• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Purpose of the guide
 Overview
 Access to WID funds
 Funding options
 Project descriptions
 Unsolicited proposals
 Information and support














Group Title: User's guide. Office of Women in Development. Agency for International Development
Title: User's guide
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00081136/00001
 Material Information
Title: User's guide
Physical Description: 44 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- Agency for International Development. -- Office of Women in Development
Publisher: USAID, Office of Women in Development
Place of Publication: S.l
Publication Date: 1991
 Subjects
Subject: Economic development projects   ( lcsh )
Agricultural development projects   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 37-44).
Statement of Responsibility: Office of Women in Development, Agency for International Development.
General Note: "Fall, 1991."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00081136
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 40615153

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Purpose of the guide
        Page 1
    Overview
        Page 2
    Access to WID funds
        Page 3
    Funding options
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Project descriptions
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Unsolicited proposals
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
    Information and support
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
Full Text













USER'S GUIDE


OFFICE OF WOMEN IN DEVELOPMENT
AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT


FALL, 1991








TABLE OF CONTENTS




I. Purpose of the Guide ............................................... 1

II. O verview ................................ ................. ...... 2

III. Access to W ID Funds ............................................... 3

A. General Guidelines for WID-Funded Activities .......................... 3

B. A.I.D. Mission and Bureau Access to WID Assistance .................... 4

1. Funding O options ............................................ 4

2. Project Descriptions .......................................... 6

C. Unsolicited Proposals .......................................... 19

IV. Information and Support ....................... ................... 23

A. W ID Office Staff .............................. ................ 23

B. W ID O officers ................................................. 25

C. Information .................................................. 33

1. Overview of Information Services ................. ............... 33

2. Women in Development Publications Ust .......................... 35










I. Purpose of the Guide


This User's Guide is intended to inform people about the resources available for
helping the United States Agency for International Development (A.I.D.) administer
its bilateral assistance activities to fulfill its Women in Development Mission.

The following sections will clarify the role of the Office of Women in Development
(WID). They will inform the reader about the services it offers to address gender
issues and to help assure that women benefit from, participate in and contribute to
the total development effort thereby strengthening the effort and assuring more
choice and freedom to half the world's human resource base.

As there are a host of organizations, institutions and individuals employing a variety
of means for affecting international development, both inside and outside A.I.D., this
document attempts to make "user friendly" a sometimes complex process. It
provides a very brief overview of the Agency's mandate, gives information on
activities that are entirely or partially funded by the WID Office, and describes the
range of information and support services available through the Office.

This guide will evolve with use based on the Office's perceptions and the reader's
constant and professional input and feedback. It is updated annually.







II. Overview


The Office of Women in Development (WID) assists the Agency for International
Development in the development, implementation, and evaluation of policies, programs and
projects that facilitate women's full participation in, contribution to, and benefit from the
economies and societies in which they live. The Office manages funds to assist Missions in
the field as well as Bureaus and Offices in A.I.D./Washington to institutionalize gender
considerations into their development activities.

To concentrate staff and resources for maximum impact, the WID Office focuses on four
sectors: agriculture, private enterprise, education, and environment and natural resources.

The Office provides a range of services to Missions and Bureaus to facilitate further
integration of gender considerations into all Agency strategies, policies, programs, and
projects. These services include: training, technical assistance, applied research, and
information and communications.

The importance of appropriate attention to gender issues will continue to be stressed at
A.I.D. Knowledgeable personnel in the Missions and Bureaus are beginning to provide
strong new leadership in addressing WID issues at all stages of the program and project
cycles. The WID Office will strengthen systems for monitoring progress, improving staff skills
and knowledge, and evaluating impact.

The U.S. Agency for Intemational Development's policy on Women in Development is
derived from what is generally known as the 1973 "Percy Amendment" to section 113 of the
Foreign Assistance Act. The Percy Amendment required that U.S. bilateral assistance "be
administered to give particular attention to programs, projects, and activities that contribute
to integrating women into the national economies of developing countries, thus improving
their status and assisting the total development effort." The 1982 A.I.D. Policy Paper on WID
states that:

Research from the last decade portrays a fairly consistent pattern of findings that, in most
developing countries, females differ from men in their:

* access to and control over productive resources;

* stakes in development outcomes;

* responses to incentives introduced to encourage development.

Briefly stated, the constraints which women face .n the task of self- and therefore national-
development are often different constraints than those men face.

Analyzing and addressing these constraints, realizing potentials and building on
opportunities, is the focus of A.I.D.'s WID program.









III. Access to WID Funds


This section of the guide focuses on the services and resources available from the WID
Office to A.I.D. Missions and Bureaus. Others interested in requesting WID funds through
submission of unsolicited proposals should review this information, but should refer to
section III.C. for more specific procedural guidance.

A. General Guidelines For WID-Funded Activities

Proposed activities must:
1. Support the overall goal to assist the Agency to develop, implement, monitor and
evaluate policies, programs and projects that facilitate women's full participation
in, contribution to, and benefit from the economies and societies in which they
live.

2. Be categorized under one or more of the following sectors:
agriculture
private enterprise, including both formal and informal, small- and micro-scale
enterprises
education
environment and natural resources
other (activities in other sectors will be considered if their linkage to these WID
Office-targeted areas of emphasis can be clearly demonstrated)

3.' Be encompassed within one or more of the following types of services:
applied research and analysis
technical assistance
training
information dissemination and communication

Proposed activities must be initiated, supported by, and/or contribute to programs of
A.I.D. field Missions, Regional Offices, and/or A.I.D./Washington Bureaus.

Low priority will be given to activities that are most appropriately supported through
existing project funds; i.e., activities that should not require infusion of supplemental
WID Office monies.

Proposals should provide information that will allow them to be evaluated on the
basis of the following criteria:

1. enhance integration of WID into Mission activities;
2. indicate that Missions, Regional Offices and/or A.I.D./Washington Bureaus will
assume much of the management responsibility;
3. demonstrate that the activity will be replicable self-sustaining, and cost-effective;
and
4. verify both institutional capacity and WID expertise of the implementing
organization.








B. A.I.D. Mission and Bureau Access to WID Assistance


Mission and Bureau personnel frequently call on the Office of Women in
Development for assistance when addressing gender issues in programs and
projects. When considering WID assistance, Missions and Bureaus should keep in
mind the Agency's funding cycle and team preparation time. The timely provision of
assistance also depends on the type of Mission funding: current year, bilateral, and
non-bilateral. Non-bilateral, current year funds are suggested when a quick response
is required. The use of bilateral funds necessitates cost negotiations that often result
in a slower response time and a delay in implementation of the scope of work.

Inquiries and requests should be addressed to WID Office staff identified in section
IV.A. of this guide.

1. Funding Options

Funding options for WID assistance range from full funding provided by the
USAID Mission or Bureau to full funding provided by the Office of Women in
Development. The following list describes each of the six possible funding
approaches.

When selecting from the options listed below, please keep in mind that all
requests for assistance must complement the Office of Women in Development
strategy and must be used to "supplement and encourage additional spending for
women and expansion of development activities... not as a substitute for other
A.I.D. funds that benefit women's development".

USAIDs/Bureaus may buy-in to existing WID Office contracts to finance
activities/services. WID can provide a dollar-to-dollar funding match.


For example, a field Mission requests WID Office collaboration in
conducting a needs assessment and in designing and implementing
a training workshop and follow-on technical assistance activity aimed
at building skills and capacity to address gender issues among
technical staff and their Host Country Counterparts. The Mission
provides $37,500 of its Project Development and Support funds to
cost-share the total effort through a buy-in to the GENESYS contract.
The WID Office provides another $37,500 from its matching funds in
the GENESYS project toward the total estimated cost of $75,000.



USAIDs/Bureaus may buy-in for WID Office assistance to other central or
regional contracts with which the WID Office has (or can develop) a working
relationship to finance activities or services. The WID Office will provide a
dollar-to-dollar funding match via a matching buy-in to the contract.




















* USAIDs/Bureaus can leverage WID matching funds to support assistance
through central or regional projects by providing local costs through local
contract or grant mechanisms. The WID Office can provide its matching funds
either through:

buy-ins to Mission projects/grants or,

buy-ins to central technical support projects


For example, the Mission in Mali needed to strengthen efforts to
improve girls' access to formal education. The Mission funded local
costs and local staff for this initiative. The WID Office matched
Mission investment through a buy-in to ABEL which was assisting
the Mission on its overall Basic Education program. The WID buy-in
provided gender expertise to focus on girls' education issues and
improve the whole project.


* A new contract mechanism can be created for USAIDs/Bureaus and WID to
share resources in support of a purchase, assistance, or activities.
Mechanisms include IQCs, Purchase Orders,. Grant Agreements, etc.


For example, an Office in a Central Bureau collaborates with the WID
Office to finance a Purchase Order of $23,000 to develop a video
and accompanying brochure documenting the role gender analysis
and gender-sensitive program design plays in efforts to develop
effective agro-forestry efforts. Half of the Purchase Order, $11,500,
is provided by the Central Bureau Office's budget and the other half
by the WID Office.


