GENDER ROLES IN
MARY B, ANDERSON
JAMES E. AUSTIN
HARVARD INSTITUTE FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
U.S. AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
OFFICE OF WOMEN IN DEVELOPMENT
) I L
Copies of this manual are available through:
Office of Women in Development
U.S. Agency for International Development
3243 New State Department
Washington, D.C. 20523
Copies of the case studies and readings book Gender Roles in Development
Projects may be ordered through:
630 Oakwood Avenue
West Hartford, CT 06110-1505
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE Purpose and Organization of Instructor's Manual
CHAPTER TWO Guidelines for the Preparation of Case Studies on Women in
Purpose and Scope ........................................ 3
The Case Study Method: An Overview ...................... 3
Pedagogical Objectives for WID Cases ..................... 5
WID Case Preparation ................................. .. 7
The Preparation of Teaching Notes ........................19
CHAPTER THREE Indonesia: East Java Family Planning and Nutrition-Income
Generation Project Teaching Note
Case Synopsis ............................................29
Pedagogical Objectives ...................................30
Study Questions .......................................... 30
Case Analysis and Teaching Plan .......................... 31
CHAPTER FOUR Tanzania: The Arusha Planning and Village Development
Case Synopsis ............................................ 41
Pedagogical Objectives ........................... ..... 42
Study Questions .............. .......................... 42
Case Analysis and Teaching Plan ......................... 43
CHAPTER FIVE Kenya: Egerton College--Teaching Note
Case Synopsis ......................................... 50
Pedagogical Objectives ............................. ..... 51
Study Questions ......................................... 52
Case Synopsis and Teaching Plan ..........................52
CHAPTER SIX Dominican Republic: Program for Development of
Case Synopsis ............................................60
Pedagogical Objectives .................................. 60
Study Questions .......................................... 61
Case Analysis and Teaching Plan ........................61
CHAPTER SEVEN Peru: Banco Industrial del Peru Credit for the Development
of Rural Enterprise--Teaching Note
Case Synopsis ............................................67
Pedagogical Objectives .................................67
Study Questions ....................................... 68
Case Analysis and Teaching Plan ........................ 68
CHAPTER EIGHT India: Gujarat Medium Irrigation Project--Teaching Note
Case Synopsis ............................................73
Pedagogical Objectives ........................ .. ...... 73
Study Questions ........................................ 74
Case Analysis and Teaching Plan ..........................74
CHAPTER NINE Kenya: Kitui Arid and Semi-arid Lands Project--Teaching
Case Synopsis ............................................82
Pedagogical Objectives .................................. 83
Study Questions ............................ ............ 83
Case Analysis and Teaching Plan ..........................84
PURPOSE AND ORGANIZATION OF INSTRUCTORS MANUAL
The purpose of this manual is to assist instructors in the
classroom use of our text and case studies book Gender Roles in Development
Projects. It is also hoped that the manual will motivate and facilitate
the development of additional case studies, thereby enriching further the
community's portfolio of women in development teaching materials.
This manual is one of the products of a research and training
project carried out through the Harvard Institute for International
Development through a grant from the Office of Women in Development of the
U.S. Agency for International Development (Grant OTR-0100-G-55-2236-00).
The case studies and technical papers contained in Gender Roles in
Development Projects were developed as part of this project. The cases
were prepared using actual AID projects and were based on official
documents as well as field-based research. The cases have been used in
training sessions for AID personnel as well as for professionals from other
development organizations and universities. The teaching notes in this
manual have been elaborated based on those classroom experiences.
Chapter Two presents guidelines on the preparation of case
studies and teaching notes on women in development. Although many readers
will not actually develop any new case studies, the chapter will provide
the instructor with a clearer view of the pedagogical nature of cases and
teaching by the case method. It will also facilitate the reading and use
of the teaching notes found in the following chapters.
Chapters Three through Nine contain the teaching notes for each
of the cases in the book. The technical readings in the book are meant to
accompany the cases to provide a greater conceptual and factual basis for
the case discussions. The readings are not discussed separately in this
manual. However, instructors might choose to use those readings as the
basis for discussions apart from the case discussions.
GUIDELINES FOR THE PREPARATION OF CASE STUDIES ON WOMEN IN DEVELOPMENT
PURPOSE AND SCOPE
The purpose of this chapter is to provide guidance in the
preparation of case studies concerning women in development to be used in
the training of individuals involved in the design or implementation of
development projects. This chapter will present the key elements and steps
in preparing a case, and references will be made to other publications on
case writing. The distinctive emphasis of the guidelines presented herein
is on women in development. Cases prepared on this subject require a
special orientation as to their focus, content, and form.
The following section will provide an introduction to the case
study method. This is followed by a statement of the specific pedagogical
objectives for WID cases. Then the key considerations in WID case
development are presented (including general steps, case outline, and data
considerations). The final section presents guidelines for the preparation
of teaching notes which should accompany the case study. Lastly, there are
four annexes, including an appendix of technical references on the case
THE CASE STUDY METHOD: AN OVERVIEW
The case study method has a long history as a particularly
effective pedagogical approach to developing problem-solving and
decision-making skills. It is based on the philosophy that the students
must take an active part in and responsibility for the learning process.
The basic premise is that active intellectual participation is essential if
the learning experience is to be most meaningful.
The case studies are the pedagogical vehicles through which
student involvement is generated. Cases are factual descriptions of actual
situations facing decision-makers in organizations. The case studies do
not set forth theories or hypotheses but rather present a slice of the real
world in a form that allows the discussion participants to think
purposefully about issues which are highly relevant to their own
professional work. Thus, the approach is practitioner-oriented and
The cases do not include an analysis or evaluation of a situation
but rather provide the raw material from which participants can engage in
their own analysis and draw their own conclusions. As in the real world,
the case situations do not have one "right answer"; there may be many
reasonable alternatives and defensible recommendations. From the learning
perspective, the answer is less important than the problem-solving skills
that are developed in the process of deriving systematically a logical and
sensible set of conclusions and recommendations.
The learning steps in the case study process usually are three:
first, participants read and analyze the case individually; second, they
meet in small study groups (5-8 people) to exchange ideas, clarify
analyses, and expand their perspectives; and third, there is a plenary
discussion of the entire class (15-18 people) led by the instructor. It is
clear that learner involvement is central in each of these three steps.
Also key is the element of collective interchange. By sharing analyses and
perspectives and by having to defend logically one's position, students
enter the dynamics of the learning process. True communication occurs and
the resultant intellectual sum exceeds that of the separate parts. Thus,
the case learning process is active and collective as contrasted to tradi-
tional teaching methods which tend to be passive and individual.
It is important to reiterate that the basis for the whole learn-
ing process is the case study. If this is poorly prepared, then the entire
process is significantly weakened.
For further description of the case method, the reader should
consult the references listed in Annex IV.
PEDAGOGICAL OBJECTIVES FOR WID CASES
There is a growing recognition within the international
development community of the importance of women's role in the development
process. Major development organizations, such as AID, The World Bank,
CIDA, and UNDP have made institutional commitments to increasing their
capability to deal effectively with the issues surrounding women in
development. The primary vehicles through which development organizations
can have an impact in this area are projects. Thus, the tasks of project
design and implementation are critical in determining that impact.
There now exists sufficient empirical evidence to conclude that
weaknesses in project design and implementation have caused adverse effects
on women, or reduced benefits accruing to them, or failed to capture fully
their contributions to projects and the development process. These project
weaknesses are a reflection of inadequacies in the skills and awareness of
the staff involved in preparing or implementing a project. These
inadequacies are not surprising because the distinctive nature of women's
role in development gives rise to a unique set of project design require-
ments. Staff, researchers, or educators need a new set of conceptual and
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analytical perspectives and skills in order to deal explicitly, effec-
tively, and efficiently with women-related issues in the spectrum of
projects in which they become involved. The objectives for the WID cases
flow from these training needs.
Specifying the learning objectives of a case study is one of the
most critical aspects of the case development process. The objectives of a
case provide guidance in the collection and presentation of the case
information. They should be delineated explicitly and clearly. If they
are left implicit or vague, the case preparation will be surrounded with
ambiguity, thereby complicating the tasks of deciding what information to
include or exclude and how to present it.
There are various types of pedagogical objectives, but they can
be grouped into three general categories:
increase conceptual understanding;
develop technical skills; or
transmit factual information.
The Women in Development (WID) case studies will generally have
objectives in each of these three categories, although particular cases
might tend to emphasize one over the others, depending on the teaching
situation and other teaching materials being used. The objectives for the
WID cases related to project design and implementation are the following:
increase an understanding of how to conceptualize the
activities of women, the determinants of those
activities, and the way the activities and determinants
should shape project design and implementation;
develop the analytical skills to systematically
categorize information on women in development, and
translate it into terms which are relevant to project
design and implementation;
transmit information which increases one's knowledge of
the situation and circumstances of women in developing
These three objectives can be given more precision or elaboration
based on the specific case study and how the case is to be used. Ideally
the specific objectives for each case should be formulated by the trainers
(case supervisors) and the casewriter.
WID CASE PREPARATION
Relationship to Objectives
An "interesting situation" has been located, and a decision has
been made to do research on it and write it up into a case study. How does
one begin? The writing of a case is an iterative process. It is of first
importance that the basic objectives of the particular case be determined.
Why is this case interesting? What is interesting about it? What does it
show in particular about women that makes it interesting? Does it show one
thing or many things? Does it show interactions among many aspects of
experience? The answers to these questions by the casewriter and
supervisor will focus the purpose of the research about the case and will
help focus the data to be collected and the ways of collecting it. As
material is collected, the original objectives should be reexamined by
writer and supervisor to see if they are still appropriate.
Relationship to Teaching Note
There is a disagreement among casewriters and teachers about the
relationship of a teaching note to a case. We believe that the teaching
note should be written in tandem with the case. This is, again, because of
the importance of the iterative process in case development. A teaching
note written while a case is being drafted will help clarify the pedagog-
ical purposes of the case and will, therefore, help the casewriter outline
and organize the case. As the case is drafted, adjustments may be called
for in the teaching note as well because each process interacts with the
other. After a case is taught, the teaching note will again need to be
revised to reflect experience with the case in the classroom.
General Procedures in Case Preparation
This section discusses some of the important features of the
case-writing process that can help new casewriters become more effective.
(1) General Description. A case is a description or record of an
actual situation. Cases range in length from ten to twenty-five pages.
They include both a textual section and a group of exhibits which present
the facts, opinions and quantitative material on which classroom discussion
will be based. Cases are not written to illustrate correct or incorrect
handling of a situation, nor are they written with an editorial bias to
imply a particular conclusion.
(2) Supervision. Case supervision is particularly important when a
number of cases is being produced for a single purpose by several different
casewriters. The content, scope, organization and orientation of all cases
must fit into an overall plan for the use of the materials, and the plan is
determined by the teacher-trainer. Supervision for case writing is
required except when the teacher is doing the case writing.
