier amusement.
It is commonly supposed that the trade of the toy-
maker is a frivolous pursuit that has no right to be
classed in the useful labours of life; and grave men
have shaken their heads at the poor toy-maker, not
because he often and justly may be blamed for a
great deal of childish work, but by reason that his
labours can' only end in the amusement of children.
The author thinks differently, and would even ven-
ture to hint, that if the maker of toys would follow
the good example of those for whom he makes them,
and go to school to learn, his trade would stand
higher amongst the useful and dignified callings, and
he himself might perhaps in time be joined as a helper
to the schoolmaster. He will become less frivolous the
more that grave men look kindly on the labours that








PREFACE.


endeavour to unite instruction with the amusements
of the juvenile circle. Ours is an attempt in this
direction, and not an aimless one at book-making.
Many of our young friends have no doubt heard
their parents join in the lament that has been made
by some clever men on the general want of knowledge
of "common things." Grown men who could talk
with Virgil or Homer in their own tongues, are igno-
rant of many things of every-day life, which very
little children are now taught in play and learn with
scarcely an effort. It must not be imagined that we
think lightly of the graver labours of the school hours
when boys come to learn Greek and Latin, and the
other branches of knowledge so necessary to fit them
to take a place in society as educated men; we would
only illustrate the aim of this little book as a teacher
for the play hours by putting a question: Who would
be the more useful person of two cast on Robinson
Crusoe's desert island-the man who could only speak
Greek and Latin, or the boy who, in hour of need,
would erect a little hut or even construct a boat from
the lessons learnt in play hours ?
The boyish days of many of the great men who
have enlightened the world by their discoveries and
inventions have been remarkable for the practical bias
their minds have taken. James Watt when a boy
first discerned the power of steam by watching the








PREFACE.


spout of a common tea-kettle. The great Sir Isaac
Newton was the first to introduce the paper kite,
when a little school-boy at Grantham. George Ste-
phenson, who in our own day has done such great
things for human progress, was in boyhood always
making lilliputian mills and clay engines in a small
stream that ran by his father's cottage. Whoever
would be a great inventor to the benefit of humanity,
must begin to learn common things in very early life;
for so vast is the accumulation of knowledge, heaped up
by ages, and the inventive industry of mankind, that
if the task of learning be deferred until the business of
life, with its thousand cares and distractions, begins,
knowledge cannot ripen enough even when a long one
ends for the harvest of that one ambition which youth
and men may own without reproach-to be great in
usefulness in their generation, to their country, and to
their kind.
All children in a degree love to construct, and this
surely points to a most practical means of conveying
instruction when you provide amusement. The boy
engaged in making a toy-house becomes half an archi-
tect in the knowledge acquired of the names and uses
of forms and materials which, without a model, he
could hardly comprehend. He who forms a tiny boat
or cutter, and rigs it himself, acquires a familiarity
with every rope and spar that belongs to the vessel;








PREFACE.


he acquires information which, without going so far
as the island desert, may any day of life be of valuable
service to him who inhabits an island home. Know-
ledge is power; the more practical it is the more
powerful will it be for our good and for that of our
fellow-beings, and it is hoped that our young readers
will have reason to remember with a kindly regard
among the thousand common circumstances of life, the
instruction imparted in these pages.



PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION.

THE -favourable manner in which this little work
has been noticed by the Press, and the patronage it has
already received from the Public, has been so great as
to call for a second edition within two months of the
first publication. The Author cannot but feel flattered
that his efforts to amuse the rising generation, whilst
conveying sound practical information in an easy and
pleasing manner, has been crowned with complete
success. Having carefully revised the present edition,
it is now confidently submitted to the world; the
Publishers feeling assured that it will continue to re-
ceive the patronage and support of both parents and
children.








PREFACE.


PREFACE TO THE TENTH EDITION.

TAKING advantage of the opportunity afforded by the
preparation of a new edition, the whole book has been
subjected to further careful revision, the article on
Golfing has been corrected, and a glossary of the
technical terms used in the game is now given for the
first time. The papers on Angling and Boats have
been revised and practically re-written by Mr. J.
Harrington Keene, the author of "The Practical
Fisherman," and Mr. Jas. E. Walton, the author of
" Model Yachts," respectively; and in order to provide
somewhat more instructive amusement for leisure
hours, an article on Scientific Toys, by Mr. Thomas
Dunman, has been added.


August, 1881.








THE


BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKER.












AN endless source of amusement may be obtained
by the use of the common scissors and a piece of paper
Forms of every variety can be cut out in this way;
figures, animals, birds, trees, and other objects can be
imitated, so that with a little practice the eye becomes
familiar with the shape of each, and, as it is very quickly
done, it is little or no tax on the patience of the juve-
nile operator. It has also the advantage of being in-
expensive, as the materials cost little or nothing; old
newspapers or any waste pieces of paper will do to
practice upon, and toys can be made in great variety
for the amusement of your young friends in the long
winter evenings.









THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKE.E


PAPER BOAT. No. 1.






CUT a piece of white writing paper, but not of
r c.I. too stiff a quality, six
inches by four (fig. 1);
fold it to the dotted
line a, making exactly
one half when folded
to c; then the corners
bb are to meet in the
a- __ centre (fig. 2) ; turn
down the two sides
d, forming the dotted
lines e, take the two
sides between each
finger and thumb, in
the left hand, and
with the right pull it









PAPER BOAT.


rIC.2. FIC.3


.-v
I -- --- -----







out until it forms fig. 3, taking care to turn over the
corners at dotted line e; turn down FI c.4.
the two top lines to dotted line g,
pull out the sides again, as before,
to make fig. 4; a a being pulled out a
as before described, taking care not
to press the inside, it will form the
boat, fig. 5.

FI0.5.
---- -/--- ",
\ / /
\Z _____ -.:








THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKER.


IAPER BOAT. No. 2.
TAKE a piece of writing or cartridge paper the size
_FI- of a double square,
------ ------- fold it in the mid-
/S, dle e lengthways
-..-- .-- --- a. ___._..__ (fig. 1), turn up
the two corners to
dotted lines b b
and turn down the
two upper edges from c to the remaining dotted line d,
doubling in the Flc.a.
ends e e to form
fig. 2 ; before a
opening it out
pierce five small notches for the seats a, at equal dis-
tances, and between these again cut out the small
square places for the rowlocks for the oars. Open out
the inside, and form the seats (fig. 3) of pieces of card-
FI 1.3.





board or stiff paper to fit the shape of the boat, the
two end ones being made to fill up the corners.








PAPER BOAT.


The Oars (fig. 4). Fold F 4
a piece of paper the length df .--------- --------
the bottom of, the boat, five
times, cut out the shape, double over to the dotted
line, which will give the oar greater firmness, and also
improve the shape.
To imitate water, take a long slip of paper, and
FI c.S. folding it eight times (fig. 5),
cut out the centre piece, crum-
ple up the paper altogether,
and open out in a line the
places for the boat to rest upon.
The Men (fig. 6). Fold a piece of paper t c.. C.
five times, about half the length of the boat,
cut it out to shape, beginning at the foot on
the right, cutting continuously on to the left.
When finished, bend from dotted lines to sit-
ting posture, arms brought forward, and hands turned
down to hold the oars.
Having completed your cutting out, and placed
your boat upright, fix your men one on each seat at
opposite sides to each other. Place an oar in the row-
lock again opposite to each man, and fixing an oar in
like manner in each man's hands, your boat with its
crew will be complete.








THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKER.


COMIC PAPER MASK.
THIS is a highly amusing toy, and can be easily
made out of an old newspaper; if coloured, the effect
will be much improved, and made exceedingly funny.
This, however, can be better done with a sheet of car-
tridge paper, about a foot and a half square; having


FIC.I.


folded it double (fig. 1). cut out the eyes, nose, and








COMIC PAPER MASK. 7

mouth, and round the ear; for the beard, fold the
bottom portion four or five times, and cut it in long
slips, open out, fix the two long side ends round the
head, and by rolling the eyes, and moving the tongue
about from side to side, you will find it give a most
comic and grotesque appearance.


FIC. 2.


y^^' ,, I/.^x'
/^'*""/.' '""" \r









THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKER,


PYRAMIDICAL HAT.
TAKE a piece of paper the size of two squares
(fig. 1), double it to dotted line a, turn the corner b to
c, and the corner c :the same way to the other side;
then turn down the piece e to the, dotted line f, and


FiC.2.


SI C I .
e





-.-----.----------------


,_.-------- --- -
.. .. .....- .' . .. ... ..


pull it out to a diamond shape (fig. 2), taking care to fold
the corners nicely under each other; turn down the top
piece to the dotted line a, and the hat will be finished.








PAPER BOX.


TAKE a piece of paper about six inches square,
fold it to dotted lines in fig. 1,
after this the four corners meet
in the centre (fig. 2), which will
give the square as dotted lines,
each fold to be firmly pressed;
then at each turn fold again / .
to the corners the centre of the
outside, dotted lines, to form
fig. 3. Fold the corners again to -----


SIC.3.


FIC.2







10 THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKER.
0 C. 4-
t .- the outer dotted line (fig. 4);
', X cut out the pieces marked 1, 2,
S .- 3, 4, 5, 7, and 8: cut through
," ,j ,all the black lines, being very
\ /\ / careful not to touch the dotted
S \. lines. Fold over the corners
,.- to form fig. 6, insert this in the
'-' opposite sides of the box a, a,
these again being inserted into b b, insert again c into
d, and again into will form the box, fig. 7.


F IG.S. FIG.6.


b


/', /. FI/"c.7.
a
N.2


[87V










FIRE BALLOON.


PnocURE a few sheets of well woven tissue paper,
F I.I and cut out the gores (fig. 1); paste these care-
fully together, making in all fourteen strips;
look carefully over the surface, and see that
there is no slit or hole left. Fig. 2 : cut the
bottom end equally off all round, take a piece
of thin wire and make it to a circle the size of
the neck of the balloon, then have two cross
pieces a little bent in the middle to hold a
piece of soft cotton, which must afterwards
be dipped in spirits of wine, the circular wire
being then pasted on to the FIc.2
bottom of the balloon.
To inflate the balloon, some
one must hold it up by the
top, and having tho oughly satu-
rated your piece of cotton, place
in the centre of the wires and
set fire to it, being very careful
not to set fire to the balloon;
when the air is well heated with-
in, the balloon will rise to a great height, and in a
dark night will have a very fine effect.








12 THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKER.


PARACHUTE.

A SQUARE piece of paper folded four times will
F I I. form fig. 1; then with a pair of sharp scissors
rvl cut out to dotted line, pierce a hole through
all, open out, and having placed threads through
each hole, tie them all round, and bring the
remaining ends of the threads down to a point,
to which attach a piece of cork or paper as a
balance;. the air getting under them, they
sometimes ascend to a great height.


FIG.3.


FIC.2,










ARROW PARACHUTE.
THIs is an admirable contrivance to raise the para-
chute up in the air. We have already described the
most common way of making them.
There is, however a difficulty at all
times in getting them to ascend; but
by the means hereafter detailed that
obstacle is entirely removed.
To make one you must procure a
piece of thin, coloured paper, and cut-
out the form of the parachute (see
page 12) ; then taking or making
an arrow, rather long in the shaft
(see page 94), cut a small hole at the top of the
paper, insert it over the end of the arrow, and
fl x it there with a little gum or paste, about
an inch from the top; attach pieces of thread
to the extreme corners of the paper, and tie
Them together about half way up the shaft of
the arrow, and when completed it will resem-
ble a parasol or umbrella closed. When shot
up with a common bow, it will ascend a great
height, and in coming down again it will open
out, and sail away to a great distance.








THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKER.


KITE














KITE-FLYING is a most popular game with all boys.
It is highly exhilarating and ought to be encouraged
by every means, as a healthful and innocent recreation.
We are indebted, it is said, to the Chinese for this in-
vention, and to this day it is one of their most popular
pastimes. The kites sold in shops are made to sell, but
are not necessarily warranted to fly; any boy, how-
ever, by following our directions, will be able to make
one that will








KITE.


FIRST KITE.
Take a common sheet of writing paper, double it
FI .I. down the centre, and cut out FI.,2.
Sfig. 1; prick out two small
holes for the belly-band, open
out, and bend outwards the
top part to dotted line (fig. 2);
to fix the belly-band, tie a
knob or small piece of paper
to each end of the thread at
the back of the kite, to prevent it running through
the holes. As this is only a small kite, strong thread
will be found the best to make the tail of, as well as
to fly it with; the tail ought to be about fifteen times
the length of the kite, and one piece of paper at the
extreme end will be sufficient to steady it;* care must
be taken to tie the thread to the right place on the
belly-band, as a great deal of the success of its flying
will depend upon this.
SECOND KIT.
Kites made with a lath and bow can be made to
any size, by pasting two or more sheets of paper
If the wind is strong, more weights must be attached to
the tail.







THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKER.


together; an old newspaper will answer the purpose
as well as anything, unless you wish to colour it after-
wards, in which case it ought to be white;
but first you must procure a straight
lath of deal, the width and _the thick-
ness of course must depend upon the
size; shape it to a point at the top, notch
a small piece on each side about an inch
from the top, and also at the bottom,
the former to tie the hoop to, and the
latter the string, to paste the side and
ends of the paper over.
The Bow. This can be made of cane,
but the best thing is a hoop. Thin it down to about
the thickness of a common cane, balance it on your
finger, and then fix it at that point to the top of the
lath with string, having cut a small notch at each
end of the hoop, fix the string therein, and carry it
down to the lower end of the lath, tie it there, and
again continue the string up to the opposite side of the
hoop, but before fixing with a knot, be sure that your
skeleton is equally balanced on both sides-this done,
secure the knotand carry the string to the opposite end
of the bow, taking one turn round the lath in its way;
from this point carry on the string to the top of the








KITE.


lath, and again to the opposite corner of the bow, fix-
ing it there in a knot, and continue the string a little
more than half way down the lath ; after securing it,
again carry up the string to the other corner of the
bow; fix it also, and the framework of your kite will
be completed.
To paper the Kite. Having pasted your paper to
the size you require, lay the frame upon
it, and with a pair of scissors cut about
an inch outside of all to the shape; c
afterwards paste the outer portion all
round, and fix it first over the bow,
and then down each side; allow it to
dry, and then drill out two holes for
the belly-band-the upper one should
be about one-fifth of the length of the
kite from the top, and the other rather
more than the same distance above its extremity.
The Belly-band. Insert the end of a piece of string
into each of the holes a a, and tie them in knots on the
back part of the lath, taking great care not to make it
too full or too narrow. The next important thing is
to fix the string to the belly-band, and when this is
done you next put on the
Tail. This should be about fifteen or sixteen








THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKER.


times the length of the kite; slips of doubled paper
about four or five inches long must be tied to it by
noose knots, about four inches apart from each other,
with a little larger one or a tassel at the end.
Wings may be attached to each corner of the bow,
but they do not at all improve its flying capabilities.
They are made of pieces of paper folded together, and
cut up from the bottom in strips.


THE CLOTH KITE

Has some advantages over one made of paper, as not
being so soon spoiled by the wet. Calico
or silk is sometimes used, but the
best material is very thin gutt, percha
cloth. The frame is made of two
cross pieces placed at right angles to
each other, and secured with string
from corner to corner, over which the
material is sewn, and fastened by quilt-
ing along the string. When finished, the whole may
be detached from the laths, and these being separated
can be easily packed away in a portable compass.








KITE.


THE OFFICER KITE.
Toy-makers generally paint their kites with a few
daubs of redor blue, with-
out the least attempt
at design; but if you 4
wish to paint your kite,
here is an officer that
will answer your pur-
pose. It must be all
dashed in very boldly,
for when the kite is
far up, very small work
upon it would be en-
tirely lost; the coat may
be painted red or blue,
the face full crimson,
and the epaulettes, &c.,
yellow, or gold tinsel,
if you happen to have any.
NoTE.-The thickness of the string to be used will of course
depend upon the size of your kite.







THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKER.


LIRE paper toys, cardboard is a material by which
almost anything can be imitated; but as it is more ex-
pensive than paper, it will require a little more care,.
so that what is cut out should be done with a purpose,
that it may not be cut to waste. Outside objects are
most conveniently cut out with a pair of stout scissors,
holding the card as already described for paper cut-
tings; the smaller pieces inside, such as windows of a
house, &c., are better accomplished with a sharp-pointed
penknife, and a flat ruler; a parallel ruler with a brass
edge is the best, but any other straight line that you
can hold firm on the card with the left hand will
answer the purpose. When any portion is cut out with
a penknife, it ought to be done upon a piece of flat
board, to prevent cutting the table. Cardboard has
many advantages over paper; solid objects can be
formed and put together, specimens of which, with
others, we propose giving; but as the Publishers of
this book have already issued a useful and instructive
work* on the subject, we refer our young friends to it
for further information, should it be required.-
Home Pastime; or, The Child's Own Toy-maker,











THE RACE.


CUTTING out objects in cardboard may be done to
any extent, according to the skill and ingenuity of
the maker : such as a farm-yard, with its pigs, cows,
poultry, &c.; a circus; or, in fact, almost anything can
be successfully imitated with the common scissors and
cardboard. We shall only give two examples in this
style-a Race, and a Fox Hunt-and other objects
will afterwards suggest themselves.
It will be as well not to attempt too much in the







THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKER.


first essay, but confine yourself to three horses and
riders. The outlines may be drawn out in pencil, but
with a little practice you will soon be able to cut them
out by the eye at once.
The manner horses run at full speed is so much
alike, that one position will do very well for all your
horses; the head and neck well forward, the ears
back, the tail a little erect, and all the legs well
stretched out. Cut out with a pair of short stout









scissors, commencing at the outer hind foot, continu-
ously round till finished, making the feet and legs as
carefully as possible.
Having cut out the horses, you can prick out the
form of the saddle and saddle-cloth with the point of
a pin, as well as the eye and nose of the horse, and
the part of the bridle on the horses' heads; or if you
prefer colouring them, you can do so, making one
horse brown, another black, and the other chestnut;








THE RACE.


the rein may be put through the mouth of the horsv
with a needle, and formed of brown thread.
The Jockeys in racing, like the position of the
horses, are also much alike; they sit with their knees
close to the saddle, the body a little forward, and
mostly with both hands holding the bridle (fig. 2);
this attitude will do for the first and third
rc.2. riders. Cut out, beginning at the heel of
the foot on the right hand side, and round
to shape, taking care not to cut further be-
tween the legs than the dotted line, which
will make him sit his horse properly.
The Second Jockey may be represented
whipping his horse, his right hand raised
up, and the other holding the bridle (fig. 3). Having
cut out as before described, if you wish to
paint them, you can mike No. 1, black cap / .3
and red jacket; No. 2, blue and yellow
striped jacket and blue cap; No. 3, yellow
body, blue sleeves, and black cap.
Having so far completed iib race, you
can try the effection thh table by placing
the men on the horses, but if you wish to
make a more finished job of your work, you
must procure a piece of flat board, and cut out the








THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKER,


Rails (fig. 4). Take a strip of cardboard about
half the height of the men, and -cut out with a pen-
knife and scissors, and by joining the ends together,
make it to any extent you think proper; to fix them
F IC. -,





you must split the ends to the dotted lines a, and
separating them will make them stand upright.
The Spectators. Fold a piece of paper four times
the size you require your men, and cut out as before
described in fig. 2; open out, and place them outside
the railings in rows (fig. 5).
The Winning-post, or stand, can be made of card-
board (fig. 7), and made to stand the same as the rails
(fig. 4); place a paper man inside.
F I C. 7.