* USAIDs and Bureaus may buy-in to existing WID Office contracts even if the
buy-in does not fit the matching criteria. Such activities, fully funded by the


For example, USAID/Jakarta wants to evaluate its Financial
Institutions Development Project. The Mission buys in to the GEMINI
Project and simultaneously requests matching funds from the WID
Office. The WID Office, in turn, buys in to GEMINI and specifies that
its funds are to be used to match, on a dollar for dollar basis, the
USAID/Jakarta buy-in amount.






USAID or Bureau, benefit from the quick response time made possible through the use of
existing contracts.


For example, a regional bureau or USAID would like to organize a
conference to define regional research needs and develop a
research agenda that is sensitive to gender concerns. The USAID
can buy-in to the GENESYS contract through which they will have
access to sector specialists trained in gender sensitive research
methodologies.



SFull funding may be provided by WID under existing contracts in special
circumstances. Due to limited core funds in the WID Office, this is a rare
occurrence.


For example, the WID Office has identified an area in which gender-
sensitive program design examples are lacking in an aspect of its
private enterprise development strategy. A USAID is about to
embark on development of a program for promoting, say, non-
traditional exports through the private sector and is putting together
a team to produce a concept paper as part of a Request for
Proposal. The WID Office Regional Liaison, after discussions with
the Africa Bureau's WID Working Group and the field Mission's
Program Development Officer, recommends adding an expert in
gender and trade to the USAID's team. The WID Office fully finances
this person from its core funds under the GENESYS or PEDS II
project.


2. Project Descriptions

Following are descriptions of mechanisms for matched funding WID assistance.
WID Office contracts and cooperative agreements as well as Central Bureau
technical support contracts with strong gender expertise are described. These
offer technical services on gcnctdr issues and WID initiatives to A.I.D. Bureaus,
Offices and Missions. These services can be accessed through a variety of
funding options described in section B.1. above.

The WID Office is willing to consider and explore new approaches and
mechanisms for cost sharing support for WID activities. Please contact the WID
Office for any assistance you require that will contribute to WID goals in A.I.D.
even if none of the current mechanisms fits your needs precisely.

The office maintains an annual "general matching fund" to support USAID and
Bureau gender-related activities. These funds can be used in any of the ways








described in section B.1., to buy-in to the contracts described in this section, or in any
mechanism Missions may have available.

Funds are provided to USAIDs/Bureaus on a 1 to 1 match basis. Requests will be
considered for activities that enhance the integration of WID into USAID/Bureau activities;
provide specific research or data-gathering activities that address the long-term goals of its
WID Action Plan; train USAID/Bureau staff; and meet general technical assistance activities.
Bureaus may request matching funds under this category as long as the activity is identified
as specifically enhancing the integration of gender-related activities in USAID programs and
projects.











PROJECT TITLE

CONTRACT
NUMBER

PROJECT
PURPOSE

DESCRIPTION
OF PROJECT
















DURATION

REGION

FUNDS


CONTRACTOR


AID/W PROJECT
MANAGER

WID CONTACT


ABEL Advancing Basic Education and Literacy


DPE-5832-Z-00-9032-00


Supports activities to improve educational quality in developing
countries and to encourage more efficient use of sector resources.

WID Office buy-in to the S&T/ED project. Assists governments and
USAIDs in the design and implementation of basic education
programs. Draws on the tools, lessons learned, and research &
evidence accumulated over the past three decades; these resources
will be adapted to country-specific conditions as A.I.D. designs,
implements, and evaluates new projects aimed at boosting school &
effectiveness. Assistance is offered at three levels: (1) policy dialogue,
sector assessment, and adjustment within central government; (2) nuts
and bolts management between the central ministry and local schools;
and (3) school and classroom-level practices, teaching technologies,
and materials that directly affect pupil learning. Short and long-term
assistance is provided to governments and USAIDs for technical and
managerial assistance for basic education efforts; design and
implementation of pilot projects, research, and implementation of
training for capacity building within education ministries and local
schools. ABEL emphasizes increasing girls' participation and
persistence in basic education.

10/89 9/94

Worldwide

$200,000 WID funds currently in contract to match buy-ins by USAID or
Bureaus. More available on request.

Academy for Educational Development and Creative Associates
International, Inc.

Jim Hoxeng, AID/S&T/ED Room 600, SA-18, (703) 875-4620
Chloe O'Gara, AID/WID Room 3725A-NS, (202) 647-3992

Lynellyn Long, Room 3725A-NS, (202) 647-3992







PROJECT TITLE

CONTRACT
NUMBER

PROJECT
PURPOSE



DESCRIPTION
OF PROJECT










DURATION

REGION

FUNDS


CONTRACTOR

AID/W PROJECT
MANAGER

WID CONTACT


AMIS Agricultural Marketing Improvement Strategies


DHR-5447-Z-00-7074-00


To provide research and technical assistance for: (1) diagnosing
marketing system constraints, (2) conducting applied research on
marketing system problems, and (3) pilot-testing innovations to reduce
or eliminate marketing constraints.

WID Office buy-in to the S&T/RD Project. The WID buy-in will focus on
dynamic factors affecting women's participation in particular
commodity sub-systems, on understanding the Institutional,
organizational and managerial elements that comprise marketing
systems, and on use of the existing data base, an Inventory of
Innovations successfully implemented, to address constraints faced by
women in the marketing of agricultural commodities. AMIS will
incorporate a Women in Development marketing specialist into four
Rapid Appraisals, and conduct two applied research activities,
emphasizing the reduction or elimination of constraints faced by
women in agricultural commodity marketing systems.

10/89 9/93

Worldwide

$20,000 WID funds currently in project to match USAID or bureau
buy-ins. Additional WID matching buy-ins possible on request.

Abt Associates, Inc.

Tom Mehen, S&T/RD/DA, Room 606 D, SA-18, (703) 875-4004
Ron Grosz, AID/WID, Room 3725A-NS, (202) 647-3992

Edgar Ariza-Nino, Room 3725-NS, (202) 647-3992








PROJECT TITLE

CONTRACT
NUMBER

PROJECT
PURPOSE



DESCRIPTION
OF PROJECT








DURATION

REGION

FUNDS


CONTRACTOR

AID/W PROJECT
MANAGER

WID CONTACT


Bureau of Census (BUCEN) Gender Disaggregated Data Service

To be determined


WID Office buy-in to S&T/POP PASA (inter-agency agreement) with
BUCEN. To support AID/WID in assisting USAIDs and AID/W bureaus
and offices to use gender disaggregated data in monitoring and
evaluating A.I.D.'s work in developing countries.

WID Office buy-in to S&T/POP PASA (inter-agency agreement) with
BUCEN. A data analytical support service will make available, in a
variety of formats, critical gender disaggregated data. A gender
specialist at BUCEN will integrate gender considerations in data
collection and analysis and training at BUCEN, serve at BUCEN as
liaison and resource person for A.I.D./WID, supporting A.I.D.'s effort on
the gender disaggregation of data and indicators, particularly CDIE's.
The gender specialist will also coordinate with similar efforts of other
agencies and donors.

To be determined

Worldwide

WID support for gender specialist on core staff. WID funds available
on request to match USAID/Bureau buy-ins.

US Bureau of the Census (BUCEN)


Chloe O'Gara, Room 3725A-NS, (202) 647-3992


Mari Clark, Room 3725A-NS, (202) 647-3992








PROJECT TITLE

CONTRACT
NUMBER

PROJECT
PURPOSE


DESCRIPTION
OF PROJECT











DURATION

REGION

FUNDS

CONTRACTOR

AID/W PROJECT
MANAGER

WID CONTACT


CAER Consulting Assistance in Economic Policy Reform

PDC-0095-C-00-9053-00


To obtain economic consultant and advisory services that enhance
A.I.D.'s capacity to introduce and maintain appropriate economic
policies in developing nations.

WID Office buy-in to PPC/EA Project. Provides assistance to USAIDs
and Bureaus in obtaining information required for the improvement in
the policy reform context of A.I.D. assistance activities (both those
involving policy dialogue and assistance flows of interest, specifically
relationships between economic performance, and the interaction of
economic and political markets) and how changes in the internal and
external environments facing particular countries, regions, and sectors
result from or indicate the need for economic policy reform, etc.
A.I.D./WID will focus its task orders on the social dimensions of policy
reform. This implies study of negative effects on vulnerable groups
and positive impacts on labor productivity particularly that of women in
key sectors, such as non-traditional exports.

9/89 9/92

Worldwide

$200,000 in WID funds available to match Mission or Bureau buy-ins.

Harvard Institute for Intemational Development


Tim Seims, AID/WID, Room 3725A-NS, (202) 647-3992


Edgar Ariza-Nino, Room 3725A-NS, (202) 647-3992








PROJECT TITLE

CONTRACT
NUMBER

PROJECT
PURPOSE




DESCRIPTION
OF PROJECT








DURATION

REGION

FUNDS


CONTRACTOR

AID/W PROJECT
MANAGER

WID CONTACT


ECOGEN/SARSA Ecology, Community Organization and Gender

DHR-5452-A-00-9083-00


To observe and analyze the gender-based division of labor, indigenous
knowledge, resource use and access, and participation in community
institutions with respect to natural resource management; to design
methodological and analytical techniques that include gender variables
into NRM projects.

WID Office buy-in to the S&T/RD Project. ECOGEN offers collaborative
research, training, and policy analysis to (1) improve the management
of natural resources through the analysis of gender roles; (2) create
models to include gender analysis in program and project design,
management, and evaluation; (3) consider gender perspectives in
policy formulations and planning methodologies for resource
management; and (4) provide those involved in developing strategies
for natural resource management with the rationale and tools for
carrying out gender analysis.