(3) Confidentiality. For the case-writing process to be successful,
the casewriter needs to learn the true facts of a situation. Information
that is essential to a case must be asked for directly. No information
should be acquired surreptitiously. At times, this may require that the
casewriter be entrusted with information which is normally available only
to a very limited number of individuals. It is important that casewriters
explain to their information sources their policies and safeguards for
treating privileged information. It is possible to disguise material in
order to preserve confidentiality and still retain the educational value of
the information. Casewriters must be scrupulous in maintaining
confidentiality of all privileged information which is entrusted to them.
(4) Elements of a Good Case. A good case brings reality into the
classroom to be worked over by the students and instructor. Because a case
is used as a substitute for a real situation, its details should be as
close to reality as possible. Therefore, obstacles to dealing with the
realities reported in the case must be minimized. An unobtrusive case
allows the student to work on the situation, not the case.
The "audience" or user of a case is the student. The facts of a
case situation must be clear to the student. The case structure--that is,
its beginning, sequence and conclusion--must make sense to the reader who
is presumed to be unfamiliar with the facts. Techniques such as reliance
on topic sentences and paragraph unity, or transitional words and phrases,
help show the reader what comes next. Students should be able to
understand and appreciate the situation in order to analyze it with the
intent of planning and carrying out action regarding the circumstances
described in the case.
A good case is well researched and well written. The casewriter
must pay attention to the selection of what to write about, to the
mechanics of language and organization, and to artistry. However, no
writing technique or artistry can make up for inadequate information.
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Casewriters must be well informed about the real situation on which they
(5) Data Gathering. WID casewriters depend on both printed material
and interviews as source material for cases. Casewriters will have to
search extensively to meet the information needs of a case. Suggestions
for particular sources of information relevant to WID cases are included in
a subsequent section. Interviewing techniques include the following:
a. Give your whole attention to the person being
b. Listen--don't talk.
c. Never argue--never give advice.
d. Listen to
what the interviewee wants to say;
what he/she does not want to say;
what he/she cannot say without help.
e. Occasionally summarize what you have heard for comment.
f. Consider everything said a personal confidence.
(6) Writing Process. From past experience with case writing, it is
possible to identify procedures for writing which are helpful in the
iterative construction of a case.
(a) Once a case has been identified, the WID casewriter should
write its preliminaries. These include:
case preview--a summary paragraph that explains where and
when the case takes place and what the focal problems
list of probable exhibits;
statement of what students are expected to learn; and
statement of the intended use of the case.
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The preliminaries provide a basis for agreement about the case between the
supervisor and the casewriter, and they identify elements that are
important for the teaching note.
(b) An outline should be written after the casewriter has
reviewed the available data and redefined the case in light of this. This
outline should amplify and organize the preview as well as give an
estimated length of the text. Once again, the written outline can provide
the means by which the supervisor and the casewriter can agree on the
content, scope, and organization of the case. The recommended outline for
WID cases is presented in a subsequent section.
(c) The purpose and content of the case must be decided. This
will affect the selection and sequencing of information. These
considerations are determined by the type of case being written.
There are three general types of cases:
specific problem cases where the problem is clearly
diagnostic cases where the problem is not very clear; and
appraisal cases with emphasis on prognosis.
(d) The orientation of these cases may be as follows:
as a springboard that poses a problem so that it leads
the discussion to the more general issues of a central
as a "booby-trap" which implies questions that are not
the central "right questions"; or
as the backbone for systematic analysis which develops
useful ways of thinking, observing, and making more
WID cases may fall into any of these three general types, but
they should be solidly oriented toward systematic analysis. The type of
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case and its orientation should be agreed upon in consultation with the
(e) Certain writing procedures have proved useful in the
preparation of cases and are now generally accepted norms:
use of past tense (cases written in the past tense retain
their currency longer);
use of active verbs (active verbs are more powerful than
passive ones unless the writer is deliberately trying to
achieve a change of pace);
exclusion of value judgments and editorializing
(casewriters report but do not judge or express
use of headings, titles and outline style to give clarity
to the presentation;
ensuring accuracy (proofread for errors, do the analysis,
and check for consistency);
rewriting (few writers are clear and accurate the first
time; three to four drafts usually are required); and
editing (get an outside editor with no experience with
the case facts and material).
The writing stage includes a number of standard decisions. These
include decisions related to content as well as presentation. Standard
procedure is to concentrate on the content in the first draft and on
methods of presentation in subsequent drafts.
References for this section include (see Annex IV):
o Bennett, John, "Writing a Case and Its Teaching Note."
o Bennett, John, "Good Writing."
o Culliton, John, "Handbook on Case Writing."
o Lenders, M. and J. Erskine, "Case Research: The Case
o Lawrence, Paul, "Preparation of Case Materials."
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Outline for WID Cases
For teaching purposes, each case study about women in development
and project design and implementation should follow a standard outline.
This will make case comparisons easier. The structure of the cases also
suggests processes for data and information collection in future project
design. The outline for WID cases should be as follows:
I. Country, Sector, and Project Background
Two or three pages of relevant information about the
history, economy, culture and political conditions in the
country are important. These comprise the context for all
project activities and have direct relevance for planning.
Data should be chosen for their relevance to the project. If
it is an education project, information should focus on
schooling systems and literacy, teacher, etc. data.
Project background may be woven into country background
or treated separately whichever works better for the case.
Project background should describe the initiative for the
project, its planning procedure and the expectations of its
planners. Actual project description comes below.
II. Context for Women
Several pages should be focused on the roles of and
context for women in the country in general and in the project
area specifically. Categories of information should include:
A. Socio-cultural perspective
B. Details of economic activities and social functions of
men and women
C. Social and economic determinants of activities
D. Access to education
Other project-relevant categories, such as information
concerning particular laws or other factors may be added.
III. Project Description
The actual project must be described with clear informa-
tion but no evaluative comment. The description should
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A. Project objectives
C. Provisions for monitoring and evaluation
E. Follow-up (if relevant)
Supporting data, tables, statistics and charts are useful
for background to case readers. Careful selection of data can
keep the case text brief. Do not, however, attach every bit
of available data. Be selective and focused on information
needed to understand the project and its impact. Use the data
you have and make up your own tables or charts for presenta-
tion if necessary to ensure relevance to the case.
Aspects of Collecting Data on Women
(1) Data Requirements. The framework (see Chapter 1 in the book)
that will be used in analysis of these cases stresses two major categories
of information: first, the social and economic activities of both women
and men in the project area, and, second, women's access to and control
over both resources and benefits.
With regard to the activity analysis, it is important to identify
both male and female activities because their relative positioning and
interrelationships will affect and be affected by the project. How one
categorizes activities is important. We suggest the following three
(a) The production of goods and services. Whenever possible,
for each type of good or service produced, the specific productive
activities carried out by women and men should be identified. For example,
in millet production in the Zander region of Niger, men clear the field;
women select the seed and plant it; both men and women weed and harvest;
women thresh; men are responsible for extended family level storage; women
are responsible for household level storage; women hand pound grain for
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family use; men sell some surplus to the government purchasing agency;
women sell or barter some surplus at the village level.
(b) The reproduction and maintenance of human capital.
Activities that are performed to produce and care for family members need
to be specified. These might include fuel and water collection, food
preparation, child care and education, health care and birthing. Although
these activities are often viewed as noneconomic and generally carry no
pecuniary remuneration, they are, in fact, essential economic functions.
They consume a scarce resource, human labor. How a project affects these
activities, and how these activities affect project implementation need to
be explicitly analyzed in case discussions.
(c) Social functions. Refer to activities performed in the
community that are part of political processes or traditional social
Identifying activities is a necessary but not sufficient step in
the data preparation for project analysis. Underlying each of these
activities is a series of socio-economic factors which determine who does
what, where and how. Of particular concern is how these factors influence
women's access to and control of resources and benefits in each of the
three major activity categories (production, reproduction and maintenance,
and social). Common categories of resources are land, labor, capital
technology, education, and political power. Access and control are
concepts that are fundamental to realizing an increased contribution from
and equity for women.
The socio-economic determinants could be categorized in numerous
ways, particularly because of their interrelationships. We suggest the
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demographic factors (including person/resource ratios and
economic conditions (including poverty levels, inflation,
income distribution, infrastructure); and
institutional structures (including the nature of
(2) Data Problems and Approaches. The scarcity and weakness of data
reflecting women's economic activities in developing countries are
generally acknowledged. The major problem is a general lack of data
disaggregated by sex. Where disaggregated data do exist they are often
problematic because of faulty construction of analytic categories such as
definitions of labor force participation which are biased against seasonal
and part-time employment or misuse of the housewife category to mask
part-time employment or unpaid family labor in agriculture and commerce.
There are also problems with data collecting procedures. One should
identify who is asking the questions and who is giving the answers.
Reliance on male heads of households for information on female economic
activities is now generally held to bias results.
In accumulating and selecting data on women for inclusion in the
case, it is important to use multiple sources of data from both the
technical literature and the women and development literature whenever
possible. Micro and macro data should be cross-checked whenever possible,
with the micro literature used as a way of understanding and evaluating the
macro. In general, it is useful to weigh sources against one another, and
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to use caution in making global statements. Material on cases can often
usefully be presented as indicative, rather than conclusive or as showing
trends rather than absolute magnitudes.
(3) Data Sources. Because the availability of regional and local
data on women is very uneven, and it often requires considerable ingenuity
to find relevant information, it is worthwhile to pursue several search
strategies simultaneously. For example, project documents, AID/Country
Development Strategy Statements (CDSS) and previous reports on technical
assistance efforts are all possible sources of information both in-country
and in Washington. It is also increasingly likely that some organization
will have supported a country study on women such as those undertaken by
AID in Nepal, Sri Lanka, Ghana, the Cameroons and Mauritania. Women's
Ministries, Commissions and Bureaus in host countries are often able to
provide information on the situation of women in the project area, and are
a valuable resource to draw on in case development.
Other donors may be sources of information either in-country or
in their general publications. UNDP, for example, has published extensive
data on women and national planning in Haiti, Indonesia, Rwanda and Syria
in Evaluation Study #3 entitled Rural Women's Participation in Development.
FAO has a computerized documentation center that can be searched with key
words related to women and women's work in rural areas.
The scholarly community has developed a series of annotated
bibliographies on Women and Development that can be useful in locating
resources (Annex I). Bibliographies and other information resources are
being generated and exchanged through a network of international research
centers which can provide a sense of what information is available in their
particular areas of expertise (Annex II).
