Front Cover
 Half Title
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 Wonderful bridges
 A wonderful coal mine
 Adventures with bears
 The grandest ruin in the world
 James Watt, the improver of the...
 An adventure in Chinese waters
 The diving bell
 Hunting the hippopotamus
 The heroine of the Farne islan...
 Marvellous mammoths
 The mine under the sea
 The early history of the steam...
 The wonderful cave temples
 Wonderful trees
 Curious freaks of nature
 Surf-riding in Hawaii
 A wonderful precipice
 The city of the sultans
 A startling adventure
 Slave-catching in the Indian...
 Krupp and his foundry
 The pursuit of knowledge
 A railway in the clouds
 The geysers
 The pirogue - The Suez Canal
 The electric eel
 The oldest prison in the world
 The golden eagle
 Captain Boyton's life dress
 The Thames Tunnel
 A natural temple
 A snake capture
 The palm and its uses
 Bicycles and velocipedes
 The perils of diving
 Flying postmen
 Daylight fireworks
 The Towers of Silence
 The life brigade
 A mysterious collision
 A balloon chase at sea
 How to make money
 The crystal grotto
 The Temple of Philae
 Horse-taming extraordinary
 Remarkable conflagrations
 The wheat-field of the world
 Hair-dressing extraordinary
 How sewing-machines are made
 Damming out the ocean
 The Leaning Tower of Pisa
 Under Niagara Falls
 A man and tiger fight
 Pelicans and flamingoes
 A swimming island
 The postal telegraph service
 George Stephenson, the railway...
 The pearl fishery
 The dungeons of the black...
 A wonderful breakwater
 Travelling in Japan
 Adventures of bank-notes
 Pickled pork
 The leopard
 Twin steamships
 The wonderful volcano of Hawaii;...
 David Livingstone
 An adventurous diver
 The ruins of Baalbec
 The jetting pools of Iceland
 How lead shot is made
 Ostrich hunting
 Travels in the air
 A trip to the Yosemite Valley
 The sack of Rome
 Lion stories
 Remarkable cathedrals
 The pilgrimage to Mecca
 Ironclad ships
 Remarkable delusions
 The dragon tree of Teneriffe
 The natural bridge of Virginia
 Printing railway tickets
 Cleopatra's needle
 A railway three thousand miles...
 An American hurricane
 Fishing for sponge
 Animal life in South Africa
 President Thiers
 The tunnel under the sea
 Curious fishes
 A Swedish iron mine
 The ruins in the acropolis
 Escape from a pirate
 Rhinoceros hunting
 The pneumatic despatch
 A big country
 Egyptian tombs
 A railway up a mountain
 The baked monks of Malta
 Science on the seas
 The street of everlasting...
 Du Chaillu and the gorillas
 Glass manufacture
 The Mont Cenis tunnel
 The temples of Yucatan
 Talking machines
 Escape from a tinterero
 Tatooing extraordinary
 Through the rapids
 Forty feet of fire; or, the mines...
 Visit to the diamond mines
 The bamboo
 A sandstorm
 John Kitto
 The ship of the desert
 The fish torpedo
 Ascent of the sacred mountain
 Lost wills
 A silver mine in Japan
 The floating dock of Bermuda
 The baboon
 The catacombs of Rome
 The Great Wall of China
 The first steamboat
 Fish or reptile?
 Secrets of the Earth
 A country under water
 A submarine volcano
 The salt mines of Hall
 Ringing the wild horse
 A tropical snow mountain
 The pirates' treasure
 Lights in the sea
 An acre of silver
 A noble adventurer
 Insect sappers and miners
 A visit to Woolwich arsenal
 Elevated railways
 The lifeboat
 Ostrich farming
 Eleven months in a yacht
 Three thousand miles on foot
 Marvels of medical science
 The burning at Priesnitz
 Amongst the Bashkirs
 The mammoth cave of Kentucky
 The bewildered pontiff
 Chased by an engine
 A forest on fire
 Canvas lifeboats
 Logging on puget sound
 Arago and the banditti
 Monkey stories
 Waterworks and fountains
 The druids and their temples
 The leak in the dyke
 The dwarfs of Central Africa
 The American king of beasts
 Secrets of the Atlantic gable
 A mountain of coal
 Bird life in Africa
 The ice harvest
 Escape of the "Juno"
 The lion's ride
 Ascent of the peak of Teneriff...
 Hunting the moose
 History of the guillotine
 A fortunate accident
 A monument with a story
 The "Great Eastern" steamship
 A female Crusoe
 Adventure with a cobra
 The Syrian sheep
 The miracle of Saint Januarius
 The destruction of Arica
 Footprints on the sand - a...
 The cold snap
 Crocodile tales
 Adventure with wolves
 My captivity in Abyssinia
 Forest telegraphs
 Optical illusions
 Black vespers
 A wonderful timepiece
 Monster guns
 Six months on floating ice
 Wall-paper printing machine
 The Syrian goat
 Livingstone's last journeys
 Remarkable snow-storms
 Back Cover

Group Title: The pictorial cabinet of marvels : comprising marvels of natural phenomena; wonders of art; daring deeds by land and sea; marvellous discoveries and inventions; wonders and curiosities of natural history; remarkable men; personal adventures in field and flood; and a variety of other interesting reading
Title: The pictorial cabinet of marvels
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00081094/00001
 Material Information
Title: The pictorial cabinet of marvels comprising marvels of natural phenomena; wonders of art; daring deeds by land and sea; marvellous discoveries and inventions; wonders and curiosities of natural history; remarkable men; personal adventures in field and flood; and a variety of other interesting reading
Physical Description: 508 p., 8 leaves of plates : ill. (some col.) ; 25 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Weir, Harrison, 1824-1906 ( Illustrator )
Frederick Warne and Co ( Publisher )
Butler and Tanner ( Printer )
Selwood Printing Works ( Printer )
Publisher: Frederick Warne & Co.
Place of Publication: London ;
New York
Manufacturer: Butler and Tanner ; Selwood Printing Works
Publication Date: [1891?]
Subject: Curiosities and wonders -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Natural history -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
World history -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Science -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Physical sciences -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Geography -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Discoveries in science -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Discoveries in geography -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Inventions -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Biography -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Pictorial cloth bindings (Binding) -- England -- 1891   ( rbbin )
Prize books (Provenance) -- 1891   ( rbprov )
Bldn -- 1891
Genre: Pictorial cloth bindings (Binding)   ( rbbin )
Prize books (Provenance)   ( rbprov )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
United States -- New York -- New York
England -- Frome
Statement of Responsibility: embellished with upwards of one hundred and twenty first-class wood engravings, by eminent English and foreign artists; and a series of natural history plates, beautifully printed in oil colours, from paintings by Harrison Weir.
General Note: "History, science, discovery, travel and adventure, natural history, invention"--Half-title page.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00081094
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002224450
notis - ALG4714
oclc - 191100926

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iii
    Half Title
        Page iv
    Title Page
        Page v
    Table of Contents
        Page vi
        Page vii
    List of Illustrations
        Page viii
    Wonderful bridges
        Page 1
        Page 2
    A wonderful coal mine
        Page 3
    Adventures with bears
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    The grandest ruin in the world
        Page 9
        Page 10
    James Watt, the improver of the steam-engine
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    An adventure in Chinese waters
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
    The diving bell
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Hunting the hippopotamus
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 24a
    The heroine of the Farne islands
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Marvellous mammoths
        Page 29
    The mine under the sea
        Page 30
    The early history of the steam engine
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
    The wonderful cave temples
        Page 34
        Page 35
    Wonderful trees
        Page 36
        Page 37
    Curious freaks of nature
        Page 38
    Surf-riding in Hawaii
        Page 39
    A wonderful precipice
        Page 40
    The city of the sultans
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
    A startling adventure
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
    Slave-catching in the Indian Ocean
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
    Krupp and his foundry
        Page 54
        Page 55
    The pursuit of knowledge
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
    A railway in the clouds
        Page 59
    The geysers
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
    The pirogue - The Suez Canal
        Page 63
        Page 64
    The electric eel
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
    The oldest prison in the world
        Page 68
        Page 69
    The golden eagle
        Page 64a
    Captain Boyton's life dress
        Page 70
        Page 71
    The Thames Tunnel
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
    A natural temple
        Page 77
    A snake capture
        Page 78
        Page 79
    The palm and its uses
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
    Bicycles and velocipedes
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
    The perils of diving
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
    Flying postmen
        Page 90
        Page 91
    Daylight fireworks
        Page 92
        Page 93
    The Towers of Silence
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
    The life brigade
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
    A mysterious collision
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
    A balloon chase at sea
        Page 104
        Page 105
    How to make money
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
    The crystal grotto
        Page 109
    The Temple of Philae
        Page 110
        Page 111
    Horse-taming extraordinary
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
    Remarkable conflagrations
        Page 118
        Page 119
    The wheat-field of the world
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
    Hair-dressing extraordinary
        Page 123
    How sewing-machines are made
        Page 124
        Page 125
    Damming out the ocean
        Page 126
        Page 127
    The Leaning Tower of Pisa
        Page 128
        Page 129
    Under Niagara Falls
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
    A man and tiger fight
        Page 133
        Page 134
    Pelicans and flamingoes
        Page 134a
        Page 135
        Page 136
    A swimming island
        Page 137
        Page 138
    The postal telegraph service
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
    George Stephenson, the railway projector
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
    The pearl fishery
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
    The dungeons of the black forest
        Page 150
        Page 151
    A wonderful breakwater
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
    Travelling in Japan
        Page 155
        Page 156
    Adventures of bank-notes
        Page 157
    Pickled pork
        Page 158
        Page 159
    The leopard
        Page 160
        Page 160a
    Twin steamships
        Page 161
        Page 162
    The wonderful volcano of Hawaii; or, "the house of everlasting fire"
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
    David Livingstone
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
    An adventurous diver
        Page 174
    The ruins of Baalbec
        Page 175
        Page 176
    The jetting pools of Iceland
        Page 177
    How lead shot is made
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
    Ostrich hunting
        Page 183
    Travels in the air
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
    A trip to the Yosemite Valley
        Page 187
    The sack of Rome
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
    Lion stories
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
    Remarkable cathedrals
        Page 196
        Page 197
    The pilgrimage to Mecca
        Page 198
        Page 199
    Ironclad ships
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
    Remarkable delusions
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
    The dragon tree of Teneriffe
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
    The natural bridge of Virginia
        Page 210
    Printing railway tickets
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
    Cleopatra's needle
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
    A railway three thousand miles long
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
    An American hurricane
        Page 221
    Fishing for sponge
        Page 222
        Page 223
    Animal life in South Africa
        Page 224
        Page 225
    President Thiers
        Page 226
        Page 227
    The tunnel under the sea
        Page 228
        Page 229
    Curious fishes
        Page 230
        Page 231
    A Swedish iron mine
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
    The ruins in the acropolis
        Page 235
    Escape from a pirate
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
    Rhinoceros hunting
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
    The pneumatic despatch
        Page 244
    A big country
        Page 245
    Egyptian tombs
        Page 246
        Page 247
    A railway up a mountain
        Page 248
        Page 249
    The baked monks of Malta
        Page 250
    Science on the seas
        Page 251
        Page 252
    The street of everlasting prosperity
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
        Page 256
    Du Chaillu and the gorillas
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 259
        Page 260
    Glass manufacture
        Page 261
    The Mont Cenis tunnel
        Page 262
        Page 263
    The temples of Yucatan
        Page 264
        Page 265
    Talking machines
        Page 266
        Page 267
        Page 268
        Page 269
        Page 270
    Escape from a tinterero
        Page 271
    Tatooing extraordinary
        Page 272
    Through the rapids
        Page 273
        Page 274
    Forty feet of fire; or, the mines of Avondale
        Page 275
        Page 276
    Visit to the diamond mines
        Page 277
        Page 278
        Page 279
    The bamboo
        Page 280
        Page 281
        Page 282
    A sandstorm
        Page 283
    John Kitto
        Page 284
        Page 285
        Page 286
    The ship of the desert
        Page 287
        Page 288
    The fish torpedo
        Page 289
        Page 290
    Ascent of the sacred mountain
        Page 291
        Page 292
    Lost wills
        Page 293
        Page 294
    A silver mine in Japan
        Page 295
    The floating dock of Bermuda
        Page 296
        Page 297
    The baboon
        Page 298
        Page 299
    The catacombs of Rome
        Page 300
        Page 301
        Page 302
        Page 303
    The Great Wall of China
        Page 304
    The first steamboat
        Page 305
    Fish or reptile?
        Page 306
        Page 307
    Secrets of the Earth
        Page 308
        Page 309
        Page 310
    A country under water
        Page 311
        Page 312
    A submarine volcano
        Page 313
        Page 314
    The salt mines of Hall
        Page 315
    Ringing the wild horse
        Page 316
        Page 317
    A tropical snow mountain
        Page 318
        Page 319
        Page 320
        Page 321
        Page 322
        Page 323
    The pirates' treasure
        Page 324
        Page 325
        Page 326
        Page 327
    Lights in the sea
        Page 328
        Page 329
        Page 330
        Page 331
    An acre of silver
        Page 332
    A noble adventurer
        Page 333
        Page 334
        Page 335
        Page 336
        Page 337
        Page 338
    Insect sappers and miners
        Page 339
        Page 340
        Page 341
        Page 342
        Page 343
    A visit to Woolwich arsenal
        Page 344
        Page 345
        Page 346
    Elevated railways
        Page 347
    The lifeboat
        Page 348
        Page 349
        Page 350
        Page 351
    Ostrich farming
        Page 352
        Page 352a
        Page 353
    Eleven months in a yacht
        Page 354
        Page 355
        Page 356
        Page 357
        Page 358
    Three thousand miles on foot
        Page 359
        Page 360
        Page 361
        Page 362
        Page 363
        Page 364
        Page 365
        Page 366
        Page 367
    Marvels of medical science
        Page 368
        Page 369
    The burning at Priesnitz
        Page 370
        Page 371
        Page 372
    Amongst the Bashkirs
        Page 373
        Page 374
        Page 375
    The mammoth cave of Kentucky
        Page 376
    The bewildered pontiff
        Page 377
        Page 378
    Chased by an engine
        Page 379
        Page 380
        Page 381
    A forest on fire
        Page 382
        Page 383
    Canvas lifeboats
        Page 384
        Page 385
    Logging on puget sound
        Page 386
        Page 387
        Page 388
    Arago and the banditti
        Page 389
    Monkey stories
        Page 390
        Page 391
        Page 392
        Page 393
        Page 394
        Page 395
    Waterworks and fountains
        Page 396
        Page 397
        Page 398
    The druids and their temples
        Page 399
    The leak in the dyke
        Page 400
        Page 401
    The dwarfs of Central Africa
        Page 402
        Page 403
        Page 404
        Page 405
    The American king of beasts
        Page 406
        Page 407
    Secrets of the Atlantic gable
        Page 408
        Page 409
        Page 410
        Page 411
        Page 412
        Page 413
        Page 414
    A mountain of coal
        Page 415
        Page 416
    Bird life in Africa
        Page 416a
        Page 417
        Page 418
        Page 419
    The ice harvest
        Page 420
        Page 421
        Page 422
        Page 423
        Page 424
    Escape of the "Juno"
        Page 425
        Page 426
        Page 427
    The lion's ride
        Page 428
    Ascent of the peak of Teneriffe
        Page 429
        Page 430
        Page 431
    Hunting the moose
        Page 432
    History of the guillotine
        Page 433
        Page 434
        Page 435
        Page 436
    A fortunate accident
        Page 437
        Page 438
        Page 439
        Page 440
    A monument with a story
        Page 441
        Page 442
        Page 443
    The "Great Eastern" steamship
        Page 444
        Page 445
        Page 446
        Page 447
    A female Crusoe
        Page 448
        Page 449
    Adventure with a cobra
        Page 450
        Page 451
        Page 452
    The Syrian sheep
        Page 453
    The miracle of Saint Januarius
        Page 454
        Page 455
    The destruction of Arica
        Page 456
        Page 457
    Footprints on the sand - a reverie
        Page 458
    The cold snap
        Page 459
        Page 460
        Page 461
        Page 462
        Page 463
    Crocodile tales
        Page 464
        Page 465
        Page 466
    Adventure with wolves
        Page 467
        Page 468
    My captivity in Abyssinia
        Page 469
        Page 470
        Page 471
        Page 472
        Page 473
        Page 474
        Page 475
        Page 476
    Forest telegraphs
        Page 477
        Page 478
        Page 479
    Optical illusions
        Page 480
        Page 481
        Page 482
        Page 483
        Page 484
    Black vespers
        Page 485
    A wonderful timepiece
        Page 486
    Monster guns
        Page 487
        Page 488
        Page 489
        Page 490
        Page 491
    Six months on floating ice
        Page 492
        Page 493
    Wall-paper printing machine
        Page 494
        Page 495
    The Syrian goat
        Page 496
    Livingstone's last journeys
        Page 497
        Page 498
        Page 499
        Page 500
        Page 501
        Page 502
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    Remarkable snow-storms
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Full Text