To be determined

Worldwide

Core financing for gender expertise by A.I.D./WID; additional WID funds
available on request to match USAID/Bureau buy-ins.

Clark University and Virginia Polytechnic University

Ron Grosz, AID/WID, Room 3725A-NS, (202) 647-3992


Rosalie Husinga Norem, Room 3725A-NS, (202) 647-3992\







PROJECT TITLE

CONTRACT
NUMBER

PROJECT
PURPOSE





DESCRIPTION
OF PROJECT














DURATION

REGION

FUNDS


CONTRACTOR


AID/W PROJECT'
MANAGER

WID CONTACT


GATP General Agricultural Training Program


DH R-0000-Z-00-0026-00


Supports Historically Black Colleges and Universities' (HBCUs') 1890
Land Grant institution efforts to (a) incorporate analysis and discussion
of gender issues in courses taken by A.I.D. trainees, and (b) create
activities which will enhance success rates for women A.I.D. students
building careers in agriculture/natural resources, thereby enhancing
development of women professionals.

WID Office buy-in to the S&T/OIT Program. One phase of this project
creates a program to attract a larger number of women A.I.D. trainees
to 1890s, and to support and sustain them while in training, preparing
them to return to leadership roles in agriculture in their countries. A
second phase of the project expands the number of courses used by
all A.I.D. trainees at 1890s which incorporate materials and information
designed to enhance students' understanding of gender issues and
their ability to carry out analyses, develop policies and implement
programs which will appropriately recognize and address issues in
which gender differences are important. This effort includes: (a) A
workshop on the topic to be attended by key faculty of the 1890s
which will be held in fall '91. (b) Development of case
studies/examples and related instructional materials in several key
areas to be used/distributed at the workshop. (c) Publication of
workshop output as a guide/manual for faculty.

7/91 8/93

Worldwide

$83,650 AID/WID core funds, availability of up to $50,000 matching
funds to match USAID/Bureau buy-ins.

Consortium for Intemational Development and subcontractor
Virginia State University


Ron Grosz, AID/WID, Room 3725-NS, (202) 647-3992


Ron Grosz, Room 3725-NS, (202) 647-3992








PROJECT TITLE


CONTRACT
NUMBER

PROJECT
PURPOSE



DESCRIPTION
OF PROJECT









DURATION

REGION

FUNDS

CONTRACTOR

AID/W PROJECT
MANAGER

WID CONTACT


GEMINI Growth and Equity through Microenterprise Investment and
Institutions

DHR-5448-0-00-9080-00


To enhance the effectiveness of microenterprise assistance efforts that
A.I.D. and other organizations carry out by providing research and
technical services that advance the state of knowledge about
microenterprise development.

WID Office buy-in to the S&T/RD/EED Project. GEMINI provides
assistance in microenterprise development through three major
categories of activities: (1) Economic Research and Sub-Sector
Studies including financial and policy analysis; (2) Project Design and
Evaluation including institutional assessment, design of credit and
non-financial assistance systems as well as design of an impact
evaluation plan for A.I.D.; and (3) Organizational Development
including technical assistance in management training to implementing
agencies. The WID Office funds sponsor activities that integrate
gender concerns into the GEMINI agenda.

10/89 9/94, estimated.

Worldwide

WID funds available on request to match USAID/Bureau buy-ins.

Development Alternatives, Inc.

Beth Rhyne, APRE/SMI, Room 3214-NS, (202) 647-2727
Chloe O'Gara, AID/WID, Room 3725A-NS, (202) 647-3992

Tulin Pulley, Room 3725A-NS, (202) 647-3992







PROJECT TITLE

CONTRACT
NUMBER

PROJECT
PURPOSE


DESCRIPTION
OF PROJECT









DURATION

REGION

FUNDS



CONTRACTOR


AID/W PROJECT
MANAGER

WID CONTACT


GENESYS Gender in Economic and Social Systems


PDC-0100-Z-00-9044-00


This WID Office project provides support to USAIDs and Bureaus
through technical assistance, research, training efforts, and information
dissemination/communications activities.

This WID Office project provides (1) technical assistance for activities
requiring WID expertise (e.g., strategic planning, program and project
design, implementation and/or evaluation); (2) training efforts which
include design, production and delivery to assist A.I.D. to
institutionalize systems and procedures for addressing gender issues in
policies, programs and projects; (3) research to analyze WID issues in
both the formal and informal sectors and the economic contributions of
women in developing nations; and (4) information dissemination and
communication activities, as may be required to support A.I.D.'s WID
Program.

10/89 9/94 (3-year project with a 2-year option)

Worldwide

Core financing by WID; WID matching funds available in contract to
match USAID/Bureau buy-ins up to $200,000. Larger buy-ins and WID
match must be assessed on a case-by-case basis.

The Futures Group and subcontractors Management Systems
International and Development Alternatives, Inc.


Martin Hewitt, AID/WID, Room 3725A-NS, (202) 647-3995


Martin Hewitt, Room 3725A-NS, (202) 647-3995










PROJECT TITLE

CONTRACT
NUMBER

PROJECT
PURPOSE




DESCRIPTION
OF PROJECT



DURATION

REGION

FUNDS



CONTRACTOR

AID/W PROJECT
MANAGER

WID CONTACT


PEDS II Private Enterprise Development Support Project II

PDC-2028-Z-00-7186-00


To provide private sector technical services to USAIDs particularly in
the development of comprehensive private sector strategies and
programs, business climate assessments, and policy reform studies.
Will also assist with private sector activities in agriculture, health,
human resources, and energy sectors.

WID Office buy-in to the PRE Bureau. AID/WID has provided funds to
mobilize technical services to integrate gender concerns or develop
WID components in USAID private sector program and project design,
implementation and evaluations, and training activities.

Present through 9/92

Worldwide

Full funding available up to $89,000 from WID core funds. USAIDs and
Bureaus may request matching WID monies to perform gender-related
activities with a buy-in to the PEDS II contract.

Ernst & Young

Carol Grigsby, AID/APRE/EM, Room 3208-NS, (202) 647-7474
Tim Seims, AID/WID, Room 3725A-NS, (202) 647-3992

Tulin Pulley or Edgar Ariza-Nino, Room 3725A-NS, (202) 647-3992\






PROJECT TITLE


CONTRACT
NUMBER

PROJECT
PURPOSE


DESCRIPTION
OF PROJECT









DURATION

REGION

FUNDS


CONTRACTOR

AID/W PROJECT
MANAGER

WID CONTACT


Technical Assistance for Gender Analysis in Strategic Development
Projects

To be determined


To increase the effectiveness of host country women through
appropriate use of in-field gender analysis and syntheses of findings in
project design and implementation.

This cooperative agreement with the Consortium for International
Development (CID) provides (1) state of the art papers and
monographs, and extensive bibliographies on major research areas; (2)
research-based information and insights relevant to policy dialogue;
and (3) substantive generalizations about key Women in Development
issues. The Project Director will respond to requests to define terms of
reference in countries or regions. Project activities will follow a
rigorous planning and data collection/analysis/synthesis process
tailored to respond adequately and cost effectively to bilateral or
regional USAID requests and needs.

7/91 6/94

Worldwide

Core financing by AID/WID; $200,000 of WID funds available in
Cooperative Agreement to match USAID/Bureau buy-ins.

Consortium for International Development (CID)

Martin Hewitt, AID/WID Room 3725A-NS, (202) 647-3992


Martin Hewitt or Rosalie Husinga Norem, Room 3725A-NS, (202)
647-3992








C. Unsolicited Proposals


A limited number of proposals from non-A.I.D. sources will be funded by the WID Office
during fiscal year 1992. Proposals should include specifics about how the proposed work
will contribute to the following:

1. The implementation of the policies and programs of A.I.D.

2. The knowledge base about gender issues in development related to the WID office
priority sectors.

3. Generalizations which can contribute to policy dialogue guidelines in other
countries or regions.

4. The development of training materials for WID.

If proposed activities do not contribute to all of the above, the proposal should present a
clear rationale for omission.

The WID Office priority areas of program emphasis are Basic Education, Natural Resources
and the Environment, Agriculture, and Private Sector Development. Funding decisions will
give priority to proposals which focus on these areas, with highest priority to proposals
which respond to the following foci within each sector.

Basic Education

Assessments at national and local levels (only) of constraints to girls' access.

Gender issues in defining quality of education.

Linkages of girls' education to employment and to other outcomes (tracer studies,
ethnographic research, etc.).

Effects of preprimary schooling and development programs on girls' access to
primary schooling.

Natural Resources and the Environment

Assessment of gender roles in integrated watershed/coastal zone
management planning and development, with an analysis of possible gender-
linked policy incentive differences.

Gender issues in the identification of environmental health problems and causes.

The impact of ecotourism development on employment opportunities for
males and females.

Gender-linked differences among water resource stakeholders.







* The importance of gender roles in household-level energy use.


Agriculture

Gender-differentiated impacts of agricultural sector policy reform, including
nutritional status.

Gender-differentiated assessment of economic opportunities in the
agricultural sector. In particular, studies of the institutional, economic and
social factors which condition entry into cash cropping and agribusiness.

