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 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Advertising
 Dedication
 Advertising
 Foreword
 Advertising
 Acknowledgement
 Advertising
 Table of Contents
 Advertising
 Frontispiece
 Advertising
 On the eve of war
 The first two weeks
 In aid of England
 Offers of military service
 Hopes and fears
 The first five hundred
 The woman's movement
 Historic days
 The National Movement
 Complementary efforts
 Interregnum
 The final appeal
 Advertising
 Back Cover
DLOC NLJ UFLAC

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,., MetropolitanHouse. THE LARGEST,COOLESTANDBESTVENTILATEDSTOREINJAMAICA.EverydescriptionofClothing ,FORLADIES, GENTS&CHIlDREN.IIHousehold WEARESOLEAGENTSFORWALKOVER,REGAL,BECTIVEandK.G. I BOOTSAND SHOES. NATHAN&CO.,LTO. IiumumllllUlllllllll1l1:m=n:mmnmtmIlUIUllllllllllllllllllllllllllll'l=nlnll:m:m:m:mmm1lllU i

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JamaicaandTheGreatWarBYHERBERTG.deLISSER, !I AUTHOR OF "TWENTIETHCENTURY JAMAWA" "SUSAN PROUDLEIGH" "TRIUMPHANT SQUALITONE," ETC. PllINTED FOll THE AUTHOll BYTHE GLEANERCO.,LTD., KINGSTON, JAMAIOA, 1917.

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!.. IItl _LascellesdeMercado&Co.Ltd.PORTROYALSTREET,KINGSTON,,JAMAICA.GeneralCommissionMerchants,ExportersandImporters. *""'"""ShipsShipsProvisionedEnteredandandCoaled.Cleared.-_ ...,.;r.'""'.... THEOCEANWHARF,KINGSTON.Weareprepared to assist anyone who desires to bring anything into the Island, or to export any of its Produce to anypartof the world. We sell on commission the Produce of several Estates, and we also purchase for Cash, crops of Sugar and Rum on our own account.Askus forourcurrent prices. We buyatanytimeand pay the bestcurrentprices foransorts of Produce-Coffee, Cocoa, Annatto, Gin ger. Sarsaparilla, Honey, Beeswax,etc. We have a modern plant for manufacturing Coffee and Cocoa for export, and can prepare these crops for marketonyour account.RoastedBlueMountainCoffeeisourGreatSpecialty.Wearethe Pioneers of LocalIndustriesand arethe Selling Agents for the TIMES andUNIONJACK Matches whicharemade in the Local Factory, alsoweare Selling Agents for theJamaicaBiscuitCo.Ltd.-themakers of excellent local biscuits. See a full page advertisement elsewhere in this Book.LascellesdeMercado&Co.Ltd., Kingston 1"'1**',.,.............*'..iii

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JAMAICA AND THE GREATWAR

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-II U-The Palace Theatre, INKINGSTON. The Movies Theatre, HUT.ANiJREW i-t These are the homes of the best A musements obtainable in Jamalea.TheFinestMovingPictures SheWn there. Don't fail to visit them regularly if you appreciate healthy enjoYment and fun.MOST REASONABLE PRICES.-lid.. I" v.c.Alexander,The Auctioneerwhocarried out the greatWray &; Nephew Sale, andalsosomeof the largest Cattle sales in Jamaica. IEstablished 1878. :1lI>iICubl. Add...... P.O. BOl<65ll;"'Nike"'Jamalca Telephone THE i Army &Navy Stores i 136 Harbour 8t.(Cor. Orange 8t) If.Il'.E KINGSTON, JAMAICA. l!mIi'""!1iI SHIP CHANDLERS. I ,mContractors toH.M. Naval and IiMilitary, Forces. --'. Ii FreshprOViSions,.Coal, IITowing & Lighterage atLowestRates. IiI,'Ubra'fy,,' ,.'..' Iif,IIt4vsllWnIw.....[ PHONE564.AUCTIONEERRealEstate-AND-Commission Agent,50PORTROYALST.KINGSTON. .....

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-. ",..,. # ACOOL,SHADYRETREATEYUSINGKeepsoutthe sun,Lets inthe fresh air.TOBE HAD INOLIVE GREEN,DARKGREEN, GREEN 0WHITE.InWidthsof6'8'and10'-AI.'PLY-STiVEN'SCOLOSSEUM,13ORANGEST., KINGS1.'ON.1._1 HasiteveroccurredtoyouthatShoppingis Real PleasureWhen doneatOur Store ?The assortment of Goodsdisplayedmakesselectionaneasymatter,andyouaresuretoleavefeelingthroughlysatisfiedwithyourpurchases.SASSO&MILLER,8ibKINGST..KINGSTON.THEHOUSEFORREALSATiSFACTION. III..

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WhoCountsWhoCountsIiTo-dayitis theefficientmanwhocounts.Nomatter what your position in life is,beefficient.Aninefficientmanorwomanisa liability to thosewhohire them, and a greater liability to themselves. '"'"'" Try to get away from the bottom of theladder-somany are there. The numbers decrease witheachrung. The higheryouclimb the less competitionyouhave. That is the reason thatonthe topmost rungs there are sofewpeople. BoostQualityGoodsBoostQualityGoodsThe store that boosts-sells-qualitygoodswill get away from the bottom of the ladder-climb to the top. The people to day want puregoods,quality goods, and the store that sells qualitygoodswill attract and draw Get your Goods from Myers: Myers sell "Gold Medal"FlourFairbank'sSoapsRockwood'sCocoa"Vulcan"& Torpedo"MatchesWhite&BrownRiceCoarse&FineSaltFRED.L.MYERS&SON,MyersWharfP.O.AUthese are goods of Quality, and the store that sells themwillsoon appreciate their excellence as quick selling profit making goods. 'I I ;IIiijjf1;ummmu:m:mmm:uum:mummmmUlIlUlIlllllllluummUlllllIIIllUlllllilllllllllllllllllm===!

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DEDICATIONTothe Officers, the Non-CommissionedOfficersand the Men of the Jamaica Contingent, who bytheirpatriotism, loyalty, courage andtheirdevotion to a high cause have made a new and honour able name for their country, this little book is, with all admiration, dedicated.

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WEARE AGENTS FOR THEMHERETIlEYARESomeofthe Best Things in JamaicaWEPRODUCE THbMl ALE&STOUT.Bull DogBraDdBass & Guinness':Monk Brand.LIQUEURS. Page and Sandel'lnan'Jil. Apricot Brandy. Bol'sCremedeMenthe.TABLEWATERS. Ross's Royal Belfast and Dry Ginger Ale. WHISKIES. Dewar's Usher's Jameson's IrishHiram Walker'sCanadianClub.ORANGEWINES,GINGERWINES.LAGERBEER.Budweiser.OHAMPAGNE.Pommery & Greno's ExtraDry. Heidseick&Co's Dry Monopole.GIN.Sir Robert Burnett'sOldTomGin. WINE. Raphael.DOMESTICWINES.NATIVECORDIALS.J.Wray&Nephew

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Ji:!lustral1\.i.Qt. Alor AccordeoT'.s, muchin request. Blor Brass Instruments, allkindsandbest. Cstandslor Clerk-AstleJ}Clerkhis lull name; Dfor the Dulcimer,great is itslame.E the Euphonium.mostbands haveone. FfortheFlute,fortbeFiddleas Dlell, GtheGuitar,for alove songtotell.R the Harmonium,secondtonone.IlorInstruction Books,-allkindsarekept, Jfor thefeDls.Harp, small hOJJs getadept. l{ standsfor KingStreel,-reinember/4, Lfor the Lieu Dlhere Iamta be seen.MforMusicofall kinJs,)Jour wants We canmeet,No oneneedlack ofamusicaltreat.oslandsforOrgans,melodiousand grand.Pianos also-thebest in the land. QtheQuadrilles,-all dancemusic we sell.Rfor Reed Instruments, resin, andreeds; Strings. orstringinstruments,whate' er your needs; TforTriangle,should oneJ}ou require.U shouldgo, and 01Astle;yClerk's slorefirstenquire.Vfor Violins,these, andstrings,bridge, orbows, W hate1Jer)JouneedClerk surely knows.Xylophones,whistles, or luning/arks,say Yearafter 'year,AstleyClerkknODl$ noslopZealfor his customers keepshim ontop.Reader,canyou beat above?Try!

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....... .....,'* ...." nit THEBEEHIVE,CornerofKING&HARBOURSTS.FortheBestofEverythinginLadies'&Gent'sOutfitting.HouseholdLinens.DressFabrics.JamaicaCouponsonallPurchases.FurnishingGoods.Boots&Shoes.Perfumery&ToiletGoods.SolidSilverPresentationGoods.ArtNeedleworkSpecialists. j j< I ii"aIt.

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FOREWORDShortly after the organisation of the movement to send by voluntary effort a contingent of. men from Jamaica to takepartin the Great War,itoccurred to methatthere shouldbe some permanent record prepared of the efforts madebyJamaica to showitssolidarity with the Mother Country and therestof the Empire.Atthe beginning of1915,therefore, I began to collect material for this work, and announcedthatthe work itself would deal with Jamaica's activities in the first two years of the war. But I delayed publication for a little while; andsothis volume covers the period dating fromthelast week in July1914,tothe end of the first week of April 1917.Inother words, the record is brought down to the passing of the Universal Military Service Law, an event which, in the writer's opinion, marks an importantturningpoint in the history of this country's connection with Great Britain and with the British Empire.Itmay bethatlateronI shall issue another volume, a kind of sequel, written with the intention of showing the probable effect of thewaron thespiritof Jamaica and on Jamaica's future. Such a work, however, could not be written until the war was over, and will not be published before 1919orafterwards. Other books on Jamaica's connection withtheGreat War will doubtlessbeproduced in the future by other men. What I claimformine isthat if puts in handy and easily accessible form some facts and information in regard to what our country has done or has.triedtodoto aid the Motherland and to uphold its own reputation as "an ancient and loyal colony."Wehave no reason to be ashamed of those endeavours, or of our actual achievement up to this. Manyofthe illustrations in this book have never ap peared before. The Governor, General Blackden and other gentlemen, and some of the ladies whose portraits adorn

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THE AUTHOR. FOREWQRD the pages of "Jamaica and the Great War," satspecially for their photographs atthe author's request. The picture printed of the Legislative Council, just afterithad passed the Universal Military ServiceLaw,April 6,1917, is the first photograph ofthatassembly ever taken in Jamaica. Most of the illustrations loweto the Cleary Studio. And I wish here to expressmy gratitude tothatStudio for the painsittook to rendermeall the assistance itcould. Mr. Elliot of the Cleary Studio thought nothing of putting his valuable time and servicesatmydisposal whenever asked todoso: but forthatI should never have had the picture of the Legislative Council.Itis a pleasure tofindmen so willing to aid as Mr. Cleary and Mr. Elliot have aidedme.Asfor the photographsmadebythem-thosewhopurchase thisbookwill doubtlessbedelighted with their excellence. I must also thank Mr. Brennan for the photograph of Mr.J.H.Allwood.The picture ofMrs.Trefusis was taken by Mr.J.B.Valdes. Kingston, May27, 1917.

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Books.TheTimesBookClub of London claims to be the largest Book Shopinthe World. The Times Store of Kingston claims to be the largest andthebest equipped Book ShopinJamaica.Cometo us for your Books.Ifwedonot carry the one you need, we will be glad to importitforyou.Noorder is too small for us.Prayerand Hymn Books of all denominations, Bibles ingreatvariety, Prize Books, School Booksforboth Elementary and Secondary Schools, Useful Books, Books of Reference', War Books and Novels..Periodicals.In our store you will find allthelatest EnglishandAmerican Magazines.Weareprompt and up-to-date. You can buy The Saturday Evening Post from us on the very dayofpub lication in America. The Ladies' Home Journal isonsale on the lOthofeach month.OfficeSL1pplies.Commercial Jamaica lookstousforitsrequirementsinofficeequipment and stationery.Youcan buy from us the bestin:-Inks, Pens, Pencils, Ruled Papers, Printed Forms, Account Books, Loose Leaf Ledgers, Inkstands,PaperClips, Law Stationery, Blank Books, Typewriters, and the hundred and one itemsthathelp to make an officemore efficient. ,---------------, I I ,",f.i,Ii) Stationery.People of refined tastes buytheirNote Paper from us because we know what they use and stock the lines all the time. Writing Pads, Boxed Note Paper, Correspondence Cards, Visit ing Cards, Wedding Cards, Condolence Cards, Dance Pro grammes, Invitations, etc., etc. Perft.lrnery.This Department is fullofallthepopular English, French and American Perfumes, Soaps, Creams, Manicure and FacePreparations.Wehave gainedtheGoodWill of hundredsofsatisfied lady shoppers.Presents.A very wide range of goods to choose fromincluding:Silverware, Glassware, Leather Goods, Fancy Goods, Books, Perfumery, and Athletic Goods.TheTimesSt()re8-10-12KING ST., KINGSTON. t i f_,...-..----..w..._

PAGE 15

..... ... DANIELFINZI & CO"LTD.EST ABLISHED11843.30, 32,34Port Royal Street. &&.ik'h @) stan.amalea..UsedallovertheWorld. ii,f';,r;:.>.............IlOoi""'4'"..............*...ibM"''''''I>iLllf

PAGE 16

ACKNOWLEDGMENTAppearing below are the namesofthefirms and busi ness institutions which have co-operated with theauthor in the production of this book. Theterm"co-operated" is used advisedly, asbut for the advertisements which the work carriesitspublication would have been practically impossible.Tohaveput .. Jamaica and the Great War" on the local market at, say, six shillings a copy, would have been to confineitto a strictly limited circulation:ifitnow is offered to the pub licatone-fourth ofthatamount,thatis because the adver tisers of Kingston, understanding the situation, have with their accustomed generosity determined to make the book as cheap asitcouldbemade for the general public.Itis these same advertisers, with other persons, who have made every War Fund in Jamaica a signal success. These businessmen aid, time and again, every public effort put forth which requires financial assistance.Insofaras Jamaica andtheGreat War" is concerned, they have sought for, and have expected,noacknowledgment of thepartthey play initsproduction. But the author would not feel satisfieddid he not attach to the work this brief word of appre ciation and thanks, along with the names of thosewhohave made the publication possible. M. M.AlexanderV. C. Alexander Army and Navy StoresBeeHiveStore James Boyd Colonial Bank Edwin Charley Cassidy's Motor CarCo.Chemical Hall Astley Clerk Cavendish House Leonard deCordova DirectW.I. CableCo.James Dunn Cecil deCordova&Co.EliasC.D'AzevedoC. M. DaCosta

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTEducational SupplyCo.Daniel Finzi&Co., Ltd.F.Chus. FisherJ.FewGrace, Ltd. David Henderson Hurcomb&SollasE.A.Issa Bros.C.T. Isaacs Imperial Life AssuranceCo.Jamaica Tobacco Company J amai6a. Biscuit CompanyC.E.Johnston&Co.J.E.Kerr&Co.E.D. Kinkead Lascelles, DeMercado &Co.Adolph Levy&CompanyFredL. Myers &Son Metropolitan House Mutual Motor and Carriage Coy., Ltd. B.&J.B. Machado Movies Theatre People's Mart Palace Theatre Company A.E.Perkins Sherloek&Smith Sasso& MilIer The Sports Stiven's Colosseum TempleofFashion, Ltd. The Times Store Robert Taylor UnitedFruitCompany Vietoria Mutual Bldg. Sety. William WilsonJ.Wray&Nephew Williamson Bros. Louis Winkler&Son

PAGE 18

HALL'SDISTEMPERPAINT U ALPHA"PORTLAND CEMENT MAJOR'S DISINFECTANT SOLIGNUM(WOODPRESERVATIVE)SOLE AGENTFORShingles, Doors and Sashes, Cooperage Material +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++'++++++++++++++++1iI IILeonarddeCordova.. I[I...I"....:' HARDWAREAND :ti.Jamaica.LUMBER MERCHANT !:t-iI.'i+it!i'IDEPAUnfENf ...:....Ii":tIrnPORTER OF I Hardware, General Ironmongery, and Ship Chandlery i Agricultural Implementsofall descriptions I Building and Furnishing Hardware ... Estate and Plantation Supplies I American White Pine and Pitch Pine Lumber ...:t Orange Box Shooks and i!Iii i 2++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++:1:

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PalatialNewSteamers.WEEKLY SAILINGS.-Passengers, Mails and Freight fromNewYork, Kingston,Colon, Cartagena and Santa Marta, returning from Kingston toNewYork direct. FORTNIGHTLY SERVICE to Guatemala, Honduras, steamers calling atPortAntonio and Kingston south bound, andat Port' Antonio only, north bound, taking passengers for SantiagodeCubaandNewYork.NEWORLEANS,Fortnightly Freight and Passenger Service. COASTWISESERVICE.Cargo fteamers sail fromNewYork weekly, carrying freight for Kingston and outportsondirect bottom, acceptingataUoutports freight forNewYork, Canada, etc.ELDERS&FYFFESSTEAMSHIPSERVICE.Fortnightly Direct Service to and from England.Forrates, etc., please apply toUNITEDFRUITCOMPANY,KINGSTON and PORT ANTONIO.

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Those Interested in JamaicaShouldnotfailto investi gateandpatronizetheproductsof.athrivingandimportantmdustry..IN SMOKINGGolofinaCigars,"ROSEBUD""DAISY"AND"LILY" CIGi\RETTES Youareusingthe best Island E!2duces. . ;.. Wemakethemforyou.Yousmokethemforthemaximumsatisfaction.JAMAICA TOBACCO CO.,MANUFACTURER.

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EDWINCHARLEYWine and Spirit Mercbant.62&64KINGSTREETtKINGSTON.RepresentativeofthefollowingFirms:-ALSO-BlenderandShipper of VeryFineOLDRUMSinBottleandin,Bulk. Scotch Whiskey Dry &OldTomGinAle,Stout,and LagerScotch Whiskey fCognao, Brandies 1 Marnier,LapostollelGrandMarnierLiqueur Champagne Champagne Champagne PortWine Sherry WineBelfast Ginger Are JOHN WALKER&SONS,LTD.GORDONCOl'LTD.J.R.TENMENTS,LTD.WM. GRANT &SONS,LTD.A.C.MEUKOW, CO. RUiNARTPEDEETFILSKOREG & CO.,GEORGEGOULETWANE & CO.WILLIAMS&HUMBERTWHEELER & CO.Enquiries solicited; can supply in Puncheons or in Casks of 20. 30.40.or50 gallons; state Strength and Colour required.

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CONTENTSChapter Page IOn The Eve ofWar1IITheFirstTwoWeeksl0IIIInAid of England 18 IV Offers of Military Service29V Hopes and Fears 38 VI TheFirstFive Hundred47VII The Woman's Movement61VIII Historic Days71IX The National Movement86X Complementary95XI An InterregnumlllXII The Final AppeaI.123

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AREWEDOWNHEARTED?NO!THERE'S NO TIME TOBEATTheTemple01Fashion,Ltd.,KINGSTON'SBusiestandBrightest Store.YOVGET THE BESTVALVESINDryGoods,Men'sOutfitting,Boots&Shoes,At83KINGST. Fancy= andUsefu12ArtidesofHomeorGiftAt 85KINGST.FineStationery,NewestBooksandMagazinesandPrintingAt 85% KINGST. Andin the Premium Parlour you can exchange '.'T.O.F."Coupons for Gifts ofthe Best, none so good orso varied can be obtained from any other firm. The TempleofFashion,Ltd tare Contractorsto the Jamaica WarOontingentand Auxiliary Forces.

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-=THELION isrecognized as the King of Beasts; Sunlight Soap is recognized as the King ofLaundry Soaps. The ruleofthe Lion extends only over the animal world; The rule ofSunlightSoap extends to wherever Soap is necessary. It is withoutarivalforwash ing clothes, household linen andallfabrics evenofthe finest tex ture. It is the best Soap that skill and money can produce.Giveit a trial you will be con vinced of its value. 41148 Royal Vinolia Toilet Luxuries.There aresomepeople whose every actionrevealsthe noteofrefinement.Anairofquiet distinc tion hangs around them likeanatmosphere.Soitiswith the Vinolia Toilet Luxuries. They appeal instinctively to peopleofrefinement. Their ex quisite perfume and their soothing and refreshing qualities are irresistible.Toexperience the real poetryofa healthy existence you must use ROYALVINOLIATOILETLUXURIES.VINOLIA COMPANY LIMITED.LONDON-PARIS.

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a ..;..if"alMt ri .....'"..;,&&a....>.............. Agencies held by Lascelles.deMercado&Co.Ltd. '.--.'...'.Nestle's Milk, Nestle's Infants' Food, Nestle's Chocolate, Plain, Milk, and Milk with Nuts. Ogilvie's, King George's Millers in Canada for "Special Patent,H the.best Wheaten Flour. Maconochie Brothers, Ltd.; for every sort of Potted MeatsandFish, and "PanYanH Sauce and Pickles, as well as Flavouring Essences. Humphrey Taylor&Co., Chemists and Distil lers, for "Junora H the Worldfamous Wine of Health. James Baird&Co., Newfoundland, for all sorts of fish-stuffs of the very best kinds and brands Royal Typewriters .The best Tpyewriteristhe"Royal,"-theeasiest to run, the best in alignment, the really machine.ENQUIRIESFROMLasceIIesdeMercado&CQ.Ltd.PORTROYALSTREET.KINGSTON. *......".rt...... 'q..... WI Ii!lIlo:Ci WI .. t .........i..

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SirW.H.MANNING,O.B.,K.O.M.G.

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TheMutualMotor&CarriageCo.,Ltd.DELGADO'SGARAGE & CARRIAGEWORKS,I, 2,&3, EASTPARADE.WILLIAMWILSON,PresIdent.G.1..DELGADO,Manager.C. 1.. DELGADO, Secretary. DISTRIBUTORSOFOverland and HudsonCars. Dealers and Repairers of Motor Cars, Waggons, Carriages. Builders of Carriages, Waggons, and Harness for Carriage and Waggon use, and all accessories same . AUTO ACCESSORIESOFALL DESCRIPTIONS.Michelin and Goodrich Tyres and Tubes.VULCANIZINGa Specialty. Painting of Cars and Carriages. Motor Car Tops supplied and fitted in 24 hours. Motor Car Engines cleaned by Oxygen process and delivered in 4 hours. Mechanical repairs to Automobiles skilfully carried out under the supervisionofour English Mechanic and a well trained staff of assistants. Wecanalsomake replacementsofgears or other parts of machinery which may get broken.First-Class and Reliable Motor Cars For Hire. Tours arranged toall parts oftheislandatModerate Prices.AcallorleIterof inquiry for pricesmtclquotationsisrespectfullysolicited.Estimatesfurnished forrepairstoCars or Carriages .............

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r--1Il1ll"""Ill'_""'""""""_"""'"""'iIr'.fiB GRACE,Limited i JAMAICA,B.W.I.Incorporated N N March :1917,In thethirdyearof THE GREATWAR.HEADOFFICE:OLIVIER PLACE, KINGSTON.Branches at ST. ANN'S BAY, BROWN'S TOWN, Etc. II Dealers in Sugar Exporters of Tropical ProduceImportersandDistributorsof Foodstuffs&ManufacturedProducts.REPRESENTATIVES OFGRACEBROS. & CO.,LTD.London & Liyerpool.GRACE & CO.,LTD. tlontreal. W.R, GRACE& CO. New York,SanFranciscoand l{ew Orleans.ETC.ETC.Correspondents of numerous firms abroad.Cable Address: GRACE.

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BREADandBISCUITS Weofferthe best valueinBiscuits in Jamaica. Here foryour selection we mentionElevenSorts,anyorallofwhichwiIIcompare with thecorresponding Imported Biscuits, manyofwhich cost twice as much as ours. IJamaica WaterCrackers Marked with a"J:'this themost popular biscuit retalled In Jamaica Islound everywhere. Lunch Asmall. square biscuit. The best for cheese. HoneyGirl The newsweet crackel' is as Good as its Name. Five-o.clock Tea Aline small. sweetblscnlt-agreat fayourlte. Marie BiscuitThe popular Favourite.Orange CrispFiavoured with the extract of Jamaica OrangeS. Cel-er-ay Biscuit The best Soda Cracker sold in theIsland-nobetter imported. Well worth a. trial.SaltineVery popularinJamaica. The biscuit with the salty flayour. WholeWheat The most nourishing biscuit, the cure for Indigestion. Coffee BiscuitFlavoured withtheessence of Blue l\lonntain Coffee.Oyster Crackers A small, salt biscuit. excellen t for soups. VerdunCakes A HighClass Mixture which is much likl:'d.EXCBJ..SIOR BREAD Thel\fanufactureofExcelsior Breadisa: newdevelopmentof this Company's enterprise. The chief factor is ness coupled with scientific preeision in themixing and baking. Absolute uniformityinthe llreparntioll is an teed and earlydelivery will bealso a feature.TheJamaica BisciM Ltd.Church Street. Kingston.SELLINGAGENTS:Lasce11es deMercado&Grace Ltd. s'i Co.,Ltd;

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....THE COLONIALBANKIncorporaledbyRoyalCharierin1836.SubscribedCapital--. ,000,000In100,000Sharesofeach,paid.Paid-UpCapital600,000ReserveFunds150,000HEADOFFICE:16Bishopsgate,London,E.C.Cash and Bill Dept.,51 THREAD::\EEDLEST. Current accounts opened in London and a general Banking business conducted there.NEW YORK AGENCY: 22 WilliarnStreet. ANDAGENCIESINJAMAICA:KingstonPortMaria Lucea Montego Bay Savla-MarPortAntonio Annatto Bay Morant Bay St. Ann's Bay FalmouthSavings Departmentsatall Branches.4/and upwards received on Deposit. compounded Half-Yearly. OTHEU BRANCHES(INWEST INDIES) :AntiguaSt.LuciaBarbadosGrenadaSt.VincentSt.KittsDominica INTRINIDAD:PortofSpainSanFernandoINBRITISH GmANA:Georgeto"W"n& Mahaica.Demerara Ne"W"Amsterdam, BerbiceALSOBRANCHESINBRITISH WEST AFRICA. AGENTSINCANADA:TheBankofBritishNorthAmerica""'. ....

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OLD RUMS. OLD RUMS. ,."I I IiWhatwillyouhave? I II"BLAOK SEAL" "GREEN SEAL"I"APPLEMONY""GOLDENSTAG" "ONE DAGGER""TWODAGGER" i "THREE DAGGER""V.S.O," Iti "SPECIAL RESERVE" U IIIOur assortment of OLDRUMSis so variedthatthere isII a rum to suit almost every taste. There are theoldtime favourites,BLACKand GREEN Iti SEAL, and the popular andmellowblend of the APPLEMONY.I U OurGOLDENSTAGbrand has struck the right note in D public favour, and for ageing and richness our ONE,TWO, Iu and THREEDAGGERare unequalled;whilewecan tickle titi the moredeliCatepalate of the experienced connoisseur with _I our VERY SPECIALOLDor SPECIAL RESERVE. iti OurRUMSgratify the most exquisite taste and are above iU -ti all others in purity and popularity. They have set the tiB standard for,all other Rums in Jamaica for nearly a century. II DRINKNOOTHER. i I I IJ.Wray&Nephew,I IJAMAICA'SWDING RUM MERCHANTS.I I24PortRoyalStreet,KINGSTON.Ja. imtmtl:UUlltlUllUllUUllUllUllUllUllUUlltltlUUUllUUllmuUllUllUUlltlUUlltlUlltlUUllUlltlUllUlltl

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J.E.Kerr&Co..(LIMITED.)GENERALMERCHANTS&COMMISSIONAGENTS.HEADOFFICE:MONTEGOBAY. NEW YORKOFFICE:25BEAVERSTREETBRANCHESINJAMAICA:KINGSTON,ST.ANN'S BAY,PORTMARIA. FALMOUTH. Coke Kerr,Lloyds' AgentsatMontegoBayandFalmouth.CABLEADDRESS:..MITEllA"JAMAICA.CODES:A.B.C.5THEDITIONANDPRIVATECODES.AGENTS IN JAMAICAFonArmour&Co., Chicago, Illinois. Ardath Tobacco Co., Ltd., England. J ames Buchanan&Co., Ltd., England. Chivers&Sons, Ltd., England James Everard's Breweries, Ltd.,NewYork, N.Y. Kansas Milling Co., Wichita, Kansas. Lever Brothers, Ltd., Liverpool, England. William McEwan&Co.,Ltd., Edinburgh, Scotland. PeekFrean&Co., Ltd., London, The Royal Insurance Co., Ltd.PROPRIETORS OF THE WELL KNOWN h SHIPBRAND"PUREJAMAICARUM. Kingston Omce: No. 73Port Royal St.

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.....I',"" AdolphLevy& Bro.KINGSTON, JAMAICA.C .. E.Johnston&Co.PORT ANTONIO, JAMAICA.ISole Representatives in the Island, and Distributing Agents for Goods.Manufacturedby QUAKER OATS CO. WESTERN CANADA FLOUR MILLSCO. TEXASSTARflOURMILLS,SOUTH-WESTERN.MILLING CO. TEXAS CO. REFINERIES,COHNPRODUCTSREFININGCO.NATIONALBISCUIT CO. SWIFT &,CO. LIMITEDST.THOMASBAYRUMCO.NewYorkU,S.A.TOfonto,Canada.Galveston,Texas. l. Kansas City. PortArthuf,Texas.NewYork.I New York. Chicago&, Jersey London . St.Thomas.

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Jamaica And The Great WarCHAPTER IONTHE EVE OFWARIN the long hot days of the tropical summer a wave of inertia sweeps over hnd settles heavily upon the Island of Jamaica.Goneisthe brief winter season, passed is the interlude of verdant spring, that all too fleeting period of re,iuvenation when the foliage of the forestisof a tender green. the blue of the skies soft and limpid, when gentlebreezesblowcaressingly and there is a stirring of theblood,a pleasurable balmy sense of living and of life. Summer has come, and over wide spaces of sunlit country a greatdeepsilence broods. In the city and the towns there is but little movement; the mind feels itselfoccupiedsufficiently with the mere exertion of will required to strive against the influence of the deadening tropical languor; nothingitwould seemcouldstartle this half-torpid community into fullblooded life,couldawakenitto eager, compelling, absorbing mental ac tivity. But in August,1914,Jamaica was to reGeive a shock, the reflex of that which startled the world in those thrilling days that are nowsofaraway. And Jamaica was to throwoffits languor and its placid calm as sleepfliesfrom theeyesof the soldier when he hears the cannon's summoning roar. Supplied daily as thecolonyiswith news from the outer world, it has for years been able tofollowthe trend and course of European affairs with a fair degree of knowledge and inteJJigence.The very insignificance of its local problems has forced it to take an interest in those larger questions of English and international politics which concern the peoples and the statesmen of countries which number their inhabitants

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2 JAMAICA AND THE GREAT WAR. by the million and which dispose of vast armies and magnifi cent fleets.Ithas sometimes been assertedthatthe Jamaica youth knows more about English history thanofthe historyofJamaica, more about the men who have made England famous than of thosewhoin the past have been conspicuous in hisownlittle island. This istrue;andifithas deplorable and blameworthy aspects there is something to be advanced in its favour.Forthis acquaintance with English history has helped to make of the Jamaican a lover of England, one acquainted with her past as well as identified with her present, proud of his connection with a great Empire and devoted to that Empire's cause.Ithas helped to make of the Jamaican a patriotic British subject;ithas caused himtofollow the sequence of events with which England is concerned withaninterest, sometimes withananxiety, whichnoalien, nomem ber of a merely subject people,couldever possibly feel. Thus the Irish crisis which hadbecomesoacute in the firstpartof the year1914was followed in Jamaica with passionate eagerness, and the universalhopewasthatsome peaceful solution ofthatterrible problem mightbefound.Itwas instinctively feltthatcivilwarin Ireland would affect the integrity of the Empire, and Jamaicans are above everything imperialistic in their sympathies.Itis in theirblood.They can never forget thattheir country was ofthe Empire's foundation stones. They proudly rememberthatin West Indian waters were performedsomeof the deathless deedsofthe British Navy.Itwas on Monday, July27,1914,thatJamaica first learnt of the pol'tsibility ofa European war. The news had arrivedonthe preceding Saturday; but althoughitwas given prom inence in the Press,itwas not displayed inthatstartling fashion which the Jamaica newspapers have borrowed from their American contemporaries and by means ofwhich they signal to the public their appreciation of the news theyprintonthatparticular day. The telegrams were fairly compre-

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JAMAICA AND THE GREATWAR.3 hensive. They told of the ultimatum which Serbia had ceivedfrom Austria, of the demand for an answer from Serbia in forty-eight hours, of Russia's intimationthatshecouldnot remain indifferent to the issue of the dispute be tween the two nations, ofGermany'sdetermination thatnothird Power should interfere in the quarrel that hadsosuddenlyarisen. The conclusion of the whole matter wasthatEurope was faced with the prospect of a general war.Noword was said about England; even France was not men tioned. But there wasnoman in thecolony,with any reading or with any understanding of international political affairs,whodid notknowthat France and Russia were allied. And perhaps a few of these realisedthatthe warthatwas pre dicted might be offargreater dimensions, and of more terrible consequences to the European nations, than even the teiegrams foretold. The majority of the peoplewhoread these despatches, however, were notmuchmovedbythe news which theyconveyed.Serbia was the country chiefly concerned, and innopart of theBritish world had anything buthorrorbeenfeltatthe news of the Austrian heir's assassination. Butitseemedincredible that all Europe shouldbeplunged into a devastating conflict because of the murder ofoneman, even thoughthatmanwould have' been Emperor of Austria-Hun. gary had he lived. Balkan affairs were notwellunderstood; the situation in that part of Europe was not appreciated as bearing directlyuponthe problem of maintaining the world'speace.That France should fight to recover her lost provinces of Alsace and Lorraine,thatGermany might fight in order to establish herself as the leading Navalaswellas the greatest Military Power of the world: these were comparatively simple propositions and easily grasped. But why should Europegoto waronaccount of Serbia orof an Austrian Archduke? The questionseemedto answer itself with adecidednegative; the telegrams were considered interesting from the view-

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4 JAMAICA AND THE GREATWAR.point of sensationalism but were notlookedupon as reliably indicating the rapid approach of a tremendous earth-shaking catastrophe. And indeedit was difficult for menwhohad seen Europe atforyears, to believe thatthe old orderwas swiftly and irrevocably changing. The average man reads the futureinterms of the past; he does not easily im agine changes of a revolutionary nature; he findsit difficult, ifnot actually impossible, to believethat things will bemuchdifferent from what he has always known-them to be.Also,onehadbecomeaccustomed to hearing of "the war clouds lowering over Europe." Nothing terrible had happened in Europe since the Franco-Prussian War, andthathad been only a war between two nations, awarthat lasted but a fewmonths;itseemed to have taken placesolong ago toothatit was re garded asaneventof a time when diplomacy was almost im becile in its impotence and when the temperofmen was sterner and more eager for war. There had been wars since then. But the Russo-Turkish War was a dim and distant memory and the Balkan Wars were regarded as merelylocalconflicts between peoples.Japan had defeated China, America had defeated Spain, England had beaten the Boers, Japan had conquered the Russian Army and Navy and hadwonan acknowledged position amongst the Great World Powers. This last was the greatest of these wars, but its theatres were the plainsofManchuria and the Eastern Seas; and though its issue damaged the prestigeofRussia, there was nonewhodid not know thatitcouldnot seriously and per manimtly alter the status of Russia in the world. Such wars had happened often, would happen again. ButthatEurope itself should be the scene of a great struggle between the mightiest of itsnations-thatwas not believed, bec..9.useit. couldnot easily be conceived. News of the developing war situation continued to arrive. OnJulr 28 Jl.\maica papersAustria

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JAMAICA ANDTHEGREATWAR. 5 Serbia wereonthe verge of actual hostilities. But was discussed in the island as of more intimate interest were the efforts then being made to prevent a collision in Ireland be tween Nationalists and Ulstermen, and the editorial columns of the newspapers gave little spaceto a discussion of the threatening European crisis.Localmatters were still beingcommenteduponatlength. The leading journal of thecolonydealt, on this particular date, with a proposal to bring to Jamaica, early in the next year, a cricket team from England, andalsodevoted more than acolumnto a consideration of the merits and demerits of sundry parochial orators. A leaderette placed after these articles spoke briefly of "thepeaceof Europe again threatened," and concluded with the eonventional hope'that"wise statesmanship willfind Ii way out of the danger."Ina few days all thought of cricket teams andlocalorators wastobe forgotten in the startling realiza tion that the peace of Europe was not merely threatened but had ceased to exist, that Europe had embarked upon what wastobeknown as the greatest war of all the ages.Itwas not until July31 thatthe extreme gravity of the situation began forcibly to impress itselfonthe minds and imaginations of the Jamaica public. Therecould'nowbenolonger anY,doubt that war, war in Europe, was approaching with almost lightninglike rapidity; andnowitbegan to dawn upon thecolonythatGreat Britain might be dragged into the struggle, that England, which hadbeenatpeace in Europe since the Crimean War, mightonceagain have to send armies to the Continent andtomobilise herfleetto fight a powerful foe.The British Prime Minister had said intheHouse ofCommonsthat"this is a moment of extreme gravity to the Government." The London Times had in the most explicit language announced that Englandcould not stand aside and Se-J France crushedorBelgian territory violated. The efforts' of Great Britain were still being directed to the maintenance of peace; but the British fleet had sailed under sealed orders;i

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GJAMAICA AND THE GREATWAR. Whatdoes thatmean? it was everywhere asked,butthou sands would not whisper even to themselves an answer which could only be a confession of despair.Forstillitwas hopedthatthe peaceful counsels of England would prevail. Still men strove to believethat,evenatthe eleventh hour,warwould be averted. This they hoped; this they strove to be lieve; but puckered brows and anxious faces witnessed tothefear and the uneasinessthatgripped painfully at theirhearts. This uneasiness and fear found yet more definite expres sion in speculations astowhat effect theparticipationof England in the approaching conflict might have upon Jamaica. One newspaper pointed outthatfoodprices would inevitably rise, but counselled the people to accept this with patience and even with cheerfulness.Itwent further:itadvisedthatthe general attitude should beoneof preparednesstomake sacrifices,ifnecessary,forthe cause of the Empire and of England. Thus early in the opening stages of the struggle was sounded the notethatwastoring louder and louder throughout Jamaica,thatwaStobe taken upand universally echoed from one part of the island to the other.Butthisnoteofwarning and exhortation wasonthe whole considered pre mature. Evenifwarwas coming,men preferredtobelievethatthe conflict would be localised andthatEngland would play no conspicuouspartin it.OnSaturday, August 1, a telegram from New York bear ing the date of the previous day announcedthatGermany had declaredwaronRussia. There was also another despatchofthe same date which minimised the significanceofthe first statement by pointing outthatitlacked official confirmation.Itis indicative of the prevailing attitudeofmind inthecolonythatthis second telegram was the onethatwas most readily accepted. Yetitwasonthe evening of July 31thattheKaiser, addressing a vast concourseofhis subjects, had utteredthememorable words:
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JAMAICAANDTHE GREATWAR.'1has arrived. Envyonall sidescompelsus to assume a righteousattitude of defence. The swordisforced into ourhand."After such an utterance only a miraclecouldhave averted war.Thestatesmen of Europe knew by then that the struggle was inevitable; thewholeworld was toknowthat in another few hours. Sunday intervened, andMonday,a publicholiday,dawnedin Jamaica. Significant news hadcomeover the wiresonSunday; and in KingstonnodoubtwasnowentertainedastoGermany's determination to strike. In Jamaica,asis customaryona holiday, the people began earlyonthe Monday morning to prepare for the day's festivities. This was more from force of habit than from any inclination to levity; a strong current of unwonted ex citement swept the thoughts and feelings of the populace out of their usual channels, and though picnics, excursions and a number of other diversions were supposed tobeoccupying the general attention, the talk of everyone was of the ap proaching war.Soabsorbing was this topic,sopowerful theinfluenceit exercised over the mind of every adult, that evenanearthquake experiencedthatday caused but a temporary distraction and alarm.Noonecouldforget the cataclysm of January14,1907,which overthrew Kingston and was felt in everypartof the country. The slightest subsequent shockwouldbring back to the a vivid realisation of that calamii;y, the greatest in the oxperience of all living Jamaicans.OnthisMondaymorning,atabout6.25,thewholeisland was shakenbyan earthquake of a duration and intensity secondonlyto that which had shattered the walls of Jamaica's capital but afewyears before, and fears were for the moment enter tained that a repetition ofthatdisaster was imminent. There were three shocks; the northside town ofPortAntonio had its public buildings damaged, the publicclockin the squareatHalfway Tree stopped working; articles of furniture and ornaments were throwntothefloorevery where; in the parish of St. Andrew several landslides occurred.

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8 JAMAICAANDTHE GREAT WAR.' Ordinarily, suchan awe-inspiring reminderwouldhave dig.. placed every thought save that of danger from earthquakes. But in an hourortwo, if not forgotten, this earthquake was relegated to a very subordinate place in the minds of most people; and though there were minor shocks lateronin theday,their mental effect was inappreciable. The war, and the partwhich England might play in thewar:thatwas all thatcouldpossiblybedweltuponnow.Andnowthe newspapers had almost nothing to say but what was connected with the terrible situation that had so rapidly developed in Europe. Conventional optimism had given place to the sober realisation of an awful actuality. Itwas notsomuch asked whether England would declare war, as when England would declare warjnewspaperofficeswere thronged by eager enquirers, theofficesofthe Cable Com. panies in Kingston werebesiegedbyanxious crowds thirsting for the last item of information which the Governmentwouldallow to be made public. For the Government had already assumed controlofall telegraph systems, and its censorssatnight and day in the telegraph buildings scrutinising every telegramthatcame from the outer worldorwas handed in to be despatched tosomeother country. There were Germans and Austrians in the island, and messages from thesecouldnot lightly be transmitted. Great Britain was stillofficiallyatpeace with Germany and Austria" but the Governor had received his instructions and these were being carried out with scrupulous fidelity.Nochances were taken. In the lastweekof July a German warship, the Dresden, hadcomeinto Kingston harbour with President Huerta ofMexicoas a refugeeonboard.Ithad probably received from Berlin instructions incodebywireless telegraphy, for shortly after news of the critical situation in Europe was received here, the Dresden left the harbour.AndH.M.S. Suffolk, then Admiral Cradock's flagship, had afterwards entered the port and soon after JIad cleared her decks for action. The

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JAMAICAANDTHE GREATWAR.9 pherewas charged with the electricity ofwar;the censorswerebusy,and all day long, and workingfarinto the night, theGovernorof thecolony,with his secretaries toiledat de cipheringcodemessages flashed from England, andat trans mitting replies.Newswascoming, but thenewsthat hadnowbegunto comeover was scanty, for the line of the Direct West IndiaCableCompanywasdown.Ithad been cut, as was subse. quentlydiscovered, cut by theDresdenwhich hadsoquickly departed from British watersonthe receipt of its instructions.Thus,just when the country was most anxious for informa tion the means of obtaining it was lessened. Disappointmentwaskeen.Itgrew to anger. The Government wasaccusedof having established an unnecessarily rigid censorship; manybegantoentertain unfoundedapprehensions, to suggest that thecolonywas purposely being kept in the dark. Then,onthe morning of August5,Jamaicawoketo learnthatEngland had declared war upon Germany, that the expected had hap pened,that the crisis had hurried to its climax, that the Empirewasatwar.TheEmpire wasatwar.Itwas about2.15a.m.,August5,that the Governor, Sir William Manning, sent out the thrillingnewsto every section 'of the island of Jamaica. The telE'graph wires hummed with the momentous tidings; sleepy telegraph clerks .were startled into alert wakefulness as the significant message was spelled outbythe tapping electrical instruments;on every public building, in the early hours of that sultry summer morning, the statement was displayed. Wireless telegraphyflungitinto space with the dawn of day, and ships twohundred miles and more from Jamaica receiveditandknewthatEngland wasatwar. Ships passingoneanothersloweddownand signalled the tidings. German cruisers caught it. Over the wide Caribbean and the Southern Atlantic theairwas aliveand-vibrant with messages, with warnings and commands.

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CHAPTERIITHEFIRSTTWOWEEKSTHEexpected had happened, the Empire wasatwar. Nevertheless the actual declarationofwarby England came as a shock to thousands:itfell with the force of a blow,disturbing for the moment the usual calm processes of feeling and thought.Onthe news being known, the streets of the city and the townsbecame filledwith excited peoplewhospoke and argued asifthe next four-and-twenty hourswoulddecidethefateofnations, as ifthey expected great battles to be fought andwonevenwhile the German armies were rushing furiously towards the frontiersofBelgium and France. Order prevailed, butitwas nottheorder of placid, every-day life.Itwas the order which people, accustomed to the social discipline andgoodbehaviourofall established Bri tish communities, preserveevenunderthestress of strong excitement; underlyingit was anintense nervousness which,indifferent conditions, might have developed into panic. There was a rushonthe part of hundreds to securefoodatthe shops, the opinion beingthatthere might soon be a serious shortageof supplies. Food prices soared immediately, rising in some instancesOVer a hundredpercent. Fearing famine, fearing financial stringency, apprehensiveofthe un known, and realizingthatwar must bring about many changes, the peopleatonce ceased to purchase anybutthe bare necessi ties of life, and already there were rumours of an impending financial crisis. And other rumours aIso,arisingno one knew how, filIedtheairand contributed to increase the nervous tension.Wehave saidthatthere were Austrians and Germans in the island. People now remembered or thoughtthatthey remembered having heardthatsome of these had been seen, in the still

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JAMAICA AND THE GREATWAR.11hours of the night, prowling about suspiciously.OneGermanwaSsaidtohave designed to poison the reservoir which sup plies Kingston with water. Anotherwasbelieved tobein thepossessionof wireless apparatus with which hecouldsendmessagestoGerman warships in the Caribbean Sea. German cruiserswerealso reported seen from different seaports of the island. Where was the Dresden?Wasnot the Bremen in these regions? And the Karlsruhe-the popular imagina tionmagnifiedthat light cruiser into a great super-dread nought armed with formidable twelve-inch guns. Jamaica mightatanymomentbeattacked! At any moment shells mightbescreaming over her capital city, and falling to scatter ruin and destruction and death! But panic never prevailed; fear was not allowedtoattainascendency.External agencies helpedtoreinforce the effect ofcustomand of social discipline. Admiral Cradock's flagship was in the harbour. There she lay, grey, grim and silent, and suddenlyitwas noticedthatshe was in full war attire, with herdeckscleared for action-ready,asEngland's has alwaysbeensince the days of the greatNelson.Crowds thronged to the waterfront to gazeattheSuffolk,and cheer after cheer rang out as hundreds watched admiringly that powerfulsymbolof the colony's safety and protection. Cheerful though quite unreliable information was alsocomingtothe island, and this did muchtoenliven the spirits of the more timorous.Asearly as August 6th the public journals of Kingstoncouldpublish telegrams telling of vic torie.8 gained by the French troops over the German armies, andalsoannouncing that "the armed forces of the Republic are nowonthe soil of their formidable foe."Itwas stated in the Press that "this news, when generally known, createdmuchenthusiasm in the city."Itnaturallywould;men al ready began toseevictory insight;already, everywhere, the belief was blithely expressed that the war would last but for three months, and the bolder of the war prophetswouldnot

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12 JAMAICAANDTHE GREATWAR.allow a single triumph to the enemy.Butthough, aceording tothepopular opinion, the war was to be fought and won in an incredibly short space of time, the Government energeti_ cally proceeded with its efforts toplace the island in a state of adequate defence and to put into operation those ordinances prepared long before for just such a situation as had nowsosuddenly arisen. The day after England's declaration of war, martial law was proclaimed in Jamaica. All persons in the colony were directed to take notice and to govern themselvesaccordingly.Itwas also announcedthatthe Governor might deport any person deemed an undesirable inhabitant (which power was soon exercised in respect tosomewell-known business men of German descent),thatthe Governor might require and usethe. services of any persons or property in the island for militaryornaval purposes, andthatthe Governor might seize and tal fixedprices on a scale much lower thanthatwhich obtainedatthe moment. There was oneofficialproclamation especially intended to prevent undue excitement.It was addressed to the Island of Jamaica, and statedthat"Wedohereby call upon our loving subjects therein to continue peacefully and tranquillyto pur sue their usual avocations, carefully abstaining from all actions likely to produce popular excitement, unrest or confusion, and doing their utmost to check, restrain and dissuade allwhomaybeinclined to such action." This was generally understood as coming directly from the King : necessarily, therefore, its influence was immense. The people of the British West Indies, brought up with a reverence for authority and inspired with a sincere affection for the Throne, may always be relied upon

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JAMAICAANDTHE GREATWAR. 13 to yield to any command accepted as proceeding from the Sovereign a public obedience as absolute as human nature iscapableof in moments of intense feelingorextraordinary agitation. The experience gained in Jamaicaatthe time of the great earthquake had taught moat persons that fromnoconsiderable element of the population was disorder tobe ex pectedata crisis; and Iduring the first two weeks of the war,andever after, there were visiblenoprecautions of a more than ordinary description for the maintenance of order in the country. "Trust the people" has never been the publishedmottoof any Jamaica Government, })ut every Government has hadtoproceedonthe assumptionthatitcan anddoestrust thepeople.OneWest Indian administrator, indeed, Sir Charles Bruce, has writtenthatnoGovernorwhoknewtheWestIndies wouldbeapprehensive of political demonstrations in these days; and Sir Alexander Swettenham preferred todealwith the situation created by the earthquake of1907,withhisvery inadequate resources, rather than accept the aid of American marines to maintain discipline and order in the ruined city of Kingston. What Sir William Manning felt in that firstweekof August noonecan know;hemay have been anxious; but his anxietycouldscarcely havebeencausedbyserious fears of in ternal disturbances. What he said about the local situation,remainsonrecord.Aninterview which a representativeofthe Gleaner had with himonthe 7th of August was printed, withsomecomments,onthe following day. He is described, and the description is accurate, as perfectly calm and self possessed, looking as though he had not a worry in the world and professing the utmostconfidencein the loyalty and patri otism of thepeople.He spoke hopefully of the island's future trade.Heexpressed the opinionthattherewouldbean in creased demand abroad for many of its products.Heexpectedsomefinancial stringencyatfirst, but believedthatin a littlewhilethe trede andcommerceof the colonywouldrecover

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14 JAMAICA THE GREATWAR. from an inevitable though temporary dislocation andthatJa maica would thenfinditself "on velvet".Itmaybethatthe Governor expressed himself more hopefully than he actually feltatthe moment;itis certainthathis words had both a calming and stimulating effect upon the country. They calmed those who were thinking darkly of the future; they stimulated the naturally energeticwhohad been somewhatdepressedby'the dismal forebodings of pessimistic people. What is certain isthatthe panicky feeling, very slightly manifested yet unquestionably existing,nowbegan to disappear; andso,when the third week of the war situation dawned, all classes of the people were attending much as usualtotheir business and the life of Jamaica had almost resumed its wonted routine.Bythis time also the Government had practically deter mined upon the programme tobecarried throughatonce, and had already issued summonses to the Legislative CounciltomeetatHeadquarter HouseonThursday, August13.Orders hadbeensent to the several Government departments suspend ing all expenditure upon public works not considered abso lutely necessary, the Parochial Boards of the Island were warned to practise the most rigideconomy.The Council metonthe date prescribed. Every elected member was present, and nearly all the Government members. Under the constitu tion of Jamaica all the elected members voting together can veto any ordinary proposal of the Executive, while nine elected members voting unanimously can negative any financial meas ure. But the Governor has the power todeclare of paramount importance any measure thathethinks essential to the colony's welfare; whenthatis done the votes of hisofficialsupporters in the House can be recorded against those of the electedmembers; and as the Government has fifteen members, or a ma jority ofone,itis certain of victory whenitexercises thisextraordinary power. In the past, there had been times when the Government haddeemeditwise tobefully represented in the House.Onthis occasion, the elected members outnum-

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JAMAICA AND THE GREATWAR.15bered theofficialand nominated members. The Governor had not thoughtitnecessar.y to take precautions against an ad versevote.Hedid not believe in the possibility of an adversete'hecounted upon the people's representatives supportingvo, the without hesitation, and their patriotic actionshowedthathehad understood their attitude aright. But before the formal meeting in the Council Chamber there was a private conference between both sides of theHouse.This was held in order to give to the legislators what ever explanations they might desire regarding any items of the Government's programme,sothat, in open Council, the chief legislative assembly of the island should present an undividedfront. When the Council was called to order, there fore, everyone knew what was going to be proposed and accomplished.There wasnounnecessary affectation of solemn ity. The House presented a businesslike appearance.The Governor, as President of the Council, opened its proceedings,allthe members and visitors standing to hear the speech whichheread distinctly and with deliberation.Wequote the exordium:-"Ihave called the Council together to-day to deal with certain urgent business due to the outbreak of' hostilities between Great Britain and the German Empire.Itis peri haps hardly necessary for me to remarkatthis juncture upon the momentous questionsthatare involved. I feelthatJa maica will loyally and patriotically assume herpartin main taining the integrity of our Empire, and will comport herselfasgallantly to-day as she has done in the past. History relates that in days gonebythis island has resolutely defended her shores and has takennosmall share in the wars of the past. That she may not againbecalledupon to defend her homes I sincerely trust, but I feelthatI shouldbewrong to stifle the fervent spirit of patriotism which has led to the offers of per sonal service which have poured in, andthatI shouldbewrongtodisregard the possibility, however remote,thatthe island

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16. JAMAICAANDTHEGREATWAR. might once more becompelledto drive an invader from her shores. The Navy of Great Britain is, and mustbe,our main defence,butwe should be preparedtoassist our Navy by taking upon ourselves such responsibilities of defence aswecan well assume. ."He then outlined his programme of local defence. A force to be knownas the Jamaica Reserve Regiment was to be con. stituted and organized in every parish ; the cost of this force for six months was estimatedat,000, which the Council would be askedtovote. The Governor next intimatedthathe expected a decrease. of revenue, and a consequent deficitatthe end of the then current financial year, nearly eight months away. Having suspended all save purely necessary public works, he calculated upon saving by such retrenchment about ,000. He had also secured the consent of the Secretary of State for the Colonies to suspend the investment of the island's Sinking Fund for the remainder of the year, which would set free another ,000 to meet the anticipated deficit. These were his main financial provisions ; he also estimatedthathe would have, as a surplus from the last year's financial trans actions, about ,000. He did not leave out of account the possibility of having to affordsomerelief to persons rendered temporarily indigent through the war and through drought prevailinginsome paTts of the country. The sum of,000was set aside for this. Thenhe'passed to a brief commentary on a Bill to establish a Censorship throughout the island, and seized the opportunity to pay a compliment to the Jamaica Press. "AssoonasIre ceived the news thatthe war was imminent," he said, "I called ripon the Press to enter into' an honourable agreement not to publisIithe movements of British men-of-war and troops, since such news might be of advantagetoanenemy. That honour able agreement has been most scrupulously observed, anditis a pleasure to me to be able to publicly so state; and I have no hesitation in affirming that I feelthatthe provisionsofthis

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Brlg.-General l.. S.Bl.ACKDEN.Mr.WILl.IAMWIl.SON, J.P.