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~- ----1 .___ .. ...1. .-I--1^-. I~---i-L~.II'~ ,.--- IXX--__X__



1rabinlt4 'ofif I V4ti






EARTHQUAKES . ... ... 95

WATERSPOUTS .. . .....


A BIG COUNTRY. . .. 245
THE BAMBOO . . .. 280
A SANDSTORM . . .. 283
JOHN KITTO . . .. 284
LOST WILLS . .. .. 293
THE BABOON ... ... ... 298
FISH OR REPTILE? .. .. 306
4 NOBLE ADVENTURER .... ..' 333
THE LIFEBOAT ... .. 348
OSTRICH FARMING ... .... 352

MEMORIES . ... .. .



ELEVATED RAILWAY . itl Page THE LEOPARD .... .. ,, 16o
THE HIPPOPOTAMUS .. .. facingfpage 24 OSTRICHES. . 352
THE EAGLE . ,, 65 THE PEACOCK .. .. ,, 417


A DERVISH .. .. 43




ST has been well said that ." to the civil engineer the word. impossible
is scarcely.permitted. His professional duties call upon him to
devise the means for surmounting obstacles of the most formidable
kind. He has to work in the water, over the water, under the
water; to cause streams to flow; to check them from overflowing;
Sto raise water to a great height; to build docks and walls that will
bear the dashing of the waves; to convert the dry land into har-
bours, and low-water shores into dry lahd; to construct lighthouses on lonely
S rocks; to build lofty aqueducts for the conveyance of water, and viaducts for
'the conveyance of railway-trains; to burrow into the bowels of the earth with
S tunnels, shafts, pits and mines; to span torrents and ravines with bridges; to
construct chimneys that rival the loftiest spires and pyramids in height;' to
climb mountains with roads and railways; to sink wells to-vast depths in search of water.
By untiring patience, skill, energy, and invention, he produces in these several ways works
which certainly rank among the marvels of human power."
During the present century iron has been commonly substituted for stone in the
construction ot large arches. By its use bridges and viaducts have been thrown across


rivers and valleys previously considered im-
practicable. A rude kind of suspension
bridge has been in use for ages in China,
Peru and other remote countries; but their
use on a. large scale is of quite recent date.
Although excelled by others since, the
finest suspension-bridge up to that time
was the one constructed in 1826 by Mr.
Telford across the Menai Straits, to con-
nect the island of Anglesea with the main-
land of Wales. The span of the suspended
or central arch, between the highest points
of the chains on the top of the piers, and
153 feet above high-water, is 560 feet.
Seven stone arches, of 52' feet span, make
up the rest of the bridge; four. of those
being next the island, and three on the
Welsh coast. The chains, of which there
are sixteen, reach over the whole structure,
and, besides, descend 60 feet into sloping
pits or shafts, to where they are secured by
means of cast-iron frames ingrafted in the
rocks; the entire length of each chain being
x714 feet, oralmost a third ofa. mile. The
two suspension piers of the great arch rise
52 feet above the roadway, and are sur-
mounted by cast-iron blocks and saddles,
moveable upon friction rollers, for the
purpose of allowing the chains which pass
over them to move freely when expanding
or contracting under change of tempera-
ture. The suspension platform, elevated
100 feet above high-water, is occupied by
two carriage-roads, each 12 feet wide, with
a footpath of 4 feet between them. These
pass through arches in the suspension piers ;
and each is separated, and strongly railed
in, by lattice iron work, both for protection
and for stiffening the roadway, to prevent
vibration. Each of the chains is fivefold,
and of such complexity in design, that any
part of the chain may with safety be removed
at any time for repair, or be replaced by a
new one.
The Menai Bridge, however, has been
greatly surpassed, both in length and in
height, by a far lighter and much less ex-
pensive one, though of great strength,
which has since been constructed with a
;span of 87o feet, over the Sarine at Friburg,

in Switzerland. This was completed in
the year 1834.
Of iron railway-bridges the Menai tubu-
lar bridge is the largest structure of the kind
in Great Britain, though certainly not the
most beautiful. It crosses the Menai Strait
at a point about a mile from Telford's
suspension bridge. On a rock in the
centre of the Strait a stone tower is built to
a height of 192 feet above water-level; two
other towers are built to a similar height;
and these three towers, with the shore
abutments, divide the whole width of the
Strait into four spans-two of 460 feet, and
two of 230 feet, The grandest lift ever
effected in engineering was to raise each
quadrangular iron tube complete to its own
portion of span-the weight being 1800
tons raised 192 feet. There being double
tubes, each for one line of rails, there were
four portions of 460 feet and four of 230.
There were 126 miles of rivets, to fasten
the plates of which the tubes were made;
and there were 2,000,000 rivets in all!
There are 12,000 tons of iron, and. o15,ooo
tons of stone and brick, and 580,000 cubic
feet of timber used in scaffoldings and plat-
forms for buildings.
The Niagara suspension bridge is, from
the natural obstacles of the situation, one of
the most daring undertakings of modern
engineering.. The roaring rapids are im-
mediately beneath, 250 feet belowthe level
of the rails. The bridge, 800 feet long, is
much shorter than many railway bridges;
but it was difficult to build in such a situa-
tion. It is not supported by chains of plate-
links like most suspension bridges, but by
four enormous cables of wire, stretching
from the Canadian cliff to the United States
cliff of the river. Each cable consists of
no less than 4000 distinct wires; the four
cables pass over the tops of lofty stone
towers; and the roadway hangs from them
by 624 suspending rods. A locomotive
first crossed the Niagara in 1855, forming
the first railway link between the British and
United States empires. This, like a beau-
tiful bridge over the Jumna, near Delhi, has
a railway over a road and foot way.


The Victoria railway bridge in Canada is,
however, the largest and grandest in the
world. It consists of 24 piers, rising 60
feet above the water, with intervals of 242
feet apart, except one of 330 feet in the
These massive piers support a quadran-
gular iron tube, more than 6000 feet long,
19 to 22 feet high, and 16 feet wide,; and
through this tube the trains run. Owing
to the depth of the St. Lawrence at the spot

where the bridge crosses at Montreal, the
swiftness of the current, and the enormous
masses of ice accumulated there every win-
ter, the work of constructing the bridge was
one of trying difficulty, and lasted from
1854 to 186o. Every spring, when the ice
of the St. Lawrence breaks up, the crushing,
crashing, and pressure against the piers of
the bridge are almost inconceivable,. sub-
jecting the work of the engineers to a very
prolonged and severe test.


-'..--"' -- HE recently settled at one point we are shown the' very fuse
_f'. -- Territory of Co- that sent a poor miner to his death but a
V.,i -- lorado, in the day or two before. But still the old blind
'" ) United States, has mule trots on, and the passing through and
-'- some wonderful rapid closing behind us of the heavy oaken
'; natural curiosities, door that preserves the little of wholesome
Amongst them is air left in the drift, is as if it barred us for
'' i n fr l coal about five miles evermore from the world behind. The ride
1 .n. A recent traveller thus in appears an age; the ride out, but of a
describes a visit to it: moment's time in comparison. There are
"We are bowling along in a eighty-six side chambers, or rooms as the
coal truck attached to a blind miners know them, in the main entry, fifty-
mule, through a vein of solid coal some- seven in another entry, and in all four miles
thing over five feet in diameter. It is a of track upon which the coal is carried to
weird ride, this mile or more into the inky the outer world. The veins average five
bowels of the earth, the faint shadows from feet two inches, and run three and one-half
our diminutive lamps causing a ghastly miles east and west, and ten miles north
effect not at all lessened by the blackness and south. A hundred miners are at work,
of the coal on either side and overhead, and the yield averages four hundred tons
Every few feet we peer into the dusky per day.
depths of the apparently unending series The gigantic solid lump of shining coal
of side chambers, catching quick glimpse eight feet nine inches long, six feet across,
of the little fire-flies, as the miners look: and four feet four inches high, that attracted
to be, as we pass so swiftly on. We see such great attention at the Centennial Ex-
not the forms of the men, their faces, nor hibition in 1877, being beyond all compari-
their hands, only the lamp-wicks' sickly son the greatest single piece of coal on
flaring from the unseen hats. Every now exhibition, was taken from this mine. It
and then piles of powder in canisters almost weighed seven tons, and was cut and brought
block up the entrance to the chambers, and out of the mine in three days."