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With the advent of Title XII and the AID Women and Development
grants to regional consortia, universities are becoming increasingly
specialized in their knowledge of women's work both in terms of geographic
area (University of Arizona/Sahelian Africa), and technical problems
(Kansas State and Florida State Farming Systems). The easiest way to
locate information for a particular project would be to be in touch with
the consortium project directors for referral to particular institutions
Macro data are used by governments and development agencies to
set priorities and develop program strategies. Although often too general
to be of direct use in project analysis, such data can serve to set the
context in which a particular project takes place.
Sources of macro data include national census data as well as
selected data on women available through donors. AID has supported a
women's data file on sixty-nine countries for nineteen variables ranging
from vital statistics and literacy to economic participation and migration.
Country-by-country data from this data set are also being made available to
Missions, and can be accessed through AID DS/DIU.
The World Bank and UNDP are cooperating in the support of
National Household Survey Capability programs in developing countries.
Fifteen developing countries have fairly regular programs of household
surveys, and another forty are struggling to develop such capability.
Donor support for these programs includes advice, training, equipment and
local costs. The contact for this effort is the Office of the Adviser on
Women in Development, The World Bank.
More information on access to these and other macro data sets and
a useful discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of the data are
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contained in "Progress Toward an AID Data Base on Women and Development"
(Biocentric, 1977) and "Report from a Workshop of Macro Data Sets for Women
and Development" (Jaquette, 1981), both available from AID/WID.
THE PREPARATION OF TEACHING NOTES
Purpose of Teaching Notes
The basic purpose of teaching notes is to provide guidance to
instructors on how the case studies can be used effectively in the
classroom. The key word is guidance. Teaching notes suggest ways of
handling a case discussion rather than dictate a correct way. Every
teacher has his or her own style of teaching, and every teaching situation
presents particular demands. This means that the case discussion has to be
adapted to those specific circumstances. One of the virtues of case
studies is their inherent flexibility to allow such adaptations.
Consequently, the teaching notes serve as an important base and departure
point for the instructor but by no means constitute a unique pedagogical
map for handling the case discussion.
The teaching note increases the efficiency of the instructor in
preparing to teach the case. It also increases the usableness of the case
because it encourages and enables instructors who have little or no
experience with case study teaching to try this method. The note also
ensures transferability; the case is not just teachable by the persons who
developed it, but rather their ideas are transmitted to others through the
note. Finally, the note serves as a quality control mechanism for the
preparation of the case study itself.
The pedagogical objectives specified in the note provide guidance
as to type and form of information to be gathered and included in the case.
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The teaching note's analysis of the case provides a check on whether the
case data are sufficient, accurate, and workable when analyzed. The note
provides a pretestt," allowing teachers to put themselves in the position
of the students. Gaps or problem areas can be identified and the case
study adjusted accordingly.
To summarize, teaching notes provide pedagogical guidance to
instructors, increase their efficiency and preparation, broaden case
usefulness, ensure transferability, and serve as a quality control
mechanism for case development.
Components of Teaching Notes
The format for a teaching note can vary but we suggest that it
consist of four components: Case Synopsis, Pedagogical Objectives, Study
Questions, Case Analysis and Teaching Plan. Each will be discussed in
(1) Case Synopsis. The note can begin with a brief (1-2 paragraphs)
summary of the case study. This should include a description of the
country and project setting, the year of occurrence and the major problems
The instructor should read the case study carefully prior to
studying the teaching note. The note is prepared with the assumption that
the teacher is completely familiar with the case and, therefore, extensive
descriptive data are not included in the note. However, some instructors
will find it useful to read the teaching note in a preliminary way before
studying the case. In this instance, the synopsis is most useful.
(2) Pedagogical Objectives. The statement of objectives is, in one
sense, the most critical element of a teaching note. Objectives provide
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the guidance and focus for the case and its analysis. The reader is
referred to the previous section which discussed objectives for WID cases.
Each teaching note should contain an explicit statement of the objectives
for that particular case.
(3) Study Questions. To assist the students in their individual
analysis of the case study, a set of questions can be formulated and
distributed to them along with the case. These questions are shaped by the
case content and the pedagogical objectives. If one wishes to emphasize,
for example, developing skills relating to the systematic categorization of
information on women's activities, then questions such as the following
could be formulated:
What are the economic, maintenance, reproductive and
social activities of the women?
How do these roles relate to those performed by men?
How is women's time allocated among these activities?
How are these activities related to one another?
To deepen the students' conceptual understanding of the women's
activities, one might use questions directed toward the underlying
What factors determine the gender-specific pattern of
How do specific economic, social, political, or
institutional factors affect women's access to or control
What are the consequences for women and the development
process of that access and control situation?
If one wished to push the students' analysis in the direction of
project design, then additional questions such as the following might be
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Has the current project design recognized the economic
roles of women?
How will the design of the project impact on the present
configuration of women's activities?
Will increased demands on one set of women's activities
be feasible given their other activities?
How will the project affect women's access to and control
Do the existing institutions have the appropriate
personnel structure to deal with women?
The foregoing study questions are, of course, only illustrative. The
questions given to students could be more precise, if you want them to
focus on a particular part of the case information or carry out a specific
type of analytical exercise. A list of study questions is not meant to be
exhaustive. Rather, it serves to provide some structure and to stimulate
the students' process of inquiry. Other questions will arise from the
students' own analysis.
(4) Case Analysis and Teaching Plan. The bulk of a teaching note
consists of the analysis of the case and suggestions as to how the plenary
discussion can be managed. These two dimensions can be integrated or
presented separately. The two are often so entwined that separation is
difficult. On the other hand, separating them may be a more comfortable
approach for casewriters who have little teaching experience and therefore
are less certain about making suggestions on classroom pedagogy. The
person who does teach the case can then use the separate analysis section
as an input into the development of his or her own teaching plan without
having to filter out the note's teaching suggestions.
The case analysis and the class discussion can be structured
around the answering of the study questions. There may well be other ways
- 23 -
to organize the analysis that seem more logical or efficient. However,
these should always also incorporate responses to the questions. In
carrying out the analysis, one should recognize that there is not
necessarily "one right answer." Students or other instructors will come up
with additional or alternative analyses and conclusions.
The note writer's task is to carry out the analysis to check
whether the information in the case study is sufficient and clear enough to
answer the questions fully. This process will often identify aspects of
the case that need editing or areas where additional information is
required. The analysis may also reveal that some existing information
should be left out of the case because it is not relevant to the analysis
and is superfluous. Information might also be removed if its absence would
force the students to carry out further analysis which would enrich the
case's learning value. What to exclude from a case study is as important
as what to include.
The casewriter should include in the teaching note information
excluded from the case but relevant to understanding the situation. This
might include a description of what happened to the project subsequent to
the case study if this is known. References might also be included to
papers or books which are relevant to understanding the main issues or
In terms of the teaching plan one must recognize that, like the
case.analysis, there is no "one right way" to teach the case. Nonetheless,
suggestions can be made as to how a discussion can be structured. Case
discussions create their own dynamic and the Socratic approach implies that
one should go with the flow of the class discussion as it unfolds.
Nonetheless, an underlying structure is important to the discussion.
- 24 -
The study questions can provide one structure for case
discussion. The sequence of the discussion is very important and can
reinforce pedagogical objectives. One should estimate the amount of time
needed for each discussion section in order to pace the discussion and
ensure that all the material is covered. Additional questions (not in
student list) can be suggested which could be used in the discussion to
force the students to dig deeper.
Special teaching techniques might be suggested. These might
include role playing, mini lectures, films, etc. depending on what seems to
fit the case.
The teaching plan should also flag those aspects of the case
where students might have particular difficulty. While this is difficult
to anticipate without having first taught the case and without knowing the
precise characteristics of the students, suggestions along these lines can
Teaching notes should not be viewed as finished products once
they are written. They, like cases, should be revised as insights are
gleaned from teaching the cases. One of the great virtues of the case
study method is that the discussion and learning process it stimulates
enables the instructor to continue to enrich the process.
- 25 -
ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHIES AND COMPUTERIZED DATA BANKS
1. American Council of Voluntary Agencies of Foreign Service, Inc. Women
A Bibliography, 1980. New York: Technical Assistance Information
200 Park Avenue South
New York, NY 10003
2. Fortmann, Louise. Tillers of the Soil and Keepers of the Hearth: A
Bibliographic Guide to Women and Rural Development. Rural Development
Committee, Cornell University Bibliographic Series, Cornell
University, Ithaca, NY, Dec. 1979.
3. Michigan State University, Non-Formal Education Information Center.
Women in Development: A Selected Annotated Bibliography and Resource
Guide. Prepared by Linda Gire Vaurus with Ron Cadieux and the Center
Institute for International Studies in Education
College of Education, Michigan State University
513 Erickson Hall
East Lansing, Michigan 48824
4. New TransCentury Secretariat for Women in Development. Women in
Development: A Resource List. 1979.
1789 Columbia Road, NW
Washington, DC 20009
5. Republique Francaise, Ministere de la Cooperation. La Femme Africaine
et Malgache, Elements Bibliographiques. Paris, 1978.
6. United Nations, Economic Commission for Africa. Annotated Bibliogra-
phies on Women and Development. The following country bibliographies
are completed or nearing completion: Kenya, Ethiopia, Cameroon, Mali,
Zambia, Botswana, Lesotho, Swaziland, Egypt. United Nations, New
7. United Nations, Economic Commission for Africa. Women and Development
in Africa: An Annotated Bibliography. Bibliography Series No. 1
United Nations, New York, 1977 (ECA/SDD/ATRCW/BIBLIOG/77).
1. FAO, Library and Documentation Division.
Via delle Terme di Caracalla
0100 Rome, Italy
2. New TransCentury Foundation. Has an extensive key worded document
collection on women and development.
1789 Columbia Road NW
Washington, DC 20009
- 26 -
INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH CENTERS, NETWORKS
Association of African Women for Research and Development (AAWORD)
B.P. 11.007 C.D. Annexe
African Training and Research Center for Women (ATRCW)
Nancy Hafkin, Information Officer
U.N. Economic Commission for Africa
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Asian and Pacific Centre for Women and Development (APCWD)
c/o APDC P.O. Box 2224
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Office of Women and Development
Department of State
Washington, DC 20523
International Research Inventory
International Section of American Home Economics Association
2010 Massachusetts Ave.
Washington, DC 20036
International Center for Research on Women
2101 L Street N.W.
Washington, DC 20087
Resources for Feminist Research
Dept. of Sociology (OISE)
252 Bloor St. West
Toronto, Ontario, Canada M55IV6
International Institute for Research and Training for the Advancement of
Office of the Assistant Secretary-General
Center for Social Development and Humanitarian Affairs
One United Nations Plaza, Room DC-1026
New York, NY 10017
Women and Food Information Network
24 Peabody Terrace #1403
Cambridge, MA 02138
WOMEN AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT COORDINATORS
OF AMERICAN UNIVERSITY CONSORTIA
Ellen Fenoglio SECID
1901 Pennsylvania Ave., NW
Washington, DC 20006
CID/WID Project Coordinator
5151 E. Broadway Suite 1500
Tucson, Arizona 85711
- 28 -
Bennett, J., "Writing a Case and Its Teaching Note," #9-376-243A.