Monitoring and evaluation of the effect of improved agricultural practices on
intrahousehold decision-making and resource allocation.

Assessment of how land tenure affects women's crop choices, income,
investments, farming practices, and their use rights over land.

Studies and innovative programs which address constraints to women's
access to credit.

Private Sector Development

Studies or projects that assess, replicate and/or build on the innovative
elements of microenterprise projects that have been successful in reaching
women.

Assessment of gender roles in employment and entrepreneurship in formal or
informal sectors with an analysis of project and/or policy level implications.

Assessment, monitoring and evaluation of opportunities for women's
employment in non-traditional sub-sectors, especially in emerging growth-
oriented sectors that are linked with agribusiness and international trade.

Evaluations of the impact of industrial development on employment
opportunities for males and females in traditionally female-dominated sectors.

Innovative projects that will work with private sector institutions to improve
their capability to serve female entrepreneurs at relevant scales of business
operation.

Proposals which have the support of a USAID Mission/Bureau will be given priority for
funding. No work can be done in a host country without concurrence on the part of the
USAID Mission in that country.

WID does not directly fund sabbaticals, scholarships, conference attendance, or
training participants.








Proposals should include the following components:


1. Purpose and goals what is/are the basic purposes) of the activity(ies) being
proposed? What is/are the overall goals) of the project?

NOTE: If the proposal is for a WID buy-in to an existing project, the purpose and
goals should clearly define how the buy-in will supplement the original project
goals. The proposal should not request funding to complete WID-related activities
included in the original project design.

2. Objectives what are the specific objectives to be achieved?

3. Project description key elements of the project. How will it work?

4. Rationale how does/do the proposed activity(ies) relate to the policies and
programs of your institution and A.I.D. and the WID office strategic priorities? What
is the potential for project activities to contribute to the knowledge base about
gender issues? What are the potential contributions to policy dialogue guidelines
and/or policy reform? How will the project contribute to the development of training
materials for WID? Does the work contemplated involve women in all phases of the
activity? Does it strengthen women's organizations? Does it promote sustainable
development?

NOTE: Some projects may not relate to all of the issues identified under "Rationale"
(4) above, but proposals should respond carefully to the questions which are
relevant. The rationale should also show linkages of project activities to one or
more WID priority areas as noted above.

5. Background this should summarize existing studies and/or project and
program experience showing that the activity(ies) is/are an important area of study,
training, information/communication, and/or technical assistance.

6. Institutional capacity this should demonstrate the institutional capacity and the
WID expertise of the implementing organization to carry out the proposed activity(ies).

7. Deliverables to the WID Office specifically which products, such as reports,
training materials, state of the art papers, etc. will be delivered to WID? If the major
output of the activity is research or information, how will or could the information be
communicated in a practical way to effect change?

8. Projected time line this should include all phases of the proposed project,
with dates for completion of all deliverables.

9. Budget the budget should be a 2-column budget showing how funds will be
allocated, both for WID matching funds and funds from a project, mission, or
bureau which will "trigger" the matching funds. If the proposal is for core rather than
matching funds, any support to be provided by the implementing institution should
be included (such as clerical support, office space, staff time, etc.).
















Deadlines for submittal process

Proposals will be reviewed in two cycles. The first review cycle deadline is November
15, 1991.

Proposals received by November 15th will be reviewed by December 15th and placed in
1 of 3 categories:

1. Approved for funding subject to approval by contracts office.

2. Denied funding.

3. Held over for further consideration during the second review cycle.

Applicants will be notified of the results of the first review by January 5, 1992.

The second review cycle deadline is February 15, 1992.

Proposals received by February 15th will be reviewed by March 15th. This review will
include proposals held over from the first review cycle. Proposals will be placed in 1 of 3
categories:

1. Approved for funding subject to approval by contracts office.

2. Denied funding.

3. Assigned a priority for funding subject to availability of funds. If funds
become available, the proposal will be reassigned to category 1.

Applicants will be notified of the results of the second review by April 30, 1992.

Proposals should be submitted to:

Director,
Women in Development Office
Agency for International Development
Room 3725A NS
Washington, D. C. 20523-0041
(Tel: 202/647-3992)


Please be advised that core funds are very limited.
Proposals for which funding can be cost-shared by a
USAID Mission and/or AiD/Washington Office other than
WID are much more likely to be funded.









IV. Information and Support


A. WID Office Staff

Because of the current Agency-wide reorganization, Washington Bureau WID working
groups and coordinators are also being reorganized. Therefore, in the interim,
contact the Women in Development Office's Bureau liaison regarding activities in
relevant Bureaus.

Missions may request WID office staff to provide technical assistance to USAIDs for
specific gender-related activities in the area of education, micro and small scale
enterprise development, agriculture, environment and natural resources, policy
reform, and so on. See the staff list that follows and the "Sectoral/Function" entries.

The WID office provides technical assistance to USAIDs for preparation of WID Action
Plans, CDSSs, USAID Action Plans, portfolio reviews, PIDs, PPs, etc., as well as
specific sectoral assistance as detailed above for design and/or evaluation needs.
The following AID/WID staff members are available for such technical assistance.

Contact information:

Women in Development Office
Room 3725A-NS
Agency for International Development
Washington, D.C. 20523-0041
Tel: 202/647-3992
Fax: 202/647-9390


WID office staff responsibilities:

Name Bureau/Office Sectoral/Function
Liaison


Ariza-Nino, E.


Blakeslee, K

Bowen, N.


Clark, M.


PRE


Africa


Eastem Europe


Agribusiness
Agriculture
Trade and Investment
Private Enterprise


Acting Director

Food Security


Evaluation/Research
Indicators









Name Bureau/Office Sectoral/Function


Grosz, R.



Herbert, M.


S&T
HRDM/TD
OIT

FM
OP/W/CO
PPC/PB

FVA
IRM


Hewitt, M.


Huisinga Norem, R.


Long, L.


LAC


Near East


Asia


Luche, L.

O'Gara, C.

Pulley, T.

Seims, T.


Asia

XA


Training
Agriculture


Contracts/Buy-ins



Handbooks
Computer/Data Bases
Democratic Initiatives

Nat. Resources/Environment
Environmental Working
Group
Sustainable Agriculture
University Linkages

Education
Refugees, Displaced

Microenterprise

Deputy Director

Microenterprise

Information/Communication









B. WID Officers


SAID WID OFFICERS
LOCAL ADDRESS LIST
AUGUST 1991

AFRICA REGION


NAME/COUNTRY

Barbara Belding
USAID/Gaborone
BOTSWANA

Sally Sharp
USAID/Ouagadougou
BURKINA FASO

Antoinette Ferrara
USAID/Bujumbura
BURUNDI

Lucretia Taylor
USAID/Yaounde
CAMEROON

Meg Glasston
USAID/Praia
CAPE VERDE

Steve Brundage
AID Representative
USAID/Bangui
CENTRAL AFRICAN
REPUBLIC

William Deese
USAID/Ndjamena
CHAD

John H. Bierke
USAID/Brazzaville
CONGO


LOCAL ADDRESS

Khama Crescent
Barclay's House, 3rd Floor
Gaborone, Botswana

B. P. 35
Ouagadougou
Burkina Faso

B. P. 1720
Avenue du Zaire
Bujumbura, Burundi

Rue Nachtigal
B. P. 817
Yaounde, Cameroon

Rua Hojl Ya Yenna 81
C. P. 201
Praia, Cape Verde

Avenue President Dacko
B. P. 924
Bangui
Central African Republic


Ave. Felix Eboue
B. P. 413
Ndjamena, Chad

Avenue Amilcar Cabral
B. P. 1015
People's Republic of
the Congo


TELEPHONE
TELEX IF AVAILABLE

(267)(3) 53982

Telex 2554 AMEMB BD

(160)(226) 335452
Telex AEMB 5290 BF


(160)(257) 23454



(011+237) 234014
Telex 8223KN


(238)614363
Telex 6068 AMEMB CV


610200/612578

Telex 5287 RC



(235)(51)3269
Telex 5203 KD


Tel 832070
Telex 5367 KG









NAME/COUNTRY

Wayne J. King
REDSO/WA Abidjan
COTE D'IVOIRE

John Lundgren
USAID/Djibouti
DJIBOUTI
Republic of Djibouti

Willard Pearson
A.I.D. Office
Addis Ababa
ETHIOPIA

Ms. Barbara Jensen
USAID/Banjul
GAMBIA
Banjul, Gambia


LOCAL ADDRESS

5 Rue Jesse Owens
01 B. P. 1712
Abidjan, Cote d'lvoire

Plateau du Serpent
Blvd. Marechal Joffre
B. P. 185, Djibouti


Entoto St.
P. O. Box 1014
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia


Fajara (East)
Kairaba Ave.
P. M. B. No. 19


TELEPHONE
TELEX IF AVAILABLE

(225) 320979
Telex 23660


(253) 353849




(251)(1) 110666
Telex 21282



(220) 92856
Telex 2229 AMEMB GV


Habib Kahn
USAID/Accra
GHANA


Ring Road East
P. O. Box 194
Accra, Ghana


Colette Chabbott
USAID/Conakry
GUINEA

Paul Niefert
Office of A.I.D.
Representative
GUINEA-BISSAU

Carol Steele
USAID/Nairobi
KENYA


2d Blvd. and 9th Ave.
B. P. 603
Conakry, Guinea

Avenida Domingos Ramos
C. P. 297
Bissau, Guinea-Bissau


Moi/Haile Selassie Ave.
Nairobi, Kenya


(224) 441520



(245) 212816/7




(254)(2) 334141
Telex 22964


Patrick Fleuret
REDSO/ESA Nairobi
KENYA


Regional Economic Development Services
Office/East & Southern Africa
(REDSO/EA) Nairobi (254)(2) 334141
Moi/Haile Selassie Ave.
Nairobi, Kenya