I-.,,,.-,! WAS cruising about the Bay brought ashore, and in a short time our
'.l, ':JI". of San Francisco, in a ship's preparations for supper were complete.
long-boat, with three or four The kettle was singing on the embers, the
1 sailors, in search of any frying-pan was spluttering away with the
i, "wreck" (or "flotsam," as rashers, and the wave-worn wreckers were
S our old statutes would call seated in a row, gazing with hungry and
Sit), such as building-piles or anxious faces on the approaching "feed;"
spars of vessels, that we. when, suddenly, a dark and formidable-
might chance to come across, looking object emerged from the gloom of
Sometimes these expeditions night in the landward direction and ad-
were successful, at other vanced slowly towards our fire.
times a failure. I remember "A bear, and a grizzly one," shouted the
once, after a severe easterly gale, we picked American we had with us, as we all started
up a number of valuable articles, evidently to our feet. That was enough. Sauve qui
from the wreck of some unfortunate vessel. peut was the order of the day. Resistance
Amongst the spoil was a cask of lime juice, was not for a moment thought of. Supper
and another cask of preserved eggs, for and our traps were in an instant abandoned,
which we obtained the several prices of fifty and pell-mell we rushed down to the beach,
and one hundred and thirty dollars-sums and never looked behind till we were fairly
which, in English money, are together in the boat and getting the anchor up.
equivalent to about Z38. The latter may Then, what a sight greeted us There sat our
seem a large price; but it is necessary to grizzly enemy on his haunches, gazing with
remember that at that time-namely, in the greatest nonchalance into the glowing
1849-provisions of all kinds were fearfully embers of the fire-our fire, and evidently
expensive, especially eggs, which were very enjoying the pleasant warmth, while we
scarce. were shivering in the cold. Slowly and
But to continue my narrative. I have sadly we got up our anchor; more slowly
said that we were sailing about the harbour and more sadly still, we placed our oars in
in search of wreck, and, as often happened, the rowlocks and "gave way" in a very
night closed upon us when we were a long melancholy mood; but as our boat struck
way from home. I believe the Bay of San out on her course, our eyes were still fixed
Francisco is some thirty miles in length; so, on the receding shore, where the fire still
according to our custom, we made for the blazed brightly, where the bear still sat on
nearest land, anchored our boat, and werit his haunches gazing into the blaze, and
ashore. In what particular portion of the where our supper was by this time nearly
bay we were situated none of us knew or ready for his hungry maw, by us uneaten.
cared. It seemed a somewhat desolate Now, perhaps, some gallant volunteer
spot, as far as we could, discern through reading this would consider that in this
the dark and drear autumn night. How- affair, the white feather was shown by
ever, our requisites for camping-namely, the writer and his companions; but our
wood and water-were easily procured, and volunteer would be mistaken. To cope
in a few minutes a capital fire sent forth with a grizzly bear, a good rifle and a
its cheerful blaze and genial heat. Then good rifleman are absolutely essential.
our blankets, frying-pan, kettle, etc., were The rifleman must also be a first-rate


hunter, accustomed to kill large game;
for the sport is intensely dangerous,
as it is only in one or two places that a
wound can be inflicted which would prove
instantaneously mortal on this toughest of
monsters; and, should the shot fail, the
hunter would have no time to load
again ere the beast would be upon him.
Hardy trappers and hunters in the prairie
shrink from a conflict alone with the grisly
bear; and the Indian brave who prevails
over him advances a greater step in the
estimation of Indian chivalry, than if he had
taken three scalps from human foes in a
fair stand-up fight.
After I had been a denizen of California
for some two years, business compelled me
to take my departure for the neighboring
State of Oregon. When my affairs in that
state were arranged, I determined to travel
back overland to San Francisco, in company
with a mule train proceeding there-no
slight journey, as it embraced a distance of
some thousand miles, not exactly over a
macadamized road. On the contrary,
mounted on good horses, we followed a
slight Indian trail, scarcely ever of more
importance than a sheep track, and ofttimes
quite obliterated. I shall, however, avoid
a long digression of describing how we
climbed mountains, forded rivers, and
skirted precipices, and how we more than
once had perilous skirmishes .with Indians.
The grizzly bear is my theme, and it
devolves upon me now simply to relate how
again I came into juxtaposition with this
formidable foe.
After travelling very hard for a week or
so, we found ourselves one night camped
on the banks of the Roque river, one of the
rivers of Oregon, where gold has since been
discovered; and, as our cattle were rather
in a poor condition, we resolved to give
them a rest by camping all the next day.
Feeling myself in the course of that day
inclined for a gentle ride, towards the after-
noon I saddled my horse, a good specimen
of Indian breed, which I had bought from a
Pawnee chief. Taking my rifle across my
saddle-bags, I set off to see whether I could

get a shot at an elk-a species of deer
commonly called wapiti, which abound in
that region. I rode out from camp, and
after cantering some four or five miles, came
to the end of the little prairie on which we
were camped, and got into broken ground,
well wooded, and with a thick growth of
"chapparal," that is, underwood."
Moving along at a slow amble, and keep.
ing a good look-out for game, and also for
any lurking Indian,-for we were now on
hostile ground,-I suddenly felt my horse
tremble under me, and rapidly quicken his
pace to a slashing gallop. Looking to my
right hand, to my intense astonishment,
and I may say fear, I beheld a monstrous
bear, evidently an old grizzly, rising from
his lair beneath a tree.
In a moment I knew he would pursue
me, for I had "crossed his wind." This
requires explanation; but I had often been
told by hunters of experience that this
species of bear does not attack men if they
pass sideways or in his rear, bur should they
on the other hand, pass to windward, he
is instantly exasperated and gives chase.
Whether this statement is fanciful or not,
I am sorry to say that in my case it proved
too true; for in another instant the grizzly
seemed to have made up his mind, and was
advancing towards us in full pursuit.
Now, had I been upon the prairie, I
should have cared little for my foe. I knew
my horse, and though he was of Indian
breed, as I have said before, he was re-
markably fleet in his gallop; and the grizzly
bear, though his speed, especially for a
short time, is not to be despised, is certainly
no match for a fleet horse on a level; but
then, in this case the brushwood was very
heavy, and only to be passed by a succes-
sion of small leaps, fearfully delaying at a
time like this, while my pursuer's heavy
body crushed indifferently through bush and
brier. With the end of my lasso, my spur,
and voice, I urged on my terrified horse.
The rein with Indian horses is of little avail;
they do not understand the bit, and in a
case of emergency it is better not to make
much use of it. My poor horse, however,


required neither of these inducements to do
his best. His Indian instincts had told
him that a dreaded foe was at hand, and
nobly did he strain 'every nerve to save
himself and his rider.
With one eye upon our course, I re-
garded at intervals our dreadful pursuer.
Infinitely quicker than it takes to write it,
I at once appreciated the desperate nature
of the situation. In the first place, I saw
that in our relative speed my horse was
much inferior to our enemy, and that he
was nearing us fast, owing, as I said before,
to the broken ground. Unless, then, I could
gain the edge of the prairie in a compara-
tively short period, a death struggle must
inevitably ensue. But then I calculated, in
the second place, that I must be at least a
mile from the prairie, that wished-for refuge,
and at less than half that distance I should
be overtaken. True, I had my rifle in my
hand, and my revolver in my belt, both
loaded.. I might fire at our foe. A
moment's reflection convinced me that at
present it would be a useless attempt.
Even were I standing on firm footing, I
might not succeed in sending a ball into
any vulnerable part of the bear. But a
flying shot from the saddle-it was simply
absurd to attempt it. A thousand to one
it would have proved a failure.
I determined, then, to reserve my fire
till we should be at close quarters,-a con-
tingency that, sad to say, appeared most
unpleasantly imminent; for, in spite of all
my horsemanship, and the gallant efforts of
my Indian steed, a space of hardly twenty
yards now intervened between pursuer and
pursued. The moment, then, was ap-
proaching for action. Dropping my useless
reins on my horse's neck, I examined care-
fully the cap of my rifle, opened the flap 'of
the case of my revolver, and by a glance
assured myself that my "Green River
Knife" (the best make of bowie knives)
was in its usual place-my boot. Then I
carefully threw back the heavy folds of the
Mexican poncho I wore, to leave my arms
free to hold my rifle. As I did so, an idea
struck me. In a moment I had sipped my

head out of the poncho, and had it in my
hands, allowing it to flutter to the full ex-
tent of its folds. Then I released it from
my grasp, and it fell, as I designed, between
my horse and our enemy.
My stratagem was successful; in, the
midst of his wild career the bear suddenly
pulled up at the sight of the fallen mantle,
and stood over it examining it curiously.
Well was it for me that in my younger days
I had been a keen reader of travels and
adventures, and by that means become
possessor of the little stratagem that par-
haps saved my life. I again seized my
abandoned reins, and with voice and spur
urged on my panting steed. It was well I
did so. After a few seconds' delay, which
however enabled me to put an interval of
perhaps a hundred yards between us, my
ruthless foe again resumed his pursuit.
Again he had the advantage in speed. In
vain was all'my horsemanship; in vain did
I sacrifice my Mexican sombrero, by throw-
ing it to mother earth, devoutly hoping it
would have the same effect as the poncho.
It was useless. Bruin passed it with con-
tempt; he was not to be done a second
On went the chase, and again did I have
the mortification of seeing the space be-
tween us, gradually diminish, and my fate
but a question of minutes. As this direful
conviction forced itself with irresistible
power on my mind, even at the very next
moment a ray of hope burst upon me. I
cast a despairing glance ahead, and to my
intense relief saw the ground was getting
clearer. I was close to the edge of the
prairie. I shouted aloud in exultation; for,
as the ground got more and more unen-
cumbered, my horse drew gradually ahead.
A few seconds sufficed to double the
space that intervened between us and our
foe. A few minutes, and we had gained a
full hundred yards. Hurrah! A few
hundred yards more, and we shall be safe,
-safe on the prairie.
At this moment a stumble and a crash
ensued. A thousand lights danced before
my eyes. My sorely-pressed Indian steed






~t' .:_::


had lost his foothold on the polished sur-
face of a prostrate barked pine-tree, and
together we had come headlong, to the
ground. Half-stunned by the fall, never-
theless I scrambled to my feet in a second,
and seized my rifle, which lay uninjured
close at hand, and looked around. My
poor horse still lay where he fell, snorting
piteously with fear. Intuitively, I felt there
tvas not time to raise him and mount ere
our enemy would be upon us. There was
but one hope now remaining: it was to
fight for it. Sternly and gloomily I men-
tally accepted the alternative, and with a
throbbing heart but a steady eye and firm
wrist, with my rifle at my shoulder, with my
back against a tree, I waited for my foe. I
had not to'wait long. On he came; for a
moment I thought he hesitated which to
attack-my steed or myself. I confess, in
that moment of peril I sincerely wished he
would single out the former, who lay some
ten yards distant from me; but it was not
to be. Slightly diverging, the bear charged
full upon me. knew my life depended
upon the accuracy of my first shot; if it
failed, I should hardly have time to draw
forth my revolver for another.
When but ten yards lay between us, and
he was gathering himself up for a final
spring, I took careful aim between the
eyes, and fired. A crash, a hideous growl,
a second of intense suspense, the smoke
lifted, and I alone stood erect. The
hideous, gigantic form of my adversary lay
prostrate on the ground, a nervous twitching
of the limbs alone betraying that life had
not yet departed. With a cry of triumph I
rushed upon him to administer the coup de
grace. Madman that I was in that moment
of exultation I lost my presence of mind and
neglected to reload my trusty rifle. I did
not even draw my revolver, but with insen-
sate wildness clubbed my rifle, and struck
th6 monster over his adamantine head.
Contemptible idea! the stock' of my rifle
was shattered by the blow, and but the
barrel remained in my hand. The blow I

had directed on the head of my adversary
was simply reviving. It had the effect that
a dose of hartshorn has in a fainting fit-
it brought him to. He had been only
stunned by the ball. Grim, ghastly, and
bleeding, he rose to his feet and confronted
me. A pang of surprise and remorse at
my own gross stupidity shot painfully across
my heart.
Fortunately, in that moment of horror I
remained cool. With the speed of thought
I had drawn and cocked my revolver and
ensconced myself behind a tree. With
weak and faltering steps, but still with fast
renewing strength, my opponent charged
down to my tree. I stepped aside, which
caused him to make a slight detour; and at
this instant I fired a chamber of my revol-
ver. He did not drop, but raising himself
on his hind legs, he threw himself upon me.
I awaited him in desperate calmness, though
at this moment he presented a terrific spec-
tacle, with glaring eyes, grinning tusks, and
tongue dropping foam and blood. Almost
I felt his hot breath on my cheek, when I
again fired point-blank at his head. The
next instant a blow from his fore paw
.knocked the weapon from my hand; that
effort, however, was his last. With trem-
bling joy I saw his huge carcass sink to
the earth, and his life departed in one
indescribable growl of rage and pain.
With a thankful heart for so wonderful a
deliverance, I now went to raise my poor
steed to his. feet, and rode into camp,
where, amid many an ejaculation of aston-
ishment, I told my tale, and exhibited my
trophy in the shape of the skin, of which I
had denuded my dead antagonist.
The white or polar bear enjoys a reputa-
tion for boldness and voracity. Most maril
ners who have been detained by the ice in
the polar seas have had frequent encoun-
ters with white bears. Instances have been
known in which they pursued them into
their vessels, even endeavduring to make
their way into cabins at night through the




MONGST the edifices
in and around the
Forum in Rome, the
Colosseum, which has

grandest ruin in the
world," is the most
impressive, both by its imposing
mass and its historic interest.
Though for centuries it served
as a quarry, out of which mate-
rials were dug for palaces and
churches, it yet stands vast and imperish-
able, apparently justifying the proud boast:
" While stands the Colosseum, Rome shall stand;
When falls the Colosseum, Rome shall fall;
And when Rome falls-the world !"