N ==











THE FOX HUNT.


THE uiiUmbi-ret'! i t.s -

trees, gates, &c., can be carried out
to an unlimited extent, according to
the skill and perseverance of the artist.


~S~j~B~


~I~- ~s;-








THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKER.


As it is in nature with a real fox hunt, the more that is
in it the more the excitement and pleasure, so with your
toy hunt, the more you make the better yourself and
friends will be satisfied and pleased with the exhibition..
Horse running (fig. 1). This is the most common


F I G.1.


position for a horse galloping, and you will therefore
require more of this than any other; it can be varied


a little by making the heads of some a little more for-
ward (fig. 2). Of these two positions you will require








THE FOX HUNT.


to cut out, according to the following directions, from
eight to twelve:-Take a piece of cardboard, and com-
mencing by cutting out, beginning with the right hind
leg, and round continuously till completed, taking care
to make the feet and legs as good a shape as possible.
The eye, saddle, saddle-cloth, and bridle on the head
may be pricked out with a pin, and when all are com-
pleted they will make a very good set as they are;
but if you wish to make your hunt more finished,
you may colour some of your horses brown, others
black, chestnut, &c.; the saddle-cloth inside blue, the



F I C.3.




LI..






saddles light brown, and the bridles can be made of
thread. The two positions of horses already described








THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKER.


will do for almost all kinds of straight or field run-
ning, but you will require some in the act of leaping
over gates, hedges, &c., when both your horses and
men will require a different attitude.
Leaping (fig. 3). This is a very good position for
a horse in the act of leaping; it must be cut out as
described in fig. 1 and 2, and you had better cut out
four or five like it.
Huntsman (fig. 4). To make a rider for your
horses which you have cut out as fig. 1, the most
natural attitude will be for the huntsman to be hold-
ing his horse with both hands, the body a little for-
ward, and the knees firmly sticking to the saddle.
If painted, all the coats must be red, cap and boots
black, tops yellow, and neckties light blue.

,FIC. 5. A
FSCI4-. '








First Huntsman (fig. 5). The whipper-in or hunts-
man may be a little in advance of all the others, and








THE FOX HUNT.


even before some of the dogs; he should be repre-
sented in the act of cheering them on, his left hand
erect, holding his horn (trumpet), and the other hold-
ing the bridle. You will, however, only require one
figure in this position, riding a galloping horse (fig. 1).
Rider (fig. 6). This attitude is for your leaping
horses (fig. 3); he is holding his
horse well up to assist it over the r I. -
gate or fence; you will also require
four or five in this position. /
The-Fox (fig. 10). The same pre-
vious remarks we have already made
respecting the running of horses will
also apply to the fox and dogs, for
they vary but little in their action;
there is, however, a marked differ-
ence in the head anf-'tail of Reynard, which must be
carefully attended to.
FIC. 7.




The Hounds (fig. 7). The one we have illustrated
is the most natural, and of this you will require at
least ten or twelve; if coloured they must be either








THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKER


black and white, or brown and white, in matches of
every kind.
Hounds (fig. 8). This position will give a little
variety to the pack, but as he does not look so tho-
roughly up to his work, you will not require so many,
say five or six. If you wish to represent nothing but
a straight run, you would F I. s.
not require any other atti-
tudes for your dogs, but ,
you will want to give spirit
to your hunt, to see some of them jumping and
scrambling over hedges and ditches; here is another
attitude:
rI 9. Jumping (fig. 9). Of this you will
e not require more than three or four.
Having cut out and coloured all as
before described, you now begin to pre-
pare your ground, which must be com-
posed of fields, hedges, gates, trees, &c.
A piece of thin deal, about two feet long by six or
eight inches broad, will make the best stand, the
inequalities of the ground may be made up of pieces of
paper, cardboard, or bits of decayed twigs of trees,
sand, moss, &c., and fixed with a little gum.
Gates (fig. 11). These must be cut out of card-








THE FOX HUNT.


board, and they will not require painting; they are
made to stand by splitting the cardboard up to the
dotted lines, and fixing the ends with gum or paste.
Cut out not less than three of these.
FIC.Il.












Hedges. Procure if possible some green paper;
fold it together about four or five times, and cut out
to the form of. fig. 13; they must be a little higher
than the gates. Commence cutting out from the right
hand side, holding the paper firmly between the finger
and thumb in the left hand; when completed, twist
the various cuttings together, and you will have a
good imitation of a hedge; you can vary the sizes a
little.
Trees. (fig. 13). These are also cut out of green







THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKER.


paper, and. in the same manner as the hedges, only
/I much larger and
S(IV C ui of various sizes,
/ 7u alsoleavingmore
S3 length for the
(A trunks, and giv-
] t wing more shape
S-S ~to the outline;
S>FI K c i Xcuvary in size and
J: form. The trunks
5 may be support-
-t' I% l T ed by twisting a
piece of paper
round the five
S K cuttings, and fix-
ing them to the
F I / 13 groundwithgum
/ or paste.
A village church, cottage, or farm may be repre-
sented in the distance, according to the taste and
talent of the artist. It will not be necessary to make
your horses, dogs, or fox fixtures, so that you may
enjoy a fresh hunt as often as you have leisure.
Old railings, stumps of trees, and other objects,








THE FOX HUNT.


may be made of twigs, roots, and small branches of
natural trees; broken pieces of ground may be formed






4", 1
,- ',, -'















by a combination of all, with the addition of pieces
of stone and moss, or such other things as may suggest
themselves to the taste and fancy of the maker.








THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKER.


THE THAUMATROPE.
THIS is a very pretty philosophical toy; its name
is derived from two Greek words, one of which signi-
fies wonder, and the other to turn. It is founded upon
the well-known principle in optics, that an impression
made on the retina of the eye lasts for a short time
after the object which produced it has been withdrawn.
When you have made one you will understand it better
than by any written description.











FIC.I.
The Boy and the Donkey.-Take a common card
or piece of cardboard, say five inches by three; on one
side of it sketch a donkey running, and paint it black








TRE THAUMATROPE.


with Indian ink, with a lighter wash for the ground
(fig. 3); and in like manner draw and paint a boy in
a sitting position, on the reverse side of the card, as
shewn in the cut (fig. 2). Fasten two pieces of thread,
r I ., FIC,3.









one on each side, at opposite points in the centre of
the card; take these between the fore-finger and thumb
in each hand, tWirl them round, which will make the
card quickly revolve, and the boy will appear to be
riding upon. the donkey, as in fig. 1.
A rat in a trap, a bird in a cage, a cricketer and
bat, and numerous other subjects may be produced
upon the same principle.








THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKER.


CARD RACKS.




) _-'- -ii .







.II









FIG. FIG. 2.
IF these are carefully made and neatly coloured,
they will make something better than mere toys; they
will serve as appropriate presents to distant friends, or
as ornaments to decorate your own room. They will








CARD RACKS.


be also useful. to hold any loose cards, or letters, if
hung up on each side of the mantel-piece.
Front View of a Ship (fig. 1). Take a piece of
clean cardboard about twelve inches high by five
broad, copy the outline carefully in pencil, and com-
mence colouring the upper portion of the sky light
blue, leaving the lights; mix a little Indian red and
darker red for the clouds. With the same colours lay
in the distant sea, making it a little greener towards
the front. The shadows on the sails can be washed in
with sepia, and the sails with raw umber, mixed with
a little yellow ochre. The hull
FI .3-. must be a wash of lamp-black and
a little Indian red, and the bottom
/ of the ship copper colour, the flags
'- r-... red and blue, the yards black, and
\ the ropes and rigging touched in
/ \ with sepia. When these are finished,
Sa cut out carefully on a flat board the
"- i .--.J fore-topsail (fig. 3), along the top of
the yard and down the sides to
a a, and in the same manner the fore-top-gallant sail
to b b, being careful not to cut the dotted lines.
In the same manner as before described for drawing
and colouring fig. 1, proceed to finish fig. 2; the only
D2








38 THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKEI.

difference to be attended to particularly is in cutting
out the sails, which must be as follows; cut out in the
; same manner as fig., the mizen-
Fi c. 4. topsail to fig. 4, and the mizen-
/ t,, op-gallant sail, also the main-
top-gallant sail to c c. When
\ this is finished paste on or gum
-," \- a thin strip of gold-edged paper
S round the outside of all, and
a finish with a bow of coloured
.-. .,. =.....- ribbon at the top of each.















PAIR OF STEPS.
TAKE a piece of cardboard, and draw out the pat-
tern in outline, say one third larger than fig. 1, and
commence first by cutting out the small F I a
holes for the steps with a sharp pointed
penknife, and in the same way the
squares inside; the outside can be cut
out with the scissors. Having cut out /
the shape, cut half through the card
on the dotted lines, and bend over first
for the top, and afterwards for the two
sides. -
The Steps.-Cut out four pieces of .......
card the shape of fig. 2, also one third
F Ic C2.

larger than pattern; having done so,
insert the narrow ends into their re-
spective holes, and you have a pair of
neat little steps.







TIE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKER.


HORSE AND CART
DRAW out on a piece of cardboard, one third large
than the pattern* (fig. 1), and cut out the outside,
_FiC. I.
lnOnODBOa A/


I WE:1 1 IFFI bF


taking care to leave thesmall projecting pieces on the
end and front, a; afterwards with the point of a pen-
knife cut out between the rails on each side, b, and
also very carefully the four small holes on each sidq,
c; next cut half through the dotted lines, d, and bend
All the other parts must be in the same proportion.








HORSE AND CART.


over the sides and ends, to form the body of the cart
FI G.2.







,3

(fig. 2), by inserting the projecting parts, a, into the
small holes, c.
The Shafts (fig. 8).-Cut out to shape, and with


FIC.,



FIG. 4.
a little gum or paste fix
them on to the bottom
front of the cart, to the
dotted line.
0 The Wheels (fig. 4).-
These must be drawn out
first with a pencil The
outsides can be- cut .out








THE BOYS OWN TOY-MAKER.


with the scissors, but the insides must be done with
the penknife.
Axle-tree.-Get a piece of wood and cut it to the
shape (fig. 5), and with gum or paste fix it across the
F I C.5 middle of the bottom of the
cart (fig. 1); when it is per-
fectly dry put on the wheels,
and to keep them on, you can cut out a small cap
(fig. 6); the hole in this should be made first, Fla. 6.
and the outside cut round with scissors.
Your cart being now completed, you will
no doubt want a horse for it (fig. 7). This had better


FIG. 7.











also be drawn out first with a pencil, the harness pui
in with pen and ink, or the whole, as well as your








HORSE AND CART. 43

cart, coloured according to your fancy. Having cut
out the horse, by dividing the legs a little he will
stand firmly, and by fixing a piece of thread to each
of the shafts, and over the horse's back, you will find
it support the cart; you may also make the bridle of
thread.







7- M 010








44 THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKER.




SOLDIERS MARCHING OUT OF A FORT,

















DRAW out in pencil on cardboard the outside of
the fort, and colour it in imitation of .-tone-work.
When completed to your satisfaction, cut out the
outline with a pair of scissors, and the loopholes and
gateway with a penknife, to the form of fig. 1; cut
half through the dotted line at the bottom, and turn
over to make the support.








SOLDIERS MARCHING OUT. OF A FORT.


FI CI.














The Entrance. This is also made of cardboard,
and coloured in imitation of stone-work inside, but
with a shadow'over the whole, to give a better effect.
When done, cut out to the pattern of fig. 2, and cut
FI 1 .2.





half through the dotted lines; the end turned will
make the stand, the black lines being cut entirely, and
the end bent over from the dotted line; bend over
to fbe form of the gate, and paste the side of it on to
the inside of the gateway.








THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKER.


The Door (fig. 3). This must also be drawn on
cardboard, and coloured in imitation of old oak; being
F I.3. done the exact size of space FIC.4.
; left open behind the gateway;
il i cut out with a/pair of scissors,
and divide the door -up the
lip centre. Cut four slips of paper -
S to form the hinges, and bend-
ing them in the centre, paste
or gum one half of each to the outside of the gateway,
and the other to the door; when dry the doors will
conveniently open and shut.
A Stand for the whole may be also made of card-
board, painted stone colour, to which you can paste
the slip of the front, back, and sides on to the dotted
line of fig. 5.


S i
S FIC.
S 5
l I




It has long been a common amusement with boys to








SOLDIERS MARCHING OUT OF A FORT.


cut out soldiers and fix them in various positions, but
we believe this is the first time that any attempt has
been made to put them in motion. They must be first
drawn upon cardboard, and coloured asneatlyas possible.
Drummer (fig. 6). He may be a little shorter than
F lc.6. the others, and the coatis the only F i c. 7.
difference in his dress, having a
few white bands round the arms
and down the body; coat, red,
trousers, dark grey, and black
cap.
The Offcer (fig. 7) must be
about the same height as the
soldiers, a sword in his hand
instead of a gun, and only one belt over the
left shoulder, red coat, and trousers the FIc.s
same as the others.
Soldiers (fig. 8) must be represented car-
rying the gun over the left shoulder, cross
belts over the body, and coloured as before
described. You will require at least six of
these, or as many more as you think proper
to make. Having completed the drawings
of your figures, cut them out carefully with
a pair of scissors, using a. penknife for the








THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKER.


inside portions; when finished, cut two slips of card-
board long enough to stand all your figures upon,
allowing an inch between each figure, and not broader
than half an inch (fig. 9); turn up the feet of the sol-
PIC.9.



diers to make them stand, and cut several slips of
cardboard the shape of fig. 10, and cut half through
the middle, and bend rFc.Io. over; with a little gum
or paste fix the feet f of the soldiers upon
fig. 9, one foot on each LJ slip; and behind the
feet fix the piece of card, half to the leg and the other
half to the stand, and so on till you have placed them
all in regular order; allow them to stand till perfectly
dry, and then, by moving the stand forward right and
left, the soldiers will have the appearance of marching.
The door of the fort should be kept closed, only open-
ing it just before the soldiers are made to march out.
The manner of working the figures being kept as much
a secret as possible, and the soldiers really marching
will assuredly amuse your juvenile visitors. The card-
board on which your soldiers are fixed ought to be
rather stout, and painted a brownish tint, to be as
near the colour of the stand as possible.













RUSTIC COTTAGE.


TAKE a sheet of cardboard about the proportion of
twelve inches by six, cut out the windows and round
the black lines of the door, and half through the dotted
lines, which will allow the door to open and shut (fig. 1);
this is for the front of the cottage. For the back, cut
out another piece of cardboard in a similar manner
and the same size








THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKER.


FIC. I.
A/
1-






For the two ends, cut out two pieces of cardboard
six inches square (fig. 2).
The 0 ut-house. Cut out of cardboard the pattern
(fig. 3), and half through the dotted lines, bend over

FIC..3.



S. F1C.3.I
V' -
I I


to shape, having first cut out the black lines of the
door, and half through the dotted lines, as already
described in fig. 1.
Small squares for Windows (fig. 1). Cut out seve-
ral slips of white paper, and paste them over the back








RUSTIC COTTAGE. 51

and front windows, according to pattern (fig. 4); pieces
of glass can be pasted behind these, and also F I 4.
red or white curtains may be afterwards
added, if you wish your cottage to have
a completely finished appearance. Tracing
paper will make a substitute for the glass if you are
not able to procure the real thing.
-Before commencing with the wood-work, wash all
over the front, back, and sides of the cardboard with
a brown colour, to prevent any white work shewing
between the interstices.
The rustic wood-worle for the front. Procure a
quantity of small twigs, not thicker than a common
quill-they must be quite dry and well seasoned; first
cut out pieces to fit the top and bottom of
the windows, and afterwards the two sides,
and then in the same way the top and sides
of the door; and with similar pieces, but
a very little thicker, fit to the length of the'two sides,






and along the bottom and top, with a small piece in








THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKER.


the centre of the door. Having got them all to the
correct size, cut off nearly one half of the under side
of all, to allow them to lie flat on the cardboard.
Fix the wood-work with glue, and while the front
part already described is drying, cut out in a similar
manner pieces to fit the windows, door, top, bottom,
and sides, for the back, and then glue them on in their
respective places.
Inside of the wood-worklc. Cut out several pieces
of twigs, taking care that they are not quite so thick
as the supports for the door, windows, &c.; split them
evenly down the middle, and fitting them first care-
fully to the pattern, fix them with glue. Continue in
like manner till the, whole of the front is covered, care
being taken that they fit as closely and neatly as possi-
IC.S. .' ble. The back
of the cottage
must next be
covered in
the same
manner, un-
less you wish
to save time
by making all the inside pieces upright (fig. 5), in-
stead of the same pattern as the front.








RUSTIC COTTAGE.


The sides or ends of the Cottage. The end on the
left must be commenced by cutting out a frame of
twigs first for the sides, and then for top and bottom.
Having previously drawn out the shape of a diamond
on the cardboard (fig. 2), fix with glue to the top,
bottom, and two sides; then cut out small pieces to
the shape of the diamond, and fix them across the end,
and fill up the remaining portion with uprights.
As the end on the right is partly covered by the
out-house, it will not be necessary to cover more than
the outer portion with wood-work. It must be done
as already described, by fixing a piece along the top
and bottom, down the one side, and the upper portion
of the right hand side, and fill up with small pieces
the inside, all upright (fig. 6). FI c. 6.
Wood-work for the Out-house.
Pieces must be first fixed round
the door and down the sides of
the two ends and back, also
along the bottom and top of
each, and filled up with uprights
in the inside.
Having completed your wood-work for the front,
back, and ends of your cottage, before putting them
together, paint the three doors a dark green colour.








THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKER.


To fix the house together, cut four slips of paper
five inches by one, double each piece down the middle,
and with paste or glue bind the sides and ends toge-
ther in the inside with the paper; allow it to stand
quietly till dry, and then fix to the ground.
The Stand. This must be made of millboard, or
a thin piece of deal, either of which must be first
slightly covered over with a brownish coat of paint;
it should be altogether about sixteen inches long by
twelve broad. The house, including the out-house,
should be placed at equal distances from the ends, and
close to the back, leaving room for the garden and
railings in front; fix the house with slips of the paper
in the inside to the walls and ground, in the same
manner as before described for fixing the ends together.
The out-house must be next added, and put together
by pasting slips of paper to the sides of the house
and to the bottom and ground.
The Porch over the front door must next be cut
Fac.7. out of cardboard (fig. 7); cut half
'through the dotted line, bend to
shape, and fix with glue and thin
slips of paper under the porch, and after it is dry,
paint it the same colour as the doors.
The Loof. First cut out of cardboard the two








RUSTIC COTTAGE. 55

ends (figs. 8 and 9), the square hole in fig. 9 being for
FIC. 8. FIC,9.









the chim- F I.10.
ney. The
front and
back to be 1







THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKER.


front, and paste the 'extreme ends on the inside, to
which fix the two end pieces.
Top front Window (fig. 11). Out out of cardboard
ri cG.. the window to pattern, and half
1 //through the dotted lines; the end
dotted lines being cut on the back
of the card to turn over to the front.
Out thin slips of paper for the cross sashes, as in the
other windows, and paste them on to the back of the
window, and afterwards paste in glass or tissue paper,
as before -described.
Roof of Window Porch (fig. 12). Cut out the shape
and half through the dotted lines for the
front, and at the back to turn upwards / f
the end dotted lines. Fix in the window ~' -
by pasting the end pieces to the inside of /.--.
the roof, and fig. 12 to the same on the
outside.
FiC.IS Roof of Out-house (fig. 13). Cut out
the shape, and half through the dotted
line, and fix the piece to the end of the
house. The roof may be afterwards
painted in imitation of thatch, or actually
thatched with hay or moss.
The Chimney (fig. 14). Cut out the shape, and








RUSTIC COTTAGE.


half through the dotted lines; bend over to the square,
and fix by pasting lower extremity on F Ic. 14.
the inside. To give finish, and make
an imitation stone coping round the
top, cut four pieces of wood the size,
and fix round. Secure the chimney by
pasting it to the end wall inside, before
placing on the roof, which will not
require fixing; but before the chim-
ney is secured, it ought to be painted in imitation of
bricks, with the stone coping at the top.
Railings in front of Cottage.-These can be made
in the same way as the wood-work of the house, by
splitting pieces of wood, and
glueing them on to two other
pieces, the length you require
for the front and sides, the end ones being a little
thicker; they must be fixed with slips of card behind
the supports. The gate in front can be cut out of
cardboard. The garden may be composed of moss;
and the walks of sand, small shells; &c.