Candace Buzzard
USAID/Maseru
LESOTHO


Kingsway
Maseru, Lesotho


(266)312666
Telex 4506 USAID


774315











NAME/COUNTRY

Joan Johnson
Office of A.I.D.
Representative
Antananarivo,
Madagascar

Indira Biswas
USAID/Ulongwe
MALAWI

Jon Breslar
USAID/Bamako
MALI

Aileen Marshall
USAID/Maputo
MOZAMBIQUE

Richard Shortlidge
A.I.D. Representative
Windhoek
NAMIBIA

Ellen Taylor-Powell
USAID/Niamey
NIGER

Eugene Chiavarolli
USAID/Lagos
NIGERIA

Claudia Cantell
USAID/KigaH
RWANDA

Desaix Myers
USAID/Dakar
SENEGAL

Cecily Mango
USAID/Pretoria
SOUTH AFRICA


LOCAL ADDRESS

14 and 16 Rue Rainitovo,
Antsahavola
B. P. 620
Antananarivo


Nico Building
Lilongwe, Malawi


Rue Testard and Rue
Mohamed V
B. P. 34, Bamako, Mali

35 Rua Da Mesquita
3d FI.
Maputo, Mozambique


(no street address)
B. P. 11201
Niamey, Niger

2 Eleke Crescent
Lagos, Nigeria


Blvd. de la Revolution
B. P. 28
Kigali, Rwanda

B. P. 49
Avenue Jean XXIII
Dakar, Senegal

Thibault House
225 Pretorius St.
Pretoria, South Africa


TELEPHONE
TELEX IF AVAILABLE

(011)(2) 261-221257
Telex USA EMB MG
22202, 101



(265) 730-166
Telex 44627


(011)(265) 225663
Telex 448 AMEMB


26051
Telex 6180


(9+011+227) 722661
Telex
EMB NIA 5444NI

(234)(1) 610097
Telex 23616 EMLA NG
and 21670 USATO NG

(160)(250) 5601/2



(221) 214296
Telex 517 AMEMB SG


(011)(27)(12)217212
Telex 3751









NAME/COUNTRY

Frederick Machmer
USAID/Khartoum
SUDAN

Jim Bednar
USAID/Mbabane
SWAZILAND

Joel Schlesinger
USAID/Dar Es Salaam
TANZANIA


Evelyn McLoud
USAID/Lome
TOGO


Shirley Erves
USAID/Kampala
UGANDA


John H. Bierke
USAID/Kinshasa
ZAIRE

Irene Whalen-Hopwood
USAID/Lusaka
ZAMBIA

Patricia Buckles
USAID/Harare
ZIMBABWE


LOCAL ADDRESS

Sharia Ali Abdul Latif
Khartoum, Sudan


Central Bank Bldg.
Warner Street
Mbabane, Swaziland

36 Laibon Rd. (off
Bagamoyo Rd.)
Dar Es Salaam
United Republic of Tanzania

Rue Pelletier Caventou
& Rue Vouban
B. P. 852
Lome, Togo

British High Commission
Building
Obote Ave.
Kampala, Uganda

310 Avenue des Aviateurs
Kinshasa, Zaire
21405 US EMB ZR

comer of Independence
and United Nations Aves.
Lusaka, Zambia

172 Rhodes Ave.
Harare, Zimbabwe


TELEPHONE
TELEX IF AVAILABLE

(160)(016) 74700
Telex 22619 AMEM SD


(9+011+268) 22281
USAID Telex 2016 WD


(255)(51) 68894
Telex
41250 AMEMB DAR


(228) 212992




(256+41) 259791




(243)(12) 23881
Telex


(260+1)214911
Telex
AMEMB ZA 41970

(263+0) 794521
Telex 4591 USFCS ZW










ASIA REGION


NAME/COUNTRY

Raka Rashid
USAID/Dhaka
BANGLADESH

Kathryn E. Hawley
USAID/Suva
FIJI

WID Officer
USAID/New Delhi
INDIA


Sherry Suggs
USAID/Jakarta
INDONESIA

A.I.D. Representative
Ulaanbaatar
MONGOLIA

Michael Calavan/
Anjali Pradhan
USAID/Kathmandu
NEPAL

Saniya Hafeez
USAID/lslamabad
PAKISTAN

Sulpicio S. Roco
USAID/Manila
PHIUPPINES

Kamalini Balasuriya
USAID/Colombo
SRI LANKA

Pomsiri Chatiyanonda
USAID/Bangkok
THAILAND


LOCAL ADDRESS

Adamjee Court Bldg., 5th fl.
Motijheel Commercial Area


31 Loftus St.
P. O. Box 218
Suva, Fiji

B-28 Institutional Area
Qutub Hotel Rd.
New Delhi, 110016
India

Medan Merdeka Selatan 5
Jakarta, Indonesia


Pani Pokhari
Kathmandu, Nepal



Diplomatic Enclave
Ramna 5,
Islamabad, Pakistan

1201 Roxas Blvd.
Manila, Philippines


356 Galle Rd.
Colombo 3
Colombo, Sri Lanka

95 Wireless Rd.
Bangkok, Thailand


TELEPHONE
TELEX IF AVAILABLE

(880)(2) 237161
Telex 642319
AEDKA BJ

(679) 314466
Telex
2647 SAID FJ

(91)(11)6865301
Telex 031-66054
USEM IN


(62)(21)360360
Telex 44218
AMEMB JKT
TELEPHONE


(977) 4111179
Telex AMKTMP 2381



(92)(51) 826161
Telex
44928 SAID PK

(63)(2)5217116
Telex 722-27366


(94)(1)574333
Telex 21305


(66)(2) 2519260
Telex 87058












NAME/COUNTRY

Aziza Helmy
USAID/Cairo
EGYPT

P. E. Balakrishnan
USAID/Amman
JORDAN

Rick Gold
USAID/Rabat
MOROCCO

WID Officer
USAID/Muscat
OMAN



Rashid Nafti
USAID/Tunis
TUNISIA

Viviann Gary/
Banilia Ajinah
USAID/Sanaa


NEAR EAST REGION


LOCAL ADDRESS

5 Sharia Latin America
Cairo, Egypt


Jebel Amman
Amman, Jordan


2 Ave. de Marrakech
Rabat, Morocco


c/o U.S. Embassy
#968 (alley-back
entrance to Union Bank)
Mumtaz-Mutrah, AI-Jilai
Ruwi-Muscat, Oman

144 Ave. de la Uberte
Tunis, Tunisia
13379 AMEMB

Amran Road
Sanaa, Yemen


TELEPHONE
TELEX IF AVAILABLE

(20)(2) 3557371
Telex 93773 AMEMB


(962)(6)604171
Telex 21510


(212)(7)62265
Telex 31005M


(968) 738231
Telex 3785




(216)(1) 782566
Telex


(967)(2) 271950
Telex
2797 EMBASANYE YEMEN










LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN REGION


NAME/COUNTRY

Michael Taylor
RDO/C, Bridgetown
BARBADOS


Patrick McDuffy
USAID/Belize City
BELIZE

Sonia Aranibar
USAID/La Paz
BOLIVIA


John Pielemeier
USAID/Brasilia
BRAZIL

Paul Fritz
USAID/Santiago
CHILE

Jim Smith
USAID/Bogota
COLOMBIA

Flora Ruiz
USAID/San Jose
COSTA RICA

Thomas Comell
USAID/Santo Domingo
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC



Paula Goddard
USAID/Quito
ECUADOR

Hector Diez de Medina
USAID/San Salvador
EL SALVADOR


LOCAL ADDRESS

Canadian Imperial Bank
of Commerce Bldg.
Broad Street
Bridgetown, Barbados

Gabourel Lane and
Hutson St.
Belize City, Belize

Banco Popular Del Peru Bid
Corner of Calles Mercado
and Colon
La Paz, Bolivia

Avenida das Nocoes
Lote 3
Brasilia, Brazil

Codina Bldg.
1343 Agustinas
Santiago, Chile

Calle 38, No. 8-61
Bogota, Colombia


Avenida 3 and Calle 1
San Jose, Costa Rica


Comer of Calle Cesar
Nicolas Penson & Calle
Leopoldo Navarro
Santo Domingo,
Dominican Republic

Avenida 12 de Octubre
y Avenida Patria
Quito, Ecuador

25 Avenida Norte
No. 1230
San Salvador, El Salvador


TELEPHONE
TELEX IF AVAILABLE

Tel (809) 436-4950
Telex
2259 USEMB BG1 WB


(501) 7161/62
Telex 213


(591)(2) 350251
Telex 03093258


(55)(61)225-8607
Telex 061-1091


(56) (2) 710133



(57)(1) 285-1300



(506) 331155
Telex 3550 AIDCR KR


(809) 682-2171
Telex 3460013




(593)(2)562890



(503)714666
Telex 20648









Peter R. Orr
USAID/St. George
GRENADA

Carola Soto
USAID/Guatemala City
GUATEMALA

Joe Kelley
ROCAP
GUATEMALA

Socra Gregoire
USAID/Port-au-Prince
HAITI

Carmen Zambrana
USAID/Tegucigalpa
HONDURAS

Melanie Chen
USAID/Kingston
JAMAICA

Gerald Bowers
USAID/Mexico City
MEXICO

Robert Burke
USAID/Managua
NICARAGUA

Peter R. Orr
USAID/Asuncion
PARAGUAY

Veronica De Ferrero
USAID/Uma
PERU

Peter R. Orr
USAID/Montevideo
URUGUAY


Ross Point Inn (440) 1731/4
St. George's,
Grenada, W.I.