Its history is remarkable. After a time
of civil war and confusion in the empire,
Vespasian came to the throne. He, with
his son Titus, used the vacant spaces which
were made, partly by the fire and partly by
Nero's selfish display, for raising structures,
a considerable part of which still remain,
the most conspicuous being that which is
called the Colosseum. The place chosen
was a hollow between two of the hills on
which Rome stood, and where Nero had
caused a lake to be made near his Golden
House. The building covered nearly six
acres of ground. In form it is an oval, 620
feet in length, by 513 in breadth. This
colossal amphitheatre is said to have had
seats for 87,000. spectators, and standing
roomfor 20,000ooo more! Thepodium was en-
crusted with costly marbles; network of gilt
bronze supported by stakes of wheels of ivory,
guarded the spectators from the wild beasts;
the spaces between the seats glittered with
gold and gems; a portico carried round the
entire building was resplendent with gilded
columns marble statues thronged the ar-
cades; the awnings were of silk;, marble

tripods for burning perfumes were placed
throughout the edifice; and fountains of
fragrant waters sprinkled the spectators,
diffusing delicious odours through the air.
The subject of Christian martyrdom must
ever be our chief and cherished association
with the Colosseum. First in the series of
Christians who were here given to wild
beasts is Ignatius, bishop of Antioch. The
record which is furnished to us of his route
to Rome is peculiarly interesting, because
he partly travelled in the footsteps of St.
Paul. On his way he had written to the
Roman Christians in a spirit of eagerness
for martyrdom which is not altogether un-
like the tone of the apostle. I dread lest
your love should do me wrong. If ye are
silent about me, then I shall go to God. If
ye are too eager for my bodily safety, then
I must begin again the race, which now is.
nearly finished. Suffer me to be the food
of wild beasts, that by means of them I
may reach God. Nay, rather encourage
the beasts on, that they may become my
tomb, and leave nothing'of my body: lest,
after I have fallen asleep I be a burden to
any for my funeral." This wish was almost
literally accomplished, and very speedily
after his arrival, the games for which he
was destined were nearly ended, and he
was hurried to the amphitheatre. "The
beasts quickly despatched him, and so raven-
ously that only the harder and more rugged
bones were left."
Such scenes were often re-enacted in
Rome and various cities of the empire.
From the time when the Emperor Decius
put notices on the walls that magistrates
sparing the Christians would be punished,
persecution grew more general and syste-
matic, and at intervals raged violently.
"The Christians to the lions !" became a
common cry in times of panic and excite-


"And here the buzz of eager nations ran
In murmured pity, or loud-roared applause,
As man was slaughtered by his fellow-man.
And wherefore slaughtered? Wherefore, but
Such were the bloody circus' genial laws,
And the imperial pleasure.-Wherefore not?
What matters where we fall to fill the maws
Of worms-on battle plains or listed spot?
Both are but theatres where the chief actors rot.
I see before me the gladiator lie :
He leans upon his hand-his mahly brow
Consents to death, but conquers agony.
And his drooped head sinks gradually low,
And through his side the last drops, ebbing

From the rel gash fall heavy, one by. one,
Like the first of a thunder shower; and now
The arena swims around him-he is gone,
Ere ceased the human shout which hailed the
wretch who won!
He heard it, but he heeded not-his eyes
Were with his heart, and that was far away;
- He recked not of the life he lost, nor prize,
But where his rude hut by the I)anube lay:
There were his young barbarians all at play.
There was their Dacian mother-he, their sire,
Butchered to make a Roman holiday-
All this rushed with his blood.-Shall he ex-
And unavenged? Arise 1 ye Goths, and glut your
ire l '


Very striking is it to note that this arena,
so often drenched with the blood of Chris-
tian martyrs, is now consecrated as a church.
In the centre stands a plain cross, and round
the walls are fourteen shrines, before which
kneeling worshippers may often be seen.
In the worship thus offered there is doubt-
less much of superstition,-for when, in the
year 1750, Pope Benedict XIV. dedicated
the ruins to the memory of the Christian
martyrs, he proclaimed an indulgence of
two hundred days for every act of devotion
performed there. But whilst lamenting the
apostasy of Rome from the faith of the
primitive Church, we may, nevertheless, see

an outward and visible sign of the victory
of the Cross over that paganism which here
erected its inost imposing and characteristic
But one more glance may be taken at the
Colosseum before we finally leave it. The
calm repose and solitude of this ruin is very
impressive, when we call to mind the excited-
multitudes which once filled it and the
hideous things which they witnessed. Nature
has now patiently decked these gigantic
Roman arches with an infinite variety of
shrubs and flowers, so that the naturalist
as well as the antiquarian finds there an
opportunity for exercising his inquiry.




great improver of
the steam-engine,
was born at Green-
ock on the 19th of
SJanuary, 1736. His
father was a mer-
i- chant, and one of the magis-
trates of that town. He
received the rudiments of his
education in his native place;
but his health being, even then,
extremely delicate, as it continued to be to
the end of his life, his attendance at school
was not always very regular. Even at this
time his favourite study is said to have been
mechanical science. An anecdote related
of him when he was about fourteen years of
age, indicates the extreme restlessness and
activity of his mind as a boy. Once having
accompanied his mother on a visit to a
friend in Glasgow, he was left behind on
her return. The next time, however, that
Mrs. Watt came to Glasgow, her friend said
to her, "You must take your son James
home; I cannot stand the degree of excite-
ment he keeps me in; I am worn out for
want of sleep. Every evening before ten
o'clock, our usual hour of retiring to rest,
he contrives to engage me in conversation,
then begins some striking tale, and, whether
humorous or pathetic, the interest is so
overpowering, that the family all listen to
him with breathless attention, and hour after
hour strikes unheeded." This wonderful
faculty of story-telling, which robbed the
Glasgow lady of her sleep, Watt preserved
throughout his life.
At the age of eighteen he was sent to
London, to be apprenticed to a maker of
mathematical instruments. Thus, says M.
Arago, "the man who was about to cover
England with engines, in comparison with
which the antique and colossal machine of

Marly is but a pigmy, commenced his career
constructing with his own hands instru-
ments which were fine, delicate, and fragile-
those small but admirable reflecting sextants
to which navigation is so much indebted for
its progress." After a residence of little
more than a year in London, his continued
feeble health obliged him to return to Glas-
gow, where, in accordance with his owL
wishes and the advice of his friends, he
commenced business as a maker of mathe-
matical instruments. The date of his
settlement in this city, where he was after-
wards to work out some of his greatest
triumphs, was 1757, when he had just
passed his twenty-first year. In this situa-
tion he remained for some years, during
which, notwithstanding almost constant ill
health, he continued both to prosecute his
profession and to labour in the general
cultivation of his mind with extraordinary
ardour and perseverance. Honourable,
however, as his present appointment was,
he probably did not find it a very lucrative
one; and therefore, in 1763, when about
to marry, he removed from his apartments
in the University to a house in the city, and
entered upon the profession of a general
engineer. In the midst of these avocations,
a circumstance occurred which exercised a
most important influence upon his career.
In the winter of 1763-4, Mr. Anderson, the
founder of the Andersonian University,
Glasgow, finding that a small model of
Newcomen's steam-engine, which he had
among his apparatus, would not work,,sent
it to Watt for repair. The subject of
steam-machinery had several times before
come under Watt's notice. A friend had,
in 1759, broached to him the idea of apply-
ing steam-power to wheel-carriages; and in
1761-2, he had occupied himself with
various experiments in order to measure the
force of steam. These experiments, how-


ever, terminated in no particular result; and
it was Professor Anderson's model of New-
comen's engine that begot in Watt's mind
the germ of those ideas respecting the use
of steam-power which have led to such
gigantic consequences.
In studying this.mqdel he proceeded to
take into consideration, with a view to their
amendment, what he deemed the two grand
.defects of Newcomen's engine. The first
of these was the necessity, arising from the
method employed to concentrate the steam,
of cooling the cylinder before every stroke
of the piston by the water injected into it.
On ,this account, a much more powerful
application of heat than would otherwise
have been requisite was demanded for the
purpose of again heating that vessel when
it was to be refilled with steam. In fact,
Watt ascertained that there was thus
occasioned, in the feeding of the machine,
a waste of not less than three-fourths of the
whole fuel, employed. If the cylinder, in-
stead of being thus cooled for every stroke
of the piston, could be kept permanently
hot, a fourth part of the heat which had
hitherto been applied would be found to be
sufficient to produce steam enough to fill it.
How then was this desideratum to be .at-
tained? Newcomen's method of injecting
the water into the cylinder was objection-
able; it cooled not only the steam on which
it was desired to produce that effect, but
also the cylinder itself, which, as the vessel
in which more steam was to be immediately
manufactured, it was so important to keep
hot. It was also a very serious objection
to this last-mentioned plan, that the injected
water itself, from the heat of the place
into which it was thrown, was very apt to be
partly converted into steam; and the more
cold water was used, the more considerable
did this creation of new steam become. In
fact, in the best of Newcomen's engines,
the perfection of the vacuum was so greatly
impaired from this cause, that the resistance
experienced by the piston in its descent was
found to amount to about a fourth.part- of
the whole atmospheric pressure by which it
was carried down, or, in other words, the

working power of the machine was thereby
diminished one-fourth.
Watt remedied the evil by a simple but
beautiful contrivance-his separate condenser.
The efficacy of this contrivance consisted
in his making the condensation of the steam
take place, not in the cylinder, but in a sepa-
rate vessel communicating with the cylinder
by a tube provided with a stop-cock. This
vessel being exhausted of air, it is evident
that, on the turning of the stop-cock in the
tube connecting it with the cylinder, the
steam from the cylinder will rush into it
so as to fill the vacuum; and that this will
continue until the steam be equally dis-
tributed through both vessels-the cylinder
and the other. But, if in addition to being
free from air, the separate vessel be kept
constantly cool by an injection of cold
water, or other means, so as to condense
the steam as fast as it rushes in from the
cylinder, it is evident that all the steam
will quit the cylinder and enter the sepa-
rate vessel, to be condensed there., The
cylinder will be thus left a perfect vacuum,
without having lost any of its heat by the
process; the piston will descend with full
force; and when the new steam rushes in
from the boiler, no portion of it will be
wasted in reheating the cylinder. So far
the invention was all that could be desired;
an additional contrivance was necessary,
however, to render it complete. The steam,
in the act of being condensed in the sepa-
rate vessel, would give out its latent heat;
this would raise the temperature of the
condensing water; from the heated water,
vapour would rise; and this, vapour, in ad-
dition to the atmospheric air which would
be disengaged from the injected water by
the heat, would accumulate in the con-
denser, argd spoil its efficiency. In order
to overcome this defect, Watt attached to
the bottom of the condenser a common air
pump, called the condenser pun~p, worked
by a piston attached to the beam, and
which, at every stroke of the engine,
withdrew the accumulated water, air, and
vapour. This was a slight tax upon the
power of the machine but the total gain

I:.' .2 7


[From a painting by Rinaldi.