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JAMAICA ANDTHEGREAT WAR.17 Bill in regard to the Press will be a dead letter, as I looktothePresSto loyally carry outits obligations, and by its writings to assist, as itcan, in educating the public to maintainthatcalm spirit whichithas up till now inculcated." The speech was a short one.Animportant programme had been outlined in a few concise sentences.Itconcluded with a spin1ed exhortationto Jamaica which is here trans cribed infuIl:-"Inconclusion I can onlyask-andin asking I feel con vincedthatI shallbesupported-thatall those in authority, all thosetowhom the people of this islandlookfor guidance,willcalmly go about their business, will set an example of steadfast belief in the strength ofourmighty Empire,thatneither in the hour of victoryweshall be too greatly elated, nor in the hour of misfortuneweshall be too greatly disconcerted.IfJamaica enters upon thisgreatcrisis in the history of the Em pire in this spirit, then we shallbutbe emulating the example of our ancestorswhofaced triumph and disaster ,withanevenmindand with an invincible belief in the destiny of our Empire' and of our peoples. Jamaica, slire in theloYaltyand patriotism of its inhabitants, will presentthatunited front to its enemies that is expected from everypartof this mighty Empire.Thatisour du1;y and the dutyofall who have the privilege of being citizens of the British Empire." The Governor ceased, resumed his seat, and the routine business of the day began.In a couple of hours every measure placed before the House had been passed through all its stages without comment and without division. and the Council ad journed untilitshould be summoned to meet the Governor again. Allthatit was necessarytodoimmediately to prepare for the exigencies of the situation confronting the country had beendone. And the Legislative Council, as well as the had shown its desiretosupport the Executive iIiev.el'yeffort it mightp.eemnecessarY anaadvisable forthe protection of thl}'. island and the public good.., ,--:"liifI

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CHAPTER IIIINAIDOF ENGLAND IN the midst. oftheferment of feeling engendered by the realization thatthe Empire wasatwar and that the..present generation of Jamaicans was about to witness the greatest struggle of all times, there swiftly emerged a desire to help, a strong and fervid aspiration that the colonyas a wholeshoulddosomethingtoexpress in tangible form its loyalty to the Mother Country and its sympathy with her cause. This desire was spontaneous, originating in the minds of hundreds at one and the same time.It was confined tono single class, it was not the result of Government suggestion. The man in the street felt vaguely thatin any war in. which England was engaged, and especially in such awar as thatinto whichtheworld hadbeen precipitated by the statesmen of Austria and Germany,it was the duty of Jamaica to take a definite part. The great planter remembered he was a de.. scendantof Englishmen, and that with England Jamaica stood or fell. There was precedent for this. Tradition haditthat dur ing the Napoleonic Wars thecolonyhad contributed a million pounds to theImperial Treasury. Historical research had recently shownthatthe amount actually donated by Jamaica had been greatly exaggerated. It was in1798that merchants and planters of the island raisedbypublic subscription about,000to assist England in her struggle against Napoleon; this was the foundation of fact for the million pounds fiction which had always been repeated with pride. But even ,000wasnocontemptible contribution from a country with onlysomethree hundred thousand inhabitants, ofwhomthe freepeople,white, coloured and blaek, numbered less than fiftytUQusan'd,especiallYwhenwe thatthe value of the

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JAMAICA AND THE GREATWAR.19sovereignwas very much moreatthattimethanitisatthe present day. That ,000, in fact, would be equivalent to nearly half a million pounds sterling to-day.Itwas alsoincumbentonthe colony in those times to make provision for itsowndefence,and this is estimated to have cost the tax. payers, for several years, an average of not less tlian ,000a year.Whofirst assertedthatitwas a million poundsthatJamaica had given is, naturally, !mown; butthe belief that this amount had been sent as a freegiftto the EnglishGovernment,during the last great war which England hadwagedto preserve the balance of power in Europe and the liberties of the world, had a powerful though unconscious influenceinfixingin the minds of thepeoplethe standard of Jamaica's financial obligations to the Empire in this later and greater war.Then,again, during the South African War, subscriptionshadbeenraised for thewidowsand orphansofEnglishsoldiers.This effort was not confined only to the upper orders of the population;itwas general. The middle classesofthepeopleprobably contributed the largerpartofthe money col lected,but the working classesalsogave.InAugust,1914,however,itwas felt that, in orderthatwhatever gift Jamaica offeredto England shouldbeof a,distinctlY national character, itshouldtake the formofa vote from General Revenue;hence,sometimeinthe second week of the war, a suggestion to theGovernorwas privately made by the elected members of the Legislative Councilthat,000 shouldbevoted as Jamaica's contribution to the expensesofthe war. Inviewof the unsettled commercial and financial condi tionofthecolony,the suggestion was aboldone. A great part of Jamaica's revenue is derived from import and excise duties, while a not inconsiderable portionofitis contributedbythe earnings of the Government Railway. And these sources of revenuearemost sensitive to fluctuations of trade.ItwasseenatthestartthatoverseaStrade would sufferon

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20 JAMAICA AND THE GREAT WAR. account of the war. All exports to and imports from Germany andAustria had automatically ceased. A droughthad recently been afflicting the island;itwas not known whether Jamaica wouldbeable to obtain the usual quantity of goods annually imported from England, from the dutiesonwhichtheGovern ment derived a fairproportionof its revenue. Everyone was awarethatthere must be a falling off in trade, if only tem porarily ; but the idea in the minds of the elected members wasthefloating of loan in the colony.Itwas confidently believedthat the loan would be gladly subscribed, its object being onethatwould appeal to the patriotic sentiments of all classesofthepeople. The Governor, however, was not inclined to act so quickly. His view wasthatthe first duty of the Government and Legis lative Council was to review calmly and carefullythefinancial position and resources of Jamaica before deciding upon voting money from General Revenue for Imperial purposes. He did not veto the proposition; he expressed sympathy with it. But he counselled a little patience, a delay of a few days,orweeks. Asthesuggestionofa monetary gift had not been made pub licly, there was nopublic protest against this advice; on the other hand, as nothing was yet being done wherebythecolony might give concrete expression to its desire to help,therewere many criticismsonthe cautiousness of the Government in such a connection. The criticisms were expressed in conversa tion everywhere.Itbecame more and more obviousthatJamaica would never be content with a of caution, evenifa policy of precipitancy should cost Jamaica dear.Itis perhaps in the nature of a tropical peopletoact im pulsively, then to relapse into apathy induced by exhaustion of energy and of intellectual interest. 'It is of course a com monplace of all political experience thatpopular action is fol lowed by popular reaction;butinthe West Indies the periodsofreactionare greatly prolonged and there is ample time and opportunity thus afforded tbdetectmistakes made in moments

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JAMAICAANDTHE GREATWAR21ofenthusiasm, and loudly to regret them. But in this particu lar desirethat Jamaica should make a present of some sort totheMother Country, there was more determination than en thusiasm. The general feeling wasthatthe best thatcouldbedonewouldbe but small, and this gave birthtoa sentimentsomewhatresembling shame. The great self-governing colo nieswere rising to a recognitionoftheirImperial responsibilitiesin a manner truly magnificent. Jamaica?s knewquitewellthattheir countrycouldnot remotely compare, from theviewpointof population, industries or resources, with Canada or Australia; but this did not render them less desirous ofshowinga spirit equal to that exhibited by Canada or Australia.They could notdomuch, and this was a bitter reflection; but todonothing, or to delaytoolong in doing anything, wassimplynot to be thoughtof.They wanted todomore besidesmakea money offering to the Mother Country; they suggestedthat more shouldbedone, as willbetold in a following chapter. But to send a gift to England wouldbean immediate achievement; and the intense though quiet patriotism thatprevailed, the impulse to action which everyone experienced,madeitimperativethatJamaica should immediately fall inlinewith the rest of the Empireindemonstrating practically that Imperial unity andthatwillingness to make sacrifices fortheEmpire's cause of which nearly ever.y partof the Empirehadboasted in times ofpeace..Itwas, then, in obediencetonomere temporary flush of enthusiastic feeling that the people of Jamaica began every whereto discuss the necessity of the colony's sending to Englandan earnest of its loyalty. The Governor himself recognisedthis fully.Tothe representativeofthe Gleanernews paperwhoput before himonAugust16a picture of the popular mind, he replied quite franklythathe knew what the .peoplewere thinking,thathe was awareoftheir desire todo What they couldforthe Empire. Buthehimself thoughtthatvoluntary effortwouldbemost usefulatthatmoment; he

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22 JAMAICAAJ."IDTHE GREAT WAR. suggested thatthe women of Jamaica should form local organ izations for the purpose of supplying warm woollen clothing to the English soldiers during the coming winter.Inthe North of France and in Germany the English soldierswould suffer terribly, he said, and they would be grateful for such gifts as he had mentioned. "In this effort every one can help.It gives an opportunity to every woman in the island, from the richest to the poorest, to add her quota to the endeavour being put forthinour Empire for our soldiers.Inthis way, I think, Jamaica can best help." This conversation was published on the following day as a definite invitationtothewomenof Jamaica to beginatonce .. to work for the soldiers ofthe Empire. Itwas followedbyan appeal tothe men for fundstoenable this work tobeunder taken. This was not exactly what Jamaica had expected; yetifthe proposal had been deliberately put forward with a view to testing the sincerity of individual professions of willing. ness to help,theresponse thatitmet with must effectively have silenced all doubts on that point.As a matterof fact, the Governor was perfectly free from any desiretotest the genuineness ofJamaica's generosity. '\Vhat he wished todowas to suggest an effort in which, as he had distinctly stated, the poor as wellasthe rich could join,an effort also whieh wouldmake on the country nodemand greater thanitcould reasonably bear atthatdisturbing time. Insuch uncertain dayS it was not easy to say what wasthefinancial situation of anyone; but a scheme requiring work as well asmoneywas not calculated totaxovermuch the resourcesofany, especially as the work would be done by that half of the population who usually had some leisure andwho,therefore, would not be called upontoabandon their ordinary 'vocations for this pur pose.The responsetothe appeal for funds, however, soon showedthatthe island was ready todomore, voluntarily, than either the Governororanyone else had expecteditwoulddo or was in a position todo.Sir William Manning's remarks ap-

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JAMAICA AND THE GREATWAR23 peared onAugust 17.OnAugust22the Gleaner could nouncethatithad received ,155, in donationsof a hundred guineas each. As usual, the merchants and business tions and the legal firmsofKingston had set the exampleofgenerous giving, and every day after that came large indi vidual contributions from different parts of the island towards "The Jamaica War Relief Fund." other efforts of a voluntary nature were immediately planned: thus the Palace Amusement Theatre opened a sub scription list and distributed collectingboxesamong the eral stores of Kingston, while the Syrian and Chinese munities started small funds among themselves for the purpose of making a respectable donation tosomelarger War Fund. But the most important voluntary effort was inaugurated by the Governor himself, who despatched letters to the different custodes of the parishes, and to other representative meninvarious parts of the island, asking these to organize tees for the collecting of money.OnSunday, August23,an announcement was made in many of the churches throughout Jamaica that public meetings wouldbeheld to discuss the Governor's suggestion. On the 26th the first meetings wereheldatMandeville,PortAntonio and Manchioneal;onthe next day there was a similar meetingatSpanish Town;onthe day after thepeopleofMorant Bay gathered together to dis cuss anddecidewhat steps shouldbetakentopromote thesuccessof the effort now definitely setonfoot.Onthe 30th thepeopleofMontegoBay met, andattheir first meeting waspromised. 1 Other public meetings followed. They were held all over the country, and not onlyinthe chief towns; they took place wherever there was a fairly large number of persons settled, with a fewamongst them possessing the faculty ofinitiative and leadership.Womenas well asmenwere invited to these gatherings, foritwas to thewomenof Jamaica that the appeal had firstbeenmade.All classes responded to the general in-

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c,:24 JAMAICAAND TIlE GREATWAR.vitation, there were speeches from the chief men. of the parish or district, the duty of the people to contribute as liber ally as they could was placed before the audiences in a plain and practical manner, and committees and sub-committees were appointed to collect contributions everywhere. These committees werecomposedofwomenand men, and, as the results showed, they settowork with energy and a laudable desire todothe very best theycould.But almost atthe very first public gathering itbecameapparent that the original suggestion of the Governor's wasnolonger popular, becauseitwasnolonger considered practicable. ComparativelyfewJamaicawomenknew anything about the knitting of socks and mufflers, anditwas seen that themoneythatwouldbecollectedwouldlie idleifitwere to be utilisedonlyin the purchase ofwoolfor the knitters.Mostpersons,too,lookedforward to so short a war thatitwas ,feltthatvery little warm clothing would be sent to the menatthe front beforepeace was once more restored to Europe. Accordingly it was advocatedthatthemoneyobtained shouldbetransmittedtoEngland and, as the idea was that the poorest, if willing, should contribute as wellasthe wealthiest in the land,itwas generally agreed that the smallest sum shouldnot"be refused from thosewhowishedtogive.Andnowbegan amovementthe like of which had never been seen in Jamaica before.Anyonewho reads over the lists of contributors to the War Funds which the Gleaner printed daily, will be struckbythe large number of very smallmenwhogave their mite for the cause that was England's. Cart drivers, cab drivers, motor-men, conductors, peasant proprietors, labourers-one and all gave something, however small. A shilling, sixpence, threepence, these' sums occur hundreds and hundreds of times in the lists; on the banana properties,onthe sugar estates, onthecocoaplantations the collecting card went round, and not in vain. Through its chiefofficialsthe UnitedFruitCompany organised a system

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JAMAICAANDTHE GREATWAR.25 whereby all its employeescouldregularly contributetothe Fund: the result was excellent. There was no coercion ap plied.Therecouldbenocoercion applied. There was little persuasion needed, for to contribute something to the War Fundswasnowconsidered a privilege as well as a pleasure, a right aswell as. a moral obligation. Generosity hadnowbecomethe highest of duties.Oneestate overseer tells a story that is well worth recordinghere.Someof his labourers came to himonedayandexpressed the wish that, for a certain time, he woulddeductasmallamount weekly from their wages as their con tribution to the War Relief Fund. "Understand," he said tothem,"youare not doing this becauseyouare being begged todoit.Ifyouwant to give,itmust be of yourownfreewill,andnot,either, as charity." Here pridespoke-headmittedit;hedidnot wish Jamaica labourers to thinkthatEnglishsoldierswere in need of help from them. He afterwardsconfessedthat the answer returned was a sufficient rebuke. The mcn toldhim that they gave because they desired togive,that theygavebecause, asBritish subjects, they had asmuchrighttogive as he. And for several weeks after notonemanmissedcontributing the quota of his wages that he had thatdayagreed shouldbe There werenowtwo large Funds in existence: the JamaicaWar Fund, collected by theGleaner,and the Central War Fund, directly organizedbySir William Manning.OnSeptem ber 9th, under the auspices of the Governor, a public meetingwasheldin the Ward TheatreinKingston, and a committeewasappointed to administer themoneythatwould be received. Thl:' general plan of distribution tobefollowed was outlined: most of themoneywould be donated to the Prince ofWalesFund, in England; a portionwouldbesenttothe committee attendingto Belgian relief. The Gleaner Company fell in line with this proposal. Themoneysent to theGleaner was dividedinto three parts,onehalftothe Prince of Wales Fund,

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26 JAMAICAA:rrD THE GREATWAR. a quartertothe British Sailors and Soldiers Association,a quarter to the Belgian Relief Committee. The total of the two Funds amounted to nearly ,000 bythe end oftheyear1914.Other minor Funds, such as thatstartedbythe Gleaner forsending cigars and cigarettesto soldiers at the front, andthatorganised bysome Jamaica ladies for entertainingatChristmas the sailors of warships in the harbour, wereweHsupported. But even while the committees for the col lection ofmoneyto assist the Empire's fighters were being formed, and thoughitwas apparent that the voluntary effort being madewouldbe more successful than anyone had thought thatitwouldbe,it became apparentthatJamaica would notbesatisfied with private givingonly. Instead of diminishing, the feeling that thecolonyas a constituent part of the British Empire should present a gift to the Mother Country was growing apace. Letters written to the newspapers advocated a special tax for this purpose. At meetings called to make arrangements for the collection of subscriptionsitwas urgedthat Jamaica should assume some small portion of the debt which Englandwouldincur as part of the cost of war. At the Montego Bay meeting itwas gested that ,000 shouldbethe amount of liability assumed by thecolony.The Mayor andCouncilof Kingston passed a resolution recommendingthatthe Government should take steps "to charge the revenues of this island for the purpose of providing a contributiontoGreat Britain towards the costs of the war." The other Parochial Boards of the island followed this example and adopted a similar resolution;butin the meantime, and before thecloseof the month of August, the Government had already determined that there shouldbe a gift offered bythe colony to the Imperial Government. The matter had been arranged privately between the Governor and the elected members of the Legislative Council. The member for St. Ann, the Bon. J. R. Attwood, had

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JAMAICA Al!D THEGREATWAR.27cularised hiscoIleagues,and all of these had heartily agreed that there shouldbesome contribution made to the Mother CountrybyJamaica. This decision was immediatelyfoIlowedbya letter from the legislatorstoSirWilliam Manning,who replied onSeptember 1thathe greatly appreciated the action taken, and that "however smaIl the island's contribution maybe,limitedbyits resources,itwill be none the less an ceptable proof of the desire of the people of Jamaica todowhat lies in their power to assistatthis crisis in our history." Onthat same day the Governor despatched to the Secretary of State for theColoniesa telegram stating what Jamaica wasatthat moment prepared todo.The gift decidedupon was a very smallone.The financialoutlookwasstill consideredtoovague and uncertain to rant indulgence in overflowing generosity. A presentofsugar to the value of,000was tobemadeto the Mother Country, then greatly in need of sugaronaccount of the sudden stoppage of German and Austrian supplies. The present was promptly acceptedbythe Secretary of State for theColonies,whotelegraphed to saythatHis Majesty'sGov.ernment heartily appreciated the patriotic and generous offer of thepeopleof Jamaica, and considered that a gift of sugarwouldbe most acceptable. When this wasknown,somepersonssuggested a gift of fruit. But fruit and other products of the island were already being freely offered bythe peasants and planters of the country, and arrangements were beingmadeto send these presents by each outgoing ship.On 17the Legislature met in special session andI'm powered the Government to purchase sugar for the Imperial Governmenttothe amount of,000.Certain taxationreomitted some time before was re-imposedonthe country to meet this particular charge.Asthe system of taxation levied in Jamaica falls upon rich and poor,uponthe babe in arms aswell as onthe Wealthiest planter, professional man or merchant, the colony's

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28 JAMAICA ANDTHEGREAT WAR. gift ofsugar was made by everyone in Jamaica:it was a thoroughly representative contribution. Haditstood alone,it might have been supposedthatthe majorityofthepeople, never very articulate, and having whatpassesfortheirviews expressedbypersons not of theirownclass,hadmerely acquiesced in an action transacted in their name.Butwhen we rememberthatlabourers gave gladly to the voluntary funds, andthat peasantssent presents of fruit, cocoa, coffee and other things to the Jamaica Agricultural Society to be transmitted to England fortheuse and comfortofBritish soldiers and sailors,itis impossible to believethatthe island as a whole did not heartily approve of the Legislature's act. And when the monthofDecember came andSirWilliam ning published his annual messagetothe people ofJamaica, he made certain statements which provedthathe had hadanexceptional opportunityofjudging ofthefeelingsofworker and peasant as well as of the sentiments ofthe mer chant and the planter. His remarks deserve to be permanently preserved in any record dealing with Jamaica and the War, and may fittingly conclude this chapter. "Thatthe people of this island have done muchtoprovetheirvalue and their worth," wrote the Governor," I can bear full testimony. Their gifts to help those whoare strugglingfortheirdestiny, and for the destiny of the Empire showthetrendof their thoughts,thatthough theyarenotabletobearanactivepartinthedefence of their Empire, theyarestill able to dotheir share, however small, in lightening the burdens of those who havethegreater fortune of taking a more active part. I know ofnota few actsofself-sacrifice, acts of thoughtful kindness, and these but the few out ofthemany which will never be known."

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CHAPTERIVOFFERSOFMILITARY SERVICEIN one ofthedespatchessenttoJamaica shortlyafterEngland's declarationofwar,theSecretaryofStatefortheColonies laiditdownthatprovisionforlocal defence must be a first charge upontherevenuesofthecolony. Such provision was rightly understoodtobe exclusiveofthemaintenanceoftheImperialgarrisonintheisland,thisbeing a charge upontheImperial revenues. The colony was expect. edto organize a defence forceofitsown andat its own ex ;buteven beforethemessageoftheSecretaryofStatehad been made public-whichwas done on August 13-0ffers of service had beensenttotheGovernor from allpartsofJamaica, and in the newspapers suggestions as totheorganizing of volunteer corpshadalready begun to appear. And whenitwas knownthataJamaicaReserve Regiment wastobe formed, with members in every parish oftheisland,therewere public meetings called almost everywhere and volunteers came willingly forward inanswertotheGovernment's appeal. This was quite in accordance with the traditionsof Ja maica. Whenever the islandhadbeen threatenedinthepastthe people had always shownthegreatest willingnesstoarmintheirown defence. More, theyhadfought intheirown defence. However lacking in historical sense the average Ja maican may be, he knowsthathis forefathershadhadtofightforthesafety ofhiscountry when, in 1694, Admiral DuCasse "landedonthenorthandeast coasts oftheisland, burning;" slaying, plundering-, and terrorthrough out Jamaica.Itwas onthe19th of JulythattheFrench lande
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30JAMAICAANDTHEGREAT WAR.thisearly dateinthecolony's history when slavery in its most oppressive form existed, the black population was called upon to assist inthegeneral defence. We shall seefurtheroninthis chapterthat,astime went on,theblack population, although stillinastateof bondage, was recruitedforotherthanpurely defensive military operations. Subsequently, whenever invasion threatened, Jamaicans invariably showedthatthey were ready to defendtheisland, to keepitEnglishagainstall invaders to the bestoftheir ability. Butitwas felt and perceivedinAugust1914thattheold conditionsof warfare had been revolutionised,thatonlyifthe British fleet were defeated couldanenemy secure a foothold inanypartofthe British West Indies;thatthough a local defence force was necessary,andmightbe can ed upontorepel a raid, yetthatthe defenceoftheisland, as ofthewhole Empire,wasto be maintained onthebattlefieldsofthe European Continent and especially onthesea.If Jamaicans were totakeanyactivepartinthiswar,therefore, they must enlistintheBritish Armies,thenrapidly being formed. This realized, there arose a demandforco-operation withtheBritish Army. And young Jamaicansinthecolony, as wen as thoseinEnglandandinCanada, immediately pre pared to offer themselves to the military authorities ofJamaica, EnglandandCanadaforserviceinFranceorinany other theatreofthewar.There were already some JamaicansintheEnglish Army. Soon their countrymen were to hearof these--amongst thewounded and the dead. Those young men whowerestudyinginEnglishorCanadian universities,orwho were working abroad, began to enlist,andtheirservices were willingly ac cepted. Those in Jamaica who wished to enlist were informedthatmen werenotbeing recruited inthis country. Then began an exodusofthese young men, andofyoung English, Scotch and Irish meninthe colop.y, these proceeding to Eng. landorto Canadaattheirown expense; andthismovement,

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JAMAICA ANDTHEGREATWAR31 began as earlyasAugust1914, continued evenafterno man whowished to servetheEmpire was called upon topayhis passage to Canada orEnglandforthepurposeofoffering him self. Weekafterweekandmonthafter month itwas peatedlY recordedthatsomeoftheyounger menhadsailed tt join the BritishArmyorthe Canadian Expeditionary Force. positions were given up, savings were devotedtoproviding for the expensesofthejourney. AllJamaicaregardedwith pride the eagernessandthedevotionofthesegallantyoung fellows. The agitationforthesendingof a contingentfrom J a maica naturally founditsmosturgentexpressioninthepublic prints. An anonymous letter, written onAugust25,andpub lished intheGleaner onthe31st, urgedtheformationofa contingent for active service. A schemeforrecruiting a body of mounted men,threehundred in number,thelittle forcetobeentirely supportedbytheJamaica Government, was formu lated and placed beforeSirWilliam ManningbyMr. S.C.Burke. Then camethenewsthattheHome Government had accepted the offeroftheIndian Armyforactive serviceatthe front,anditwasgenerally feltthat there wasno reason why Indians should be acceptedandWestIndiansrefused. Was moneythedifficulty? Did,theGovernment feelthatthefinances ofthecolony werenotin a conditiontoundertakethecharge of sending mentotheMother Country? Then,it ,vas urged, apartofthemoney being subscribedinaidofthe soldiers and sailorsoftheMother Countrymightbe devoted to transportingthefinest aidofall-mentofighttheEmpire's battles intheEmpire'scause."Perhapseven a special fund might be openedforthispurpose," suggested awritersigning himself "Volunteer", in alettertothePress.Butthe most important suggestionatthattime camefromMajorA. N. Dixon, then recently electeda'memberoftheLegislativeCounCil.Itwasthemost important becauseithadtheback oftheelected members, and,ifanybodyofmenhadin-

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32 JAMAICA AND THEGREAT WAR. fiuencewiththeColonial Government, and throughthe Colo nial Government with the SecretaryofState for the' Colonies,itwas undoubtedly the elected members oftheLegislative Council.MajorDixon suggestedthat a strong Militia should bi! formed,therebeing hundredsof dischargedWestlndian sol. diers intheisland and in Central America who woqld willingly retul'll to the colours; Such a force would relieveforactive service the West India Regiment then garrisoningtheisland, and the whole cost of local defence could be undertaken bythecolony.Thirtyyears beforeitwould have been impossible for anyone to advocatethata country like Jamaica should be leftwithonly a Militia composed mainly of persons of African descent, a volunteer organizationof all classes of men, andtheexisting Police Force. Yettheupperclasses of Jamaica saw nothingstrangeinthe suggestion made by one of themselves. The old distrustof,the peopleas a whole had silently evapo ratedintheyearsthathad passed since the generationthathad witnessedtheMorant Bay Rebellion had given placetoa new typeofmen born in a neworderof things. It was feltthattheisland of Jamaica could consent to the sending awayoftheregulartroops and could with confidence undertaketomaintairi interrial order and to defend itself,if attacked, untilthearrival Of theonly meansthatcould ultimately ensure its safety, aBritishwarship.Butthoughtheelected members,at a private conference, decided to support Major Dixon's scheme, the Governor refusedtosupport it.Hedid not think, he said,thattheImperial authorities would approve ofitjustthen. The elected members took the Governor's refusal quietly; Major Dixon, writing to the Press, statedthatthere was no thing to'be gained by discussing his suggestion any further."ButI hope," he continued,'''that itmay still be possiblefortheloyaltyandpatriotism of Jamaica toshow itself in some other suitableactof devotion. ro1' excelleptas the gift of sugaris, as faras: it goes, it woUld almost a1nJ)U11tent mockerytooffer

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MENOFTHE JAMAICA CONTINGENT AT DRILL.

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JAMAICA AND TItEGREAT WAR 33 it except asa first instalmentandearnestofwhatweintend todolater on." ThatJamaicashould send men tothefrontwas still his firm conviction,andheleftittothecountrytosaywhatitwoulddo.Amonth after this, on October 16, theGleanerpublished a long leading article strongly advocat ingtheformationofa WestIndianContingent,withJamaicatakingthelead and invitingtheco-operationoftheBritishWest Indian Coloniesinthismovement.Theideaofa WestIndianContingent, then, was propa gated very shortlyafterthewar;butsoon there came totheWest Indies information which madetherealisationoftheidea impossibleatthatmoment. BeforethemonthofOctober was endeditwas knownthattheImperial Government (which probably meanttheWarOffice)haddecidedthataUmeninthe British West Indies capableofbearingarmsshould re maininthese islands to assistindefensive operations should such become necessary.Thiswas really the replytotheoffer of a West Indian Contingent which oneoftheWestIndianGovernors must have forwardedtotheWarOffice.Thereply wasnotofficially published.Itwas simply permitted to be .. known. "Defend your homes," wastheadviceoftheImperial authorities, and there wasnothingmore'to be saidjustthen. Nothing,thatis, bywayofargumentorrejoinder,but thia decision was much discussedin all thecolonies,andnot least soinJamaica. The disinclinationofthe Home' Government to have a Contingent fromtheWest Indies was thoughtin Ja maicatobe due to its reluctance toarmblack troopsagainstEuropeans."TheBritish soldier canstandup to anything excepttheBritishWarOffice," says Mr.BernardShaw, andduringthefirst monthsofthe war itdid seemasifmen willingandeager to become soldiers were being deliberately prevented by theregular routine officialsoftheBritishWarOffice.Itwasonlyafterthewarhadenduredforsome months, anditwas dis c()veredthatour so-called victories existed onpaperonly,that

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84 JAMAICA AND THE GREAT WAR. reform intheWarOfficeledtobetter methodsofrecruiting. The offer ofIndia wasnotonethatcould be dealtwithmerely by permanent officials,orevenbythe SecretaryofstateforWarhimself.Itcame before Parliament;it was reallyParliament, led by Lord Curzon, who acceptedthat offer which India has so magnificently madegood.ButtheWest Indies-whowould dealwiththeirtimid proposalof a thousand menorso: who save someone who thoughtitwasofno importance '1 And the moral effect ofa refusal was probablynotdwelt upon for a single instant. Happily, the disappointment felt inJamaica, thoughit gave rise to some ordinary conversational comment, created no bitterness. Jamaicanshadoffered to serve in the South African War.Ithad been plainly inti mnted to themthatitwould be impossibleforthe Mother Country to employ coloured troops against the Boers, as the latter were notorious for their fierce race prejudice, and also because, in a land like South Africa, the employment of black troops against white men might have a dangerous after-effect. Jamafeans believedthatEngland was considering,notherown inclinations,butthe thoughts and feelings of others byher refusal toaccept black men for service in South Africa; the difficultyofherposition was admitted.Butit was thought strangethatagainstanenemy such astheGermans were re portedtobethereshould be any reluctance to haveatthefront a body of West Indians, white, mixed-bloodandblack, wbo had been bornandbrought up as British subjects and who could not possiblybeclassed amongst savages. Was this race prejudice'1 The newspapers answered the question which they knew was being askedinthe one effective way they could. They pointed outthatno blackorcoloured manofmilitary age was refused in Englandorin Canada by the recruiting agents, and this facthad a salutary effect. IndividualsinJamaica ignoredthesuggestionthatthey snould remain and enlist for home defence. They continued to sail for England, and news soon camethatthey were

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JAMAICA AND THE GREAT WARas welcomedthere.Thenpublic opinion took a swiftturn,andit was saidandbelievedthatifthe local Government wouldonlyact with firmness,andurgethataJamaicaContingent should be accepted, all would be well.Therewas a deep rooted disinclinationtobelievethatEnglandwould refuse aloyaloffer from oneofheroldest colonies.Thisfeeling, al most amountingtoaninstinct, was perfectly sound. England had not refusedtheofferoftheWest Indies, thoughtheWar 0ffice had done so.ButtheWarOfficemethodsofrecruiting were shortlytobe subjectedtosevere criticism,andthe daywascoming when WestIndiantroops would be welcomed with acclamationinthemothercountry. West Indian troopshadnever been used on European battlefields inthepast,itistrue,butthiswasprobably duetotwosufficientreasons:first, because allformerwarswere fought in Europebycomparatively small professional armies; and next, becausewhenEnglandhadhadtocontend with other nations,thewarwaswaged intheWestIndiesaswellasontheplainsofEuropeandIndia.Duringtheseventeenth and eighteenth centuries England wasoften at warwithFrance and Spain,orwithboth combined,andinthesewarsJamaicans played somepart.Thus in 1739Englanddeclared war on Spain,andAdmiralVernon attackedPortoBello on -;he Isthmus ofPanama.Jamaica wasanimportantnaval sta tion in those days,andVernon naturally came tothisisland afterthecaptureoftheIsthmianseaport.Thenextyearhe sailedtobombard Cartagena,andmost probably some J amai cans went withhim;theyearafterthatVernon's fleet wasre inforced by another fleet which arrivedfromEnglandunder Sir Chalonger Ogle,withwhom an Englisharmyalso came. Jamaica volunteers accompaniedthisarmytoCartagena. More, a Negro Contingent was specially organized bytheGovernor,Edward Trelawn;v, andthis contingent formedpartoftheKing's forcesthatwere intendedtoreduce Cartagena, then consideredthestrongestcity andfortressontheSpanish

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36 JAMAICA ANDTHEGREAT WAR. Main.Theexpedition was unsuccessful; a year afterwards more reinforcements arrived from England, andthistimeit was determinedthatthecityofPanamashould be taken. The Governor raised a regimentofsoldiers in the islandand ac companied them himself: once more the white, black and col oured inhabitants ofthe island sailed forthtomeetandfight the Empire's enemies. This expedition was no more success fulthanhadbeentheformer one. This was duetobad gen eralship andthegenerally wretched arrangements madeforthe comfort and care ofthetroops.Warwas again declared by England against Spain in1762,andwhatis described asua formidable expedition" sail edforHavana;a fleet from Jamaica joined the fleet fromEng.land; witl; theformer went a number of Jamaica Negro troops. These had been raisedatthespecial requestoftheImperial Government; they were mostly slaves who had been hastilytrainedtotheuseof arms. Havana was taken, andwas heldbytheBritish until peace between EnglandandSpain was concluded. In1779an expedition against the Span ish coloniesofCentral America was again despatchedfromJamaica;itwas organized by Governor DaIling andwithit,vent Horatio Nelson, afterwards to be celebrated astheheroofTrafalgar. There were some Jamaicans with this force also,andwhen in1793,England then beingatwarwithFrance, a small white contingent sailed fromPortRoyalandcapturedthetownofJeremie in Hayti,itwas soon reinforced by two hundred Negrosoldiers, with the aid of whom St. Nicholas was taken. Our efforts tosubduetheIsland of Hayti and SanDomingo went badlyafterthe initial successeS. Itis statedthatreinforcements from England,tothe numberofeighteen thousand men, weresentout duringthe years1795-1796.Nothing was understood about tropical health conditionsinthose days, and the livesofsoldiers didnotseemtobe regardedasofmuch consequence. These English troops died like flies;thena attempt was madetocreate a large num-

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JAMAICA ANDTHEGREATWAR. 37 berofNegro regiments,andslavesfromJamaica were des patched toHaytiforthatpurpose.Theend ofthatefforttotaketheIsland is well known;hereweareonly concernedwiththe briefest possil;lle statementoftheactivitiesofJamaicansin the previouswarsofEngland.Contrarytotheopinion that has sometimes been expressed,wemustassertthatthe ex peditionsinwhichthepeopleofthiscountrytook a fairly con siderable though usuallyanunfortunatepartwerenot con sideredastriflingbytheImperial Government. They were regarded as ofthefirst importance. Nelson soughtinWestIndianwatersthefleet he defeatedatTrafalgar,andtohavetakenCartagenaandPanamawouldhavebeentodeal a terrible blowtotheoverseas powerofSpain.Afterthedefeat of Napoleonandtherevolt oftheSpanish American colonies fromtheirmothercountry,theWestIndianwatersandtheSpanish Mainandislands ceasedtobethebattlefieldsoftheEuropean Powers.Fora hundredyearstheJamaicanwasnottroubled bywarathisverydoors;henolongerpreparedto leave his nativelandforservice inanothercountryundertheBritishflag, save indeedinsofarashebecame a soldierintheWestIndiaRegiments and wassenttosubdue uprisings in thehinterlandofBritishAfrica.Hebecame amanofpeace, forgettingthedays when hisfathershad so often beenatwar.ButwhenthegreatWorldWarbroke outandloyal British subjects were hastening fromallpartsoftheglobetoserveundertheBritishcolours, hefeltthat he toomustbe represented.Aswe have seen, his first endeavours tothatend were baulked. We shall presently seehowa subsequent effort wasrewardedwithsuccess.

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CHAPTER V HOPES AND FEARSWHENthe first flushofexcitement created hy the stirring events ofthefirst three weeks ofAugust 1914 had passed away, there was, as hasbeen already indicated, a subsidenceoffeeling into something likeitscustomary calm.Theroutine work of the country andoftheindividual hadtobe performed, menhadtolive as usual,andno excitementorenthusiasm could possibly maintainforlong the same exalted level. Neverthelessitwasnotwiththeold attitudeofmindthatthe peopleturnedto facethenew problems which hadsuddenly arisen: a newsituationhaddeveloped andthatmust needs be dealt with imme diately, though manyhadtoact, as itwere, inthedark. Nearlyhalfthe import tradeofJamaica was done withGreat Britain, and now the English firms began urgentlytoenquire intothefinancial conditionofthe colony's business men, while many of them declineatosell except on a basisofcash payments. The public asa whole continued to purchase spar ingly, a policy of economy which was maintained until towardsthemiddleofDecember. Merchants and storekeepers re ducedtheir staffs orreducedthe wages oftheir staffs, and this, coupled withthesuspensionofmuch Government and Parochial work, whichhad given, employment tothousandsofthelabouring classes, produced a new feelingofdepression which was increasedanddeepened by the then prevailing drought. Since 'the earthquakeof1907 the seasonshadbeen irregular, and the rainfall had been less onthewhole than during the previous seven years.Inspiteof this, and in spite alsoofa hurricane inthelatterpartof1912, whichhad OCCasionedsevere loss to the western parishes of the

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JAMAICAANDTHEGREAT WAR. 39 island,theoutputoftheplantationshadmaintained a fairly high level. This was duetotheextensionofcultivation gen erally and tothespiritofenterprisewhichplanters and peasants alikehadshowninthefaceofall adverseand un settling circumstances.Jamaica had never entirely abandoned thesugarindustryorneglectedtheproductionofcoffee. Tothecultivationofcocoashehadoflate years been devoting much attention. Pimento, oranges and dyewoods grew practically wild, and there wes thebanana,hermainarticle of export.Butalargequantityofhercoffeeandpimento, and some ofherrum,hadbeen soldto GermanyandAustria previoustothewar;andthistrade,ofcourse,hadnow dis-, appeared.Itwas onfruit,dyewoodsandcocoathatshe be lieved she would nowhavemainlytodepend;such sugar asshehadwould be sold also, and atgood prices;butthe pre vailing opinion wasthatrumwould be adrugonthemarket. Stm,withgood seasons, allmightbefairly well; unfortunatelyitwasthegood seasonsthatwere lacking.Thedrought thatmight have been accepted philosophicallYatanyothertime, wasatthatmoment contemplatedwithserious though notwithloud misgivings.IfitdidnotbreakinOctoberthesituation might become difficulttocope with,andtheisland would be threatenedwith sufferingandpossibly a financial crisis. There wasanotherreasonforthewaveofdepression which swept overthecolonyaboutthistime.Inspiteofa firmfaithintheultimate triumph oftheAllies, intelligent people could not help observingjustthenthattheGermans were pressing on victoriously. The telegramsthatcametoJamaica were fullofrhetoricandofprophesiesoftheenemy's speedy defeat:theyweregladly believed,butinthe mean timetheenemy was compellingtheAlliestoretreat.Thisfact no amountofreasoning could explainaway;itwas so evidentthattheGovernor, onthenightofAugust30, com mandedthechief censortoinformthepublicthroughthe

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40 JAMAICA AND THE GREAT WAR. Pressthattheinformation then being received through the ordinary news agencies must be accepted withthegreatest reserve, His Excellency'sofficialinformation tendingtoshowthatthe German advance and the withdrawal of the Allies' forces hadnotthesignificance claimed for them,butratherappeared to be resulting intheexhaustionoftheGerman efforts. Suchanassertion would not have been made with any deliberately dishonest intention.It was quite on aparwith the general belief prevailingduringthe first phaseofthe war. Whatevertheenemy didorachieved was regarded as having no permanent significance; he was rapidly becom ing exhausted; we should begintodrive him back almost immediately;theduration of thewarcould only be amatterof months. Nevertheless,thatthe Germans should be abletomake any progress whatever was not considered in the colony as what oughttohave happened, andtherewere not lacking some to shake dismal heads and muttersadpredictions.Buta swingofthependulumofpublic feeling soon occurred. This was the resultofthe captureofa German auxiliary cruiser on the high seas, theprize being brought into Kingston Harbour on the morningofSeptemberthe11th. Jamaicans have always had some understanding ofwhatsea power means. An island peoplearewell acquainted with the sea; they realisethatifcut off from overseas intercourse they must suffer severely; and there is hardly a literate Jamaican who isnotwell awarethatiftheBritish Navy were once destroyedthewhole structureoftheEmpire must in evitably falltopieces.Soevenifthe land campaign wasnotyet goingassatisfactorily fortheAllies as one could wish, there was alwaysthesatisfactionof knowing thaton the sea the British, Navy was supreme.Thatsupremacy hadbeendirectly demonstrated in the Caribbean bytheimmunity from attack hitherto enjoyed by alltheBritiSh West Indian Islands.Itwas now to be further proved by a fact which all the inhabitan't$'Qfthe colony could easily appreciate.

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JAMAICA ANDTHEGREATWAR. 41 Itwas historicalthat,intheseventeenth and eighteenth centuries,richprizes captured bytheEnglishhadbeen brought into Kingston Harbour.Therehad beEm a time when that spacious plane of gleamingwaterhadbeen coveredwiththe captive vesselsofthenationswithwhichtheEmpirewasthenatwar.Buthardly anyonehadhopedtosee a prizeofwar broughtintoaportofJamaica oncemore;and so, when the newsoftheGermancruiser'scapturewas rumoured aboutthe city onthemorningofSeptember 11, anditwasfurthersaidthattheship was coming here,thereportwasatfirst regardedwithconsiderable incredulity.Butitgrew anditspread:itwastheKarlsruhewhichhadbeen taken, went thestory,andtaken onlyaftera desperate fight.Itwas a bigger armoured cruiser still. However, whateveritwas,therewerethousands upon thousandsofpeople deter minedtotrustonlytheevidenceoftheirown eyes; and thus, long beforethecaptive. andhercaptorcould maketheir ap pearanceintheoffing,thewaterfrontofKingstonwasthrongedwithaneager expectant crowd.ItwasintheafternoonthattheBethania,withfive hun dred German reservists on board,andH.M.S. Essex which had captured her, came into view beyondthePalisadoes. Thentherewasnolonger <\oubt. Astormof enthusiasm burstforthsuddenly. The crowdsthatclustered on every pier,thatoccupied every available footofspace on every high buildinginthelowerquarterofthe city, thatthrongedthesidewalksandhadtobe preventedfromobstructingthetraffic inthestreets-theserealisedwithjoyandpridethattheir country was, in a way,takingsomepartinthewar,thatGerman prisoners were coming here,thattheseas,freeto themasBritishsubjects, were inexorably closed to those who wereatwarwithEngland. Whenthetwo shipshadenteredtheharbourand weresteamingparallel to Kingston's waterfront, a man, perched onanoutlook upon oneofthepiers, pro
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42JAMAICA ANDTHEGREAT WAR.thesignalfor a thunder of cheering such'as Kingston hadseldom heard before. The sailors onthe Essex made no reply to a greeting which they knew was intended for them, thebandof the warship playedandthe strainsof its music came over the waters and were heard in the intervalsofthewild huzzahing, the tumultandtheshoutingofthepeople. The prisoners on the captured auxiliary cruiserBethania gathered upon the shoresideoftheir ship and gazedat the immense multitude in silence. Butwhen they landed they foundthatnot an insulting expression was hurled atthem from anyofthecrowd, andthattheauthorities had neglected no precaution to protect them from any avoidable inconveni ence. They were not paraded as a spectacle. As quickly as possible thoseofthem who were to be conveyed toUp-ParkCampwere placed inclOSedcars and driven a.way; butforhoursafterthe prisonershad landed the streetsof lower Kingston were crowded with thousandsofthe excited citizens, and each and everyone spoke only of the scene theyhadwit nessed that day, while some recalled with pridetheold naval traditionsofJamaica and feltthat,in the future,thecolony mightyetagain become a station of some importancetothat NaV'J with whichithad been so closely and so gloriously con nected inthe past. The progressofthewarinFrance and Flanders con tinued to be followed withthe liveliest attention and interest.Itwas well understoodthat,withthe GermanretreatfromtheMarne to the Msne, Pariswas forthepresent safe,andhopes were entertainedthattheGermans would be driven back muchfartherstill. Eventhesinking ofthethreeBritish cruisers, theCressy, Aboukir,andHogue,by a Ger man submarine, causedbutlittle uneasiness inJamaica:theloss was not overestimated andit was confidently believedthat a similar unfortunate occurrence could easily be avoided inthefuture. Also, withthetelegrams statingthatonthe Aisne the Germanswer\'l"withcourage bornof des-

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JAMAICAANDTHEGREAT WAR. 43 pair,"andwiththelocalpapersbravely prophesyingthattheenemyhadshot his boltintheWest,itwasnaturalthatmany people should begintothinkand speakofthewarasalready entering onanewandvictorious phase.Butonthe9thofOctobertheGermans entered Antwerp. This news was publishedinJamaicathree daysafterwards.ThelossofAntwerpwasregardedintheislandasa most serious blow.Itseemedtoimpresstheimagination of large numbers.Itwas looked uponasproofthattheenemy wasfarmore powerfulthanhehadbeenthoughttobe,thathe might succeedinreachingParisathisnextventure,mighttake Calais, andthenmightmakeaneffortataninvasion of England.Fora while something like pessimismwasfelt andexpressed-notinregardtotheultimate issuebutinregardtotheimmediate prospectsofthewar. And when intheafternoon of November 7itwas announcedthatonthefirstofthatmonthAdmiralCradock had fought a German squadron in the Southern Pacificandhad,been totally de feated,theapprehension a:tld gloom amongstallclasses deepened to its darkest. The detailsatfirst receivedofthis engagement were scanty, andtherestill prevailed notionsinregardtomodern naval armament which prevented most personsfromseeingthatSouth Pacific fightand its issue intbeirproperperspec tive.ThattheGerman shellshadso quicklyandso speedily settheBritish ships on fire,startledthose-thevastmajority-whohad notyetlearntthatthiswas preciselytheexpected effectofshell fire,andwas not atall duetosome special invention which the enemyhadkept secret, onlytoemploywithdeadly effect uponBritishshipsofwar. Dejection was plainly visible onthefacesofthose in Kingston whohadheardofthebattle onthatSaturdayafternoon;dejection was everywhere visibleinanotherdayortwo whenthenewshadspread to allpartsoftheisland.Itwassaidthatthis was the first timefor a hundredyearsthatEnglandhad

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44 JAMAICA AND THEGREAT WAR. met a European Power onthe sea, shiptoship and gun togun; and fortheEnglish to have been beaten without flictinganymaterial damage onthefoe was abitterfacttoface, afactwhieh suggested possibilities whieh no one wantedtoaeknowledge, even intheseeret reeessesofhis mind.Butfurtherdetails began to arrive, and the newspapers were able to comment onwhathad taken place inthePacific, and to showthatthe defeatofRearAdmiral Cradock tained nothingofshame, nothing at which the BritishEmpireeould need to blush. Cradock had recently been in Jamaica. Hehad been in command of the ships coming and going in these waters.Hehadbeen observedbyhundreds:ithad beensaidby some who saw him that,ifhe should ever meet the enemy, the endofthatmeeting could only be victory ordeath. tory, asthepeople soon learnt, was out of the questionforCradock off the Coast ofCoronel. His ships were outclassed, his guns outranged; he fought twoofthe finest armoured cruisers intheGerman Navy; fought forfivehours,thensank beneaththewaves inthethick darknessofthe southern nightwithhis flag still proudly flying, with highcourageinhisheart,conscious that, though beaten in this battle, hehadupheld his cout:1try's honour tothelast, and had proved him self worthy to be named with thosegreatseamen whose prowesshadmade England.theMistressofthe Seas.Thecolony's spirits revived asthetruth became known and asitssignificanee beeame appreciated. The Germanshadaccomplished no miracle. The destruetionofthe German Pacific squadron might safely be counted upon. Thislastwasof very practical importance totheleast imaginative; since,ifAdmiral von Spee should come into the AtlantiebywayofthePanamaCanal,oreven by rounding the Horn,itwas wen withintheboundS of probabilitythathe would passnearenoughtothe island of Jamaieatodosome damage with his modern nine-inch guns. InSeptemberthe Emden

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JAMAICA ANDTHEGREAT WAR. 45 had fired on Madras, and von Spee's ships were infinitely more powerfulthanthe Emden. Butalthough there was no positive information onthepoint,itwas confidently assumed thattheavengers of Cradock would soon be ontheirwaytomeet von Spee.OnNovember 17 a telegram, coming origin ally from Valpariso, and dated onthe13th, was published:itstatedthatanother. naval engagement was momently ex pected between German and English naval forces. This,ofcourse, was a mere guess:itwasananticipation ofwhatwas considered certain.Butwhen, a few days later, H.M.S.Princess Royal, one of the finest superdreadnought battle cruisers in the British Navy, steamed into the harbourof Kingston andanchored,itwas understood in Kingstonatleastthatthedaysofvon Spee's squadron were numbered. A telegram dated December 2,butgiven out bythecensors only on December 8, announcedthata battle between German and British squadrons was imminentintheSouth Atlantic.Onthatvery day, though no one in Jamaica could knowit,theFalkland Islands Battle was fought. The news came late on the following afternoon; special editionsofthe newspapers were issued inthecityand the newsboysranaboutthethoroughfares and among the suburbs crying out the joyful tidings oftheGermans'utterdefeat. Other cheerful intelligence wasjustthenbeing passed fromone'partofthe country to another. Towards the end of October the drought had broken. Raininabundant snowers was steadily falling everywhere.Ithad come in time,itgave promiseofcontinuance. This promise was kept,andthus one cause of anxiety was removed.SowhentheChrist mas holidays came round they were enjoyed with muchtheusual heartiness; there was, perhaps, a little less spending than usual; otherwise there was no difference. The year 1914 had ended in Jamaica on a cheerful note.TheNew Year dawned upon a country wonderingwhatthenexttwelve months wouldbringto it, praying for a

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46 JAMAICA AND THE GREAT WAR. speedy end to the terrible strugglethenproceeding,but in clined to view the immediate futurewithhopeful eyes. During thefivemonthsjustelapsedithadpassed through many varied phases of feelings.Ithadruna whole gamutof in tensely contrasted emotions, had risen high onthe wings ofenthusiasmandbeen plunged deep intotheslough of dismay. Butithad all along, and in spiteofevery uncertaintyorpresent adverse circumstance, struggled to show its traditional loyalty to Throne and Empire.Ithad wanted to testify in a practicalmannerits willingness tomake sacrificesforthecommon cause.Itsdearest wish, to takepartin the actual fighting atthefront, had been deniedtoit, and the disap pointment was felt. Butatleastithadtriedtodo its duty;anditstood readytoproveatany momentthatits offerofmenfortheKing's service had been no idle one.