7-01 Avenida 502)(2) 3110541
de la Reforma
Zone 10

Regional Office for 502)(2)321739
Central American
Programs (ROCAP)

Harry Truman Blvd. (509)(1) 20354
Port-au-Prince, Haiti


Avenido La Paz (504) 32-3120
Tegucigalpa, Telex 1593
Honduras

Jamaica Mutual Life Center (809)929-4850
2 Oxford Rd., 3d FI
Kingston, Jamaica

Paseo de la Reforma 305 (52)(5) 211-0042
Mexico 5, D.F.


Km. 4-1/2 Carretera Sur (505)(2) 666010
Managua, Nicaragua


1776 Mariscal Ave. (595)(21) 207383
Casilla Postal 402


Comer Avenidas Inca (51)(14) 286000
Garcilaso de la Vega & Espana
Lima, Peru

Lauro Muller 1776 (598)(2) 409051
Montevideo, Uruguay







C. Information


1. Overview of WID information services.

The Office of Women in Development has a contract with the Center for
Development Information and Evaluation (CDIE) to provide services in both
research (through the Research and Reference Service, R&RS) and document
distribution (through the Document and Information Services Clearinghouse,
DISC).

Research and Reference Services for Women in Development:

The point person in CDIE is an expert in both Gender/Women in Development
and Development Communications; Annie Foster, phone number 703-875-
4807 and fax number 703-875-5269. Her position is funded under the contract
between the WID Office, CDIE and the Academy for Educational Development
(AED). Other CDIE expertise is also brought to bear in delivering services
for/with the WID Office under this contract.

Operated by AED, this contract provides access to and dissemination of
information pertaining to WID development issues, generated by A.I.D. and
other sources including donor organizations, PVOs, etc. Information is
provided to WID staff, A.I.D. staff and contractors, both in Washington and
USAID Missions, Developing Nation requesters and the public.

Services range from publication of a newsletter and in-depth research, to
quick response reference services. Information is gathered from inside and
outside the Agency, and includes electronic retrieval of A.I.D., other
development organization and commercial database information.

Search Services

Expert searches are done to access past and present information about A.I.D.
and its predecessor agencies. Literature searches and bibliographies are
performed on a given subject, author, or organization (including most donor
organizations) using A.I.D. and non-A.I.D. database sources. (Response time:
one to two weeks)

TaIlored Information Packages

Research staff identity, analyze and select a group of documents, publications,
excerpts, and unpublished papers to meet your requirements for a particular
task. These are packaged and sent to USAID Mission staff via pouch or APO
with a cover memo explaining the selection and summarizing important points.
For Washington end users, a package of citations and references are provided
which can either be a broad sweep of the development literature, or a
narrowly targeted selection, depending on the requester's information needs.
(Response time: two to four weeks.)








Interlibrary Loan Services


Development Information Center staff borrow books and acquire photocopies
of journal articles of almost all published information from a large network of
libraries in the United States. The materials can be faxed or mailed, as
appropriate, to overseas and U.S. locations. (Response time: two to three
weeks)

Reference Services

library reference staff find and verify facts, and track down documents,
publications, organizations, or business firm information. (Response time:
Straightforward references are found immediately. Obscure ones take a little
longer.)

Current Awareness Services

Periodic bulletins are issued which cite recently published development
literature, journal articles or news stories on development issues relevant to
A.I.D., including WID.

WID Resource Collection in DIC

A current WID Resource collection is developed and maintained in the A.I.D.
Development Information Center (DIC). DIC staff select, organize and make
accessible, through the DIC, relevant information about WID that can be made
available to A.I.D. staff and the public. Selected books and joumals are
purchased, catalogued and placed in the Information Center, and made
available to all patrons.

WID Newsletter

This publication is produced and distributed triannually as a current awareness
bulletin which identifies and informs USAID Missions and LDC institutions of
current activities and of WID resources which are available to the development
community. This material includes, but is not limited to, Mission and Bureau
news items, journal articles, A.I.D. reports, World Bank and other U.N.-
specialized agency publications, NGO reports and fugitive materials,
commercially-published monographs, conferences and workshops, and
legislative news affecting WID initiatives in the U.S. foreign assistance
program.








2. WOMEN IN DEVELOPMENT PUBLICATIONS LIST


The Office of Women In Development offers the documents on this list free of charge to the
public. Please mark the items you are requesting and send to:

Publications Manager
Office of Women in Development
Agency for International Development
Room 3725A NS
Washington, DC 20523-0041

The Office of Women in Development will only respond to requests from this list.

Other requests for A.I.D. documents should be directed to:

PPC/CDIE/DI
Research and Reference Services
Room 209 SA-18
Washington, D.C. 20523-1802

Other requests often carry a fee for copying and mailing.

A more extensive collection of WID reference documents is /available in open stacks in a
reading room in the A.I.D. Library. This collection contains both A.I.D. and non-A.I.D.
documents gathered from Agency offices or contributed by the World Bank, the United Nations,
and other donor and private organizations and individuals. Reference documents in the WID
Collection are organized by sector including: agriculture, education, employment and income-
generation, energy and natural resources, and health. Other categories cover the A.I.D. -
designated geographic regions of Asia, Europe, Near East, Africa, and Latin America and the
Caribbean. Annie Foster is the WID specialist for the Library. She can be reached at (Tel.) 703-
875-4807, or (Fax) 703-875-5269.

The library is located at 1601 N. Kent St., Rosslyn Plaza, Rm. 105, Arlington, VA, and is open
to the public from 10:00 a.m. through 4:00 p.m. Monday through Friday.











ORDER FORM




Note: Orders for ALL will not be filled. Please photocopy this blank form and use for future
orders.



A) Indicate publications requested:


Doormwt Coies TWl (4bbWwua*


User's Gulde WID Offio, 1901
Report to Congress. Nad Decade
Action Items for WID
WID Item Jan-Aug 100
Gender Irdo. Framework Exac. Summary
Gender Into. Frawmork
Gender Into. Framework Guide
Trainers Manual Volume I
Trainer' Manual Volume II
Strategic Planning for Training
Girt School Atendance
Improving Woman' Access to Credit
Making the Cas (Eacutiv Summary)
Women & Structural Adjustment Part 1
WID USAI/Bangladesh
WID USAID/Guatmala (DRAFT)
WID USAID/Tanzania
Community Management SIRDO
Forest Conservation in Nepal
Port Sudan Small Entrprise Program
Women in Handicrafts
Educating Girl & Women (World Banr
WID Publication List
Education Indicators Bibliography
Demographic & Health Sureys
Female Educ. & Infant Mortality
The Nemow Ca
Sex Rols in the Nigerian Houahold


Docu-mnd COPif


WID-W9
WID-M3
WID.4M
VAD-030
WID-0313
WID04=
WID-033
VAD-034
WID-MO
W10038

WID,030
PDA5AY404
PNA.AL087
PNA5AL673
PNAAW364
PNAAX047
PNAY21 9
PNAMZ700
PNABC270
PN&ADC450
PNADC452
PNAC453
PNABC454
PNABES12
PN4ABF235


TmiO (abbrAteld)

The obra Farm Settlemrn in Nigria
The Impact of Agrarian form on Women
Kano Rr Irigation Proj c
Ag. Policy Implmerntoon: W. Kenya
Impact of Mole Out-Migron on Women
WID: A Report to Congre by USAID. 1901
Inesing Fmal Participeion
Gandw and Food AID
Gender and Adjutmrent
ntitutional tragies
W1D New Bulltin Vol. 1, No. 1
WID New Bulletin Vol. 1, No. 2
The Economical and Social Impacts of Girts'
Evaluation Int Crnter Rao Women
WID: AID' Experinco 1973-1965 V.I
WID Pocy Papr
WID: 1975-1964 Report to Congress
Gendr Issues in Basic Education
Gender Issues in LAC
Gender issues in Small Entrpnr
Guis par Integracdk de la Mujer
Efacts of Structural Adustment
Agric & Neural RasourcM Managemant
Farming Systemn Research...
Socio-Eoon & Gender asusa...Lat. Am.
Madkng the Cas
Women's Vetures
Private Enterpni Development
WD: A.I.D.'s Experienoa 197345 V. 2


B) Please place your full name and address in the
spaces provided, and indicate organization and type of
work for our records.