was enormous-equivalent to making one
pound of coal do as much work as had
been done by five pounds in Newcomen's
In addition to those difficulties which his
mechanical ingenuity enabled him to sur-
mount, Watt had to contend with others of
a different nature, in his attempts to reduce
them to practice. He had no pecuniary
resources of his own, and was at first with-
out any friend willing to run the risk of the
outlay necessary for an experiment on a
sufficiently large scale. At length," says
Lord Brougham, "he happily met with
Di. Roebuck, a man of profound scientific
knowledge, and of daring spirit as a specu-
lator. He had just founded the Carron
iron-works, not far from Glasgow, and was
lessee, under the Hamilton family, of the
Kinneil coal-works." A partnership was
formed between Roebuck and Watt,
according to the terms of 'which he
was to receive two-thirds of the profits, in
return for the outlay of his capital in bring-
ing the new machines into practice. A
patent was taken out in 1769, and an en-
gine of the new construction, with an eigh-
teen-inch cylinder, was erected at the Kinneil
coal-works with every prospect of complete
success; when, unfortunately, Dr. Roebuck
was obliged by pecuniary embarrassments
to dissolve the partnership, leaving Watt
with the whole patent, but without the
means of rendering it available. At last,
.about the year 1774, when all hopes of any
further assistance from Dr. Roebuck were
at an end, he resolved to remove to Bir-
mingham, and enter into partnership with
Mr. Boulton, whose extensive engineering
establishments had already become famous.
The firm of Boulton & Watt commenced
the business of making steam-engines in the
year 1775, and almost their first business was
to procure a prolongation of Watt's patent,
which having commenced in 1769, had but
a few years to run. It was only after a very
keen opposition in Parliament that the ex-
tension of the patent for twenty-five years
was obtained. At the head of those who
opposed the renewal of the patent in the

House of Commons was the celebrated
Edmund Burke.
The extension of the patent having been
procured, the.partners began to construct
draining machines of the largest dimensions,
which immediately supplanted Newcomen's
engines in the mining districts.' The bar-
gain which the partners made with those
mine proprietors who applied for permission
to use the engine, was most reasonable.
They stipulated to receive "a third part of
the value of the coal saved by the use of
the new engine." This agreement brought
ample profits to the partners, as may be
judged from the fact, that the proprietors of
a single mine where three pumps were em-
ployed, commuted the proposed thirdof the
coal saved into 62 500 a year from each of
the engines. Thus the saving effected by
one engine amounted to at least ;7500,
which had been expended formerly in waste
fuel. As the engine was one of large dimen-
sions, it was scarcely possible to pirate it
secretly; but so numerous were the attempts
made to plagiarise it, or, by ingenious ways,
to infringe the patent right, that Messrs.
Watt & Boulton were almost perpetually
engaged in lawsuits to defend their property.
In several cases, the opposition which Mr.
Watt experienced on account of his defend-
ing his rights amounted to positive perse-
These attacks, however, failed; and in
their lawsuits the partners were uniformly
successful. "I have been so beset with pla-
.giaries," says Watt in one of his letters, that
if I had not a very distinct recollection of
my doing it, their impudent assertions would
lead me to doubt whether I'was the author
of any improvement on the steam-engine."
These attempts, notwithstanding successive
verdicts in his favour, did not terminate till
the year 1779, when the validity of his
claims was finally confirmed by the unani-
mous decisiori of the judges of the Court
of KIing's Bench. Mr. Watt's various pa-
tents expired in the rear 1800. In that
year, therefore, he withdrew entirely from
business, leaving his share in the Soho
establishment to his sons.


The last years of the life of the great
engineer present few incidents worthy of
notice. His health, which was extremely
delicate in his youth, and liable to be
affected by violent headaches, to which, he
was subject, improved as age advanced,
and his decline was calm and happy. He
died at Heathfield, in Staffordshire, on the
25th of August, 1819, in his eighty-fourth
year, and was buried in the parish church
of Handsworth, where a monument to his
memory, with a marble statue by Chantrey,
was erected by his son Mr. James Watt.
A second statue, by the same artist, was

presented by his son to the college of
Glasgow. Greenock, as the birthplace of
Watt, has likewise a statue of her most illus-
trious son; and not to mention others,
the finest production of Chantrey's chisel is
the colossal one of Watt in Westminster
Abbey, bearing an inscription from the pen
of Lord Brougham.
In one of the public squares of Glasgow
-the city which witnessed Watt's early
struggles-a statue has been erected to his
memory; and thus has been expiated the
narrow policy which originally offered an
obstacle to his useful career.



e 1 WAS midshipman on board
the Honourable East India
Company's ship of war War-
ren Hastings, which .formed
one of the fleet stationed in
SChinese waters when the in-
cidents here narrated took
.' place. We were lying at
anchor a little below Whampoa harbour,
or, more properly, reach, for the town of
Whampoa lies about one hundred miles
up the Bocca Tigris, the name of the
river on which it is situated. The hour
was ten o'clock in the morning of a lovely
day in June, when we observed a fine
large junk approaching the anchorage
on the opposite side of the reach, deeply
laden, and with some of the crew pulling at
the sweeps or long oars they mostly carry,
which, as in this instance, are used to pro-
pel their vessels in a calm. There was a
group of officers standing near the break"
of the poop, discussing the latest news from
England, when .somebody pointed out four
large row-boats pulling round a bend of the
river about five miles down.
I must preface my story by informing my

readers that, in the days of which I write
(many years before Sir James Hope ap-
peared as naval commander-in-chief in
China, to the terror of all Taepings and
other evil-doers), there was a piratical haunt
within a few miles of Whampoa; and the
whole river, from that large and flourishing
town to Canton, actually swarmed with
miscreants who robbed everybody they
could lay their hands on, and then, to pre-
vent any tales being told, usually barbarously
murdered them. Well, to return to my
story. These row-boats pulled rapidly up
the river until they approached within easy
range of the large merchant junk, when, to
our surprise, they opened fire on her from
guns, one of which each boat carried in her
bows. The junk returned their fire briskly
from cannon, as well as jingalls and wall-
pieces, or firearms resembling large muskets
fitted on swivels, which most native craft
in those seas carry. These she appeared
to have mounted on her poop; but, as the
boats still continued rowing up to her, the
gunners seemed not to have got the range,
their aim evidently not being very effective.
This vws. little to be wondered at, as the


projectiles used were often only stones, for
the traders were too poor to purchase iron
Here was, no doubt, a case of piracy
which urgently required our interference;
so, the captain being ashore, the first lieu-
tenant gave orders to open fire on the pirates
from two long brass eighteen pounders
we carried aft; but, after a few rounds, we
found that the combatants were beyond the
range of the guns, which were not rifled
like the Armstrongs and Whitworths at pre-
sent in use. Two of the ship's boats were
piped away, and manned and armed in
about five minutes; each boat carrying a
crew of thirteen men and an officer, with a
three-pounder in the bows. The seamen
had cutlasses and pistols belted round their
waists; for we proposed, if possible, to
bring matters to an issue by boarding.
Soon after we got clear of the ship the
pirates had boarded the junk, and all firing
ceased. We gave way for the ill-fated ves-
sel. She was about a mile and a half off,
and we soon neared her, when we saw the
wretches taking to their boats again. They
threw their guns overboard, and laid down
to their oars. There are no finer oarsmen
in the world than Chinese boatmen; and
so every one who has ever visited them
must allow.. Our men knew what hard
work was cut out for them; but, like British
tars, they gave one cheer and bent to their
oars, making the spray fly over us. The
race was most exciting ; for the pirates were
well aware what would be their probable
fate if captured red-handed from their
bloody work. Not a word was spoken by
the boats' crews as they strained and sweated
at the long ash oars; but they felt they were
on their mettle, and were determined to
overtake the fugitives. We gained on them,
without doubt; but there is a naval proverb,
A stern-chase, is a long chase;" and, be-
sides, they had a start of us about three-
quarters of a mile.
Give way, men !" "That's the stroke !"
SWe'll have them yet, my lads were the
ifew words of encouragement spoken by the
.officers in charge, and the coxswains bent

their bodies in unison with the sweep of the
cutters' oars. Ah! the miscreants at last
see it is a losing game, and point their heads
for a part of the shore not far from their
haunt. The blue-jackets give one cheer at
this intimation of defeat, and, if possible,
redouble their efforts. We head them off
the bank of the river, where their friends
are no doubt assembled in large numbers
to assist and applaud them, and they make
for the opposite shore, whither we also pur-
sue them. The coxswain, a true Milesian,
whispers in a voice hoarse with excitement,
" Sure it's all up with thim now, sir Pre-
sently, at the word of command, our two
bowmen threw their oars inboard, and the
gun, being loaded with grape-shot, is care-
fully aimed from the stern-sheets by the
second lieutenant, who seizes the tiller;
and, at the order "Fire!" the trigger-line
is jerked, and the contents discharged right
into the knot of row-boats. The shot takes
some effect, for three oars in one of the
boats are smashed. For a minute the pi-
rate crew of the injured boat lay on ineir
oars, and the man in charge seems to be
soliciting the others to stop and fight it out,
since they cannot all escape. But save
quipeut is the word, and the three others
make off at their best speed, and leave their
unfortunate comrades to their fate.
We leave her to be dealt with by the
other cutter, which is slightly astern, and
gave way for one of those unscathed, but
whose crew seem to be waxing faint from
the terrible exertion, for their boats are
heavier built than ours. The one we are
in pursuit of, as a dernier resort, doubles
back like a hare in coursing; but for this
we had been prepared, and our coxswain,
who was also "captain of the forecastle,"
and a regular old salt up to this kind of
game, clapped his helm hard down, and we
lost nothing, but rather gained by the move.
The two other pirate boats had by this
trick of their ally's got a considerable dis-
tance ahead, and made across to their own
side of the river, and, as soon as they were
out of all personal danger, commenced a
desultory fire on us with their jingalls and


matchlocks. A few of the balls struck the ing discretion the better part of valour,"
boat, and one spent bullet grazed a man's the pirates with all speed ran their boats
arm, but no harm was done; when; think- ashore and gave up the contest.

I i 'I


locks and daggers. We, "following mo- rah, drew their cutlasses in their right hands
Pi,:i, Iq',


Suddenly the pirates we were in chase of tions, dropped the oars, the boat carrying
turned like a wild boar at bay, and, throw- way enough for the coxswain to steer along-
ing aside their oars, took to their match- side our opponent. The Jacks, with a hur-
-locks and daggers. We, "following lo rah, drew their cutlasses in their right hands,


and, with their heavy old-fashioned pistols
in their left, prepared to board. We mus-
tered fifteen, officers and men, and the pi-
rates, we afterwards discovered, had about.
eighteen men in each of their craft. Now
ensued a short but desperate hand-to-hand
tussle, all the incidents of which it would
be vain for me to attempt to narrate, for
my attention was fully engrossed. Our men
were ordered to resort to extremities, unless,
of course, they threw down their arms and
sued for mercy. This last was not likely;
for, as it was their habit to show no mercy,
they expected none. Previous to the en-
counter two of our sailors were hit by their
fire, one seriously in the leg; but the rest
all boarded as they best could, after dis-
charging their pistols into the enemy. I
tried to follow suit; but, being hustled,
missed my leap and tumbled into the water,
and by the time I had recovered myself
the mInle was over. Fortunately I could
swim; but, although possessing that accom-
plishment, I was nearly drowned; for one
wretched Chinaman caught me tightly by
the hand as he was sinking in a death-grip,
and dragged me with him under the water
a second time. I called out, and attempted,
but in vain, to shake him off, when one of
the sailors, watching till we rose to the sur-
face, made him relax his hold, and he sank
to rise no more.
When, much exhausted, I succeeded in
getting into the cutter again, the combat
was over, and our casualties consisted of
one man mortally wounded by a stab in the
chest, and two others dangerously, and one
slightly wounded. This made a total of
six men hurt-a rather serious matter out
of fifteen. On inspection we found that
four of the Chinamen were killed, two
drowned, and five wounded. We soon had
.he remainder properly secured, and took
the boat in tow. About this time-for the
whole affair only lasted a few minutes-the
other cutter neared us, towing her prize,
and the officer in charge informed us that
his opponents had thrown down their arms
and yielded themselves prisoners, in the
most craven manner supplicating for mercy.