58 THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKER.

BOATS.
REVISED BY JAMES E. WALTON.
IN the following pages an attempt is made to show
how to construct andrig model boats of various kinds;
if the reader wishes to learn how to build, rig, and sail
a self-acting model yacht, he is recommended to procure
"Model Yachts and Model Yacht Sailing,"* by Mr.
James E. Walton, V.M.Y.C.
FiC.l.



Before commencing to build or cut out a boat, it
will be as well to become acquainted with its com-
SFIC-2.







a. Cutwater. e. Thwarts, or Seats.
b. Stern. f. Tiller.
c. Bow. g. Sternsheets.
d. Rowlocks. h. Midship-thwart.
i. Wale-streaks.
Griffith and Farran, St. Paul's Churchyard. Price 2s. 6d.








BOATS.


ponent parts, but it must first be observed that ships'
boats, or those used on the sea, are much higher and
stronger than those used on rivers only. Here we
have a ship's long boat.
In wager boats there is a board fixed across the
boat, for the feet of the rower, called a Stretcher.
Boats with two rowlocks opposite each other are
called sculling boats, and are propelled by a pair of
light oars called sculls; when the rowlocks are not
opposite each other it is called a pair-oared boat; if
with two in the middle, opposite each other, it is called
a randan; when there are four rowlocks, none of
which are opposite each other, it is called a four-oared
boat; and so on, up to ten.
FIC.3.

SouLL, OR OAR.
a. Handle. b. Loom, or Shoulder.
c. Wash, or Blade.
A scull is a small oar used with one hand, and
requiring a pair, as is the case with oars-one being
placed in the rowlocks on each side. Oars are used
with both hands, and a pair-oared boat of course ie-
quires two oarsmen, and so on. The strokesman is
the rower nearest the stern; the bowman the one








THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKER.


nearest the bow; and the coxswain the one who
steers the boat. The painter is a rope fixed to the
inside of the bow to fasten the boat to the shore.
Having become acquainted with the various parts of
a boat, we shall now give directions how to make one
or two, and afterwards illustrate the different kinds of
boats, and their style of rigging, &c.


To MAKE A SMALL PLEASURE BOAT.
FIG. .



Having procured a small piece of soft deal, perfectly
free from knots, say seven inches long, by two inches
wide and one and FIG 5
a half inch deep;
mark out with a i
pencil the keel, stem,
and stern, and with a knife cut along each side and
FIG.6.. down the stern; gradu-
ally cut away the corners
to make the shape of
upper portion, and-then








BOATS.


cut away the sides, making fig. 7 the bottom of the
boat, and afterwards finish off the stern (fig. 8).
FIC.7. 1FIQ.8



Having completed the outside work, you next scooo
out the inside with a small gouge (fig. 9), -leaving a
small ridge to rest the FI 9.
seats upon; the stern
must project a little above
the gunwale, and the
sides must have a slight sheer. Cut out the rowlocks,
FI Q. O. and your boat will be
_ ready for the seats (fig.
S11). Cut out five pieces
of wood about the breadth of fig. 11, and fix one in the
centre and the two others at each end; the one at
the bow filling up the corner. Drill or bore a small
hole through the middle FI .11
of the second seat for
the mast, and opposite
it a corresponding hole in the bottom of the boat, and
with a little sand-paper polish up the whole.
A little strip of lead, the length and breadth of the








THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKER.


keel, should be nailed on, to keep the boat upright;
3 oz. or 4 oz. weight would be sufficient.
c Sails and
c R Biggimng. A
boat of this de-
scription may
have one or two
sails: a is called
Sf. the spritsail, b
the. foresail, c
Sspritsail boom, d
St the mast. The
ropes which hold in the sails are call the main-sheet
and the fore-sheet.
The Budder (fig. 13). Cut out a small FI .13
piece of wood to the size; take a small pin,
and having out it in two, bend it to this shape,
and stick the sharp point into the upper part
rI c.Im. of the rudder. Cut another pin in two, double
.- it, and drive the two points into the upper
part of the stern of the boat, fitting the hinge
of the rudder into it. A small hole may be F l.Is
made through the lower part of the stern of c.
the boat, and opposite it also in the rudder, through
which a thread may be tied to keep it in its place.







BOATS.


The thick end of a pin, bent a little, will make a very
good substitute for a tiller.
To paint your Boat. The whole should first have
a priming of white or lead-colour, and when this is
dry, paint the inside green, the seats and sides of the
boat black, and the bottom green, and then you will
have a very nice pleasure-boat.
There are various styles of rigging adapted to
sailing boats; but the one illustrated in fig. 12 can be
most easily made by juvenile sailors, being simple to
manage, and not: more liable to capsize than when a
boom is used to extend the sail.
The different parts of the.coast have all their favour-


ite kinds of rig.
The watermen
about Ports-
mouth use a kind
of deep wherry,
rigged with two
spritsails and a
jib; they sail
very fast, and go


S-- ,
/ I,


out to the ships at Spithead in all kinds of weather.
Ships' boats, and those used by the coast-guard have
a lugsail, or as it is sometimes called, a squaresail; it








61 THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKER.

is more difficult to manage than the spritsail, and
ought therefore to be
only used in the hands
of experienced sailors.
Boats on a large
Scale, rigged with two
/ or more sails of this
kind, are much used
by the fishermen about
LuaSAIL. the coast at Margate,
Deal, &c. In the hands of skilful seamen they are
excellent sea-boats, and their fine manly crews have
saved the life of many a shipwrecked mariner.


BOAT WITH Two LUGsAILs.







BOATS.


Having noticed the various characteristics of dif-
ferent boats, we shall continue the subject to the


making of a yacht, and the rigging and sailing of the
various classes of vessels.

CUTTER.
THERE is nothing in which the professional toy-
makers have more improved than in their boats and
ships. It is not long since the mbst clumsy and shape-
less things were sold in shops and bazaars, generally
without form or design; but within the last few years
the trade has so much progressed in this particular
branch, that the tiny craft may now be seen in all the
best toy-shops, executed in many instances to scale,
and perfectly correct in all their proportions. Yachts,
schooners, brigs, ships, and even steam-packets, with








THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKER.


their machinery, can now be purchased complete; but
the design of the present work is to teach boys to
make their own toys, whereby they will gain both
amusement and instruction, and save their money.
The cutter m'ay be called the gentleman's yacht,
and with it and the uses of its various parts, every boy
would do well to become acquainted, as he will learn
practical information that will always be of use to him
through life.
To commence, you must procure a nice soft piece of
deal, as free from knots or cracks as possible, say about
fourteen inches long, by five inches wide, and three
inches deep; take a ruler, and make with a pencil two
lines along the centre of the bottom for the keel, and up
the ends for the FIC.I.
stem and stern -
(fig. 1), as in the
dotted lines; cut
along outside
these with sharp
knife, to an equal depth of half an inch, then with a
FIG.z.


;- -- -- ---- ---.,L- _3







CUTTER.


gouge scoop away the wood on both sides, forming the
centre or midships first, and gradually cut away to
the shape of fig. 2. The midships (fig. 3) being first
R I '. 4; completed, you work away next Ir .5.
Sto fig. 4 for the bow and stem,
Sand then to fig. 5 for the stern;
These latter portions must gra-
dually taper down towards the keel; the latter is called
the run, and the former the cutwater and entrance; in
yachts and clipper ships these are much finer, i. e.
sharper than in other vessels. Having cut out the
shape to fig. 6, you must now carefully finish off the
r- .6. model, taking care
that each side is
perfectly true. The
stem and stern must
project a little above the gunwale with a slight
curve in the centre or midships, to improve the
shape.
The Hold, or Inside (fig. 7). Scoop out with a
gouge very gradu- I i.7.
ally, first clearing
the sides all round,
and then you can
hollow out the rougher portions more freely.
F








THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKER.


The Deck (fig. 8) must be cut out of a thin piece of
r c.s. wood to the exact
S-- size of your yacht,
o 0 o havingpreviouslyleft
a small ledge, as in
the dotted line (fig. 7), for it to rest upon. Having
fitted your deck as neatly as possible, before securing
it cut out the holes for the fore and after hatchways,
companion, rudder, mast, and bitts for the windlass,then
paint the inside of the hull, and fix the deck firmly, but
without glue; painter's putty is the best to fill up any
imperfection.
A lead keel must now be put on, the same length
and breadth as your boat keel, but thick enough so as
to weigh three-quarters or a pound weight.
Main-hatchway (fig. 9), Fore-hatchway (fig. 10),
Companion or Binnacle (fig. 11). Out out to drawings and
SFI 9.C. 10.


insert the lesser ends of each into their respective holes.
Having now completed the hull of your vessel, take
a piece of sand-paper and polish it carefully
all over.
The Rudder and Tiller (fig. 12). Cut J
out to the proper shape and size, placing Fm.l .








CUTTER.


the small end through a hole in the stern; and fix
it with a piece of strong thread or small string to the
stern-post of your yacht, about one-third from the
keel; next insert the tiller into the upper end of the
rudder.
Windlass and Bitts (fig. 13). Cut out, join together,
FIC.13. and fix in the two holes in
the fore part of fig. 8. Pre-
vious to proceeding with the
mast and rigging, you had
better first paint the hull with
a priming of lead colour all over, deck, bulwarks, and
hull; when dry, paint the inside of the bulwarks, deck,
and hatchways, a light stone colour; the bottom to
about half way up the sides, copper colour (mix a little
of this with the deck colour); and paint the com-
panion, windlass, and the upper sides of the vessel, all
black.
Figs. 14 and 15 are two stands cut out of pieces of
F Ia.' FI 0. 15, wood to the shape of the
Bottom of your yacht;
"1 fix them about one-third
S m l from each end, for it to
rest upon.








THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKER.


THE MASTS.
For the 2Main-mast (fig. 16) get a straight
piece of wood, the length of the deck of your
yacht, round it carefully, taking care to leave
the projecting portions at the masthead. These
are called the cheeks. The upper portion of the
masts above the cheeks is nearly square, with the
edges just turned; a smaller square is left on the
top of all, on which is afterwards fixed the cap.
The lower end must be fined to a point to fix in
the bottom of the vessel.
The Cap (fig. 17), in small vessels, is generally
made of iron, but in larger ones of wood bound
with iron. To make it, get a small piece i .,1
S of tough wood, cut out a round and a square
FIc.'7. hole nearly close together, and cut to shape.
The Cross-trees (fig. 18) are also formed of tough
thin pieces of wood, the longest about the
length of the breadth of the deck. Large -.
yachts have sometimes two, but mostly
only one; they are secured to the top of the tressel-
trees, and the shorter cross-piece and fore and aft
pieces must be just large enough to fit the masthead,
and are a support to the








CUTTER.


Top-mast (fig. 19). This is about two-thirds the
length of the main-mast, and thinner in pro-
FIC.s,
portion, gradually tapering towards the top, on
which is fixed a small round truck; there is
a small square portion at the bottom, through
which passes a small pin or fid, resting
upon the tressel-trees; or, better'still, through
the fore part of the tressel-trees and the heel or
bottom end of the top-mast; the top of all is
called the truck.
The Bowsprit (fig. 20) is also quite round, except the
part which goes inside the bul- ,-
warks,this shouldbe square,and F I G.2.
not quite so thick as the main-mast; at the inner end is a
small hole, through which passes a pin to fix it to the
bitts; altogether it should be about two-thirds the
length of the vessel.
Mafin-boom (fig. 21). This also should be about the
length of the bowsprit,
FI 2 but much thinner; the
inner portion is a half circle, which works round the
main-mast; at the outer ends are two blocks, one
above and one below.
Gaff (fig. 22). The same
shape, only smaller and thinner Fic.22








72 THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKER.


in proportion; three small blocks are fixed on the upper
part, and one below at the end.
The Yard (fig. 23) is a long thin spar, nearly the
length of the main-
----- mast, but not thicker
Flc. a. than the top-mast;
there is one block in the upper centre and two below,
directly under the one above, and two small holes at
each end passing downwards.
To paint the Mast and Spars. The main-mast
from the bottom of the cheeks must be white
upwards, also the lower part of the top-mast, the
cap and the cross-trees, and the top-mast head, all the
main-boom and gaff, a very small portion of the
extreme end of the bowsprit, and all of it that is inside
the yacht.
To fix Mast and Bigging. Having previously made
a small hole in the bottom of the hull, corresponding
with the one on deck, insert the lower end of the main-
mast,and fix it firmly, with a slight inclination back-
wards, and having made a hole in the front of the
bulwarks close to the stem, place in the bowsprit from
the inside. In large vessels an iron ring is attached
to the stem, through which it also passes on the out-
side.








CUTTER.


STANDING RIGGING (fig. 24).
These ropes are so called from being generally sta-
tionary; they f-i are much thicker
and stouter than any others, being
used as supports to the masts:'
they are named / as follows:-
The Iain- / rigging (or
Shrouds) (c) is / composed of
three stout ropes on each side of


e e






7 \\ FIC.24


STANDING ReIGIeG.
the mast, passing over the tressel-trees and down








THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKER.


to the sides of the vessel. In large yachts, they pass
round large blocks, called "dead-eyes;" these
again are tightened by smaller ropes passing
through another set of dead-eyes attached by
iron hoops to the sides of the yacht.
Back-stays (c) are two ropes of the same
thickness, and pass round the front of the main-
mast to the back of the upper portion of the
tressel-trees, half way down. They are made
of the same thick rope as the shrouds. One end of
the other smaller ropes is hooked to rings on each
quarter of the vessel, passing upwards through the
blocks above, down again, and round two other double
blocks, which are tightened by smaller ropes passing
through them to corresponding blocks a little in front
of the other ends on each quarter.
Fore-stay (b). This is also made of the same stout
cord; the upper end passing over
the back of the top of the tressel-
trees, and the lower end round a
large dead-eye, and by smaller
ropes attached to the stem of the
cutter.
Top-mast Rigging. Having
fixed the cap on the square of








CUTTER.


the main-mast head, insert the thinner end of the top-
mast first through the tressel-trees and then through
the cap, and fix it by placing a small pin through the
tressel-trees and heel, or bottom of the top-mast.
I Preventer Top-mast Back-stays (e e) secured a little
below the top-mast truck; they come down on each
side, over the ends of the cross-trees, to dead-eyes on
each side of the yacht.
Fore-top-mast Stay (a). This is secured in the same
place at the top-mast head as the preventer back-stays,
and passes through a block at the end of the bowsprit
to the deck.
The Bob-stay (g) is a support to the bowsprit, being
fixed to the end, coming down to a cleet on one side of
the stem, and secured on deck.
Vane (f), fixed on the very top of the mast; it
moves round on a spindle, and points to the direction
from which the wind blows.

RUNmING RIGGING (fig. 25).
The names given to ropes or halliards, for hoisting
up and down the sails, &c.; they are generally smaller
than the standing rigging, and pass through blocks
from two to four times each.
Main-boom (e). This is attached to the main-mast








THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKER.


by a small rope passing through each end of the half
circle. The outerportion is sup-
ported by a rope passing from a
block at the top of the main-
mast head, /,' down through an-
other block at the end of the boom,
and through the upper one again
down to the deck; it is kept in
its place by- the main-sheet (n),


RUNNING RIiGaING.
a rope passing through double blocks, one being attached
to the boom, and the other to an iron traveller on deck.
The Gaff (d) is also secured to the mast in. the








CUTTER.


same manner; but as it is required to hoist the main-
sail up and down, it is furnished with a double block
near where it joins the mast on the upper side, and
two single blocks-one near the centre, and the other
between that and the end of the yard ; also a small
block at the extreme end downwards.
The Main-sail Halliards (p) pass from a double block
at the bottom of the main-mast head through another
double block in the gaff, and from the upper again to
the deck.
Peak Halliards (c c). These hoist up the upper end
of the gaff and main-sail; they first pass from the third
block below the head of the main-mast, coming through
the inner block on the gaff, up again, and through the
same block above, down through the outer block on the
gaff, and up again through the second block on the
main-mast head.
Jib Halliards (g). A block with a hook is attached
to a ring in the upper corner of the jib, through which
passes a rope travelling from a block just in front of
the cross-trees, and through these to the deck.
Fore-sail Halliards (h) are secured to the fore-sail
in the same manner as the jib, and also hoisted by two
blocks; the upper one attached just below the cross-
trees.








THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKER.


Jib Top-sail Halliards (q). A single rope passes
from the upper corner of the sail through a small block
in front of the top-mast head down to the deck.
Gaff Top-sail Halliards (r) pass through a block
in the top of the mast, and down to the deck.
Half Top-sail Halliards (s) also pass through a
hole in the top-mast, or through a small block there,
and down to the deck.
Square-sail Halliards (1) are three in number; one
passes from the centre of the yard up through a block
under the front of the cross-trees and down to the deck;
two others are hooked to each of the upper corners of
the square-sail, passing through holes in each end of
the yard; they travel through blocks secured to the
upper main-rigging just below the cross-trees.


THE SAILS (fig. 26).

In all ships the sails are made of stout canvas, sewn
together in long strips; a rope is likewise sewn all round
the outer side, to give them additional strength. For
your little yacht white calico will best answer your
purpose.
The Main-sail (A) is the largest; the upper portion
is laced through a series of small holes to the gaff;








CUTTER.


being securely fastened at each end, it is attached to
the mast by hoops which travel up and down.