Name:

Title:


C) Send completed order form to:



Publications Manager
Office of Women in Development
Agency for International Development
Room 3725-A NS
Washington, DC
20523-0041


Organization:


Type of Worck

Address:

City: 21p


County:


WVDo00
WID-O
WIDoo
WID-004
WIDoS
WD-oo58
WID-OCS
WID-007
WID-0075
WID-0
WID-009
WID-OlO
VAD-01
WD-012
WID013
WlD-014
WID-015
WD-O0O
WID-017
WD-O0s
VAD-019
Wl1002
W1D-02i
WID.=
WID-0
WID-024
WD-025
VAD-028







PUBLICATIONS LIST
September 1991
A.I.D./S&T/WID

Note: This list describes the publications available from the WID Office. To order
publications, please use the order form on page 36.


OFFICE HISTORY AND POLICIES


WID-021


WID-001



WID-002



WID-003





WID-004




WID-032



PN-AAL-777




PN-AAS-673


WID Publications List, September 1991 update, 10 pp. This is the WID
Publications Ust.

A User's Guide to the Office of Women in Development, Fall 1991, 43 pp.
Intended for use by both A.I.D. and others seeking information about the
A.I.D. WID mandate and the resources available to operationalize it.

A Report to Congress, Planning for the Next Decade: A Perspective of
Women in Development, Office of Women in Development, 1989, 20pp.
WID's report to Congress covering FY 87 and FY 88.

'A.I.D. Action Items for Women in Development', Front Lines, August 1988,
1p. Article in A.I.D.'s Front Lines monthly reporting on the Administrator's
five basic requirements for Bureaus and Missions to address gender issues
by developing and implementing WID Action Plans, collecting sex-
disaggregated data, etc.

Compilation of Women in Development Items in the AID Administrator's
Weekly Reports, January-August, 1989, 30 pp. Includes updates on WID
activities in agriculture, education, private enterprise, institutionalization,
legislation,policy issues and training.

Women in Development: A Report to Congress by USAID, 1991, 93 pp.
Describes progress made by USAID in FY 1989 and FY 1990 in fulfilling WID
congressional mandate.

A.I.D. Policy Paper, Women In Development, 1982, 12 pp. This "red-white-
and-blue" document delineates and explains the Agency's WID policy as it
evolved over the nine years from the initial congressional WID mandate
stated in the well-known 1973 Percy Amendment.

Women In Development: The First Decade 1975-1984, A Report to
Congress. Office of Women in Development, 1985, 59pp. Report updates
information submitted to Congress on a biennial basis and charts the
progress made by A.I.D. during the United Nations Decade for Women.






TRAINING

WID-005










WID-005B




WID-006





WID-007








WID-007B


WID-008


Gender Information Framework Executive Summary, Virginia Hubbs, AI
Rollins, The MayaTech Corp. and Ron Grosz, A.I.D., June 1991, 18 pp. The
GIF is a set of guidelines for incorporating gender considerations into the
development programming cycle of A.I.D. and was commissioned by the
WID Office as a step-by-step process for addressing gender issues in both
project/program design as well as in document review activities. It is a
problem-solving and questioning process that deals primarily with the
Agency's Country Development Strategy Statement, Action Plan, Project
Identification Document and Project Paper. The GIF has been adapted for
use by other private and public institutions with a development mandate.

Gender Information Framework, June 1991, Virginia Hubbs, AI Rollins, The
MayaTech Corp. and Ron Grosz, A.I.D., 90 pp. This is the complete
document and includes the executive summary available as WID-005. See
annotation to WID-005 above.

Gender Information Framework Pocket Guide, 1989. A very brief, 3.5' X 8.5"
brochure with inserts covering A.I.D.'s CDSS, AP, PID and PP. Intended for
those who have attended a GIF training or who are involved in gender
and/or WID activities and may wish to have a brief reminder of the GIF
questioning process.

A Trainers' Manual Volume I-How to Conduct a Workshop to Integrate
Gender Considerations into Development Programming, Office of Women in
Development, Al Rollins, Virginia Hubbs, The MayaTech Corp. and Ron
Grosz, A.I.D., June 1991, 147 pp. A guide for training specialists working
within or for A.I.D. who need additional knowledge and/or frameworks to
assist A.I.D. personnel to better integrate gender considerations in
development activities. Includes workshop logistics and preparation,
individual sessions, flip charts, etc. for three days of training.

A Trainers' Manual Volume Il-Opportunities for Creative Solutions:
Integrating Gender Concems into Development Projects, Office of Women in
Development, Al Rollins, Virginia Hubbs, The MayaTech Corp. and Ron
Grosz, A.I.D., June 1991, 123 pp. A companion to Volume I, this document
is intended to assist development professionals, primarily in non-
governmental organizations, to provide effective training in the incorporation
of gender considerations into their development programs and projects.
Includes information for WID specialists with little training background as
well as for expert trainers seeking help in gender issues.

Strategic Planning for Training in FY92, Office of Women in Development,
Ron Grosz, September 1991, 12 pp. Describes the strategic planning
process for training in A.I.D./WID, identifies new initiatives and briefly reviews
FY91.









Guidelines for Increasing Female Participation in A.I.D Training Programs for
Asia and the Near East, Laurel Elmer, A.I.D., 1990, 21 pp. Covers policy
considerations, project design and implementation strategies.

Institutional Strategies for Successfully Incorporating Gender Analysis and
Strategy Design: The U.S. Agency for International Development
Experience, A focus on Training, paper presented to International
Conference on Gender Training and Development Planning, Bergen,
Norway, Ron Grosz, A.I.D., May 1991, 14 pp. Examines efforts of the WID
Office to create an institutional demand in A.I.D. for training in gender issues
in development.


PN-AAL-087







PN-ABF-235








PD-AAY-404


Women in Development: AID's Experience, 1973-1985, Vol. I. Synthesis
Paper A.I.D. Program Evaluation Report No. 18, Alice Stewart Carloni, 1987,
94 pp. Synthesizes information from 102 A.I.D. projects covering a 12-year
time span; documents how A.I.D. has interpreted its women in development
mandate over the years and how policy is being implemented; provides
basis for better understanding of the role gender plays in achieving
development goals.

Women in Development: A.I.D.'s Experience, 1973-1985, Vol. II: Ten Field
Studies, A.I.D. Working Paper No. 131, Editor, Paula O. Goddard,
A.I.D./CDIE, December 1989, 207 pp. Contains edited case studies that
form a companion to the synthesis paper presented above as Volume I.
Includes projects in Botswana, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Dominican Republic,
Guatemala, Kenya, Nepal, Morocco; one with the Inter-American
Commission of Women of the OAS; and the Caribbean Agricultural
Extension Project.

Evaluation of the International Center for Research on Women Cooperative
Agreement Program with AID PPC/WID, 1987, 86 pp, Development
Associates, Inc. Discusses progress to-date in building awareness and
institutional integration of WID in A.I.D., influencing Missions and Bureaus,
and ICRW performance.


AGRICULTURE


PN-ABC-452


Gender Issues in Farming Systems Research and Extension: A Survey of
Current Projects [Executive Summary] S. Poats, J. Gearing, S. Russo,
August 1989, 9 pp. Analysis of the mechanisms that have led to either
successes or failures in integrating gender analysis and issues into a
selected group of agricultural research and extension projects that are using
the Farming Systems Research and Extension approach.


WID-033



WID-036


EVALUATIONS








WID-034 Gender and Food Aid, Office of Women in Development, Judy C. Bryson,
Emily C. Moore, The MayaTech Corp., Martin J. Hewitt, A.I.D., June 1991, 49
pp. Reviews food aid issues, including impact on women of policy issues,
and discusses program food aid concessionall sales and bilateral food
grants) and various types of project food aid.

[See Series Publications listing for additional publications]


EDUCATION

WID-009 Improving Girls' School Attendance and Achievement in Developing
Countries: A Guide to Research Tools, Karin A.L Hyde, October, 1989, 76
pp. Summarizes the many benefits to educating women, describes some
of the issues involved and outlines possible strategies for increasing
educational participation for females. Describes a variety of research tools
used.

WID-020 Educating Girls and Women: Investing in Development, Elizabeth King,
1990, 17 pp. [Published by the World Bank.] Examines the importance of
family, school and community factors and of education policy in increasing
the education of girls and women in different developing regions, and points
out the gains from female education.

WID-022 Female Education and Socio-Economic Indicators Bibliography, Faith
Knutsen, ABEL, Creative Associates, Bethesda, MD, February, 1990, 8 pp.

WID-023 Women's Education: Findings from Demographic and Health Surveys,
IRD/Macrosystems, Inc., Columbia, MD, 1989, 17 pp. Results from 28
national-level surveys carried out to date in the Demographic and Health
Surveys program show the relationships between women's education and
fertility and family planning, and women's education and maternal and child
health.

WID-024 Female Education and Infant Mortality: A Twenty Year Analysis (summary
tables), Research Triangle Institute, North Carolina, 1989.

WID-039 The Economic and Social Impacts of Girls' Primary Education in Developing
Countries, Maria Floro, Joyce M. Wolf, for A.I.D.'s ABEL Project, Creative
Associates, Bethesda, MD, December 1990, 105 pp. (Specify English,
French or Spanish) Worldwide literature review focuses on impact of
education; to explore the evidence that exists on the impact of girls'
education, particularly primary education; to indicate areas in which impact
is probably occurring.