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CHAPTERVITHEFIRSTFIVEHUNDREDFOR a whilethecolony apparently acceptedasfinaltheWarOffice's decisioninregardto a West Indian Contingent.Fora little while nothing more was said in tile Pressaboutthesendingofmentotakepartinthegreat struggle.Butinthemeantime letters from Jamaicans whohad joinedtheBritishArmyinthefirst weeksofwarhad beguntoappearinthelocalpapers;these breathed a highspiritofcourage and patriotism,andthe perusalofthem verynaturallyservedtofireafreshtheardourofyoungmenwho enviedthe good fortuneofthefew who were already in thePressaboutthesending.ofmentotakepartinthewhowishedtohavetheirnames enrolled as recruits, and who desiredtobe examined so as to bereadyforenlistingatanymomentitmightbe decided to send a contingent fromJ a maica.Thusthequestionofa contingentofsomesortsoon became again oneofthe living topicsoftheday: the problem was,how,could any men besentfromJamaica?The solution ofthatproblem was suggesteq onApril23, 1915, by Mr. William Wilson, well known as a merchantand businessman'ofKingston,asanEnglishman whohadlong residedinJamaica, having madethiscolonyhispermanent home. Mr. Wilson'splanwasa very simple one,asusually are theplans which immediatelyattractpublic attention and approvalandwhich signally succeed. We will giveit as itappearedinhis own words,inhis letter totheGleaner:-"The Editor.Sir,-Therehasbeen, and is, dence in your valuable paperinreJamaicans who are desirous of going tothewar,butwho are unabletobearthe necessary expense.EnquiryattheMilitary Headquarters provesthat will equipandland aman inEngland.Ifninety-nine

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48JAMAICA AND THE GREAT WAR. other men will subscribe each, I will giveanequal amount to send two hundred native-born Jamaicans to the front. Like myself, theremustbemanYmenintheisland who, though unabletovolunteer, would like to feelthatthey were doing even a little bittohelp. I am, etc., William Wilson," So straightforward and practical a proposal called forth immediately aheartyresponse frompersons who were in a pcsition to aid financially and who had long thoughtthatJamaicaaswell as otherpartsofthe British Empire shouldberepresented amongst the fighting forces oftheMother Country. Mr. Wilson's communication appeared on a Friday.Onthe next dayhereceived three letters warmly commending his proposal. These letters, and a few others which did much to popularisethenew contingent idea, may well be transcribed here. Mr. Robert Craig, of Chapelton, wrote: "I havejustread your appeal in to-day'sGleaner.I feel exactly asyoudo,sojustputme downfor and ask meformy cheque whenitis required. The Empire needs every manitcan muster, a fact which doesnotseem to be appreciated evenathome!butwhich, I am qualified to know, is, clear to many patriotic young fellows here." Messrs. Manton andHart,ofKingston, said: "We heartily approve of your admirable suggestion for helping the Empire, and hope the idea will grow, andthatyou will get morethanyou dream of towards the fund. Pleaseputus down as contributorstothe sum of ." Messrs. Sherlock and Smith, of Kingston,wrote: "We both feelthatyour idea is a good one, andthateveryone in Jamaicathat can affordtohelp the l\fother Country in any wayjustnow shoulddoso. You willfindSherlock's cheque for,and mine forthesame amount." The letter was signed by Mr.J.R. Smith. \Itwas then announcedthatsubscriptions to the fund could be sent eithertothe Gleaner ortoMr. William Wilson, and during thenextweek other commendatory letters were published bytheGleaner.Mr.F.G.Sharp, of Trout Hall,

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MISSDOUET.MRS.BRISCOE.MISSDOUGLAS.

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JAMAICA ANDTHEGREAT WAR.49Clarendon,senta chequefor, and very wiselyurgedthatthose who might not be able to affordthesum mentionedbyMr. William Wilson should nevertheless contribute tothefund. Mr. T. N. Aguilarwrote:"Pleaseputme downfora subscription of totheWarContingent Fund. I heartily approve ofthescheme,butIthinkthatwhether enough money is obtained to send200menornot,thenumberofmen we can actually send should go." Mr. Horace Myers said in hisletter: "I aminfull sympathywiththesuggestion to send a first Jamaica Contingent tothefront,and would like very much to seeitarranged-thesoonerthebetter. Igofurtherandsaythatevery effort should be made to this end.Itgives megreatpleasure to subscribethesumofthirtyguineastohelp alongthescheme, which I sincerelytrustwill materialise." Mr. Leonard deCordova'wrote: "Pleaseputme downfor towardstheJamaicaWarContingent Fund. I' entirely ap proveofit, and wishitevery success. I would suggestthatsome effort should be made to encourage young men willing to enlist to send intheirnamesatonce. Many may be waiting todo so. Whenthenames begin to come in,themoney, I think, will follow very quickly." Mr.M.M.Alexander dressed his letter to Mr. Williap1 Wilson, askingthathis name should beputdown for .."I hope," he concluded,"thelistwill continuetogrowrapidly;itis amatterthatshould be carried through without delay." This letter appeared onthelast dayofApril;sothat,withina week ofthepublicationofMr. Wilson's suggestion,theidea had receivedthesupportofmany men whose views would have considerable influence whileithad also been strongly taken up and commended by the island's Press.Itstartedunder the most auspicious cir cumstancesandwastohave afargreater developmentthanits originator could possibly have imaginedorhoped. Confident nowofthescheme's success, Mr. Wilson vited Mr. Baggett Gray, Mr.M.deCordovaandMr.FrankJacksontoassist himintheworkthatwas to be done, and

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50 JAMAICA ANDTHEGREATWAR.this committee at oncesetabout to appeal for subscriptions, the Gleaner being the medium ofitscommunications withthepublic. A telegram was prepared and despatched throughthe local military authoritiestoEngland, offering a contingent offrom one hundred to two hundred men. By the beginningofJune theWarContingent Fund stood at over ,000, and no one could doubtthatthe sum required for the transportation of 200men would easily be collected.Butin the intervalthePress and the public had cometo the conclusionthatthe con tingent movement should not merely be a voluntary one; an agitationfor a national movement was begun: led bythe Gleaner itdaily grew stronger.Itwas the direct and logical resultofthe reply which had been made to Jamaica's offer by the BritishWarOfficeand the Secretaryof State fortheColonies.Itfollowed inevitably on Mr. Wilson's practical and patriotic movement. The replyofthe British authorities was received inthelast weekinMay.It was made publiconthe 28th. TheWarContingent Committee's telegram had mentioned recruits up to the numberof200, and special emphasis had been laid on the fact thatthese recruits would be black, coloured and white men, a mixed body representing the different strataand com positionofthe island's population. The despatch accepting the offer statedthatany numberofmen the colony might wish to send would be welcomed, which responseatonce !'-SsuredJamaicans thatany objectionthatmayatfirst have been en tertained in regard to West Indiansofall colours joiningtheKing's Armies in appreciable numbers had now completely dis appeared-Jamaicawas free to send 10,000 men if she de sired todoso. Thisput it beyond questionthatJamaica'sloffer had been taken seriously, and many persons perceived quite clearlythat a mere 200 mensentby private subscriptions would have more of a sentimental than a practical value, andwouldbea con tribution altogether incommensurate with the size and historic

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JAM.AICA ANDTHEGR'mA'1' WAR 51 reputationofa colony like Jamaica. The agitationforalargercontingent was therefore bound to continue and to grow. On the 2ndofJunethere was a meetingofthe St. ThomasParochial Board.AtthatmeetingtheChairman, Mr.J.H. Wil liams, moved a resolution in whichtheBoard unanimously expressed the opinion"thata representative contingent ofatleast 1,000 men and officers, to be maintainedatfull strength during the war", should besentto England, the cost being bornebythe Government. A special land tax to defraytheexpensesofthiscontingent was suggested, the membersofthe Board individually expressingtheirwillingness to pay this special tax. Other Parochial Boards soon followed this ad mirable lead,butthe War Contingent Committee itself had also perceivedthatthe original scheme must now be modified and considerably expanded. The committee had now been enlarged. The contingent movement having receivedtheapprovalofthe British au thorities,theGovernor felt freetoassociate himself with it. Accordingly, he and General Blackden became membersofthenewWarContingent Committee, which, as finally constituted, contained these members: His Excellency the Governor, Mr. William Wilson, Mr. Baggett Gray, Mr. Michael de Cor dova, Mr.FrankJackson, General Blackden, Lieut. Otley, Mr. John Tapley, Mr. John Barclay, Mr. Edward Morris, Cap tain List, Hon. Sydney Couper, Hon. Coke Kerr. This body met early inJunewithMr. William WilsonasChairman, anditwas then decided on the suggestionoftheGovernorthatthecontingent should consist of500men,withreserves to replace casualties which might from time to time occur through sicknessorother causes. Jamaica havingsettheexampleofa practical effort to wards contributing a contingent of soldiersto the BritishArmy,thesister colonies of Trinidad, British Guiana and Bar bados immediately prepared to followthatexample.SirWiriam Manning had entered, into communication withthe.

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52 JAMAICA ANDTHEGREAT WAR. Governors of those col
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JAMAICAANDTHE GREATWAR.53The examinationofrecruitswentsteadilyon;and sub scriptions towardstheContingentFundcontinued to come in.TheContingent Committee didnothesitate to ask the public for eontributionsassmall as threepence.'Theappeal had first beenfor.,000.The sumof .,000 was next asked for. Then the committee boldly placed the figureat,000, sug gesting thatthevoluntary effort might be able todoallthat was needed. The public responded liberally. But the public meantthat JamaiCa should sendfarmorethan500men, anddayafterdaytherewas something said in this connection.OnJune29therewas a meetingoftheWarContingent Committee,andthereit was statedthat748 recruits had pre sented themselvesforexamination,ofwhom442had been accepted. There were still 155 new applications for enrol ment, soitseemed certainthatthe 500 men wanted would be forthcoming when a transport ship should be obtained. This announcement was pleasurably received,themoresoas there had not been wanting pessimiststosuggestthatJamaica,inspite of allthetalk, would not be abletofind 200 willing re cruits whenthemoment camefora final decision on thepartof the younger men. This was said quite freely, and only facts could refute the pessimists: nowthatthey stood refuted theyatonce attacked the suggestionthatthecolony should send"atleast 1,000 men." Thiscwas quite out of the question, theysaid;500 would be as many asthecolony could scrape together. Thenthequality oftherecruits was pronounced tobemiserable, especially by those whohadnotset eyes upon the men.Asalastresortit was confidently assertedthatthe contingent would never besentfor,thatour offer hadonly been accepted sothatour feelings should not be too much hurt,thatsome good excuse would be found for keepingthemen in Jamaica until thewarwasatanend.InJulythepublic criticismoftheGovernment's apparent disinclinationtomakethecontingent movement a nationaloneattainedits most vigorous expressionifrom every quarter

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54 JAMAICA ANDTHEGREAT WAR. came strenuous protests, and someoftheexpressions used were positively bitter. All the colony's church papers hadbutone thing to say, andthatconsistedofa demandfora na_ tional contingent. Men occupying leading positions in their respective parishes implored the Governor and Legislative Council nottoallowtheisland to be disgracedata time when every otherpartofthe British Empire was hastening to make sacrificesforthegreatImperial Cause. These gentlemen had all contributed handsomely towards theWarContingentFund;morethanone had each given enoughtosend away sixoreight recruits.Itwas therefore with no desire to escapetheirpersonal obligationsthatthey urged ontheGovernment a na tional movement. The immediate though indirect reply oftheGovernor to all these exhortations was theannouncementthatout of public funds he would provide two weeks' training for the recruitsatUpParkCamp, prior totheirleavingthe is land. This was considered so utterly inadequate a contribution from General Revenue towards the contingent expensesthattheGleanercalled upon the elected members to take the ini. tiative, hold a meeting among themselves, and represent strongly totheColony's Executivethedesireofthepeoplethatsomething substantial and truly representative ofthenational capabilities should be attemptedandcarried through. This paper suggestedthatthe contingent should consist of 5,000men, andthatforthispurposethecolony should become responsible foranexpenditure of,000.Itprofessed a preference for a stiIllargerscheme, namely10,000men and a capital expenditureofa million pounds,or,000a year for forty years.ButthesmallerSchemewastheone whichitstrongly and deliberately advocated; and nowthattheappeal direct had been made totheelected memberS, the efforts of many persons inthecountry were directed towards inducing these legislatorstousetheir irlfiuence with the Governmentinthe interestofa national contingent movement.

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JAMAICA ANDTHEGREAT WAR. 55 August came.Theagitation continued. The hurricane season was well now advanced;but as inNovember 1912 Jamaica had been visitedbya devastating cyclone, most persons hoped and believedthatforsometimetocome the island would be spared.Buton August 12 came warnings from Washington, and ontheeveningofAugust 13 massesofblackcloudon thenorthernandeastern horizons,andfierce squalls with sharp stinging showersofrain, foretold only too plainly the inevitable approachoftheancient scourge.Ina few hoursithad come and gone,butintheintervalithaddestroyed producetothevalueofseveral hundred thousand pounds, and had damaged roadsandrailway lines severely.Ithad found the country faIr andflourishingandhadleftdestruction initswake. The colonyhad suffered serious loss,andfora mo ment manymusthave feltthattherecould be no moretalkofa national contingent movement.Butno one said so. The previousyearhadbeen,inspite of droughtandwar, oneofthe best industrially and financiallythatthe colonyhadknownforhalfa century.Itsexport trade had amountedinvalue to nearlythreemillion pounds sterling, according totheofficial computation,andwas prob ably actually morethanthat.The peoplehadbeen practising economy too; henceitwas felt generallythattherestoration of damaged plantations wouldnotbe so difficult nowasithadproved to be on some previous occasions.Itwas not long be foreitwas perceivedthatthoughtheislandhad suffered lossitwas by no means crippled; hence on August 18 thePresswas able tostatethatallthearguments whichhadbeen ad vanced in favourofa national contingent still held good, andthattheoccurrenceofthehurricane was no reason whatever why Jamaica should notdosomething substantialforthesakeofits own honourandforthe Imperial Cause. The Governor called the Legislative Council together on September 21.Thefinancial situation createdby.thehurri cane wasput beforeth{! members.Hurricanerepairsto

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56JAMAICA ANDTHE GREAT WAR. public roads and works would cost ,652; in addition there wasanestimated decreaseofrevenue over thewhole year'll transactions amounting to,218, making agrandtotal of,870. Thesums available totheGovernmentto meet this amount were ,202, leaving the deficit to be met at,578 It Wasexpectedthat theGovernor would propose to levy new taxesto cover this anticipated deficit. of that he proPosed to finance the colony by overdrafts onthe banks until theendof the current financial year. Then came the an nouncement which thecolony had been longing and praying to hear, butwhichfew persons thought could be madein the existing; financialcircumstances ofthecountry. Ult may be held expedient," said HisExcellency,"thata loan should be raised. tocoverthe expenditure which maybe incurred by sending aContingentoftroops to theUnited Kingdom,andfor meeting the costofthe raising and sendingot draftsto the contingent upto strength; anditwould seem proper In the Circumstances in which we find ourselvesatpresent,thatthe burden of these charges should not fall entirely upon this generation, but should be in part leftto posterityto bear." Sothedecisionhad come at last, andhad, it wasgeneI' ally admitted, been announcedintheproper placeand totheproper People-the membersofthe Jamaica Legislature.Perhaps theWorddecision israther too strong a oneto usejust?er:. for the Governor, though showingthathe washimself Inchned to make the eontingent movement a national affair, put forward his suggestion tentatively, leavingtheCouncilto express its opinion on it.But as onlytheGovernor could propose the expenditureof public money forany purpose Whatever. and as the viewsofthe elected members were al ready well known. it was generally feltthat His Excellency's few remarks, had settledthe country's policy"in sofar asa limited national contingent movement was concerned.OnthefollOwingday some oftheeleeted members tookup thequestiou, each one of them giving as hisopinion that

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JAMAICA ANDTHEGREAT WAR.57the country as a constituentunitshould become responsible for the sendingof a contingent of troops to the front. On these speeches the Governor commented. He paid to the mem bers of the War Contingent Committee a tribute which they certainly deserved, praising tbem forthework they had ac complished and the success they had achieved. "The nucleusofthe contingent," he said, "had been formed by the commit tee," and in this view the general public decidedly concurred. He then proceeded to explain his position. He admittedthathe had been very cautious in thematterofthe contingent. The Home Authorities had asked him to accept certain liabili ties with regard to gratuities and pensions which would have tobepaid to the men who might be disabled, and with re gard to separation allowances to be paid to relatives whom the men might leave behind. This had been known in July: the Imperial GovernmenthadsuggestedthatJamaica might assume half the responsibility for these charges.Itwas be lievedatthe timethatthe Governor bad refused to counten ance the suggestion; he now statedthathe had replied sayingthathe did not feel he could accept such liabilities without the approvalofthe Council, bu.t thathe felt certainthatwhen thewarwas over and Jamaica knewwhatreally weretheliabilitiesthatmust be met, the Island's Legislature would be willing to take them up. He wanteditto be distinctly un derstoodthathe had accepted no liability whateversofar as the contingent was concerned. He had left the wholematterto the Council to decide. Onthe legislators, then. and especially ontheelected members of the Council, was placed the entire responsibility of deciding whether Jamaica shouldpayoutofthe public revenue the cost ofsending men to the front. What was the object of the Governorinpursuing this course? The right conclusion most probably isthathe would not, as anagEmt of the Imperial Government, urge the country,oreVen induce the country, tospend money raised by taxes from

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58 JAMAICA AND THE GREAT WAR. a population mainly ofAfricandescent onthesendingofmentofightina warwithwhoseorigin the West Indieshadhadnothingtodo.The colony was a poor one,itwas some. times difficult toobtainyearlythe money needed for the pro visionof publicnecessities. Sincethe beginning ofthe'Val' taxeshadbeen increasedandexpenditure on public utilitiescurtailed. Hardertimes mightbein store forthecolony,andthepeople whowouldfeelthemmost would bethepoorest:ifthenJamaicawastounderlake a national contingent move mentshemustdosoofherowninitiative; the elected members must declare theirviews.This,webelieve, wastheideaintheGovernor's mind:inwhat concerned expenditurefor Im perial purposes hewould follow, not lead, the country. When, however,thecountry had onceaccepted the principleofa na tionalmovement,hewouldfeelhimself entitled to make offers totheImperial Authoritiesin its name. He didnotsaythis,hutlateron he acted it, aswill presently be seen.Thatbrief Septembersessionofthe Council formally de creedthatJamaicawastoberesponsibleforall expenses con nectedwiththe contingent of500men, over and abovetheamountofmoneyuptothencollectedby voluntary contribu_tionsandsomewhat similar means. The colonywastopayforthe clothing and transportation ofthe drafts neededtomaintainthecontingentatfunstrength, anditwas estimatedthatsome 75menpermonth would berequiredforthis pur. pose.Themen weretobepaid what the English soldiersofthenewarmiesreceived,andthis pay they would receivefromtheImperialAuthorities. Jamaica's sharewas to be confinedtothedefraying ofexpensesincurredinrecruitingand des patchingthe men to England, and in givingthema certainamounf ofelementary military training before theyleftour shorea' Something more was donethat session. As already men tioned.theImperial Government had suggestedthatJamaicamight assume half the liabilityfor pensions, gratuities and

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JAMAICA ANDTHEGREATWAR. 59 separation allowances connectedwiththecontingent. Onthe motion ofMr.J.H. AllwoodtheCouncil agreedthat"allchargesforseparation allowancesanddisabilities, gratuities and pensions on such scale,andcommencingatsuch period asmay bearrangedbetweentheGovernmentandtheWarOffice" should be undertaken bythecolony.Thismade Jamaica re sponsibleforthemen who should returnfromthewar,andfor the dependents they would leave behind them. ThustheCouncilhaddone morethanthe Home Governmenthad sug gested should be done,andthewishofJamaicawasthatshe wereina positiontofollowtheexampleofCanadaandAustraliaanddefray allthecostsofhercontingent.That,however, was simplyoutofthequestion.Itwas also feltandsaid throughouttheislandthattheCouncil should have decided upon alargercontingent. Still,asthereinforcements would amountto900 in one year,andweretobesentmonthbymonth whethertherewereanycasualtiestobe replacedornot, there was comfortinthereflectionthatinayeartheJamaica Contingent would number 1.400, whereasthefirst proposal had mentioned 200 soldiers only. Then followed a periodofwaiting. The contingenthadbeen accepted in May,butup totheendofSeptember notransporttotakethemen away could be procured.Eithertherewas difficultyinprocuring l\ shipinEnglandortherewasdilatoriness onthepartoftheWarOffice.Doubts again began to be expressed astowhetherthecontingent would ever go, andthepessimists thenhadthehappiest timeoftheirlives.Inthesecond week of Octobertherecruits, whouptothenhadonly been examinedandenrolled, were calleduptoenlist.Itwasthen founl1 thatonly 400 men answeredthecall. Some,tiredofwaiting.hadalreadylefttheislandforEngland. Othershadgrownlukewarm(these enlisted after wards.) Recruiting meetingswereatonce commenced all overtheisland,andtheresponseoftheyoung men was most satisfactory. Then on Saturday, October 20,theKing's appeal

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60 JAMAICA AND THE GREATWAR.totheEmpireformen and yet more men to meet the enemy was received bytheGovernorandwas published on thesame afternoon.Ithad what might almost be called an electrifying effect.Itwas eagerly read all overtheisland.ItcaUedupon men ofall classes to come forward voluntarily and take partinmaintaining againstthefoe the Empire "which your fathers and mine have built." There were some in Jamaica to holdthat this appeal wasnotintendedforJamaica. Primarilyitwas not.Itwas intendedforthepeople of the United KingdomandIreland,butitwas despatched to every partoftheEmpire, and in every corneroftheBritish Empire menofpure British descent were tohefound. There were others, not of pureBritish descent, who. might rightlyregardthisappeal as made to them also. Every man with British blood in his veins might claim thathis ancestors had helped to build and todefend the British Empire, now grown toso much greatness, and men with no dropofBritish blood intheirveins could equallyutterthatproud boast. Jamaicans ofall classes and colours had not for nothing sailed with Nelson to Nicar agua, accompanied VernontoCartagena,orassistedin cap turing Havana. The ancestors ofthepresent generationofJamaicans had fought and toiledanddied in foreign lands under the British flag. Hence the King's appeal was accepted generally as a calltohis loyal subjects in Jamaica,and Jamaica was prepared to answer tothebest of its ability. The first contingent withpartofits reinforcements would go shortly; a muchlargerscheme must now be adopted; and until thewarshould end the colonymustdowhatitcouldinthe wayofrecruiting menforactive s.ervice. That wasthesettled determinationofthepeople within a few daysofthepublicationof the King's Appeal, anditsoon expression in energetic and successful action .

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CHAPTERVIITHEWOMAN'SMOVEMENTWE have seen howtheefforttosendtothefronta contingentofJamaicarecruitswasinitiated, how Mr. Wilson's eminently practical suggestionwaswelcomed bythecolonyandsoontransformedintoa move mentofgrowingproportionsand importance. Thesuccessofthismovement, however, didnotdepend upontheactivity andtheexertionsofmenalone.Inthehistoryofpublic events inJamaicathe names ofwomen havenotappeared;inthepast,women have played a practically negligible part inpublic life. They have worked alongwithmeninthecultivationofthesoil;theyhavebeen school-teachers, latterlytheyhaveenteredofficesasstenographersandaccountants;andnoobjectionhasbeentakentothisextensionoftheiractivities. They havehadto contend notsomuchwithoppositionandprejudiceaswithinertiaandapathy-aninertiaandapathyoftheirowncreationmainly.Butthewarseemedtostimulatethem;fromtheoutbreakofhostilitiestheybegantomanifestapatrioticenthusiasm which wasaswelcomeasitwas no-.rel; theyassistedgreatlytocol lectfundsfortheassistanceofwoundedBritishsailorsandsoldiersandforthefamiliesofthese;soontheyweretomake a newdeparture,weretoinitiateaneffort which will always be rememberedasoneofthemostsuccessfuleverputforwardinJamaicaon behalfoftheEmpire'scause.Whowas "Q. A. T. M. N. S. R.,Retired"?ThatquestionwasaskedbymanyonthemorningofJune11, 1915, when theselettersappearedassignatureto a communication appearinginthecorrespondence columnsoftheGleaner.InthatcommunicationanearnestappealwasmadetothewomenofJamaica."Now,"rantheexhortation,"isthetimefor

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62 JAMAICA ANDTHEGREAT WAR. women to showwhattheyaremade of," andthewomenofthe country were asked to raisetheirown fund for the purpose of assisting the young menofJamaica to take "the places of those who have fallen," Thewritersuggested a committee of influential ladies and offered herservices to any committeethatmight be formed; "Let usgettogether and show our brave boyswhatwe candotofurthertheir heart's desire," were the closing words of this opportune appeal. The letter was widelyread;no one seemedto guess thewriter's identity.Inthese pages aloneitis revealed, and permissionforthathas been obtained.Itwas Miss Annie Douglas, who had served with credit in South Africa as a Red Cross Nurse, whose words struck a responsive chord in the hearts of the women of Ja maica.Itwas feltthatthisunknownwriterhad urged tIlerightthing,itwas everywhere acknowledgedthatthetimehadcome whenourwomen should make a special effort to aid the contingent movement.Onthe dayafterMiss Doug las's letter appeared Mrs. William Wilson sent a cheque for flve pounds as the first donation towards the suggested Wo men's Fund. A movementofthissort, however, requires agreatdeal of personal exertionandorganization. Miss Douglas had of fered her servicestoany committeethatmight be formed, but, except perhapsherpersonal friends and the staff of theGleaner(which must always respect the anonymityofits contributors), no one knew who was "Q. A. T.M.N. S. R." Nordid Miss Douglas make any attempt totorm the commit tee she had suggested; as matron of the Asylum she was a busy woman filling a responsible Government position, ancl she had not even been sureifshe had therightto signhername totheletter she communicatedtothe Press. she began atonce to work quietly for the cause in which she was so deeply interested. Bythe1stofJune she had collected the sumof 14s towards the Women's Fund.Forsome daysafterthis the movement seemedtolanguish;itrequired vigor

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JAMAICA AND'tHEGREA'r WAR.63ous personal efforttobringittosuccess. Thoughthewomen of Jamaica were willing enough todowhatthey couldforthecontingent,anindependent effort ontheirpartwassomethingneWto them. Theyhesitated;waitedfora more definite lead. The appeal, weareafraid,inspiteofthegeneralinterestitaroused, would have gone unheededthroughtheinfluence of inertiaandhesitationhadnotanorganization been formed to realize itspatriotic purpose.Theinitiativeinthis connec tion was takenbythreeladies,andwhentheirplanwas pub lishedtotheislandtheWomen's Movement beganinearnestand was certainofsuccess. OnJune26theWomen'sFundstoodatonly 18s.Onthatsame day a circular was publishedintheGleaner.Itwas addressed to allthewomenofJamaicaandwas accom panied withtheoutlinesofa programmetobefollowed by all those womenineverypartoftheisland who wishedtoaid inthesendingofa contingenttothefront.Wetranscribethewords infull:-"Itisnotgiventowomen inthisislandtonursethewounded or totaketheplaceofmenas motor-car drivers, trainortramconductors,ortoperformvariousotherduties now being undertaken byoursistersinGreatBritain;butitisgiven to us to sendoursons, brothers,orhusbandsif neces sary,tothefront, tosharetheprivilegeoffightingforourglorious Empire."Theprineipal meanstoourhandsforso doing is to sub scribetotheWarContingentFundwhateverlittle we ean, no sum being too small. "Women maysay,'Ourhusbands,ourbrothersorour par entsaresubscribing,andwhatlittle we subscribe will come fromthem:Butallofus women spend a sum,greatorsmall asthecase may be, on ourselves.Letusforonce forego a por tionofthisandsend totheFundsomepartofwhatwewould in normal times spend on ourselves,asourpersonal contribu tion.

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64JAMAICA AND THE GREAT WAR. "TheJamaica Contingent must be a credit totheisland.Wehavenodoubt about the men themselves, but we fearthatthe subscriptions will not be sufficient to send a representative number. "Never mindwhat we thinktheGovernment should do; never mind what the men are doing; let usdo our share. "Think of Belgium, thinkofPolaud, and think of what would happen to our sisters in Great Britain if the Germans ever landed there. "Regretsatnot haVing donewhatwecould would be use less. Remorse would remain with us until our dying day. Therefore, Women of Jamaica,Do Your Duty." This circular was signed byMrs. Sydney Couper, Mrs. Michael de Cordova and Mrs. WilliamWilson-thenames appear in alphabetical order. These three itwaswhohad taken the lead of the women of Jamaica,whohad determined to show what women could accomplishifonly they would energetically bestir themselves. .It was soon seen that though money would now be contributed to the Fund.itwas the secondpartof the Women's Committee's pro grammethatwould win enthusiastic popular support;itwas the proposed Flag Day, an idea newtoJamaica and of general appeal,thatwould maketheWomen's Movement of island wide significance. The Committee had, in fact, determined todo more than ask for funds.Ithad resolved to enlist workers all overthecountry in a patriotic demonstrationinwhich practically all Jamaica could take part. The idea of a Jamaica Flag Day was not original. Rose Day had become a sort of institution in England; Tag Day was well known in Canada; oneortwo .letters had .previously appeared intheJamaica Press suggesting a Tag Day in Jamaica in co'nnection with an effort to raise money for purposes connected with the war. But this time there was a plan, there was a central organiza tion, there were branch committees appointed all over the is land to carry out the arrangements madeinKingston; hard

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MRS. WILSON. MRS. deCORDOVA. MRS. COUPER.

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JAMAICAANDTHEGREAT WAR. 65 work was entailed by all this,andtheworkwascheerfully done; timeand energy were demanded,andtimeand energy were given without stint.Thewomenof Jamaica weretoshowthatthey could organizeandaccomplishthingsquiteas < wellasthemen;anditissafetosaythatnoFlagDay could have been astrikingsuccess in Jamaica had notthewomen had, from first to last,thehandlingofdetails.In this particularinstancetheynotonlyhadthehand lingofdetailsbutweretheoriginatorsoftheprogramme. The Kingston Women'sFundCommitteesentcircularstoladies all overtheislandaskingforco-operation.andin every parish a well-known woman was nominatedasheadofthelocal organization. We wish we could mentionthenamesofallthewomen who tookpartinthismovement.Butno one knowsthemall,andinanyeventitwould be impossibletoprintthem. The women helpers numbered hundreds,theydid not expecttobe remembered, they didnotworkformere notoriety; perhaps they haveheardthatluminous wordofEmerson's-inthepressofknightsnot every browcanwearthe laurel. The namesofthose who were chiefsofparishcommittees, however,areon l'ecordandmustbeprintedhere.InHanover, Mrs. GeorgeSanftleben;inSt. Mary, Mrs. MaIlet Pringle; in St. Elizabeth, Mrs. ;II. W.Griffith;inTrelawny, Mrs.G.S.Ewen;in St. Thomas, Mrs.I.H.Phillips;inMan chester, Mrs. Crum-Ewing;inPortland, Mrs. D. S. Gideon; in Westmoreland, Mrs.EdwardMorris;in St. James, Mrs. Coke-Kerr;inSt. Catherine, Mrs.Taylor;inSt.Ann, Mrs. DanielHart;in Clarendon, Mrs. Thomas Abrahams. These ladies weretheleading representativesoftheWomen's Move ment intheseveral parishesoftheisland;andwiththem worked a numberofothers,andall worked enthusiasticallyforthecausetheyhadatheart.July27th was namedasFlagDay,andfordays beforethatdatethetalkofthecountrywaslargelyofFlagDay. It wasatfirst proposedto make thirtythousand little flags

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66 JAMAICA ANDTHEGREAT WAR. oftheAlliednations;materials, muchofwhich was suppliedfornothingor at costbythe Kingston merchants, weresenttothe several bodiesof women workers whowereto make the flags. Butsoontherequisitioningof materials bythebranch committees, andthe estimates ofthe number of flags thatwould be requiredinthe different districtsoftheisland, warn edtheCommittee in Kingstonthatmorethan twice the num berofthirtythousand flags would be required.Inthe mean timetheWomen's ContingentFundwas growingbymeansofdirect contributionsofmoney. Dailythelistofcontributorsgrew;andnowthe newspapers begantoprint reports of meetings held here andthereand everywhere, each one called for thepurposeof promoting the success oftheWomen's Move ment,and every one attended by women alone.FlagDay dawned a typical WestIndian summer's day. Itwas warm butnothumid;andthe spirits ofno one would be depressed bytheheat, enthusiasmrenderingthat impos sible.Themetropolis,thetowns andtheparishes were di vided into districtsforthesellingofflags; each leaderhadherown bandofgirlhelpers; tile ambitionofeach band wastodo more thananyotheronthatday. Allthewomen were askedtowearwhite dresses with a red-white-and-blue ribbon round waistand hat, andeach one alsohad a distinguishing rosette supplied her. KingStreetinKingston was gaily de corated. Festoonsof flags swungacrossthestreet;allthe buildings thereand many ofthoseinHarbourStreetwerebright with flagsandbunting;palmsandothertropical plants added a touchoffreshness tothebrilliant scene,andScoresof decorated motorcarsand carriages, lent forthe pur pose, conveyedtheworkersto every partofKingston and lower St. Elsewhereintheisland, tho,ugh neces sarilyon a smaller scale,similararrangements werecarriedout,and everywhere thelivelystrainsofmusic added tothegaietyandanimationoftheday.Inthe city the West IndiaRegiment Band,theSalvation Army BandandtheBoy Scouts

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JAMAICA ANDTHEGREAT WAR.67Band playedatdifferent hours.Itwas a holidayofholidays; a holiday unrecognisedbylawbutcreatedbythepeople;anevent unique. Andwhatmadeitso especially wasthespec tacleofscoresandhundredsofgirls dressed distinctivelyandcrowding into streetsandlanes, villagesandhamletsthey pro bably had never seen before, eager, laughing, enthusiasticinintention, indefatigable in endeavour, and selling flags with an ease they themselves couldnothave anticipated.Forthepeople did not wait to be askedtobuy flags. They rushed to purchase them. Workingmen and working women bought flags, often paying morethantheminimum priceofthreepence,andeverywherethevendors weretreatedwith a courtesy which couldnothave been bettered anywhere.Inseveralofthecountry districtsthe flags hadgivenout be foretheday was over. And yet over sixty thousand had been-made. There was speech-makingofcourse; a certain amount of oratory is never lackingatany Jamaica function. Speeches were delivered everywhere.At two o'clock intheafternoontheGovernor motored down to Kingston,totheporticooftheBankofNova Scotia, wherehewasmetandwelcomed by Mrs. Couper, Mrs. de Cordova and Mrs. Wilson,the organ isersofthemovement. There was a huge crowd assembled, withtheBoy Scouts as aguardofhonourandtheBoy Scouts Band to play the National Anthem. The Governor wasthelargest individual purchaserof flags thatday,butother gen tlemen also bought lavishly. Reportsoftheday's success soon began topourinfromthecountry parishes,andthenewspaper correspondents exhaustedtheirvocabularyof ad jectivesinanefforttodescribe the several functions. "Tre mendous," "unprecedented," "great," "grand," "wonderful"thesetermsdid service with astonishing iteration.Butthemoney receipts spoke more eloquentlythanwordsofthework whichthewomenhaddonefortheJamaica Contingent.FlagDay alone broughtinmorethanfifteen hundred pounds.The

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68JAMAICA ANDTHEGREAT WAR. Women'sFundcollected through theGleanersoon stoodatsome five hundred pounds. More than two thousand pound5 wastheresult oftheWomen's Movement, anditwas this movement, and this alone,thatenabled the JamaicaWarCon tingentFundtorealise the ,000 thathadeventually been asked for. The effortsofthe women were not confined alonetotheraising of moneyforthecontingent.Eeryearlyin 1914 Mrs.A.E. BriscoeofMontpelier had written to the papers advocating' a general effort towards supplyhig withwarm clothing some of the soldiersatthefront;on October 12,1915,this lady addressed a letter to the papers urgingthatwoollen socks should be provided by women in Jamaica forthe men who were leaving in the Jamaica Contingent. Mrs. Briscoe herself had begun the work, and herletterwas a timely reminder oftheneedsofpersons who would be going from a tropical climate to the coldofanEnglish winter. Since then Mrs. Briscoe has continuedheradmirable work, and she willnotcease until not another soldier leaves Jamaica. No woman has been more indefatigable, and many a Jamaicanatthefront has reason to thinkofherwith gratitude. Itwas also feltthatwomen might helpindifferent direc tions in connection withthecontingent movement, and aratherstriking departure was initiated by Miss Douglas, as sisted by Mrs. Trefusis. Recruiting meetings were being held throughoutthecolony.Atnoneofthese had womenyettaken any prominent part. But on Thursday afternoon, October 14, Miss Douglas nnd Mrs. Trefusis (the wifeoftheGovernor's Private Secretary) held a recruiting meetingatthevillage ofIrishTown in St. Andrew, a woman's re cruiting meeting, thevery firstofthe kindofwhich Jamaica hadhad experience. The districthadbeen previously can vassed by Rural Constable Nicholas, who was askedtopresideat the meeting. Men and women came to hearwhatthetwo ladies hadto say, and both 4tdies spoke. The speeches were

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JAMAICAAND THEGREAT WAR. 69 not reported; indeed,itwasnotuntilthenext daythatthePress. knewwhathadtaken place! Twenty-four recruits were secured;afterthatthepresenceofwomenatrecruitingdemonstrations was amatterofcourse, and addresses from women often formedpartoftheprogramme. Thus,inthesame month,ata recruiting meeting heldatGayle, St. Mary, Mrs. Blackden, Mrs. Bourne, Miss .. Constance Douet and Miss Douglas all spoke,andMiss Douglas was soonafterwardsre garded as oneofthemost efficient and successful recruiting agentsintheisland. Miss Constance Douet wasandstill is a Red Cross nurse. She was attached totheEnglish Red Cross CorpsinBelgium in the early monthsofthewar,andwasinBelgium whentheGermans were over-runningthatcountry. Arumourhad gone about Kingstonthatshehadbeen deliberately wounded bytheenemy,buttherewas notruthinthisstory,aswas soon ascertained.Inthelatterpartof1915 she returned to her native land and issuedanappealforone hundred pounds to provide a "Jamaica Bed"ina hospitalwardinEngland. Her appeal metwithinstantandgenerous response; she soon acknowledgedthereceiptofthreehundred pounds, "a sum:'shewrote, "in excess ofwhatI could have anticipated receiv..ing,inviewofthemany and necessary appealsthathaveto'; be madeatthis time," Thiswason Octoberthe20th. On November8,justbefore leaving Jamaica to resumeherdutiesasa Red Cross Nurse, she published another letter. Shehadup to then obtained ormorethanfour timesasmuchasshehadasked for. She wastakingawaywithher. presentsofJamaica cigarettes, preserves, pillowsandother;comforts forthemen in hospitalinEngland. She statedthatMr.WalterWoolliscroft,ofGeorge's Plain, Savanna-la-Mar, would representherinherabsence,andshe madeitclearthatshe was still appealingfortheJamaicaBed Fund.That;Fund, which is associated withhernameandwithherinitial ende':lvours, amounted to neady.:,400 inMarch, 1917.

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70 JAMAICA AND 'I:HE GREAT WAR. The Ladies Working Association has all during the.war been working at the making of garments for Belgian refugees inEngland and for. English soldiers; this organiza tion devoted itself toan effort which, while Jamaicanina sense, bad nothing todo with our contingent. Butit was also felttbat there shouldbea body of persons who would undertake systematically tolookafterthe comfort of the Ja maica recruits when these should have reached England anti their ultimate destination, Egypt. This feeling resulted in the formation of a Contingent Comforts Committee, with Mrs. Blackden as chairman, Mrs. Bourne as secretary, and Mrs. Trefusisastreasurer. These three were the nucleus of a larger body; they invited each of the island's Parochial Bonrds to nominate one lady member to represent its parish, and some other public institutions were invited, each, to nom inate a lady member also. The organisers of the Comforts Committeeatthe same time appealed to the public for con tributionsinmoney and in goods, and since its formation.it has steadily continued in the work to whichitsetithands and hea.rt. All these committees and very many unmentioned inde pendent workers have, in one way and another,donea great deal to identify the womenofJamaica with the Empire's ef forts in this war. They undertook tasks which busy men could not have handled, and,insofar as the Contingent Movement was concerned, they introduced from the first the softer sym pathetic touch and influence which, impalpable but persuasive, may have so potentan effect ininducing men to harken to the callofduty.Inthe year 1914, for the first time in the historyofJamaica, a number of women openly and gladly identified themselves with a public and patriotic"movement. And they organised so ably, worked soweU,and brought to eo successful a conclusion the task they had undertaken,thatthey have made the Jamaica Contingent Movement identified :with the women of Jamaica. as well as with the men.