THE SAILS.
The Storm Main-sail (B) is made in the same way,
only smaller altogether.
The Fore-sail (c), like the main-sail, is attached to







THE BOT'S OWN TOY-MAKER.


hoops which travel up and down the fore-stay, and
is hoisted up by blocks placed under the cross-trees. '
The Jib (D) is a sail on the bowsprit; the lower
end is hooked to a ring called a traveller, and hoisted
up by blocks at the upper corners to others above the
cross-trees.
Storm Jibs (E, F, G, and n) are made the same as
the jib, but smaller in proportion.
Jib Top-sail () ; same shape as jib, but also smaller;
it is laced to the fore-top-mast stay, and hoisted up to
the top-mast head, the front corner being secured by a
rope passing through a small block at the end of the
bowsprit, and from there to the deck.
Square-sail (J), hoisted up by a block in the centre,
passing through or under the cross-trees, and down to
the deck, and one at each of the upper corners, through
the ends of the yard, to the main-mast head or top of
main-rigging, and down to the deck.
Half Top-sail (x), hoisted up to the top-mast head,
the outer lower corner passing through a hole at the
end of the yard, ..and again through another block
under the centre of the yard, and down to the deck;
the inner lower corner of this sail is also brought
down on deck.
Gaf Top-sail (L), also hoisted up to top-mast head,
the outer corner passing through a block or hole at the







CUTTER.


extreme end of the gaff, passing under it to another
block near the mast, and down to the deck; the inner
lower corner also passes straight down by the mast.
Reefs. A series of short cords for the purpose of
tying in a portion of the sails.; they are generally three
rows in the main-sail and one in the fore-sail of yachts;
none of the other sails have any.
Reef-tackle. These are ropes to haul out the ends of
the respective reefs to the main-boom, while they are
being secured.
Sheets. Used to regulate the angle at which the
sails have to be set to the wind, in cutters.
Main-sheet is reeved through double blocks; one
is attached to the main-boom, and the other to a
"horse" or iron rod on deck.,
Fore-sheet. This also travels on an iron rod to
either side of the vessel.
Jib-sheets. This sail has two-one on each side.
Gaff Top-sail-sheet is reeved through a sheeve at
extreme end of the boom.
Half Top-sail-sheet passes through a block at the
end of the yard; through another block below the centre
of the yard, and down to the deck.
Jib Top-sail-sheets. This sail, like the jib, has two
sheets-one on the port, and one on the starboard side.







THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKER.


SCHOONER.


/;Z
4!~-"~,


NEXT to the cutter-the schooner is the favourite
rig for yachtsmen; but it is more adapted for vessels of
larger size. The schooner has two masts, and they
are in two parts each, the same as the cutter. The
lower portion is called the fore-mast, and the after one
the main-mast; the upper portions are called the fore-
top-mast, and the main-top-mast; they are joined
together as in the cutter, through a cap, and the







SCHOONER.


bottom of the top-masts secured to the tressel-trees,
the main-mast being a little longer than the fore-
mast.
The main-mast is rigged similar to the one
mast in a cutter, having a main-sail and boom,
and over all a gaff top-sail. On the fore-mast it
has a fore and aft fore-sail; in front of the fore-
mast, fore-top-mast, and fore-top-gallant-mast it
has three square yards, one to each; the lower one
is called the fore-yard, the one above it the fore-
top-sail-yard, and the upper one of all is the fore-
top-gallant-yard. The sails belonging to these
are laced on the fore-top-sail and fore-top-gallant-
yards, the square-sail being
only used in going before the
wind, and it is hoisted up to
the yard from the deck. When
the square-sail is not set, and
the vessel sailing with a side
-wind, the fore-stay-sails and
jib are set, as shown in the
engraving.
Another distinctive feature
/between the cutter and the
schooner is the bowsprit, where instead of being in one







THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKER.


piece, as in the former, it is in two; the part attached
to the bow is called the bowsprit (1); there are two








caps fixed on this, through which the outer portion,
called the jib-boom (2) is hauled out. Two bob-stays
(3) support the bowsprit to the cut-water, as well as
two or more ropes, called guys or shrouds, which lead
from the end of the bowsprit to the sides of the vessel
(4), the jib-boom being in like manner supported by
guys, with the addition of a stay (5, 6) through the
martingale, or dolphin-striker, to the bow of the
schooner.
Vessels of this description are sometimes rigged
without yards, occasionally using one large square-sail.
The masts generally rake a little aft, and they sail very
fast, particularly on a wind.








BRIG. 85




BRIG.


--i
?- :

I I -

















instead-of fore and aft. Like the schooner, they have
-; '.l' ''



I. I
'- 1' -- -

















three distinct parts in the place of two, the lower
*- --"1.-_ -..- ?. t. I I I I I--. ,,'. I ,, I. I _-_ -







BRIGS and. sliips are distinguished as square-rigged[
vessels, the principal sails being set across the masti
instead of fore and[ aft. Like the schooner, they have
two masts ; the difference being that each mast has
three distinct parts in the place of two, the lower








86 THE BOY'S OWN. TOY-MAKER,

portions being called the fore-mast, and the after one
the main-mast. The various parts are joined together
similar to those already
described in cutters and
schooners,, only the lower
masts have in the place of
two cross-trees, two round
tops; they serve as greater
13 supports to the main-top-
mast, &c. Above the main-
top-mast is the maif-top-
S gallant-mast, and this is
fixed to the former by a cap and cross-trees
similar to those already described for a
cutter-:-1, royal-mast and truck, on which
the royal is set; 2, top-gallant-mast, on
8 which the top-gallant-sail is set; 3, the cap;
4, tressle-trees and cross-trees; 5, top-mast,
on which the top-sail is set; '6, cap; 7,
round top, tressle-trees, &c.; 8, main-mast.
Both masts are alike, the after or main-mast
being a little the longer.
The sails of a brig are-1, the main-sail; 2, main-
top-sail; 3, main-top-gallant-sail; 4, main-royal; 5,
fore-sail; 6, fore-top-sail; 7, fore-top-gallant-sail; 8,








BRIG.


fore-royal; 9, spanker; 10, the jib; 11, fore-top-mast
stay-sail; 12, main-stay-sail; 13, main-top-mast stay-
sail; 14, main-top-gallant stay-sail; 15, fore-studding-
sail; 16, fore-top-mast studding-sail; 17, fore-top-gal-
lant studding-sail.
The same are used on the main-mast, and are called
the main-top-gallant studding-sail, &c.; these sails,
however, are only used occasionally, in light winds
and fair, as well as the flying-jib, 18.
Brigs are much used in the merchant service, and
in the coasting trade. Several thousands of this class
of vessels are used in the coal trade alone. The cele-
brated Captain Cook first went to sea in a small brig,
which, until lately, might be seen as a river police
station,, moored in the Thames near Somerset House.
Robinson Crusoe, our young readers may remember,
also first sailed in a brig.








88 THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKER.




CLIPPER SHIP.






-I












THIS is the manner in which all the largest ships
are rigged; formerly it was the custom to have very
square-built vessels with very long masts; but in the
modern clipper ships they are much shorter in propor-
tion to the extra length and sharpness of the vessel;
they also rake aft a little more. A ship has three








BARK.


masts, and all square-rigged. The description already
given of a brig will answer for a ship, the first two
masts being the same, as well as the sails and their
respective names; the third mast is the same, but much
shorter-it is called the mizen-mast, mizen-top-mast,
mizen-top-gallant-mast, and mizen-royal. The sails
are the mizen-top-sail, mizen-top-gallant-sail, mizen-
royal, and spanker.



A BARK

Is also a three-masted vessel;
but the difference from a ship is
in the rigging of the mizen-mast,
which instead of having square
sails and yards on all the three
masts alike, the after one is rigged
exactly like a cutter, being in two
pieces, with cross-trees, and carry-
ing a gaff-top-sail and fore and
aft mizen; they are preferred in
the merchant service, as they do
not require so many hands to
work them.








THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKER.

ARCHERY.


THE CROSS-BOW
Was a popular weapon in England; the arrows








ARCHERY.


shot from it were called quarrels or bar-bolts, which
is synonymous with the arrow of the long-bow; it
was fastened to the stock and discharged by means of
a catch, or trigger, which most probably gave the
notion of the lock .of the modern musket. It is said
they were used at the battle of Hastings, and Harold's
death was caused by one of them. After the intro-
duction of gunpowder the science of archery declined
as a military art, but from the glory and renown
which Englishmen achieved by the use of the bow
and arrow, it is to this day practised as a healthful
and elegant accomplishment.
How to make Bows and Arrows. The most easy
method is to take a common cane, cut a small notch
near each end, and tie a piece of small cord or twine
thereto, giving it a slight c. .
curve (fig. 1). The best
bows are made of yew-
tree, laburnum, acacia, or thorn. The wood ought to
be free from knots; two pieces are joined together, the
back being of different wood to the front, and the grain
reversed. The flat or outward part of a bow is called
F C,2.


its back, and the inward part the belly; the proper








THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKER.


length for a youth should be from four and a half to
five feet; the most finished have their ends tipped with
horn (fig. 2).
Arrows are generally made of white light wood,
such as deal, ash, &c.; the most finished are varnished.
The length of the arrow must be in proportion to the
size of the bow; the nicks of the best are cased with
ri ca horn, and should fit the string
s-- exactly. The principal thing
to be attended to is that they are perfectly straight,
and the feathers can be tied with a piece of strong thread,
the lower portion being about half an inch from the end;
a grey goose feather is the best of all for the purpose.
It is not necessary for the young archer to have
all the equipment of a complete bowman; our object
being to give such directions as will enable him to
make a bow and arrow, and use n.C. 4.
them properly. Having made
these, he must have an object to
shoot at, and that is generally a
target (fig. 4). They are made of
plaited straw bands wound round
a centre and sewn together ; over
this is placed paper or canvas; and painted white; a
series of four circles is then painted upon it at equal








ARCHERY.


distances, the inner one is called the bull's-eye, and
the great object is to hit this if possible.
Position in shooting (fig. 5). The archer taking
his stand before the target, his face being a little
inclined to the right, turning
slightly round so that his eye
and the target are in a direct /
line; the body perfectly upright, a F c.
with the left foot slightly in
advance and holding the bow
horizontally in the left hand, the
fore-finger holding the arrow
secure on the wooden part of the
bow, in the centre-the right
hand fixing the nick of the arrow .
on the string where it is held fast
between the first and second
finger, the fore-finger of the left hand is next removed
from the arrow, the centre of the bow grasped tightly,
gradually raise the bow with the left hand, at the
same time pulling the string by the right, and when
the arrow is drawn about two thirds of its length, the
nick of it should be brought close to the right ear, and
the aim taken; this must be done quickly, and it can
only be done well by practice.







THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKER.


TIP CAT






THIS is a common sport among boys, more parti-
cularly in the country; it has a great advantage in
being easily made with a common knife. The piece of
wood which is called the "cat" is about six inches in
length, and from one and a half to two inches in dia-
meter, gradually tapering from the middle to each end.
The cudgel with which the game is played is about
the length and thickness of a common hoop-stick. The
player taking this in his right hand strikes one end of
the cat smartly, which causes it to rise in the air, high
enough to be struck before it again falls to the ground.
There are several ways of playing the game of cat..
The most common is to make a ring, selecting a piece
of flat ground; one boy holds a piece of string that
will make the circle required at the centre, and another
one takes the extremity of the line, and with a piece
of chalk he walks round and forms the ring; the







TIP CAT.


player takes his stand in the middle, and his business
is to strike the cat outside the ring; should he fail in
doing so he is out, and the next player takes his place.
If successful, he judges with his eye the distance the
cat is driven from the centre of the ring, and calls for
a number to be scored to his side; if the number named
be found to exceed the same number of lengths of the
stick, he is out; if, on the contrary, it does not, he
obtains his call.
Another game is to make six or eight holes in a
circular direction, and at equal distances from, each
other at every hole the players take their stations,
with their sticks ; one on the other side tosses the cat
to the nearest batman, and every time the cat is struck
the players must change their positions, and run once
from one hole to another. If the- cat is sent a great
distance, they continue to run in the same order claim-
ing a score towards their game every time they change
from one hole to another. If the cat is stopped and
thrown between any two of the players, and it crosses
him after he has left one hole. and before he reaches
the next, he is out.








TEE BOY'S OWNh TOY-31ARULt.


POP-GUN.



SELECT a straight piece of an old branch of the
elder-tree; cut it about six or eight inches long. The
pith in the inside is then forced out with an iron ram-
rod, or one made of hard wood turned or cut to this
shape.


The Pellets are made with moistened tow or brown
paper; when the pellet is prepared. it should be laid
over the mouth of the gun in sufficient quantity to
require squeezing or plugging in. The first pellet
must be driven through the gun to its other, end,
and the second again driven in a similar manner.
When forced through the gun, the air between the
pellets being incompressible beyond a certain point,
forces out the lower pellet with a loud pop, from
which the name of pop-gun is taken.













SLING.


THIS, which is a mere toy in modern days, was
in ancient times a formidable weapon of war, and as


late as the battle of Hastings,
was used in the English army.
It is extremely simple in its con-
struction, and even now, by dex-
terous and. expert throwing, its
results are astonishing.
It is made of a leather
thong, broadest in the middle,
and tapering off gradually to-
wards the ends, sometimes a
small hole is cut in the centre to
fix the stone
Supon.-A piece


( -.of strong string or small cord is
fastened through a hole at each
end, one of which has a loop at
the end which is put on to the middle finger of the
right hand, and the extremity of the other string is


k'-~
L i







THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKER.


held between the fore-finger and thumb; it is then
whirled round and round until it has gained sufficient
impetus, and suddenly letting go the string held be-
tween the finger and thumb, the stone is shot forth
with great velocity.


STILTS.




-







THIS is a favourite out-door amusement among
boys in many parts of England at the present time.
To a casual observer it appears rather a dangerous
sort of sport, but it is not so; with a little practice it
is extremely easy. Many of the shepherds in the
desert of Landes, in the south of France, use them
with perfect freedom and great rapidity; constant








STILTS.


habit enables them to preserve their balance so well
that they run, jump, stoop, and dance with the greatest
ease and security. They are by their stilts enabled to
see their flocks at a much greater distance,, over a
perfectly flat country, their feet being protected from
the water during the winter, and the heated sand
in summer. In addition to the stilts, they use a
long staff, which they carry in their hands; this
guards them against an accidental trip, and forms a
third leg when they require to rest.
To make Stilts. Procure two poles about six or
seven feet long, and nail on a strap of leather, about
one third from the bottom of each; into these r-i, I
the feet are placed, the poles being kept in a
proper position by the hands, and moved for-
Fi.2 ward by the action of the legs. A
wooden step, however, is better; and it
gives greater firmness to the tread; it
is nailed or screwed to the poles. But -
the best of all are those that do not reach the
hands, but are secured to the leg just below
the knee by a strap, the footstep being the
same as fig. 2. With the addition of a long
staff, any boy,could soon manage to walk in safety
upon them.








THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKER.


ANGLING.
RODS, LINES, FLOATS, HOOKS, AND BAITS.
REVISED BY J. HARRI1NGTON KEENE, AUTHOR OF
"THE PRACTICAL FISHERMAN," ETC.
ANGLING is almost an instinct with most boys,
particularly those brought up in the country, and as
every boy may be an angler if he pleases, it will be
useful for him to know how he may make his own
fishing tackle.
Rods. These are made to great perfection, and may
be .had of every variety from the professional makers,
but they are generally expensive for a boy. With a
little trouble and skill he will be able to-make one that
will answer his purpose almost as well as the most costly.
For the very young angler a hazel or nut stick will
make a good rod for fishing for small fish, such as
sticklebacks, minnows, &c. Having selected as straight
a one as possible, it should be dried thoroughly, or
seasoned, as it is termed, by hanging it by its thillnest
end to some support in a warm place. This seasoning
process will occupy a few days only if the stick be placed
near the kitchen fire.. Should it not be quite straight,
a weight attached to the end while it hangs will gene-
rally make it so. Of course this should remain attached










for a time sufficient to. effect the desired purpose. A
sharp knife is all that is required to polish it into shape.
A good rod may be made with but little real trouble
and some care. Go to the nearest plantation or wood
(if you are not trespassing, of course), and cut an ash
plant br stick; let it be at the largest end not more
than inch in thickness, and as tapering as you can
find. Cut it to about three feet in length; carefully
level down the knots and peel off the rind, then hang it to
dry as before directed. When it is quite dry, get a
piece of sand-paper and smooth it very nicely. Next
cut a nice hazel stick of about, five feet, taking care
that its largest end corresponds in size with the smallest
end of the ash. Treat this as the ash stick was treated.
You have now two nice smooth pieces of wood. Now
cut the ends as shown in the engraving (fig. 1). Do
FIG. I.



FIG. 2.
this with great care, until when they are placed together
they may fit quite closely and truly. Next take a
length of sewing silk, of the rather stout kind known
as twist-or sewing thread will do, though not so well-


ANGLING.








THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKER.


and fixing one end to a nail take a piece of cobblers'-
wax between your finger and thumb, and rub it on the
silk till it is thoroughly waxed. Now take the two
joints, and placing together, wind on the silk from one
end of the joint to the other, still keeping the silk
attached to the nail, and turning the rod round instead
of turning the silk round the rod. This is the easiest
way of binding, and enables one to do it easily. When
you get to near the end of the joint, cut the- silk, and
tie it as shown in fig. 2. This tie is made as
shown in fig. 3, which is shown
loose, to make it perfectly plain
to the learner. FIG. 3.
We have now two parts of the fishing-rod completed,
with the exception of the varnishing, which will be
referred to presently. The top is the next considera-
tion, and it is almost absolutely necessary that this be
of a pliant sort of wood-lance-wood for preference.
Now, in making this, due regard should be given to
the kind of fish one desires to catch-for large fish,
such as pike and big perch, it should be of a stouter
build than that necessary for carp, roach, and dace.
The hazel joint ought to be carefully tapered, so as to
join, in due proportion with the top joint, and the top
joint of lance-wood may be shaved to a more or less fine







ANGLING.


point with a sharp knife, and rasped or sand-papered
till perfectly smooth and tapered. This requires care
and a little thoughtful trouble, but is by no means a
difficult task for a lad to undertake. The top joint is
bound like the other. Having so arranged the three
joints that they taper symmetrically from end to point,
it is advantageous to affix some rings, that the line-if
one is possessed of a winch-may run freely. The best
form of ring for the body of the rod is shown in fig. 4,
and the best kind for the top is seen at fig. 5.



FIG. 4. FIG. 6.
Now both these rings can be easily made from a few
pennyworth of brass wire, and a pair of common
tweezers. The ingenuity of the reader will readily find
this so.
Having bound the rings neatly on, the next thing
is to varnish the rod. For the bindings the following
varnish is best :-Dissolve an ounce of gum-shellac in
about three times as much methylated spirits of wine,
and apply it with a camel-hair brush or feather tip.
Let it dry in a warm place. For the rod the best
varnish is coachmakers'; two coats will be sufficient.







THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKERE


Dry in a warm place, hanging the rod up by the top
ring.
Thus we have a rod quite as generally useful for all
round fishing as a much more elaborately fitted one.
Its chief disadvantage is that it is in one piece; still it
is easy enough to drive in the wall of some out-building
half a dozen long nails to support it when not in use.
It is almost impossible for a boy to satisfactorily make
a ferruledrod like the London manufacturers, because the
latter use a lathe, and make the fittings by machinery.
The best rods are made of bamboo cane, greenheart,
or hickory and lancewood, with tops of various lengths:
twelve feet will be found a convenient length for these,
but they are sometimes made to fourteen and even
eighteen feet long. The great point is to have a rod
as free as possible from imperfections, and tapering
gradually from the butt-end to the top. They are often
fitted as walking-sticks, or made to pack in canvas bags.
Lines are made of twisted silk, or silk and hair, and
of flax. Silk is the best material.. Brown, green, and
white are the best colours.
It is obviously impossible for boys to make their
own lines, as they require very great dexterity and
special machinery. Afewpennyworthof redcarpet thread
makes a capitally strong line, if it be dressed with the







ANGLING.


following dressing: equal parts of gold size and boiled
linseed oil. Stretch out the line, and apply the mixture
with a piece of chamois leather. Water-cord is also a
very good line in lieu of silk for the larger and stronger
fishes. It must be dressed two or three times with the
above composition, and thoroughly dried each time
before it is used.
Gut lines, or lines of hair, are easily made. The
gut should be soaked in water before tying, and then
tied with the following knot (fig. 6)-so also, indeed,
should hair. The en-
graving exhibits it tied
loosely; by drawing the
long end it becomes FIG. 6.
very secure. The knot is termed "Fisherman's."
'It is necessary to use a stained gut line sometimes:
a pale bluish tint is the best generally. This stain is
easily made of ordinary writing-ink mixed with an
equal quantity of boiling water. Steep it while the liquid
is hot. Hair should be from the tail of a young and
healthy horse, and gut ought to be as round as possible.
Floats. For small fish and slow waters quill floats
are the best; they are made of various sizes, the ends
being painted blue or red.
Turkey, swan, and goose quills are chiefly used for







THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKER.


quill floats. To make them: take a quill, and having
stripped off the feathers, bind a little waxed silk round
the middle, and varnish this with shellac varnish
to prevent water getting inside the quill, as is
sometimes the case unless this precaution be taken.
A little ring may be attached to' the top and bot-
tom (see fig. 7), and the binding should be touched
with sealing-wax varnish, made by dissolving chips
of the best red sealing-wax in methylated spirit. F' 7
Tip-capped Float is one of the best that can be
used; it is made of quills
or reeds for the middle, and
ivory or tortoise-shell for the top and bottom-narrow
at the ends, and gradually increasing in circumference
to the middle. It is almost impossible for a boy to
make these himself.
Cork Float. Take a sound cork, and bore it through
the middle with a red-hot iron, put in a quill to
fit it, and cut it to the
shape of a pear; rasp it
with a fine rasp, or with very rough glass-paper, and
then with fine, until the surface is perfectly smooth.
Then fill up the pores of the cork with a little white
lead, rubbed in, and paint any colour preferred. Var-
nish with coachmakers' varnish. Or if you fancy it








ANGLING.


plain, simply varnish once or twice without painting
at all. Some anglers never use a painted float, thinking
that it scares the fish.
Shooting the Line. The shots are to make the float
partially sink in the water; place them all together,
within three inches of the bottom of the loop of the
gut, fix the loop of the gut to which the hook is tied,
and place two very small shots about two inches from
the hook, which will cause the bait to swim steadily,
and the others above the first loop.
Winch. This is a.necessary addition, to large rods
r.T- i particularly; it enables you to
play your fish with more ease
i i and certainty, and to reach places
,' which, without its assistance, you
could not attempt. Winches may
be had of various constructions at the tackle shops.
Though a brass winch, such as is figured, is com-
pact andneat in appearance, the wooden reels, if properly
made, are cheaper and quite equal to the former in
utility. The line should never be allowed to remain
wet.upon them, however, as they readily warp and
become quite useless.
Hooks. There are five kinds of hooks:-The Sneck-
bend, the Limerick, the Kendal, the Kirby, and the







THE BOT'S OWN TOY-MAKER.


Pennell. There is a great variety of opinion as to the
relative merits of each among the best anglers, some
preferring one to the exclusion of the others. The
Kirby, or the Pennel, however, are two that we can
recommend: either shape being well adapted for hooking
and holding the fish. The hooks are numbered from the
largest (No. 1), to the smallest (13), according to size.
The hooks most suitable for the following fish are-
Minnow ....... .13 Bream......... 6
Bleak ... 13 Perch ... 4
Gudgeon .... 12 Eels .... 2
Grayling ......10 Carp ... ... 3
Roach ...... 10 Tench...... .. 3
Dace ... .. 9 Trout . 3
Chub . 5 Barbel . ... 2
Ruff . 9
In tying on hooks, you must use strong but fine
silk; it must be as near the colour of your bait as
possible. If you are tying many hooks,
it is well to liquefy your wax in this way.
Take a little methylated spirit, and having
broken the wax into chips, pour the spirit
over it. till quite covered. This can be
done in an egg-cup for preference. When
the wax is of the consistency of treacle it
is ready for use, and will be found to com-
pletely permeate the silk, and thus render it exceed-







ANGLING.


ingly durable. Bind the hook from the end of shank to
near the bend, and finish off either with the tie advised
when speaking of rods, or with two half-hitches (fig. 8).
Plonmbing the Depth. Much of the success of the
angler in bottom-fishing depends upon his
knowing the proper depth. This is ascertained
by a plummet; they are of two kinds. The fold-
ing plummet will be found the most conve-
nient; it is made of a slip of sheet-lead folded
up. To fix it on the line, unfold it about two inches,
pass the hook over the side, and then fold the plum-
met up again. When the plumb-lead touches the
bottom, and the top of the float is even with the surface
of the water, you will have the correct depth.
The foregoing articles of tackle are specially adapted
for the capture of such fish as the roach, carp, tenoh,
barbel, &c. We now proceed to give a list of the
various other articles in use by the ordinary angler for
fish of greater value, such as pike and trout.
The Gorge Hook. This is a hook which is weighted
with a conical cylinder of lead. It can be thus made
by boys so as to answer every requirement. Take a
length of gimp, and tie a brazed double hook to it, as
directed before. Then obtain some drilled shot, of large
and graduated, size, and thread them on the gimp,







THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKER. -


passing the largest down on to the binding of the hook,
and the next successive sizes in, rotation, till about two
inches of gimp next the hook are clothed. Then secure
the last small shot with a turn or two of silk binding,
and you have a gorge-hook, if anything superior,
because of its flexibility, to those which consist of a
solid piece of lead, and usually sold at the shops. A
baiting-needle is necessary to bait this hook. It is
attached to the gimp, and is passed from the head to
the middle of the tail of the little fish selected for bait;
the lead is then drawn into the stomach.
The Trace. This is used when spinning with a fish-
bait for pike and trout, &c. It is mostly of gimp, and
consists of a length at intervals in which are swivels-
brass for preference, because they do not rust-and a
sinker. Its length is usually about three feet.
The Sinker is a cylinder of lead, bored through the
centre to admit of its attachment to the trace. It ought
to be painted green or some neutral colour.
The Leger. This is also a lead of flat, coffin-like
shape, and is used when it is desired to fish for barbel,
&c., on the bottom. It is perforated, and is threaded
on the line when in use.
The Flight. A "flight" of hooks is an assemblage
of triplets, i. e. three hooks placed in a triangular








ANGLING.


position and soldered together, or of single hooks
arranged for the capture of pike.
T e Paternoster. This is a piece of tackle specially
used for perch capture. It consists of a length of three
feet of gut or gimp-the latter usually-whereon at
intervals of a foot single hooks are attached on gut at
right angles. A lead plummet is connected with its
1owermost end. It is baited with live minnows or
worms.
The Gaffis sometimes used in place of a landing-
net (figured further on), and consists of a steel hook of
large size, like a meat-hook, mounted on a stiff handle.
It is used to/secure large pike and salmon after they
have been tired out by the angler.
The Creel is a specially constructed basket, for
holding tackle or fish.
Baits. Worms are the most natural baits, and
nearly every fish will take them. If the river is at
all muddy it is the best bait that can be used. The
principal are-
Lob-worm and Dew- Grasshoppers.
worm. Wasp-grub.
Brandling. Beetles, Cockroaches, &c.
Tag-tail or Cockspur. White Bread-paste.
Cow-dung Bait. Cheese-paste.
Caterpillar. Sweet-pastes.
Gentles. Ground-bait.
Caddies.







THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKER.


Thwe Lob-worm and ,Deo-worm are familiar to every
schoolboy. The lob is commonly known as the large
earth-worm, with bands round it close to the head;
and the dew-worin is of the same species, but without
these bands. The latter is preferable for a hook-bait,
and the former best for ground-bait. These worms are
to be found in summer at night-time, after or in the.
rain. Take a lantern, and seek for them in any ploughed
field or on any lawn. They can be brought up to the
surface in the driest weather, on any lawn, if it be well
watered just before dusk.
The Brandling is a handsome worm, with bright
yellow bands, and is found in old manure heaps. It is
of most offensive smell.
SThe Tag-tail or Cockspur is a worm of bright coral
appearance, with a yellow tip to its tail, and is found
wherever the brandling appears.
The Cow-dung Bait is a larvae or grub of a species
of beetle. It is found under old and dry cow-dung in
cattle pastures. It requires keeping in bran for a day
or two before using.
The Caterpillars of various butterflies and moths,
especially of the tiger moth, are always acceptable to
fish.
The Grasshopper is an excellent bait for chub and








ANGLING.


trout. Cruel as it may seem, it is best to detach the
jumping legs as they are caught. This is not actually
cruel, as the creature frequently sheds its legs itself as
it seeks to escape.
The Wasp-grub should always be prized as a bait
for roach, chub, tench, carp, &c. The grubs should be
detached from the comb and placed on a colander, and
boiling water poured over them for a few minutes, and
then thrown into bran to cool. This renders them
tough, and less liable to drop off the hook.
All the Pastes are exceedingly useful, and are made
chiefly with flour or bread-preferably the latter. A
little honey or aniseed is often very effective with
roach.
Ground-bait is composed of raspings, stale bread,
carrion, gentles, bran, and, in fact, anything of this
nature. It should not be too copiously thrown in.
Gentles are the larve offspring of the blow-fly.
Liver produces the best.
Caddies are the larvae of certain flies which deposit
their eggs on the water. They build themselves a shell
of sticks, pebbles, &c., and are a very deadly bait for
almost any fish that swims.
To scour and preserve Worms. Procure a quantity
of fresh moss, wash out all the earth, and squeeze it,







THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKER.


but not too dry; press it tightly down in a jar, and
throw the worms upon it. Gentles should be thrown
into a mixture of damp sand and bran, to clean them;
and they will be ready for use in two days.


FLY-FISHING.

To be an expert fly-fisher is generally the ambition
of the most enthusiastic angler; it requires much more
neatness and skill than for bottom-fishing, and it is
assuredly more gratifying in its results. The learner,
if possible, should go out with some experienced angler,
watch his movements closely, and imitate them as well
as he can. He should begin with the line only, not
putting on any flies, trying a short line first, and
lengthening it gradually; the rod should be carried
gently back, without effort, and thrown forward again
when the line has reached its full extent behind him;
great care must be taken in doing this, or the fly will
be whipped off when he comes to use one. After
attaining tolerable proficiency in this, the learner may
then put on one fly, and fish for a while with that,
adopting two or three when he is able to use them
properly. The great art is to drop the fly lightly, that
it may resemble a natural fly settling upon the water.








ANGLING.


Suffer the line to float gently down the stream, at the
same time dragging it towards you to your left hand.
The best time for angling with the fly is when
there is a gentle breeze upon the water-south and
west winds are to be preferred. The best time of day
is morning or evening. You must be careful not to go
near the bank, for fish are very quick of sight. If you
see a rise, throw your fly about half a yard above,
and let it fall with the stream, watching it narrowly,
and strike the moment the fish rises; when you have
hooked one, play him carefully, keeping up his head,
and running him down the stream, at the same time
drawing him towards you; a smaller fly is required
when the water is smooth.
The materials required to make Arl.'if,:'7 Flies.
Feathers of the grouse, snipe, duck, bittern, golden
plover, jay, starling, and peacock. Furs of all colours,
from the skins of squirrels, moles, and water-rats;
camel's hair, hare's ear, and fur from the neck of the
marten; -mohairs of different shades, and camlets; black
horse-hair; hog's down, dyed various colours; gold
and silver twist, and sewing silk of all colours and
thicknesses; a pair of fine-pointed scissors, and small
pliers.







THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKER.


fHOW TO MAKE AN ARTIFICIAL FLY.
It is extremely difficult to impart directions how to
make an artificial fly, but if the reader is very careful
not to miss the meaning of what is here set forth before
him, and if he has carefully gone through the instruc-
tions for making coarse fish tackle before given, he will
be quite competent to attempt to imitate the natural
insect he finds by the water-side, so as to catch trout.
The following shows how to make a plain Hackle-
fly, that is, a fly which is, strictly speaking, not an
imitation of anything, but is, notwithstanding, very
often attractive to fish. A hackle-fly looks as if it were
all legs, and probably is supposed by the fish to be an
insect with buzzing wings.
Take your hook between the points of the thumb
and forefinger of your left hand. Hold it firmly by the
shank, with the tip of the shank slightly projecting
beyond your finger-end towards the right. The back
of the shank is to be upwards. Take your waxed silk,
holding the left point of it as you do the hook, and
whip it three times tightly round the shank of the hook
towards the end-that is, in a contrary direction to the
bend. Hold down your silk out of your way by placing


116.








ANGLING.


it and holding it between the middle and third fingers
of your left hand. Then take your link of gut with a
single knot at the end, and having moistened it in your
mouth, place the knotted end parallel with the shank,
and between the shank and your left forefinger, and let
the gut pass down the shank a little more than half
way towards the bend. Take your silk between the
forefinger and thumb of your right hand, and whip it
tightly round the shank and gut three times in the
direction of the bend. Put your silk as before between
the middle and third fingers of your left hand. You
have now finished the first operation, that of attaching
the hook and gut together, and bear in mind that in
dressing all flies this operation is thus performed.
SNow take your hackle feather, and having denuded
it of the down on either side its stem, place it against
the shank of the hook on the side nearest your body,
with its root pointing towards the bend of the hook.
Then, and in the same direction, whip the silk sharply
three times round the hook, gut, and end of the feather,
and cut off, with fine-pointed small scissors, any of the
root that remains. having done so, take the feather
by its point between the thumb and forefinger of the
right hand, and wind it in close laps five or six times-
the number of laps to be proportioned to the size of the







THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKER.


hook and fly-down the shank towards the bend, then
make two laps of the silk over the point of the feather,
cut away with your scissors what remains wavered by
the silk of the point of the feather, and, lastly, waxing
your silk again, fasten with two half-hitches opposite
the point of your hook, or just where the bend begins.
These directions, if followed out, are the foundation
of fly-tying. After the learner has learned to make
the above with ease, he can readily teach himself the
rest.
The following is a recipe for the best wax for fly-
tying. Take two ounces of yellow resin, one dram
of beeswax, put them in a pipkin and let them simmer
for ten minutes, then add a quarter of an ounce of lard,
and simmer for a quarter of an hour longer. Then
pour it into a b.zin o f cold water, and while yet warm
work,it with the fingers to give it tenacity. Judson's
dyes are the best and simplest for dyeing feathers, silk,
&c.
The fly at the end of the line is called a stretcher,
and the next the dropper., The first dropper should
be about a yard from the stretcher, and the second
about three-quarters of a yard from the first; made on
pieces of gut four orfive inches long to detach at pleasure.
Nfay-fly (fig. 1). The wings are made of the








ANGLING.


light feather of a grey drake, rF ci
dyed yellow; the body of
amber-coloured mohair, ribbed (.
with green silk; the head
of peacock's harl; and the
tail of three long hairs from
a sable muff. This is one of the most killing flies
for trout; it generally rises about the end of May,
and continues for about three weeks; it. is found in
great plenty in sandy, gravelly rivulets.
Great White Moth (fig. 2).. The wings are made of
FIC.2. a feather from the wing of a
white owl; the body of white
"--. -- cotton; and a white cock's
: hackle wrapped round the body.
This is a night fly, and should
) be used in a dark, gloomy night.
Bee-fly (fig. 8). This is an excellent chub-fly, and
is in use during the summer months. ic. .
The wings are made from the feathers I
of a blue pigeon's wing; the body of
chenil of various colours, arranged in n
stripes in the following order: black,
white, light yellow, white, black and white; the legs
of a black hackle; and the body dressed thick. :








THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKER.


Red Palmer (fig. 4). The body of this is made

SI 4. of dark red mohair, ribbed with gold
-- twist, and wrapped with a red Cock's
i hackle. Palmers are all good killing
baits, and may be used all the fishing
season.
We give these specimens for the young angler to
practise upon. When he has accomplished the art of
fly-making, he will prefer making them after his own
fashion, and it is always best to make the fly you wish
to imitate-one that you know frequents the locality
you propose fishing in. The following flies are also
favourites with the best anglers:-


Black Gnat.
Hare's Ear.
Whirling Dan.
Cock Tail.
Peacock Palmer.
Black Silver Palmer.
Red Ant.
Governor.
Gold Spinner.
Oak Fly.
Yellow Sally.
March Brown.


Willow Fly.
Haze Fly.
Fern Fly.
Black Palmer.
Black Palmer ribbed with
gold.
Orl or Alder Fly.
Blue Gnat.
Little Iron Blue.
Gravel or Spider Fly.
Granham or Green Tail.
Whirling Blue;


Landing Net. The ring of this can be made of
a common cane, to which is fastened a small net, with








ANGLING. 121
a long pole or straight piece of wood for the handle.


A ring made of iron or stout wire is better, when it
can be procured.














RABBIT HUTCHES.
RABBITS have always been great favourites with
boys, and are not only a pleasant, but often may
be made a profitable amusement. The domestic rab-
bits are of various colours. A variety of the hare-
colour, that has much bone, long body, long ears, and
large eyes, much resembling the hare-which they
nearly equal in size, is in flesh considered superior to
the common rabbit.
When choosing young ones to rear for does, take
those that have the smallest litter. When six weeks
old they may be removed from the doe, and placed in
hutches two and two, until they are four months old,
and after that time they must be kept separate. Does
with long heads and ears are the best, and give the
most milk. There are many varieties of fancy rabbits,
but the lop-eared is the most popular; these also have
many varieties, such as the up-eared, the forward or
horn-lop, the ear-lop, and the real lop. Our young
readers must please themselves as to the kind of rabbits








THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKER.


they prefer to rear; our object is rather to instruct
how to make houses for them, which are called
clutches. The most easily constructed can be made






-21-

out of an old tea or egg chest; one third being divided
by a partition for a sleeping-place-a hole being cut
in it sufficiently large for the rabbit to pass through.
A sliding door must be made in the partition, to con-
fine the rabbits during the time of cleaning. Stout
wires must be driven into the top and bottom of the
hutch for the front, about an inch apart, and the door
put on with two leather hinges, and fastened with a
latch or buckle.
More, finished hutches may be constructed for
fancy rabbits on the same plan, with the addition of
a drawer for the food; this should be tinned round
the edges; also the circular hole in the partition, as
well as every other part of the inside of the hutch
which the rabbits can bite with their teeth. The







RABBIT HUTCHES.


bottom should be quite smooth, with a slip taken off





,I ii_ -






the lower part, and the hutch set a little backwards
for the water to run off.
The Buck's Hutch is generally made of quite a
different shape to that of the doe's or breeding hutches,
but there does not ap-
pear any good reason -
for its being so. The i
form is something of
the shape of a Dutch .
oven, with very little ;-
room for exercise. One -- -
made on the same plan as already described for does,
with the wires a little stronger, should be more gene-








THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKER.


rally used, as the separate apartment enables the
rabbit to exercise himself when he pleases. The
buck must always be kept in an apartment of his
own.
Hutches may be set one upon another, or in rows,
as most convenient; they should never be placed upon
the ground, but elevated on wooden stools or benches;
and not put close to the wall, but sufficient room left
for the dung to pass off from the apertures made in
the back of the floor. They should be kept in a dry
place, exposure to humidity being fatal to rabbits
Fresh air and thorough draught are necessary.