The leader seemed an effeminate young
man, evidently new to the trade, with less
of the tiger in his features, and quite a con
trast to the pirate in command of our prize,
who was a grizzled ruffian, with a peculiarly
brutal cast of countenance. The Tartal
type of physiognomy is seldom attractive,
and the long eye, slanting down towards
the nose, with the high cheek-bones, gene-
rally gives a cruel and sinister look to the
ordinary Chinaman, which was much aggra-
vated in the .expression conveyed by the
features of the lawless desperadoes with
whom we had been dealing. The other
boat's crew stated that there was a slight
attempt at resistance on the part of some
of the pirates before they closed with them;
but it was only in a half-hearted manner,
and was soon overcome, though not until
one of the number, who jumped overboard
and tried to make his escape by swimming,
was fired at. The coxswain was slightly
wounded, and the officer in charge received
a bullet on his sword-hilt, which was com-
pletely broken.
The first thing after bandaging up the
wounded was to man the prizes; and, as
the tide was setting in against us, and drift-
ing us to where the two other pirate boats'
crews had landed, we were getting anxious,
and were just going to burn them, so as to
prevent their falling into the enemy's hands,
when two of the Warren Hastings' boats
hove in sight, who, on coming up, took
these craft in tow, while we directed our at-
tention to the merchant junk which was the
cause of all this tumasha," and which was
drifting towards us. The surgeon had been.
sent to look after the wounded, and had
brought his assistant and his operating in-
struments; and, the old frigate being a
long way off, he thought we could not do
better than transfer the wounded to the
junk, where there would be more space
available. She was approaching us, carried
with the tide, no one at the helm, and her
sails flapping idly against the masts.
When we boarded her, what a sight met
our gaze! There were twenty-four dead
and dying Chinamen, and two women botL


dead, lying about the decks weltering in
.heir blood. The pirates had put them to
the sword before taking to their boats; and
the poor creatures, who were harmless tra-
ders between Hong Kong and Whampoa,
had thus met a shocking death. There was
no hope for the recovery of any of them,
and, before we reached our ship, the
wounded had all breathed their last. The
poop and lower deck, as well as the cabin
in which lay the murdered women, were
slippery with blood, and presented a ghast-
ly sight. We threw the dead overboard,
washed the decks down, and made sail on
her, and also got the sweeps to work. The
prisoners were put to some use by manning
them, and were made to understand that,
if they did not "give way," they would
meet with the same fate as their victims;
for, with such a sight before our eyes, we
did not feel over-scrupulous as to showing
them mercy, all claims to which we con-
sidered they had forfeited. They obeyed
sullenly, and their stout arms, well accus-
tomed to handle the long sweeps, made
good progress through the water.
But our difficulties were not to end here.
The wind began to freshen from ahead;
and although we were only about two miles
from the Warren Hastings, yet we knew
the pirates were very strong in these waters,
and we were fearful of an attempt at re-
capture by their friends in overwhelming
numbers. The mainmast, which had been
struck in three or four places by bullets,
fell with a crash just at this juncture, carry-
ing, of course, the mainsail with it; so,
after a short consultation among the officers,
the determination was arrived at to dis-
tribute the prisoners and wounded among
the four boats, and, after abandoning and
destroying the junk and row-boats, to make
the best of our way home. This was soon
carried out, and the ill-fated vessel was
presently in flames fore and aft, and we be-
gan to pull back.
The sky looked black and lowering, and
distant thunder warned us, with the quickly
increasing wind, of an approaching gale or
typhoon. A good deal of valuable time

had been lost in the vain attempt to tow
the captured boats, and a strong tide had
now set in against us. The air was hot
and oppressive, and our men were faint
with their great exertions, although they
had been supplied with food and water by
the boats which came to our assistance.
Presently a signal-gun from the Warren
Hastings indicated that our immediate
return was desired. We pulled inshore,
therefore, to get out of the current, and
kept a sharp look-out on the long reeds
which skirt the river, and which, we sup-
posed, might harbour a concealed foe.
Nor were we wrong in our conjecture, for
our "stroke oar" described a certain sus-
picious waving of the jungle that induced
us to pull out again more into the middle
of the stream. Most fortunate it was we
did so; for, in a few minutes, a large num-
ber of natives appeared on the margin of
the river, and fired a volley; but without
effect, howling execrations on us at the
same time.
As our object was to get the poor wound-
ed sailors on board as soon as possible,
the better to relieve their hurts, and as no
good could come of landing our fatigued
men for a fight in these unexplored swamps,
we let them enjoy their triumph, and shout
and fire to their heart's content, and used
every exertion to make the ship, which
at length we accomplished, the seamen
thoroughly exhausted.
The prisoners were all put in irons or
handcuffed, and a guard placed over them,
and the wounded well taken care of. We
all felt we had done a good day's work;
and the boats' crews, after having "spliced
the main-brace" (had an extra glass of
grog) and returned their arms, were "piped
below." The poor young fellow who had
been mortally wounded in the conflict had
died as we were returning after having
abandoned the junk, and his body was
buried with all due solemnity the following
There was a large Imperialist fleet of war.
junks lying within half a mile of us higher
up the river; but, with their usual supine-


ness and want of energy, the admiral in
command did little towards putting down
the pirates who committed such atrocities
with comparative impunity under his very
august nose, and within twenty miles of
Canton itself.
Of course our captain informed him on
the next day of the steps we had taken,
and delivered over our prisoners, twenty-
eight in number. We had hardly left them
under his charge when the tide brought
some headless trunks past our ship; and,

oddly enough, the body of our ferocious
friend, who commanded the boat with which
we had been engaged during the morning,
got athwart our chain-cable, and there re-
mained until it was pushed off by a boat-
The surgeon had, on the following morn
ing, to amputate the leg of one poor fellow
who had been .hard hit, and he died from
the effects of the operation; but the re-
mainder of our wounded recovered, and
soon returned to duty.


NE of the most useful inven-
d tions of modern times, per-
haps, is the diving-bell. By
its aid the construction of
sub-aqueous works, such as
S the foundations of piers and
bridges, has been much
simplified; and in raising
Sunken vessels, in recovering
lost treasure, and in sub-
S marine works generally, it is
much used. Many sub-aqueous under-
takings, in fact, are now rendered possible,
which, without its aid, could not even be
attempted. The principle of the diving-
bell is mentioned, though obscurely, by
Aristotle, who wrote about 325 B.c.; and
so long ago as 1538 one was used at
Toledo, in Spain, when two Greeks de-
scended a considerable depth into the
water, in the presence of Charles V. and
a host of spectators. This bell was nothing
but a very large kettle, suspended by ropes,
with the mouth downwards, and planks to
sit on placed in the middle. Halley (about
1721) greatly improved this machine, and.
was, it is said, the first who, by its means
set his foot at the bottom of the sea. Dr.
Halley's bell was a wooden chamber, open
at the bottom, where it was loaded with
lead, to keep it perpendicular in its descent.

Light was admitted through strong pieces
of glass. Casks filled with air, and weighted,
were let down with the bunghole down-
wards, from which air was drawn into the
bell by a hose. The next great improve-
ments introduced into its construction were
by a Mr. Spalding, of Edinburgh, who had
paid particular attention to Dr. Halley's bell,
and had constructed one for the purpose
of recovering some property from a ship
wrecked on the Fern Islands, in 1774. Mr.
Spalding's first experiments were made in
shallow water, in Leith Roads. He then
took his bell to the river Tay, near Dundee,
where a vessel laden with iron had been
lost in about two fathoms of water. Here
he went down three different times, and at
last fell in with the stump of the wreck.
He found that the muddiness of the river
occasions a darkness at only two fathoms
from the surface that cannot be described;
and from the smallness of the machine,
which contained only forty-eight English
gallons, it was impossible to have a candle
in it. The men, too, whom he had engaged,
refused to work. "Convinced from this,"
he says, "that with an open boat nothing
could be accomplished, and that, except in
June and July, no man would risk himself
with me in a sloop,,to continue a few days
and nights at anchor there, I was obliged to


abandon my project; yet I determined to
take a view of the guns of a Dutch ship of
war lost in the year 1704; and as they lay
two or three miles nearer the land, I could
execute this design with less difficulty, espe-
cially as the weather continued still favour-
able. Having procured all the intelligence
possible, we went to the place, where I
went down four different times, but could
find no marks of any wreck, notwithstanding
my walking about in five and six fathoms
water, as far as it was thought safe to allow
the rope to the bell, continuing generally
twenty minutes each time at the bottom.
On this occasion I was obliged to carry a
cutting hook and knife, and clear away the
,sea weeds, which at this place are very
thick and strong; without this method I
could not move about. At the fifth going
down, each trial being in a different place,
I was agreeably surprised to find a large
grove of tall weeds, all of them from six
to eight feet high, with large tufted tops,
mostly in regular ranges, as far as the eye
could reach, a variety of small lobsters and
other shellfish swimming about in the inter-
vals." He then discovered the place where
one of the cannons lay, but was too exhaus-
ted to bring it to the surface.
To obviate the danger of the bell sinking
too fast, and so either burying its inmates
within it, or upsetting by coming in contact
with some projecting object, Spalding intro-
duced a large balance-weight suspended
below the bell, which, when it reached any
rocky or uneven ground, settled down first,
and then the bell, being made too light to
sink without the weight, remained suspended
and free from danger.
The contrivances described above, how-
ever, were very primitive affairs compared
with the highly finished machines of the
present day. The great engineer, Smeaton,
much improved upon them, and in 1779
used one in repairing the foundations of
Hexham Bridge; and with even greater
success a few years afterwards in the con-
struction of Ramsgate, Pier, where, in the
course of two months, by its aid 160 tons of
loose stone were raised from the ground.

Smeaton's bell, however, was square, and
composed partly of iron and partly of wood.
It was 42 feet in height and length, and 3
feet wide, affording room for two men to
work in it; and these men were provided
with a constant supply of fresh air by
means of a forcing pump placed in a boat,
which floated above them. This was lighted
by stout pieces of bullseye glass, firmly
cemented in brass rings near the top.
The principle of the diving-bell is very
simple, and can be illustrated by a very
easy experiment. Place a match or a lighted
candle on a cork, cover it with an inverted
tumbler, and press it straight downwards
into the water. The light will continue
burning, even though the tumbler be entirely
immersed. The air in the tumbler, not
being able to escape, remains in it, and
prevents the water from occupying its place,
so that the light, though still on the floating
cork, continues surrounded by the air in the
tumbler. It will, therefore, continue burning
until the oxygen in the air is exhausted,
when it will, of course, be extinguished.
The modem diving-bell is circular. It
is generally made of cast iron, and air is
pumped from above into it. A considerable
quantity of air has thus to be forced into it,
merely to keep it full as it descends. When
it has reached its full depth, the pumping is
continued only to supply oxygen for respi-
ration, and the superfluous air comes out at
the bottom and up to the surface in great
bubbles. A seat is provided for the work-
men, and the bell is suspended from a crane
or beams projecting over the water. Men
are stationed above to work the pumps, and
attend to the signals of the diver. These
signals are made by striking the side with a
hammer, and as water is a good sound-
conductor, they are easily heard above. If
the diver wishes for more air, he strikes one
blow; two blows mean "stand fast"; three,
"heave up"; four, "lower down," etc.
Messages are also sent up by a label at-
tached to a cord. "The sensations pro-
duced in descending are rather curious.
Immediately on the mouth of the diving-
bell striking the water, a feeling like a slight


blow on the internal ear is .produced; a
dull ringing in the ears and a sense of deaf-
ness follows. The workmen accustomed to
subaqueous existence do not suffer these
inconveniences; novices feel pain in the
head and ears, but these pass away after a
short initiation. It is stated that one man
who had suffered from difficulty of breathing
was completely cured by 'belling,' and that
deafness is not produced by it,-but, on the
contrary, is in some cases relieved. The
diving-bell, of course, has its perils, though
accidents are very uncommon. In 1783,
a party who went down on the coast of
Ireland were all drowned, by some defect
in the air-supplying apparatus, which allowed
the water to enter the bell.
One noble family, at least owe their
present importance to the diving-bell. In
1683, William Phipps, the son of a black-
smith, formed a project for unloading a
rich Spanish ship, which had been sunk off
the coast of Hispaniola, in the West Indies.
He applied for assistance to the Govern-
ment, and, in the hope of sharing in the
recovered treasure, he was furnished by
Charles II. with a ship, and everything
necessary for the undertaking. Phipps sailed
for the West Indies, but was unsuccessful