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CHAPTER VIII HISTORIC DAYSTHElastdays of October, 1915, saw Up-Park Camp crowded to its utmost capacity and presenting a sceneofunusual activity. A contingentof550 men, with re inforcements numbering nearly 200, had been ultimately asked for, andthecountry had responded by sending totheCamp 1,125 men, with the intimationthatmore were immediately following.Itwas knownthattheship which was to con vey these men toEngland wasatlast on its way to Jamaica;itwas also knownthattheship would first callatBritish Hon durastotake up therethefirst batchofrecruits whichthatcolonyhaddeterminedtosend aspartof the West Indian contribution totheEmpire's fighting forces.Earlyin No vember,itwas whispered, the Jamaica Contingent would go, and morning and eveningthevoices of drill sergeants were heardatthe Camp roaring out commands totheperspiring and awkward,butkeen and enthusiastic, recruits who were beingputthrough some elementary drill exercises sothatontheirarrivalin England they should presentanappearancenotdiscreditable to this country. '. They were a mixed lot were these recruits; clerks and artisans and labourers, boys whohadserved behind a counter and boys who had handled a hoe, young men who hadsaton stools withthepenastheironly instrumentoflabour, and young men who had wielded apairofscissorsordeftly mani pulatedanawl. They wereofall colours were these recruits, ranging from white to black, including every shadeofcom plexion known in the colour categoriesofa West Indian com munity. EverY parishof the island was represented bythem;a large number had surrendered lucrative positions and hadlefttheirplotsoflandfortheshilling a day andtherisks and

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72 JAMAICA AND THEGREAT WAR. hardshipsofa soldier's life in time ofwar;theirgeneral standard of intelligence was high, and the flameofpatriotic fervourburntbrightly intheirbreasts. "Left,right;left,right"-steppingbrisklyatthe drill sergeant's wordofcom mand they marched in platoons and companies roundandroundthedrilling ground atCamp, each man alert and eager to learn; and evenasone watched them they seemed as ifbeing transformed into more vigorous and stalwart specimensofhumanity. Theyatesoldier'sfareandslept inthe tents on blankets spread on the floor; they cookedtheirown meals, learnttoobey andtreatwith military deference young men who had beentheircomrades and boon companions a little while before. And onean,dall waited impatiently fortheday when they should sail from Jamaicato takepart inthegreatstruggle which was transformingthe map ofEurope andtheworld.Earlyonthemorning of October 31, the"fall in" was soundedat Camp, andthe who weretoform the first con tingent rapidly mustered and paraded intheirseveral pla toons.Itwas Sunday. All duringthe previous nighttherainhad fallen, dreary and insistent, and when dawn came the skies were stilI grey and sullen, andthedrifting clouds through which the sunlight filtered pale and feeble indicatedaninclement forenoon.Atseventherainhad ceased, and thenitwasthatthemen, clothed in khaki and slouch hats, assembled for their march totheParishChurch of Kingston, wherethecontingent's valedictory service would be held. ,The commanding officer was MajorW.D. Neish.Attheheadofthe companies wasthebandoftheFirst West India Regi ment.At 7.30 the order to march was given, the band struck up, thelong linesofmen, walking four abreast, moved out of Camp and tooktheirway to Kingston. Through silentandalmost deserted streets they marched,thetramp oftbeirfeet andthethrilling notes of the band calling many a newly-awakened manor woman towindows,

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JAMAICA ANDTHEGREAT WAR73doors and fencestoseetheboys pass by. A fine drizzle fell occasionally. The Sabbath peace brooded over the city, a peace which some more reflectivethanothers may have con trasted with the demonstration ofthathour, withthegather ing together for a last service inthiscountryofmen whose mission was war. DowntheMarescaux Road, by the Race Course, through Duke Street andEastQueen Street they marched, arid then they cameinsightoftheVictoria Gardens. Here suddenly the scene was changed.Foronthesidewalks and thronging the open spacesofthese Gardens were hundreds and thou sands of friends and spectators assembled to give a welcome to Jamaica's fighting men, assembledtotestifythatnot the most cheerless weather could dampentheardourofmen and women who were proud to seethatJamaica wasatlastabouttosend some ofhersons to fight, andifneeds be to die, intheservice oftheirKing. The crowd was silent and reverential. Through the northern gate and doorsofthechurchthemen filed in, and when allhadentered, the band, whichhaddrawn aside to permit the recruits to pass in first, followed in ordertoadd its music tothatofthegreatorgan. The building was crowded. The Governor and the General werethere;theleading officials oftheGovernment, prominent public men,thecivic represen tativesofKingston, and clergymen ofthe Anglican andotherreligious organizations, all were present. The first hymn struck the notethatwas to thrillthatimpressive assemblagethatmorning;itwas sung by hundredsofstrong voices totheaccompaniment of moving peals ofmusic-Fight the good fightwithallthymight,Christ is thystrength, and Christthyright.Throughtheopen doors and windowsofthe church the words floated into the thronged surrounding. streets and open spaces, andthewaiting crowd listened in a solemn silence,theirthoughts and feelingsinsympathy with thosetowhom

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74 JAMAICA AND THE GREAT WAR. the exhortation was being addressed. andon whom the bene dictionof theman most revered in all Jamaica was soon to be pronounced. The sermon was preached liy the rector ofthe Parish Church. Canon R. J.Ripley;it was aneloquent discourse andattimes the preacher. who had himself a son amongst those who satin the contingent's ranks that morning. moved his listeners to tears. "You go forth as our representatives," he said, ''the representatives ofthe West Indian people, and re memberthat by. your conduct not <>nly inthefieldbut in the camp,for good orfor evil, you stamp the character of your race upon the place where you sojourn.Weplace our honour in your hands. We make you the guardians ofourgoodname. And so we send you forth, my brothers, praying in .. deedthat you may return safely home 'laden with honourst. yet believingthatno life laid down in the cause of righteous ness andofGodcan be poured outinvain.We shall thinkofyou, We shan pray foryou. Your loved ones left behind shan receivethesupportofoUrsympathy intheir anxieties on your behalf, and be animated by the same spiritofself ..sacrifice and earnest purpose which you have manifested in going to fight the enemies of your King. I trust thatthosewhoremain behind may be found fighting manfully undertheBanner of Christ against the evils whichmarthe beautiesof thisfair land. Sothatwhen you return, with new experienceoflife and new ideals. you may find a newspiritamongthepeopleofJamaica-thatin your absence there has been a greatmoral uplifting, andthata chastened people, a nobler,purerrace, may welcome you backtohomes purified by the disciplineof suffering." Butthemost solemn momentofthat valedicto;ry service came when the aged Archbishop ofthe West rose tospeak his farewell tothetroops and to bestow on them his blessing. Itwas doubtful atfirstif he would be ableto at tendthe service. Some time before his strength had failed,

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JAMAICA AND THE GREAT WAR.75 he was over seventy,andhis sudden collapse was known toall to indicate a speedy endtoa long and strenuous and use fullife,a life crowded with deeds performed in the interests andforthe welfareofJamaica.For fifty years he had been amongthepeople, and nonebutknewthathe loved them as his own.It was the wishofallthathe should be presentatthis service, thathis should be the uplifted hands and histhevoicethatshould bless them,thesoldiersofJamaica; andatthatmoment, as so often before, he failednotthose who wished for his gracious presence and his fatherly aid.Inthe dim church, amidst a brooding silence broken only bythefaintmurmurofthefalling rain, he slowly approached and ascend edthepulpit. The pale drawn face,thesnow-whitehairand beard, the stooping figure, told those who saw himthatthis was a man on whom already approaching death hadsetitsmark. He knewittoo, knew well thatthose who would re ceive his benediction onthatmemorable morning would never see him on thisearth again; itwaSapartingthis, between himselfandthem, and the pathosofthatlastfarewell appeal edtotheheartsofthose who heard it. Lowbutdistinct,that far-carrying voice penetrated to every corner of the church. "I have now, my dear brothers,theprivilege and dutyofaddressing to you a fewparting words. Youare going forthatthecall of your King and country on a great enterprise, and therein you have the sympathyofthewhole peopleofJamaica, and alsoourconstant prayers. 'Quit you like men: bestrong!"You have already undertaken to join those great armies ofourEmpire whichare contending forrightagainst might, for liberty against despotism,forpeaceful growth and pro gress of nations againstthedomination by forceofone great nation overthemental and material progress oftherestofmankind.Itis a noble cause in which you have enlisted.Goforth with couragetohelptowinthis great conflict;foron

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76 JAMAICA ANDTHE GREAT WAR. the issues thereof thewelfareof mankindfor generations de pends. I hope indeed that the war may be finished and victory securedbyour naval and military forces before the time when your training is sufficiently complete to enable you to join the forces in thefield.Butitmaynotbe so. The struggle may be prolongedfarbeyond the time when you take your place inthefighting ranks "Go forth courageously and witli strong determination by the help and guidance ofGodto face the duties and dangers thatfall to your lot. Think ofthegreat Empire whose bene ficent power you willbe helping to maintain; think also of Jamaica and the beloved home and friends herethatyouwill be defending: think of the AlmightyFatherand FriendWhowatches over you to help you: of the Divine SaviourWhogave Himself a sacrifice for those He came to save; and oftheDivine Spirit Whose constant presence will be a strength to your mind and body as you follow His guidance and lean upon' His power. "And now unto the tender mercy and protection of Al mightyGodwecommend you. The Lord bless you and keep you; the Lord make His face to shine upon you, and be gracious unto you: The Lord lift up His countenance upon you, and give you peace.Amen."Itwas over. The blessing had been pronounced, the fare well spoken, the religious consecration of hundreds of young lives to a paramount duty was concluded. The' barid crashed out the music of the grand old invocatory hymn, "0 God,Our Helpin Ages Past", and the congregation sangit;then all thronged into the openairagain, andthecontingent marched back to Camp. Soon, once more, these men were to pass through the streets of Kingston, andthat was to be thelastthatJamaica was to see of them for many a daytocome.The preparation for the contingent's departure went on apace. On the morning of November 6theGovernor arrivedatUpParkCamp to address the recruits. General Blackden

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JAMAICA ANDTHEGREAT WAR. 77 and his staff wereinattendance,themen weredrawnupunderthe commandofMajorJ.G.V.Hart,anditwas to a deeply attentive audiencethatSirWilliam Manningspoke:-"Officers, Non-eommissioned OfficersandMenof the JamaicaWarContingent," he said,"Ihave comeherethismorn ing to take thisopportunityofaddressing you beforeyourdepartureforGreatBritainandthefront. Youcarryinyourhands-andthisis amatterof great importance-theprestige of Jam.aica. By your conduct on boardthetroop ship,incamp, andinthefield you will wintheesteemoftheBritishregi ments alongsideofwhich youmaybe serving. "I wish now to address a few words more especiallytotheofficers. Ontheofficersof a battalion dependsthediscipline oftheirbattalion. I ask you then to rememberthaton your conductindisciplineandin social life, oil. boardshipandincamporinthefield, dependsthedisciplineofyour platoonoryourcompany, who willsetyou upasa modelandfollowyourexample. The exceptional advantageoftrainingyourmenforimmediate active service is given to you. The time isshortforthemenbutshorterstillfortheofficers, and every moment should therefore be given tothestudyofyourprofes sion. You have been honouredbybeing giventheprivilegeofbeing among those who will march Berlin.Yourconductinthefield will be such, Iamconfident,asto lead toyourbeing selected to be present whenthearmiesofGreat Britain, France, Russia, Servia, Italy andotherallied armies march intothatcapital andtheredictatetheirtermsofpeace. "WhenthewarisoverJamaicawill welcome you back as heroes,asthose who have comeforwardwhentheEmpireneededthemandhave donetheir duty. ItrustthatI may be privilegedtobe heretowelcome' you home." A whisper went roundthe city on Monday, November8,thattheship which was to conveythecontingent toEnglandhadarrived with the men from BritishHonduras;the flews to different partsofthe itwas known,

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78JAMAICA ANDTHE GREATWAR.althoughthenewspapers could say nothing,thaton Tuesday afternoon the contingent would sail. Thousands thrilled with excitement; never before had there been such an event; never before had Jamaica witnessed the departureofhundreds ofhersons to take part in a great European war,tofight side by side with Englishmen, Canadians andtherestforthesafetyoftheEmpire and the maintenanceofthose 'principles of dom which British subjects hold in high honour andare pre paredtodefend with their lives. A thrill of pridesenttheblood coursing quickly through theveins of those who under stood thata new and splendid page was abouttobe written inthe historyofJamaica; the self-same feeling affected gentle and simple alike, the highest andthelowest: all Jamaicans and all British subjects inthe colony justthen wereasone and experienced identical emotions.Fromneighbouring ,try parishes, and even from distant parts ofthe island reach ed bytrainorbrought within a day's journey to Kingston bymotor car, came scores and htmdredsofvisitors, intent onassisting at the embarkation of the first contingent. The censors allowedtheroute by whichthemen should march tohe made public. The hour was known; onlythedate ofsailing was nottobe mentioned in any print,andthere was no needitshould be-such news could never hide. So on Tuesday morning, from an early hour,thestreetsofKingston begantowearanunusually animated appear ance, and theelectric cars were unwontedly crowded with men and women who were hurrying hours beforehandtosecure positions from which they could seethecontingent pass on its way to the ship. The day had dawned brilliantly. The long summer's heat was passing; the softer atmos phereof autumn was beginning, like a gentle benedic tion,torefreshthedwellers in a tropic land wherethefaintest change from sultrmess is hailed with genuine pleasure, and one's spirits respond with a full gladness to the promise ofa cooler time. A feelingofjoyousness was

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JAMAICAANDTHEGREAT WAR. 79 inthe airas, along the sides ofeverystreetthroughwhich the contingent would march, thewell-attired spectators tooktheirstandforthelongwaitingwhich they knew was now be fore them. They gave nothoughttoinconvenience; nothingshortofafloodofraincould have driven them indoorathatday.InthemeantimeUp-ParkCamp was alivewithactivity.Ontheevening before, relatives and friendsoftherecruitshadflockeduptoCamptosaya few wordsoffarewell, and manyofthesehadbroken down whenthefinal leave-taking came.Butthemen themselves had puta brave face on the matter,hadbidden good-byewithalaugh;and whenat7.30 on Tuesday morningtheyweredrawnup inthreesidesofasquaretoawaitthecomingoftheGeneralandtolistentohispartingspeech,therewasnot a sad face discernibleintheuniformed, soldierly ranks. Soonafterthecontingentwasmustered, Brigadier-Gen eral Blackden, accompaniedbyhis Staff-Officer, Major T.B.Nicholson, rode intotheCamp.Everymanthereknewthetallsparefigurewiththekindly,fatherlyface,andeverymanmusthave feltthattheGeneralhadforhimthatpeculiar affection whichthebesttypeofofficer invariably feelsforhis men.Foroverthirtyyears General Blackdenhasbeen con nt'cted withtheWest Indies,andwhereverinthese islands he hasheenhe has inspired respectanda deepandgenuine liking. To simplicityofmanners,theresult of good breedingandofastraightforwardandsincere disposition,hehasaddedanabsorbinginterestinhisworkandanintellectualappreciation oftheproblemsofmodernwarfare.Inthewelfare oftheWest Indian people he is known to be deeply interested,andinappealingforrecruitsforthefirst contingent hehad alwa}'s reminded hishearers that he expected from theyoungerJamaicans,thefightingmaterialofto-day,thesame cour age,thesame devotiontodutythathehadknowntheirfatherstoshow. "A fine soldieranda goodman"istheverdict

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80 JAMAICA AND THE GREAT WAR. passed upon him byall-andthey arethousands-who have known him; and his character, often finding expression inthewords he addressestothe peopleofJamaica, isofpotent and enduring influence. He faced the menthatmorning; the salute was given and returned, and he began hisspeech:-"Officers, non-commissioned officersandmen oftheJ a maicn WarContingent: I have called you together to bid you farewell, and to assure youthatwe whoareleft behind not only envy your good fortunl) in goingtofight forour KingandEmpire,butwill follow your career with deep interest and heartfelt prayersforyour welfare and safereturnto your Island home. "When you reach England, you will find yourselfpartof a large West Indian Contingent, and I want you to show your selves better menthanany of therestofthe West Indian in discipline, in conduct, in attendance to your instructors, in intelligence, in quicknessoflearning and in general efficiency. I told some of you, last time I spoketoyou,of the' necessityofclose attention when under instruc tion. I have since seen you atdrill on many occasions, and I am pleased to be abletosaythatyour attention has been good, and you have learnt quickly and well, but I have seen anoccasional instanceofmistakes on parade which could only have resulted from awantof attention onthepart()f the men concerned. Iwantyou to eorrect that. I told you, too, to take carethatyou suffered from' no disease, disability,or in efficiency caused by your ownactorfault ."In England you will find manygoodfriends,butyou will find flome bad ones too. You will be exposed to many tempta tions, but I wi.l.ut you to resist them, and to continue to actup tothehighest standardofconduct and soldierly self-control. "I wantyou tosetanexample, not only to other West Indil'.ns, butto all troops among whom you may find your selves.

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MRS.BlACKOEN.MRS.BOURNE.MRS.TREFUSIS.

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JAMAICA AND THE GREAT WAlt 81 "Officers andN.C.Os. shouldnotbecontentedwiththeinstruction they receive,butshould devotetheirsparetime to readingandstudy,andshouldarrangefordiscussionanddebate among themselvesfortheelucidationofprofessional problems and difficulties. "You will find alltheworkhard sometimes, butIwantyou toputyour backs into it, whateveritis, anddoitwith a will."Anoccasion comesintime to every memberofa plined force, when he finds discipline irksome, when tempersareworn thin, whentheself-control of both commandersandcommandedissorelytried;butwhatever your rank,and how everstrongyour case, neverletyourtempergetthebetterofyour intelligence,butshowthatyourfeelings can never overcome your self-control. The objectofdiscipline is totrainthe will to overcomethenaturalfeelings, till in the finaltestthepowerofthewill is strongerthanthefearof death. "When yougettothefront, 1wantyou still to lead the way, still toseta glorious example to all troops who may be fighting alongsideofyou-anexampleofcontrolledanddisci plined courage,ofstrength,oftireless vigilance on watch,ofdogged tenacity in defenceandirresistible valourinattack. Someofyoumaybe killed, many will be wounded,butinbid ding you farewell I hopethatthose who fallmayfall glorious ly,theirfacestothefoe, andwithvictory gleaming ontheirbayonets; andthatthose whoreturnwill come back coveredwithglory and honour, rejoicing in a fight well fought,andvictory noblywon."Nomanof sensibility could haveheardthatspeech unmoved-couldhave been untouched bythemanly directnessandfine sincerityofit.An English Generalwas askingtheuntried recruitsofJamaica tosetanexample to whatever troops theymightfind themselves among,anexampleofcourage,ofstrength,ofuntiringvigilance;hewas appealingtoallthatwas highest and finestinthecharacterofa soldier,

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82JA:M:AtCA AND THE GREAT WAR. was voicingthehopethatthose who returned might do so covered with glory and honour, "rejoicing in a fight well fought,andvictory nobly won." When published onthe fol lowing day,thespeech made a profound impression onJamaica. Two hoursafteritwas deliveredtheGleaner Com panyhadprinted a thousand copiesofit, and every manofthecontingent took one with him,as a present fromtheGleaner,on his voyage. The final medical inspection followed the General's speech,andbythetime that this was overthehourforthemarch to Kingston had arrived.At12.30 precisely the order was given andthebattalion began to move out of Camp. Major Neish, a Jamaican and a medical officer, was in com. mand;preceding him rode Lieut. Cowieofthe West IndiaRegiment; other officers followed intheirrespective places. The deep sound ofthedrums,theblare of brazeninstru ments and a moving cloudofdust soon warnedthewaiting multitudeintheupper streetsofthecitythatthe men werefastapproaching . We'll proudly point to every oneOJ Britain's soldiers ojthe Kingtheairofthe British soldier's song swelled out triumphantly,tobe smothered only bythewild tempestuous cheeringthat burst from a thousand throats. South by the South Camp Road, then west by North Street,wentthe battalion.InNorth Street stands the Roman Catholic Cathedral, andinthecontingent's ranks were many who belongedtothe Roman Catholic faith.Atthe Cathedral's gates stood His Lordship Bishop Collins, fully robed, and attended by someofhis priests.Aseach platoon passed by,theBishop gave his blessing, andthe clamourof themultitude, nowhurrying along on both sidesofthethoroughfare, was hushedfora moment as this impressive ceremony took place. Lower downinthe city, attheKingstonParishChurch, a similar ceremony was performed. The Archbishopofthe

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JAMAICA ANDTHE GREAT WAR. ss West Indies wastohave officiatedatthispublic benediction,buthis strength wouldnotpermit;therectorofthechurch,theRev. Canon Ripley, wasinhis stead, and with him were several clergymenoftheAnglican Withthegreatcross advanced and held aloft, the blessingofthe con tingent proceeded solemnlyasthe men filed past. They turned southward into KingStreet, fromthe flagstaffs ofwhose buildings streamedtheUnionJackandthe flag ofthe merchant marineof England. Thestreetwas a seething mass of people; every balcony was crowded, every sidewalk packed closewitha movingthrongofshouting spectators. As one watched the spectacle fromanelevated viewpoint, one saw, from VictoriaParktoHarbourStreet,buta dense swaying living wave, avastseaofheads, and in the midst of these a long line of khaki-cladmen, walking four deep, and nowandthen one could hearthedull throbbingofthedrums:all other sound was drowned inthehoarse multitudinousroarof a myriad voices andtheheavy tramplingofthousands upon thousands of feet. The destination ofthecontingent wastheRoyal Mail Company's wharf. TheretheVerdalawas anchored, ready to sailatthe hour appointed. Whenthegatesofthewharfwere reached, the police kept back the crowd whilethemenofthe contingent struggled intothewharf;literally struggled,forthecrowd was now marching shoulder to shoulder withthe tuen, and every man was pressed close totheother.Justwithin the gates stoodtheGovernor, clad intheservice cos tume ofanEnglish General;hewatched the men keenly tillthelastofthem had disappearedinthedirectionofthepier, then disposed himselftowaituntil the ship should sail.Afterthecontingent surged hundreds and thousands of those whohadbeen abletosecure ticketsofadmission; friends, relatives, well-wishers ; Jamaicans, Englishmen, Scotchmen, Canadians and others, representativeofevery class of the col ony's people and of everypartandparish of the island.

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84 JAMAICA ANDTHEGREAT WAR.Themen fromBritishHondurashadremained ontheVerdala; they were now joined by the Jamaicans, andbythe small contingent fromtheBahamas which had marchedwiththeformer tothewharf.Soon the Verdala was thronged,notonly by those she wastotakeaway,butbythevisitors allowed on board.Itwas saidthattheship would leaveatsome time past two o'clock,butitwas some timeafterfouro'clock beforetheclangingofbells began towarnall stran': gel'Sthatthe momentofdeparturewas near. The Governor,theGeneral and some military officers,wenton board. The visitors commenced to stream downthegangway. Those menofthecontingent whohadlingered onthepierwiththeirrelatives and friends shook handsforthelasttime and hurriedtotheship. The pier,thespaciouswharf,thewharvesthatstretched alongthewaterfrontofKingston tothewest were thronged; the seafora wide space aroundtheVerdala was dotted with boatsandlaunches filled with sightseers;threebands of music were playing lively airs, andtheraysofthewestering' beathotuponthebacksofthatvastconcourseofpeople who nowhadeyes onlyforthe men who clustered on the decksandatthe lee wardsideofthevessel, looking down uponthepier, some shouting gaily, others makinganefforttokeeptheh:,faces calm and undisturbed. "Good-bye;Godblessyou!"-thewords came from many a lipthattrembled; from women's lips especially, and someofthose who calledthatblessing were weeping now. Theyhadbravely biddentheirmen folk goforthtofightinthegreatestwarofalltheages;withsmiling faces they had seen them marching proudly throughthecity's streets. Butatthis, the actual momentofdeparture,theheartwould haveitsway.Thepent-up emotidns struggledforexpression, triumphed,andtearsrose totheeyes whilethebandsmen played "My Old Kentucky Home,"andmany wonderedifany of those on ooardthatship would ever seetheirnative land again.

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JAMAICA ANDTHEGREAT WAR. 85 See! the Governorandhis suiteareleavingtheVerdala;theyarehoistingthegangway;presentlytheanchorrattlesup,andthevessel seemstoshudderslightly. A cheer, full-throated, pealing, tremendous,burstsfromthemenoftheFirstJamaica Contingent.Ananswering cheer thun ders back, and is echoedandre-echoed fromothercrowds gathered thick onotherpiers.Threebandscrashoutthesoldier'ssong-"WeareSoldiersoftheKing, my Lads,"andtheVerdala,gatheringmomentumwitheverymomentthatpasses, drawsoutintothestream. Thousandsofeyesarefixed uponherasshe moves, thousandsofprayersfollow her. A mother shrieksoutinan agony ofgrief. A longshaftoflight fromtheslowly sinkingsuncuts acrossthesea, making a shining lane uponitsgreyishsurface..afaintcheer fromtheship iswaftedshorewards.Inthemiddle dis tance, against a background of heaving seaandsloping sky,thetransportloomsupblack, then steadily grows smaller.Thecrowd casts alastlong look upon it, a lookoflong fare well, then slowlyandquietly moves towardsthegates.

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CHAPTERIXTHENATIONAL MOVEMENTTHEKing's AppealtotheEmpireinNovember 1915 had thoroughly roused Jamaica. Those who had pleadedandargued for a considerable contingent, for a Nation al Movement, now feltthattheirposition had become im mensely strengthened; there could no longer be any doubt astothe needofmenin England, there could no longer be any hesitation as to whether this colony should assume large finan cial burdens intheEmpire's cause. The Governor himself, though hehadpreviously waited on the colony to move in all matters connected with the sendingofrecruitstotheImperial Armies,hadcabledtoLondonto offer a complete battalion very shortlyafterthe receipt of the Royal Appeal. Inspired bythatAppeal,theHon.J.H. Allwoodhad addressed a circular letter to his fenow elected mem bers proposingthatthey should meetinKingstonatanearly date to decide on a contingentthatshouldhearafairpropor tion to the colony's strength and resources andbea testimony to its desiretobeofsome effectual assistancetotheMother Country.Onthedaythat"theFirstFive Hundred" left our shores the Governor made public his offerofa thousand men to England. and announcedthatthatoffer had been accepted.It was also publishedthatthe elected members had met and had decided ontheircontingent programme. Hencethepapersthatcontained the report and description of the first sailing of a bodyofmen from Jamaica toformpartoftheBritish West ,Indies Regiment (astheWest Indian soldiers were to be canedbyorder of the King). contained alsotheinspiritingandwelcome informationthatthe National Con tingE:'nt Movement adopted by the Legislature in the previous September nowtobe on s<:ale,

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JAMAICA ANDTHEGREAT WAR. 87LedbyMr. Allwood, whodrewupandsubmitted tohiscolleaguestheplanthatwasaccepted,theelected members proposedthatthecolony should devotethesumofone million poundssterlingtowardstheexpensesoftheNational Contin gent.Thisamount wastoberaisedbyloanifnecessary,andto berepaidin forty yearsattherateofsixtythousand pounds a year.Itwas assumedthatthiswould enable a body totallingtenthousand men to besenttothefrontfrom firsttolast,thecolony undertakingthecostoftransportationandthepaymentofall pensions,gratuitiesandseparation allowances, whiletheBritishauthorities weretopaythesoldiers' wagesandtoequipandtrainthem.TheFirstFiveHundredandtheirreinforcements weretobe includedinthetenthousandmen;in fact,thenew pro gramme wasbutanextensionoftheeffort whichtheisland,actingthroughprivate personsandbymeansofgratuitouscontributions, had ah'eady putforthandcarried through suc cessfully. A telegram totheKing,informinghim oftheelect ed members' decision,andassuringhimofthe"intentionofJamaicatorespond fullytoHis Majesty's appeal", wasdrawnup; and whentheelected membersmettheGovernortolay before himtheirprogramme,HisExcellency was requestedtoforwardthistelegram totheSecretaryofStatefortheColoniesfortransmissiontotheKing.AsboththeGovernmentand theelected representativesofthepeoplehadnow agreed uponwhatwastobe done,therewasnonecessitytowaituntiltheLegislative Council should meet before proceeding to enlistthebattalionoffered bytheGovernorandaccepted bytheBritishWarOffice.Thus immediatelyafterthesailingoftheFiveHundredthecallwentforthforanotherthousand men,and a few daysafterwardsSirWilliam Manning appointed aCentralRecruiting CommitteetodirectandcontrolrecruitingfortheNationalContingentthroughouttheisland.TheHon.J.H.W.Park,DirectorofPublic Works,was madePrsjdentofthisReCfuitins,r Committe. The

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88 JAMAICA ANDTHEGREAT WAlt. othermembers weretheHon. H. A. L. Simpson, Hon. Sydney Couper, Messrs. A. H. Jones, William Wilson,D.N.Barr,W. Baggett Gray,M.deCordova andJ.Tapley. Lieut. Ottley, then Staff Officer, was namedastheCommittee's secretary.Intheofficial circularsettingforththedutiesof the CentralCommittee andofthe Parochial Committees which were also to be formed,itwasstatedthattheresourcesofthecoun try should be organized sothata constantflowof recruitsforthedraftsmight be ensured. A Parochial Committee wastobeconstitutedin every parishoftheisland save Kingston: these committees would decide when recruiting meetings should be held and where they would be most efficacious;theywere to beincommunicationwiththeCentral Committee, which would inform them from time to time of the quotaofmen required from eachoftheseveral parishes, the date when recruits shouldbedespatched to Kingston,"andother details inregardtorecruiting." The Chairman of a Parochial Com mittee would be the custosoftheparish:ifthere was no custos the elected memberoftheparishwould be the committee's head. As a general rule the committee would,consistofthecus tos,theelected memberoftheparish,theresident magistrate,theChairmanoftheParochial Board, the collectorofrevenue andthedistrictmedical officer,withsuch other personsas might be deemed desirable from amongst the leading residents ofthe parish.Itwas to appoint a secretary. Full instructionsastotheprocess to be followedinenrolling men were giveninthe Government circular,andintheconcludingparagraphitwas mentionedthatcards would be provided for distributiontothose men whose services couldnotbe accepted. These cardfl were to be asortof badgeof honour for the rejected.Inadditiontothiscircular,theGovernor also addressed to eachofthecustodes(ortotheelected member' Wheretherewas no custos)thefollowingletter:"Sir,-Ihllveth(!honoUT to forward to you a of

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JAMAICA ANDTHEGREAT WAR89Instructions in connection withtherecruitingfortheJamaica Contingent. "I should be gladifyou would take the necessary steps to appoint the membersoftheParochial Committee foryour parish, and 1 would askthatyou would be guided bythein.structions laid down in this circular withregardto the en rolment of recruits. "1 need hardly saythat1amsurethatyou,asPresidentofthe Committee, andthemembersofthe Committee, willdoallinyour powertoassistinraisinginyourparishthenumberofrecruits which maJ' be required from you, andthatyou will endeavour to obtain a thoroughly serviceable bodyofmen. You will recognizethattheduties youandthe'membersofyour committeeareasked tocarryoutareinthehighest interestsoftheEmpire,andthatin performing these duties 1 knowthatyou will givethatwilling service which 1 feel all desiretogive, and which, since manyaredebarredbyageorinfirmity from actually proceeding to the front, is somethingthatcan be done to showthatwe are takingourpartin the defence of our homesandourrightstoliveasa free people. I havethehonour to be, etc.,W.H. Manning, Governor." An extraordinary outburstofrecruiting activity follow ed immediately onthedecisionofthe countrythatthousands instead of merely hundreds of, men were to besenttothefront. The call for a thousand volunteershadbeen issued in,thesecond week in November.OnNovember 26 there were1,150recruits enlisted and stationedatUpParkCamp. News was received on the following daythat"TheFirstFive Hun dred," with their reinforcements, had safely landedthatdayatPlymouth. On December 5a second contingentofmen ar rived in Kingston fromtheBahamas; yet recruiting continued in full swing all over Jamaica,theidea being to select the ver:\, best recruits from among those coming in.OnChristmas Day theBahamas volunteersandsome menofthe Jamaica Contino goent sailed for Eng-land, and onJanuary7, 1916, afterthe

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90 JAMAICA AND THE GREAT WAR. usual valedictory services, thesecond battalion ofthe gent sailed amidstthedemonstrations ofanenthusiastic crowd. Another thousand men were called for.Inorder to mote recruiting andtomakeiteasyforsmall landowners to enlist, the Governor announcedthathe was prepared to commend totheLegislative Counciltheremission of taxes in respectofall those owning property uptothevalue of one hundred pounds,"or possibly two hundred pounds:' These taxes would be remittedforthe year in which these men joinedthecontingentandduringeach yearofabsence inthe King's service. The Council subsequently endorsed this offer of the Governor's. Meanwhile letters from the men whohadalready lefttheisland began to be received. Some' ofthese were published. One and all they toldofthegracious and kindly reception our volunteers had met with in England, andthisnaturally had a marked effect on recruiting. By the endofJanuary1916thethirdbattalion was 1025 strong, andonFebruary 1 the President of the Central Recruiting Committee was able to informtheseveral Parochial Committeesthatall the men neededforthenew battalion were now obtainedandthatno more for the present should be senttoCamp.otherWest Indian Colonies had been despatching gents toEnglandtoformpartof the British West Indies Regi. ment.Itwas admitted throughout the West Indiesthatitwas Jamaicathathadtaken the initiative in thesendingofmen,thatit was Jamaica's examplethathad been followed, ang thatitwas ontheinvitationofJamaica's Governorthattheother Colonies had decided to join in the Contingent ment.InSeptember the following congratulatory telegrams passed between.theWest Indian Administrators most closely identified withtheContingent Movement: "GovernorofBritish Guiana, Governor-in-Chief of Windward Islands, and GQvel'uorof Trinidadheretogether sendto you our congratu-

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JAMAICA ANDTHEGREATWAR. 91 lations on accomplishmentofyourproposaltosend WestIndian Contingent on active service,andhopethatyoursandours willdotheirdutyatthefront."ThustelegraphedtheGovernorsofBritishGuiana,theWindward Islandsand'trinidadtotheGovernorofJamaica,andSirWilliam Manningrepliedtoallofthemina messagetoSirWilliam LeHuntofTrinidad:"Please accept yourselfandconvey to GovernorofBritishGuianaandtheGovernor-in-ChiefoftheWindward Islands my thanksforyourkindtelegram. I have no doubtthatthecombinedWestIndianContingent will dotheirdutyatthefrontforKingandEmpire, wherever. called upontoserve." Very soonafterthefirstJamaicabattalionhadreachedEnglanditwasdecided by t.heWar Office thatthe Brit.ish West Indies Regiment should betrainedandshould serve in Egypt. Beforeitleftt.heshoresof Englandlits commanding officer, Colonel Barchard, receivedfromthethenSecretary ofStatefortheColonies aletterwhich,shortlyafterwards, wasreadthroughouttheBritish West Indieswithgenuine plea sure. Mr.BonarLaw'sletterwaswrittenon December 8, 1915,andisheretranscribedinfull:-"DearColonelBarchard,-OntheeveofthedepartureoftheBritishWestIndies Regimenttoserve abroad, I desire,asSecretaryofStatefortheColonies,to toyou,andthroughyoutotheofficers and menoftheRegiment, mywarmestgood wishesforyourandtheirwelfare,andsuccess inthetasksthatlie before you. I onlyregretthatcircumstances prevent me from personally deliveringthismessagetothem."TheBritishWest Indies Regiment represents alltheWestIndianColonies, each of whichhasfurnished its contin gent. These Colonies haveanimportantplaceinthe strug glesofthepast;I feel confidentthatallranksoftheRegiment will rememberthatthey comefromapartoftheEmpirewhich has witnessed many signaltriumphsofBritisharms; Ilnq I 11msUrE) that wheneverthey arecalled upon they will

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92 JAMAICA ANDTHEGREAT WAR. show themselves worthyofthe great traditions of the uniform they wear. Please assure themthatI shall not failtofollow their doings with the greatest sympathy and interestin what ever sphereofthe present struggle they maybecalled upontoplay their part."I must leaveittoyouto choose the time and method of giving thisMessage to the Regiment. I hopeyouwill be able to ensure its reaching all ranks shortly before they saiL "I wish you allGod-speedand a happy return to your homes whenthe waris over." Colonel Barchard replied to Mr. Bonar Law, saying, interalia,"Ithink you may rest assuredthatthe men of the British West Indies Regiment are prepared to play their part in whatever sphere they may be called upon todoso. From what I have seeri of these men, I can honestly saythatthey display a patriotism totheirKing and Country equal tothatshown by any subject oftheBritish Empire." Thisofficer,evidently, had 8. high in theserawWest Indian levies, anditis significantthatthemen of the Regiment,inwriting home, invariably spokeofhimintermsofthe warmest affection. Colonel Barchard andColonelWoodHill endeared themselvestotheWest Indian lads, and these gavetothem the love, re. spect and admiration which soldiers havefortrusted and genu inely sympathetic leaders.It was not until the 6th of March, 1916,thatthethirdbattalion sailed. The transport had been longincoming. There were fearsjustthen of German raiders in the Atlantic.Itwas rumouredthatthis battalion would not go directto England,butno one could speak with any certainty, and, asitsuLsequently transpired, not even the Governor orthe Gen. eral commanding the local forces was informed of its destination. -The Verdala wentbut a little way from Kingston when she was compelled to return, anchoringatPortRoyaL Some. thing had S'0newronS' with the engines and some repairs were

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JAMAICA ANDTHEGREAT WAR. 93 required. Superstitious people, ever on the lookoutforomens, didnotlike thisturningbackofthe ship, considereditun lucky.In a wayitwas very unlucky, thoughnotin the super stitious pointofview.Forthis ship with its freightofhuman beings was to meet with misfortunes which stirred Jamaica to the heart, and haditnotbeen.delayeditmight have escapedtheworstofthem. The Legislative Council met two daysafterthethirdbat talionhadsailed from Kingston, and the Governor, in a very serious speech, delivered with anxiety plainly depicted on his countenance, placedthefinancial prospects of the coming of ficialyearbefore the country's legislators.Asstated in a fore going chapter, intheSeptemberofthe previousyearhe had refrained from imposing additional taxation on the peopleinspiteoftheAugust hurricane and its consequent expected effect ontherevenue.Hehadaccepted a probable deficit while expressing the hopethatsome monthsofgoodtrademight enable the revem'le to keep up with the demandsofcurrentexpenditure.Itwas expectedthattaxation for contin gent purposes would be imposedatthis first 1916 session of the Council,andtherehadbeen an animated discussion in the newspapers as towhat fOfm such taxation should take. Those who saw farthest hintedthatinaddition to taxesforthecontingent-thatover and above the ,000 ayearfor which the Colony's Legislaturehadpledged itsword-therewould also be necessityforfurtherimposts for ordinary local purposes.Butno one anticipated the Governor's announce ment.Itcame with startling effect. He found himself com pelled to ask for extra taxation amounting to ,000inthecoming financial year; .,000 ofthis ,vould be permanent,therestwould be for one year only.Itis safe tosayhe expected some pointed criticism. He expecteditwould be saidthathe ought to have foreseentheheavy deficitofthehurricane year,ifnot the anticipated deficitofthecoming year's transactions, and should have taken steps,byearlier

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94JAMAICA AND THE GREATWAR.taxationor increased retrenchment, to meet the situation.Butnothing like this was said. When the astonishment had passed,it was rememberedthatthe ColonyandLegislaturehad agreed with the policy ofwaiting to seewhattheensuing months would bring forth, and the country clearly realizedthatitcould not go back on its own acceptance ofthe Gover nor's previous suggestion. A committeeoftheelected and the official memberssettowork immediately todrawup a scheme of special taxation, and thoughtheburden fellheavily upon many' membersofthe Legislative Council,it was ac cepted withanabsenceof murmuring, with a senseofthe necessity for special effort, which were truly admirable and which reflected greatly tothe of the House. Heavy export taxes wert; levied on sugar, rum, logwood, andsome other articles theningreat demand abroad.It was fortunateforboth Government and countrythatthough the banana industry had' suffered severely in the lastyear's hur ricane,theother agricultural resourcesofthe island were in flourishing condition. So withtheexports fetching high prices, withprofits ,accruing which could only be regarded as warprofits, the exporttaxcould easily be borne.Butthe massofthe people,theordinaryrankand file ofthe con sumers, did not escapetheimpositionofadditional burdens,andthey, while paying increased prices on all imported goods, were earning on the whole no more moneythanthey had earned beforethewar.Whatisespecially noteworthY is the cheerfulness with which all Jamaica received the newsthatduringthecoming twelve months,inspiteofthe increased taxation of 1914,thegreatrecent rise inthecostofliving, and the considerable loss occasioned by the hurricaneof Au gust1915, more taxation was now to be imposed. They under stoodthatthey hadtobearfresh burdens in timesof war. They shouldered those burdens with a splendidspiritand ut tered no word of complaint.

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CHAPTERX COMPLEMENTARYEFFORTSENGLAND thrilledwithpride when shelearntthatfromthefourquartersoftheglobe,fromstrangelands understrangeandalienstars,herchildren were hasteningtooffertheirlivesinherservice.Prouderyetshe felt when Canada, Australia, India, South Africa, New Zealand,theislandsofthePacific,theislandsoftheCaribbean, roseasonemanandpledged themselvestostandwithherto the last,tofightwithhertotheend;rose with afervourofpatriotism,anenergyofeffort, which provedtotheworldthattheBritishEmpirestoodforsomethingdeartothehearts of millionsofmenofdiverse races andofdifferentcreeds, which testifiedtoall timethatitwasloveandloyalty, confidenceandtrust,which wasthecementthatheldtogetherthe hundredsofmillions over whom floatedtheUnion Jack. Anditseemstousthatnothing was more finely sym bolicalofthespiritoftheEmpireinthoseswiftandstirringdaysofthewar'soutbreakthantheactionoftheJamaica colonies in foreign landsandofthelittle dependenciesofthisisland. Some hundredsofmilestothesouthofJamaicastretchesthemainlandofCentral America.Intwooftherepublics ofthatContinent large numbersofJamaicanslive.TheJamaican is anaturaltraveller;ofanadventurous dis position, he lovestofareforthtoother landsinthepursuitofexcitement,inthesearch of wealthandofstimulating experiences. Thusheistobe found everywhere,inevery country;and in someoftheneighbouring tropical countries he has settledintensofthousands,carryingwithhim hisProtestantreligion, hisBritishprejudices,hisbeliefinEngland, his grumbling criticism of Jamaicaand-hisenduring

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96 JAMAICA AND THE GREAT WAR. love for Jamaica.For this underlies all his complaints, all his grumbling, all his dissatisfaction: a truelovefor Jamaica and England: a great hope for the former, a high unshakable pride and firm faith inthelatter. Toiling within sight oftheblue and purple seathatsurrounds the islets of Bocas del Toro;inthe midstofthe vast plantations of Costa Rica where the silver river gleams between green banks of the broad-leaved banana; on the heights of Culebra or in some gaudy Central American town, the Jamaican never altogether forgetstheland of his fathersor the land of his allegiance. He"mayhave left his native country forever, but thereissomethinginhis heart that whispers to him ofhome.There is something in hisbloodthattells himthattobe a British subject is matter for pride and carries withita per petual obligation.Sowhen in the summer of 1914 the news was flashed through the worldthatEngland had entered the great European War, Jamaicans in Central America remem bered thatthey were British subjects and prepared to act accordingly. To Jamaica came their voices from over the sea. Andtheir offer was oneof service in gifts and in strong men.Nosooner had funds been openedin Jamaica tosend warm clothing and other presents to English sailors and soldiers, than the Jamaica people in Panama organised a similar effort through their several friendly societies. This effort was announced in theColon Starlet of September1, theplan ofthepeople inColonand on the CanalZonebeing to transmit to Jamaica, throughthe British Consul, the money they should collect. The JamaicansinBocas del Toro determhiedatthe same timethat a warfund should be started there. Costa Rica had beenhardbit by the sud den outbreak of thewar;but the Jamaicans in Costa Rica were also to show before longthatthey were behindnosection oftheir countrymen in the realisation of their patri otic obligations. Andso the Jamaicansinthe two Spanish-

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HON.J.H.W.PARK.MR.J.H.ALLWOOD.

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JAMAICA ANDTHEGREAT WAR. 97 American Republics organisedwarfunds and collected moneyforthose funds. They gave entertainmentsofall kinds: concerts, picnics,FlagDay demonstrations,andallforthepurposeofassisting inthewar.Atone entertainmentinPortLimon nearly two hundred pounds was takenfortheBritishRed Cross Society.Thatsurely was somethingfora little West Indian colonyina Latin-American town. Even from Spanish Honduras came a small contribution totheJamaica funds; put betterthanmoney,asproofofthespiritanimatingthepeople,waswhathappened whenitwas published in PanamathattheKing had accepted Jamaica's offerofa contingentofrecruits. ThePanamaStarandHeraldofthe9th June, 1915,statedthatthe publicationofthisnews threw the local West Indian colony into a feverofexcitement--particularlytheJamaicans.FromCosta Rica also came wordthatJamaicanstherewere willing toreturntotheirhome to enlist inthecontingent. Many didso;some came,attheirown expense, fromPanama;they cameas in dividuals, they cameinsmall groups, and sometimes they experienced disappointmentinthat,owingtotheirbeing overthethen age-limit (thirty-five),orto some other cause, theycould not be enlisted. Bocas del Toro went properly aboutthismatterofenrolling menforthe contingent.Itfirst collected a fairlylargesumofmoney, thenitgottogether a bodyofmen whohadpassed thesortofmedical examination approved bytheBritishArmy authorities. TheBritishVice-ConsulofthatProvince helpedasmuchashe legitimately could,buthe hadtobe circumspect. The Ger manswerestronginPanama,andthey wouldnothesitatetolay a charge against anyoneofviolatingtheneutrality lawsofa neutral State.ProminentJamaicans and English meninPanamahad alsotobe carefulforthesame reason,buttherankandfileoftheBritishsubjectstherecared nothing:whatthey did was doneintheopen lightofday. Morethanone detachmentofmen came over from

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98JAMAICAANDTHEGREAT WAR.Panama asa result of organised efforts, butthelanding of one ofthesebodies, on Christmas Dayof1915,is especially remembered.Fifty-one recruits constituted this platoon:forty-twofromBocas del Toro and nine from Colon: theBocasmenwere under Dr.G.A.G.Johnson,themen fromColonwerecommanded by lfr. Frederick Lyons. Both thesegentlemen,nativesofJamaica domiciled abroad, had workedquietlyandzealously for the cause sincethebeginning ofthewar,and were to continue todoso. Had they and others, British Consulsandrepresentative Jamaicans andEnglishmenin Central America, been definitely aidedatthistimebytheJamaica Government, there isnodoubtthat hun dredsofmenfortheJamaica Contingent would have beenrecruited.But as recruiting continued,theGermans waxedmorevigilant and more indignant,sothata Jamaican writing privatelyto a newspaperofficein Jamaica had to ask thataslittle as possible should be said about recruitinginPanamafor the Jamaica Contingent.Oneevent shows how British subjectsinCentral Amer icacloselyfollowedthefortunes of the war.OnWednesdayevening,the 21st ofJune,1916,a memorial service was heldintheWesleyanChapelatPortLimon, Costa Rica,inhonourofLordKitchener whose death had recently occurred. Theprincipaladdressonthatoccasion was delivered by Mr. Wil liamMcAdam,the British Consul. We quotethesimplewordsofthe newspaper correspondent: "Speakingofthenavalbattle off the CoastofJutland, the Consul said he hadseensomepeoplecarrying long faces because theybelieved"thattheBritish Empire had been worstedinthatfight,butasa matter of factithad been a British victory." He thenspokeonLordKitchener's life and work,and "at thecloseoftheaddress the congregation rose and stood duringthepla.yingofthe Dead March inSaul,"A few dayslater an othermemorialservice was held in the Anglican Churchof .the sametown.Thinkofit.InPortLimon, as elsewhere

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JAMAICAANDTHEGREATWAR 99inCentral America, Jamaicans felt woundedtotheheartatthethoughtthatonthesea Englandhadsuffered a reverse,andthey grievedatthenews of Kitchener'stragicend. They sorrowedinthehourofadversity,theyrejoiced inthedayofvictory;theyworkedfortheCause, they hopedforthegreattriumphantissue.IntheDayofArmaggedonithasnotonly been thoseof"theblood"thathave held togethertokeepthepillarsofthegreathousefromfalling. Thoseofthespirithave also shown themselves faithful,true,worthyofthebesttraditionsofourEmpire,readyalwaystoservetheMotherland.Itis agreatandstrikingfact, monumental,andtherecordofitiswritteninthebloodofmany peoples. No otherEmpirethathasever flourished onthisearthhashadsuch a glorious record to show. The dependenciesofJamaica,the Cayman IslandsandTurksIsland, also didwhatthey could to assisttheJamaicawarfundsandtheJamaica Contingent. They gaveoutoftheirpoverty,andthatwas agreaterthingthaniftheyhadgivenoutoftheirwealth. And nowwemustpass on to re view briefly some efforts made inJamaicainconnectionwiththewar,selectingthemoreimportant,butnever for gettingthatthesmallest endeavour madetoassisttheMother Country was all praiseworthy, eveniftheverymemoryofitbe lost, evenifnothing was heard ofthatendeavourafterithadbeen made. ThroughLordLansdowne,thePresidentoftheBritishRed Cross Society,withwhichhadbeen amalgamatedtheOrder of St.JohnofJerusalem,anappealforfunds to helptheSociety's work was madetoalltheBritishEmpirein1915.InhistelegramtoSirWilliam Manning, Lord Lans downe askedthatmoney shouldbecollectedbystreetandother collections,thismoney to be devotedtothecare of woundedBritishsailors and soldiersandthetroopsfromBritishcountries overseas.ThetelegramwaspublishedintheJamaicaPressandall and everyonewereaskedtoassist

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100 JAMAICA ANDTHEGREATWAR.in the movement to make theFund a handsome one: under the Governor, the then Mayor of Kingston was placedattheheadof the Fund. A great popular demonstration wasat onee planned,ofwhich demonstration the sellingofbadges was to be the prin cipal feature. The dayofthe demonstration was Trafalgar October 21,1915,andtheplanthathad workedso suc cessfully on Flag Day was again adopted.In Kingston there was a meetinginthe Ward Theatre, with patriotic songs andspeeches, Mrs. William Wilson being in chargeofthe chorusofgirls whose activities didsomuch to render the function in the city a pleasing success.Afterthat, many concerts and entertainments all over Jamaica in aid of the Red Cross Fund, now formally styled the Governor'sRedCross Fund, testified to the popularityofthis particular cause. Another "Day" forthecollection of moneyforthe FundWasheld on October 19, 1916. Mrs. Wilson was to have takenatthechief public functiononthis occasion thepartshe had taken in the previousyeaributon September 16,afterashortillness, she died, to the loss ofthe general community and of the many efforts connected with the Contingent andothermovements. She had attempted too much, morethanherstrength warranted. She had travelled with her husbandallovertheisland to be presentatinnumerable recruiting meetingsifor over a year she had had no rest, there had on herpartbeen no cessation of effort. The work told uponhervitality, sapped it, woreitout;even while she was making preparationsforthecoming Red Cross Day she failed,anditcan truly be said of herthatshe died in the serviceofheradopted country. The second ';Day" in aid oftheRed Cross FundswaS asuccess likethe first, and since thentheFund has steadily continued to grow. Up to March 31, 1917, the sum of ,000 had been transmitted to England bytheGovernor, and there was still a small amountinhand.Itshould be put on record

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JAMAICA ANDTHEGREAT WAR. 101in these pagesthat one-eighth oftheamount just mentionedhadbeen donatedbyone man,anAmerican owningpropertyin Jamaica, who hadtaken a deep interest in all efforts madebyJamaicain connectionwiththewar. The nameofMr.J.F.Thompson,ofGood Hope inTrelawny, is well knowninthecolony. Hehadmademany gifts to local charities.Hehad contributed a thousand dollarstotheJamaicaAeroplaneFund(ofwhich something presently) andanotherthousand dollars totheTrelawnybranchoftheRed Cross Fund.Mterthishesenta chequeforfive thousand dollars--over ,000totheGovernor; andina subsequent letter, replying tothethanksofthePress, Mr. Thompson wrotethathehadnever been a neutral inthewar,hadnotconsidered and could not consider himself aneutralina war being wagedforfreedomagainstthenegationofrightand freedom. Jamaica highly appreciated this overfiowing generosity, so spontaneous, so admirably motived.Itissafe to saythatthisappreciation will be felt bytheJamaicansofthefutureastheythinkofthepartwhichtheircountryplayed inthegreat world struggleinthefirstquarteroftheTwentieth Century. Another mostimportantmovement wasthatoriginatedandcarriedthrough so successfullybyMr. Adolph Levy, whohadon previous occasionstakensomepartinthepublic affairsofhis city.In1914 Mr. L. A.RattiganhadappealedtothepublicforfundsinaidoftheLondon Overseas Club's effort to supplytheBritish Army with aeroplanes. Mr. Rat tigansucceededinobtaining about thenthemovement languished and was given up.Forsome timenothingmorewasheardofanaeroplane movementinJamaica, though other colonies were busy supplyirigairmachinestotheArmy. Mr. Levy then conceivedtheideaofanAeroplaneFundon considerable lines.Hesaw that to make such a movement succeed he must havetheactive associationandassistanceofa numberofrepresentative meninthe colony,thathemustinteresthundredsofmen and women in it,and that hehim-

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102 JAMAICA ANDTHE GREAT WAR. self must be preparedtoputforththe maximum ofpersonal effort. Hepublished his appeal in theGleaneronJuly27, 1915,onFlag Day, when,itmight be thought, most persons would be too busy withtheFlagDay demonstrationstopay close attention to the lengthy letter in which hesetforthhis reasons for makingthatappeal. Buttheletter was read. Mr.Levy's reasons were convincing. His suggestion wasthatone hundred persons in Jamaica should contribute twenty-five pounds each to the AeroplaneFund(he himself promising fifty pounds), and heat once proceeded to formanAeroplane Committee which consistedofthe following gentlemen: Messrs.T.N. Aguilar, Lewis Ashenheirn, H.1.C.Brown, Sydney Cargill,J.F.Milholland, HoraceV. Myers, Edward Morris, and J.H.Cargill, who unanimously elected Mr. LevyasChairman, and Mr. J.H. Cargill as honorary secretary. All these gentlemen were keenly interested in the Fund and anxious todotheir utmosttoensure its success: especially should be mentionedthe efforts ofthe Fund's secretary, Mr. J.H. Cargill,whonever spared himself. Mr. Levy had definitely and purposely appealedtothewealthier people ofthecolony. The results soon begantojustify his decision. Contributions began tocornein,butthehurricane of August1915also carne, and for a little whileit was doubtful ifenough money would be collectedtopur chase a single aeroplane.Buton September 4theChairman of the Aeroplane Committee was able to announcethat,thehurricane notwithstanding, hehadreceived nearly up to then, andthatthe Committeehadno intention of suspending its efforts. Twenty dayslatertheFund stoodat ,312. Inaddition to individual contributions and to donations fromtheseveral firms of the island, .theVictoria Mutual Building Society and the Jamaica Mutual Life Assurance Company each gave,while the Gleaner Company andtheJamaica Co-operative Fire Insurance Company each donated These sums, of course, were taken out of the profits of these

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JAMAICA ANDTHEGREAT WAR. 103 businesses, sointheresultthesmaller menandwomenoftheisland did contribute something totheAeroplane Fund,andcontributedinamannerthathelpedtheFundtodopromptlywhatithadbeen openedtoaccomplish. Money forthefirstaeroplane-JamaicaNo.I-was tele graphedtoEngland on October 28, 1915.Thesum was ,250. The Fox Film Company was theninJamaicamakingthe photo-fantasy, "TheDaughteroftheGods:'TheDirectorofthatCompany, Mr.HerbertBrenon, was approached by Mr. Levy and Mr.J.H. Cargill, who askedhimto allow his peopletoassistintheefforttoraise moneyfora second aero plane. Mr. Brenon highly appreciatedthecourtesyandkind ness whichhadbeen so abundantly showntohimandhis companyinJamaica:hereadily consentedtodowhathe was asked. So onthe4thofNovember,atthePalace MovingPictureTheatre,lentforthepurposebyitsmanagement,washeld oneofthemost enjoyable entertainments,andoneofthe most successful,thatKingstonians ever patronised. Thousandsofbadgeswithlittle aeroplanes stamped onthemhadbeenimportedtobe soldthroughouttheisland . A few of these wereputupforauctionattheaeroplane entertainmentby Mr. BrenonandMiss Kellerman, who greatly assisted in makingtheentertainmenta success. The highest price paid for. oneofthebadges was Totheaudience also a numberofthese badges were soldbythelady membersoftheFoxFilmCompanyat half-a-crown apiece. In cluding the saleofthesemomentoes,theentertainmentreal ised morethan There was subsequentlyanaeroplane badge day intheseveral parishes, which broughtinhundredsofpounds.Earlyin1916anotheraeroplane was purchased,andafterthatnearly wassenttotheOverseas Clubtoassist in buying athirdmachine. Thenthefundwasclosed;butlateronthechairmanoftheAeroplane Committee received another