BIRD TRAPS.
BIRDs of all kinds are great favourites both with
young and old. The splendour of their colours, the
melody of their sweet voices, and the wonderful art
with which they construct their nests, inspire a love
and admiration to the great Creator of alL Without
going into the natural history of the various singing-
birds, we shall confine ourselves to the means of catch-
ing them. There are different modes; the most common
for boys is the








BIRD TRAPS.


Brick Trap. It is made of four bricks-two being
placed lengthways upon their narrow ends, and the
third in like manner across
one end; the fourth being
placed between the two sides,
so as to form a cover or lid.
A forked twig is placed hori-
zontally, and rests upon the edge of the front brick-
the lid or top brick being supported
by a short piece of wood resting upon
the narrow end of the fork. The weight
of the bird alighting on the forked
branch destroys the equilibrium, and the brick falls,
and forms a close box in which the bird is a prisoner.
A few bread crumbs or oats should be first put in as
a bait at the bottom of the trap:
Sieve Trap. This is another simple and readily
constructed trap. A large
sieve is propped up at an
angle with a stick, to which .,.
is attached a piece of st inir ::..r '
at the middle. Having strewn -i-- ,
your bait under the sieve, take the end of the string,
and conceal yourself behind a tree or wall, and when
you observe the bird well under the sieve, quickly







THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKER.


jerk the line, removing the stick, which pauses the
trap to fall over the bird.
The Springle. This is an excellent trap, but more
complicated to make. Take a hazel rod, four feet long,
thick at one end, and tapering towards the other, and
fix a piece of string, about fourteen inches in length,
to the small end; it must be shaved off a little on one
end to fit the notch in the spreader.
The Spreader is a small bent switch about a foot
Sand a half in length ; make a notch at the thick-
est end to receive the small one, and fasten it
within an inch of the thicker end.
The Catch is a small piece of wood half an inch
long, about half as broad, and a quarter as thick.
The Noose is a slip-knot of stout horse-hair,
fastened to the end of the string below the catch.
The Stump is made of a short stake of
wood a few inches in length, fixed firmly
into the ground; the head remaining about
an inch above the surface.
The Bender is also a pliant switch of hazel, the
ends of which are fixed in
tg M the ground, forming an arch.
To set the Springle. The
stump must be driven firmly into the ground, and







BIRD TRAPS.


the bow of the spreader over it, the bight being in
contact with it. Fix the two ends of the bender
securely into the ground, about the length of the
former from the stump. The thick end of the
springer is next fixed in the ground a short distance
from the bender,
and the small end
bent down. till you
can put one end of '. 1
the catch upwards, --. -
and on the outside of the bender. The spreader being
raised about an inch from the ground, and the smaller
end of the catch being placed in the notch, to support
it. The horse-hair slip-knot is next arranged round it,
and the trap is complete.
A little seed is scattered inside and around the
trap, and the' bird being attracted to it perches upon
the spreader, which falls with its weight, and the
catch being set at liberty flies up, and the bird is
caught in the noose; care, however, must be taken to
remain at a short distance to take your bird quickly,
or in his efforts to escape he might be strangled, or
flutter himself to death.
Liming a Twig. One of the most simple modes
of catching birds is with bird-lime; it may be pur-








THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKER.


chased in towns of the bird-fanciers, oilmen, or drug-
gists. A branch of a tree is first taken and trimmed
of the leaves, and then coated all over with the bird-
lime; a cage in which are your call-birds is then fixed
in a low hedge, and the smeared bough is placed over it.
The wild birds being decoyed to the twigs, you con-
ceal yourself somewhere near, and when the birds
alight on the tree they stick fast, and you must lose
no time in securing them.
The London bird-catchers use a large net-some as
much as twelve yards long, and about two wide; they
are spread upon the ground, and decoy-birds placed
in small cages, at short distances from the net. The
wild birds being attracted to the spot, the bird-catcher
watches his opportunity, and closes them in by a sud-
den pull of the strings which he holds in his hands at
some distance from the'trap.
When birds are taken, they should be first placed
in a dark place, or the cage covered over for a time,
or they may seriously injure themselves by flutter-
ing about in the cage. The best time for catching
birds is early in the morning, soon after daylight;
for after that time, the birds are too busy looking after
their food to be easily attracted by your decoys.












BATTLEDOOR AND SHUTTLECOCK.







z--.-~





TBIS is an old and favourite sport; it is also a very
healthy pastime. In the time of James I., it was a
fashionable game amongst grown-up 'person. The
Chinese play at it with their feet, hands, and elbows,
and keep the cocks up in a most extraordinary manner.
The practice of the game in this country is to-keep the
shuttlecock in the air by striking it from one person
to another.
Battledoors, as the name implies, were formerly all
made of wood; they may easily be cut out of a piece







THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKER.


of flat deal, not thicker than a quarter of an inch-the
spades about five inches in length, and the same in
breadth; the handles about six or seven inches long;
and they will serve every
purpose for youngbeginners
to practise upon. The best
kind are made as follows: procure a slip of lance-wood,
about sixteen inches long, aniach and a half broad, and
a quarter of an inch thick, the edges of the outside
slightly rounded; to make it bend to the shape of
the spade of the battledoor, cut a slight nick, about
an inch apart, all along the inside, and not quite half
g~iLLuLLLLiL-L 11UI 1L
way through the wood; boil or steam it with hot
water, and it will curve to the shape, the two ends
being bevelled off to fit to the handle; this must be
previously prepared quite round, except at
the end to which the spade is attached,
which must be quite square at the sides,
and tapering a little at the extreme end.
The spade end must then be glued to the
two sides of tha handle, and afterwards
firmly bound round the joiu with fine waxed string; it







132 BATTLEDOOR AND SHUTTLECOCK.


must then be allowed to dry; in the meantime, prepare
your covering of parchment, cut round to the shape of
the spade, with a margin large enough to turn over
the wood-work. The ends, to turn over nicely, must be
cut out in this form; the skin must then
be soaked in water, the damp taken off,
and the ends glued round the wood-
work, and when dry, you will have a
superior battledoor. The handle may
be finished off by binding a strip of coloured
leather or velvet all round it.
To make a Shuttlecock. Cut a piece of
sound cork to this shape, in it fix a
short brass-headed nail at the lower k
end. Procure five grey goose feathers
about four and a half inches long, not too
full, and all the same size; fix the ends
of these into the top of the cork in a circle-
each one standing in an oblique direction to
the other, and your shuttlecock with the battledoor
will be ready for play.








THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKER.


TRAP, BAT, AND BALL.


----- "",- ---




THIS is also an old English game. As early as the
fourteenth century we have traces of its existence,
The old method of playing was much the same as it
is in the present time, only the trap was a little ele-
vated, and not placed on the ground as it
now is, commonly in the shape of a shoe.
The trigger being struck at the extreme
end forces upwards the spoon containing
the ball, the motion describing a small are or curved
line; when set free from the spoon, the ball rises in a
right line, and is projected forward in the same direc-
tion it was taking when set free.
The game is played in various ways in different
parts of the country. The usual plan is to choose
sides, tossing up for the innings, boundaries being
2 K







TRAP, BAT, AND BALL.


placed at a given distance from the trap; the bats-
man must send his ball over the lines or he is out;
he is also out if he strikes the ball into the air, and
it is caught by an opposite player, or if it is bowled
back and hits the trap, or if he strikes at the ball
twice without hitting it he is out, and another player
takes his place. In many parts there is a practice,
when the bowler has sent in the ball, for the striker
to guess the number of bat's lengths it.is from the
trap, if he guess correctly he reckons that number
towards his game, but if more than there really are,
he loses his innings.
In playing, the trigger must not be struck too
forcibly, but just sufficient to rise the ball about a
foot, or a little more, above the trap; you may catch
it once or twice in your hand before you call play,
which will enable you to judge better where to take
your stand, and strike the ball with the utmost force,
and observe in which direction you should send it
with the least chance of its being caught. Take plenty
of time before you attempt to hit the ball; young
players are apt to be in too great a hurry. You will
have sufficient time to take a good aim, and strike the
ball in the act of falling.
To make a Trap, Bat, and Ball. The trap must








THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKER.


first be cut out of a soft piece of wood about seven
or eight inches in length, in the shape and in the
proportion of an ordinary shoe; hollow out the heel
about half way down,, and
l' ,, one-third at the toe, through
-which drill a small hole; in
the hollow is fixed the spoon
Send of the trigger which holds
the ball-it is secured by an iron or wooden pin, which
acts as a fulcrum. The trigger, or tongue, is cut out
of a piece of wood of this
shape, a hole being drilled
through the thick part, and the spoon end slightly
curved out to hold the ball.
The Ball. The directions given at page 130 will do
for the purpose.
The Bat. The spoon-shaped is the one now most
used by players; it is made out of a piece of flat wood
_ about an inch thick, and in the
form of the cut, but they vary
according to taste or fashion.













BALLS.


GAMES played with balls are of great antiquity.
The Greeks used four kinds, viz.: the little ball, the
great ball, the empty ball, and the leather ball. The
empty ball was blown up with air, something like the
foot ball of the present time; and the leather ball
was stuffed with sand or bran, and suspended from
the ceiling. The Romans, also, had four kinds of balls,
and it is stated that Augustus Cassar, particularly, was
greatly delighted with the amusement.
Hand Ball, or Fives. This was formerly a very
popular pastime in England; in modern times it has
been partially superseded by the use of the racket.
For boys, the hand ball has all the advantages of ex-
ercise, and does not require so high a wall or regular








THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKER.


ground as for racket. The game is played with the
palm of the hand: two or more take sides, the best
players being nearest the wall; a chalked line being
previously drawn upon it, about two feet from the
ground, and the great art is just to send the ball over
the line, and keep it within the boundaries.
To make a Hand Ball. Take a piece of India-
rubber, or cork, about the size of a large marble, and
wind round it worsted till you have worked it quite
round, and about the size of an ordinary orange.; fix
the end by lacing it under the layers, and without
making a knot. For an ordinary game, the ball will
then do, but if you wish to preserve it, or make a
more finished work of it, you must cover it with soft
leather, and make all as tight as possible, that it may
rebound easier.
Racket Balls may be made in the same way. It is
stated that, this game was introduced into England
during the reign of Henry III., by persons of rank
and family, who erected what are called tennis-courts,
for the performance of the exercise.
Foot Ball. Formerly this game was the popular
holiday amusement. It is a most exciting sport, the
best place for it being a large field or common. Any
number may play at it. When a match is made, each








BALLS.


party takes a side, till equally divided in numbers
two sticks being driven into the ground for a goal,
a few feet apart. The skill of the players is best dis-
played by attacking and defending the goals. Shins
occasionally suffer, and the exercise is sometimes ex-
ceedingly violent.
To malce a Foot Ball. Take a large bladder, steep it
in water, blow it out by the aid of a piece of pipe, and
tie it tightly round the neck with string; being satisfied
that it is perfectly air-tight, you must untie the string
and empty the bladder again. You must then proceed
to place it in the leather case, which
ought also to be soaked in water,
to make it work more easily into .
form. Insert the lower end of the -
bladder into the hole in the leather, -- :,"
fill it again with air, and tie the i:
neck-string, and it will then be more
like two balls than one. You next
take a firm hold of the outer portion
of the bladder, and twist it round, gra-
-. dually driving all the air into the lower
S part of the leather case, and the shape
will be further developed. The outside
portion must then be forced gently into








THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKER.


the case, and a tongue of leather placed over the ori-
fice; the whole must be laced together, and your ball
will be ready for use.
India-rubber, which appears to be coming into use
for almost everything, is now much used for making
all kinds of balls.


THE BOOMERANG.
THIS is an instrument lately introduced into this
country from Australia. It is said to be used by the
natives with great skill and dexterity; so much so as
to kill a man behind a tree. If skilfully flung, it may
be made to go in any direction, and after striking the
desired object it will return to the thrower., It should
be held horizontally when thrown, and cast by bring-
ing the arm backwards.
It is made of a curved piece of wood, flat on one
side, and a little rounded
on the other. It is so sim-
ple, and its results so extra-
ordinary, that it has already
become very popular in this country














GOLFING.


IN Scotland this game is much practised at the
present time. It is much the same as a rustic game
of the Romans, and is played with a long club, and
a small ball made.generally of gutta percha. The game
is played with four persons-there being two on each
side; only two balls are used, one belonging to each
party, and each one striking in turn; if the last striker
does not send the ball as far as his opponent,
the next one of the same party must then
strike one, and so on, counting one, two, or
three, as the case may be. The object is to i
drive the balls into certain holes in the ground,
and the party that does so the soonest, or with
the fewest number of strokes, wins the game.
The Golf Club is generally made in two
distinct parts-the shaft, which is of hickory .
or lance wood'(rarely the latter nowadays), and '
the head of beech or apple, or some such wood, planed
off to adapt itself to the handle, to which it ,is partly
glued and tightly corded down. They vary in length








GOLFING.


from three to four feet, according to the height and
length of arm of the player. The handle is bound with
leather over list or some such stuff; and in addition to
the face of the club it is sometimes further secured by
a piece of bone or ivory, about an inch think. Clubs,
however, vary according to circumstances, and the
nature of the ground; for instance, some have iron
heads for playing in sand, &o.

GLossARY oF TECHNICAL TEERS USED IN GoLFING.
Baf.-Striking the ground along with the ball.
Bone.-A piece of that substance inserted in the sole of the club,
to prevent it from splitting.
Bwnker.-A sand hole.
Caddie.-A person who carries the Golfer's clubs and who is
generally conversant with the principles of the game.
Dead.-A ball is said to be dead-1st, when it falls without rolling;
2nd, when it lies so close to the hole that the put is a
certainty.
Dormy.-As many holes ahead as remains holes to play.
Draw.-To drive wildly to the left.
Fore.-Contracted for Before; a warning cry to people in front of
the stroke.
Flat.-A club lies flat when its head is at a very obtuse angle to
the shaft.
Gobble.-A rapid straight put at the hole.
Grassed.-A term used instead of spooned, to signify the slope of
a club face.
Green.-Sometimes the links, more generally the putting ground.
Hanging.-When the ground rises in any way behind the balL









THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKER.


Hazard.--General terms for bunkers, whins, or bad ground.
Heel.-The crook of the head where it joins the shaft.
Leather.-The leather covering the grasp of the club shaft.
Lie.-1st, the inclination of a club when held on the ground in its
natural position with respect to the player; or, 2nd, the
situation of a ball.
Links.--The open downs or heath where the game is played.
Loft.-To raise the ball.
Match.-lst, a party contesting a game; 2nd, the game when
won.
Odd.-1st, an additional stroke allowed a weak opponent; 2nd,
the stroke played in any match in advance of the opposite
party.
Put.-A gentle stroke towards the hole when close to it.
Rind.-The roll of cloth under the leather, used to thicken the
grasp.
Scare.-The point of junction between head and shaft. A club is
said, also, to be scared when a piece of wood is inserted in
a splinter, and the whole whipped. The answering term to
scared on board ship is fished.
Scruff.-Slightly raising the grass in striking.
Shaft.-The stick or handle of the club.
Steal.-An unlikely put holed from a distance, but not by a
gobble.
Swipe.-A full shot or drive.
Swing.-The circular sweep of the club in driving.
Tee.-A pat of soil on which the ball is elevated for the first stroke.
iToping.-- Hitting the ball above the centre.
Upright.-When a club-head is not placed at a very obtusive angle
to the shaft.
Whins.-Furze-bushes.
Whipping.-The pitched twine uniting the head and shaft.












HOCKEY, OR CLUB.


THIS is also a favourite game in the north of Eng-
land. Two or more parties form sides, and the object
is to drive the ball (a wooden one) over the bounds,
which are generally marked out at about forty or fifty
yards. The best place for it to be played is in a by
road, not too wide, with a hedge or palings on each
side; and the party that first sends the ball over the
bounds, wins the game; either party sending it over
the side bounds, loses the game. The clubs are formed
according to the taste and fancy of the
player. Some boys prefer one with a stout
knobby handle, and others, again, like those
with more curve at the stroke; but when
one is got to answer the purpose, it is
valuable to the owner. The best way is to
select one from some wood or hedge, and
have as little cutting or making about it as
possible.
La^







THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKER.


THE SUCKER.

Tnis is a very simple toy, and easily made. Take
-- a piece of leather, and cut
it perfectly round, about
I =~- the size of the palm ofyour
Ii' ., hand; make a small hole
AtI through the centre, just
large enough to insert
within it a piece of fine
cord, about four or five
S- feet in length; at the end
-- inside the sucker tie a
knot, and to the other
end tie a piece of wood
five inches long, for the handle. When completed,
soak the leather for some time in water till it is suffi-
ciently pliable, and take a smooth stone and press
down the leather upon it with your foot; underneath
the sucker a vacuum is formed, and by lifting the
string, the external air pressing on all sides of your
sucker, you will be able to carry a considerable weight.














Irairfal Juiet2.
MANYof the bestpuzzleshaveno doubtbeen invented
by captives, to wile away the time of a long and dreary
imprisonment; thus does the misery of a few frequently
conduce to the amusement of many. A good puzzle
requires considerable thought, calculation, patience,
and management. It is sometimes highly amusing to
watch the progress of any one attempting to perform
a puzzle for the first time; to see him elated with
hope when he thinks he is doing it so cleverly, when
you know he is farther off the desired end than when
he actually began. And it is equally laughable to
witness his increasing despair as he finds himself get-
ting more and more involved, when you are fully
aware, by a single happy turn, how easily he might
terminate his troubles.

THE CHINESE CROSS.

Procure six pieces of wood, bone, or metal, made







THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKER.


of the same length as No. 6 in the adjoining figure,
and each piece of the
same size as No. 7. It
is required to construct
a cross with six arms,
From these pieces, and
it 3 in such a manner that
it shall not be displaced when thrown upon the floor.
The shaded parts of each figure represent the parts
that are cut out of the wood; and each piece marked
a is supposed to be facing the reader, while the pieces
marked b are the right side of each piece turned over
towards the left so as to face the reader; No. 7 repre-
sents the end of each piece of wood, &c., and is given
to shew the dimensions.
To make the Chinese Cross. Place Nos. 1 and 2
together as in fig. ; hold them together with r i[c
the finger and thumb of your left hand hori-
zontally, and with the square hole to the right;
push No. 3-placed in the same position facing
you (a) in No. 4-through the opening at K,
and slide it to the left at A, so that the profile L
of the pieces should be as in fig. 2. Now push No. 4
partially through the space from below upwards, as
seen in fig. 2. Place No. 5 crossways upon the part







PRACTICAL PUZZLES.


B, so that the point R is directed upwards to the right
F Ic.a hand side; then push No. 4 quite
through, and it will be in the posi-
tion shewn by the a
S dotted lines in fig. 2.
All that now remains
is to push No. 6 which
is the key through
the opening x, and
the cross is completed as in fig. 3.



THE CHINESE PUZZLE.

This puzzle being one for the purpose of construct-
ing different figures by arranging
variously shaped pieces of card or
wood in certain ways, requires no
separate explanation. Cut out of
very stiff cardboard-or thin maho-
gany, which is decidedly preferable-seven pieces, in
shape like the annexed figures, and bearing the same
proportion to each other; one piece must be made in
the shape of fig. 1, one of fig 2, and one of fig. 3,







THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKER.


and two of each of the other figures. The combina-
tions of which these figures are susceptible are almost
infinite, and we subjoin a representation of a few of


^_K^1^li


the most curious. It is to be borne in mind, that
all the pieces of which the puzzle consists must be
employed to form each figure.