Bennett, J., "Good Writing," #9-372-049A.
Culliton, J., "Handbook on Case Writing," 1973, #9-373-747.
Dooley, A. and W. Skinner, "Casing Case-method Methods," 1977, #9-379-108.
Gragg, C., "Because Wisdom Can't Be Told," 1951, #9-451-005.
Gragg, C., "Teachers Also Must Learn," #9-375-010.
Shapiro, B., "Case Studies for the Harvard Business School," 1975,
Corey, R., "The Use of Cases in Management Education," 1976, #9-376-240.
Hatcher, J., et al. "The Case Method: Its Philosophy and Educational
Lawrence, P., "Preparation of Case Materials," #9-451-006A.
Learned, E.P., "Reflections of a Case Method Teacher," #9-381-006.
Lender, M. and J. Erskine, "Case Research: The Casewriting Process."
Mason, C., "Note to a Beginning Case Method Teacher," #9-381-007.
Merry, R., "The Usefulness of the Case Method for Training in
Administration," 1967, #9-372-105.
Schendel, D., "Managerial Problem-Solving and the Case Method," #9-375-822.
Shapiro, B., "An Introduction to the Case Method," 1975, #9-576-031.
The articles listed above may be ordered from
Harvard Business School
Soldiers Field Station
Boston, MA 02163
To order, use the seven-digit case number given above along with the
article title and the author's name.
- 29 -
EAST JAVA FAMILY PLANNING AND NUTRITION-INCOME GENERATION PROJECT
The case initially provides background data on Indonesia which
highlights the size and density of its population, its cultural diversity,
the importance of rice production, the poverty levels, and community norms.
The emergence of the country's family planning program as a priority area
is indicated. Concern about malnutrition and program actions are also
The second section on culture and women describes the de jure
equality of men and women and also points out some of the de facto
inequalities. The economic activities of men and women are presented as
well as various factors limiting women's access and control to key
resources. The impact of technology on women's roles in these patterns is
The third section of the case describes the design and
implementation of the program which consisted of adding a credit to the
family planning and nutrition program component aimed at income generation
for women. Data on the progress of the project indicates who received the
loans, what they were used for, and possible effects on nutrition and
- 30 -
(1) To develop an Activities Analysis profile in order to
delineate the importance of specifying the gender
division of labor. (Refer to "Women in Development: A
Framework for Project Analysis," Chapter 1 in casebook.)
(2) To reveal how technology can affect the gender division
of labor with adverse consequences for women.
(3) To examine factors which affect women's access to and
control of resources.
(4) To identify how project design and implementation can
(5) To examine the desirability of a women's-only component.
(1) What are the activities that females undertake relative
to others regarding production of goods and services and
reproduction and maintenance of human resources?
(2) What factors affect women's access to and control of
resources and the gender division of labor?
(3) What are the critical elements in the design of this
(4) Evaluate the performance of the project.
(5) What recommendations, if any, would you make for the
redesign of this project?
- 31 -
CASE ANALYSIS AND TEACHING PLAN
The case discussion can be structured into five sections
corresponding to the study questions: activities analysis, access and
control, project elements, performance evaluation, and project redesign.
The case data are sufficiently rich so that students can readily
lay out the gender division of labor. Pages 5-6 and Table 9 in the
casebook are the key sources. Annex 1 to this teaching note provides the
activities profile. This information would fill one blackboard.
When the agricultural activities are being delineated and listed
on the blackboard, it is important to ask (if the students don't mention
it) whether there are any changes that are taking place in the gender
division of labor. This will lead to the impact of the introduction of the
rotary weeders and steel sickles which were used by men rather than women.
This caused significant displacement of women: 20 woman-days to 8 man-days
for the weeding and 200 woman-days to 70 man-days for harvesting. The
introduction of mechanized milling has also displaced women from their
previous hand milling activity (125 million woman-days lost per year). One
can also note that richer women work less and thus are not affected; this
highlights the need to disaggregate by class within the gender divisions.
One should ask what the impact of this displacement has been. It
has pushed women into other activities, with trading emerging as a new
major occupation (40% of women classified as small traders). The pressure
for employment or income generation is growing. This need is particularly
acute for female headed households (FHH) which constitute 16% of the total
- 32 -
and even more in the rural areas. High divorce and desertion and widower
rates give rise to this situation; 49% of these heads of households are
unable to support even themselves, let alone dependents.
In the Maintenance Activities discussion it is important to
include the financial management function. The woman dominates this
critical activity with some consultation with the husband.
Access and Control
The access and control can focus on the basic resources of
credit, land, income, labor, technology, education and political power.
Annex 2 to this note indicates the relative access and control to these
resources based on the case information. Another blackboard can be used
for this. They should also be asked as to why barriers to access exist,
e.g., lower female education was due to high opportunity costs of their
inputs to the family labor pool and a lower perceived need for education
given lower access to skilled jobs and their traditional roles as wives.
The interrelationships among those barriers should be examined, e.g., male
ownership of land leaves the women without collateral which then precludes
them from access to the formal credit channels. It is useful to have the
students draw out the distinction between the informal and formal credit
sources. The females, being blocked from formal sources, created their own
Critical Project Elements
The purpose of this section is to have,the students identify the
key elements in project design. These will become reference points for the
subsequent discussions on project performances and redesign.
- 33 -
Among the critical elements would be the following:
(1) Objectives--multiple (family planning, nutrition, income
(2) Women's component--men excluded from credit
(3) Loan eligibility criteria--family planning acceptor,
mother of child under 5, have productive skills
(4) No collateral requirement--mutual group responsibility
(5) Loan ceiling--Rp. 50,000
(6) Forced savings and capitalization--1/2 of interest
(7) Two-tiered interest rates--40% and 20% depending on loan
(8) Short-term loans--3 to 7 months
(9) Credit only--no technical assistance was given
(10) Use existing institutions for delivery system--family
planning and nutrition program staff
These elements and others could constitute another blackboard.
One can begin this discussion by asking how each of these design
elements or the way they were implemented (an important distinction)
affected project performance.
(1) Objectives--There will be discussion about whether it
made sense to fuse the three objectives and about the
merits of their relative priority. If the credit program
was to serve as a stimulus to the family planning and
nutrition objectives, then the data from Tables 12 and 13
- 34 -
in the case do not reveal concrete synergy in terms of
effects. However, the time was short, the number of
credit recipients small, and other contributory factors
more powerful. Conclusive evidence does not exist.
(2) Women's Component--This did increase females' access to
formal credit thus overcoming a traditional barrier noted
in the access and control analyses.
(3) Loan Eligibility Criteria--The family planning and
nutrition criteria were not strictly adhered to. Older
and wealthier women near the center of the village were
loan recipients. These were also the skilled women.
Thus, the poorer, less educated, more isolated, and more
fertile women were not reached. The program adminis-
trators preempted the credit for themselves.
(4) No Collateral Requirement--Repayment to date had been
100%, which in part relates to the actual recipients
being the lower credit risk portion of the women.
However, it also suggests that the loans were put to
productive use and generated surpluses.
This latter point may be overlooked by the students. One
should ask whether the loan recipients benefited. Annex
B of the case provides examples (one could assume they
are representative) of the types of loans and their
economic effects. Simple calculations reveal very high
returns for most of the projects (see Annex 3 to this
note for an example). This reveals that investments in
- 35 -
small income-generating projects can be very sound
(5) Loan Ceiling--This does ensure that no single project
will absorb all the capital. However, it also relegates
the loans to small projects with lower employment
One can ask how the uses of the loan relate to the prior
activities profile. This should draw out the fact that
none of the loans deal with rice. This may constitute a
major missed opportunity and could be due to either the
small loan size, the fact that the higher income women
don't work so much in the rice fields, or that the loan
was only for women.
(6) Forced Savings and Capitalization--This will go far
towards ensuring continuity of the program and it appears
to be working. Even the "interest" which could be used
for nutrition seems to have been siphoned off in some
instances into the capitalization process. This may
reflect the desires of the program managers and current
loan recipients rather than the actual needs, of the
(7) Two-Tier Interest Rates--This keeps a lower burden on the
smaller loan recipients. It is a redistribution subsidy
that might help those who can only mount a small economic
activity; these might tend to be poorer women.
(8) Short-Term Loans--This forces the projects mainly to
focus on working capital loans. This may forego
- 36 -
productivity increasing investments which require fixed
asset investments that could only be repaid over a longer
period. The time limits might hinder the use for crop
loans where there is a single annual harvest.
(9) Credit Only--The lack of training or technical assistance
meant that the poorer, unskilled members could not take
advantage of this new resource. The example (in Annex B)
of the one loan recipient whose chickens died because
they weren't inoculated revealed the riskiness of the
(10) Use Existing Institutions--Using the family planning-
nutrition delivery system had the advantage of an
in-place staff. It was capable of handling records,
disbursing the credit (largely to themselves), and
ensuring repayment. However, it had the disadvantage of
not reaching out to the more needy, of not having
capability for technical assistance for economic
projects, and perhaps of being overburdened by yet
another activity. No clear ties were made to the
relevant institutions, e.g., Ministry of Agriculture.
Nor was there an effort to use the informal credit
organizations as the vehicle.
.The final section of the discussion is for the students to
redesign the project to rectify whatever weaknesses they identified in the
previous project performance analysis. Depending on time availability or
- 37 -
pedagogical purpose, this final task could also be the subject of a second
session or group reports or a written analysis.
There is, of course, no "right" answer. However, any of the
proposals presented should be supported with clear arguments. There are
two proposals that might arise or should be raised. One is the women-only
aspect and the other is the fusion or separation of the income generation
component and the family planning and nutrition components. Strong cases
can be made for and against and it is important that these be aired. One
should also be sure that the students have addressed in the redesign phase
all the weaknesses that they identified in the performance analysis.
- 38 -
Production of Goods and Services
(Tec. Change-Rotary Weeder)
(MA) (FA increase due to female labor
displacement from above
Maintenance of Human Resources
Note: Parentheses indicate that the
relatively minor degree.
activity is performed but to a
- 39 -
Access & Control
- 40 -
Financial Analysis of Rabbit Project Loan
100 rabbits @ Rp. 1,000 100,000
20 rabbits @ Rp. 500 10,000
Cages (estimated) 9,000
Immunization (estimated) 1,000
Feed (grass gathered by children)
Interest 40% on Rp. 50,000 loan 20,000
Misc. costs 10,000
Total costs 50,000
Return on Investment: 100% in five months plus original investment of
20 rabbits intact and Rp. 10,000 in savings (1/2 of interest). On a cash
flow basis, repaying the loan and selling off the 20 original rabbits at
Rp. 1,000, she would have a net cash flow of Rp. 30,000, or an ROI of 60%.