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104 JAMAICA ANDTHEGREAT WAR. telegram fromthe Overseas Club askingthatthe assistance of Jamaica should be continued: this resultedinthe re-open. ing of the Fund, andit was decided to keepitopen until the end of thewarshould beweHwithin sight. Jamaica had been deeply stirredbythestoryof Bel. gium's suffering, andithas already beensetdownthat Ja maica did somethingtosuccour the peopleofthatunhappy country. The colony had also heard something about the misery of Poland;butPoland wasfaraway, was but a nametothose bornandbrought up in Jamaica, hence the first appeal made on behalfofthesuffering Jews of Poland met withbutan ordinary response. That appeal, too, had been specifically madetomembers of the Jewish persuasion in Jamaica. Christians and others contributedtothe Fund opened here at the suggestion of Hon. Leopold de Rothschild,butthe imperativenatureof the need wasnotthen under stood. Mr. H.V.Myers was chairmanofthePolish Jewish Fund, Mr. Altamont DaCosta was secretary;butat first the collecting of money devolvedonMr. DaCosta almost entirely. This gentleman collected about which'hetransmitted toEngland; buttheCommittee in London despatched another telegram to him askingthat more should be done, and men tioning the "unparalleled tragedy and awful suffering" which renderedfurtherefforts imperative. Mr. DaCosta was leav ing the islandjustthen:he published Mr. de Rothschild's telegramand handed over the Fundtothechairman, Mr. Horace Myers.Thelatterperceivedthatifmoney to any appreciable amount was immediatelytobe collected, there must be a definiteanddirect appeal,notonlytotheJews of Jamaica, but toanotherJamaicans as well,anappeal made without distinctionofreligion and in the name of the common humanity of all.It was the first timethatsuch a call fromtheJews had ever been made to both Jews and Christiansin Jamaica. The aid of the Press was invoked; dayafterdaythemisery of

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JAMAICA ANDTHEGREATWAR. 105 Poland wasputbeforethepeopleofJamaica,anddaybyday both JewsandChristians gavewhattheycould inaidoftheirsufferingbrethreninPoland-forthose who suffered inthecauseoftheAllies were thebrethrenofall whosefatewas boundupwiththevictoryorthedefeatoftheAllies. Mr. Myers hopedfora thousand poundsatleast. He soon knewthathis hopes would be morethanrealised.Anentertain. mentattheMovies Theatre, organisedby Mrs. Cecil deCor dova, who was assisted byJewsandChristians, broughtinnearly .TheFundreached athousandpounds, two thousand pounds; on March 31, 1917,itstoodat,000, in clusiveoftheamount collectedby Mr. DaCosta.Ithadbeen opened when a numberofotherappeals were being made tothecountry,andaftera largeamountofmoney had already been collectedbyvoluntary effort.Butthecall to Jamaica had been ably made by thechairmanofthePolish Jewish andtheneedofthe peopleinPolandhadbeen forcibly presented tothe consciousne!'1S ofall Jamaica.SoJamaica ralliedtomakethiseffort a successful one,andreceived fromthePolishJewishCommitteeofLondon a sincere expression of itsgratitude. AFundtoassistother Funds isthealternative nametotheWarStampLeague which wal:! organised by Mr. Lewis Ashenheim shortlyafter his returnhome fromtheUnited States,whitherhehadgone on avisitofsome months. When in America, .Mr. Ashenheimhadseenatwork a scheme for collecting money in small amountsfromthemultitude,anditoccurred to himthatthisscheme could be applied with successinthiscolony. The ideawastosell a special kind of stamp,withtheface value of one half-penny, whichstampmight beputon letters, papersandothermail matter, in addition,ofcourse,totheregularpostage. Permission was obtained fromtheGovernorforthesellingofthese stampsat all theisland's post offices;merchantsand others were asked to purchase quantities oftheWar League Stampsfor

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106 ,JAMAICA ANDTHE GREAT WAR. use on theirletters. The community was invited to becOnlemembers of the War Stamp League, and many atonce agreed todoso. Allthatwas necessary to hecome a member of the League was a promisetouse theWarLeague Stamp. The League started in December,1915.In March 1916. the Government increased thecost of posting letters in Jamaica from a penny to three half-pence, and this naturally' affected the sale of War League stamps. Nevertheless the League was able in March of the same year to hand over cheques of each to the Governor's Red Cross Fund, the Jamaica Aeroplane Fund and theFund for the Relief of the Polish Jews. Similar distributions were madeinJuneof the sameyear;only, instead oftheAeroplane Fund benefiting bythesecond chequeof, the amount was handed over to the Gleaner's Contingent Sufferers' Fund withthe con* sent of the J amaiea Aeroplane Committee. Up to March 31, 1917, nearly had been received by the chairman of the War Stamp League. The aim of this particular effort was manifold.It was to assist the three Funds mentioned abovethatthe League was formed.It was also to give thevery poorestanopportunity of associating themselves with the efforts being made to supply aeroplanes to theBritish Army, to succour wounded British soldiers and sailors, and to help the unhappy sufferers of Poland. By purchasing a single stampforone half-pennythehumblest man or woman, boyorgirl, would have done something to assist some deserving causes. And thousands of these men andwomen,boysand girls, did add their mites to the moneythatwent to swenthelarger Funds. Another effort made in Jamaica to assist the victimsofthewarwasthatinitiated by Mr. E.A.Issaonbehalfofthe euffering Syrians. There isa small Syriancolonyin Ja* maica, most of whose members aresubjects of the Turk.Butthe Jamaica Government did not deemitnecessary to place

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.JAMAICA ANDTHEGREAT WAR. 107 these aliens underanyrestraint,though, technically,theycame intothe category: ofenemy aliens. None would moreheartilyrejoice overthedownfalloftheTurkthanthe Syrinn, whohashadto endure suchbitterpersecutionathishands;sincetheoutbreakofthewar,also,thepeopleofSyriahave undergone unimaginablehardship,andthishasmovedtheirfellow-countrymentheworld over todosomethingintheirassistance. Mr.Issais himself aBritishsubjectandnow a citizenofJamaica.Buthefeltwiththepeople amongst whomhewasborn,andhe issuedanappealtotheSyriansinJamaicafortheirunhappybrothersinSyria.Heformed a committee, opened a fund,andcollected by personal effort a goodpartof the hewasabletosend to NewYorkupto 1917, to betransmittedbytheSyrianCommitteeinNew York to Syria. Many JamaicansandEnglishmen contributed to this Fund, which remains in existence. TheSyriansin Jamaica haveneverfailed to respond tothecalls madeinJamaicaforfinancial assistanceforcauses connectedwiththewar, and when Mr.IssaremindedthemthatSyriawasalso suffering, they realizedthattogive tothe SyrianReliefFundwas aparamountduty, and they fulfilled it.Ofthesuccessful effort madebytheArchbishopoftheWest Indies in companywithGeneral Blackden,tohave a recreation room erectedforthe use andentertainingofthecontingent men, there need be only abriefmention. Mr. L.M.Pietersz, Belgian ConsulinJamaica, came late uponthe witha plea on behalfoftheBelgian orphans,buttotheFundopened by himforthelittle onesofBelgium,Jamaicahadsomethingtogive, eventhoughtheamountwasunder. The Rev.J.F.Gartshore,theRev. P. B. Richardson, appealing respectivelyformoney topresentourdepartingsoldierswithNew TestamentsandPrayerBooks, foundthatthecountryhadsomethingforthese purposes; while Mr.J.E.Owen has been able to collectnearlyfortheBlue Cross Fund,thefunddevotedtoaidinghorses woundedatthe sev-

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108 JAMAICA ANDTHEGREAT WAR. eral battlefronts. Mr. Hugh ClarkeofWestmoreland has been doing excellent work collecting moneytoprovidesomecomforts forthe British prisoners in Germany. Up to the endofMarch, 1917, his fund had reached thoughit was almost the last tobestartedin Jamaica in connection with the war. The Self Help Home of Montego Bay, St. James, has assisted nearly every cause and every fund opened here in connection_ withthewar, which is not surprising, seeingthatSt. James is admittedly in the forefrontofall patriotic movements.Inspeaking of complementary efforts connected with the War we have necessarily confined ourselvestothose about which frequent mention has been made inthepublic printsofthe colony. Thereare others which, as the Governor saidin a speech quoted inthefirstpartof this book, will never be lmown, and thesearethemore numerous.Butthereareoneortwo of which some individuals know, and about which, be cause of their unquestionable though silent influence,the peo pleofJamaica ought also to know something. There can be no doubtthatwhen Mr. T.R.MacMillan determined earlyin1915tosend his chief assistant to the war, hesetan ex amplethathad excellent results. He himself was above the military age, his sons were mere children.Buthis principal assistant, a young manof great serviceto him inhis work, wasjustthe sort ofrecruitfor which EnglandWasjustthen calling; and this Mr. MacMillan fully equippedandsentto the Mother Country, where he joinedtheRoyal Flying Corps as a private.and rose to beaninstructor and a sergeant-major intheCorps in less than eighteen months, being now and then entrusted with dutiesofconsiderable responsibility and importance.Insending him Mr. MacMil lanmade a personal sacriflce: he deprived himselfofhis most promising andtrustedhelper. And asthisideaofpri vate personal effort gained ground, there were othersto fol loWtosome extent the example so finely set,

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JAMAICA AND THE GREATWAR. 109 Indeed, evenfrom1914thesendingofyoung men to England byprivatesubscription had beentakingplace, thanks to the effortsofMr.JohnBarclay, Mr.E.Astley Smith, Mr.W.G.Eggins, Mr.C.E.Johnston, Mr. William Morrisonandothers. These men worked very quietly, workedforthemostpartasifa cloak should be thrown overtheirdeeds. We cannot agreewiththiscontinued obscuringofactsofwhich there is every reason to be proud,inregardto which there is nothingofwhich one can be ashamed. Many a man is animated bythefeelingthathe should avoid "advertisement" when workingforpublic, impersonal ends,andthatfeeling re flects to his credit.Buttherecomes a time,anditcomes of ten, and in Jamaicaitcomes very often, when publicity means success. And whenthesuccess isnotofa personal nature, when the endtobe served is finely philanthropicornobly patriotic, then concealment, the sensitiveshrinkingfromthepublic eye, isnottobecommended, is indeedtobe condemned.Forthesightofmen workingattractsmoreworkers, is a stimulus to emulation,andwithout emulation most of us woulddriftintothebackwaters of a hopeless, purposeless passivity. Not a fewoftheyoung men wholeftJamaica before the sailingoftheFirstFiveHundredwere assisted inso doing bythegentlemen whofle nameswehave set down above, assistedoutofspecial private funds collected by them, and to which someof them were most generous contributors. Totheiraid cametheUnitedFruitCompany which, neutral business organization thoughitwasatthattime, yet con sideredita duty todoeverythingitcouldtoenable men from Jamaica to placetheirservicesatthe disposaloftheir Sove reign andoftheBritishEmpire. Worthyofremembrance, too, is the refusalofMessrs.F.L. Myers&Sontoaccept one penny of remunerationforbringingin their fleet of sailing vessels all the menthattheBahamassenttoformpartoftheJamaica Contingent. Thus oneand all, some publicly and some secretly, eachin

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110JAMAICAAND THE GREAT WAR. his own waYt have tried todosomethingforthe several causes which have all been connected with the onegreatCause. And thus a record and precedent of public patriotic service has been established, by whichitis impossiblethat thiscountry should not benefitinthe years of reconstruction and of en deavour yettocome.

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CHAPTERXIANINTERREGNUM AFTER thedepartureofthethirdbattalionofthe con tingentinMarch, 1916,recruitingre-commenced.It proceeded steadily until earlyinApril, when arumour went roundthecityofKingstonthatserious misfortunehadovertakenthemen whohadsailedintheprevious month. Ca nadianpaperscoming intoJamaica gave thefirst authentic information aboutthismisfortune:theVerdalahadencoun tered a blizzard onherway to Halifax, alltherecruits, unac customed toanalmost arctic climate,hadbecome demoralised,anda largenumberofthemhadbeen cruelly frostbitten. Outspoken criticismagainstthose responsiblefor send ingpeasantsofa tropical country to Canada atsuch a bit tertimeoftheyearwas soonheardeverywhere. The Gov ernorgave out a statement which, though expressed in stu diously moderate language, was sufficiently distressingtoread. Over a hundredofthemenhadbeen frostbitten.Thewhole battalionhadarrivedatHalifaxina distressedand de moralised condition. Someofthemenwere immediately taken to hospitalthere;otherswere'senttoBermuda;itwassoon knownthata few ofthesufferers would lose oneortwolimbs,thatotherswould lose toes,andthatitwould bemanyweeks beforetherestofthebattalion would be abletoproceedtoEngland. Subsequently'ittranspiredthatthemenhadbeensentfromJamaica withoutwarmsocks (whichhadnotarrivedfromEngland).The Governor statedthathe himselfhadnotknownthattheVerdala,which sailed from Kingstonundersealed orders,wasgoingtoHalifax;General Blackden spokeofthatvoyageasastupidblunder.Itwasapparentthatthelocal authorities werenotto blame,therewasno known person

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112 JAMAICA ANDTHEGREAT WAR.on whomtheindignationofthepublic could vent itself.Pub lic feeling therefore tookthepractical form ofdoing somethingimmediately to assistthesufferers, insteadofspending itselfinaimless recrimination. A few daysafterreceiving newsofthe Verdaw,'sar rivalatHalifaxwiththestricken men, theGleaneropened afundto. provide with artificial limbs those who would under go amputations, and to sendtoallthemen some comforts asanearnestofJamaica's sympathy. The fund grew, stead ily; Mrs. Blackden assisteditwitha MoonlightFetewhichbroughtinnearly ; two sums, eachof,were telegraphed to Halifax and Bermudatopurchase little presentsanddaintiesforthestricken recruits, the Governoractingasthemedium of transmission.Inthemeantime the peopleofHalifaxandBermuda were doing everything intheirpower torendereasier the lotofthefrostbitten men. The kindnessoftheCanadians especially appealed to the heartsofallJamaicans. Someofthe amputated men were to besentback toJamaica;the majority wereto inCanadafora time.TheCanadian Government offered ,to teachthemuse fulcraftsandtrades suchasdisabled Canadian soldiers were being taught. The Governor accepted this offer,after re ceiving permission fromtheSecretaryofState fortheColo niestodoso;and in December, 1916, the dischargedJamaicasoldiers still inCanada (over twenty men) were fittedwithartificial limbs, the occasion being made a special functionofsympathyatwhich many Canadians assisted . Inthatsame monthofDecember, 1916, tenmenwhohadlost oneorboth feet amI hadbeen sent backtoJamaicawere given theirartificial limbs. The Gleaner's Contingent SufferersFundwastohavepaidforthese limbs,andanexpert.hadbeen broughtoutfrom Americatofitthemtothemen.Butthe Imperial authorities, evenifthey acted slow ly,had no intentionofleaving disabled contingentmentothankprivatecharityforsuccour. Word came to Jamaica

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CONTINGENTMENMARCHINGTOEMBARK.TRANSPORT"VERDALLA"ONTHEEVEOFSAILING.

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JAMAICAANDTHEGREATWAR113thatthelimbs would be paidforbythemilitaryauthorities;andthisenabledwhatwasleftoftheContingentSufferersFundtobe devotedtoassistingJamaicarecruitswho had been dischargedinEnglandorEgyptasunfitformilitary servicebutwhohadbeen adjudgedasnotentitledtopensions. Ofthisclassofmen,andofthedischarged soldiers generally, more will besaidlateron. AsfortherestofthefrostbittenrecruitsinCanada,thesereturnedtotheislandinFebruary,1917.Many persons believedthatowingtothismisfortunetheContingent MovementinJamaicahadcometoa suddenandtragicend;thatthethoughtofwhattheirfellowshad suf fered onthevoyagetoHalifax,theknowledgethatmanyofthesufferers would lose oneorboth feet,andlegsin some instances, would effectually determinetheJamaica toremaininhis island home.Therewereothers, however, who heldthatrecruitswould stillcontinuetoanswerthecountry's call,thattheJamaicanwould cOllsiderthemisfortunewhichhadovertakenthethirdbattalionasbutpartoftherisksofwar.These werethemen whohadaninstinctiveunderstandingofthepsychologyoftheaverageJamaican,andtheywereright.Itwasthoughtthatsome months would elapse before a transportwould callatJamaicaforthefourthbattalion. The Verdala, whichwasnotsteam-heated,wasofcourse con demnedasatransportafterherlastill-fated.yoyage;andnotbeforethemenatBermudahadarrivedinEnglandwould a ship cometoJamaicaforanotherbatchofmen.Itwasfearedthatthepracticalsuspensionofrecruitingwhichthisnecessitated would have a dampening effect onrecruitinginJamaica. Nevertheless, whenthemilitaryauthorities de cidedthattheycouldtakesome menatCamp,itwasfoundthatrecruitswerestillcoming in,thatthepessimistic fore bodingsofthose whohadseentheend.oftheContingent MovementinJamaicawere entirelywithoutfoundation.

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114 JAMAICA ANDTHEGREAT WAR. The fourth battalion of the Jamaica Contingent was ready in July. What remainedofthe third battalion (the larger part)hadalready sailed from Bermuda and had landedatPlymouth onthe7thofJune.Butthe fourth battalion was also to meet with its own misfortunes. After the valedictory services onthe12thofJulyitwaSdiscoveredthatmeasles had broken out among the men. This madeitout of the ques tionthatthey should leave Jamaicajustthen.Asamatteroffactit was notuntil September, 1916,thatthey could be sent away. Intheinterval Jamaicahadbeenstirredto the depths by news,arrivinglate onFridayafternoon, June 1916,ofthe Battle of Jutland. The German official report came first.It was followed by statementsfromtheBritish Admiralty which were, apparently, a confession of defeat.It was un- derstood fromthefirstthatthegreaterpartof the British fleet was intact,thattheenemyhadnotremainedtofightthegreatbattleships under the personal command of Admiral Jellicoe; yetthehalting opinil)nsandbeliefs expressed bytheBritish Admiralty in regardtothe losses sustained bytheenemy, coupled with the candid admission of our own lossesandtheboastful claimsoftheGermans, plunged the whole country into anxiety and grief. Fourdays later camethesad intelligence of Lord Kitchener's death. A more correctandtherefore more cheering viewoftheBattle ofJutlandwas beginning to gain ground everywhere when Kitchener's fate was announced. He had stood for so much to the British mind,hadsymbolised so impressivelythestrength, reserve and resolutionoftheBritish nation,thathis suddentakingoff,thetragedy of his swift end amidst the raging watersoftheNorth Sea and. withinsightoftheScottish shore,sent a pangthrough all Jamaica aswell as through every otherpartoftheBritish Empire.Itwas realised, however,thatthe great organiser had done his work,hadlaid the foundations and built up the. superstructure ofthe vast and magnificent

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JAMAICA ANDTHEGREAT WAR. 115 army which Englandhaddetermined put into thewar.Andsoonitwas knownthattheRussians were moving again,thata mighty offensive movement was beginningintheEast.The waveofdepression rolled away swiftly. And when inJulytheBritish advance began upontheSomme, whenitwas known.inJamaicathatthelong-projected offensivehadbeen launched with conspicuousdaringand notable success,theenthusiasm and confidenceofthecountry roseto unpre cedented heights. More men fromthe Bahamas arrived on August 15, and ontheeveningofthatsame day a hurricane swept over Ja maica. Morethana hundredyearshad elapsed sincetheislandhadbeen visited by hurricanesintwo successive years.Ithappened alsothatthefruitwhich had beensparedintheblowoftheprevious year,andthatwhich had been plan..ted in theinterval, hadforsometimebeen rotting onthetreeson accountofscarcityofshippingfacilities.ButinJuneandJulystrongrepresentations onthesubject had been madebytheGovernment andthelocal ChamberofCommerce totheColonialOffice,and hopewasconfidently entertainedthat some shipping would shortly be placedatthedisposaloftheJamaicabanana exporters whohadno contracts withtheUnitedFruitCompany. These were justified. Ships to carry a certain quantityofJamaicafruitto England and theUnited States were actually ontheway toJamaicawhenthe swept down ontheplantations and cultivationsofthecountryside andinlessthananhourhadlaid theminruins.Thedestructionin1916 wasgreaterthanthatin 1915. Practically all the bananasweredestroyed, and muchofthecocoaandcoconuts onthetrees. Other crops were damaged,butsugarescaped almost entirely. With a sort ofstoical optimism,thenewspapers calculatedthatwiththemoneythathadbeen made inthefirstpartoftheyear, andwiththatwhichthenext cropofsugarwould bring, the island would be

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116 JAMAICA AND THEGREAT WAR. ableto win throughthenext twelve months or so, with (Ii. minished spending capacity perhaps,butwithout acute suf. fering.As,despitethedepression in thefruittrade,the ex. porttrade as a wholehadbeen astonishingly large, there was sound basis forthisview. Still, the effect ofthislast hurri. cane was depressing, and the smaller banana growers might hav-a given way to despair had nottheGovernor announcedthatloans to assistinthe re--establishment ofcultivations up to a certain size would be proposed by the Governmentatthe next meetingofthe Legislative Council. Towards the endofthefollowing monththeCouncil met. Eventuallyit passed a resolution empowering the Govern. ment to lend to the banana growers, through the Agricultural Loan Banks, the sumof ,000 in varYing amounts up to .Italso-andthisspecially concerns us here-dis cussed contingent questions, but without any attemptatbeing exhaustiveorof going too deeply into those questions. Men oftheJamaica Contingent, invalidedinEgypt, Englandor Halifax had been returning.OnSeptember19asmany as340had arrived from Egypt, anditwas being ru mouredthathundreds more were coming Reports had begun to circulate as tothegeneral unfitnessofthemajorityofthemen recruited inJamaica;thosewhohad disapprovedoftheContingent Movement exclaimed in triumphatthis ap parentjustificationoftheiroriginal foresight and wisdom. QuestionsputtotheGovernment elicited fairly reassur ingreplies fromtheGeneral commanding the local forces. The men they had been recruiting, he said, wereofthesame type asthatwhich constitutedtheWest India Regiment,andwithgood training and leadership they ought to make efficient soldiers. As to those invalided home, three of every fourofthem were men who" had passed through trying experiences ontheunfortunate voyage to Halifax, and had become weak enedordemoralised in consequence. The General addedthatthefew recruits who were now coming into Camp were very

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JAMAICAANDTHE GREATWAR.117good men,andhe expressedthehopethatfuturebattalions would give ample satisfaction. But althoughtheCouncil discussed contingent matters,itwas evidentthatmuchoftheold enthusiasm feltinregard tothecontingent had evaporated.Itwas generally believedthatthe movementwasnotagreatsuccess,andthefeeling was gaining groundthatlittle use would be foundforthemen whom Jamaica would send.Atthatsame sessionoftheLegislature, however, the.representativeofSt. Andrew's parish,theHon.E.F.H. Cox, asked leave to introduce a bill in stituting universal military service in Jamaicaformen be tweentheagesofeighteenandforty-one. The Governor would not allowtheBill to be introduced,andmany oftheelected members were unfeignedly pleased with this. The Bill W2S considered unnecessary;itwas thoughtthatitwould arouse deep and determined opposition onthepartofa people who viewed suspiciously anythingthatseemed like a curtail mentofthatpersonal freedom which they had enjoyed sincetheblessed dayofEmancipation, August 1, 1838. Employersoflabour, too, could notregardwith favour a proposalthatmight seriously dislocatethelabourmarket;butthedominating factorintheoppositionthenexisting to compulsorymilitary service was undoubtedLythebeliefthattheMother Country had noparticularneedofJamaicasoldiers. Asithad been said so frequently and with such certaintythat "we must win," and asthewarhad now lasted some two years,theprevailing opinion wasthatthe Allies would short ly be victorious,andthatanyparticular exertion onthepartofa small and distant colony like Jamaica,inthewayofraisingmen for service by a compulsory military law, was en tirely uncalled for. SotheCouncil rose earlyinOctober, 1Q.16, convincedthatithad heardtl1e firstandlastabout com service. OnlythePressinsistedthatsixmonths hencethecolony might betakinga very different andaltogethermore viewofthematter.

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118 JAMAICA ANDTHEGREAT WAR. Thereturnofdisabled and discharged contingent men .tothe countryinunexpectedly large numbers had now brought forciblytothenoticeofthe authorities the dismal' factthatno arrangements whatever had been made for deal ing with such cases. Discharged from Up-Park Camp, most of the men found themselves without work and apparently without prospects of any kind. Many ofthem were to re ceive pensions,butthePension Authorities in England were slow; those not entitledtopensions,butnevertheless suffer ing from some formorother of bodily weakness brought about by hardshiporstrain, did not knowtowhat to.turntheirhands. Happily there was still about remaining to the creditofthe Gleaner's Contingent Sufferers Fund, andatthe suggestion ofthePresident of the Central Recruiting Committee and General Blackden this amount was placedatthe disposal oftheCentral Recruiting Committee for the tem porary assistanceofpersons not entitled to pensions.Itwas also arranged bytheGovernmentthataUreturned contingent' men who could work should be employedbytheJamaica Railway andthePublic Works Department, while private em ployers were also requested to assist the Government in gettingthemen back into employment as soonaspossible. As forthose whohadlosttheirtoesoreven legs through frost bite, all 6f whom were entitled to pensions for periods ranging from six monthstotheirwhole lifetime,itwas providedthatthey should betaughttrades and handicrafts,theexercise of which wouldrenderthem independent of eleemosynary aid. With this endinviewtheGovernment's Technical School in Kingston organised regular classesatonce, and disabled men were invited to attend these regularly while in receipt of pen sions. The pensions list soonafter arrived from England, sothatby the time recruiting again commenced formally, De cember 1, 1916, a practical and fairly comprehensive pro gramme for dealing with cases of disabled and returning con tingent men in manageable numbers had been drawn up and

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JAMAICAAND THE GREATWAR.119putinto actual operation.Inspiteofallthewartalk inJamaicaand thewarnews received dailybythecolony,thefactthatwehad suffered nothing save high prices throughthewarhad naturallytheeffectofsteadyingandeven deadeningtheimaginationsofthepeople.Itisobvious, too,thatthemind adapts itselftoalmost any situation,sothat,aftera while,whatwould cre ateconsternationoratleast astonishmentatone time hardly gives rise tosurpriseatanother. Consequently when,inNovember 1916,theGovernment orderedthedarkening of all lightsinthecitythatcould be seen fromthesea, and subse quently extendedthatorder to allthecoast townsoftheisland,therewasbuta brief speculationasto the reasonoftheprecaution.Thatthis was awarmeasure everybody knew,thatitmightbe very necessary was generally conceded.Butnoalarmwas feltorexpressed;theorderwas obeyedandthepeople waitedtoseeifany escaped German cruiseror ad venturous submarine would venture to fire ontheisland. The time when a panic was possiblehadlong since passed. Eventheactual shellingofJamaica's capital would be accompaniedbynofranticdemonstrations offearonthepopulation'spart.The resignationofMr. AsquithasPrimeMinisterof Eng land was announced in Jamaica on December 7, 1916;this warned all intelligent studentsofEnglish political affairsthata grave crisishadariseninEngland, directly connectedofcourse withtheconductofthe war. The adventofMr. Lloyd George to supreme powerintheMother Country was general ly hailedwithdelight;itwas feltthattheparalysing policyof"waitandsee" was now definitelyatan end. Then cametheGerman offerofa peace conference based on art accept ance of Germany's claimofvictory;this,followed by Presi dent Wilson's proposal to all thebelligerents that they should definitelystatetheir terms ofpeace, waS regardedas:indi"; eating a newandhighlyimportantdevelopmentof events inconnectionwiththeGreat War.The yearwas ina

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120 JAMAICA AND THEGREAT WAR. murmur of peace talk, and yet there were almost none in J a. maiea who believedthat peace would shortly be the result of these overtures and suggestions.Itwas impossible for the Allies to acknowledge a German victory. Thereforethe cate. gorical refusal of the Alliesto agreetoa conference with the Central Powers, andtheirexplicit statement of their peace terms in answer to President Wilson's question-peace terms which postulated the defeatofthe CentralPowers-were ra.garded as a matter of course by Jamaica. Nothing else had been expected. President Wilson followed up his request for a statement of the several belligerents' peace proposals with a speech totheAmerican Senate, delivered January 22, 1917, which aroused agooddeal of antagonism everywhere.Inthatspeechheenunciated his now famous opinionthata peace to beper, manent must be a "peace without victory!' InBritish coun tries, where the speedy triumph of the Allies was almost uni versally regarded as inevitable, such a doctrine as this was looked upon as inimical totheAllied interests; it was not per ceivedatthattimethatthePresident foresavr thatAmerica might be drawn intothewar against the Central Powers, and desired beforehand to make the moral and idealistic attitudeofhis country quite clear to the civilised world. The world better understoodthatthe President was not seeking to save the Central Powers from impending defeat when Germany suddenly announced, onJanuary31,that she intended tore sumetheunrestricted submarine warfare against whichtheUnited States had successfully protested some time before. This was a distinct challenge to the United States, whose mer chant ships would be treated asenemies ifthey should be found in. the "barred zone" illegally established by .the Ger mans around the coastsof England. Italy and France. Presi dent answer wastheimmediate severing of diplo matic relations between the United States and .Germany. Then, with aas itwere, the world realisedthatAmerica and

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JAMAICA ANDTHEGREAT WAR. 121theCentral Powers were facing oneanotherwithangry, hos tile eyes, andthatina few weeksatthemost America musttakeherstand bytheAllies inthewaragainstthe ruthless enemiesofall humanised and law-respecting civilised socie ties. The recruiting forthefifth battalionoftheJamaicaCon tingent had proceeded leisurely allthroughDecember.AftertheChristmas holidays, however,themen began to enrol themselves freely. Some time beforethisthebaragainst il literate menhadbeenwithdrawn;good health and the attain ment of the militarystandardofphysical efficiency were allthatwas now required;inaddition also totheordinaryrecruiting methods,thePresidentoftheCentralRecruiting Committee had instituted a new process which proved emi nently successful. Men already recruited weresenttotheir respective districts torecruittheirfriendsandrelatives ontheunderstandingthatthey were to receivehalf-a-crown-onemergencytheamount could be increased tofourshillingsforevery man acceptedbytheauthorities.Fifeand drum bands with officersoftheJamaica Reserve Regiment were also despatched to different places inthecountry, and these never failed toattracta good numberofrecruits.Sothatbythe middle ofFebruary,1917, oyer 1500 menhadenlisteda battalion and ahalfinsteadofone battalion,thefifth and apartofthesixth battalionofthecontingent. And thisinspiteofthe emigration to Cuba theninfull swing,anemi gration which had begun inthelatterpartofthepreviousyearowing to Cuba's callforable-bodied labourers to whomthetempting wagesofeightand ten shillings a day were offered by caneplantersanxious to makethemostofthehighsugarprices then obtaining;' The fifth battalion was :ready; thesixthwasinrapid pro. cessofformation.In.spiteofthe disastrous voyage to Hali:' fax, the long intervals.of tedious waiting,thefeelingthatourmen would not bein time todoappreciable work inany

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122 JAMAICA AND .THE GREATWAR.important theatre of the war,inspite too of a considerable emigration,thecall for recruits had been answered splendidly.Noone thought of compulsory military service any more, eventhemeaning of the unrestricted submarine warfare was not well understood by the vast majority of thinking people in the island.It was believedthateither the Germans were merely "bluffing" or thatthey coulddono worse with their submarines than they had done before. The Gleaner insistedthatthis was a woefully mistaken view to take of the new situation. And the country was soon to learnthatthe most terrible period of theWarhad arrivedatlast, andthatJ a maica.mustputforth greater efforts to help in thewarthanshe had done before.

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CHAPTERXIITHEFINALAPPEAL "I HAVE received from timetotime reports concerning the servicesoftheJamaicaunitsofthe British West Indies Regiment,andthese reports have been of averysatisfactory nature. Theservicesofthesoldiers sent from Jamaica have beenveryhighly spoken of,andtheir steady conduct under severe artillery fire has been much mended." The scene isthehall of Jamaica's Legislative Council, thedateMarch 6,1917,andthewordsarebeing read slowlyanddistinctly bythePresidentoftheCouncil in a crowded torium. The membersoftheCouncil, the officersofthe Army andNavy who attendinfull dresstheopeningofthecolony's. Legislature, thespectators whothrongthe hall,thelobby,andthewide verandahfrontingthehall,arenow all stand ing, silent and attentive,asthePresident readstheaddressinwhich is set forththeGovernment's financialandlegisla tive programme forthecoming financial year.Itis nearlysixmonths sincetheCouncil met, and then its mood was one of depression, its secret viewofthe Contingent Movement oneof apology and depreciation.Itseemed totheCouncilthenthatJamaica hadtriedtohelp the Empire with menandhad failed todosotoanyappreciable purpose;yeteven whilethisopinion was possessingthemindsofmanyinthecountry, word was comingfrom Egypt and fromFrance which contained a rebukeforthose who had doubted and despaired. Men fromJamaicahadbeen attacked in Egypt by from enemy aeroplanes,andthey had behaved as calm. ly'andas coolly as well-seasoned troops. Men from Jamaica,trainedin Egypt, had been rnshedtoFranceatthebeginningandduring the progressoftheBattleofthe Somme, and hun-

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124 JAMAICA ANDTHEGREAT WAR. dredsofthese had beenputtofeedthegiantgunswithshells. The enemy's shells had fallen among and around them, slayingsome and wounding others,butthe soldiers bornandbrought upinJamaica had not flinched for a moment, had thrown themselvesheartandsoul intothedangerous work,hadliterally stood bytheir guns inspiteof every menace,intheteeth of all possible danger, untilofficersof forces fromthegreatself-governing British colonies had exclaimedinadmirationattheir courageandresolution, sayingthatiftheyhadnotseen this conduct they would not have believed coloured soldiers to be capableofit. The country, as itwere, breathed a deep sighofrelief whenitlearntthat its sons were winning a good nameforthemselves. And now the GovernorofJamaica, in his capacity of President oftheLegislative Council, was giving formal and official informa tion regarding the behaviour of our troops, who had all re ceivedthecommendationoftheHigh Commandfor their dis cipline, their bravery, their steadiness under conditions cal culatedtotestand try the resolution of any raceofmen. The legislators had not expected tohear much abouttheJamaica Contingent this session.Itwas thattheGovernorhadreceived fromtheImperial authorities a pro posalthatJamaica, insteadofproviding for the transporta tion, pensions, gratuities and separation allowances ofthecontingent men, should agreetotake up a million pounds of the English war debt, leaving all chargesinconnectionwiththecontingent to be defrayed bytheEnglish Government. Thustheamount of war debtforwhich Jamaica would be responsible would be exactlythesum already votedforcontingent purposes; anditwas understoodthatthe arrange ment proposed by England would probablysuitthecontingent men andtheirfamilies"much better thananythatthe colony could make. The elected membershadtherefore decided to accept the proposition that had come from England;andmostofthem were of opinionthatinsofarasfuture bat-

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JAMAICA ANDTHEGREAT WAR. 125 talions were concerned, these would berecruitedasrequired andtheCouncil would have nothing more todowiththecon tingent until, perhaps,thewarwas over, whentheproblemofdealing with menreturningwould have to be faced bytheGovernmentandLegislature. SotheCouncilandspectators listened with complacencytothe wordsofthePresident whichsetforththeappreciation of theArmyauthorities for the work whichtheJamaicasoldiers had doneattlie front, for thespiritthey had displayed. "This intelligence," said the President, "will be greatly appreciated bytheisland generally, and especiallybythose who have given so much time and energy totherecruitmentofthecontingents."Itwas thoughtatthemomentthatthiswas all hehadtosayinconnection withtheJamaica Contingent.Itwas,ofatruth,butthe pre lude toanannouncement which had onthatassembly almosttheeffectofan electric shock. Without exaggeration,thatannouncementmaybe said to have marked aturningpoint inthecolony's history,theinaugurationofa new phase of its connectionwiththeMother Countryandwiththerestof the British Empire."Iamable to announcethattheArmyCouncil desires toraiseasmany battalionsaspossibleinJamaicatoreinforce those battalions now servingatthefront,andthatHis Majesty's Government relies uponthepatriotismofthe peopleofJamaica to ensurethatthis callformenfortheservice oftheEmpire in these critical days shall be fully met. I have had no hesitationinreplyingthatthe call will be fully met, relyingasI do uponthepatriotismofthepeople, and upontheservicesofthose who have already done so muchinthe cause of recruiting."Thatwasit-fromEnglandhadnow come a special and direct appeal tohercolony of Jamaicaformen and yet more men,forall the men she could givetoaidata critical junctureinthegreateffort tobreaktheenemy'sstrength.Nearly two years before,theWarOfficehadsenttosaythatitwould wel-

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126 JAMAICA ANDTHEGREAT WAR. comeasmany soldiers as Jamaica would recruit, butthat message wasananswertoan offer fromthe country. Subs&-' quently had been published the King's Appeal to his Empire, andthatspecial appeal had been rightly interpretedby maicans as addressed to themasto every other people of the King's dominions. But this last was to Jamaica directly,itwas particularly and personally a call to the otism ofthecolony, andthatcall had been answered in maiea's name by Jamaica's Governor, who now told the Coun. cilthathe relied upon the patriotism ofthepeople to make his assurance good. The rest of his speech was heard with but perfunctory attention.Itwas feltatoncethatthe matter of supreme importance was the appeal forasmany battalions as possible, andit was immediately perceivedthatthe spe. cial and paramount effort which must now be made would entail a departure from the customary process of obtaining men. Therefore no one was surprised when the member for the parish of Kingston, the Hon. H. A. L. Simpson, rose and gave noticethatatthenext meeting of the Councilhewould introduce a resolution asking thatuniversal service shouldbeinstituted in this colony. He had been preceded by Mr.Cox,who also gave noticethathewould ask leave to in troduce the Compulsory Service Bill he had brought forward at the previous session. These announcements were dramatic gestures, yet sober and serious as became the question and the occasion. The result of the effort to institute. universal military service would estahlish beyond dispute the detnr:. minationof Jamaica to respond to the best of its ability and in all sincerity to England's final appeal.Onthe very next day Mr. Simpson's resolution mg brought forward,itbeing generally admittedthata Universal Service Bill should be introduced,notby a private member, but by the Government.Itset forththattheGovernor be asked to introduceatthepresent session a Bill providingthat every male British subject ordinarily residentinthe island,

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JAMAICA ANDTHEGREAT WAR. 127andbetween eighteen and forty-one years of age, should be liabletobe called outformilitary service in the islandor beyond its limits fortheperiodofthewar. The moveroftheresolution made a few commendatory andexplanatoryre-. marks, and the member who seconded the resolution was also oneoftheelected representatives of the people.Itwas soonapparent that the Governmentandmost oftheelected mem bers wereinfavourofuniversal military service, but italso became certainthatsome opposition was developingandthatthe suggested Bill wouldnotbe accepted unanimously bytheHouse. Three elected members struck the noteofdissent,themembers for St. Catherine, Westmoreland and Manches ter.Lateron they were joined bythemember for Clarendon. These gentlemen were notsureof the attitude ofthepeople;orrather, were persuadedthatJamaica as a whole would bit terly resent compulsion. Besides, they feltthata Billofthissort, intheface ofthefactthatno call on the countryformen had been made without being answered tothefull and in overflowing measure, was a reflection on the willingness ofthepeopletoserve the Empireata time of storm and stress. There was no division whenthevote on the resolutionofthememberforKingston was taken. ThespiritoftheHouse was hostiletoopposition,andfor t;pe moment the opposition ists were awed into silence.Butdiscussion was free,thenewspapers' columns were open to alltoexpresstheirviews ontheproposed Universal Military Service Law, andsoontherebegan a controversy inthePresswhich, though brief, was oneofthe most sustainedandanimatedthathadbeen conductedinJamaica for very many years. Freedomofspeech, libertytoexpresswhatone feels on public questions, is regarded in British countries as a safety valveaswell as a popular right.Butin timeofwarthatliberty is somewhat curtailed in viewofthe harmitmay cause by excitingthepeople's mindsandbygiving encouragement to the enemy .InJamaica, however, no effort has been made

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128 JAMAICA ANDTHEGREAT WAR. by the Government to interferewiththe Press except insofar as news relating to thewarand to military matters is concerned. All such news must firstbesubmitted to the Press Censor. As for comment on local legislation affecting the war, oron the conduct of the military authorities and the local Government,that has been freeand.untrammelled, the sense of responsibilityofthePress having been a sufficient. guide to an institution which has never been accused of an anti-patriotic attitude. Thefact is thatno intelligent Govern ment would thinkofseeking to curtail freedomofdiscussioninJamaica, especially when the medium of such discussionarethe pages ofreputable papers; and,ofcourse, in regard toamatter affecting the rights and liberties of thousands of individuals, free British subjectswhohad previously shown themselves ready and willing to serve their King and country, there could be no questionofpreventing criticism.It was generally understood aud publicly proclaimedthatthe fateofthe Bill to be introduced was largelyinthe handsofthe people's representatives.Itwas not one of the mattersthatcould be declared of "paramount importance" and carried by a majority ofofficialvotes.Itis certain that"had the majority of elected members been averse to the measure,itwould have been dropped by the Government.Itis certainthatifthe Press as a whole had strongly opposed it,theBill would never have been introduced. Jamaica is a British colony,butitis neither self-governing like Canada, or directly repre sentedinthe Imperial Parliament as MartiniqueorGuade loupe is represented in the French ChamberofDeputies.Itis notanintegral part oftheMother Country, although a con stituentpartof the British Empire.Intime of war, there fore,itwouldbesomething like tyranny for a Government to imposeon.such a colony a universal military service law against the feelings ofthe people;butthe elected elementof the Legislature could propose such a measure, speaking in the name of the people. And the attitude of the Press could

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THE LEGISLI\TIVE COUNCILAFrERPASSING TrlE MILITARYSERVICEBILL.

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JAMAICA ANDTHEGREAT WAR. 129 legitimately betakenasgivinganindicationofthefunda mental feelingofthecountry. The discussion inthePress showed clearlythatthe ob jectors to universal military service could be divided into two parties. One,thesmaller, objected on purely selfish grounds;itfeared compulsionfor itself oritsfriends, and to save a fewitwould gladly have wreckedthesuggested measure. The otherpartytooktheviewthatwas obsessingthemindsofthefourlegislators opposingtheBill.Theidea wasthata Billofthissortwas a refll:'ction on Jamaica's loyalty, asluronherreputation,an imputation thatshewould only supplyanadditional numberofmen under compulsion. This wasanobjectionofsentiment and worthyofall respect. Themenwho foughtagainstcompulsionasa reflection on Jamaica's willingness to doitsbest fortheEmpire,were patriotically anxiousfortheircountry's goodname;therewere others, however, who,inviewofthe institutionofuniversal military serviceinEnglandandNewZealand-tosaynothingofotherdemocraticandfiercely patriotic nations likeFranceandItaly-wereunabletoagreethata universal military servicelawin Jamaica could mean anything morethantheformal regu larizationofJamaica's effortsinthewar,anda proper pro visionintimeagainstany falling inthenumberofrecruits when these should on anyparticularoccasion be imme diately required. Amongstthethinkingandreading portionofthepopulation, these men were distinctly in the majority, although they were not as vehemently vocalasweretheop posing minority.Asforthemassofthepeople, they knew quite wellwhat was going forward,butwere,asamatterof fact, indifferenttotheresult. Theyhadbeen coming forward willingly. Some fifteen thousandJamaicanshadup to then theirservices to the military authorities, and of thesethemajoritywere naturallyoftheworking classes. These classeshadno objection to military service abroad, were in deed very anxioustogo on military service. Consequently

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130JAMAICA AND THE GREATWAR.they felt and could feel no oppositiontotheBill. Whetheritpassedornot, would not particularly affect them.Asto the Press, only one organ of influence wasinopposition, and eventhat one-:-a provincialpaper-wasnotopposed to the principleoftheBill, but thoughtthattheBill wa!> not necessary then.Theother papers strongly supported uni versal military service, which they could hardly have ventured todohad they thoughtthatthe country wasinthe main and atheartagainst it. The Press is nowhere always a sure guide to popular opinion,butthePressof Jamaica is obliged to endeavourtodiscover,notso muchwhatis being said by the public, as the feeling of the public. Fromwhatwas said about theCompulsion Bill,itwas evident enoughthattheprinciple was not thought to be unjust,butthe contrary. Thereforeifonce the necessityofthemeasure could be made apparent, all opposi tion might steadily die away. The necessity ofthemeasure was soon established by the General commanding the local forces, who, on March 22, in a straightforward, manly and truthful speech, setforthtothe Council andthecountry the situation which England had to face, andthedire needthatnow exiilted for the utmost effort onherpart.When the Generalsatdown,itwas felt by mostofthose who heard him, and by allofthose who understood the mind and temperofJamaica,thatthecountry would accepttheBill because the country would now realize the necessity of making every rea sonable arrangementtoprovide against even a temporary failureof recrnits forthe Jamaica Contingent. General Blackden spoke more plainly of the situation of Englandthananyonehadever doneinthecolony before.Ifthe unrestricted submarinewarfare ofthe enemy shoUldsuc ceed, he said gravely, England would be starved, and already she was sufferingthegravest inconvenience. She must strive to win a decison on the Western frontthis year; she waS striving todothis;andfor this every man who could be found

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JAMAICA ANDTHEGREAT WAR. 131formilitaryservice was required.Therewere now some two thousandWestIndiansatthefront,andtwenty thousand menfromtheWest Indiesmightmakeallthedifferenceinsomeoftheoperationsthissummer. Voluntary servicehadalways failed everywhereinthelaterstagesofa prolongedwar:ithadfailed in America,ithadfailedinEurope;yettheBill beforetheHouse wouldnotbeputinto operationuntileverythingthatcouldbedonebyvoluntary methods hadbeen fullytried:thatwasthepledgeoftheGovernorandtheGovernment's intention.Butitwas whenthespeakeralludedtotherace betweenEnglandandstarvation-for star vationwasstilI apossibility-thathisappealwentfarthesttotheheartsofhis hearers,totheheartofJamaica.Thenindeeditwasfeltthatnomanmusthangback who couldstrikea blowtodefeat tlie enemy's purpose.Afterthatspeech,inspiteofthecontinued opposition (now really re ducedtoverbal protests) onthepartoftheopposing elementintheHouse,itwas admittedthroughoutJamaicathattheBillmustbe accepted;andfromthenceforward thoseinfavourofitweremore loudlyheardinthePress.Themen who had opposed, openlyorinopinion, belong ed to no one section ofthecommunity. Opposition wasnottheoutcomeofcolourorclassor Onthewholeitwasanoppositionofprinciple,andthereforesincere; on theotherhandtherewere some who oncehadlooked askanceatanysuggestionofcompulsory service becauseoftheeffectthatthatwouldhaveuponthelaboursituation,butwho now, knowingthatmen were really neededbytheArmyatthefront,resolutely stifled selfish impulsesandworkedforandsupportedtheBill.Itis tothecreditoftheemployersofJamaicathat,though they stoodtosuffer something bytheextraordinarycall now made uponthecountry,theywouldnotoppose universal military service.Itis tothecreditofall J a maicathat,whetheritwas moneyintheform oftaxationorofvoluntary contributions, Ormenas volunteers or ascon-

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182 JAMAICA ANDTHEGREAT WAR. scripts, the people agreed to do willingly what was asked of them. They have faltered at no stage in the long-drawn-out conflict. They have nobly upheld their asserted willingness todoaUthatlayintheir powerforthe Empire's cause. The Universal Military Service Bill was drawn up by a committee representing both sides of the House and intro duced by the Attorney General,theHon.ErnestSt. John Branch,whofoughtforitwith a warmth and vigour which showedthatthe measure was dearto his heart. The Bill was introduced on March 22;itcame up for second readingonthe 30th of the same month;itpassed its third reading on April4,1917: Ayes 21; Noes 4..Nearly a month had elapsed since the announcementthata request had been made by England for more men, and now Jamaiea had followed the exampleof NewZealand and stood as the second colonyofthe British Empire to accept the principle of universal military service.Inthe meantime the Governor had obtained from the Eng lish authorities the right to allow special pensions and sepa ration allowances based on the previous financial'standingofthe men who had enlistedorshouldbedrafted into the con tingent. There was a flat rateofpensions and separation allowances for all and sundry, the specialratewould beforthosewhowould suffer privationifgranted allowancesorpensionsthatmight be bountiful for personsofa previously inferior financial position. The Council also agreedthatiftheEnglish special rates werenotalways sufficient to meettheexigencies of particular cases, having regard to our particular local conditions, the country would assume the responsibility of seeingthatthose cases were fairly and decently dealt with. More could not be done by any Government and Legislature; the fearofpauperism that may have haunted the mindsofmany. thus serving as a stimulustoopposition to compulsory service, was frankly faced by Government and Council, and the needsthatwould arise were foreseen and provided for. The Hon.J.H.W.Parkwas responsibleforrecruiting,

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JAMAICA ANDTHEGREAT WAR. 133 which wasto be voluntaryfor as longaspossible;hewasalso placedinchargeofthe arra;ngements fortheregistrationofall menofmilitaryageinthecountry, whichwastobeimmediate. He wastoputinoperationthecompulsory powersoftheLaw, whenithadreceivedtheassentoftheKingand whentheapplicationofitspowers had, by spe cial proclamationoftheGovernor, been declared necessaryforthefillingofthebattalionstobesenttooneorotherofthedistanttheatresofthewar.Thus within onemonthagreatdeparturehad been madebytheCouncilandthecountry,andJamaicahadturneda new page inherhistory. She had said,buthadnever boasted,whatshe waspreparedtodo. Shehaddone morethanshehadever contemplatedandshe nowhadtheproud satisfactionofknowingthather sons, insteadofremaining intheirnativecountrytodefendtheirown homes, had been calledbyEnglandtodistantFranceandEgyptto aidthewholeEmpireinfightingforandupholdingthecause whichwasboththeEmpire'sandhers. Shehadfoughtfortherighttoserve.Intheendtheappealhadcometoherformenforservice;shehadansweredthatappealwithall her heartandsohadswept into a new place intheeyes andtherecognitionofalltheBritishworld.Inherown estimationshehadrisen,andthatperhapswasbestofall.Forself-respectisa priceless possession,anda feelingofmoral responsibility fulfilled is oneofthemostprecious heirloomsthattheexisting generation canhandontoitssuccessors. And now asweclose thisbriefandrapidsurveyofJamaica's connectionwiththeGreat War,thewarthatis changingtheworldandleadingustoa new epochofwhich eventheoutstandingfeaturescannotyetbe plainly perceived,ourconcluding wordsmaylegitimately be wordsofself-gratula tion. Wearetakingsomepartinthestruggle;we should have taken a muchlargerpartbeforeiftheshipshadcome more quicklyforthesoldiers wehadtosend.Withthepass-

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134 JAMAICA ANDTHEGREAT WAR. ing ofa Universal Military Serviee Law, however, we have placed the manhood of the country atthe Empire's disposal, and thus have done the most and the bestthatwe cando.Our men are not recruited merely as labour battalions, as some have said, but as soldiers simply, as the Governor of the colony and the General commanding the local forces have formally and officially announced.Someof these Jamaican lads have been fighting in atany moment thosein Egypt may be called upon tomoveagainstthe enemy, orto man the frontline trenches. And thoseinFranceifthe war lasts longenough-theytoo will charge over the parapet and meet the foe handtohand; and this they willdowiththe same courage,thesame indifference to danger, thatthey have shown whiletheGerman shells have been screaming over their heads and bursting intheirranks. They are being trained for such service, and while their training proceeds they are also assisting their English comrades in the feeding of the giant guns. Evenifthey didnomorethanthis throughoutthe progress ofthewar, they would have done something: Jamaica will not be less proud of themifitlearnsthatthey were always amongst the millions who never came to actual grips with the enemy in thetrenches. "They also serve who only stand and wait.'" And our men are not merely waitingbutare acting, are doing bravely andwellthetasks to which they are .' .. andthatis a soldier'sduty. Scores and hundreds of Jamaicans have beenin thefiring line as members of the several English and Cana dian battalions which they have joined. Many will never re turnto their native land; for them the "cease firing" has sounded for ever. They, and the men of the Jamaica Con tingent, have each and allintheir several ways served their King, their Empire, and the little country which bred them, have written a new pageinherhistory, and have made for hera name. How mueh longerthewar, will lastnoone can tell.To

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JAMAICA ANDTHEGREAT WAR. 135 someitappearsthat now, afternearly three years of slaughter and ruin, awful inhumanity and far-flaming heroism,it is nearing its end.Thatend may come suddenly;butwhetheritcome in 1917orlater, 1917 will be knowninfuture asthewar'smost critical and terrible year.Itwill also be knownasoneofthewonderful years ofthetwentieth cen tury-themost wonderful perhaps.Forinthefirst half ofit we have seen Russia overthrowherautocracy and become a democratic nation, and we have seen America abandonhertraditional isolation and make common cause with England and France iIitheirstruggle for the principles of freedom and democracy. Surelyitis good to have lived to witness these stupendous events, eventsfraughtwithso much signi ficanceforthefuture. And surelyitisgoodforthepeopleofthis country toknowthatJamaica has played anot un worthypartinthegreatdrama in which all the world's mightiest nationsarethe leading actors, andofwhichthestageareall the continents and the oceansoftheworld.NOTE.-Thisworkwasalreadycompleted. a.nd was passingthroughthepress,whenlargenumbers of Jamaicans,begantoarrivefromPanama.The answerof thesemen tothe appeal madetothembytheircountryhasalready,up tothetime of writing, surpassed themostsanguineexpectations,andItIs now knqwn thatstill largernum bersare preparing toenllstIntheJamaicaContingent.Unfortunately,onlythisbriefword of welcomeand appreciation canbe includedinthiswork,andto insert itthe press hadtobestopped.Letusseize thle{)pportunity toexpress,thoughsoinadequately,ourhighadmiration of thepatriotism ()f theJamaicansdomiciledin Pa._ma, and men tlon a few of themenwho haveorganized fundsandcalledtheir fel low-subjectstothecolours.TheBritish Minleter InCentralAmerica,SirClaude Mallett, Mr.J.S. Murray, Britleh ConsulinColon, and Mr. W. H.Pontoon,British In Boeas-del-Toro, havethrownthemselves,heartandsoul, Intotheefforttoobtainrecruitsforthe Jamaica Contingent.Andwithequal enthusla.sm andpatriotism have theseothergentlemenworkedinthe same cause:-Mr.P.B.WynterofBoeas, Messrs. Adrian and Eric Barham, of Panama; Messrs. N. C. Rowe,andJ. Sosalmon, ofColon;Dr.F.B.Lowe,of Panama; Mr.EdgarC. Male, ofEoeas; and, though namedlast, decidedlynot least, Mr. A. Williams, ChairmanoftheFriendlySocietiesWarContingent Committee of Boeae-del-Toro.