PRACTICAL PUZZLES.


THE MAZE, OR LABYRINTH.







This maze is a correct ground plan of one in the
gardens of the Palace of Hampton Court. No legend-
ary tale is attached to it of which we are aware, but
its labyrinthine walks occasion much amusement to
the numerous holiday parties who frequent the palace
grounds. The puzzle is to get into the centre, where
seats are placed under two lofty trees, and many are
the disappointments experienced before the end is
attained; and even then the trouble is not over, it
being quite as difficult to get out as to et in.








THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKER.


THE CARDBOARD PUZZLE.

Take a piece of cardboard or leather, of the shape
and measurement indicated by the diagram; cut it
3s.NcHEEs in such a manner that you yourself may
pass through it, still keeping it in one
c. piece.
To cut the Cardboard Puzzle. Double
Sthe cardboard or leather lengthways down
the middle, and then cut first to the
right, nearly to the end (the narrow way), and then to
the left, and so on to the end of the card; then open
it, and cut down the middle, except the two ends.






The diagram shews the proper cuttings. By opening
the cardboard or leather, a person may pass through it.








PRACTICAL PUZZLES.


MOVING THE KNIGHT OVER ALL THE SQUARES
ALTERNATELY.













Let Black Queen's Rook's square count 1 (as in
the above diagram); Black King's Rook 8; and count
all the other squares in the same way, from 9 to 64.
Place the Knight upon Black King's Rook's square, 8,
and move as follows:-23, 40, 55, 61, 51, 57, 42, 25,
10, 4, 14, 24, 39, 56, 62, 52, 58, 41, 26, 9, 3, 13, 7, 22,
32, 47, 64, 54, 60, 50, 33,18, 1, 11, 5, 15, 21, 6, 16, 31,
48, 63, 53, 59, 49, 34, 17, 2, 12, 27, 44, 38, 28, 43, 37,
20, 35, 45, 30, 36, 19, 29, and 46. It may be well to
chalk the figures on the board as a guide, until the
feat is understood.







THE BOY's OWN TOY-MAKER.


THE ACCOMMODATING SQUARE.


/
?j


Take eight squares of
card, and divide four of
them from corner to cor-
ner, so that you will
have twelve pieces; form
a square with them when
put together.


THE DIVIDED GARDEN.
A person has a square plot of
ground having a -house built upon
S it, which he lets out to various
tenants; he was desirous of dividing
it so that each of
the five inmates
should have an equal share of the _I
garden, and two trees. He contrived tr 1
it in this way.


\ 152









PRACTICAL PUZZLES,


THE ARMn SQUARE.







22



FIG. 1. FIG..2.
Cut as many pieces of each figure in cardboard as
they have numbers marked on each; then form the
pride of the English army, which can be done by
arranging the pieces as shewn in fig. 2.


THE JAPAN SQUARE PUZZLE.







Cut ou of cardboard or wood o the same sizes
Cut out of cardboard or wood of the same size







THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKER.


and shapes as in the preceding diagram, and then
form a square with them, and the result will be as
in fig. 2.


FIG. 2.


THE SQUARE AND CIRCLE PUZZLES.

Get a piece of cardboard, the
S O O size and shape of the diagram, and
0 O0 punch in it twelve holes or circles,
00 in the position as shewn. The
puzzle is, to cut the cardboard into
0 0 0 four pieces of equal size, each niece








PRACTICAL PUZZLES.


to be of the same shape, and to contain three circles,
without cutting into any of them; and the result
will be as follows:-


O 0 0
0 00

0 0 0

THE PUZZLE OF FOURTEEN.
Cut out fourteen pieces
of paper, card, or wood, of
the same size and shape as
those shewn in the cut, and
then form an oblong with them, as in the following
cut:-







THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKER.


THE CARD SQUARE.


/\ /


and with them form a square.


Cut out eight pieces
of card or paper of the
shape of a, four of b,
and four of c, and of
proportionate sizes,


PUZZLE OF THE TWO FATHERS.
Two fathers have each a square -
of land. One father divides his so
as to reserve to himself one fourth,
as in the adjoining cut. The other
divides his so as to reserve to him-








PRACTICAL PUZZLES.


self one fourth in the form of a triangle. They have
each four sons, and each divides the
remainder among his sons in such a
way that each son will share equally
with his brother, and in a similar
shape. How were they divided?
The first father divided the land
as in fig. 1. The second father divided it as in

2 A72 A





FIG. 1. FIG. 2.

fig. 2. The different figures represent the several sons'
portions.

THE NUNS.
Twenty-four nuns were arranged in a convent by
night by a sister, to count nine each *.-- ,
way, as in the opposite cut. Four of
the party went out to take a walk by *;
moonlight. How were the remainder
placed in the square, so as still to count I'








THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKER.


nine each way? The four who went out returned
bringing with them four friends; how were they all
placed so as to count nine each way, and thus deceive
the sister as to whether there were 20, 24, 28, or 32
in the square ?


S20 y 8




THE DOUBLE-HEADED PUZZLE.







Cut out of a piece of wood the circular form of
fig. 1, and four others like fig. 2; the puzzle is in
getting them all into the cross-shaped slit, until they
look like fig. 3. After which arrange them side by
side in the short arms of the cross, draw out the
centre piece, and the rest will easily follow. The
reverse of the same process will put them back again.








PRACTICAL PUZZLES.


CUTTING OUT A CROSS.

Cut out of a single o
piece of paper, and
with one cut of the
scissors, a perfect cross,
and all the other forms
of the diagram.
Take a piece of
writing paper, about three times as long as it is broad,


say six inches by two. Fol




1 2
/ 2 3


d the upper corner down,
as fig. 1; then fold
the other upper cor-
ner over the first.
and it will appear
as fig. 2; you next
fold the paper in
halflengthwise, and
it will appear as
fig. 3. Then the


last fold is made lengthwise, also in the middle of the
paper, and it will make fig. 4, which, when cut through
with the scissors in the direction of the dotted line,
will make all the forms mentioned.








THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKER.


ANOTHER CROSS PUZZLE.
Cut out of cardboard three pieces of the shapes
and numbers following, and with them make a cross.











THE GLASS AND COINS.
Place a sixpence in the bottom of a glass, and over
/ the latter put a half-crown. The puzzle is
to remove the small coin from beneath the
larger one without touching either of the
ri coins, or touching or upsetting the glass.
1' To do this, you must blow with consider-
Sable force down one side of the glass, upon
the edge of the half-crown. The sixpence
will be expelled by the force of the air, and will fall
either upon the upper surface of the half-crown, or
upon the table.







PRACTICAL PUZZLES. 161


ANOTHER GLASS PUZZLE.
Place a sixpence between two half-crowns, and lay
upon the larger coins a glass, Remove -
the sixpence without displacing either "
of the half-crowns or the glass.
To do this a table-cloth is necessary;
for this reason the trick is best suited to
the breakfast or dinner-table. Having '
placed the glass and coins as in the above cut, simply
scratch the table-cloth with the nail of the fore-finger
in the direction you wish the sixpence to move, and it
will answer directly.













CHEMICAL
To MAKE A CRYSTAL BASKET.
WATER will, especially when boiling, dissolve large
quantities of various substances, which, when it is
dried up, are left behind in the form of most beautiful
crystals, the shapes of which vary with the substance
employed. Advantage of this fact may be taken to
make many very handsome ornamental objects. Boil-
ing water will take up a much larger quantity of
alum than cold water will, and if we dissolve in the
former as much alum as possible, as the liquid cools,
crystals of alum will be deposited on any object placed
in the fluid. A piece of coke or cinder allowed to
hang in a boiling solution of alum will become
coated with numerous glistening crystals, as the
liquid cools, and will have all the appearance of a
naturally formed mineralogical specimen. Wire or
willow baskets covered in this way form very handsome
ornaments. The most suitable baskets are those made
of wire covered with cotton or worsted (like bonnet
wire), as the surface to be coated with crystal must be







CHEMICAL TOYS.


somewhat rough. Take twice as much water as will be
sufficient to cover the basket, boil it in a saucepan, and
add as much alum as will dissolve in the water; a quart
of water will require about eighteen ounces of alum.
Strain this through muslin or blotting-paper into a
large jar, and hang the basket in the liquid. Stand
the jar on one side to cool, and keep free from dust; in
a few hours the basket will be completely covered with
white crystals of alum. Should it be desired to colour
the crystals, add the requisite dye-stuff to the alum
solution before straining it. A few drops of Judson's
cheap dyes will serve the purpose very well.

HOW TO MAKE A LEAD TREE.
Get two drams of acetate of lead from the chemist's,
and place it in about a quart of water. Stand the
liquid on one side to settle, and leave it for a day or
two, being careful to keep out the dust. Pour the
clear liquid into a small, clear bottle, and hang in it a
piece of zinc. Place it again on one side, and do not
disturb it; in a few days crystals of lead will arrange
themselves upon the zinc in the form of a tree or shrub.

HOW TO MAKE A SILVER TREE.
A very beautiful crystal tree may be made in the








THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKER.


following manner. Buy from the chemist six drams of
a "saturated solution of nitrate of silver," and four
drams of a "saturated solution of nitrate of mercury;"
mix the solutions, and add five times the quantity of pure
(if possible, distilled), water. Now make an amalgam,
by taking seven parts of mercury and one part of silver,
which should be in as finely divided a condition as
possible. Mix these ingredients thoroughly together in
a mortar, and place a piece at the bottom of the bottle
into which the solution above described is to be poured.
Set the bottle and its contents aside, keep free from
dust and perfectly still. In about two days a beautiful
shrub of glistening silver will be formed upon the
amalgam.
OXYGEN GAS.
A most interesting experiment is that of making
oxygen gas, and though somewhat elaborate apparatus
is generally supposed necessary, the exercise of a little
ingenuity will enable the reader to make plenty of
oxygen with such materials as may be easily obtained.
The apparatus necessary is as follows:-Four or five
clean quart pickle-bottles, an old, but clean basket-oil-
flask, some small soft glass tubing, a small spirit-lamp or
candle, an old flower-pot, a hand-basin, a three-legged
wire stand, a small tart tin, a few saucers or pieces of








CHEMICAL TOYS.


glass, and a little silver sand. The requisite materials
are a quarter of a pound of oxygen mixture, or, if
this cannot be obtained, three ounces of chlorate of
potash and one ounce of black oxide of manganese.
The only articles in the above list of apparatus not
usually found in an ordinary household are the glass
tubing and the wire stand; sufficient of the former
may be bought for two or three pence at a glass works
or a chemist's; the latter may be easily constructed by
bending rather stout iron or copper wire into the form
of a stand with three legs, and is intended to support
the flask over a spirit-lamp or candle.
First thoroughly clean all your bottles or flasks. Now
proceed to fit a good sound cork to the flask, and
having done so bore a -neat hole through the cork, big
enough to take a piece of the glass
tubing. The best way to bore this
hole, in the absence of a cork-borer,
will be to burn it through with a red-
hot wire, or iron skewer. Bend apiece
of glass tubing twice at right angles,
as in fig. A, and fix the shorter limb
into the cork of the flask, and be sure
it fits well; you can easily bend glass FIG. A.
tubing by heating it in a gas or candle flame, and when








THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKER.


cold you can wipe off the soot with a duster. Now
proceed to make a "wash-bottle" in the following
manner. Take a clean pickle-bottle and fit it with' a
good bung. Bore two holes through the bung the size
of your tubing, and pass the longer
limb of the tube from the flask
through one of these holes. You
must now bend another piece of
tubing thus: (fig. B). Fit the
straight portion into the second
hole in the bung, and be careful
that it does not reach more than
an inch below it; the tube from the FIG. B.
flask must reach nearly to the bottom of the wash-bottle.
Next take the flower-pot and chip a piece carefully out
of the side, and place it bottom upwards in a small tub
or hand-basin, and pour in water until it reaches as much
above the flower-pot as the tub or basin will allow. Lead
the curved end of the glass tube from the wash-bottle
through the hole you have broken in the side of the
flower-pot, and either place it in, or just under the
hole in the bottom of the pot; your apparatus is now
ready, with- the exception of the wash-bottle, which
must be three parts filled with clean water. Reduce
the chlorate of potash to powder, and mix it thoroughly







CHEMICAL TOYS,


with the black oxide of manganese. Place the mixture
in the flask, and put a little silver sand in the tart tin,
which then place on the wire stand, and lay or stand
the flask and its contents on this, so-called, sand-bath.
Apply heat beneath by means of gas, a spirit-lamp, or a
candle. In a minute or so bubbles of gas will pass through\
the wash-bottle, and into the water in the hand-basin
through the glass tubing. To collect this oxygen gas,
fill your pickle-bottles with water by placing them
under the water in the hand-basin. When one is full,
hold it bottom upwards, and, without raising the mouth
of the bottle above the surface of the water, place the
mouth over the hole in the bottom of the flower-pot;
the bubbles of gas will enter the bottle and drive out
the water, and in a few seconds all the water will, have
given place to a clear colourless gas, which is oxygen.
When one bottle is full remove it, and put another in
its place in the manner described above. To remove
the bottle without losing the gas, take a small saucer,
or a greased slip of glass, and, keeping the bottle still
bottom upwards, and with its mouth below the water,
slip the saucer or glass under it; then carefully remove
from the water, and stand aside till wanted. When
sufficient gas has been collected, first withdraw the heat
from the flask, and then take the apparatus to pieces.







THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKER.


A FIERY FOUNTAIN.
Take a small lump of charcoal, or charred wood, and
attach it by a piece of wire to a slip of card or thin
wood. Having ignited the charcoal, plunge it quickly
into a bottle of oxygen gas, holding the card or wood
tightly down on to the top of the bottle, so as to
prevent the escape of the gas. The charcoal, which
only smouldered in the air, will burn rapidly in the
oxygen, and will give off the most beautiful showers of
sparks, resembling a fiery fountain.


A BLEACHING APPARATUS.
Take a small piece of sulphur, and, having ignited it
at a candle, plunge it quickly into a bottle of oxygen.
The bottle will speedily become filled with fumes of
"stilphurous acid gas," which have powerful bleaching
properties. If a bunch of wet violets or a piece of
damp Turkey-red cloth be placed in the mouth of the
bottle the colour will immediately disappear. In this
way flannels and straw for ladies' bonnets are usually
bleached.
BURNING STEEL.
Get a piece of fine watch-spring, and dip it in








CHEMICAL TOYS


melted sulphur. Having attached it to a slip of card
or wood, ignite the sulphur and plunge the steel into a
bottle of oxygen. It will burn rapidly, emitting a
most dazzling light.
FIRE ON WATER.
Purchase a small quantity of potassium at the
chemist's, and place a small piece on the surface of
water in a large basin. It will immediately take fire,
and burn with a brilliant violet flame, darting rapidly
about on the water until entirely consumed.
A GHOSTLY FLAME.
To about a wine-glassful of methylated spirit add a
large teaspoonful of common salt, stirring well together.
Now make a torch by tying a piece of soft rag on a
glass rod, or piece of hard wood. Soak the rag well
with the salt and spirit, and having turned down the
lights, set fire to the torch. A deep yellow flame will
result, and in its light every coloured object in the
room will exhibit only black, grey, or yellow tints,
while the faces of all present will assume a most
ghastly hue. The effect will be greatly heightened by
burning a piece of magnesium wire towards the end of
the experiment, when the colours of surrounding objects
will flash out again with surprising beauty.







THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKER.


INVISIBLE INK.
Get from the chemist some chloride of cobalt," and
add to it four times its bulk of water. Write with a
clean quill pen upon paper; the writing will be
invisible, but on warming it gently before the fire the
letters will appear. If the writing be allowed to get
cold it will again disappear, but will reappear if again
warmed. In this way the writing may be rendered
visible or invisible at pleasure.
Another form of sympathetic ink is a weak solution
of sulphate of iron. If words be written with this
liquid they will be invisible, but upon being washed
over with a solution of prussiate of potash the letters
will become visible and will assume a bright blue tint.
Unlike chloride of cobalt, this ink will not disappear
after having been once rendered visible.

COAL GAS.
Get a long clay pipe and fill the bowl carefully
with powdered coal. Wet some sand and cover over
the top of the pipe-bowl with it. If the bowl be now
placed in a clear fire, gas will in a short time issue
from the stem of the pipe, and may be readily ignited.
This is an illustration of the principle upon which gas
is made for ordinary illuminating purposes.







CHEMICAL TOYS.


COLOURED FIRES.
RED.-Pound separately in a mortar one dram and
a half of chlorate of potash and two drams of sulphide
of antimony. Mix these two ingredients together, and
add one and a half ounces of nitrate of strontium, three
and a quarter drams of powdered sulphur, and a little
powdered charcoal. Mix the whole together and place
some on a piece of tile or brick, and ignite with a
match; a very brilliant light of an intensely red colour
will be the result.
BLUE.-Mix together sixteen parts of saltpetre,
four of sulphur, and one of orpiment. When ignited
this- will produce the well-known Bengal light.
GREEN.-Grind completely to powder and mix
carefully together twenty-seven parts of nitrate of
barium, thirteen parts of flowers of sulphur, five parts
of saltpetre, three parts of charcoal, and two parts of
metallic arsenic. All these mixtures should be made
with a spatula or an old spoon, and should not be
allowed to touch the hands.











ELECTRICAL TOYS.
To ELECTRIFY BROWN PAPER
GET one or two pieces of stout brown paper about
eighteen inches square; warm them carefully before the
fire, and then rub them briskly with a clothes-brush or
with the hand. If held near a wall and let go they will
fly towards it, and will adhere for some little time. They
will also attract feathers, bran, or other light objects.
Hold one of the electrified sheets just above another
person's head, or near a person's whiskers; the hairs
will be attracted by the paper, and will literally "stand
on end, like quills upon the fretful porcupine." This
experiment succeeds best with hair which is tolerably
free from grease.
Take two hot sheets of brown paper, lay them on a
table one above the other. Rub briskly with a clothes-
brush, and then pull them quickly apart; they will
stick together owing to mutual attraction, and their
separation will be accompanied by a crackling noise,
and in the dark electric sparks may be seen.
Get an egg and place it in an egg-cup. Balance
a lath upon the egg, and bring an electrified sheet of
brown paper near one end of it; it will be attracted







ELECTRICAL TOYS.


by the paper, and may be made to turn round on its
centre.
Take a small tray and stand it upon a perfectly dry
tumbler. Cut a piece of brown paper to the shape of
the tray but a little smaller, and electrify it in the
manner described above. When electrified lay it upon
the tray and bring the knuckle near one corner; an
electric spark will be received, causing a pricking
sensation, and emitting a snapping sound. Quickly
remove the paper and again bring the knuckle near the
tray, a second spark will be received.

ELECTRIFIED GLASS.
Warm a glass rod and rub it briskly with a silk
handkerchief or any piece of old silk. It will become
electrified and will attract light objects such as bran,
pith balls, feathers, and pieces of paper in the same
manner as a magnet attracts iron.

ELECTRIFIED SEALING-WAX.
Rub a stick of sealing-wax with warm dry flannel;
it will become electrified and will act in the same
manner as an electrified glass rod. Rubbing it briskly
on the coat-sleeve will have the same effect, but may
possibly be objected to by careful mammas. An amusing







THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKER.


trick is to throw up a light feather and chase it with
an electrified stick of sealing-wax.