[See Series Publications listing for additional publications]







MICROENTERPRISE/LABOR/EMPLOYMENT


WID-010






PN-ABC-454




WID-011


PN-ABE-612


PN-ABD-953


Improving Women's Access to Credit in the Third World: Policy and Project
Recommendations, Margaret A. Lycette, ICRW, June 1984, 25 pp. This
paper discusses the importance of credit for women, the degree to which
women's access to credit has been limited and why, and their strategies for
coping with this limitation; in order to derive development policy and project
recommendations for improving women's access to credit.

Making the Case for the Gender Variable: Women and the Wealth and Well
Being of Nations, Rae L Blumberg, 1989, 115 pp. Documents the benefits
of integrating women into national economies and includes case examples,
lessons learned, and sectoral analyses.

Executive Summary: Making the Case for the Gender Variable: Women and
the Wealth Well Being of Nations, 1989, 5 pp. (see above).

Private Enterprise Development: Gender Considerations, Bureau for Private
Enterprise/ A.I.D., Arthur Young, 1988, 58 pp. This manual represents a first
step in exploring the role of gender in private enterprise projects and
programs.

Women's Ventures: Assistance to the Informal Sector in Latin America,
Edited by Marguerite Berger and Mayra Buvinic, Kumarian Press, 1989, 266
pp. This book discusses, among other issues, women's access to credit,
labor supply, the urban informal sector, small enterprise development,
training and technical assistance.


[See Series Publications listing for additional publications]


STRUCTURAL ADJUSTMENT


PN-ABC-276






WID-012


Socio-Economic Effects of Structural Adjustment on Women, Paper
Presented to the OECD/DAC, Paris, France, Phillip Boyle, A.I.D., 1988, 18
pp. Examines gender issues and structural adjustment in terms of dual
productive roles of women: household provisioning, maintenance and social
reproduction vs. increasing participation in wage labor, microenterprise, and
subsistence farming.

Women and Structural Adjustment. Part I: A Summary of the Issues, S.
Joekes, M. Lycette, L McGowan, and K Searle, ICRW, 1988. 15 pp.
Prepared for meeting of WID Expert Group of OECD Development
Assistance Committee. Summarizes impacts on women of structural
adjustment programs.


PN-ABC-453 Socio-Economic and Gender Issues in Policy-Based Development
Assistance: Shifting to Sectoral Cash Transfers in Latin America, Paper








presented to LAC Bureau Regional Workshop on "Gender Considerations in
Development", Antigua, Guatemala, Philip Boyle, A.I.D. 1988, 11 pp.

WID-035 Gender and Adjustment, Office of Women in Development, Ron Hood, Mary
Altomare, Lawrence Haddad, Martha Starr-McCluer, Virginia Hubbs, The
MayaTech Corp., June 1991, 194 pp. Covers various theories and models of
adjustment and includes case studies from several countries, with lessons
for donors.


IMPLEMENTATION PLANS/STRATEGIES

WID-013 A Women in Development Implementation Plan for USAID/Bangladesh; M.
Berger, ICRW, and M. Greeley, U. of Sussex, 1987, 72 pp. Provides
guidelines to mission on project modifications which would assist
USAID/Dhaka in fulfilling its WID strategy of expanding economic
opportunities for women and improving their physical quality of life.

WID-014 A Women in Development Strategy for USAID/Guatemala, M.Berger, M.
Paolisso, ICRW, 1988, 38 pp. Includes analysis of constraints to and
opportunities for women's participation in USAID/Guatemala programs, with
focus on private enterprise, human resources, rural development,
democratization, and PVOs.

WID-015 Developing a Women in Development Strategy for USAID/Tanzania. Ron
Grosz, A.I.D., 1988, 36 pp. Reviews portfolio of USAID/Tanzania activities
and recommends strategies by project to strengthen role of women. Also
includes suggestions on institutionalizing gender analysis in the mission.


SERIES PUBLICATIONS

SEEDS:

WID-016 Community Management of Waste Recycling: The SIRDO, Marianne
Schmink, 1984, 20 pp. (Specify English or Spanish) This is the story of the
women and their Mexican communities who faced challenges in learning to
manage the technical, economic and social aspects of a new, community-
based waste management technology and the changes brought about as a
result.

WID-017 Forest Conservation in Nepal: Encouraging Women's Participation, August
Molnar, 1987, 20 pp. (Specify English or French) This issue deals with
techniques used by a government program to include women in a forest
conservation project, given the important role that Nepalese women play in
using forest resources.







WID-018 The Port Sudan Small Scale Enterprise Program, Eve Hall, 1988, 20 pp.
(Specify English or Arabic) This is the story of a program offering training,
services and credit to poor women and men entrepreneurs whereby the goal
has been that at least half of the small businesses receiving help should be
those run by women.

WID-019 Women in Handicrafts: Myth and Reality, Jasleen Dhamija, 1981, 16 pp.
(Specify English, French, Spanish) This pamphlet reviews handicrafts as a
means of providing income to women, be it a solid source of income or an
exploitative one, and the questions that should be asked before starting a
craft project if it is to be a viable option for women.

GENDER ISSUES:


PN-AAY-219





PN-AAZ-700








PN-AAW-364






PN-ABC-450




PN-AAX-047


Gender Issues in Small Scale Enterprise, Maria Otero, Laurence Semenza,
et al., 1987, 74 pp. This guidebook summarizes the reasons for which
women should be integrated into small and micro enterprise development,
presents a set of guidelines, and looks at the implementation, monitoring,
and evaluation of SME projects, particularly in regard to gender issues.

Guia para la Integraci6n de la Mujer a los Proyectos de Empresas Pequeifa
y Micro. Maria Otero, Laurence Semenza, et al; 1987, 74 pp. La guia
resume las razones por las cuales la mujer debe integrarse a las EPM u
otros programs cuyo objetivo es general ingresos, present un conjunto de
pautas a seguirse en el process de la integraci6n, y analiza la
implementaci6n, fiscalizaci6n y evaluaci6n de los projects de EPM,
particularmente en los aspects concemientes a los asuntos relacionados
con g6nero.

Gender Issues in Basic Education and Vocational Training, Mary B.
Anderson, 1986, 31 pp. This manual is for planners, designers,
implementors and evaluators of basic education and vocational training
projects to provide ideas about when and how to integrate girls and women
into projects so that the likelihood of achieving project objectives and
purposes is improved.

Gender Issues in Agriculture and Natural Resources Management, S. Russo,
J. Bremer-Fox, 1989, 80 pp. This manual provides methods, guidelines, and
examples that will facilitate the integration of women into agriculture and
natural resource development projects.

Gender Issues in Latin America and the Caribbean: Integrating Women into
Development Programs, K. White, M. Otero, et al., 1986, 88 pp. This
guidebook responds to the need for practical, applicable guidance that can
help the LAC Bureau integrate concerns regarding women's economic
participation into project design, implementation and evaluation.






WID-025 Women's Roles and Gender Differences in Development: The Nemow Case,
by Ingrid Palmer, Kumarian Press, 1985, 53 pp. A "case study" in agriculture
designed to assist development planners in designing development projects
which consider the impact on class and gender groupings.

WID-026 Women's Roles and Gender Differences in Development: Sex Roles in the
Nigerian TIV Farm Household, by Mary E. Burfisher and Nadine R.
Horenstein, Kumarian Press, 1985, 40 pp. This case provides a planning
methodology that accounts for sex roles in the farming household, with a
focus on division of labor, income and financial obligations.

WID-027 Women's Roles and Gender Differences in Development: The Ilora Farm
Settlement in Nigeria, by Heather Spiro, Kumaran Press, 1985, 48 pp. This
case examines women's roles in settlement schemes, including positive and
negative outcomes, and provides insights of potential value to planners of
future schemes.

WID-028 Women's Roles and Gender Differences in Development: The Impact of
Agrarian Reform on Women, by Ingrid Palmer, Kumarian Press, 1985, 52 pp.
This study includes cases of: land redistribution between households,
adjudication of traditional land systems, settlement schemes, collectives and
producer cooperatives, and women's cooperative farms.

WID-029 Women's Roles and Gender Differences in Development: The Kano River
Irrigation Project, by Cecile Jackson, Kumarian Press, 1985, 65 pp. This
study looks at the consequences for Women of the Kano River Project in
terms of economic contributions and overall impact. It includes an
interesting analysis of how local cultural differences led to very different
impacts on two groups of women.

WID-030 Women's Roles and Gender Differences in Development: Agricultural Policy
Implementation: A Case Study from Westem Kenya, by Kathleen Staudt,
Kumarian Press, 1985, 65 pp. This study examines the impact of agricultural
policy on women in the Kakamega District in Westem Kenya in the 1970s.

WID-031 Women's Roles and Gender Differences in Development: The Impact of Male
Out-Migration on Women in Farming, by Ingrid Palmer, Kumarian Press,
1985, 78 pp. This monograph looks at the lives of women who remain
behind in rural areas when men of the household migrate to seek
employment elsewhere.

WID-037 The A.I.D. WID News Bulletin, provides a sampling of A.I.D. Mission and
Washington WID activities, current topics and information, book reviews,
listings of new publications, news about donor and private sector institutions
promoting women in development. Vol 1, No. 1 Summer 1990, 8 pp.

WID-038 The A.I.D. WID News Bulletin (See WID-037), Vol. 1, No. 2, Winter 1990, 8
PP.




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