PAGE 178

To hGLEANER" ADVERTISERSILLUSTRATEYOURADVERTISEMEN'-rs.TIIEGLEANER has made arrangements whereby they have secured a regular monthly serviceof matri.x blocks for use as illustrationsin adver tisements.Wecan now supply blocks from the June issue and, from now on, wewill beabletosupply anyofouradvertisers,inwhatever line they may be, with a block suitableforthe things advertisedbythem. This serviceofblocks will be sentto us monthly from New York, and are thesame block
PAGE 179

__iIW'_ .-.... it,,"--....oI.....;,............... PRESIDENTWILLIAM WILSON,J.P.SECRETARYR.L.DELGADO.VICEPRESIDENTP.R.W. WILSON. WILLIANI WILSONLIMITED.THEWILSONBUILDING KINGS'.rON,JAMAICA., ESTABLISHED.1899.BranchOfficeatBridgetown, B.W.I.IMPORTandEXPORTCommissionMerchantsATTORNEYS.&c.CORRESPONDENCEINVITEDBritishandColonialInterestsattendedto.RepresentativesofBritish, Canadian and American Manufacturers ..BANKERS:The-BankofNovaScotia, Kingston, Jamaica.TheColonial Bank, Bridgetown, Barbados.TheNorthamptonshire Union Bank, Ltd.,Northampton, England.

PAGE 180

--lILY (Superfine) OIGARETTE-RicePaperAppeals tothetaste oftheSmoker ofHighGradeCigar ettes.Fullyequal to the best imported brands, although cost ing much less.Inaddition to packs of16which retail for 3d,LILYcigarettesarealso packed in boxes of100for home use.Allfirst-class dealers selltheLILY. JAMAICATOBACCOCO., Manufactut'er.

PAGE 181

DEALERINPureDrugs, PatentMedicines Perfumery, Confectionery,FinestGroceries, Biscuits, etc., etc. U.._.-J'--------.-.-.... --'-.----PrescriptionsCarefullyandAccuratelyDispensed-ATTHE-ChemicalHallDISPENSING CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST.OurSodaFountainIsequipped ontheAmericanStyle. SodaDrinksof fineFlavour,alsoIcesServedwithwholeAssortedFruits.68KingStreet,Kingston,Jamaica.CONTRACTOR TO HIS MAJESTY'S HOSPITAL,UP-PARKCAMP. I .."THESPORTS" 2Z KING STREET.TheLeading Gents' Furnishing Store.OurGoodsareeloquent inthesuggestions theymaketoallMen,forneatnessandgood taste.SOLE AGENTS FOR"TheAmerican Gentleman Shoe."America's Finest Footwear.

PAGE 182

. TheTwentiethCenturyCigar!In1900the GOLOFINA Brand ofCigars was first offered to the Smolting Public. The need of a better sort was maniIest. GOLOFINAS met with a coruial tion, andincompetition with other brands of Jamaica Cigars, and cigars maue in othel' British Colonies, GOLO FINAin 1905received theHighest Award,-Grand Prizeat the Colonial Exhibition in London. Since thattiu16 GOLOFlNAcigar:>have grown steadilyinpopularity until todarthere are two GOLOFINAS smoked to everyone of any other brand manu facturedinJamaica. Their HIGH QUALITY has not only given them the highest reputation at home,buthas won this reputation throughout the world. GOLOFINASare madejn Thirty Distinctive Sizes.Jamaica Tobacco Co. MANUFACTURER .

PAGE 183

1'9Ii-ING ST.,Theonly Complete and Up-to-date YOUTHS'.JAMAICA'SOUTFIT"'rER.IMPORTEROFGOFIRSTTOF. 1 1 FISHER'S KINGSTON. Ia=:mu:muu:mumm:uml:::um:ummuuummsmumI C.M.DaCOSTA,1WholesaleDealer. I, 54 King St., i KINGSTON, JAMAICA.IEvery variety of Staple Goods, Fancies, Laces. Haberdashery,Boots&Shoes,etc.,I stocked. ImportationsfromthebestEnglish andAmerican Houses.106 HARBOUR ST.,Kingston,Jalnaica.GLASSWARE.CHOCKERY. ENAMELvVARE, HARDWARE, -.1111111111"" ...-1M.M.Alexander,I and HouseholdFurniture. D__ IHighestValues.LowestPrices. YourValuedOrdersSolicited.U:um1ll1l1l1U III1l1llU

PAGE 184

........ E.A.ISSA&BROS. Notwithstanding thegreatscarcity ofDryGoods due totheshortage oftheCottondropandthegreatriseintheremunerationof labour,ourmotto isBUSINESS AS USUALYourrequirementsinpiece Goods. BOOTSANDSHOES, Etc. Canstill be suppliedatReasonable Prices.E.A.ISSA&BROS.135 Harbour St.. Kingston.

PAGE 185

--::---1 TheStorethatfillsall J HardwareRequisites.AgriculturalImplementsBuildingMaterials Coachbuilders' RequisitesShoemakers'and Saddlers' Materials ElectricalSuppliesHouseholdNecessitiesBicyclesandBicycleSupplies AutomobileSuppliesJewellery. Native-Made andImported-AGENTFOR-L.C.Smith& TYPEWRITERSCOLOMBIAGRAPHOPHONES.GRAFONOLAS&RECORDS.C.T. ISAACS,117'-119 HARBOURSTREET.KINGSTON,JA.

PAGE 186

..Cassidy'sMotorCar&Supplies,Ltd.,67,69,&71 HarbourStreet,(OppositeMyrtleBankHotel)EstahIished tomeet the NeedsandWantsofbothMotorsandMotorists. Cnssidy's is open day and night atyour service, there is no door to our Garage and you may always t getyour needs met when you call in. We are Sale Agents in Jamaica for the best and prettiestcarthatruns on theRoad-The Buick.We draw your special attention to the New Four Cylinder Buick.Itis a marvel, and no one can pass the opportunity of owning such a car except those who can afford not to care a bout economy. Wearesole AgentsinJamaica forTHEGOOD YEARTIRE.Nomotorist can afford torun with out Goodyear's Tiret:l, because they are the best.Wecan supplyyourNeedsandWants.Whatwe supply is, thebestin every line. Remember,"Cassidy's!"

PAGE 187

---TheGilletteRazorTheRazorofUniversal Success.WE ALSO STOCK THE "Auto Strop" Safetyforthose who prefer a self-stropping Razor of high quality.D.HENDERSON & CO.,KINGSTON.TELEPHONE 1:\0. 57THE CENTRAL STORE 39 SOUTH PARADE. KINGSTON. JAMAICA NovelinDesignsPerfectFitandStyleALL NE\V GOODS.THE CENTRAL STOREofferstothevisitoru.niqu.elinesInTweeds.Serges.Linens.Drills,Crashes.Du.cks,Silks,Cool-uuderwear.Millinery.etcetc.J. FE'V, PRQPRIETORPleasantly situated oppositetheParade Gardens.The coolest shopping centre in Kingston.ThedepartmentsIn this establishmentarestockedwitheverydescriptionofgoodsforladles'andgentlemen s wear,fromalltheprincipalmarketsof,theworld.TROPICAL CLOTHING AFEATURE.French and Spa.nish spoken..Foreign money excha.ngedIinviteyoutocall Civilandpromptattention I-o .....

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--,------------__ SECRETARY 1<'.CLARKE. SENIOR CLERK G. N.MORAND TheVictoriaMutualBuildingSociety.ESTABLISHED'IB78.INCORPORATED'1898. TheAloantageswlaichtheSocief)Offers The objects whichtheViotoria Mutual BuildingSooiety offersareFirstly,to provide tor Shareholdersand Deposltorlil a perfeotly soundand profitableinvestment forlarge orsmallsums ot money;andsecondly, to employthefundsthusobtainedinmaklngadvances bywayof mortgage'principaland Interest beingrepaidbyeasymonthlyinstalments.The syatem adoptedbythisSociety otrequ.iring loanstoberepaidbyequalmonthlyinstalmentsis su.ch thataseaohrepayment incln.des a portionot the CapitalSn.m, themarginof se-:urity iseverincreasingandthe possibilityof risk is ever diminishing.BOARD OF DIRECTORST.N. AGUILAR, Esq ..J.P.Chairman.A.W.FARQUHARSON, Esq. J.F, Esq.S.L.WILLIAMSON, Esq H.E.BOLTON, E::q. SIR.JOHNPRINGLE, M.B., K.C.1\1.G.G.P.MYERS,Esq,J.P,V.E.MANTON,Esq L.L.B.J.A ALLWOOD. Esq., M.D.L.DeCORDOVA,Esq.,J.p. M. M.ALEXANDER,Esq . J.P.SOLICITORS MESSRS.HARVEY&;BOURKE AUDITORS M. D. FARRIER.F.R-C.A. G.C. ARIUTRATORS ARUOUIN,g,q. DAVID E'q .J. P. R. S.G.UmLE, Esq,J.P.L.J. Esq.JOHN'fAl'L&Y,Illsq. BANI{ERS THE COLONIAL BANK.ACCOUNTANT&CASHIER H. F. PEIRCE. JUNIOR CLERK H.G. ROUSE. PLEASESUPPORTPIONEEROFLOW RATES. ANDWestIndia"ViaMARKTelegramsBERMUDA." IN CANADA: to C.P.R.TelegraphOffice.UNITEDKINGDOM:toCommercial CableCoy. UNITEDSTATES:to Postal TelegraphCo...HeadOffice: LONDON, E. C.33OldBroad St. Kingston,JamaicaR.M.S.P. Co. Building,PortRoyalStreet.. ....

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+++.....++,.,+,''++++ II +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++'i i.1 WilliamsonBros. III .9&11KingStreet, I Kingston,-Jamaica. iI -!=: WHOLESALEANDRETAIL ii Provisions,Grains,Groceries 3: andLiquors. r3:3:......i==... Agents for-Birch's BlackBottleand Haig& HaigWhiskies. :::i ....TheNetherlandsFireInsurance Company. =: LProprietors-THEMODELGROCERY. i+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++;::+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++: f++++++++++++++++++++++++++++:3::::..3:I HURCOMB&SOLLAS IiUt4r3Jmprrittlii LinenMerchants, I1mitti\nnurtttttt
PAGE 190

_.--THEEDUCATIONALSUPPLYCO.,16KINGSTREET, KINGSTON, JAMAICA.W.R. GII.,l.IES. Manager. .... Booksellers,Stationers,Printers,BindersandPublishers.WE SPECIALIZE IN SCHOOL APPLIANCES.THE MOST APPROVED AND UPTO-PATE, f New supplyofNovels monthly. Stationeryofevery description forthe home, (theRchool, theoffice. .
PAGE 191

Jamaica'sOldestandLeading Grocery,i .89,91,102&104Orange Street, Kingston. I JamesDnnnisawatcbword for tbebest of GroceriesinJamaica, im TheQuality ofhisgoods are unsurpassable. Anything. you requireinthe line" of Provisions, Groceries, Wines, 'feas, Confectioneries, Fancy &Toilet Articles, from Europe and America,canbefoundat Jamaica's LargestGrocery._ I.: QUICK AND RAPID WAGGON DELIVERY. i'" Visit this Store and youwillrealize whyitis knownas e>i "Jamaica'sOldest& Leading Grocery." II JAMESDUNN,Proprietor. ifSl\.... E.D.KINKEAD, II DispensingChemistandDruggist. I' Dealerin .1-=I Pure Drugs IAmericanIced ;p PatentMedicines, I SodaDrinl{sof I Perfumery, II FineFlavoured I Confectionery. f Syrups.and.FineGroceries.LIceCream. Fine Quality Chocolatesin'Boxes, i OnRetaila Speciality.I 20 lUNG STREET. KINGSTON ..JAMAICA.I OPPOSITE BANK OFNOVASCOTIA. .I .r.

PAGE 192

CecildeCordova&Co.IICommissionMerchants&Manufacturers' Agents.48 PORT ROYAL STREET ... KINGSTON, JAMAICA.New York House f AgentsFor: CRAS. H.WATTSCO'I Hm. JOSEPHTRAVERS & SONS, LTD.,LondonCommissionMerchants.(GREENLEES BROS GIasgow 25WhitehallStreet. 1 ROBINJONES & WHITMANLTD ..Halifu HAZLEHURST & SONS,LTDLiverpoolNewYorkCit.y. ( WILSON & CO.,LTDChicagoJAMESBOYD,KINGSTON.THEYANKEENOTION'STORE.OriginatorIntheWestIndiesofthe5and10e.store.ImporterofEnglishandAmericanGoods,Notions,Groceries,Hardware,Enamelware,Glassware,Tinware,ConfectionerY, Toys,Woodenware,Haberdashery,Perfumery,Millinery,Stationery,Paints,etc ..NOTHIlfG OVERSIXPENCE.FllndadorDelSIstemaAmerIcanoImitaci6ndelesAlmacenesde5 Y 10centavos. Ninghn articu.loexcedede12centavos ,. Importaci6ndeIngla,terraEuropa,EstadosUnidosQuincalleriaGolosinas,Ferreteria,Flores,Artlculosesmaltados,Crlstaleria, Plu.mas Hojalateria,Confituras,Jugu.etes,Pinturall,Papeleria,Artlculosdeescritorio,etc.,etc,EliasO.D'Azevedo,]12 HAIWOUR ST.,KINGSTON, JAMAICA. ImporterandWholesale DistrIbutor-0F-Fancy and Staple Dry Goods, Hosiery, Haberdashery, Ribbons, Embroidery, Laces, Felt HatsBoots&Shoes.

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B.&J. B. Machado,MakersofthefinestCigarsmadeintheBritishEmpire.APriceListandSamples mailedtoanyaddressonrequest.Arecentlettertoussays:-"1consideryeurCigarsequalandevensuperiortoanyHavana."Wealsomakethe"Royal"Cheroot-anexcellentsmoke'whichretailsatonepennyeach.OURCIGARETTESAREWhite Seal, Black Seal, Eagle Eye, Ascots, Tar, and "G.S.O." 'Thislastisanoval cigarettE', plainor cork tippe,l,andisinmuch demand as a substitutefortheexpellsive imported article.B. &J.B. l\fACHADO, IUNGSTON,JAMAICA. m.mI LOUISWINKLER&SON Im% arehappytohavebeenprivili!f.l legedtoestablishthefirst !li regularMusicStoreinJamaica, llSm 34yearsago,andtherebyto havefosteredtheloveofMusic. %% Music comesfromtheheartisthevoiceofthesouI.Andit ..:
PAGE 194

ThePeople's MartCorner King Street&SouthParade.Ladies'&Gents' Complete Outfitters I:' TROPICALCLOTHINGA SPECIALITY ..I11 FOOTWEAR FORALLEVERYDESCRIPTIONOF:::ENGLISHANDAMERICAN'::: BOOTS&SHOESCavendishHouseFOREVERYDESCRIPTIONOFDRYGOODSLarge and Varied AssortmentofBest Goods at Popular Prices.BOOTSANDSHOES.FORLADIES,CHILDREN&MEN.Men'sOutfittingatKingstonLowestPrIces,NOTEADDRESS:CornerOrangeStreet&WestQueen Street.i .1


STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00081175/00001
 Material Information
Title: Jamaica and the Great War
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: de Lisser, Herbert G.
Publisher: Gleaner Co.
Place of Publication: Kingston, Jamaica
Publication Date: 1917
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Caribbean   ( lcsh )
Genre:
Spatial Coverage: Jamaica -- Caribbean
 Notes
Biographical: From Wikipedia for H. G. de Lisser, from 29 June 2013: Herbert George de Lisser CMG (9 December 1878 - 19 May 1944) was a Jamaican journalist and author. He has been called "one of the most conspicuous figures in the history of West Indian literature". De Lisser was born in Falmouth, Jamaica, and attended William Morrison's Collegiate School in Kingston. He started work at the Institute of Jamaica at the age of 14. Three years later he joined the Jamaica Daily Gleaner, of which his father was editor, as a proofreader, and two years later became a reporter on the Jamaica Times. In 1903, De Lisser became assistant editor of the Gleaner and was editor within the year. He wrote several articles for the paper every day. He also produced a novel or non-fiction book every year, beginning in 1913 with Jane: A Story of Jamaica, significant for being the first West Indian novel to have a central black character. Another famous novel of his, The White Witch of Rosehall (1929), is linked to a legend of a haunting in Jamaica. De Lisser also wrote several plays. In December 1920 he began publishing an annual magazine, Planters' Punch. De Lisser devoted much time and effort to the revival of the Jamaican sugar industry and represented Jamaica at a number of sugar conferences around the world. He was also general secretary of the Jamaica Imperial Association, honorary president of the Jamaica Press Association, and chairman of the West Indian section of the Empire Press Union. He was appointed Companion of the Order of St Michael and St George (CMG) in the 1920 New Year Honours.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 22160041
System ID: UF00081175:00001


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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Advertising
        Advertising 1
        Advertising 2
        Advertising 3
        Advertising 4
        Advertising 5
    Dedication
        Dedication
    Advertising
        Advertising 1
        Advertising 2
        Advertising 3
    Foreword
        Foreword 1
        Foreword 2
    Advertising
        Advertising 1
        Advertising 2
    Acknowledgement
        Acknowledgement 1
        Acknowledgement 2
    Advertising
        Advertising 1
        Advertising 2
        Advertising 3
        Advertising 4
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Advertising
        Advertising 1
        Advertising 2
        Advertising 3
    Frontispiece
        Frontispiece
    Advertising
        Advertising 1
        Advertising 2
        Advertising 3
        Advertising 4
        Advertising 5
        Advertising 6
        Advertising 7
        Advertising 8
    On the eve of war
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    The first two weeks
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 16a
        Page 17
    In aid of England
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Offers of military service
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 32a
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
    Hopes and fears
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
    The first five hundred
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 48a
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
    The woman's movement
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 64a
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
    Historic days
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 80a
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
    The National Movement
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
    Complementary efforts
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 96a
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
    Interregnum
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 112a
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
    The final appeal
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 128a
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
    Advertising
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
    Back Cover
        Back Cover
Full Text


















JAMAICA AND THE GREAT WAR











Jamaica and The Great War














BY


HERBERT G. deLISSER,
AUTHOR OF
'TWENTIETH CENTURYR Y JAM.\AI'A"
'" Sr ;SA. PRfI.IDL:IiOGH"'
"'TRIUMPI.ANT SQUALITONE," ETC.


PlINTED FOR THZ AUTHOR BY
THE CLEANER CO, LTD.,
KIwos'Tox, JmASIoA,
1917.






Metropolitan House.

THE
LARGEST, COOLEST
AND
BEST VENTILATED
STORE IN JAMAICA.

Every description of Clothing
SFOR
LADIES, GENTS & CHILDREN.

IHousehold Linens and Furnishings
A SPECIALITY.
WE ARM SOLE AGENTS
FOR
WALK-OVER, REGAL,
BECTIVE and K.G.
BOOTS AND SHOES.

NATHAN & CO., LTD.







Lascelles deMercado & Co. Ltd.
PORT ROYAL STREET,
KINGSTON, JAMAICA.
General Commission Merchants, Exporters
and Importers.



Ships Ships
Provisioned .Entered
and and
Coaled. Cleared.


THE OCEAN WHARF, KINGSTON.
We are prepared to assist anyone who desires to
bring anything into the Island, or to export any of its
Produce to any part of the world.
We sell on commission the Produce of several
Estates, and we also purchase for Cash, crops of Sugar
and Rum on our own account. Ask us for our current
prices.
We buy at any time and pay the best current prices
for all sorts of Produce-Coffee, Cocoa, Annatto, Gin-
ger, Sarsaparilla, Honey, Beeswax, etc.
We have a modern plant for manufacturing Coffee
and Cocoa for export, and can prepare these crops for
market on your account.
Roasted Blue Mountain Coffee is our Great Specialty.
We are the Pioneers of Local Industries-and are
the Selling Agents for the TIMES and UNION JACK
Matches which are made in the Local Factory,
also we are Selling Agents for the Jamaica Biscuit Co.
Ltd.-the makers of excellent local biscuits. See a
full page advertisement elsewhere in this Book.
Lascelles de Mercado & Co. Ltd., Kingston.

sl**^ >*| rt I^^ ^>*|** ^***^ *| ^ >^* **^M* ^^*






The Palace Theatre, IN insmTo.

The Movies Theatre, N ST. ANDREW

.4 These are the homes of the best
Amusements obtainable in Jamaica.


The Finest
Moving
Pictures
Shewn there.


Don't fail to visit
them regularly
if you appreciate
healthy enjoyment
and fun.


MOST REASONABLE PRICES.


S.------ ------- ---- --------- -----1-


Library
owrsity nf Ur."n


Established 1878,


Cable Address: .: P. 0. Box 65
"Nike"Jamaica Telephone 6.


THE
Army & Navy Stores
136 Harbour St. (Cor. Orange St)
KINGSTON, JAMAICA.

SHIP CHANDLERS.
Contractors to H. M. Naval and
Military Forces.

Fresh Provisions, Coal, Water,
Towing & Lighterage at Lowest Rates.


V. C. Alexander,
AUCTIONEER
Real Estate
-AND-
Commission Agent,
50 PORT ROYAL ST.
KINGSTON.

PHONE 564.

The Auctioneer who carried
out the great Wray & Nephew
Sale, and also some of the
largest Cattle sales in Jamaica.


~,u3tF~t~L~i~t~W-~it~~


--


sss^iss^siKaMS^KasMaiSSwfeitKff


I











I


Keeps out tre sun,
Lets in the fresh air.


Has it ever occurred to you
that
Shopping is a Real Pleasure
When done at Our Store ?

The assortment of Goods displayed makes
selection an easy matter, and you are sure
to leave feeling throughly satisfied with your
purchases.

SASSO & MILLER,
8tb KING ST., KINGSTON.
THE HOUSE FOR REAL SATISFACTION.
I.t. .


r~YCr~lUCVUU


_----- ------------L~-l----- -'~ ~---~-LY-Y-


CC-*3CCCI~-------- ----


A COOL, SHADY RETREAT
BY USING
E IRL TO BE HAD IN
PORCH SHADES OLIVE GREEN,
jg DARK GREEN,
GREEN & WHITE.

In Widths of 6' 8' and 10'
--APPLY-

STIVEN'S COLOSSEUM,
13-17 ORANGE ST.,
..- KINGSTON.





Wfho Counts
Who Counts
Who Counts
To-day it is the efficient man who counts. No matter what
your position in life is, be efficient. An inefficient man or wo-
man is a liability to those who hire them, and a greater liability
to themselves.

Try to get away from the bottom of the ladder-so many
are there. The numbers decrease with each rung. The higher
you climb the less competition you have. That is the reason
that on the topmost rungs there are so few people.

Boost Quality Goods
Boost Quality Goods
The store that boosts-sells-quality goods will get away
from the bottom of the ladder-climb to the top. The people to-
day want pure goods, quality goods, and the store that sells
quality goods will attract and draw business.

Get your Goods from Myers: Myers sell

I "Gold Medal" Flour
Fairbank's Soaps
Rockwood's Cocoa
"Vulcan" & "Torpedo" Matches
White & Brown Rice
Coarse & Fine Salt
All these are goods of Quality, and the store that sells
them will soon appreciate their excellence as quick selling
profit making goods.


FRED. L. MYERS & SON,
Myers Wharf P.O.
























DEDICATION

To the Officers, the Non-Commissioned
Officers and the Men of the Jamaica
Contingent, who by their patriotism,
loyalty, courage and their devotion to a
high cause have made a new and honour-
able name for their country, this little
book is, with all admiration, dedicated.






Some of the Best

Things in the World


WE ARE AGENTS FOR THEM
HERE 'IiIEY ARE


Some of the Best

Things in Jamaica

WE PRODUCE THEM


J. Wray & Nephew


ALE & STOUT.
Bull Dog Brand
Bass & Guinness
Monk Brand.
LIQUEU LTS.
Page and Sanderman's.
Apricot Brandy.
Bol's Creme de Menthe.
TAIILE WATEEiS.
Ross's Royal Belfast and
Dry Ginger Ale.
WHISKIES.
Dewar's
Usher's
Jameson's Irish
Hiram Walker's
Canadian Club.


L.A.;ER BEER.
Budweiser.
C'HAM 'PA ; NE.
Pommery & Greno's
Extra Dry.
Heidseick & Co's
Dry Monopole.
GIN.
Sir Robert Burnett's
Old Tom Gin.
WINE.
St. F'aplh l.


ORANGE WINES,
GINGER WINES.


DOMESTIC WINES.
NATIVE CORDIALS.












A for Accordeons, much in request.
B for Brass Instruments, all kinds and best.
C stands for Clerk-Astley Clerk his full name;
D for the Dulcimer, great is its fame.

E the Euphonium, most bands have one.
F for the Flute, for the Fiddle as well,-
G the Guitar, for a love song to tell.
H the Harmonium, second to none.

I for Instruction Books,-all kinds are kept,-
J for the Jews-Harp, small boys get adept.
K stands for King Strcet,-remember 14,
L for the Lieu where I am to be seen.

I1 for Music of all kinds, your wants we can meet,
No one need lack of a musical treat.
0 stands for Organs, melodious and grand,-
Pianos also-the best in the land.

Q the Quadrilles,-all dance music we sell,
R for Reed Instruments, resin, and reeds;
Sthin'i, or string instruments, whatever your needs;
T for Triangle, should one you require.
U should go, and at Astley Clerk's store first enquire.

V for Violins, these, and strings, bridge, or bows,
Whatever you need Astley Clerk surely knows.
Xylophones, whistles, or tuning forks, say-
Year after year, Astley Clerk knows no stop
Zeal for his customers keeps him on top.


Reader, can you beat above ? Try!


~i~5~f~






THE BEE HIVE,
Corner of KING & HARBOUR STS.

For the Best of Everything in
Ladies' & Gent's Outfitting.

Household Linens.
Furnishing Goods.
Boots & Shoes.
Dress Fabrics.
Perfumery & Toilet Goods.
Solid Silver Presentation Goods.
Art Needlework Specialists.


Jamaica Coupons on all Purchases.


------ --------- -- -- -- -------- --- E













FOREWORD

Shortly after the organisation of the movement to send
by voluntary effort a contingent of men from Jamaica to
take part in the Great War, it occurred to me that there
should be some permanent record prepared of the efforts
made by Jamaica to show its solidarity with the Mother
Country and the rest of the Empire. At the beginning
of 1915, therefore, I began to collect material for this
work, and announced that the work itself would deal with
Jamaica's activities in the first two years of the war.
But I delayed publication for a little while; and so this
volume covers the period dating from the last week in July
1914, to the end of the first week of April 1917. In other
words, the record is brought down to the passing of the
Universal Military Service Law, an event which, in the
writer's opinion, marks an important turning point in the
history of this country's connection with Great Britain and
with the British Empire.
It may be that later on I shall issue another volume, a
kind of sequel, written with the intention of showing the
probable effect of the war on the spirit of Jamaica and on
Jamaica's future. Such a work, however, could not be
written until the war was over, and will not be published
before 1919 or afterwards. .
Other books on Jamaica's connection with the Great
War will doubtless be produced in the future by other men.
What I claim for mine is that it puts in handy and easily-
accessible form some facts and information in regard to
what our country has done or has tried to do to aid the
Motherland and to uphold its own reputation as "an ancient
and loyal colony." We have no reason to be ashamed of
those endeavours, or of our actual achievement up to this.
Many of the illustrations in this book have never ap-
peared before. The Governor, General Blackden and other
gentlemen, and some of the ladies whose portraits adorn








FOREWORD


the pages of "Jamaica and the Great War," sat specially
for their photographs at the author's request. The picture
printed of the Legislative Council, just after it had passed
the Universal Military Service Law, April 6, 1917, is the
first phi-to--raph of that assembly ever taken in Jamaica.
Most of the illustrations I owe to the Cleary Studio.
And I wish here to express my gratitude to that Studio for
the pains it took to render me all the assistance it could.
Mr. Elliot of the Cleary Studio thought nothing of putting
his valuable time and services at my disposal whenever
asked to do so: but for that I should never have had the
picture of the Legislative Council It is a pleasure to find
men so willing to aid as Mr. Cleary and Mr. Elliot have
aided me. As for the photographs made by them-those
who purchase this book will doubtless be delighted with their
excellence.
I must also thank Mr. Brennan for the photograph of
Mr. J. H. Allwood. The picture of Mrs. Trefusis was taken
by Mr. J. B. Valdes.
THE AUTHOR.
Kingston, May 27, 1917.






t-j^i j '.
"^^Ss^






Books.
The Times Book Club of London claims to be the largest Book
Shop in the World.
The Times Store of Kingston claims to be the largest and the
best equipped Book Shop in Jamaica.
Come to us for your Books. If we do not carry the one you need,
we will be glad to import it for you. No order is too small
for us.
Prayer and Hymn Books of all denominations, Bibles in great
variety, Prize Books, School Books for both Elementary and
Secondary Schools, Useful Books, Books of Reference, War
Books and Novels.
SPeriodicals.
In our store you will find all the latest English and American
Magazines. We are prompt and up-to-date. You can buy
The Saturday Evening Post from us on the very day of pub-
lication in America. The Ladies' Home Journal is on sale on
the 10th of each month.
Office Supplies.
Commercial Jamaica looks to us for its requirements in office
equipment and stationery.
You can buy from us the best in:-
Inks, Pens, Pencils, Ruled Papers, Printed Forms, Account
Books, Loose Leaf Ledgers, Inkstands, Paper Clips, Law
Stationery, Blank Books, Typewriters, and the hundred and
one items that help to make an office more efficient.
Stationery.
People of refined tastes buy their Note Paper from us because
we know what they use and stock the lines all the time.
Writing Pads, Boxed Note Paper, Correspondence Cards, Visit-
ing Cards, Wedding Cards, Condolence Cards, Dance Pro-
grammes, Invitations, etc., etc.
Perfumery.
This Department is full of all the popular English, French and
American Perfumes, Soaps, Creams, Manicure and Face Pre-
parations. We have gained the Good Will of hundreds of
satisfied lady shoppers.
Presents.
A very wide range of goods to choose from including:-
Silverware, Glassware, Leather Goods, Fancy Goods, Books,
Perfumery, and Athletic Goods.

The Times Store
8-10-12 KING ST.,
KINGSTON.








DANIEL FINZI & CO., LTD.
ESTABLISHED:1843.
30, 32, 34 Port Royal Street.


Used all over the World.


1-------- "I ...............UC3.


~CIIIM~-------_r-_- _-.--. __. ____. __ .______~__;













ACKNOWLEDGMENT


Appearing below are the names of the firms and busi-
ness institutions which have co-operated with the author in
the production of this book.
The term "co-operated" is used advisedly, as but for
the advertisements which the work carries its publication
would have been practically impossible. To have put
"Jamaica and the Great War" on the local market at, say,
six shillings a copy, would have been to confine it to a
strictly limited circulation: if it now is offered to the pub-
lic at one-fourth of that amount, that is because the adver-
tisers of Kingston, understanding the situation, have with
their accustomed generosity determined to make the book
as cheap as it could be made for the general public.

It is these same advertisers, with other persons, who
have made every War Fund in Jamaica a signal success.
These businessmen aid, time and again, every public effort
put forth which requires financial assistance. In so far as
" Jamaica and the Great War" is concerned, they have sought
for, and have expected, no acknowledgment of the part they
play in its production. But the author would not feel satis-
fied did he not attach to the work this brief word of appre-
ciation and thanks, along with the names of those who have
made the publication possible.

M. M. Alexander Chemical Hall
V. C. Alexander Astley Clerk
Army and Navy Stores Cavendish House

Bee Hive Store Leonard deCordova
James Boyd Direct W. I. Cable Co.
James Dunn
Colonial Bank Cecil deCordova & Co.
Edwin Charley Elias C. D'Azevedo
Cassidy's Motor Car Co. C. M. DaCosta







ACKNOWLEDGMENT


Educational Supply Co.

Daniel Finzi & Co., Ltd.
F. Chas. Fisher
J. Few

Grace, Ltd.

David Henderson
Hurcomb & Sollas

E. A. Issa Bros.
C. T. Isaacs
Imperial Life A~ri'ace Co.

Jamaica Tobacco Company
Jamaica Biscuit Company
C. E. Johnston & Co.

J. E. Kerr & Co.
E. D. Kinkead

Lascelles, DeMercado & Co.
Adolph Levy & Company


Fred L. Myers & Son
Metropolitan House
Mutual Motor and Carriage
Coy., Ltd.
B. & J. B. Machado
Movies Theatre
People's Mart
Palace Theatre Company
A. E. Perkins
Sherlock & Smith
Sasso & Miller
The Sports
Stiven's Colosseum
Tem ple of Fashion, Ltd.
The Times Store
Robert Taylor
United Fruit Company

Victoria Mutual Bldg. Scty.

William Wilson
J. Wray & Nephew
Williamson Bros.
Louis Winkler & Son


(i--.1 i-i' .----










Leonard de Cordova. .

Post O.fe Bo- No. 24 HARDWARE AND
Telegraphle Address.:
"Dranoel," Jamaics
A u' LU.MBER MERCHANT





HARDWARE LUMBER YADS
DEPARTMENT r 2 TEMPLE LANE AND
810 HARBOUR bTREEBT I CHURCH STREET
Telephone No.1 Telephone No. 19



IMPORTER OF

Hardware, General Ironmongery, and Ship Chandlery
Agricultural Implements of all descriptions +
Building and Furnishing Hardware .
Estate and Plantation Supplies +
American White Pine and Pitch Pine Lumber
Shingles, Doors and Sashes, Orange Box Shooks and *
Cooperage Material






SOLE AGENT FOR

HALL'S DISTEIIPER PAINT
"ALPHA" PORTLAND CEMIENT
MAJOR'S DISINFECTANT ;
SOLIGNUM (WOOD PRESERVATIVE)
'44
4
:
f. 4
M***Mt*4.4.^A*4.44A44.*.A*<-*4,^,^.^^.A^^..^.A*4.*








44E G 9 E.ANT. 7




Palatial New Steamers.
WEEKLY SAILINGS.-Passengers, Mails and Freight
from New York, Kingston, Colon, Cartagena and
Santa Marta, returning from Kingston to New York
direct.
FORTNIGHTLY SERVICE to Guatemala, Honduras,
steamers calling at Port Antonio and Kingston south
bound, and at Port Antu.ni. only. north bound, taking
passengers for Santiago de Cuba and New York.

NEW ORLEANS,
Fortnightly Freight and Passenger Service.

COASTWISE SERVICE.
Cargo steamers sail from New York weekly, carrying
freight for Kingston and outports on direct bottom,
accepting at all outports freight for New York,
Canada, etc.

ELDERS & FYFFES

STEAMSHIP SERVICE.
Fortnightly Direct Service to and from England.

For rates, etc., please apply to

UNITED FRUIT COMPANY,
KINGSTON and PORT ANTONIO.





Those Interested in Jamaica
Should not fail to investi-
gate and patronize the
products of a thriving and
important industry....
IN SMOKING

Golofina Cigars,

"ROSEBUD"
"DAISY" AND
"LILY"
CIGARETTES
You are using the best
the Island produces. .
We make them for you.
You smoke them for the
maximum satisfaction.

JAMAICA TOBACCO CO.,
MANN! FACTLRIR.






EDWIN CHARLEY
Wine and Spirit Merchant
62 & 64 KING STREET, KINGSTON.


Representative of the following Firms:


JOHN WALKER & SONS, LTDO
GORDON CO., LTD,
J. R. TENNENTS, LTD.
WM, GRANT & SONS, LTD,

A.G. MEUKOW, GCO

RUINART PERE ET FILS
KOREG & GO,,
GEORGE GOULET
WANE & CO.
WILLIAMS & HUMBERT
WHEELER & CO.


Scotch Whiskey
Dry & Old Tom Gin
Ale, Stout, and Lager
Scotch Whiskey
(Cognac, Brandies
Marnier, Lapostolle
SGrand Marnier Liqueur
Champagne
Champagne
Champagne
Port Wine
Sherry Wine
Belfast Ginger Ale


-ALSO-


Blender and Shipper of Very Fine OLD
RUMS in Bottle and in Bulk.

Enquiries solicited; can supply in Puncheons or in $
Casks of 20, 30,40, or 50 gallons; state Strength
and Colour required.
/W$$$^^^$^'^$$$$$^^$^$^$^ssi













CONTENTS

Chapter Page
I On The Eve of War .................................. ......... 1
II The First Two W eeks.............................................10
III In Aid of England....................................................18
IV Offers of Military Service ..................................29
V Hopes and Fears ....................................................38
VI The First Five Hundred.............................. ..47
VII The Woman's Movement............................. ..61
VIII Historic Days......................................................... 71
IX The National Movement........................................86
X Complementary ................................................. 95
XI An Interregnum............................... .......111
XII The Final Appeal.........................................123





ARE WE DOWNHEARTED? NO!
THERE'S NO TIME TO BE AT

The Temple oi Fashion, Ltd,
KINGSTON'S
Busiest and Brightest Store.

YOU GET THE BEST VALUES IN
Dry Goods, Men's Outfitting, Boots & Shoes,
At 83 KING ST.
Fancyfand UsefultArticles of Home or Gift
At 85 KING ST.
Fine Stationery, Newest Books and
Magazines and Printing
At 85/2 KING ST.

S And in the Premi um Parlour you can exchange
"T.O.F." Coupons
for Gifts of the Best, none so good or so varied
can be obtained from any other firm.

Thl Temple of Fashiorn, Ltd, are Contractors to the Jamaica
War Couiiup li.t aud Auxiliary Forc c..









THE LION
is recognized as the King of Beasts; Sunlight Soap
is recognized as the King of Laundry Soaps. The
rule of the Lion extends only over the animal
world; The rule of

Sunlight Soap
extends to wherever
Soap is necessary. It is
withoutarival for wash-
ing clothes, household
linen and all fabrics
even of the finest tex-
ture. It is the best Soap
that skill and money can
produce. Give it a trial
and you will be con-
vinced of its value.
I ,,


Royal Vinolia Toilet Luxuries.

There are some people whose every action reveals
the note of refinement. An air of quiet distinc-
tion hangs around them like an atmosphere. So it
is with the Vinolia Toilet Luxuries. They appeal
instinctively to people of refinement. Their ex-
quisite perfume and their soothing and refreshing
qualities are irresistible. To experience the real
poetry of a healthy existence you must use
ROYAL VINOLIA TOILET LUXURIES.


VINOLIA COMPANY LIMITED,
LONDON-PARIS.


--


--
r ------- --


Vt6.

, *






Agencies held by


Lascelles deMercado & Co. Ltd.







Nestle's Milk, Nestle's Infants' Food, Nestle's
Chocolate, Plain, Milk, and Milk with Nuts.
Ogilvie's, King George's Millers in Canada for
"Special Patent," the best Wheaten Flour.
Maconochie Brothers, Ltd., for every sort of
Potted Meats and Fish, and "Pan Yan" Sauce
and Pickles, as well as Flavouring Essences.
Humphrey Taylor & Co., Chemists and Distil.
lers, for "Junora", the World-famous Wine of
Health.
James Baird & Co., Newfoundland, for all sorts
of fish-stuffs of thevery best kinds and brands.
Royal Typewriters
The best Tpyewriter is the "Royal,"-the
easiest to run, the best in alignment, the really
personal machine.
ENQUIRIES FROM
Lascelles de Mercado & Co. Ltd.
PORT ROYAL STREET, KINGSTON.


~cumrrurueru-- ---------- -----------1---- ;i--~i"~"' ---4iiii~izL~






I inar


5d?
T| t1


Sir W. H. MANNING, C. B., K. C. M. G.




_____--- -I--YY*CU


The MutualMotor & Carriage Co., Ltd.

DELGADO'S GARAGE & CARRIAGE WORKS,
1, 2, & 3, EAST PARADE.
WILLIAM WILSON, President.







G.L. DELGADO, Manager. C. L, DELGADO, Secretary.
DISTRIBUTORS OF

Overland and Hudson Cars.

Dealers and Repairers of Motor Cars, Waggons,
Carriages. Builders of Carriages, Waggons,
and Harness for Carriage and Waggon
use, and all accessories for same.
AUTO ACCESSORIES OF ALL DESCRIPTIONS.
Michelin and Goodrich Tyres and Tubes.
VULCANIZING a Specialty.

Painting of Motor Cars and Carriages. Motor Oar Tops
supplied and fitted in 24 hours. Motor Car Engines
cleaned by Oxygen process and delivered in 4 hours.
Mechanical repairs to Automobiles skilfully carried out
under the supervision of our English Mechanic and a well
trained staff of assistants. We can also make replacements
of gears or other parts of machinery which may get broken.

First-Class and Reliable Motor Cars For Hire.
Tours arranged to all parts of the island at Moderate
Prices.
A call or letter of inquiry for prices and quotations is respectfully solicited.
Estimates furnished for repairs to Cars or Carriages.







GRACE, Limited
JAMAICA, B.W.I.

Incorporated March 1917,
In the third year of
THE GREAT WAR.

HEAD OFFICE :
OLIVIER PLACE, KINGSTON.
Branches at ST. ANN'S BAY, BROWN'S TOWN, Etc.

Dealers in Sugar
Exporters of Tropical Produce

Importers and Distributors of
Foodstuffs & Manufactured
Products.

i REPRESENTATIVES OF
GRACE BROS, & CO., LTD, London & Liverpool,
GRACE & CO., LTD. Montreal.
W. R. GRACE & CO.
New York, San Francisco and New Orleans.
ETC., ETC.

Correspondents of numerous firms abroad,
Cable Address: GRACE.

t muuuHwi




s~i~crrY











r
r
r
r
I


Janmaica Water Crackers
I.trk.:. wl'h a "J." this the
murt popilir biscuit retailed
Iis Ju ai 1 i13 found everywhere.

Lunch
A small, square biscuit, The
best for cheese.

Honey Girl
The new sweet cracker Is as
Good as its Name.

Five-o-clock Tea
A fine small, sweet biscuat-a
r. fr ..-'i', Ir ii -...

Marie Biscuit
The Popular Favourite.

Orange Crisp
Fli.our,:l ailb the extract of
,]iamir:.i Ornn".;


Cel-er-ay Biscuit
The best Soda Cracker sold In
theT :T.ln.]-no btit,.r im .,)rI.
WV.tll .v rt i tr3 i i.

Saltine
Very popular in Jamaica. The
biscuit with the salty flavour.

Whole Wheat
Tho mOit r. -o -hlar1 h i- -u ., the
' ure i r I..jlg.: ;lo n,

Coffee Biscuit
Flavoured with the essence of
Blue Moantain Coffee.

Oyster Crackers
A small, salt biscuit, excellent
for soups.

Verdun Cakes
.\ igih-Cl.: Mixture which Is
rnu. h III d,


EXCELSIOR BREAD
The Manufacture of Excelsi.lr read is a new development
of thi-s ('on1mpny's entlrpri.e. t'he chief factor is eleanli-
ne[i coupled with sciienliic prec rrio in the mixing and
leaking. Absolute uniformity in the ,repar;tialii is guar.
anteed and early deli cry will be also a feature.


The Jamaica Bisc Co., Ltd.
Church Street. Kingston.

SFLLING AGENTS:--
Lascelles delMerca do & Co., Ltd.
Grace Ltd.


;i^~~l 5~),C')SE-'''''"'''^'''''^'''''' '''' ''c^~~i;c;~ ~~S~SS cCIC'~ "


.-~- rrhh~lN~nm~hC~.~21~*r~~l~\~l~Rh~~*~M~1 -


BREAD and BISCUITS

We offer the best value in EiJc:its in Jamaica. Here for
your selection we mention
Eleven Sorts,
any or all of which will compare with the corresponding
Imported Biscuits, many of which cost twice as much as
ours.





THE

COLONIAL BANK
Incorporated by Royal Charter in 1836.

Subscribed Capital 2,000,000
In 100,000 Shares of 20 each, 6 paid.
Paid-Up Capital 600,000
Reserve Funds 150,000

HEAD OFFICE:
16 Bishopsgate, London, E.C.
Cash and Bill Dept., 51 THREADNEEDLE ST.
Current accounts opened in London and a general Banking
business conducted there.
NEW YORK AGENCY:
22 W illiam Street.
BI.ANCHES AND AGENCIES IN JAMAIC\A:
Kingston Port Maria Lucea
Montego Bay Sav-la.Mar Port Antonio
Annotto Bay Morant Bay St. Ann's Bay
Falmouth
Savings Departments at all Branches. 4/ and upwards received
on Deposit. Interest compounded Half-Yearly.
OTHER BRANCHES (IN WEST INDIES):
Antigua St. Lucia
Barbados Grenada
St. Vincent St. Kitta
Dominica
IN TRINIDAD:
Port of Spain San Fernando
IN BRITISH GUIANA:
Georgetown & Mahaica, Demerara
New Amsterdam, Berbice
ALSO BRANCHES IN BRITISH WEST AFRICA.
AGENTS IN CANADA:
The Bank of British North America







What will you have?

OLD RUMS. OLD RUMS.


"BLACK SEAL"
"APPLEMONY"
"ONE DAGGER"
"THREE DAGGER"


"GREEN SEAL"
"GOLDEN STAG"
"TWO DAGGER"
"V.S.0,"


"SPECIAL RESERVE"


Our assortment of OLD REUMS is so varied that there is
a rum to suit almost every taste.
There are the old time favourites, BLACK and GREEN
SEAL, and the popular and mellow blend of the APPLEMONY.
Our GOLDEN STAG brand has struck the right note in
public favour, and for ageing and richness our ONE, TWO,
and THREE DAGGER are unequalled; while we can tickle
the more delicate palate of the experienced 'connoisseur with
our VERY SPECIAL OLD or SPECIAL RESERVE.
Our RUM S gratify the most exquisite taste and are above
all others in purity and popularity. They have set the
standard for all other Rums in Jamaica for nearly a century.
DRINK NO OTHER.



J. Wray & Nephew,

JAMAICA'S LEADING RUM MERCHANTS.


24 Port Royal Street,


KINGSTON, Ja.


~ ia~tm m#umt#111 gol0 01Pis1mifoilt t m1fff







J. E. Kerr & Co.
(LIMITED.)

GENERAL MERCHANTS & COMMISSION AGENTS.
HEAD OFFICE: NEW YORK OFFICE:
MONTEGO BAY. 25 BEAVER STREET
BRANCHES IN JAMAICA:
KINGSTON, ST. ANN'S BAY,
PORT MARIA. FALMOUTH.
W. Coke Kerr, Lloyds' Agents at Montego
Bay and Falmouth.
CABLE ADDRESS:
MITELLA" JAMAICA.
CODES:
A. B. C, 5TH EDITION AND PRIVATE CODES.