SPORT of a most ex-
citing kind may
still be had by
--- 'ad venturous sp irits
'. tired of the old-
fashioned methods.
-- In the course of
J his explorations of
the River Shire, in, the search
for Livingstone, Lieutenant
SYoung came upon a party of
hippopotami hunters called Ak-
ombwi, and arrived just in time to see a
most exciting display of their courage and

in bringing any gold to the surface, and
returned to England in deep poverty. The
Government had by this time had enough
of him, and all his supplications for another
ship met with a refusal. A subscription,
however, was got up on his behalf, and in
1687 Phipps again set sail, in a ship of 200
tons, having previously undertaken to divide
the profits which he might make accord-
ing to the twenty shares of which the
subscription consisted. This time, by the
aid of a diving-bell, he was more fortunate,
and recovered so much treasure that he
returned to England with 200,000 ster-
ling. Of this sum he got about 20,000
for his own share, and his chief patron no
less than 90,000.
But at length Phipps was knighted by the
king, and from him descended the house of
Mulgrave, afterwards, in. 838, raised to the
Marquisate of Normanby. The example set
by Phipps of the use of the diving-bell has
been much followed. The Royal George
man-of-war, which was sunk off Spithead in
1782, was surveyed in this manner in 1817;
and much property is frequently recovered
from the wrecks of vessels which have been
lying for many years rotting and useless at
the bottom of the ocean.


skill in capturing these denizens of the
Shire marshes. "There were not less than
twenty harpoons sticking into a half-grbwn
hippopotamus; and his exertions to tear
himself away from the men who were
hauling him bodily ashore were truly fright-
ful. To add to the effect; another huge
animal, exasperated at his sufferings, dashed
boldly in and crushed up one of the canoes
as if it had been a bundle of matches.
"I do not know that there is anything in
the way of sport that requires such consume.
mate courage and coolness as their mode of
hunting. The hunter has to trust entirely


to his activity with the paddle to escape the
jaws of the animal, and a touch from the
monster upsets the frail canoes as easily as
a skiff would be capsized by a touch from a
steamer. It requires, in fact, that the har-
pooner should keep his balance exactly as
he stands in the bow of his long slim canoe,

and that during the utmost excitement.
The moment the weapon is lodged in the
hippopotamus, he has to sit down, seize his
paddle, and escape, or he is instantly at-
tacked; nor is the next stage of proceeding
less fraught with danger.
It ,now becomes necessary to get hold


of the pole, which floats on the water; the
iron head of the harpoon, which has come
out of its socket, remains attached to this
pole by a long and very strong rope. The
hunter hauls upon this till he knows that
the hippopotamus is under water, just up
and down' beneath his canoe. To feel for
the moment when the line suddenly slackens,

-a sure sign he is rising to the surface,
-and to prepare to deliver another harpoon
the instant his enormous jaws appear with &
terrible roar above water within a few feet
of him, is about as great a trial of nerve as
can very well be imagined. Constantly are
the canoes crushed to atoms. The only
escape then is to dive instantly, and gain


the shore by swimming under water, for the
infuriated animal swims about, looking on
the surface for his enemies, and one bite is
quite enough to cut a man in two. When
I add, where the presence of blood in the
water is the sign for every crocodile within
hail to lick his lips and make up stream to
the spot, I am sure it recommends itself as
a sport to the most enthusiastic canoer in
England, or the most blase sportsman, who
had 'done all that sort of thing and got
sick of it,' in the common routine of English
sports. The Akombwi will show him more
pluck in half an hour, and more exercise of
muscle, brain, and nerve, than in any sport
I ever saw.
"As'a race, the men are magnificent.
To watch the evolutions of their canoes, as
they pass and repass over the deep pools in
which hippopotami lie, is a very beautiful
sight. Each canoe is manned by two men;
and the harpooner's attitude, as he stands,
erect and motionless, with the long weapon
poised at arm's length above his head,
would make the painter or sculptor envious
of a study. Hard exercise and activity
develop every muscle; and the men, as a
rule, have the most magnificent figures.
They are as generous as they are brave.
They lead a wonderful life, living mostly on
the rivers, establishing villages for a year or
two in one place or another, where families
build huts and cultivate a patch of ground.
The flesh of the hippopotami they kill is
always eagerly exchanged for grain by the
natives along the river; and the curved
teeth, the hardest of all ivory, find a ready
market with the Portuguese."
A somewhat clumsy but effective trap is
also used by the natives of equatorial Africa
to catch the hippopotamus. Knowing the
paths taken by the aniinal on leaving the
river to go along the bank, they hang in a
thicket, with the help of long poles kept in
equilibrium, a stake terminated in a steel
point. The hippopotamus,' in traversing
the thicket, deranges the poles, and the

sharp instrument, falling from a great height
on the animal's head, kills or wounds it so
seriously that it can easily afterwards be
approached and despatched.
Dr. Livingstone had many narrow escapes
from these infuriated animals. On one
occasion he had taken a trip up the Rovu-
ma, accompanied by Captain Gardner, com-
mander of the Orestes man-of-war, and
several of his officers. On their return
they met with a very irascible hippopotamus,
that followed the boat, came up under it,
and then tried to tear the bottom out of it,
but fortunately it was too flat for his jaws to
get a good grip; so he merely damaged one
of the planks with his tusks, though he lifted
the boat right up with ten men and a ton of
ebony in it.
This was a narrow escape; but a much
more perilous affair happened to Lieutenant
Vidal, when ascending the river Temb6 in
his boat. On a sudden a violent shock
was felt from underneath, and a monstrous
hippopotamus reared himself up from the
water, and in a most ferocious and mena-
cing attitude rushed, open-mouthed, at the
boat. With one grasp of its tremendous
jaws it tore several planks from the side.
The creature disappeared for a few seconds
and then rose again, apparently intending
to renew the attack, but was fortunately
deterred by the contents of a musket dis-
charged in its face. Being near the shore,
the crew in this instance all escaped.
An amusing anecdote is related by Mr.
Baines of a hippopotamus accustomed to
pass to and from the water by a particular
path, being watched and sprung upon by a
lion which attempted in vain to tear his im-
penetrable hide. The hippopotamus swerved
not from his course for a single moment,
but, making for the river, walked imper-
turbably to its depths and floated off the
lion, whose struggles to escape from the
element to which he had been so "uncere-
moniously introduced were plainly seen by
the spectators on the bank.



_ __

~_e~ _____ll__________mI_ CI~ __



s~: Z;,



,-- ,. -, i.- GRACE DARLING.

S N the extreme north hours of loneliness on the island, and
-'-Il J of the Northum- were hence, and are still, called St. Cuth-
brian coast, some bert's beads."
--' twenty-five miles "On Lindisfarne
s-outh-east of Ber- St. Cuthbert sits, and toils to frame
S'1wick, are a dan- The sea-born beads that bear his name."
I_ :.is Croup of rocky islets Here, cut off from all human society,
l I, -. I calle the Fames or Ferns. save the casual visits of pilgrims anxious
'The i.limds are twenty-five in for his blessing, some poor fisherman from
S" .inmLber. Many of them are the adjacent mainland, or, more rarely, of
inaccessible, and bounded by some shipwrecked sailor, cast bleeding but
steep jagged precipices; and alive at his feet, Cuthbert, in his cell, and
through the narrow channels between them afterwards, for centuries, the few monks and
the sea rushes with irresistible force. In nuns in the Benedictine monastery, spent
former times, when no lighthouse flashed its their weary lives in the hope of finally
warning signal across the waves to warn the escaping an eternal doom. The roaring
benighted mariner from these treacherous of the winds and the waves, and the harsh
shores, many an unrecorded shipwreck scream of the sea-birds, with at times the
must have happened here, many a poor cry of distress from some poor drowning
sailor, bound for some Scotch or Northum- wretch in his last agony, were the chief
brian port, have found a grave,- sounds that could reach their ears. A more
"Unwept, unhonoured, and unsung." dreary and desolate scene it is scarcely
A small monastery and cathedral once possible to imagine. Mr. Howitt, writing
stood on the principal island, Fame, dedi- of a visit to Longstone, one of the Fames,
cated to St. Cuthbert, patron saint of says "Longstone, like the rest of these
Durham, who here lived a hermit life, and desolate isles, was of whinstone, cracked in
died towards the end of the seventh century. every direction, and worn with the action
Of this saint many legends were told. The of the winds and waves. Over the greater
Danes having invaded the islands, tha part of their surface not a blade of grass,
monks fled to Melrose, in Scotland, carry- nor a grain of earth; it was bare, and iron-
ing the body of Cuthbert with them; and it like stone, crusted round all the coast, as
was gravely reported that finding himself far as high-water mark, with limpet and still
unable to rest on Scottish soil, he sallied smaller shells. We ascended wrinkled hills
forth in search of a more congenial resting- of black stone, and descended into worn
place, and sailed southward, in his stone and dismal dells of the same; into some of
coffin, till, after many wanderings, he chose which where the tide got entrance, it came
his wild seat where the huge cathedral of pouring and roaring in raging whiteness, and
Durham, dedicated in his honour, looks churning the loose fragments of Whinstone
down upon the Wear. On the beach are into round pebbles, and piling them up in
found many curiously perforated stones, not deep crevices with seaweeds like great round
unlike beads; and these were supposed to ropes and heaps of fucus. Over our heads
have been made by the saint during his screamed hundreds of hovering birds, the


gull mingling its hideous laughter most
wildly." On this lonely rock, set in the
midst of the everlasting ocean, lived one
William Darling, who succeeded his father
as keeper of the light on the Brownsman,
the outermost of the Fame islands. This
was before the days of the lime or electric
light; and dioptric, catroptric, or catadiop-
tric reflectors, with all the rest of the
apparatus by which our coasts are now
protected, were then things unknown. The
lighthouse in Darling's charge was not at
all like the magnificent structure which now
crowns the Eddystone, or the still finer
buildings on the Skerryvore, or the Bishop
and the Bell rocks. Before lighthouses on
the modern principle were built, large iron
baskets filled with burning wood or coal
were used as signals. In rough weather, of
course the keepers had hard work to keep
their light burning. A fire basket of this
kind was shown from Tynemouth Castle in
1638, and one was in use at St. Bees, in
Cumberland, so late as 1822. The system
was probably many centuries old. In 1826,
Darling was appointed keeper of the Long-
stone lighthouse, and here Grace, his seventh
child, spent her girlish years. She is said
to have been a "pleasant child." Happy
and contented in the society of her brothers
and sisters, and in helping her mother in
the domestic duties of the little household,
and seldom visiting the mainland, she had
little opportunity of enjoying the customary
pleasures of young people of her age, and
probably cared little for them. Her father
was a quiet, intelligent man, and instructed
his children to the best of his ability.
Grace had reached her twenty-second year
when the incident occurred which has
rendered her name so famous.
On the evening of Wednesday, the 5th of
September, 1838, the steamer Forfarshire,
Captain Humble, sailed from Hull on her
voyage to Dundee. She had on board 41
passengers, 20 seamen, the captain and his
wife, and a valuable cargo. From the
beginning she met with a succession of
storms. When off Flamborough Head, it
was found that the boilers leaked so much

that two of the fires were extinguished, but
after partial repair they were relighted.
The next evening, while the sea was run-
ning high, and the wind blowing strong
from the north, the leakage again appeared
and put out the fires. Two men were em-
ployed to pump water into the boilers, but
it escaped through the leak as fast as they
pumped it in. About io o'clock she bore
up'off St. Abb's Head, the storm still raging
with unabated fury. By this time the en-
gines were entirely useless: The vessel was
now in a most critical position. There
being great danger of drifting ashore, the
sails were hoisted fore and aft, and the
vessel was put about, in order to get her
before the wind. But all the efforts of the
crew were unavailing. She soon became
unmanageable, and drifted helplessly to the
south with the swiftly-rushing tide. It
rained heavily during the whole time, and
the fog was so dense that it became impos-
sible to tell their situation. At length
breakers were discovered close to leeward,
and the Fame lights, which now became
visible, left no doubt as to the imminent
peril of all on board. Captain Humble
attempted to avert the catastrophe by run-
ning the vessel between the islands and the
mainland; but she would not answer the
helm, and was driven to and fro by a furious
sea. At length the crash came. About
3 o'clock in the morning, the horror of the
darkness increased by the howling of the
wind and the drenching rain, she struck
with her bows foremost on the sharp jagged
rocks at a spot where they went sheer'down
a hundred fathoms deep or more.
The scene on board, as may be imagined,
was now of the most awful kind. Thinking
only of saving their own lives, some of the
crew lowered the larboard quarter boat, and
quickly cut adrift from the ship. Just as
they were pushing off, one of the passengers,
a Mr. Ritchie, rushed upon deck, partly
dressed, and seeing the chance of escape,
flung himself into the boat. His uncle and
aunt, attempting to follow his example, fell
into the boiling sea, and perished in his
sight. The boat was no more heard of.