- 41 -
TANZANIA: THE ARUSHA PLANNING AND VILLAGE DEVELOPMENT PROJECT
In 1972, the Tanzanian government made a decision to decentralize
governmental administration. To do this, it sought funds to initiate a
Regional Integrated Development Program (RIDEP) in each of its 20 regions.
USAID funded the RIDEP in Arusha Region called the Arusha Planning and
Village Development Project (APVDP) for a cost of $21 million beginning in
late 1979 and running through mid-1983.
The Arusha Region has six districts, three of which are
agricultural and three of which have a livestock economy. There are 500
villages in the region and a population of 500,000 people. The purpose of
APVDP was to improve the planning capability of the region, districts and
villages and their abilities to implement and evaluate development efforts.
This effort was focused on: 1) improving planning; 2) improving
agricultural production; 3) promoting other economic activities especially
rural industries; and 4) improving the infrastructure, especially road and
As is true for Tanzania generally, no specific planning was
undertaken for women's involvement in APVDP because it was assumed that
everyone would benefit equally. In fact, a study of the project in 1981
showed that women were not involved in, or even aware of, a great deal of
the project's activities. Nor were they receiving many benefits from it.
- 42 -
1. To illustrate the extreme imbalance between male and
female economic activities in the district through
2. To illustrate the relevance of Access & Control analysis,
and to show the importance of cultural tradition in access
3. To show that decentralization effort may run into cultural
tradition very strongly and possibly more than centrally
4. To illustrate that, when there are strongly cultural
inequalities between men and women, a "gender blind"
project will not affect both equally but differentially.
1. In the Arusha Region what activities do women and men do
in the production of goods and services and in household
2. What is the nature of women's and men's access to and
control over resources that are important in production in
3. What are the principal determinants of these patterns of
activities and of access and control?
- 43 -
4. To what extent have women participated in the project?
What project design features influence that participation?
What effect did this have on project performance?
5. What adjustments, if any, would you suggest for the
project design or implementation to make it more
CASE ANALYSIS AND TEACHING PLAN
The Activity Analysis should be the first task. It is largely
derivable from Tables 3, 4, and 5 in the case. Annex 1 to this teaching
note presents a summarized view. If the students are quite familiar with
constructing the gender disaggregated activities profile, the instructor
could put Annex 1 on the blackboard prior to class and use that as a
starting point. The task is to then derive conclusions from the patterns
revealed by the profile. In this instance it is clear that the women do
the overwhelming portion of the physical labor. Men specialize in the
livestock area, but even there the women handle key tasks of milking,
manure cleaning, and forage gathering. The Technical Paper "Women's
Productivity in Agricultural Systems" (Chapter 2 in the casebook) provides
a broader perspective from which to examine the Tanzanian pattern.
The next step in the discussion is to focus the access and
control dimensions of the situation. This is particularly important in
this case because the contrasts are so striking. One can start by asking
how the country's leader perceives this issue. President Neyere's state-
ment shows that he fully recognizes the major economic role of women and
the necessity to create equality for them as a prerequisite to the
- 44 -
country's realization of its full economic potential. In effect, he is
sustaining the hypothesis that social equity is a necessary condition for
economic progress. His words had also been translated into laws guaran-
teeing women's economic rights.
The first contrast comes when one matches this de jure equality
with the de facto inequality. In practice, the laws are not upheld or are
interpreted differently. The students should lay out an access and control
profile. Annex 2 to this note presents a possible version of this using
resource categories of land, labor, equipment, capital, technology,
political power, education and income flows. The second contrast is the
clearly inferior position of the women compared to the men. The third
contrast is that women have high access to land, labor, and capital but
very low control. They are largely excluded from much of the decision
making. As the comments from the men indicate, control over assets,
particularly cattle, are central to maintaining male dominance. Thus, the
gender division of economic activity is one determinant of control.
Traditional social norms is another factor. A third is the lower level of
education of women and the lack of fluency in Kiswahili.
Within this general pattern, however, it is important to note
some exceptions. In education the traditional pattern may be changing. At
the primary level almost half the students are girls, while the percentage
falls as one goes higher into the system (secondary, 30%; senior, 20%;
university, 15%) reflecting the current results of past inequities. In the
political arena the UWT does provide a forum for the women to participate
in without the male dominance. Their participation was active there in
contrast to their reticence to speak in the male-dominated Councils and
Assemblies. The UWT was the least well-funded of the party's activities
- 45 -
and the focus was on home production and maintenance activities (nutrition,
health, home management, etc.), reflecting a low priority and narrow view
of the women's role, but it still constituted a nontraditional vehicle for
mobilizing women. Additionally, the women did have some spheres of
economic independence through their small businesses (beermaking,
handicrafts, bananas, cloth, etc.) and to some extent through the small
livestock. In these they exercised control over the decision making and
the resources generated.
The focus should next be placed on the project and the query
should be about the degree of women's participation in the project, why,
and with what impact on the project. The level of participation was very
low. The basic flaw was the assumption that a gender blind approach would
have gender neutral effects. As one decentralizes, the impact of gender
biases through customs and economic roles becomes more powerful and results
in uneven effects across the sexes. The women did not comment on the
projects in the council meetings which should not have been surprising
given traditional patterns. By using that institution as the consultative
and decision-making forum, the project precluded meaningful female
participation. The project groups that were formed did not include women
and most of the women were not even aware that the APVDP opportunities were
available to them. Their low access to information impeded their
mobilization. Although the project initially insisted that the women
attend the meetings for water project, when attendance dropped they
proceeded anyway. The resultant mislocation of the water sites is a clear
negative consequence due to the lack of the women's participation.
The project was also not able to elicit the women's voluntary
labor to the degree expected. The main exceptions were the maize mill and
- 46 -
the barley plots in which the women took great interest and made major
labor inputs. Both of these involved activities of key economic value to
the women. The maize grinding could save the women considerable time by
replacing the in-home activity and they are clearly time constrained. The
barley might offer them a new source of outside income. In general, the
project probably missed several significant project opportunities by not
viewing the spectrum of economic activities that the women actually engage
in or could undertake. The males discouraged any project that moved out of
the home and into the economic arena whereby women might gain greater
independence from them.
The final part of the discussion should involve recommended
changes in the design or implementation of the project. Clearly the
project redesign process must shift from the previous gender blind approach
to a gender conscious approach. The students may be frustrated by the
strength and pervasiveness of the male domination, but they should push to
identify opportunity points. There is a need to elicit the women's ideas
and desires, but this requires a nontraditional forum. It may be that the
UWT might be reoriented to serve that purpose. It is an approved
structure, the women actively speak out, and there is a precedent for
starting projects. Perhaps strengthening the technical assistance through
that vehicle would enable more women to participate and to have their
project be more economically viable. It is also likely that by promoting
types of projects which are traditionally in the women's economic sphere
would also enhance their participation. The project might also attempt to
identify those women who have demonstrated a greater propensity to
participate actively. There is some indication that female heads of
- 47 -
household might be a target group. They might form a nucleus for starting
projects, perhaps even through a separate project component.
One could also contemplate starting a cultural reorientation
process for the male leaders, but that is a long run undertaking. For the
women, classes in Kiswahili might be encouraged to remove one barrier from
their participation in the traditional village meetings. Informal child
care arrangements might be another action area to enable the women to
participate in expanded political and economic activities.
One could end the discussion by asking for general guidelines on
designing decentralization projects such that women's participation is
garnered so as to benefit them and the attainment of the project goals.
- 48 -
FC MC MA
HUMAN RESOURCE PRODUCTION & MAINTENANCE
- 49 -
Access & Control (Over Resources and Benefits)
OWNS/CONTROLS ACCESS/USES DERIVES BENEFITS FROM
Land MA FA
Labor FA FA
Equipment MA MA
Capital (FA) MA FA MA FA MA
Political Power MA MA ?
Education (FA) MA MA MA
Income Flows MA (FA) MA (FA) MA
Other work and responsibilities
Institutions and legal arrangements
Parentheses indicate some access, control or benefit but a relatively minor
- 50 -
KENYA: EGERTON COLLEGE
In Kenya, 85% of the labor force is employed in agriculture and
80% of the total population lives on smallholdings under 8 hectares.
Eight-eight percent of Kenyan women live in rural areas and 85-90% of these
work on family holdings. The smallholder share of gross marketed
production is increasing (it hit 51% in 1976 from 20% in 1960; see Table 3
in case), but productivity of this sector lags behind that of large farms
The government of Kenya (GOK) is committed to increasing the
productivity of small farms and understands that programs to assist
smallholders must differ substantially from those that have been developed
over the years to support large farm production. Egerton College trains
the majority of middle-level agricultural extension staff who are
responsible for planning and supervising the contract extension work
through which small farmers can be reached. After studies showed that a
major shortfall could be expected in trained agricultural personnel at this
middle level, the GOK sought support to expand Egerton College, and AID
agreed to do so. The project intended to expand Egerton College from 686
students to 1,632 and to improve its curriculum and research to meet the
special needs and circumstances of small farmers.
The project is an institution building project. Understanding
that the intent of the GOK in building Egerton College into a stronger
- 51 -
institution is one element of its program to increase smallholder farm
productivity, and understanding the central role that women perform in
small farming in rural Kenya, the question arises as to whether and how the
expansion of the college and the tailoring of its curriculum to the needs
of small farmers can and should take account of the fact that most small
farmers are women.
1. To provide an exercise in gender based activity analysis
and to introduce additional subtlety into the analysis by
examining the forces that affect gender roles in this
society, such as custom, ethnic group, location, family
status, as well as changing demographic patterns.
2. To expose the processes by which access to education
involves the passage of a series of successive gates and
gatekeepers thus reinforcing patterns of access and
exclusion that already exist in a society.
3. To analyze the relationships that exist between an effort
at institution building in a given area and the ultimate
goals which the institution is supposed to serve.
4. To provide an exercise in project redesign in institution
building in the education sector where composition of the
student body and curriculum content are both issues that
a) affect the success or failure of the institution in
- 52 -
achieving its ultimate goal; and b) affect the inclusion
or exclusion of women in the development process.
1. In rural Kenya, what are the activities that women
undertake relative to others in the production of goods
and services and in household production?
2. What resources have the most significant impact on women's
productivity and how do you assess women's access to and
control over these resources?
3. Analyze the critical elements in.the project to expand
Egerton College in terms of their contribution to the
GOK's goal of increasing smallholder productivity.
4. What adjustments, if any, would you make to this project
to enhance its effectiveness in affecting small farm
CASE SYNOPSIS AND TEACHING PLAN
The teaching should begin with the activity analysis (see Annex A
attached). If this case is the first at a workshop, then this should be
done with some care and the factors that determine work roles should be
brought out as well. These include age, tribal or ethnic grouping, family
status, location and demographic trends.