AN ELECTRICAL MACHINE
A glass cylinder electrical machine is a very expen-
sive toy to buy, but it is quite possible to make one for
a few shillings, which though not quite so elegant as a
bought one, will answer every purpose equally well, and
possibly even better.
In fig. c a cylinder machine is shown, and it
will be seen to consist of a
cylinder of glass A B, sup-
ported on a wooden frame
and made capable of being
set in motion by a handle.
H is a cushion covered with
silk, which rubs against the
cylinder as the latter is
turned round. On the op- FI. C.
posite side to c is the "prime conductor," N M, which
is a metal cylinder supported on a glass leg, and should
be provided with a row of points.
The wooden stand presents no difficulty. The wood
should be well-seasoned and thoroughly dry. Both
uprights may be made of.wood, and when the machine








ELECTRICAL TOYS.


is finished all these parts should be covered with
shellac varnish, which is made in the following manner:
-Get a small quantity of orange shellac from the
oilman and dissolve it in warm methylated spirit, and
your varnish is ready.
A glass cylinder may be purchased at the glass
works for about one to three shillings, according to the
size, but this expense may be avoided by using an
ordinary wine-bottle instead, although a regular cylinder
is much to be preferred. A hole may be made through
the bottom of the bottle by igniting a piece of worsted
tied round it and dipped in turpentine. A common
round ruler or any round wooden rod answers very
well for an axle. Pass this through the bottle or
cylinder and then through holes in the uprights on the
stand; the end to which the handle is to be attached
should be squared. If the rod does not fit very tightly
in the cylinder, fasten it in with a mixture of equal
parts of melted resin and shellac.

THE RUBBER.
This should be made of several folds of dry flannel
formed into a cushion or pad, and covered neatly with a
piece of silk; it should be fastened on to a piece of wood,
and to this should be attached a wooden support, so








THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKER.


that the entire frame is like the letter T, the rubber
being attached to' the top. Fasten this to the side of
the stand by a small hinge, and as the rubber needs- to
be pressed against the cylinder with some force, it is
best to fasten to the inner side of the support a piece of
round solid indiarubber, which can then be passed
through a brass eye driven into the stand beneath the
cylinder. If the indiarubber cannot be got, a friend
must press the rubber against the cylinder when the
machine is worked. A small hook should be attached
to the back of the rubber, and when the machine is
worked a piece of brass chain or a long wire should
be fastened by one end to the hook, and by the other
to a gas-pipe, fender, or other metallic body.

THE PRIME CONDUCTOR.
This may be made as follows:-Get a piece of brass
or iron tubing, about two inches wide, and a little
shorter than the cylinder. Two old door handles
soldered into the ends of this will increase its efficiency
and improve its appearance. A strip of thin brass with
a number of brass tacks driven through it should then
be soldered along that side of the tube which is to face
the cylinder. It is best to have two supports, one near
each end of the conductor. These must be of glass rod








ELECTRICAL TOYS.


or tubing, and may be let into sockets at the side of the
stand, and into similar sockets on the under surface of
the conductor. These sockets may be easily made of
thin brass, and those on the conductor should be
attached with solder. The glass supports must be
covered with shellac varnish. The conductor may also
be made of wood covered with tinfoil, and pins may be
used for the points.

TO WORK THE MACHINE.
Carefully dust all parts of the machine, and well
warm it before the fire; connect the rubber with a
gas-pipe or other metallic substance, and turn the
handle briskly. A beautiful stream of violet light will
be seen to pass from the glass to the points of the
conductor, and if the knuckle be brought near one of
the knobs a spark will pass, which, under favourable
conditions, should be from one to three inches in length.
The efficiency of the machine is largely increased by
putting a little amalgam on the rubber. This may be
bought, or may be made as follows:-Melt together in
a ladle or old iron spoon, two parts by weight of zinc
and one of tin. When melted add to this six parts of
mercury, and pour the mixture into a stout wooden box,
and shake until cold. When used this amalgam should


1 177








THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKER.


be mixed with a very small quantity of lard, A little
of this may with advantage be rubbed on the cylinder
with a piece of wash-leather.

THE ELECTRICAL JAR.
Get a wide-mouthed quart pickle or French plum
bottle, and thoroughly clean and dry it. Cover it with
tinfoil both inside and out to within about an inch
from the top. Fit a wooden top to it, and into this
fasten a piece of stout brass wire. To the top of this
a brass ball, or a wooden one covered with tinfoil should
be fixed, while a piece of chain long enough to reach to
the bottom of the jar must be attached to the lower end.
When finished, hold the jar in one hand and bring the
knob near the prime conductor of the electrical machine
while it is being worked. After holding it in this
position for a few seconds, remove it, and touch the
knob with your other hand; a sharp electric shock will
be received. If several persons join hands, and the
person at one end holds the jar, while the individual at
the other end touches the knob, a shock will be received
by the entire group.
AN ELECTRIC Kiss.
Get four dry and clean tumblers and place a board









ELECTRICAL TOTS.


upon them so as to form a stool. While the electrical
machine is being turned, let some one stand on this
"insulated stool" and touch the prime conductor with
one hand. Now persuade some one to kiss the indi-
vidual on the stool; when this is done a spark will
pass between the loving pair, and an electric shock be
given to the person on the ground.

AN IMITATION SHIPWRECK.
Get a shallow trough and fix an upright at the
middle of each end. Stretch a piece of string from one
upright to the other, and fasten upon this a piece of
cardboard, cut so as to resemble a cloud, and covered
with tinfoil. Put some water in the trough and float
upon it a miniature ship, which should be very flimsily
made, especially the mast. Now charge an electrical
jar and connect, by a wire, the outer coating with the
vessel, and the knob of the jar with the cloud by
another wire. When the vessel sails beneath the cloud
a spark like a flash of lightning will strike the mast
and shatter it to pieces.

A MIMIC THUNDERSTORM.
Make two imitation clouds, as in the last paragraph,
and connect one with the knob, and the other with the








THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKER.


outer coating of an electrical jar. Bring the clouds
together and a spark will pass between them in the
same way as a flash of lightning passes between two
thunder-clouds in nature.

THE SPORTSMAN.
Take an electrical
jar, as in fig. D, and
pass through the wood- c
en top two wires, each
provided with knobs.
To the knob A attach
by silk cords a few
imitation birds cut from
FI-. iD.
elder pith or any other
equally light material. Make a wooden stand, and
fasten the jar upon it as shown in the figure. Then
get a toy figure with a metal gun to represent the
sportsman D. Bring the gun c near the knob B, and
when the toy is set to work a spark will pass between
them, and at the same time the birds will drop as if
shot. The sportsman should be fixed so that he can be
rotated by hand, and a wire should pass from him
through the stand to the outer coating of the jar, the
two wires A and B being connected with the inner









ELECTRICAL TOYS.


coating. Charge the jar from an electrical machine,
and bring the sportsman to the position shown in the
figure; the electrical discharge will then take place in
the manner already described.

AN ELECTRICAL WALTZ.
Make two wooden plates and cover them well with
tinfoil. Suspend one of them by a
chain from the prime conductor of an
electrical machine. Place the other
plate on a stand or a pile of books, so
7-.... that it is about three or four inches
below the first plate, as shown in fig. E.
Place some dolls made of elder pith
.upon the lower plate, and work the
electrical machine; the dolls will jump
FIG. E. up and down, executing a very tolerable
electrical dance.

THE ELECTRICAL SEE-SAW.
Make a wooden stand about a foot in length and
three inches in width, and balance upon an upright in
its centre a piece of wood ten inches long, covered with
tinfoil. Under the ends of this "see-saw" fix two
uprights, and fix on the top of each a knob covered









THE BOYS OWN TOY-MAKER.


with tinfoil; connect one of these with the knob, and
the other with the outer coating, of a charged electrical
jar, when the see-saw motion will be produced. To
make the toy more complete two tiny figures should be
placed on the see-saw, one at each end.



GALVANIC TOYS.

A GALVANIC BATTERY.
GET a number of gallipots and some strips of zinc
and copper. Place a strip of both metals in each of the
gallipots, and connect, by copper wire twisted round
each, the copper of one jar with the zinc of the next.
Connect the two end strips (one of which must be
copper and the other zinc) with each other by means
of a long and tolerably stout copper wire. Pour into
each jar a mixture of one part of oil of vitriol and ten
of water, until about three parts full; your battery is
now complete and in working order. The connecting
wire will attract iron filings, and will turn a magnetic
needle from its natural position.

AN ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH.
The action of the simplest form of electric telegraph








GALVANIC TOYS.


depends upon the fact that an electric current passing
through a wire has the power of turning aside a
magnetic needle. All that is required, therefore, for an
electric telegraph is a battery, two magnets, conducting
wires, and two "receiving instruments," all of which
may be easily made.

THE RECEIVING INSTRUMENTS.

To make these get two stout cards and some wire
covered with silk or cotton (to be procured at an
electrician's for a few pence). Wind about a dozen
turns of this wire into a flat coil, thus:-




Fia. F.

Attach it by thread to the card, leaving both ends free.
Get a piece of flat steel about the one-eighth of an inch
wide and not quite so long as the coil of wire.
Magnetize these by rubbing them several times with an
ordinary steel magnet, and suspend them by their
centres on a pivot, so that they are movable about it.
This pivot must be fastened on the card, in the centre
of the coil, so that the needle can move from side to








THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKER .


side in the coil. Now get a block of wood to serve as a
stand for the card, which must be fixed in a groove in
the block so that it will stand firmly in an upright
position. Fix two strips of thin brass on the block, side
by side in front of the card, and fasten one end. of the
coil to one strip, and the other end to the other strip;
your receiving instrument is now complete.

THE BATTERY.

The battery may be made of two or three gallipots
with strips of copper and zinc, and containing dilute
oil of vitriol. These must be connected in the manner
described on page 182, and the two end plates should
not be connected with each other, but should have long
wires attached to them, either by soldering or by
twisting the wire tightly round the plates.

TO WORK THE TELEGRAPH.

Connect the two instruments by a wire, which
must be attached to the same brass plate in each.
Attach one of the battery wires to the unconnected
brass plate of one instrument, and touch the corre-
sponding plate of the other instrument with the other
battery wire; both needles will be deflected at the








GALVANIC TOYS.


same moment. By arranging a code of signals, messages
may be sent from one station to the other.

AN ELECTROTYPING APPARATUS.
Capital electrotype copies of wax impressions of
seals and coins may be easily taken with the following
simple apparatus. Take an ordinary tumbler and place
in it a strong solution of sulphate of copper, made by
dissolving two pennyworth of powdered blue vitriol in
half a pint of boiling water. Make a porous cell by
taking some stout brown paper and rolling it on a
stick or on two fingers, fastening the side with sealing-
wax, and fitting a bottom to it by the same means.
Place this cell in the sulphate of copper solution, and
pour into it a mixture (prepared beforehand), of five
parts of water and one part of oil of vitriol. In the
cell place a thin strip of zinc, amalga-
mated by rubbing it first with weak oil
BJB of vitriol and then with a little mer-
cury. Twist a piece of copper wire
A -------l A tightly round this zinc plate and attach
to it the wax impression to be copied.
D II The wax must be previously coated
with black-lead, and polished with an
FiG. G. old tooth-brush. After remaining in







THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKER.


the cell for about twelve hours a beautiful impression
of the seal in copper will be obtained. A sketch of
the apparatus is shown in fig. G, where AA is the
tumbler, BB the porous cell, and D the wax impression
to be coated.

How TO MAKE A PAIR OF TELEPHONES.

The materials for making these amusing instruments
may be obtained, at a small cost, of any philosophical
instrument maker. They comprise two wooden cases,
two magnets, two bobbins" or reels, two pieces of
"ferrotype" iron, four binding screws, and a quantity
of covered wire. About twenty yards of covered wire
must first be wound upon the bobbins, one of which
is next to be placed in the wide end of each wooden
case, and the two ends of the wire must be fastened
to the ends of two binding screws fixed in the narrow
end of each case. In the centre of each bobbin must
be fixed the magnet, the end of which must nearly, but
not quite, reach to the broad end of the case. This part
of the case has a large hole in it, and behind this hole
must be fixed one of the plates of ferrotype iron to form
a diaphragm." When the two telephones are finished
they must be connected by two lengths of covered








OPTICAL TOYS.


wire attached to the instruments by the binding screws.
If a person applies his mouth to the diaphragm of
one instrument, and speaks or sings, the words will be
heard by a listener holding the other instrument to his
ear, the distance between the two individuals being
quite immaterial, and limited only by the length of the
connecting wires.




OPTICAL TOYS.

A PIN-HOLE CAMERA.

TAKE a small box, such as drapers use for keeping
small articles in. Remove one end and paste over it
a piece of stout white tissue paper, and prick a large
pin-hole through the other end. Any object placed in
front of the pin-hole will be reproduced on the paper
screen, in an inverted position. The inside of the box
should be blackened, and the distinctness of the images
on the screen is much improved by having a lens fitted
into the hole, which may then be made muchlarger.

A GARDEN CAMERA OBSCURE.
Wherever a small summer-house or tent exists a








THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKER.


large camera obscure may be readily constructed. The
chamber must be thoroughly darkened, and when the
audience is assembled for a performance the door must
be closely shut. In the top of the summer-house a
circular hole should be cut, and in this a small brass
case containing a right-angled prism must be fixed.
This part of the apparatus can be purchased at any
optician's for a comparatively small sum. The table of
the summer-house must be covered with a white cloth
or with white paper, and upon this will be focused, in
an inverted position, images of the surrounding houses
and gardens. A string may be attached to the prism
case so that its open side may be turned in various
directions, and different scenes focused on the table.
The height of the table must be adjusted to the focal
length of the prism, in order that the images may be
sharply defined.

THE KALEIDOSCOPE.
This interesting toy, originally designed by Sir
David Brewster, is of very simple construction. Make
a strong tube by rolling stout brown paper on a wine-
bottle, fastening the edges with paste,; a convenient
length for this tube is about eight inches. Take two
strips of common glass, six inches in length, and of








OPTICAL TOYS.


sufficient width to fit into the tube, and blacken one
side of each strip by smoking it over a candle or lamp.
Fit these two strips into the tube in an inclined position,
so that their ends form the letter V, and place a third
strip of glass, also smoked on one side, above the two
side strips; when this is done the ends of the three
strips of glass will form a triangle. A piece of cork
glued to them will keep the two side pieces in position.
It need hardly be said that the unsmoked sides of the
glass strips must face each other. Get some very thin
sheet brass and make a cap for one end of the tube.
The outer end of this cap must be filled in with a piece
of ground glass, while the inner end is filled in with
plain glass; between these two pieces of glass place a
number of fragments of coloured glass, and a few very
small feathers or fern leaves. Fit a metal cap on the
other end and pierce a hole in its centre. To this hole
the eye has to be applied, and the well-known beautiful
figures will be seen, which change at every turn of the
kaleidoscope.

A SHADOW PANTOMIME.
A most amusing entertainment for Christmas parties
is a shadow pantomime, and though its effects are
easily managed, few things are more surprising or








THE BOY'S OWN TOY-MAKER.


wonderful to those not in the secret. The most con-
venient place to arrange the pantomime is in two rooms
which communicate by folding-doors; a sheet can then
be hung up in the space between these doors, and the
audience seated on one side of the curtain while the
actors perform on the other, their shadows falling on
the intervening screen.
The screen being arranged, a strong light should be
placed on the ground at some distance from it. If the
lime-light can be employed the shadows will be very
intense.

TO THROW THE SHADOWS ON THE SCREEN.
To throw the shadow of a person on the screen, it is
only necessary for the individual to stand in front of-
the light, and the size of the shadow will depend upon
his distance from the light, the nearer the object is to
the screen the smaller is the shadow, and vce versa.
By taking advantage of this fact one person may appear
to walk between another's legs. This is managed by
arranging the two individuals at different distances
from the light but in the same straight line; the
spot where each person is to stand should be marked
upon the floor before the commencement of the per-
formance.








OPTICAL TOYS.


TO JUMP TO AND FROM THE CEILING.
This remarkable and amusing effect is produced by
the actor simply jumping over the light; if he jumps
towards the audience from behind the light his shadow
appears to descend from the ceiling, if the actor jumps
from before the lamp his shadow appears to spring up
to the ceiling.

THE INVISIBLE RENDERED VISIBLE.
Get a small basin and place a coin at the bottom of
it. Then get the bystanders to make a circle round the
table and to walk slowly backwards until the coin is just
of sight. Now let some one pour water gently into the
basin, so as not to disturb the coin, the spectators mean-
while keeping quite still. Owing to the bending of the
rays of light by the water, the entire coin will gradually
come into view, and will be seen by all the bystanders.

To SEE THROUGH A BRICK.
Roll up a newspaper in the form of a tube. Hold
a brick, book, or other opaque object in front of the
eyes, and place the tube by the side of it. Hold the
tube to one eye and look through it with both eyes open;
you will apparently see. right through the brick and
discern the objects on the other side of it.








THE BOY S OWN TOY-MAKER.


To RENDER THE VISIBLE INVISIBLE.
Make two ink-blots on a piece of white paper, in the
same straight line, but about three inches apart. Now
hold the paper exactly in front of the eyes at the
ordinary reading distance, and close the right eye.
Look at the right-hand spot with the left eye; by
moving the paper slowly upwards and downwards a
position will be readily obtained in which the left-hand
spot will disappear.

THE MAGIC LANTERN.
A simple magic lantern may be without difficulty
constructed by adopting the following plan. Get a box
either of tin or wood and make a hole iii the top, into
which fit a chimney for the escape of the heated gases
from the lamp; the bottom of the box should also have
a few holes for the admission of air to supply the lamp.
In the front of the box, make a hole about one and a
half inches in diameter, and fit into it a plano-convex "
lens (to be obtained from the optician). Make a tin
tube an inch and a half in diameter and about four
inches long, and fit into one end a double convex lens.
Make a frame to receive this tube, and fasten it to the
front of the lantern in such a way as to leave a space









OPTICAL TOYS.


between it and the plano-convex lens for the slides
to be passed through. The tube should be rendered
movable, so that the focus of the lantern may be
adjusted. Behind the light, which may be any ordi-
nary form of lamp or the lime-light, a concave mirror
made of polished tin, should be placed. Slides for the
lantern may be bought very cheaply, or they may be
prepared by any one possessing a little artistic skill.
The colours employed must be transparent.

MAGNETIC TOYS.
Magnetic toys, such as swans, fish, boats, &c., may
be made of any light material, such as cork or elder-
pith. Much pleasant occupation for winter evenings
may be found in shaping these light objects, and if a
small piece of steel or iron be placed in some prominent
part of the object, it will float about in the water in
obedience to the movements of a magnet held near it.
Broken pieces of needles, if carefully handled, do very
well to fasten into the floating objects, and serve as
points to be attracted by the magnet.

To MAKE A MAGNET.
Borrow or buy an ordinary bar magnet or a horse-
shoe magnet, the first-named is the preferable shape.








THE BOY'S OWN. TOY-MAKER.


Take a knitting needle or any piece of tolerably hard
steel, and with one pole of the magnet rub it from end
so end. Repeat this process several times, being careful
to bring the magnet back without touching the needle
to the end from which you started; in other words
the rubbing must be in one direction only. If a
.horse-shoe magnet be employed, start from the middle
of the knitting needle, pass the magnet along to either
end, then bring it through the air to the other end, and
stroke the needle several times, finishing in the middle.







THE END.


Printed by Gilbert and Rivington, Limited, St. John Square, E.O.

























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