AGENTS IN JAMAICA FOR
Armour & Co., Chicago, Illinois.
Ardath Tobacco Co., Ltd., England.
James Buchanan & Co., Ltd., England.
Chivers & Sons, Ltd., England
James Everard's Breweries, Ltd., New York, N.Y.
Kansas Milling Co., Wichita, Kansas.
Lever Brothers, Ltd., Liverpool, England.
William McEwan & Co.,Ltd., Edinburgh, Scotland.
Peek Frean & Co., Ltd., London, England.
The Royal Insurance Co., Ltd.
PROPRIETORS OF THE WELL KNOWN
"SHIP BRAND"
PURE JAMAICA RUM.


Kingston Office: No. 73 Port Royal St.


~~~,~5$Si~i~s~~sr~s~,~LXm~,~E~s~~




ll.& ,, .., -. -. : _. .. + '.-



r


WTESOLEA&EN INJAMAICA"
4, > ., : ,-:,*"; '* : .*"-' -" -+- ,'+ ".






;.;. Manufactured by .


.' ,1 + ,- _. -. +; ] "..-' : n E n gl" an' ". .




The superior quality of Gossage's
; has made the brand a liosehblcfwbfc


S* In
-IL .. .. roBr






"t --1.Aiq '.^ i 1'_ I' -'. ,.' '." -, *' ."



jidjil ilSIS
'-. ESO A ^. ""
-':" ;






Adolph Levy & Bro.
KINGSTON, JAMAICA.



C. E. Johnston &Co.
PORT ANTONIO, JAMAICA.



Sole Representatives in the Island, and
Distributing Agents for Goods.

Manufactured by
QUAKER OATS CO, New York US.A,
WESTERN CANADA FLOUR MILLS CO. Toronto, Canada.
TEXAS STAR FLOUR MILLS, Galveston, Texas.
SOUTH-WESTERN MILLING CO. Kansas City.
TEXAS CO. REFINERIES, Port Arthur, Texas.
CORN PRODUCTS REFINING CO. New York,
NATIONAL BISCUIT GO. New York.
SWIFT & CO. Chicago & Jersey City
LIPTON, LIMITED London.
ST. THOMAS BAY RUM CO, St, Thomas,













Jamaica And The Great War

CHAPTER I

ON THE EVE OF WAR
N the long hot days of the tropical summer a wave of
inertia sweeps over and settles heavily upon the Island
of Jamaica. Gone is the brief winter season, passed is
the interlude of verdant spring, that all too fleeting period of
rejuvenation when the foliage of the forest is of a tender
green, the blue of the skies soft and limpid, when gentle
breezes blow caressingly and there is a stirring of the blood,
a pleasurable balmy sense of living and of life. Summer has
come, and over wide spaces of sunlit country a great deep
silence broods. In the city and the towns there is but little
movement; the mind feels itself occupied sufficiently with the
mere exertion of will required to strive against the influence
of the deadening tropical languor; nothing it would seem
could startle this half-torpid community into full-blooded life,
could awaken it to eager, compelling, absorbing mental ac-
tivity. But in August, 1914, Jamaica was to receive a shock,
the reflex of that which startled the world in those thrilling
days that are now so far away. And Jamaica was to throw
off its languor and its placid calm as sleep flies from the eyes
of the soldier when he hears the cannon's summoning roar.
Supplied daily as the colony is with news from the outer
world, it has for years been able to follow the trend and course
of European affairs with a fair degree of knowledge and in-
telligence. The very insignificance of its local problems has
forced it to take an interest in those larger questions of
English and international politics which concern the peoples
and the statesmen of countries which number their inhabitants









2 JAMAICA AND THE GREAT WAR.

by the million and which dispose of vast armies and magnifi-
cent fleets. It has sometimes been asserted that the Jamaica
youth knows more about English history than of the history
of Jamaica, more about the men who have made England
famous than of those who in the past have been conspicuous
in his own little island. This is true; and if it has deplorable
and blameworthy aspects there is something to be advanced
in its favour. For this acquaintance with English history
has helped to make of the Jamaican a lover of England, one
acquainted with her past as well as identified with her present,
proud of his connection with a great Empire and devoted to
that Empire's cause. It has helped to make of the Jamaican
a patriotic British subject; it has caused him to follow the
sequence of events with which England is concerned with an
interest, sometimes with an anxiety, which no alien, no mem-
ber of a merely subject people, could ever possibly feel. Thus
the Irish crisis which had become so acute in the first part
of the year 1914 was followed in Jamaica with passionate
eagerness, and the uni\erail hope was that some peaceful
solution of that terrible problem might be found. It was
instinctively felt that civil war in Ireland would affect the
integrity of the Empire, and Jamaicans are above everything
imperialistic in their sympathies. It is in their blood. They
can never forget that their country was one of the Empire'j
foundation stones. They proudly remember that in West
Indian waters were performed some of the deathless deeds of
the British Navy.
It was on Monday, July 27, 1914, that Jamaica first learnt
of the possibility of a European war. The news had arrived
on the preceding Saturday; but although it was given prom-
inence in the Press, it was not displayed in that startling
fashion which the Jamaica newspapers have borrowed from
their American contemporaries and by means of which they
signal to the public their appreciation of the news they print
on that particular day. The telegrams were fairly compre-









JAMAICA AND THE GREAT WAR.


hensive. They told of the ultimatum which Serbia had re-
ceived from Austria, of the demand for an answer from
Serbia in forty-eight hours, of Russia's intimation that she
could not remain indifferent to the issue of the dispute be-
tween the two nations, of Germany's determination that no
third Power should interfere in the quarrel that had so sud-
denly arisen. The conclusion of the whole matter was that
Europe was faced with the prospect of a general war. No
word was said about England; even France was not men-
tioned. But there was no man in the colony, with any reading
or with any understanding of international political affairs,
who did not know that France and Russia were allied. And
perhaps a few of these realized that the war that was pre-
dicted might be of far greater dimensions, and of more
terrible consequences to the European nations, than even the
telegrams foretold.
The majority of the people who read these despatches,
however, were not much moved by the news which they con-
veyed. Serbia was the country chiefly concerned, and in no
part of the British world had anything but horror been felt
at the news of the Austrian heir's assassination. But it
seemed incredible that all Europe should be plunged into a
devastating conflict because of the murder of one man, even
though that man would have been Emperor of Austria-Hun-
gary had he lived. Balkan affairs were not well understood;
the situation in that part of Europe was not appreciated as
bearing directly upon the problem of maintaining the world's
peace. That France should fight to recover her lost provinces
of Alsace and Lorraine, that Germany might fight in order to
establish herself as the leading Naval as well as the greatest
Military Power of the world: these were comparatively simple
propositions and easily grasped. But why should Europe
go to war on account of Serbia or of an Austrian Archduke?
The question seemed to answer itself with a decided negative;
the telegrams were considered interesting from the view-









4 JAMAICA AND THE GREAT WAR.

point of sensationalism but were not looked upon as reliably
indicating the rapid approach of a tremendous earth-shaking
catastrophe.
And indeed it was difficult for men who had seen Europe
at peace for four-and-forty years, to believe that the old order
was swiftly and irrevocably changing. The average man
reads the future in terms of the past; he does not easily im-
agine changes of a revolutionary nature; he finds it difficult,
if not actui lly impossible, to believe that thlin ",- will be much
different from what he has always known-them to be. Also,
one had become accustomed to hearing of "the war clouds
lowering over Europe." Nothing terrible had happened in
Europe since the Franco-Prussian War, and that had been only
a war between two nations, a war that lasted but a few months;
it seemed to have taken place so long ago too that it was re-
garded as an event of a time when diplomacy was almost im-
becile in its impotence and when the icmper of men was
sterner and more eager for war. There had been wars since
then. But the lRuo-Turkish War was a dim and distant
memory and the Balkan Wars were regarded as merely local
conflicts between half-civilised peoples. Japan had defeated
China, America had defeated Spain, England had beaten the
Boers, Japan had conquered the Russian Army and Navy and
had won an acknowledged position amongst the Great World
Powers. This last was the greatest of these wars, but its
theatres were the plains of Manchuria and the Eastern Seas;
and tL:.ugh it?- i.su damrn'sd the prestige of Russia, there was
none who did not know that it could not seriously and per-
manently alter the status of Russia in the world. Such wars
had happened often, would happen again. But that Europe
itself should be the scene of a great struggle between the
mightiest of its nations-that was not believcil, because it
could not easily be conceived.
News of the developing war situation continued to arrive.
On July 28 the Jamaica papers announced that Ausria and









JAMAICA AND THE GREAT WAR.


Serbia were on the verge of actual hostilities. But what was
discussed in the island as of more intimate interest were the
efforts then being made to prevent a collision in Ireland be-
tween Nationalists and Ulstermen, and the editorial columns
of the ne'~spapers gave little space to a discussion of the
threatening European crisis. Local matters were still being
commented upon at length. The leading journal of the colony
dealt, on this particular date, with a proposal to bring to
Jamaica, early in the next year, a cricket team from England,
and also devoted more than a column to a consideration of
the merits and demerits of sundry parochial orators. A
leaderette placed after these articles spoke briefly of "the
peace of Euir.pe again threatened," and concluded with the
conventional hope'that "wise statesmanship will find a way
out of the danger." In a few days all thought of cricket teams
and local orators was to be forgotten in the startling realiza-
tion that the peace of Europe was not merely threatened but
had ceased to exist, that Europe had embarked upon what
was to be known as the greatest war of all the ages.
It was not until July 31 that the extreme gravity of the
situation began f.rcihly to impress itself on the minds and
imaginations of the Jamaica public. There could now be no
longer any.doubt that war, war in Europe, was approaching
with almost lightninglike rapidity; and now it began to dawn
upon the colony that Great Britain might be dragged into the
struggle, that England, which had been at peace in Europe
since the Crimean War, might once again have to send armies
to the Continent and to mobilise her fleet to fight a powerful
foe. The British Prime Minister had said in the House of
Commons that "this is a moment of extreme gravity to the
Government." The London Times had in the most explicit
language announced that England could not stand aside and
see France crushed or Belgian territory violated. The efforts
of Great Britain were still being directed to the maintenance
of peace; but the British fleet had sailed under sealed orders;









,5 JAMAJCA AND THE GREAT WAR.

What does that mean? it was everywhere asked, but thou-
sands would not whisper even to themselves an answer which
could only be a confession of despair. For still it was hoped
that the peaceful counsels of England would prevail. Still
men strove to believe that, even at the eleventh hour, war
would be averted. This they hoped; this they strove to be-
lieve; but puckered brows and anxious faces witnessed to
the fear and the uneasiness that gripped painfully at their
hearts.
This uneasiness and fear found yet more definite expres-
sion in speculations as to what effect the participation of
England in the approaching conflict might have upon Jamaica.
One newspaper pointed out that food prices would inevitably
rise, but counselled the people to accept this with patience
and even with cheerfulness. It went further: it advised that
the general attitude should be one of preparedness to make
sacrifices, if necessary, for the cause of the Empire and of
England. Thus early in the opening stages of the struggle
was sounded the note that was to ring louder and louder
throughout Jamaica, that was to be taken up and universally
echoed from one part of the island to the other. But this note
of warning and exhortation was on the whole considered pre-
mature. Even if war was coming, men preferred to believe
that the conflict would be localised and that England would
play no conspicuous part in it.
On Saturday, August 1, a telegram from New York bear-
ing the date of the previous day announced that Germany had
declared war on Russia. There was also another despatch
of the same date which minimised the significance of the first
statement by pointing out that it lacked official confirmation.
It is indicative of the prevailing attitude of mind in the colony
that this second telegram was the one that was most readily
accepted. Yet it was on the evening of July 31 that the Kaiser,
addressing a vast concourse of his subjects, had uttered the
memorable words: "A stern hour of tribulation for Germany









JAMAICA AND THE GREAT WAR.


has arrived. Envy on all sides compels us to assume a right-
eous attitude of defence. The sword is forced into our hand."
After such an utterance only a miracle could have averted war.
The statesmen of Europe knew by then that the struggle was
inevitable; the whole world was to know that in another few
hours. Sunday intervened, and Monday, a public holiday,
dawned in Jamaica. Significant news had come over the wires
on Sunday; and in Kingston no doubt was now entertained
as to Germany's determination to strike.
In Jamaica, as is customary on a holiday, the people
began early on the Monday morning to prepare for the day's
festivities. This was more from force of habit than from
any inclination to levity; a strong current of unwonted ex-
citement swept the thoughts and feelings of the populace out
of their usual channels, and though picnics, excursions and a
number of other diversions were supposed to be occupying
the general attention, the talk of everyone was of the ap-
proaching war. So absorbing was this topic, so powerful the
influence it exercised over the mind of every adult, that even
an earthquake experienced that day caused but a temporary
distraction and alarm. No one could forget the cataclysm of
January 14, 1907, which overthrew Kingston and was felt in
every part of the country. The slightest subsequent shock
would bring back to the memory a vivid realisation of that
calamity, the greatest in the experience of all living Jamaicans.
On this Monday morning, at about 6.25, the whole island was
shaken by an earthquake of a duration and intensity second
only to that which had shattered the walls of Jamaica's capital
but a few years before, and fears were for the moment enter-
tained that a repetition of that disaster was imminent.
There were three shocks; the northside town of Port
Antonio had its public buildings damaged, the public clock in
the square at Halfway Tree stopped working; articles of
furniture and ornaments were thrown to the floor every.
where; in the parish of St. Andrew several landslides occurred.









8 JAMAICA AND THE GREAT WAR.

Ordinarily, such an awe-inspiring reminder would have dis-
placed every thought save that of danger from earthquakes.
But in an hour or two, if not forgotten, this earthquake was
relegated to a very subordinate place in the minds of most
people; and though there were minor shocks later on in the
day, their mental effect was inappreciable. The war, and
the part which England might play in the war: that was all
that could possibly be dwelt upon now.
And now the newspapers had almost nothing to say but
what was connected with the terrible situation that had so
rapidly developed in Europe, Conventional optimism had
given place to the sober realisation of an awful actiiality. It
was not so much asked whether England would declare war,
as when England would declare war; rTewspaper offices were
thronged by eager enquirers, the offices of the Cable Com-
panies in Kingston were besieged by anxious crowds thirsting
for the last item of information which the Government would
allow to be made public. For the Government had already
assumed control of all telegraph systems, and its censors sat
night and day in the telegraph buildings scrutinizing every
telegram that came from the outer world or was handed in
to be despatched to some other country. There were Germans
and Austrians in the island, and messages from these could
not lightly be transmitted. Great Britain was still officially
at peace with Germany and Austria, but the Governor had
received his instructions and these were being carried out
with scrupulous fidelity. No chances were taken.
In the last week of July a German warship, the D. ',sih i,
had come into Kingston harbour with President Huerta of
Mexico as a refugee on board. It had probably received from
Berlin instructions in code by wireless telegraphy, for shortly
after news of the critical situation in Europe was received
here, the Dresden left the harbour. And H.M.S. Su!Tfolk, then
Admiral Cradock's flagship, had afterwards entered the port
and soon after had cleared her decks for action. The atmos-









JAMAICA AND THE GREAT WAR.


here was charged with the electricity of war; the censors
were busy, and all day long, and working far into the night,
the Governor of the colony, with his secretaries toiled at de-
ciphering code messages flashed from England, and at trans-
mitting replies.
News was coming, but the news that had now begun to
come over was scanty, for the line of the Direct West India
Cable Company was down. It had been cut, as was subse-
quently discovered, cut by the Dresden which had so quickly
departed from British waters on the receipt of its instructions.
Thus, just when the country was most anxious for informa-
tion the means of obtaining it was lessened. Disappointment
was keen. It grew to anger. The Government was accused
of having established an unnecessarily rigid censorship; many
began to entertain unfounded apprehensions, to suggest that
the colony was purposely being kept in the dark. Then, on
the morning of August 5, Jamaica woke to learn that England
had declared war upon Germany, that the expected had hap-
pened, that the crisis had hurried to its climax, that the
Empire was at war.
The Empire was at war. It was about 2.15 a.m., August
5, that the Governor, Sir William Manning, sent out the
thrilling news to every section of the island of Jamaica. The
telegraph wires hummed with the momentous tidings; sleepy
telegraph clerks were startled into alert wakefulness as the
significant message was spelled out by the tapping electrical
instruments; on every public building, in the early hours of
that sultry summer morning, the statement was displayed.
Wireless telegraphy flung it into space with the dawn of day,
and ships two hundred miles and more from Jamaica received
it and knew that England was at war. Ships passing one
another slowed down and signalled the tidings. German
cruisers caught it. Over the wide Caribbean and the Southern
Atlantic the air was alive and, vibrant with messages, with
warnings and commands.













CHAPTER II


THE FIRST TWO WEEKS

T HE expected had happened, the Empire was at war.
Nevertheless the actual declaration of war by England
came as a shock to th,:ousands: it fell with the force of a
blow, disturbing for the moment the usual calm processes of
feeling and thought. On the news being known, the streets
of the city and the towns became filled with excited people
who spoke and argued as if the next four-and-twenty hours
would decide the fate of nations, as if they expected great
battles to be fought and won even while the German armies
were rushing furiously towards the frontiers of Belgium and
France. Order prevailed, but it was not the order of placid,
every-day life. It was the order which people, accustomed to
the social discipline and good behaviour of all established Bri-
tish communities, preserve even under the stress of strong
excitement; underlying it was an intense nervousness which,
in different conditions, might have developed into panic.
There was a rush on the part of hundreds to secure food
at the shops, the opinion being that there might soon be a
serious shortage of supplies. Food prices soared immediately,
rising in some instances over a hundred per cent. Fearing
famine, fearing financial stringency, apprehensive of the un-
known, and realizing that war must bring about many changes,
the people at once ceased to purchase any but the bare necessi-
ties of life, and already there were rumours of an impending
financial crisis.
And other rumours also, arising no one knew how, filled
the air and contributed to increase the nervous tension. We
have said that there were Austrians and Germans in the island.
People now remembered or> thought that they remembered
having heard that some of these had been seen, in the still










JAMAICA AND THE GREAT WAR.


hours of the night, prowling about suspiciously. One German
was said to have designed to poison the reservoir which sup-
plies Kingston with water. Another was believed to be in
the possession of wireless apparatus with which he could send
messages to German warships in the Caribbean Sea. German
cruisers were also reported seen from different seaports of
the island. Where was the Dresden? Was not the Bremen
in these regions? And the Karlsruhe--the popular imagina-
tion magnified that light cruiser into a great super-dread-
nought armed with formidable twelve-inch guns. Jamaica
might at any moment be attacked! At any moment shells
might be screaming over her capital city, and falling to scatter
ruin and destruction and death!
But panic never prevailed; fear was not allowed to attain
ascendency. External agencies helped to reinforce the effect
of custom and of social discipline. Admiral Cradock's flagship
was in the harbour. There she lay, grey, grim and silent, and
suddenly it was noticed that she was in full war attire, with
her decks cleared for action-ready, as England's Navy has
always been since the days of the great Nelson. Crowds
thronged to the waterfront to gaze at the Sufolk, and cheer
after cheer rang out as hundreds watched admiringly that
powerful symbol of the colony's safety and protection.
Cheerful though quite unreliable information was also
coming to the island, and this did much to enliven the spirits
of the more timorous. As early as August 6th the public
journals of Kingston could publish telegrams telling of vic-
tories gained by the French troops over the German armies,
and also announcing that "the armed forces of the Republic
are now on the soil of their formidable foe." It was stated in
the Press that "this news, when generally known, created
much enthusiasm in the city." It naturally would ; men al-
ready began to see victory in sight ; already, everywhere, the
belief was blithely expressed that the war would last but for
three months, and the bolder of the war prophets would not









12 JAMAICA AND THE GREAT WAR.

allow a single triumph to the enemy. But though, according
to the popular opinion, the war was to be fought and won in
an incredibly short space of time, the Government energeti-
cally proceeded with its efforts to place the island in a state of
adEq.uate defence and to put into operation those ordinances
prepared long before for just such a situation as had now
so suddenly arisen.
The day after England's declaration of war, martial law
was proclaimed in Jamaica. All persons in the colony were
directed to take notice and to govern themselves accordingly.
It was also announced that the Governor might deport any
person deemed an undesirable inhabitant (which power was
soon exercised in respect to some .well-kno.wn business men of
German descent), that the Governor might require and use the
services of any persons or property in the island for military
or naval purposes, and that the Governor might seize and take
possession of any food or fuel and sell same again at prices
determined upon by a Board appointed by him. This Board
for the regulation of food prices was appointed three days
later, with one of the ablest men in Jamaica, Mr. H. I. C.
Brown, Registrar of the Supreme Court, as its Chairman. It
immediately fixed prices on a scale much lower than that
which obtained at the moment.
There was one official rroclanmti)on especially intended
to prevent undue excitement. It was addressed to the Island
of Jamaica, and stated that "We do hereby call upon our loving
subjects therein to continue peacefully and tranquilly to pur-
sue their usual avocations, carefully abstaining from all actions
likely to produce popular excitement, unrest or confusion, and
doing their utmost to check, restrain and dissuade all who may
be inclined to such action." This was generally understood
as coming directly from the King ; necessarily, therefore, its
influence was immense. The people of the British West Indies,
brought up with a reverence for authority and inspired with
a sincere affection for the Throne, may always be relied upon








JAMAICA AND THE GREAT WAR.


to yield to any command accepted as proceeding from the
Sovereign a public obedience as absolute as human nature is
capable of in moments of intense feeling or extraordinary
agitation. The experience gained in Jamaica at the time of
the great earthquake had taught most persons that from no
considerable element of the population was disorder to be ex-
pected at a crisis; and during the first two weeks of the war,
and ever after, there were visible no precautions of a more
than ordinary description for the maintenance of order in the
country. "Trust the people" has never been the published
motto of any Jamaica Government, but every Government has
had to proceed on the assumption that it can and does trust
the people. One West Indian administrator, indeed, Sir
Charles Bruce, has written that no Governor who knew the
West Indies would be apprehensive of political demonstrations
in these days; and Sir Alexander Swettenham preferred to
deal with the situation created by the earthquake of 1907, with
his very inadequate resources, rather than accept the aid of
American marines to maintain discipline and order in the
ruined city of Kingston.
What Sir William Manning felt in that first week of
August no one can know; he may have been anxious; but his
anxiety could scarcely have been caused by serious fears of in-
ternal disturbances. What he said about the local situation
remains on record. An interview which a representative of
the Gleaner had with him on the 7th of August was printed,
with some comments, on the following day. He is described,
and the description is accurate, as perfectly calm and self-
possessed, looking as though he had not a worry in the world
and professing the utmost confidence in the loyalty and patri-
otism of the people. He spoke hopefully of the island's future
trade. He expressed the opinion that there would be an in-
creased demand abroad for many of its products. He expected
some financial stringency at first, but believed that in a little
while the trade and commerce of the colony would recover







14 JAMAICA AND THE GREAT WAR.

from an inevitable though temporary dislocation and that Ja-
maica would then find itself "on velvet". It may be that the
Governor expressed himself more hopefully than he actually
felt at the moment; it is certain that his words had both a
calming and stimulating effect upon the country. They
calmed those who were thinking darkly of the future; they
stimulated the naturally energetic who had been somewhat de-
pressed by the dismal forebodings of pessimistic people. What
is certain is that the panicky feeling, very slightly manifested
yet unquestionably existing, now began to disappear; and so,
when the third week of the war situation dawned, all classes
of the people were attending much as usual to their business
and the life of Jamaica had almost resumed its wonted routine.
By this time also the Government had practically deter-
mined upon the programme to be carried through at once, and
had already issued summonses to the Legislative Council to
meet at Headquarter House on Thursday, August 13. Orders
had been sent to the several Government departments suspend-
ing all expenditure upon public works not considered abso-
lutely necessary, the Parochial Boards of the Island were
warned to practise the most rigid economy. The Council met
on the date prescribed. Every elected member was present,
and nearly all the Government members. Under the constitu-
tion of Jamaica all the elected members voting together can
veto any ordinary proposal of the Executive, while nine elected
members voting unanimously can negative any financial meas-
ure. But the Governor has the power to declare of paramount
importance any measure that he thinks essential to the colony's
welfare; when that is done the votes of his official supporters
in the House can be recorded against those of the elected mem-
bers; and as the Government has fifteen members, or a ma-
jority of one, it is certain of victory when it exercises this ex-
traordinary power. In the past, there had been times when
the Government had deemed it wise to be fully represented
in the House. On this occasion, the elected members outnum-








JAMAICA AND THE GREAT WAR.


bered the official and nominated members. The Governor had
not thought it necessary to take precautions against an ad-
verse vote. He did not believe in the possibility of an adverse
vote; he counted upon the people's representatives supporting
the Government without hesitation, and their patriotic action
showed that he had understood their attitude aright.
But before the formal meeting in the Council Chamber
there was a private conference between both sides of the
House. This was held in order to give to the legislators what-
ever explanations they might desire regarding any items of
the Government's programme, so that, in open Council, the
chief legislative assembly of the island should present an un-
divided front. When the Council was called to order, there-
fore, everyone knew what was going to be proposed and ac-
complished. There was no unnecessary affectation of solemn-
ity. The House presented a businesslike appearance. The
Governor, as President of the Council, opened its proceedings,
all the members and visitors standing to hear the speech which
he read distinctly and with deliberation. We quote the ex-
ordium:-
"I have called the Council together to-day to deal with
certain urgent business due to the outbreak of hostilities
between Great Britain and the German Empire. It is per-
haps hardly necessary for me to remark at this juncture upon
the momentous questions that are involved. I feel that Ja-
maica will loyally and patriotically assume her part in main-
taining the integrity of our Empire, and will comport herself
as gallantly to-day as she has done in the past. History relates
that in days gone by this island has resolutely defended her
shores and has taken no small share in the wars of the past.
That she may not again be called upon to defend her homes I
sincerely trust, but I feel that I should be wrong to stifle the
fervent spirit of patriotism which has led to the offers of per-
sonal service which have poured in, and that I should be wrong
to disregard the possibility, however remote, that the island









16 JAMAICA AND THE GREAT WAR.

might once more be compelled to drive an invader from her
shores. The Navy of Great Britain is, and must be, our main
defence, but we should be prepared to assist our Navy by
taking upon ourselves such responsibilities of defence as we
can well assume .
He then outlined his programme of local defence, A force
to be known as the Jamaica Reserve Regiment was to be con.
stituted and organized in every parish ; the cost of this force
for six months was estimated at 10,000, which the Council
would be asked to vote. The Governor next intimated that he
expected a decrease of revenue, and a consequent deficit at the
end of the then current financial year, nearly eight months
away. Having suspended all save purely necessary public
works, he calculated upon saving by such retrenchment about
100,000. He had also secured the consent of the Secretary of
State for the Colonies to suspend the investment of the island's
Sinking Fun for the remainder of the year, which would set
free another 30,000 to meet the anticipated deficit. These
were his main financial provisions ; he also estimated that he
would have, as a surplus from the last year's financial trans-
actions, about 15,000.
He did not leave out of account the po-sibility of having to
afford some relief to persons rendered temporarily indigent
through the war and through drought prevailing in some parts
of the country. The sum of 5,000 was set aside for this.
Then he passed to a brief commentary on a Bill to establish a
Censorship throughout the island, and seized the :prliort.un it
to pay a compliment to the Jamaica Press. "As soon as I re-
ceived the news that the war was imminent," he said, "I called
upon the Press to enter into an honourable agreement not to
publish the movements of British men-of-war and troops, since
such news might be of advantage to an enemy. That honour-
able agreement has been most scrupulously observed, and it is
a pleasure to me to be able to publicly so state; and I have no
hesitation in affirming that I feel that the provisions of this
























Brig.-General L. S. BLACKDEN.


Mr. WILLIAM WILSON, J.P.


fLgoo










JAMAICA AND THE GREAT WAR.


Bill in regard to the Press will be a dead letter, as I look to the
Press to loyally carry out its obligations, and by its writings to
assist, as it can, in educating the public to maintain that calm
spirit which it has up till now inculcated."
The speech was a short one. An important programme
had been outlined in a few concise sentences. It concluded
with a spirited exhortation to Jamaica which is here trans-
cribed in full:-
"In conclusion I can only ask-and in asking I feel con-
vinced that I shall be supported-that all those in authority, all
those to whom the people of this island look for guidance, will
calmly go about their business, will set an example of steadfast
belief in the strength of our mighty Empire, that neither in
the hour of victory we shall be too greatly elated, nor in the
hour of misfortune we shall be too greatly disconcerted. If
Jamaica enters upon this great crisis in the history of the Em-
pire in this spirit, then we shall but be emulating the example
of our ancestors who faced triumph and disaster with an even
mind and with an invincible belief in the destiny of our Empire
and of our peoples. Jamaica, sure in the loyalty and patriotism
of its inhabitants, will present that united front to its enemies
that is expected from every part of this mighty Empire. That
is our duty and the duty of all who have the privilege of being
citizens of the British Empire."
The Governor ceased, resumed his seat, and the routine
business of the day began. In a couple of hours every measure
placed before the House had been passed through all its stages
without comment and without division, and the Council ad-
journed until it should be summoned to meet the Governor
again. All that it was necessary to do immediately to prepare
for the exigencies of the situation confronting the country had
been done. And the Legislative Council, as well as the country,
had shown its desire to support the Executive in every effort
it might deem necessary and advisable for the protection of the-
island and the public good.













CHAPTER III


IN AID OF ENGLAND

IN the midst of the ferment of feeling engendered by the
realization that the Empire was at war and that the
present generation of Jamaicans was about to witiites
the greatest struggle of all times, there v.'iftly emerged a
desire to help, a strong and fervid aspiration that the colony
as a whole should do something to express in tangible form its
loyalty to the Mother Country and its sympathy with her
cause. This desire was spontaneous, originatin. in the minds
of hundreds at one and the same time. It was confined to no
single class, it was not the result of Government suiggeetion.
The man in the street felt vaguely that in any war in which
Engr4,ld was engaged, and especially in such a war as that
into which the world had been precipitated by the statesmen
of Austria and Germany, it was the duty of Jamaica to take
a 'detinite part. The great planter remembered he was a de-
scendant of Englishmen, and that with England Jamaica
stood or fell.
There was precedent fZr this. Tradition had it that dur-
ing the Napoleonic Wars the colony had contributed a million
pounds to the Tmperial Trea.ury. Historical research had
recently shown that the amount actually donated by Jamaica
had been greatly exaggerated. It was in 1798 that merchants
and planters of the island raised by public subscription about
80,000 to assist England in her strupile against Napol.',n;
this was the foundation of fact for the million pounds fict ion
which had always been repeated with pride. But even 80,000
was no contemptible contribution. from a country with only
some three hundred thousand inhabitants, of whom the free
people, white, coloured and. black, numbered less than fifty
thousand, especially when we remember that the value of the









JAMAICA AND THE GREAT WAR.


sovereign was very much more at that time than it is at
the present day. That 80,000, in fact, would be equivalent
to nearly half a million pounds sterling to-day. It was also
incumbent on the colony in those times to make provision
for its own defence, and this is estimated to have cost the tax-
payers, for several years, an average of not less than 120,000
a year. Who first asserted that it was a million pounds that
Jamaica had given is, naturally, not known; but the belief
that this amount had been sent as a free gift to the English
Government, during the last great war which England had
waged to preserve the balance of power in Europe and the
liberties of the world, had a powerful though unconscious in-
fluence in fixing in the minds of the people the standard of
Jamaica's financial obligations to the Empire in this later and
greater war.
Then, again, during the South African War, subscrip-
tions had been raised for the widows and orphans of English
soldiers. This effort was not confined only to the upper orders
of the population; it was general. The middle classes of the
people probably contributed the larger part of the money col-
lected, but the working classes also gave. In August, 1914,
however, it was felt that, in order that whatever gift Jamaica
offered to England should be of distinctly national character,
it should take the form of a vote from General Revenue; hence,
some time in the second week of the war, a suggestion to the
Governor was privately made by the elected members of the
Legislative Council that 100,000 should be voted as Jamaica's
contribution to the expenses of the war.
In view of the unsettled commercial and financial condi-
tion of the colony, the suggestion was a bold one. A great
part of Jamaica's revenue is derived from import and excise
duties, while a not inconsiderable portion of it is contributed
by the earnings of the Government Railway. And these
sources of revenue are most sensitive to fluctuations of trade.
It was seen at the start that overseas trade would suffer on









20 JAMAICA AND THE GREAT WAR.

account of the war. All exports to and imports from Germany
and Austria had automatically ceased. A drought had recently
been afflicting the island; it was not known whether Jamaica
would be able to obtain the usual quantity of goods annually
imported from England, from the d(ltih:s on which the Govern-
ment derived a fair pr.p.rtiHon of its revenue, Everyone was
aware that there must be a falling off in trade, if only tem-
porarily; but the idea in the minds of the elected members was
the floating of loan in the colony. It was confidently believed
that the loan would be gladly subscribed, its object being one
that would appeal to the patriotic sentiments of all classes of
the people.
The Governor, however, was not inclined to act so quickly.
His view was that the first duty of the Government and Legis-
lative Council was to review calmly and carefully the financial
position and resources of Jamaica before deciding upon voting
money from General Revenue for Imperial purposes. He did
not veto the proposition; he expressed sympathy with it. But
he counselled a little patience, a delay of a few days, or weeks.
As the suggestion of a monetary gift had not been made pub-
licly, there was no public protest against this advice; on the
other hand, as nothing was yet being done whereby the colony
might give concrete expression to its desire to help, there were
many criticisms on the cautiousness of the Government in
such a connection. The criticisms were expressed in conversa-
tion everywhere. It became more and more obvious that
Jamaica would never be content with a policy of caution, even
if a policy of precipitancy should cost Jamaica dear.
It is perhaps in the nature of a tropical people to act im-
ulsi\vely. then to relapse into apathy induced by e.:hauition
of energy and of intellectual interest. It is of course a com-
monplace of all political experience that popular action is fol-
lowed by popular reaction; but in.the West Indies the periods
of reaction are greatly prolonged and there is ample time and
opportunity thus afforded to-detect mistakes made in moments










JAMAICA AND THE GREAT WAR


of enthusiasm, and loudly to regret them. But in this particu-
lar desire that Jamaica should make a present of some sort to
the Mother Country, there was more determination than en-
thusiasm. The general feeling was that the best that could be
done would be but small, and this gave birth to a sentiment
somewhat resembling shame. The great self-governing colo-
nies were rising to a recognition of their Imperial responsibili-
ties in a manner truly magnificent Jamaicans knew quite
well that their country could not remotely compare, from the
viewpoint of population, industries or resources, with Canada
or Australia; but this did not render them less desirous of
showing a spirit equal to that exhibited by Canada or Austra-
lia. They could not do much, and this was a bitter reflection;
but to do nothing, or to delay too long in doing anything, was
simply not to be thought of. They wanted to do more besides
make a money offering to the Mother Country; they sug-
gested that more should be done, as will be told in a following
chapter. But to send a gift to England would be an immediate
achievement; and the intense though quiet patriotism that
prevailed, the impulse to action which everyone experienced,
made it imperative that Jamaica should immediately fall in
line with the rest of the Empire in demonstrating practically
that Imperial unity and that willingness to make sacrifices for
the Empire's cause of which nearly every part of the Empire
had boasted in times of peace.
It was, then, in obedience to no mere temporary flush of
enthusiastic feeling that the people of Jamaica began every-
where to discuss the necessity of the colony's sending to Eng-
land an earnest of its loyalty. The Governor himself recog-
nised this fully. To the representative of the Gleaner news-
paper who put before him on August 16 a picture of the
popular mind, he replied quite frankly that he knew what the
people were thinking, that he was aware of their desire to do
what they could for the Empire. But he himself thought that
voluntary effort would be most useful at that moment; he










22 JAMAICA AND THE GREAT WAR.

suggested that the women of Jamaica should form local organ-
izations for the purpo.-e of supplying warm woollen clothing
to the Englih soldiers during the coming winter. In the
North of France and in Germany the Engli-h soldiers would
suffer terribly, he said, and they would be grateful for such
gifta as he had mentioned. "In this effort every one can help.
It gives an opportunity to every woman in the island, from
the richest to the poorest, to add her quota to the endeavour
being put forth in our Empire for our .oldiers. In this way,
I think, Jamaica can best help."
This conversation was published on the following day as
a definite invitation to the women of Jamaica to begin at once
to work for the o!diers of the Empire. It was followed by an
:ippral to the men for funds to enable this work to be under-
taken. This was not exactly what Jamaica had expected; yet
if the proposal had been deliberately put forward with a view
to testing the sincerity of individual profesaions of willing-
ness to help, the response that it met with must effectively
have silenced all doubts on that point. As a matter of fact,
the Governor was perfectly free from any desire to test the
genuineness of Jamaica's generoz-iy. What he wished to do
was to suggest an effort in which, as he had distinctly' stated,
the poor as well as the rich could join, an effort also which
would make on the country no demand greater than it could
reasonably bear at that disturbing time. In such uncertain
days it was not easy to say what was the financial situation
of anyone; but a scheme requiring work as well as money was
not calculated to tax overmuch the resources of any, especially
as the work would be done by that half of the population who
usually had some leisure and who, therefore, would not be
called upon to abandon their ordinary \vocations for this pur-
pose. The response to the appeal for funds, however, soon
showed that the island was ready to do more, voluntarily, than
either the Governor or anyone else had expected it would do
or was in a position to do, Sir William Manning's remarks ap-










JAMAICA AND THE GREAT WAR


peared on August 17. On August 22 the Gleaner could an-
nounce that it had received 1,155, in donations of a hundred
guineas each. As usual, the merchants and business corpora-
tions and the legal firms of Kingston had set the example of
generous giving, and every day after that came large indi-
vidual contributions from different parts of the island towards
"The Jamaica War Relief Fund."
Other efforts of a voluntary nature were immediately
planned: thus the Palace Amusement Theatre opened a sub-
scription list and distributed collecting boxes among the sev-
eral stores of Kingston, while the Syrian and Chinese com-
munities started small funds among themselves for the purpose
of making a respectable donation to some larger War Fund.
But the most important voluntary effort was inaugurated by
the Governor himself, who despatched letters to the different
custodes of the parishes, and to other representative men in
various parts of the island, asking these to organize commit-
tees for the collecting of money. On Sunday, August 23, an
announcement was made in many of the churches throughout
Jamaica that public meetings would be held to discuss the
Governor's suggestion. On the 26th the first meetings were
held at Mandeville, Port Antonio and Manchioneal; on the
next day there was a similar meeting at Spanish Town; on the
day after the people of Morant Bay gathered together to dis-
cuss and decide what steps should be taken to promote the
success of the effort now definitely set on foot. On the 30th
the people of Montego Bay met, and at their first meeting 400
was promised.
Other public meetings followed. They were held all over
the country, and not only in the chief towns; they took place
wherever there was a fairly large number of persons settled,
with a few amongst them possessing the faculty of initiative
and leadership. Women as well as men were invited to these
gatherings, for it was to the women of Jamaica that the appeal
had first been made. All classes responded to the general in-









24 JAMAICA AND THE GREAT WAR.

vitation, there were speeches from the chief men of the
parish or district, the duty of the people to contribute as liber-
ally as they could was placed before the audiences in a plain
and practical manner, and committees and sub-committees
were appointed to collect contributions everywhere. These
committees were composed of women and men, and, as the
results showed, they set to work with energy and a laudable
desire to do the very best they could. But almost at the very
first public gathering it became apparent that the original
suggestion of the Governor's was no longer popular, because
it was no longer considered practicable. Comparatively few
Jamaica women knew anything about the knitting of socks
and mufflers, and it was seen that the money that would be
collected would lie idle if it were to be utilis.d only in the
purchase of wool for the knitters. Most persons, too, looked
forward to so short a war that it was -felt that very little
warm clothing would be sent to the men at the front before
peace was once more restored to Europe. Accordingly it was
advocated that the money obtained should be transmitted to
England and, as the idea was that the poorest, if willing,
should contribute as well as the wealthiest in the land, it was
generally agreed that the smallest sum should not be refused
from those who wished to give.
And now began a movement the like of which had never
been seen in Jamaica before. Any one who reads over the
lists of contributors to the War Funds which the Gleaner
printed daily, will be struck by the large number of very small
men who gave their mite for the cause that was England's.
Cart drivers, cab drivers, motor-men, conductors, peasant-
proprietors, labourers-one and all gave something, however
small. A shilling, sixpence, threepence, these sums occur
hundreds and hundreds of times in the lists; on the banana
properties, on the sugar estates, on the cocoa plantations the
collecting card went round, and not in vain. Through its
chief officials the United Fruit Company organized a system









JAMAICA AND THE GREAT WAR.


whereby all its employees could regularly contribute to the
Fund: the result was excellent. There was no coercion ap-
plied. There could be no coercion applied. There was little
persuasion needed, for to contribute something to the War
Funds was now considered a privilege as well as a pleasure,
a right as well as.a moral obligation. Generosity had now be-
come the highest of duties.
One estate overseer tells a story that is well worth re-
cording here. Some of his labourers came to him one day
and expressed the wish that, for a certain time, he would de-
duct a small amount weekly from their wages as their con-
tribution to the War Relief Fund. "Understand," he said to
them, "you are not doing this because you are being begged to
do it. If you want to give, it must be of your own free will,
and not, either, as charity." Here pride spoke-he admitted
it; he did not wish Jamaica labourers to think that English
soldiers were in need of help from them. He afterwards con-
fessed that the answer returned was a sufficient rebuke. The
men told him that they gave because they desired to give,
that they gave because, as British subjects, they had as much
right to give as he. And for several weeks after not one
man missed contributing the quota of his wages that he had
that day agreed should be deducted.
Tli ro were now two large Funds in existence: the Jamai-
ca War Fund, collected by the Gleaner, and the Central War
Fund, directly organized by Sir William Manning. On Septem-
ber 9th, under the auspices of the Governor, a public meeting
was held in the Ward Theatre in Kingston, and a committee
was appointed to administer the money that would be received.
The general plan of distribution to be followed was outlined:
most of the money would be donated to the Prince of Wales
Fund, in England; a portion would be sent to the committee
attending to Belgian relief. The Gleaner Company fell in line
with this proposal. The money sent to the Gleaner was
divided into three parts, one half to the Prince of Wales Fund,










26 JAMAICA AND THE GREAT WAR.

a quarter to the British Sailors and Soldierg Association, a
quarter to the Belgian Relief Committee. The total of the
two Funds amounted to nearly 20,000 by the end of the year
1914.
Other minor Funds, such as that started by the Ghlea.r
for sending cigars and cigarettes to soldiers at the front, and
that organised by some Jamaica ladies for entertaining at
Christmas the sailors of the warships in the harbour, were
well supported. But even while the committees for the col-
lection of money to assist the Empire's fi1iht:rs were being
formed, and though it was apparent that the voluntary effort
being made would be more successful than anyone had
thought that it would be, it became apparent that Jamaica
would not be satisfied with private giving only.
Instead of dimini.hing, the feeling that the colony as
a constituent part of the British Empire should present a gift
to the Mother Country was growing apace. Letters written
to the newspapers advocated a special tax for this purpose.
At meetings called to make arrangements for the collection of
subscriptions it was urged that Jamaica should assume some
small portion of the debt which England would incur as part
of the cost of war, At the IMnteg- Bay meeting it was sug-
gested that 200,000 should be the amount of liability assumed
by the colony. The Mayor and Council of Kingston passed a
resolution recommending that the Government should take
ster- "to charge the revenues of this island for the purp ,-'
of providing a contribution to Great Britain towards the costs
of the war." The other Parochial Boards of the island fol-
lowed this example and adopted a similar resolution; but in
the meantime, and before the close of the month of August,
the Government had already determined that there should be
a gift offered by the colony to the Imperial Government.
The matter had been arranged privately between the
Governor and the elected members of the Legislative Council.
The member for St. Ann, the Hon, J H, Allwood, had cir-









JAMAICA AND THE GREAT WAR.


cularised his colleagues, and all of these had heartily agreed
that there should be some contribution made to the Mother
Country by Jamaica. This decision was immediately followed
by a letter from the legislators to Sir William Manning, who
replied on September 1 that he greatly appreciated the action
taken, and that "however small the island's contribution may
be, limited by its resources, it will be none the less an ac-
reptable proof of the desire of the people of Jamaica to do
what lies in their power to assist at this crisis in our history."
On that same day the Governor despatched to the Secretary of
State for the Colonies a telegram stating what Jamaica was
at that moment prepared to do.
The gift decided upon was a very small one. The financial
outlook was still considered too vague and uncertain to war-
rant indulgence in overflowing generosity. A present of
sugar to the value of 50,000 was to be made to the Mother
Country, then greatly in need of sugar on account of the
sudden stoppage of German and Austrian supplies. The
present was promptly accepted by the Secretary of State for
the Colonies, who telegraphed to say that His Majesty's Gov-
ernment heartily appreciated the patriotic and generous offer
of the people of Jamaica, and considered that a gift of sugar
would be most acceptable. When this was known, some per.
sons suggested a gift of fruit. But fruit and other products
of the island were already being freely offered by the peasants
and planters of the country, and arrangements were being
made to send these presents by each outgoing ship. On
September 17 the Legislature met in special session and em-
powered the Government to purchase sugar for the Imperial
Government to the amount of 50,000. Certain taxation re-
mitted some time before was re-imposed on the country to
meet this particular charge.
As the system of taxation levied in Jamaica falls upon
rich and poor, upon the babe in arms as well as on the
wealthiest planter, professional man or merchant, the colony's










28 JAMAICA AND THE GREAT WAR.

gift of sugar was made by everyone in Jamaica: it was a
thoroughly representative contribution. Had it stood alone,
it might have been supposed that the majority of the people,
never very articulate, and having what passes for their views
expressed by persons not of their own class, had merely
acquiesced in an action transacted in thefr name. But when
we remember that labourers gave gladly to the voluntary
funds, and that peasants sent presents of fruit, cocoa, coffee
and other things to the Jamaica Agricultural Society to be
transmitted to England for the use and comfort of British
soldiers and anilors, it is impossible to believe that the island
as a whole did not heartily approve of the Legislature's act.
And when the month of December came and Sir William Man-
ning publihted his annual message to the p.ci-ple of Jamaica,
he made certain statements which proved that he had had
an exceptional opportunity of judging of the feelings of
worker and peasant as well as of the sentiments of the mer-
chant and the planter. His remarks deserve to be permanently
preserved in any record dealing with Jamaica and the War,
and may fittingly conclude this chapter.
-That the people of this island have done much to prove
their value and their worth," wrote the Governor," I can bear
full testimony. Their gifts to help those who are struggling
for their destiny, and for the destiny of the Empire show
the trend of their thoughts, that though they are not able to
bear an active part in the defence of their Empire, they are
still able to do their share, however small, in lightening the
burdens of those who have the greater fortune of taking a
more active part. I know of not a few acts of self-racri'.ce.
acts of thoughtful kindness, and these are but the few out of
the many which will never be known."













CHAPTER IV


OFFERS OF MILITARY SERVICE

IN one of the despatches sent to Jamaica shortly after
England's declaration of war, the Secretary of State for
the Colonies laid it down that provision for local defence
must be a first charge upon the revenues of the colony. Such
provision was rightly understood to be exclusive of the
maintenance of the Imperial garrison in the island, this being
a charge upon the Imperial revenues. The colony was expect-
ed to organize a defence force of its own and at its own ex-
pense ; but even before the message of the Secretary of State
had been made public-which was done on August 13-offers
of service had been sent to the Governor from all parts of Ja-
maica, and in the newspapers suggestions as to the organizing
of volunteer corps had already begun to appear. And when
it was known that a Jamaica Reserve Regiment was to be
formed, with members in every parish of the island, there
were public meetings called almost everywhere and volunteers
came willingly forward in answer to the Government's appeal.
This was quite in accordance with the traditions of Ja-
maica. Whenever the island had been threatened in the past
the people had always shown the greatest willingness to arm
in their own defence. More, they had fought in their own
defence. However lacking in historical sense the average Ja-
maican may be, he knows that his forefathers had had to
fight for the safety of his country when, in 1694, Admiral
DuCasse landed on the north and east coasts of the island,
burning, slaying, plundering, and spreading terror through-
out Jamaica. It was on the 19th of July that the French
landed at Carlisle Bay. They were fifteen hundred strong;
to oppose him at that point there were only about two hundred'
whiite.nei'nn and some negroes. It is significant that, even at-









80 JAMAICA AND THE GREAT WAR.

this early date in the colony's history when slavery in its
most oppressive form existed, the black population was called
upon to assist in the general defence. We shall see further on
in this chapter that, as time went on, the black population,
although still in a state of bondage, was recruited for other
than purely defensive military operations.
Subsequently, whenever invasion threatened, Jamaicans
invariably showed that they were ready to defend the island,
to keep it English against all invaders to the best of their
ability. But it was felt and perceived in August 1914 that
the old conditions of warfare had been revolutionised, that
only if the British fleet were defeated could an enemy secure
a foothold in any part of the British West Indies; that
though a local defence force was necessary, and might be call-
ed upon to repel a raid, yet that the defence of the island, as
of the whole Empire, was to be maintained on the battlefields
of the European Continent and especially on the sea. If Ja-
maicans were to take any active part in this war, therefore,
they must enlist in the British Armies, then rapidly being
formed. This realized, there arose a demand for co-operation
with the British Army. And young Jamaicans in the colony,
as well as those in England and in Canada, immediately pre-
pared to offer themselves to the military authorities of Ja-
maica, England and Canada for service in France or in any
other theatre of the war.
There were already some Jamaicans in the English Army.
Soon their countrymen were to hear of these-amongst the
wounded and the dead. Those young men who were studying
in English or Canadian universities, or who were working
abroad, began to enlist, and their services were willingly ac-
cepted. Those in Jamaica who wished to enlist were informed
that men were not being recruited in this country. Then be-
gan an exodus of these young men, and of young English,
Scotch and Irish men in the colony, these proceeding to Eng-
land or to Canada at their own expense; and this movement,









JAMAICA AND THE GREAT WAR


began as early as August 1914, continued even after no man
who wished to serve the Empire was called upon to pay his
passage to Canada or England for the purpose of offering him-
self. Week after week and month after month it was re-
peatedly recorded that some of the younger men had sailed to
join the British Army or the Canadian Expeditionary Force.
Positions were given up, savings were devoted to providing
for the expenses of the journey. All Jamaica regarded with
pride the eagerness and the devotion of these gallant young
fellows.
The agitation for the sending of a contingent from Ja-
maica naturally found its most urgent expression in the public
prints. An anonymous letter, written on August 25, and pub-
lished in the Gleaner on the 31st, urged the formation of a
contingent for active service. A scheme for recruiting a body
of mounted men, three hundred in number, the little force to
be entirely supported by the Jamaica Government, was formu-
lated and placed before Sir William Manning by Mr. S. C.
Burke. Then came the news that the Home Government had
accepted the offer of the Indian Army for active service at
the front, and it was generally felt that there was no reason
why Indians should be accepted and West Indians refused.
Was money the difficulty? Did the Government feel that the
finances of the colony were not in a condition to undertake the
charge of sending men to the Mother Country? Then, it was
urged, a part of the money being subscribed in aid of the
soldiers and sailors of the Mother Country might be devoted
to transporting the finest aid of all-men to fight the Empire's
battles in the Empire's cause. "Perhaps even a special fund
might be opened for this purpose," suggested a writer signing
himself "Volunteer", in a letter to the Press. But the most