If another case has been taught, one may get the class to chart
women's and men's activities, comparing these to those of the previous
cases) and thus drawing out the factors that influence work roles. Or,
- 53 -
the teacher may pre-set the activities on the blackboard and ask the class
to think about what is there, critique and correct it, and then analyze the
factors that determine roles. The focus here, in any of these approaches,
should be on the understanding that all women's roles are not the same
across an entire country. Because Egerton College trains agricultural
workers who work in all parts of Kenya rather than being regionally
focused, this variation is particularly important in this case.
The major discussion of this case should be on the project
itself, and its relationship to the overarching GOK goal of increasing
small farmer productivity. The case offers a number of points for
examining critical elements of institution building projects in affecting
the integration of women into development. Because there is no single line
of women's involvement, this case is not simple. Therefore, the sequencing
of the teaching framework is very important.
Two themes underlie the teaching of an institution building case:
(1) Where are the points in this institution where it would be
appropriate to take women's roles into account in order to
ensure greater overall project effectiveness and greater
inclusion of women into the development process?
(2) Where are the points in the institution where the issues
of access to resources and benefits arise in particular as
these affect women's project integration?
The teacher should be explicit about the focus on institution
building, and in order to direct the discussion might put on one board the
- 54 -
GOK goal: to increase small farmer productivity
AID assistance $$, TA
Egerton College Expansion
-Agricultural extension workers
Small farmer productivity
The point to make is that the GOK, in order to achieve its goals, asked AID
for dollar and technical assistance to expand Egerton College, from which
trained agricultural extension workers are graduated, who in turn, work
with small farmers in order to increase their productivity. This simple
pictorial representation of the chain helps students see the elements in
context and allows the teacher to refer back to this board as the
There are two main elements of the Egerton College expansion that
deserve exploration and one subsidiary one to explore if time allows. The
first is the students; the second is the curriculum; and the third is the
participant training of faculty in the U.S. Other aspects of the project
include technical assistance in administration and construction of
facilities. These may come into the discussion but are not especially
fruitful lines of discussion on their own.
- 55 -
The teacher should begin by asking the class to consider the ways
in which the composition of the student body, the recruitment of students,
and the types of people they are might affect ultimate project goals. This
discussion will bring out the unresolvable issue of whether it is necessary
to have female extension workers in order to reach female small farmers.
There is some evidence in the case that this has been important in the past
and is becoming less so--implying that it still has some importance. One
might discuss possible regional variation in this.
Behind the issue of whether female workers are better at reaching
women farmers is the more fundamental issue of access of trained
agricultural personnel to the ultimate target group of small farmers. The
students may be asked to think about the characteristics, in addition to
gender, that will influence the effectiveness of the Egerton College
graduates in reaching small farmers. At this point, the students will
point out that these graduates are primarily planners and administrators;
they supervise others who do the majority of the direct contact work with
the farmers. (EC graduates spend 30% of their time in direct contact; 70%
in planning, supervision and administration.)
A fact not in the case but discovered subsequently is that the EC
students went on strike a few years ago demanding wages commensurate with
those received by University of Nairobi graduates. This may be brought
into the discussion of characteristics that would be ideal in the students.
Having laid out what would be the ideal student composition, the
class can then examine what we know about the composition of EC classes and
the recruitment processes. This allows a critique of the project, and
suggestions for redesign.
- 56 -
Regarding curriculum the discussion can begin with an examination
of the types of things that should be included in the curriculum of such an
institution in order to strengthen its role in achieving the project goal.
Another fact not included in the case: EC students in certain courses are
taken to different parts of the country for field work so that they can
actually observe and be involved in farming different land types.
The teacher may ask what we do and don't know about the EC
curriculum, as affected by the project. The class will lack precise
knowledge of course content but they do know that the number of diploma
areas has increased markedly and that this represents increased
specialization. One could ask them to make a rough assessment of these
diploma areas and their relevance to the activities of small farmers as
evidenced in the activities analysis. This is the opportunity to remind
the class of who the small farmers are (women) and what they do (activity
analysis). Because there is no single answer to the benefits or costs of
the trend toward specialization, the class should explore both
possibilities, and be asked to defend the positions they choose.
Finally, the teacher might pull out the chart (Annex B) showing
the enrollments by gender in the different diploma courses and ask the
class to comment on trends or biases they see in this. They will find
concentrations of women in certain fields and men in others and the
discussion should focus on the areas where there is greatest likelihood of
increasing productivity and having an impact on smallholdings.
If time permits, the class may think about the relevance of MSc
and Ph.D training in the U.S. to the teaching competence of the EC faculty
as it affects student ability to affect small farmer productivity. Again,
- 57 -
while there will not be agreement, students should be asked to defend the
positions they take on this important decision issue.
The teacher should be sure to summarize the discussion of this
case since it has so many points included in it. The summary should make
the connections between the decision to build an institution as one step in
achieving another development goal (increased small farmer productivity)
and should remind the students of the elements of that institution where
the effects might be most important. The issues for decision in each of
these areas should be reviewed and the basis for deciding (ultimate access
to and impact on small farmers who are mostly women) should be brought out
- 58 -
KENYA: EGERTON COLLEGE
Production of Goods and Services
Food Crops (some sales)
cotton, weeding & harvesting
Food prep & processing
MA House building, mtce.
(FA) C MA
- 59 -
KENYA: EGERTON COLLEGE
No. of No. of
Diploma Area Students Students
General Agriculture 94 20
Agricultural Education 101 31
Soil and Water Engineering 84 5
Farm Power and Machinery 85 1
Animal Husbandry 131 17
Animal Health 84 6
Farm Management 121 16
Horticulture 61 34
Dairy Technology 67 9
Food Science and Technology 36 12
Agriculture and Food Marketing 33 5
Agriculture and Home Economics 0 101
Wildlife Management 33 4
Ranch Management 50 0
Range Management 115 0
Forestry 54 2
- 60 -
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC: PROGRAM FOR DEVELOPMENT OF MICRO-ENTERPRISES
The case describes the evolution of a project aimed at helping
through credit and management assistance urban micro-enterprises in the
Dominican Republic. The pressures from large and growing unemployment
provide the rationale for assisting the small scale enterprise (SSE)
sector. The sector is described in terms of type of enterprise and gender
profile. The context for women both within the sector and the larger
society is described. The design and implementation experience for the
project are laid out.
1. To identify and understand gender patterns in the SSE
2. To analyze barriers facing urban-based, small-scale
3. To identify how project design and implementation factors
can adversely affect women's participation.
4. To provide and exercise in project redesign to enhance
economic performance through increased participation of
- 61 -
1. What gender patterns exist in the SSE sector and wage
labor in the Dominican Republic and why?
2. How effective has the project been in attaining the
participation of women?
3. What factors have affected this participation rate?
4. Should the project increase female participation from the
standpoint of enhancing the attainment of the project's
5. If one wished to increase such participation, what changes
would you recommend in project design or implementation?
CASE ANALYSIS AND TEACHING PLAN
This case is a companion of the Banco Industrial del Peru case
which deals with a banking institution lending to SSEs in rural areas (see
Teaching Note in Chapter 7). The Dominican Republic case provides a useful
comparison given its use of a nonbank credit dispensing organization and
its urban orientation. Although we will not make an explicit comparative
analysis in this teaching note, we do suggest that instructors consider
posing the discussion question for similarities and differences between the
two projects as a way of extending the students' thought processes. We
have taught the two cases both separately as well as jointly; either
approach is feasible and productive. The choice depends on the specific
circumstances and objectives facing the instructor. The students should
also read in conjunction with this case Chapter 4 in the casebook: "Small
Scale Enterprise and Women." The case discussion can basically follow the
- 62 -
There are clearly demarcated divisions by gender in both wage
labor and SSEs. Tables 8 and 9 in the case lay out the employment pattern.
It reveals that women are primarily (42%) concentrated in the service area,
largely engaged as domestics in homes, hotels, restaurants, or other
businesses. Most (61%) of the migrants from rural areas enter this
category of work. These jobs require the lowest skills and 72% of the
women in them are illiterate and mostly from low income classes. More
educated middle and upper class working women are found in the office
(16%), teacher (11%), and health/nursing (5%) categories. These are
traditional, socially approved areas for female employment. Women have a
10% participation in the "Machine Operators and Artisans" category. This
primarily consists of seamstresses in the free trade zone clothing
manufacturers. Males totally dominate transportation and construction
which may reflect social norms. Male rates are double for business and
professions and significantly higher for salespersons, retail operators and
Table 7 provides a gender disaggregated typology of the SSE
sector. The division is clear with only two areas (enclosed stands and
neighborhood food stores) having both male and female entrepreneurs. The
question to pose is what caused this pattern. An examination of the female
operations would suggest two possibilities: first, the skills involved are
extensions of the skills learned in the performance of the household
production activities, e.g., food preparation, sewing, hair styling; and
second, low female mobility due to child care or other home-based
activities e.g., fixed or semi-fixed selling locations. The male SSEs tend
to be much more mobile, particularly through the use of the tricycles.
- 63 -
There is also the suggestion that the physical exertion required also
limited the participation of women.
The project attained differential participation rates of women in
the two different components of the project. In the micro-enterprises
component 20% of the loan recipients were women. All of these were
seamstresses. Within the 80% of the male run enterprises 11% of the
employees were female. In the solidarity group component 17% received
working capital (as opposed to equipment) loans; of these, 75% were women,
thus constituting 13% of this component's loans. The female rates are
obviously far below the male rates. They are also less than the 32% (Table
3) rate of female participation in the urban work force and the probably
even higher rate of women in the SSE sector.
The question to be posed is why. One could point to the social
and institutional explanatory factors which reduce female participation in
the economy in general (refer to "Context for Women" section of case).
These are relevant, but of greater interest for our pedagogical purposes
are any aspects of project identification, design, and implementation that
may have contributed to the low participation. These are the elements that
are under the control of the project personnel.
1. Project Identification
The Dominican Republic project arose out of the PISCES project
and in both instances the objectives were gender blind. The PISCES
objectives were to find low cost mechanisms for channeling credit to small
scale enterprises. The Dominican Republic project objectives were to
- 64 -
increase income among the poor, to create new jobs, and to strengthen
precarious jobs. Reaching women was not a conscious goal. An implicit,
although not consciously recognized, assumption behind gender blind
objectives is that the project will be gender neutral in its impact, that
is the project will not favor (or injure) one gender over another.
Obviously, this condition did not hold in the Dominican Republic. In fact,
in the initial feasibility study, commerce was excluded under the assump-
tion that it would use loans to increase inventory but not jobs. This
identification step thereby excluded many women engaged in small commerce.
The failure to create a gender disaggregated profile of the SSE sector
prevented the project analysts from seeing the exclusionary nature of the
2. Project Design
The two components, micro-enterprises and solidarity groups and
the use of credit and management assistance were reasonable approaches to
SSEs. They recognized problems common to most SSEs regardless of gender.
However, the selection of the target SSEs did have a gender bias. For the
solidarity groups the emphasis on the "tricicleros" automatically excluded
women. This choice may have emerged because of high visibility of the
"tricicleros," the clear opportunity to have positive income effects
through equipment loans, and the pressure on ACCION to show quick positive
results. Similarly, the female micro-enterprises chosen as credit
recipients are all seamstresses, suggesting a failure to see or reach the
other types of female SSEs. Another design problem was in the purchase
order procedures. These proved rigid, and constrained the women from
managing their inventories more flexibly in response to shifting market
- 65 -
conditions. A finer disaggregation of the project beneficiaries would have
revealed the differences in operating circumstances and the need to have
more flexible procedures.
3. Project Implementation
The staff was all male initially. From the comments of the women
in the solidarity group, one could conclude that they felt isolated and
without anyone to talk to, and the one female coordinator hired was not
assigned to these groups. Her assignment was in a neighborhood where
problems emerged due to some political actions by a local politician;
subsequently, however, this neighborhood produced several women's groups,
thus suggesting the desirability of using female staff.
Desirability of Participation
As with the Peru case it is useful to ask whether the attainment
of the Dominican Republic project's objectives would be enhanced by
increasing the participation of women. In terms of increasing the income
among the poor, women's participation would seem desirable because they
seem to be among the poorest. Their unemployment rate is double the
males', they receive lower wages than males', and many are heads of
household. Their jobs are at least as "precarious" as males. Male SSEs do
not appear to be significant employers of female labor (11%) and so
increasing female wage labor may also require strengthening female SSEs.
Evidence is not clear about creditworthiness, but the male "tricicleros"
have a 33% late payment rate. Evidence from other countries (including
Peru) suggests that women are better repayers. Furthermore, the expansion
- 66 -
into a second city may depend on tending more effectively to the needs of
women SSEs because their demand for credit reportedly exceeded the males'.
The final question is how they would change the project to elicit
greater female participation. The students will focus on various
dimensions and the discussion will largely carry itself. Among the points
that might be covered are staffing (hire more women, sensitize and train
male staff), procedures (e.g., the purchase orders), loan type (working
capital vs. equipment), information system (gender disaggregated analysis
of potential and actual clients). One could raise again the issue of a
women's-only project or component vs. the integrated approach. Lastly, one
could elevate the discussion to a more general level and ask the students
to formulate guidelines for project analysis for women in SSE projects.
- 67 -
PERU: BANCO INDUSTRIAL DEL PERU
CREDIT FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL ENTERPRISE
The case describes how the Industrial Bank of Peru transformed
its lending portfolio from exclusively large industrial loans to include
significant lending to small scale rural enterprises. The issue is raised
as to the extent that this new orientation has resulted in increased credit
to women. To address this issue the case presents gender disaggregated
data on the bank's loans. It also describes the bank's procedures and the
loan experiences of some small scale business people. The general context
for women and for small scale rural enterprises is also set forth in the
1. To identify and understand gender patterns in the small
scale enterprise sector.
2. To analyze barriers to lending to small scale
businesswomen in rural towns and areas.
3. To demonstrate the applicability at the sector level of
the "Framework for Project Analysis" presented in Chapter
1 of the case and readings book.
4. To provide an exercise in project redesign to enhance
economic performance through increased participation of
- 68 -
1. How well has the bank done in reaching women through its
rural enterprise lending program?
2. What internal (bank procedures) and external (societal
and in small scale enterprise sector) factors have
affected its performance?
3. Should the bank increase its lending to women from the
standpoint of project effectiveness?
4. If one decided to increase lending to women, how might
this be achieved?
CASE ANALYSIS AND TEACHING PLAN
It is suggested that this case be taught after students have
become familiar with the Framework for Analysis and have applied the
activity analysis and access and control analysis techniques to other case
studies. The students should also read Chapter 4 in the casebook: "Small
Scale Enterprise and Women." With that background the discussion can focus
immediately on the project rather than going through those analyses
explicitly. Rather, to sustain their positions in analyzing the project,
the students will have to draw on the gender analysis techniques. The case
discussion can follow the study questions. As indicated in the Chapter 6
teaching note, the Peru case can be taught in conjunction with the
Dominican Republic case.
Bank Lending to Women
Exhibits 13 and 14 in the case provide the basic data for a
gender profile of the bank's portfolio:
- 69 -
(1) Percent of loans to women--1980 (13%), 1981 (19%), 1982 (11%).
(2) Size of loans to women vs. men--1980 (.52), 1981 (.78), 1982
(3) The bigger the loan, the fewer are the women borrowers.
The analysis reveals that women have been reached, but in
proportions quite inferior to men. The next question to pursue is: why?
Determinants of Gender Profile of Credits
The determinants are found in the country's and the small scale
enterprise (SSE) sector's gender structure as well as in the bank's own
procedures. One starting point would be to ask: where does the bank lend
its money? (Described in text.) This could be followed by: where are
women found in the economy? (Exhibit 2.) This reveals the following:
Bank Lending Female Employment
This comparison reveals that the bank's sectoral allocation is in
sharp contrast with the sectoral distribution of women. This incongruency
is one explanation for the lower percentage of female borrowers.
- 70 -
The logical next question is: why are women where they are?
i.e., how do we explain sectoral gender patterns? Annex 1 in the case
provides even more detailed profiles of gender roles in the two towns of
Mayobamba and Chiuchin. One of the conclusions that can be drawn is that
women enter into jobs and start small enterprises in activities that employ
skills they have exercised within the household production and maintenance
activities, e.g., restaurants, rooming houses, laundries, bakeries, clothes
making, trading. Pushing this further, one can explore why this occurs.
This could lead into a useful discussion of access to resources
(education--see Exhibits 5, 6, 7, technology, capital, etc.).
The discussion can next focus on the bank's procedures. It is
useful to first ask how effective they were in shifting their portfolio
toward the SSE sector. The case reveals that they were very successful in
adopting a new strategy and altering their organizational structure and
administrative procedures in order to reach the small scale entrepreneurs.
They decreased collateral requirements, simplified administrative
procedures, set up an extensive branch office network, used heavy
promotion, offered low interest rates, and provided some technical
assistance. The result was a dramatic increase in SSE loans. The changes
clearly addressed many of the barriers facing small scale entrepreneurs,
male or female. The issue is whether they failed to address female
To pursue this, one can encourage the students to review the five
borrower experiences as well as other borrower-related data presented in
the case. Among the points that may be raised are the following: (1) 71%
of the borrowers are in the cities; women may be less mobile than men due
to their household activities; (2) women had less access to the technical
- 71 -
assistance due to their household duties (Rosa sent her husband instead);
(3) collateral requirements may be excessive for women given male-dominated
property patterns; (4) tellers apparently treated the poorer women
negatively (revealing both class and gender discrimination); (5) the bank
has only a small percentage of women as professionals; (6) the bank had no
explicit goal of reaching women and did not monitor the gender dimension of
their portfolio. What may also emerge is the barrier that the government
bureaucracy places on the entrepreneurs in order to get licenses for their
businesses prior to qualifying for credit. It may be useful to think of
these barriers in terms of "gates and gatekeepers" between the women and
the resources they need.
Desirability of Lending to Women
Before moving on to the issue of overcoming whatever barriers
have been identified, it is important to confront the basic issue of
whether the SSE credit project's performance will be enhanced by increasing
lending to women. This is a way to test the economic justification hypoth-
esis, i.e., does it contribute to the attainment of the development bank's
objectives? These objectives include extending loans that generate
economic growth and are repaid to be lent again and that in the process
enhance the well-being of the rural small enterprise sector and the finan-
cial viability of the bank. The evidence in the case, although fragmen-
tary, indicates that women have a better repayment rate than men and are
more serious about their loans. Furthermore, they constitute a growth
opportunity for the bank because they are underrepresented in the port-
folio. In addition, women have higher unemployment rates than men. These
factors suggest that it makes good business and development sense to
- 72 -
increase lending to women. This may be a good example of women's increased
participation making a good project even better. It might be observed,
however, that women entrepreneurs tend to generate fewer jobs and fewer
nonfamily jobs than male entrepreneurs. From a development impact stand-
point this might suggest that increased lending to men would be preferable.
A discussion as to why this phenomenon exists would point back toward the
sectors that men are operating in and the size of loans they are receiving.
This in turn could raise the issue of the bank's facilitating female access
to these opportunity areas, which leads to the final discussion area.
The students will readily present various suggestions to increase
lending to women. Among these will be different promotion techniques,
alternative scheduling or location of technical assistance and loan
processing to overcome mobility constraints, changes in regulations
governing collateral and licensing regulations, increased emphasis on
different sectors where female SSEs are more common, greater hiring of
female employees, and a gender-based information system to gather and
analyze the data on this market segment. One could raise the issue of
whether there should be a separate women's lending component or quotas.
Regardless of the outcome of that discussion, it is important to leave a
message about the necessity of making the gender variable visible and
managing it as an explicit and critical component in project design and
- 73 -
INDIA: GUJARAT MEDIUM IRRIGATION PROJECT
This case describes a traditional production system undergoing
change in a densely populated society where class is an important
determinant of access to resources. Increasing the available irrigation
water permits both intensification of current production, and shifts in
cropping patterns to make the best use of the new resource. Choices about
water use have differing effects on different groups by gender and by
class. To address this issue, the case presents both normative and
empirical data on gender activities, much of it by class. It also
describes the rationale and nature of the government of India's commitment
to irrigated agriculture, and gives technical data on the total system and
the Fatawadi subproject.
1. To identify and understand the interaction of gender and
class characteristics of some agricultural systems.
2. To illustrate the multiple changes induced by irrigation
water, and their relationship to gender issues.
3. To provide an exercise in understanding interrelation-
ships between water management, agronomy, economics, and
social organizations in an irrigated production system.
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1. What is the gender division of labor and control over
resources, and how does it differ by class and caste?
2. The introduction of a resource as productive as water
will undoubtedly cause changes in many parts of the
system. What changes are planned? What others do you
3. Do you anticipate that any of them will affect the gender
patterns of work and resource control? What differences
will be seen by caste and class?
4. If you were Ellen Treacy, what issues would you raise
when the team began to discuss possible changes in
cropping systems and changing water allocation patterns
to support the new cropping patterns? What would you
5. Aside from cropping patterns, what other issues would you
raise in the team discussions?