important suggestion at that time came from Major A. N.
Dixon, then recently elected a member of the Legislative
Council. It was the most important because it had the back-
ing of the elected members, and, if any body of men had in-









JAMAICA AND THE GREAT WAR.


fluence with the Colonial Government, and through the Colo-
nial Government with the Secretary of State for the Colonies,
it was undoubtedly the elected members of the Legislative
Council.
Major Dixon suggested that a strong Militia should be
formed, there being hundreds of discharged West Indian sol-
diers in the island and in Central America who would willingly
return to the colours. Such a force would relieve for active
service the West India Regiment then garrisoning the island,
and the whole cost of local defence could be undertaken by the
colony. Thirty years before it would have been impossible
for anyone to advocate that a country like Jamaica should be
left with only a Militia composed mainly of persons of African
descent, a volunteer organization of all classes of men, and the
x.istin Police Fore.-. Yet the upper classes of Jamaica saw
nothing strange in the suggestion made by one of themselves.
The old distrust of the people as a whole had silently evapo-
rated in the years that had passed since the generation that
had witnessed the Morant Bay Rebellion had given place to a
new type of men born in a new order of things. It was felt
that the island of Jamaica could consent to the sending away
of the regular troops and could with confidence undertake to
maintain internal order and to defend itself, if attacked, until
the arrival of the only means that could ult imately ensure its
safety, a Brit i;h warship. But though the elected members, at
a private conference, decided to support Major Dixon's scheme,
the Governnr refused to support it. He did not think, he said,
that the Imperial authorities would approve of it just then.
The elected members took the Governor's refusal quietly;
NIai.:.r Dixon, writing to the Press, stated that there was no-
thing to be gained by discussing his suggestion any further.
"But I hope," he continued,"that it may still be possible for the
loyalty and patriotism of Jamaica to show itself in sonie other
suitable act of devotion. For excellent as the gift of sugar is,'
as far as it goes, it wold almost amontm to a mockery to offer









--4



IT-Mpi

a At












-. j____









MEN OF THE JAMAICA CONTINGENT AT DRILL.









JAMAICA AND THE GREAT WAR


it except as a first instalment and earnest of what we intend
to do later on." That Jamaica should send men to the front
was still his firm conviction, and he left it to the country to
say what it would do. A month after this, on October 16,
the Gleaner published a long leading article strongly advocat-
ing the formation of a West Indian Contingent, with Jamaica
taking the lead and inviting the co-operation of the British
West Indian Colonies in this movement.
The idea of a West Indian Contingent, then, was propa-
gated very shortly after the war; but soon there came to the
West Indies information which made the realisation of the idea
impossible at that moment. Before the month of October was
ended it was known that the Imperial Government (which
probably meant the War Office) had decided that all men in
the British West Indies capable of bearing arms should re-
main in these islands to assist in defensive operations should
such become necessary. This was really the reply to the offer
of a West Indian Contingent which one of the West Indian
Governors must have forwarded to the War Office. The reply
was not officially published. It was simply permitted to be
known. "Defend your homes," was the advice of the Imperial
authorities, and there was nothing more' to be said just then.
Nothing, that is, by way of argument or rejoinder, but this
decision was much discussed in all the colonies, and not least
so in Jamaica. The disinclination of the Home" Government
to have a Contingent from the West Indies was thought in Ja-
maica to be due to its reluctance to arm black troops against
Europeans.
"The British soldier can stand up to anything except the
British War Office," says Mr. Bernard Shaw, and during the
first months of the war it did seem as if men willing and eager
to become soldiers were being deliberately prevented by the
regular routine officials of the British War Office. It was only
after the war had endured for some months, and it was dis-
covered that our so-called victories existed on paper only, that









34 JAMAICA AND THE GREAT WAR.

reform in the War Office led to better methods of recruiting.
The offer of India was not one that could be dealt with merely
by permanent officials, or even by the Secretary of State for
War himself. It came before Parliament; it was really Par-
liament, led by Lord Curzon, who accepted that offer which
India has so magnificently made good. But the West Indies
-who would deal with their timid proposal of a thousand men
or so: who save someone who thought it was of no importance?
And the moral effect of a refusal was probably not dwelt upon
for a single instant. Happily, the disappointment felt in Ja-
maica, though it gave rise to some ordinary conversational
comment, created no bitterness. Jamaicans had offered to
serve in the South African War. It had been plainly inti-
mated to them that it would be impossible for the Mother
Country to employ coloured troops against the Boers, as the
latter were notorious for their fierce race prejudice, and also
because, in a land like South Africa, the employment of black
troops against white men might have a dangerous after-effect.
Jamatcans believed that England was considering, not her
own inclinations, but the thoughts and feelings of others by her
refusal to accept black men for service in South Africa;
the difficulty of her position was admitted. But it was thnucht
strange that against an enemy such as the Germans were re-
ported to be there should be any reluctance to have at the front
a body of West Indians, white, mixed-blood and black, who
had been born and brought up as British subjects and who
could not possibly be classed amongst savages. Was this race
prejudice? The newspapers answered the question which they
knew was being asked in the one effective way they could.
They pointed out that no black or coloured man of military age
was refused in England or in Canada by the recruiting agents,
and this fact had a salutary effect.
Individuals in Jamaica ignored the suggestion that they
should remain and enlist for home defence. They continued
to sail for England, and news soon came that they were being









JAMAICA AND THE GREAT WAR


welcomed there. Then public opinion took a swift turn, and
it was said and believed that if the local Government would
only act with firmness, and urge that a Jamaica Contingent
should be accepted, all would be well. There was a deep-
rooted disinclination to believe that England would refuse a
loyal offer from one of her oldest colonies. This feeling, al-
most amounting to an instinct, was perfectly sound. England
had not refused the offer of the West Indies, though the War
Office had done so. But the War Office methods of recruiting
were shortly to be subjected to severe criticism, and the day
was coming when West Indian troops would be welcomed with
acclamation in the mother country.
West Indian troops had never been used on European
battlefields in the past, it is true, but this was probably due to
two sufficient reasons: first, because all former wars were
fought in Europe by comparatively small professional armies;
and next, because when England had had to contend with
other nations, the war was waged in the West Indies as well
as on the plains of Europe and India. During the seventeenth
and eighteenth centuries England was often at war with
France and Spain, or with both combined, and in these wars
Jamaicans played some part. Thus in 1739 England declared
war on Spain, and Admiral Vernon attacked Porto Bello on
;he Isthmus of Panama. Jamaica was an important naval sta-
tion in those days, and Vernon naturally came to this island
after the capture of the Isthmian seaport The next year he
sailed to bombard Cartagena, and most probably some Jamai-
cans went with him; the year after that Vernon's fleet was re-
inforced by another fleet which arrived from England under
Sir Chalonger Ogle, with whom an English army also came.
Jamaica volunteers accompanied this army to Cartagena.
More, a Negro Contingent was specially organized by the
Governor, Edward Trelawny, and this contingent formed part
of the King's forces that were intended to reduce Cartagena,
then considered the strongest city and fortress on the Spanish










36 JAMAICA AND THE GREAT WAR.

Main. The expedition was unsuccessful; a year afterwards
more reinforcements arrived from England, and this time it
was determined that the city of Panama should be taken. The
Governor raised a regiment of soldiers in the island and ac-
companied them himself: once more the white, black and col-
oured inhabitants of the island sailed forth to meet and fight
the Empire's enemies. This expedition was no more success-
ful than had been the former one. This was due to bad gen-
eralship and the generally wretched arrangements made for
the comfort and care of the troops.
War was again declared by England against Spain in
1762, and what is described as "a formidable expedition" sail-
ed for Havana; a fleet from Jamaica joined the fleet from Eng-
land; with the former went a number of Jamaica Negro
troops. These had been raised at the special request of the
Imperial Government; they were mostly slaves who had been
hastily trained to the use of arms. Havana was taken, and
was held by the British until peace between England and
Spain was concluded. In 1779 an expedition against the Span-
ish colonies of Central America was again despatched from
Jamaica; it was organized by Governor Dalling and with it
went Horatio Nelson, afterwards to be celebrated as the hero
of Trafalgar. There were some Jamaicans with this force
also, and when in 1793, England then being at war with
France, a small white contingent sailed from Port Royal and
captured the town of Jeremie in Hayti, it was soon reinforced
by two hundred Negro soldiers, with the aid of whom St.
Nicholas was taken. Our efforts to subdue the Island of
Hayti and San Domingo went badly after the initial successes.
It is stated that reinforcements from England, to the number
of eighteen thousand men, were sent out during the years
1795-1796. Nothing was understood about tropical health
conditions in those days, and the lives of soldiers did not seem
to be regarded as of much consequence. These English troops
died like flies; then a attempt was made to create a large num-









JAMAICA AND THE GREAT WAR.


ber of Negro regiments, and slaves from Jamaica were des-
patched to Hayti for that purpose. The end of that effort to
take the Island is well known; here we are only concerned with
the briefest possible statement of the activities of Jamaicans
in the previous wars of England. Contrary to the opinion
that has sometimes been expressed, we must assert that the ex-
peditions in which the people of this country took a fairly con-
siderable though usually an unfortunate part were not con-
sidered as trifling by the Imperial Government. They were
regarded as of the first importance. Nelson sought in West
Indian waters the fleet he defeated at Trafalgar, and to have
taken Cartagena and Panama would have been to deal a ter-
rible blow to the overseas power of Spain.
After the defeat of Napoleon and the revolt of the Spanish-
American colonies from their mother country, the West In-
dian waters and the Spanish Main and islands ceased to be the
battlefields of the European Powers. For a hundred years the
Jamaican was not troubled by war at his very doors; he no
longer prepared to leave his native land for service in another
country under the British flag, save indeed in so far as he
became a soldier in the West India Regiments and was sent
to subdue uprisings in the hinterland of British Africa. He
became a man of peace, forgetting the days when his fathers
had so often been at war. But when the great World War
broke out and loyal British subjects were hastening from all
parts of the globe to serve under the British colours, he felt
that he too must be represented. As we have seen, his first
endeavours to that end were baulked. We shall presently see
how a subsequent effort was rewarded with success.












CHAPTER V


HOPES AND FEARS

WHEN the first flush of excitement created by the
'tirrinw events of the first three weeks of August
1914 had passed away, there was, as has been
already indicated, a subsidence of feeling into something like
its customary calm. The routine work of the country and
of the individual had to be performed, men had to live as
usual, and no excitement or enthusiasm could possibly main-
tain for long the same exalted level. Nevertheless it was not
with the old attitude of mind that the people turned to face
the new problems which had suddenly arisen: a new situation
had developed and that must needs be dealt with imme-
diately, though many had to act, as it were, in the dark.
Ni-arly half the import trade of Jamaica was done with Great
Britain, and now the English firms began urgently to enquire
into the financial condition of the colony's business men,
while many of them declined to sell except on a basis of cash
payments. The public as a whole continued to purchase spar-
ingly, a policy of economy which was maintained until towards
the middle of December. Merchants and storekeepers re-
duced their staffs or reduced the wages of their staffs, and
this, coupled with the suspension of much Government and
Parochial work, which had given, employment to thousands
of the labouring classes, produced a new feeling of depression
which was increased and deepened by the then prevailing
drought.
Since the earthquake of 1907 the seasons had been ir-
regular, and the rainfall had been less on the whole than
during the previous seven years. In spite of this, and in
spite also of a hurricane in the latter part of 1912, which
had occasioned severe loss to the western parishes of the









JAMAICA AND THE GREAT WAR.


island, the output of the plantations had maintained a fairly
high level. This was due to the extension of cultivation gen-
erally and to the spirit of enterprise which planters and
peasants alike had shown in the face of all adverse and un-
settling circumstances. Jamaica had never entirely abandoned
the sugar industry or neglected the production of coffee. To
the cultivation of cocoa she had of late years been devoting
much attention. Pimento, oranges and dyewoods grew
practically wild, and there was the banana, her main article
of export. But a large quantity of her coffee and pimento,
and some of her rum, had been sold to Germany and Austria
previous to the war; and this trade, of course, had now dis-
appeared. It was on fruit, dyewoods and cocoa that she be-
lieved she would now have mainly to depend; such sugar as
she had would be sold also, and at good prices; but the pre-
vailing opinion was that rum would be a drug on the market.
Still, with good seasons, all might be fairly well; unfortunately
it was the good seasons that were lacking. The drought
that might have been accepted philosophically at any other
time, was at that moment contemplated with serious though
not with loud misgivings. If it did not break in October the
situation might become difficult to cope with, and the island
would be threatened with considerable suffering and possibly
a financial crisis.
There was another reason for the wave of depression
which swept over the colony about this time. In spite of a
firm faith in the ultimate triumph of the Allies, intelligent
people could not help observing just then that the Germans
were pressing on victoriously. The telegrams that came to
Jamaica were full of rhetoric and of prophesies of the enemy's
speedy defeat: they were gladly believed, but in the mean-
time the enemy was compelling the Allies to retreat. This
fact no amount of reasoning could explain away; it was so
evident that the Governor, on the night of August 30, com-
manded the chief censor to inform the public through the









40 JAMAICA AND THE GREAT WAR.

Press that the information then being received through the
ordinary news agencies must be accepted with the greatest
reserve, His Excellency's official information tending to show
that the German advance and the withdrawal of the Allies'
forces had not the significance claimed for them, but rather
appeared to be resulting in the exhaustion of the German
efforts. Such an assertion would not have been made with
any deliberately dishonest intention. It was quite on a par
with the general belief prevailing during the first phase of
the war. Whatever the enemy did or achieved was regarded
as having no permanent significance; he was rapidly becom-
ing exhausted; we should begin to drive him back almost
immediately; the duration of the war could only be a matter
of months. Nevertheless, that the Germans should be able to
make any progress whatever was not considered in the colony
as what ought to have happened, and there were not lacking
some to shake dismal heads and mutter sad predictions. But
a swing of the pendulum of public feeling soon occurred. This
was the result of the capture of a German auxiliary cruiser
on the high seas, the prize being brought into Kingston
Harbour on the morning of September the 11th.
Jamaicans have always had some understanding of what
sea power means. An island people are well acquainted with
the sea; they realise that if cut off from overseas intercourse
they must suffer severely; and there is hardly a literate
Jamaican who is not well aware that if the British Navy were
once destroyed the whole structure of the Empire must in-
evitably fall to pieces. So even if the land campaign was not
yet going as satisfactorily for the Allies as one could wish,
there was always the satisfaction of knowing that on the sea
the British Navy was supreme. That supremacy had been
directly demonstrated in the Caribbean by the immunity
from attack hitherto enjoyed by all the British West Indian
Islands. It was now to be further proved by a fact which all
the inhabitants *of the colony could easily appreciate.









JAMAICA AND THE GREAT WAR.


It was historical that, in the seventeenth and eighteenth
centuries, rich prizes captured by the English had been
brought into Kingston Harbour. There had been a time when
that spacious plane of gleaming water had been covered with
the captive vessels of the nations with which the Empire was
then at war. But hardly anyone had hoped to see a prize of
war brought into a port of Jamaica once more; and so, when
the news of the German cruiser's capture was rumoured
about the city on the morning of September 11, and it was
further said that the ship was coming here, the report was
at first regarded with considerable incredulity. But it grew
and it spread: it was the Karlsruhe which had been taken,
went the story, and taken only after a desperate fight. It
was a bigger armoured cruiser still. However, whatever it
was, there were thousands upon thousands of people deter-
mined to trust only the evidence of their own eyes; and thus,
long before the captive and her captor could make their ap-
pearance in the offing, the waterfront of Kingston was
thronged with an eager expectant crowd.
It was in the afternoon that the Bethania, with five hun-
dred German reservists on board, and H.M.S. Essex which
had captured her, came into view beyond the Palisadoes.
Then there was no longer doubt. A storm of enthusiasm
burst forth suddenly. The crowds that clustered on every
pier, that occupied every available foot of space on every high
building in the lower quarter of the city, that thronged the
sidewalks and had to be prevented from obstructing the
traffic in the streets-these realized with joy and pride that
their country was, in a way, taking some part in the war,
that German prisoners were coming here, that the seas, free
to them as British subjects, were inexorably closed to those
who were at war with England. When the two ships had
entered the harbour and were steaming parallel to Kingston's
waterfront, a man, perched on an outlook upon one of the
piers, produced and waved a tattered Union Jack. That was









42 JAMAICA AND THE GREAT WAR.

the signal for a thunder of cheering such as Kingston had
seldom heard before. The sailors on the Essex made no reply
to a greeting which they knew was intended for them, but
the band of the v,'arship played and the strains of its music
came over the waters and were heard in the intervals of the
wild huzzahing, the tumult and the shouting of the people.
The prisoners on the captured auxiliary cruiser Bethania
gathered upon the shoreside of their ship and gazed at the
immense multitude in silence. But when they landed they
found that not an insulting expression was hurled at them
from any of the crowd, and that the authorities had neglected
no precaution to protect them from any avoidable inconveni-
ence. They were not paraded as a spectacle. As quickly as
possible those of them who were to be conveyed to Up-Park
Camp were placed in closed cars and driven away; but for
hours after the prisoners had landed the streets of lower
Kingston were crowded with thousands of the excited citizens,
and each and every one spoke only of the scene they had wit-
nessed that day, while some recalled with pride the old naval
traditions of Jamaica and felt that, in the future, the colony
might yet again become a station of some importance to that
Nav.' with which it had been so closely and so gloriously con-
nected in the past.
The progress of the war in France and Flanders con-
tinued to be followed with the liveliest attention and interest.
It was well understood that, with the German retreat from
the Marne to the Aisne, Paris was for the present safe, and
hopes were entertained that the Germans would be driven
back much farther still. Even the sinking of the three
British cruisers, the Cressy, Aboukir, and Hogue, by a Ger-
man submarine, caused but little uneasiness in Jamaica: the
loss was not overestimated and it was confidently believed
that a similar unfortunate occurrence could easily be avoided
in the future. Also, with the telegrams stating that on the
Aisne the Germans were fighting "with courage born of des-









JAMAICA AND THE GREAT WAR.


pair," and with the local papers bravely prophesying that
the enemy had shot his bolt in the West, it was natural that
many people should begin to think and speak of the war as
already entering on a new and victorious phase.
But on the 9th of October the Germans entered Antwerp.
This news was published in Jamaica three days afterwards.
The loss of Antwerp was regarded in the island as a
most serious blow. It seemed to impress the imagination of
large numbers. It was looked upon as proof that the enemy
was far more powerful than he had been thought to be, that
he might succeed in reaching Paris at his next venture, might
take Calais, and then might make an effort at an invasion of
England. For a while something like pessimism was felt
and expressed-not in regard to the ultimate issue but in
regard to the immediate prospects of the war. And when in
the afternoon of November 7 it was announced that on the
first of that month Admiral Cradock had fought a German
squadron in the Southern Pacific and hadbeen totally de-
feated, the apprehension and gloom amongst all classes
deepened to its darkest.
The details at first received of this engagement were
scanty, and there still prevailed notions in regard to modern
naval armament which prevented most persons from seeing
that South Pacific fight and its issue in their proper perspec-
tive. That the German shells had so quickly and so speedily
set the British ships on fire, startled those-the vast majority
-who had not yet learnt that this was precisely the expected
effect of shell fire, and was not at all due to some special
invention which the enemy had kept secret, only to employ
with deadly effect upon British ships of war. Dejection was
plainly visible on the faces of those in Kingston who had
heard of the battle on that Saturday afternoon; dejection
was everywhere visible in another day or two when the news
had spread to all parts of the island. It was said that this
was the first time for a hundred years that England had









44 JAMAICA AND THE GREAT WAR.

met a European Power on the sea, ship to ship and gun to
gun; and for the English to have been beaten without in-
flicting any material damage on the foe was a bitter fact to
face, a fact which suggested possibilities which no one
wanted to acknowledge, even in the secret recesses of his
mind.
But further details began to arrive, and the newspapers
were able to comment on what had taken place in the Pacific,
and to show that the defeat of Rear Admiral Cradock con-
tained nothing of shame, nothing at which the British Empire
could need to blush. Cradock had recently been in Jamaica. He
had been in command of the ships coming and going in these
waters. He had been observed by hundreds: it had been said
by some who saw him that, if he should ever meet the enemy,
the end of that meeting could only be victory or death. Vic-
tory, as the people soon learnt, was out of the question for
Cradock off the Coast of Coronel. His ships were outclassed,
his guns outranged; he fought two of the finest armoured
cruisers in the German Navy; fought for five hours, then
sank beneath the waves in the thick darkness of the southern
night with his flag still proudly flying, with high courage in
his heart, conscious that, though beaten in this battle, he had
upheld his country's honour to the last, and had proved him-
self worthy to be named with those great seamen whose
prowess had made England the Mistress of the Seas.
The colony's spirits revived as the truth became known
and as its significance became appreciated. The Germans had
accomplished no miracle. The destruction of the German
Pacific squadron might safely be counted upon. This last
was of very practical importance to the least imaginative;
since, if Admiral von Spee should come into the Atlantic by
way of the Panama Canal, or even by rounding the Horn, it
was well within the bounds of probability that he would pass
near enough to the island of Jamaica to do some damage
with his modern nine-inch guns. In September the Emden









JAMAICA AND THE GREAT WAR.


had fired on Madras, and von Spee's ships were infinitely
more powerful than the Emden. But although there was no
positive information on the point, it was confidently assumed
that the avengers of Cradock would soon be on their way to
meet von Spee. On November 17 a telegram, coming origin-
ally from Valpariso, and dated on the 13th, was published: it
stated that another naval engagement was momently ex-
pected between German and English naval forces. This, of
course, was a mere guess: it was an anticipation of what
was considered certain. But when, a few days later, H.M.S.
Princess Royal, one of the finest superdreadnought battle-
cruisers in the British Navy, steamed into the harbour of
Kingston and anchored, it was understood in Kingston at least
that the days of von Spee's squadron were numbered.
A telegram dated December 2, but given out by the
censors only on December 8, announced that a battle between
German and British squadrons was imminent in the South
Atlantic. On that very day, though no one in Jamaica could
know it, the Falkland Islands Battle was fought. The news
came late on the following afternoon; special editions of the
newspapers were issued in the city and the newsboys ran
about the thoroughfares and among the suburbs crying out
the joyful tidings of the Germans' utter defeat.. Other
cheerful intelligence was just then being passed from one
part of the country to another. Towards the end of October
the drought had broken. Rain in abundant showers was
steadily falling everywhere. It had come in good time, it
gave promise of continuance. This promise was kept, and
thus one cause of anxiety was removed. So when the Christ-
mas holidays came round they were enjoyed with much the
usual heartiness; there was, perhaps, a little less spending
than usual; otherwise there was no difference. The year 1914
had ended in Jamaica on a cheerful note.
The New Year dawned upon a country wondering what
the next twelve months would bring to it, praying for a









46 JAMAICA AND THE GREAT WAR.

speedy end to the terrible struggle then proceeding, but in-
clined to view the immediate future with hopeful eyes. During
the five months just elapsed it had passed through many
varied phases of feelings. It had run a whole gamut of in-
tensely contrasted emotions, had risen high on the wings of
enthusiasm and been plunged deep into the slough of dismay.
But it had all along, and in spite of every uncertainty or
present adverse circumstance, struggled to show its traditional
loyalty to Throne and Empire. It had wanted to testify in
a practical manner its willingness to make sacrifices for the
common cause. Its dearest wish, to take part in the actual
fighting at the front, had been denied to it, and the disap-
pointment was felt. But at least it had tried to do its duty;
and it stood ready to prove at any moment that its offer of
men for the King's service had been no idle one.












CHAPTER VI


THE FIRST FIVE HUNDRED

OR a while the colony apparently accepted as final
the War Office's decision in regard to a West Indian
Contingent. For a little while nothing more was said
in the Press about the sending of men to take part in the
great struggle. But in the meantime letters from Jamaicans
who had joined the British Army in the first weeks of war
had begun to appear in the local papers; these breathed a
high spirit of courage and patriotism, and the perusal of
them very naturally served to fire afresh the ardour of young
men who envied the good fortune of the few who were already
in the Press about the sending of men to take part in the
who wished to have their names enrolled as recruits, and who
desired to be examined so as to be ready for enlisting at any
moment it might be decided to send a contingent from Ja-
maica. Thus the question of a contingent of some sort soon
became again one of the living topics of the day: the problem
was, how could any men be sent from Jamaica? The solution
of that problem was suggested on April 23, 1915, by Mr.
William Wilson, well known as a merchant and business man
of Kingston, as an Englishman who had long resided in
Jamaica, having made this colony his permanent home. Mr.
Wilson's plan was a very simple one, as usually are the plans
which immediately attract public attention and approval and
which signally succeed. We will give it as it appeared in his
own words, in his letter to the Gleaner:-
"The Editor. Sir,--There has been, and is, correspon-
dence in your valuable paper in re Jamaicans who are desirous
of going to the war, but who are unable to bear the necessary
expense. Enquiry at the Military Headquarters proves that
15 will equip and land a man in England. If ninety-nine









48 JAMAICA AND THE GREAT WAR.

other men will subscribe 30 each, I will give an equal amount
to send two hundred native-born Jamaicans to the front. Like
myself, there must be many men in the island who, though
unable to volunteer, would like to feel that they were doing
even a little bit to help. I am, etc., William Wilson."
So straightforward and practical a proposal called forth
immediately a hearty response from persons who were in a
position to aid financially and who had long thought that
Jamaica as well as other parts of the British Empire should
be represented amongst the fighting forces of the Mother
Country. Mr. Wilson's communication appeared on a Friday.
On the next day he received three letters warmly commending
his proposal. These letters, and a few others which did much
to popularise the new contingent idea, may well be transcribed
here. Mr. Robert Craig, of Chapelton, wrote: "I have just
read your appeal in to-day's Gleaner. I feel exactly as you do,
so just put me down for 30, and ask me for my cheque when
it is required. The Empire needs every man it can muster,
a fact which does not seem to be appreciated even at home!
but which, I am qualified to know, is clear to many patriotic
young fellows here." Messrs. Manton and Hart, of Kingston,
said: "We heartily approve of your admirable suggestion for
helping the Empire, and hope the idea will grow, and that
you will get more than you dream of towards the fund. Please
put us down as contributors to the sum of 30." Messrs.
Sherlock and Smith, of Kingston, wrote: "We both feel that
your idea is a good one, and that everyone in Jamaica that
can afford to help the Mother Country in any way just now
should do so. You will find Sherlock's cheque for 15, and
mine for the same amount." The letter was signed by Mr.
J. R. Smith.
It was then announced that subscriptions to the fund
could be sent either to the Gleaner or to Mr. William Wilson,
and during the next week other commendatory letters were
published by the Gleaner. Mr. F. G. Sharp, of Trout Hall,





















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i-~t*


)I-
'1*





I~


If
/5


U;~
ji~


--4


MRS. BRISCOE.


MISS DOUET.


MISS DOUGLAS.










JAMAICA AND THE GREAT WAR.


Clarendon, sent a cheque for 15, and very wisely urged that
those who might not be able to afford the sum mentioned by
Mr. William Wilon should nevertheless contribute to the
fund. Mr. T. N. Aguilar wrote: "Please put me down for a
subscription of 30 to the War Contingent Fund. I heartily
approve of the scheme, but I think that whether enough money
is obtained to send 200 men or not, the number of men we can
actually send should go." Mr. Horace Myers said in his letter:
"I am in full sympathy with the suggestion to send a first
Jamaica Contingent to the front, and would like very much to
see it arranged-the sooner the better. I go further and say
that every effort should be made to this end. It gives me
great pleasure to subscribe the sum of thirty guineas to help
along the scheme, which I sincerely trust will materialise."
Mr. Leonard deCordova wrote: "Please put me down for 30
towards the Jamaica War Contingent Fund. I entirely ap-
prove of it, and wish it every success. I would suggest that
some effort should be made to encourage young men willing to
enlist to send in their names at once. Many may be waiting
to do so. When the names begin to come in, the money, I
think, will follow very quickly." Mr. M. M. Alexander ad-
dressed his letter to Mr. Williap Wilson, asking that his name
should be put down for 30. "I hope," he concluded, "the list
will continue to grow rapidly; it is a matter that should be
carried through without delay." This letter appeared on the
last day of April; so that, within a week of the publication of
Mr. Wilson's suggestion, the idea had received the support of
many men whose views would have considerable influence
while it had also been strongly taken up and commended by
the island's Press. It started under the most auspicious cir-
cumstances and was to have a far greater development than
its originator could possibly have imagined or hoped.
Confident now of the scheme's success, Mr. Wilson in-
vited Mr. Baggett Gray, Mr. M. deCordova and Mr. Frank
Jackson to assist him in the work that was to be done, and









50 JAMAICA AND THE GREAT WAR.

this committee at once set about to appeal for subscriptions,
the Gleaner being the medium of its communications with the
public. A telegram was prepared and despatched through the
local military authorities to England, offering a contingent of
from one hundred to two hundred men. By the beginning of
June the War Contingent Fund stood at over 2,000, and no
one could doubt that the sum required for the transportation of
200 men would easily be collected. But in the interval the
Press and the public had come to the conclusion that the con-
tingent movement should not merely be a voluntary one; an
agitation for a national movement was begun: led by the
Gleaner it daily grew stronger, It was the direct and logical
result of the reply which had been made to Jamaica's offer by
the British War Office and the Secretary of State for the
Colonies. It followed inevitably on Mr. Wilson's practical and
patriotic movement.
The reply of the British authorities was received in the
last week in May. It was made public on the 28th. The War
Contingent Committee's telegram had mentioned recruits up
to the number of 200, and special emphasis had been laid on
the fact that these recruits would be black, coloured and white
men, a mixed body representing the different strata and com-
position of the island's population. The despatch accepting
the offer stated that any number of men the colony might wish
to send would be welcomed, which response at once assured
Jamaicans that any objection that may at first have been en-
tertained in regard to West Indians of all colours joining the
King's Armies in appreciable numbers had now completely dis-
appeared-Jamaica was free to send 10,000 men if she de-
sired to do so.
This put it beyond question that Jamaica's offer had been
taken seriously, and many persons perceived quite clearly that
a mere 200 men sent by private subscriptions would have more
of a sentimental than a practical value, and would be a con-
tribution altogether incommensurate with the size and historic









JAMAICA AND THE GREAT WAR


reputation of a colony like Jamaica. The agitation for a larger
contingent was therefore bound to continue and to grow. On
the 2nd of June there was a meeting of the St. Thomas Paro-
chial Board. At that meeting the Chairman, Mr. J. H. Wil-
liams, moved a resolution in which the Board unanimously
expressed the opinion "that a representative contingent of at
least 1,000 men and officers, to be maintained at full strength
during the war", should be sent to England, the cost being
borne by the Government. A special land tax to defray the
expenses of this contingent was suggested, the members of
the Board individually expressing their willingness to pay this
special tax. Other Parochial Boards soon followed this ad-
mirable lead, but the War Contingent Committee itself had
also perceived that the original scheme must now be modified
and considerably expanded.
The committee had now been enlarged. The contingent
movement having received the approval of the British au-
thorities, the Governor felt free to associate himself with it.
Accordingly, he and General Blackden became members of the
new War Contingent Committee, which, as finally constituted,
contained these members: His Excellency the Governor,
Mr. William Wilson, Mr. Baggett Gray, Mr. Michael de Cor-
dova, Mr. Frank Jackson, General Blackden, Lieut. Otley, Mr.
John Tapley, Mr. John Barclay, Mr. Edward Morris, Cap-
tain List, Hon. Sydney Couper, Hon. Coke Kerr.
This body met early in June with Mr. William Wilson as
Chairman, and it was then decided on the suggestion of the
Governor that the contingent should consist of 500 men, with
reserves to replace casualties which might from time to time
occur through sickness or other causes.
Jamaica having set the example of a practical effort to-
wards contributing a contingent of soldiers to the British
Army, the sister colonies of Trinidad, British Guiana and Bar-
bados immediately prepared to follow that example. Sir
Wil'iam Manning had entered into communication with the









52 JAMAICA AND THE GREAT WAR.

Governors of those colonies; these had promptly replied, and it
was arranged that there should be a West Indian Battalion
of 1,500 men, including those from Jamaica; it was under-
stood, however, that the formation of the Jamaica Contingent
should be in no way dependent on the action of the other
colonies, and that the despatching of the recruits would take
place as early as it was convenient to do so. Young men all
over the colony had already been sending in their names to
the committee, the district medical officers were now asked to
examine these volunteers free of charge, while officers com-
manding the several local defence corps and gentlemen in-
teresting themselves in obtaining recruits for the contingent
were requested to select the best men that could be found and
to take care that volunteers should be able to read ma:nu;.r ript
and write fairly well.
And now members of the Legislative Council began to ex-
press their opinion as to what Jamaica should do. Several
were emphatic on the necessity of a national movement; in all
parts of the colony it was being asked why the Government
hesitated to take the step which Jamaica as a whole so strongly
approved. But the Government gave no hint of its intentions.
In the third week of June the examination of recruits began
at the Camp, men from Kingston, St. Andrew and St.
Thomas being the first to be summoned for this ordeal. Then
the recruits from other parts of the country were ordered to
Kingston..
These men came to the city in batches, and in almost
every case their departure from their town or district was
made the occasion of a popular demonstration. The leading
people of the neighbourhood come out to see them off; they
marched to the railway station to the accompaniment of music;
they were cheered to the echo as the train thundered out of
the station, and in Kingston they were received by members
of the War Contingent Committee and conveyed in special
cars to Up-Park Camp.









JAMAICA AND THE GREAT WAR.


The examination of recruits went steadily on; and sub-
scriptions towards the Contingent Fund continued to come in.
The Contingent Committee did not hesitate to ask the public
for contributions as small as threepence. The appeal had
first been for 3,000. The sum of 5,000 was next asked for.
Then the committee boldly placed the figure at 10,000, sug-
gesting that the voluntary effort might be able to do all that
was needed. The public responded liberally. But the public
meant that Jamaica should send far more than 500 men, and
day after day there was something said in this connection.
On June 29 there was a meeting of the War Contingent
Committee, and there it was stated that 748 recruits had pre-
sented themselves for examination, of whom 442 had been
accepted. There were still 155 new applications for enrol-
ment, so it seemed certain that the 500 men wanted would be
forthcoming when a transport ship should be obtained. This
announcement was pleasurably received, the more so as there
had not been wanting pessimists to suggest that Jamaica, in
spite of all the talk, would not be able to find 200 willing re-
cruits when the moment came for a final decision on the part
of the younger men. This was said quite freely, and only
facts could refute the pessimists: now that they stood refuted
they at once attacked the suggestion that the colony should
send "at least 1,000 men." Thisiwas quite out of the question,
they said; 500 would be as many as the colony could scrape
together. Then the quality of the recruits was pronounced to
be miserable, especially by those who had not set eyes upon
the men. As a last resort it was confidently asserted that
the contingent would never be sent for, that our offer had
only been accepted so that our feelings should not be too much
hurt, that some good excuse would be found for keeping the
men in Jamaica until the war was at an end.
In July the public criticism of the Government's apparent
disinclination to make the contingent movement a national
one attained its most vigorous expression; from every quarter








54 JAMAICA AND THE GREAT WAR.

came strenuous protests, and some of the expressions used
were positively bitter. All the colony's church papers had
but one thing to say, and that consisted of a demand for a na-
tional contingent. Men occupying leading positions in their
respective parishes implored the Governor and Legislative
Council not to allow the island to be disgraced at a time when
every other part of the British Empire was hastening to make
sacrifices for the great Imperial Cause. These gentlemen had
all contributed handsomely towards the War Contingent Fund;
more than one had each given enough to send away six or
eight recruits. It was therefore with no desire to escape their
personal obligations that they urged on the Government a na-
tional movement. The immediate though indirect reply of the
Governor to all these exhortations was the announcement that
out of public funds he would provide two weeks' training for
the recruits at Up Park Camp, prior to their leaving the is-
land.
This was considered so utterly inadequate a contribution
from General Revenue towards the contingent expenses that
the Gleaner called upon the elected members to take the ini-
tiative, hold a meeting among themselves, and represent
strongly to the Colony's Executive the desire of the people
that something substantial and truly representative of the
national capabilities should be attempted and carried through.
This paper suggested that the contingent should consist of
5,000 men, and that for this purpose the colony should become
responsible for an expenditure of 500,000. It professed a
preference for a still larger scheme, namely 10,000 men and a
capital expenditure of a million pounds, or 60,000 a year for
forty years. But the smaller scheme was the one which it
strongly and deliberately advocated; and now that the appeal
direct had been made to the elected members, the efforts of
many persons in the country were directed towards inducing
these legislators to use their influence with the Government
in the interest of a national contingent movement.









JAMAICA AND THE GREAT WAR.


August came. The agitation continued. The hurricane
season was well now advanced; but as in November 1912 Ja-
maica had been visited by a devastating cyclone, most persons
hoped and believed that for some time to come the island
would be spared. But on August 12 came warnings from
Washington, and on the evening of August 13 masses of black
cloud on the northern and eastern horizons, and fierce squalls
with sharp stinging showers of rain, foretold only too plainly
the inevitable approach of the ancient scourge. In a few hours
it had come and gone, but in the interval it had destroyed pro-
duce to the value of several hundred thousand pounds, and
had damaged roads and railway lines severely. It had found
the country fair and flourishing and had left destruction in its
wake. The colony had suffered serious loss, and for a mo-
ment many must have felt that there could be no more talk of
a national contingent movement.
But no one said so. The previous year had been, in spite
of drought and war, one of the best industrially and financially
that the colony had known for half a century. Its export
trade had amounted in value to nearly three million pounds
sterling, according to the official computation, and was prob-
ably actually more than that. The people had been practising
economy too; hence it was felt generally that the restoration
of damaged plantations would not be so difficult now as it had
proved to be on some previous occasions. It was not long be-
fore it was perceived that though the island had suffered loss
it was by no means crippled; hence on August 18 the Press
was able to state that all the arguments which had been ad-
vanced in favour of a national contingent still held good, and
that the occurrence of the hurricane was no reason whatever
why Jamaica should not do something substantial for the sake
of its own honour and for the Imperial Cause.
The Governor called the Legislative Council together on
September 21. The financial situation created by the hurri-
cane was put before the members. Hurricane repairs to







56 JAMAICA AND THE GREAT WAR.

public roads and works would cost 57,652; in addition there
was an estin-ite-d decrease of revenue over the whole year's
transactions amounting to f6:.2 making a grand total of
120,870. rThe sums available to the Government to meet this
amunr,"t :`,r.. 159,20f2. leaving the deficit to be met at 61,578.
It was expected that the Governor would propose to levy new
taxes to c.'ver thin anticipated deficit. Instead of that he pro-
posed to finane the colony by overdrafts on the banks until
the end of the current financial year. Then came the an-
nouncement which the colony had been longing and praying
to hear, but which few persons thiou,:ht could be made in the
exFisting flnancinl circumstances of the country. "It may be
held expedient,", said His E:cellkncy, "that a loan should be
raised to cover the e-;nmnditure which may be incurred by
sending a contingent of troops to the Uniti~- Kin g.lomn, and
for meeting the cost of the raising and ?e nd ina of drafts to
keep the ':.nt;lnent up to str.enth; and it would seem proper
in the circumstances in which we find ourselves at pr?'eent.
that the burden of these charges should not fall entirely upon
this P-eneratiin, but should be in part left to posterity to bear."
So the decision had come at last, and had, it was gener-
ally admitted, been announced in the proper place and to the
rnPp-ir p:'pie--th members of the Jamaica Legislature. Per-
haps the word decision is rather too strong a one to use just
here, for the Governor, though showing that he was himselff
inclined to make the contingent movement a national affrtir,
put for'.v;-r his sugei;r-j n tentatively, leaving the Council to
express its opinion on it. But as only the Governor could
propose the epren,.iture of public money for any purpose
lwhiatver, and as the views of the elected members were al-
ready well lmnv,-n, it was generally felt that His E:-:cpllency''
few remarks had settled the country's policy in so far as a
limited national contingeint movement was concerned,
On the :fllo,.,ing day some of the ..'ectLd members took
up the question, each one of them giving as his opinion that









JAMAICA AND THE GREAT WAR.


the country as a constituent unit should become responsible
for the sending of a contingent of troops to the front. On
these speeches the Governor commented. He paid to the mem-
bers of the War Contingent Committee a tribute which they
certainly deserved, praising them for the work they had ac-
complished and the success they had achieved. "The nucleus
of the contingent," he said, "had been formed by the commit-
tee," and in this view the general public decidedly concurred.
He then proceeded to explain his position. He admitted
that he had been very cautious in the matter of the contingent.
The Home Authorities had asked him to accept certain liabili-
ties with regard to gratuities and pensions which would have
to be paid to the men who might be disabled, and with re-
gard to -eparation allowances to be paid to relatives whom
the men might leave behind. This had been known in July:
the Imperial Government had suggested that Jamaica might
assume half the responsibility for these charges. It was be-
lieved at the time that the Governor had refused to counten-
ance the suggestion; he now stated that he had replied saying
that he did not feel he could accept such liabilities without the
approval of the Council, but that he felt certain that when
the war was over and Jamaica knew what really were the
liabilities that must be met, the Island's Legislature would
be willing to take them up. He wanted it to be distinctly un-
derstood that he had accepted no liability whatever so far as
the contingent was concerned. He had left the whole matter
to the Council to decide.
On the legislators, then, and ec:pec aly on the elected
members of the Council, was placed the entire responsibility
of deciding whetherr Jamaica should pay out of the public
revenue the cost of sending men to the front. What was the
object of the Governor in pursuing this course?
The right conclusion most probably is that he would not,
as an agent of the Imperial Government, urge the country, or
even induce the country, to spend money raised by taxes from








58 JAMAI.CA AND THE GREAT WAR.


a population mainly of African descent on the sending of men
to fight in a war with whose origin the West Indies had
had nothing to do. The colony was a poor one, it was some.
times difficult to obtain yearly the money needed for the pro-
vision of public necessities. Since the beginning of the war
taxes had been increased and expenditure on public utilities
curtailed. Har.ir timesr might be in store for the colony, and
the people who would feel them most would be the poorest:
if then Jamaica was to undertake a national contingent move-
ment she must do so of her own initiative; the elected members
must declare their views. This, we believe, was the idea in
the Governor's mind: in what concerned expenditure for Im-
perial purposes he would follow, not lead, the country. When,
however, the country had once accepted the principle of a na-
tional movement, he would feel himself entitled to make offers
to the Imperial Authorities in its name. He did not say this,
but later on he acted it, as will presently be seen.
That brief September session of the Council formally de-
creed that Jamaica was to be responsible for all expenses con-
nected with the contingent of 500 men, over and above the
amount of money up to then collected by voluntary contribu-
tions and somewhat similar means. The colony was to pay
for the clothing and trinisprfatifon of the drafts needed to
maintain the continent at full strength, and it was estimated
that some 75 men per month would be required for this pur-
pose. The men were to be paid what the English soldiers of
the new armies received, and this pay they would receive from
the Imperial Authorities. Jamaica's share was to be confined
to the defraying of expenses incurred in recruiting and des-
patching the men to England, and in giving them a certain
amount.of elementary military training before they left our
shores.
Something more was done that session. As already men-
tioned, the Imperial Government had suggested that Jamaica
might assume half the liability for pensions, gratuities and








JAMAICA AND THE GREAT WAR.


separation allowances connected with the contingent. On the
motion of Mr. J. H. Allwood the Council agreed that "all
charges for separation allowances and disabilities, gratuities
and pensions on such scale, and commencing at such period as
may be arranged between the Government and the War Office"
should be undertaken by the colony. This made Jamaica re-
sponsible for the men who should return from the war, and
for the dependents they would leave behind them. Thus the
Council had done more than the Home Government had sug-
gested should be done, and the wish of Jamaica was that she
were in a position to follow the example of Canada and
Australia and defray all the costs of her contingent. That,
however, was simply out of the question. It was also felt and
said throughout the island that the Council should have decided
upon a larger contingent. Still, as the reinforcements would
amount to 900 in one year, and were to be sent month by
month whether there were any casualties to be replaced or not,
there was comfort in the reflection that in a year the Jamaica
Contingent would number 1.400, whereas the first proposal
had mentioned 200 soldiers only.
Then followed a period of waiting. The contingent had
been accepted in May, but up to the end of September no trans-
port to take the men away could be procured. Either there
was difficulty in procuring a ship in England or there was
dilatoriness on the part of the War Office. Doubts again began
to be expressed as to whether the contingent would ever go,
and the pessimists then had the happiest time of their lives.
In the second week of October the recruits, who up to
then had only been examined and enrolled, were called up to
enlist. It was then found that only 400 men answered the
call. Some, tired of waiting, had already left the island for
England. Others had grown lukewarm (these enlisted after-
wards.) Recruiting meetings were at once commenced all
over the island, and the response of the young men was most
satisfactory. Then on Saturday, October 20, the King's appeal









60 JAMAICA AND THE GREAT WAR.

to the Empire for men and yet more men to meet the enemy
was received by the Governor and was published on the same
afternoon. It had what might almost be called an electrifying
effect.
It was eagerly read all over the island. It called upon men
of all classes to come forward voluntarily and take part in
maintaining against the foe the Empire "which your fathers
and mine have built." There were some in Jamaica to hold
that this appeal was not intended for Jamaica. Primarily it
was not. It was intended for the people of the United King-
dom and Ireland, but it was despatched to every part of the
Empire, and in every corner of the British Empire men of
pure British descent were to be found. There were others,
not of pure British descent, who might rightly regard this
appeal as made to them also. Every man with British blood in
his veins might claim that his ancestors had helped to build
and to defend the British Empire, now grown to so much
greatness, and men with no drop of British blood in their veins
could equally utter that proud boast. Jamaicans of all classes
and colours had not for nothing sailed with Nelson to Nicar-
agua, accompanied Vernon to Cartagena, or assisted in cap-
turing Havana. The ancestors of the present generation of
Jamaicans had fought and toiled and died in foreign lands
under the British flag. Hence the King's appeal was accepted
generally as a call to his loyal subjects in Jamaica, and Ja-
maica was prepared to answer to the best of its ability. The
first contingent with part of its reinforcements would go
shortly; a much larger scheme must now be adopted; and
until the war should end the colony must do what it could in
the way of recruiting men for active service. That was the
settled determination of the people within a few days of the
publication of the King's Appeal, and it soon found expression
in energetic and successful action.














CHAPTER VII


THE WOMAN'S MOVEMENT

WE have seen how the effort to send to the front a con-
tingent of Jamaica recruits was initiated, how
Mr. Wilson's eminently practical suggestion was
welcomed by the colony and soon transformed into a move-
ment of growing proportions and importance. The success
of this movement, however, did not depend upon the activity
and the exertions of men alone.
In the history of public events in Jamaica the names of
women have not appeared; in the past, women have played a
practically negligible part in public life. They have worked
along with men in the cultivation of the soil; they have been
school-teachers, latterly they have entered offices as steno-
graphers and accountants; and no objection has been taken
to this extension of their activities. They have had to contend
not so much with opposition and prejudice as with inertia and
apathy-an inertia and apathy of their own creation mainly.
But the war seemed to stimulate them; from the outbreak of
hostilities they began to manifest a patriotic enthusiasm which
was as welcome as it was novel; they assisted greatly to col-
lect funds for the assistance of wounded British sailors and
soldiers and for the families of these; soon they were to make
a new departure, were to initiate an effort which will always
be remembered as one of the most successful ever put forward
in Jamaica on behalf of the Empire's cause.
Who was "Q. A. T. M. N. S. R., Retired"? That question
was asked by many on the morning of June 11, 1915, when
these letters appeared as signature to a communication ap-
pearing in the correspondence columns of the Gleaner. In
that communication an earnest appeal was made to the women
of Jamaica. "Now," ran the exhortation, "is the time for









62 JAMAICA AND THE GREAT WAR.

women to show what they are made of," and the women of the
country were asked to raise their own fund for the purpose of
assisting the young men of Jamaica to take "the places of
those who have fallen." The writer suggested a committee of
influential ladies and offered her services to any committee
that might be formed; "Let us get together and show our
brave boys what we can do to further their heart's desire,"
were the closing words of this opportune appeal. The letter
was widely read; no one seemed to guess the writer's identity.
In these pages alone it is revealed, and permission for that
has been obtained. It was Miss Annie Douglas, who had served
with credit in South Africa as a Red Cross Nurse, whose words
struck a responsive chord in the hearts of the women of Ja-
maica. It was felt that this unknown writer had urged the
right thing, it was everywhere acknowledged that the time
had come when our women should make a special effort
to aid the contingent movement. On the day after Miss Doug-
las's letter appeared Mrs. William Wilson sent a cheque for
five pounds as the first donation towards the suggested Wo-
men's Fund.
A movement of this sort, however, require a great deal
of personal exertion and organization. Miss Douglas had of-
fered her services to any committee that might be formed, but,
except perhaps her personal friends and the staff of the
Gleaner (which must always respect the anonymity of its
contributors), no one knew who was "Q. A. T. M. N. S. R."
Nor did Miss Douglas make any attempt to torm the commit-
tee she had suggested; as matron of the Asylum she was a
busy woman filling a responsible Government position, and she
had not even been sure if she had the right to sign her name to
the letter she communicated to the Press. Nevertheless she
began at once to work quietly for the cause in which she was
so deeply interested. By the 1st of June she had collected the
sum of 2 14s towards the Women's Fund. For some days
after this the movement seemed to languish; it required vigor










JAMAICA AND THE GREAT WAR.


ous personal effort to bring it to success. Though the women
of Jamaica were willing enough to do what they could for the
contingent, an independent effort on their part was something
new to them. They hesitated; waited for a more definite lead.
The appeal, we are afraid, in spite of the general interest it
aroused, would have gone unheeded through the influence
of inertia and hesitation had not an organization been formed
to realize its patriotic purpose. The initiative in this connec-
tion was taken by three ladies, and when their plan was pub-
lished to the island the Women's Movement began in earnest
and was certain of success.
On June 26 the Women's Fund stood at only 35 18s.
On that same day a circular was published in the Gleaner.
It was addressed to all the women of Jamaica and was accom-
panied with the outlines of a programme to be followed by
all those women in every part of the island who wished to aid
in the sending of a contingent to the front. We transcribe the
words in full:-
"It is not given to women in this island to nurse the
wounded or to take the place of men as motor-car drivers,
train or tram conductors, or to perform various other duties
now being undertaken by our sisters in Great Britain; but it
is given to us to send our sons, brothers, or husbands if neces-
sary, to the front, to share the privilege of fighting for our
glorious Empire.
"The principal means to our hands for so doing is to sub-
scribe to the War Contingent Fund whatever little we can, no
sum being too small.
"Women may say, 'Our husbands, our brothers or our par-
ents are subscribing, and what little we subscribe will come
from them.' But all of us women spend a sum, great or small
as the case may be, on ourselves. Let us for once forego a por-
tion of this and send to the Fund some part of what we would
in normal times spend on ourselves, as our personal contribu-
tion.




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