CASE ANALYSIS AND TEACHING PLAN
It is suggested that this case be taught after students have
become familiar with the Activity Analysis and the Access and Control
Analysis through other case studies. If they have not previously done so,
they should also read Chapter 2, "Women's Productivity in Agricultural
Systems: Implications for Project Design." The case discussion can be
structured into segments corresponding to the study questions; the present
gender patterns by class, the dimensions of change, the effects of change
- 75 -
on gender patterns, the effects of different crop choices on women's
income, and other issues.
Present Gender Activities by Class
Since analysis of project effects will be dependent on under-
standing class and caste differences, it is suggested that the session
begin by establishing the class and gender activity profile, and access and
control profile. Materials for the Activity Analysis can be quickly found
in Tables 7 and 11 in the case, and the last two pages of the case. The
information on access and control will take a little more digging, as it is
scattered throughout the case.
Important points to note include the following:
Very little unpaid field work is done by farm wives,
except at peaks of labor demand such as rice trans-
planting, wheat and rice harvesting, and cotton picking,
where their participation is traditional. Poorer women
work for wages during most of the rice production cycle,
at the end of the wheat cycle, and in one community they
are the major labor force in harvesting and separating
cotton. Such employment is limited. If a woman worked
all possible days in a rice production cycle, she would
have only thirty days' employment. Other crops offer
In contrast to field crop production, dairy production
provides substantial cash flow throughout the year, which
is at least partially under the control of women. The
- 76 -
case is not explicit about whether landless households
own cattle, but they note that "poor" women do, and sell
more of their milk, because they can't afford to drink as
much of it. As a point of information, it is possible to
get a bank loan for a milch cow, and the Women's Self
Help Union of Ahmenabad has been active in assisting even
landless women to procure loans in this region.
Women of all classes are responsible for reproduction and
maintenance of human capital. Provision of domestic
water is obviously very time-consuming in the dry months.
In contrast to some systems, domestic water for village
tanks has priority over agricultural water when there is
a shortage. Yet, the physical facilities for laundry,
bathing and animal watering are often not well designed
The instructor may wish to raise the question of who is respon-
sible for this, and to draw out that it is the local Panchayat, where older
women hold largely ceremonial roles. It is worthwhile to draw out a
discussion of institutional power as a resource, since access to water is
controlled by institutions which are now subject to examination and change.
Annexes 1 and 2 to this note provide examples of the blackboard layout.
Dimensions of Change
The AID project simply funds the irrigation infrastructure, but
several other changes are being funded by The World Bank, including major
changes in the way the water is managed and distributed, and a complete
- 77 -
overhaul of the extension system. The case projects an increase of wheat
production to 9% of the command area, and of rice to 26%. It also suggests
a rise in cash crops, particularly cotton. All of this is intended to
produce higher production, higher farm incomes, and greater rural employ-
ment. One odd note is struck by discussion of an impact evaluation which
found that further cultivation of rice would be detrimental to the system,
due to the high salinity of the soils. It recommended that crops more
resistant to salinity need to be introduced. It is an obvious glitch in
the system, and it would be useful to discuss it in relation to what the
new extension service will extend, and what crops will receive preference
in water allocation.
Influence of Differing Crop Choices on Gender Control of Resources
By now, the discussion has laid out the gender and class roles in
a traditional arid production system and changes that are anticipated as
the result of a series of projects. Putting the two together, what effect
will the different cropping choices have on different women?
Water used on field crops will benefit poor women through
increased employment, with rice providing the most.
High proportions of families have cattle, which are
clearly profitable, but increased dairying is constrained
in some areas by lack of drinking water and fodder in the
dry season. Fodder, which is saline-resistant, could be
grown under irrigation, and either used or sold. Such a
change would involve changes in the water allocation
patterns controlled by the Gujarat Irrigation department.
- 78 -
It could be either encouraged or discouraged by the new
extension system, depending on what crops they were
charged with extending. It could add to women's work
load, and their income, or as the income became larger,
they could lose control of it. They do not control the
institutional structure of the co-op, and seem to have no
formal ways to influence it. The milk co-ops are a
relatively new and rapidly spreading phenomenon which is
supported out of a different ministry than either
irrigation or agriculture. Coordination necessary to
increase the use of water for fodder and cattle might be
complicated, but the economics seem to be in its favor.
One thing that the team should do is gather more informa-
tion about the relative profitability of the different
crops, and the suitability of fodder as a replacement of
some of the rice production. It will also be important to
pull out of the discussion some consideration of which
households will benefit and which may lose. Exhibit 8
throws some light on how widely cattle ownership is
distributed, but there is no clear answer. This also
bears further investigation.
Some groups may end with the previous discussion; others may wish
to explore issues in addition to cropping patterns. Among these may be:
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- The presence of treated sewage in the river water filling
the tanks used for bathing and cleaning household
- The charge of the new extension system; what information
to what clients?
- The absence of effective female representation on the
irrigation advisory board, and the Panchayat, which deals
with domestic water, and the village tanks.
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GUJARAT IRRIGATION: ACTIVITY ANALYSIS
Agriculture Large Farmers Med/Small Farmers Laborers
Rice (Paddy) MA MA (FA) MA FA
Wheat MA (FA) MA MA (FA)
Cotton MA MA FA
Dairy FA FA
Reproduction and Maintenance of Human Capital
Food prep FA FA FA
provision FA FA FA
Laundry cleaning FA FA FA
fuel collection FA FA FA
child care FA FC FA FC FA FC
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GUJARAT IRRIGATION: ACCESS AND CONTROL
Village tanks for animals
Low + Hi
Low + Hi
Low Low + Hi
Low + Hi
Wage labor opportunities
Family Income Streams
Proceeds from field crops
(see marketing line
Proceeds from dairy
Proceeds from wage labor
Hi or Low
+ Low to med by class
Hi or Low
Hi or Low
In Panchayat -
re: village tanks
In Irrigation Board -
re: irrigation water
In dairy co-ops
government domestic vs.
irrigation water allocats
Low + Hi
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KENYA: KITUI ARID AND SEMI-ARID LANDS PROJECT
A great deal of Kenya's rural land area has been classified as
arid or semi-arid lands (ASALs), and droughts are a regular problem.
Population pressures are increasing on these lands causing increasing soil
and water deterioration. The GOK has made the development of the ASALs a
priority in its Fourth Five Year Plan (1979-1983) and AID, along with other
international donors, has agreed to fund an ASAL development project.
The area of AID's ASAL project is Kitui. The major focus of the
project is on research and data collection about land deterioration but it
includes an action component in a pilot area of the Kitui District. The
action is centered on land reclamation and water conservation as a
necessary part of the district's strategy to increase crop and livestock
The budgetary arrangements for the project placed the GOK
contribution at 31% of which 75% was in imputed labor costs of volunteers.
In Kitui there are many volunteer groups, called "mwethya," of which about
80% are women. Women, however, are already overtaxed in time with their
household and crop production. In addition, seasonal labor requirements
change their availability over the year and as men have increasingly
migrated to cities for wage labor, their work responsibilities for cash
crops and livestock are increasing. Time, therefore, is a serious
constraint. Even while this is true, Kenya's economy has suffered from
unfavorable foreign trade balances so that the GOK has increased its
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reliance on voluntary labor in its share of project costs. All activities
of the project are behind schedule.
1. To provide an exercise in Activity Analysis, particularly
introducing the factors of change, both seasonal, and over
time due to migration of men and land deterioration.
2. To analyze and criticize project design as it succeeds or
fails in relating inputs to outputs, viz. expectations of
women's labor in return for increased water security.
3. To provide an exercise in project redesign in rural areas
where labor is relatively occupied albeit at low
1. What are the activities of women and men in the Kitui
District in the production of goods and services and
2. What factors affect these activities?
b. over time?
3. What were the principal components of the Kitui District
ASAL pilot project that affected these work roles?
4. What, if anything, did women stand to gain from
involvement in the Kitui pilot project? How well does
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their potential gain match up with their contribution to
5. What recommendations, if any, would you make for either
the design or implementation of the Kitui pilot project to
ensure its greater effectiveness?
CASE ANALYSIS AND TEACHING PLAN
This case may best be taught fairly early in a workshop because
of the richness in its information about activities done by women and men
and the ways in which these change by seasons, hard times, and in response
to larger demographic and economic trends. Because the project is so far
behind schedule and there is, therefore, very little information about
actual implementation, the later analysis must focus on design rather than
One can begin the plenary discussion with a charting of the
Activity Analysis (see Annex 1). The instructor should introduce the
notion of change, if the students do not do so, and discuss how these roles
change with the seasons, and how they are changing over the long run with
changing demographic patterns and land deterioration. In the discussion of
the dry season, one should note the construction and ceremonies activities.
Since much of the pilot project activities are construction activities,
this will be relevant in the design discussion below.
Regarding the long term factors, the outmigration of men should
receive attention. Tables 6 and 7 in the case give information about this.
In addition, we have information about the relative reliance in rural
families on income from crops and farming and off-farm activities (58% of
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income is in-kind from farming activity; 42% from off-farm activities,
In moving to the discussion of the Kitui pilot project, one
should focus on the pilot component which fits within the larger technical
advice and research components. Students should be asked to describe in as
much detail as they can the intentions of the pilot component. Major
involvement of local people, particularly as volunteer
construction of dams, catchments, ditches for water
retention and distribution;
field terracing to preserve topsoil and retain water;
implements and tools were to be supplied to groups of
volunteers who undertook the construction projects
(different sets of tools were to go to different groups so
that their comparative effectiveness could be assessed);
demonstration plots were selected on 350 acres of the
Better Living Institute in Kitui (this land was superior
in quality and potential to most of that in the district);
training courses in land use planning and soil and water
conservation for 55 people from the local area;
training for others in the Ministry of Water Development,
Ministry of Transport and Communications and the Survey of
Kenya to support the technical and data collection aspects
of the project.
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Students should be asked to assess these design elements based on
what they know of the area. Points that might be made here include:
relative quality of land of the demonstration plots as
compared to the land the people are using in general;
condition of women in the area (low literacy, high child
mortality rates, high disease rates e.g., see Table 1);
relative predominance of female headed households;
time as a major constraint for women on whom work depended
(delayed completion of project components shown in Table
11 may be used here).
If the students do not mention it, the teacher should bring up
the fact that women are expected to supply labor now in the expectation of
future increased water (helping with their time problems) and increased
productivity from use of the implements supplied through the project. In
consideration of the project design, those elements that address women's
work issues should be brought out:
supply of tools and implements;
potential training though it is not specified that women
will participate and their literacy rates may be an
the future availability of water and the fact that it is
women's work to fetch it.
Regarding project redesign, students should be asked to propose
changes in project design that address the points they have made above. In
particular they should be asked to come up with ideas for methods of easing
the time constraint of women's volunteer work (such as payment with food,
seasonal scheduling, explicit inclusion in training, etc.).
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Production of Goods
Child Care FA
Food Prep FA
*Increases in the dry season.