Piteous cries for help went up from the
despairing crowd. The captain's wife,
clinging to her husband, frantically besought
the protection he was powerless to give.
Very soon after the first shock, a gigantic
wave struck the vessel on the quarter, and
lifted her bodily from the rock. Down she
came crashing upon the sharp edge, which
fairly cut her in two pieces, the after part,
containing the cabin with the captain and
his wife, and many passengers was instantly
carried off through a tremendous current
called the Pipa Gut-considered dangerous
even in good weather-and swamped; while
the fore part remained on the rock., At the
moment the steamer parted amidships eight
or nine of the passengers and a few sailors be-
took themselves to the highest part of the
deck by the windlass. In the fore cabin,
exposed to the dashing waves, was Mrs.
Dawson, the wife of a weaver, with her two
little children. When relief came, life was
found trembling in the bosom of the poor
woman, but her two little ones lay stiffened
corpses in her arms !
Benumbed and exhausted, the weakest of
the forlorn party on the rock were one by
one swept from their hold; the survivors,
nine in number, remained in their dreadful
position till daybreak, fearful that every
rising surge would sweep the fragment of
wreck on which they stood into the deep.
A mist hovered over the island ; and though
the storm had somewhat abated, the sea,
which even in the calmest weather is never
at rest amongst the gorges between these
iron pinnacles, still raged fearfully. Darling,
as usual, was -on his look-out from the
Longstone lighthouse, nearly a mile dis-
tant, and with the aid of the glass described
the poor creatures clinging to the wreck.
The weather was still so bad that, accus-
tomed as he was by a lifelong experience to
storms and tempest, he hesitated to put off
to the wreck. With the exception of his
wife and daughter he was the only person
at the lighthouse; to brave the perils of
that terrible passage, needed strong arms
and well-tried nerves. The tender heart of
Grace was torn with anguish at the sight of

the perishing beings. At her earnest en-
treaty her father consented to attempt the
rescue. With the mother's help the boat
was launched, and father and daughter,
each taking an oar, started on their errand
of mercy. Slowly but surely they neared
the rock; and when they reached it, great
care and caution were needed to prevent
the boat from being stove in by the sharp
ridges of the rock just showing above the
heaving billows. Their efforts were crowned
with success, and the nine sufferers were
safely rescued. The feelings of the poor
castaways, as they saw the boat approach-
ing, cannot be described. As the night
wore on, and the little party gradually les-
sened its numbers, they had given up all
hope. It was as life from the grave;
and they could not express their amazement
when they saw that one of their deliverers
was a female !
The sufferers were safely landed at the
lighthouse, where, owing to the heavy seas,
they were obliged to remain from Friday
morning till Sunday. A boat's crew that
came off to their relief from North Sunder-
land were also obliged to remain. Grace
gave up her bed to poor Mrs. Dawson,
whose sufferings were intense; the others
were made as comfortable as kind hearts
and hands could possibly make them.
With tears of gratitude to their deliverers,
the forlorn little partyleft the lighthouse, as
soon as the storm had abated, and proceed-
ed on their journey.
The news of Grace's daring action spread
far and wide, and the lonely lighthouse was
soon the centre of attraction to many. Her
name became a household/word all over
Europe. Numbers of testimonials were
sent her, and a public subscription was
raised for her benefit. Amidst all this
applause, she never forgot the modesty
which became her sex and station. She
found her happiness in assisting her beloved
parents, and continued to reside at the
It may be supposed from the nature of
the deed that Grace possessed great bodily
strength. This was not the case; she was


naturally rather delicate. A few months
after the wreck of the Forfarskire, consump-
tion set in, her health gradually declined,
and to the great regret, of all who knew her,
she peacefully passed away on the 2oth of
October, 1842. The following verses have
been written upon this noble action:-

The clouds on the ocean scowled,
Flushed with a stormy red;
And the angry billows rose on high,
And back to the dark and wrathful sky
Tossed their defiance dread.
And the surge of the awful wave,
And the foam of the b:,Ilr'" sea,
Cresting the billows fierce and white,
Curled o'er a steamer bound that night
For the harbour of brave Dundee.
Woe for the trembling crew,
Drenched with the blinding spray
Ye whom the spoiler shall not part,
Folding each other heart to heart,
Nought may ye do but pray.
I-ark! from the doomed 'ship
The shriek of her living freight!
For the hidden rock, it hath rent her sore,
And the breakers are telling with sullen roar
Of the homes made desolate.
High on the lighthouse tower,
Father and daughter brave
Marked off the rocky isles in sight
The nine who had weathered that stormy
Battling with wind and wave.
And the maiden's great warm heart
Swelled in her dauntless breast:
"Oh, to the rescue haste !" she cried;
But the old man gazed on the raging tide
Hopeless, and sore distrest.
She hath won with her urgent plea I
Yes, on that morning wild,
Over the seething, roaring waste,
Bound on their holy mission, haste
Father and fearless child.
The arch of the great green wave
Bent the light bark above.
What with its awful might could cope?
Oh, 'twas not higher than woman's hope,
Stronger than woman's love.

Now in the billow's trough,
Now on its crest on high,
Calmly the maiden plied her oar,
Fearless of ocean's dash and roar,
As the light tern floating by.
Clinging to rope and spar,
Her coming the shipwrecked see,
Praying her skiff the storm may brave
To Him who silenced the maddened wave
On the Lake of Galilee.
The cormorant croaked above
From the heights of his island home;
And the scream of the sea-bird heard afar
Answered the thrilling, wild "Hurrahl "
That rose 'mid the breakers' foam.

'Mid the warfare of wind and wave,
And dash of the blinding spray,
That chilled not her hope, nor hand, nor heart,
Nobly the maiden played her part,
Winning the hard-fought day.
Seaman and maiden brave,
This is life's proudest hour!
Now while the billows roar and chafe,
Gaze on the lost ye rescued-safe !
Safe in your lonesome tower !
Swiftly the tidings flew
Of the heroine's deed of love;
And her courage ten thousand bosoms stirred,
And the name of "Grace" was a household
Dearest, all names above.
They offered her gems and gold;
But hers was a richer meed-
The peace that soft in her bosom slept,
And the tide of wealth to her heart that
Back from the generous deed.
She is lying and sleeping now
Under the verdant turf.
Ah, there were breakers she might not ride !
And her hair grew damp in that strong, dark
But not with the briny surf.
And out of her lonely grave
She bids us this lesson prove,
That the weakest may wipe some tears that
And the strongest power for good below
Is the might of unselfish love.




T various times the re-
( mains of antediluvian
animals have been
found in various parts
of the world, notably
in Siberia, where the
bones of animals whose race has
been extinct for a period long
before historical record are fre-
quently turned up. All the re-
\ mains hitherto discovered in
Europe, however, dwarf before
the size of the Mammoths which once in-
habited California, and whose bones are to
be seen at this day near Cafion City. They
are thus described :-A few more steps,
and we are at the tent, and all within and
without are heaped-up bones (rocks now),
many of them so perfectly agatized that
at a casual glance it would stagger belief
that they were ever covered with flesh.
As seen here, however, it is so palpably
apparent that the seeming rock and agate
are bone, as to leave no room for shadow
of doubt. Before us are perfect parts
of huge skeletons; sections of vertebra
three feet in width; ribs fifteen feet long;
thigh bones over six feet in length. In one
pit, the diameter of the socket of the ver-
tebra measured fifteen inches; width of
spinal process, forty-one inches; and depth
of vertebra, twenty-nine inches. In another
place there was a thigh bone six feet and
two inches in length; a section of backbone
lying just as the monster rolled over and
died, with eleven ribs attached, the back-
bone twenty feet long, and from sixteen to
thirty inches deep, and the ribs five to eight
feet in-length and six inches broad. Just
showing upon the surface was a part of a
thigh bone, twenty-two inches in width and
.hirty in length, and near it a nine-foot rib,
four inches in diameter, a foot wide at six
feet, and where it articulated with the

vertebrae, twenty-three and one-half inches
in width. The entire rib was fifteen feet
in length. All over the hill we come upon
little piles of broken bones, which will re-
quire days of patient labour and skilful
handling to properly set in place.
The first discovery of the fossils was
made by a young graduate of Oberlin
College, and in a short time two parties
were duly equipped, and engaged in ex-
cavating, setting up, and preparing for ship-
ment, the bones. The first animal dis-
covered was of entirely new genus and
species in scientific circles, and was named
the Camarasuras supremus, from the cham-
ber or caverns in the centrum of the ver-
tebra. Of the first petrifactions exhumed
was a thigh bone six feet in length, a
shoulder-blade five-and-a-half feet long, and
a sacrum, or the part of the backbone over
the hips-corresponding to four vertebra
unitedin one-forty inches. Prof. Hayden,
the chief of the United States Geological
Survey, upon visiting this place and inspect-
ing the parts of this animal, declared his con-
viction that the beast must have been fully
a hundred feet in length! The thigh bone,
measuring some six feet, stood over the
hips eighteen to twenty feet. The animal
was undoubtedly shorter of front than of
hind legs, and Prof. Marsh thinks it had
the power to rise up like a kangaroo on
its hind legs, and browse off of the leaves
of the trees from sixty to eighty feet. in
height. The critter" seems to have fed
entirely upon grass and leaves, the vertebra
of the neck being some twenty-one inches
in length. Between 7,500 and 8,000
pounds of bone have been already shipped
to Boston and other cities.
A part of the jaw of a Calaps trihedrodon,
ten inches long, and containing eight teeth,
varying from five to eight inches in length,
has also been shipped. Recently a leg-


bone of this same animal was exhumed,
and found to measure a little over four feet.
A part of the femur of another animal has
been found, measuring six feet, but some-
what lighter than the others. The vertebrae
are three feet six inches in elevation, show-
ing a very tall but not so heavy a brute as
the Camarasuras. When found, it was
lying on the right side, with vertebra and

ribs of that side in place, the ribs measur-
ing over six feet in length, and the prongs
where they join the back fifteen inches
in width. Many of the bones of the Cama-
rasuras are misplaced and broken up,
quite a pile being found at the spot where
several of the teeth of the trihedrodon were
discovered, thus indicating the preying of
the other.


ST the south-western extremity
of England, surrounded on
three sides by the sea, stands
a rough, rugged promontory,
about eighty miles in length,
whose extreme western ter-
minus is appropriately named
Land's End. Stretching
along the western coast of
S Land's End for three or four
miles, is the mining district of
St. Just, long celebrated for
the peculiar position of its mines, among per-
pendicular rocks, and extending far beneath
the sea. The village of St. Just is about
seven miles from Penzance-a town of
note in Cornwall-and commands a fine
view of the British Channel. All around,
the land is barren and the scenery wild;
and towards the cliffs of Botallack it grows
wilder and more barren. Here, on a shore
exposed to the full fury of the ocean, and
among steep granite cliffs, towering to a
height of more than sixty feet above the
water, is the famous Botallack Mine-per-
haps the most wonderful in all the world.
Looking up from the sea, upon the very
summit of the craggy cliff, you catch
glimpses of various apparatus, almost over-
hanging the restless waters. The gloomy
precipices of slate and granite, which have
successfully defied the ocean waves, are cut
into winding pathways, broken up by mining
tools, and dotted with all manner of com-

plicated machinery. Smoking chimneys and
puffing engines indicate a hidden power;
chains and pulleys lead to unknown depths;
on one side of the cliffs, tall ladders enable
the miners to ascend-and a sure foot and
a strong head must be needful to tread those
ladders, round by round, with the roaring
sea beneath! The entrance to the Botal-
lack mine is near the foot of one of the
lofty, jutting cliffs; but it is no easy matter
from the heights, to gain even the mouth of
the shaft; and to descend perpendicularly
into the dark abyss, hundreds of feet below
the level of the sea, and horizontally thou-
sands of feet beneath the bottom of the
ocean, requires not a little firmness of nerve
and power of endurance.
The workings of the Botallack Mine-
long famous for its tin ores, more recently
for copper-are extended between one and
two thousand feet below the ocean level,
and from the depths of the land, galleries
have been carried out under the depths of
the sea not less than 2,300 feet. Such
submarine burrowing is wonderful and
romantic. That men can labour in dark
caverns, under the rolling ocean, digging
mineral wealth from rocks above which
waves are dashing in storm-driven fury, is
marvellous. Even in fine weather, the
rattling of pebbles with the swell of the
ocean can be heard in the caverns of the
mine, with greater distinctness than on the
beach itself; and during heavy storms the


noise is so appalling that, although no real
danger is apprehended, the workmen often
feel a strange terror creeping over them.
Many years ago, while the miners were
following the small veins of tin scattered
through the rocks of this submarine mine,
they actually penetrated to the Atlantic
Ocean; but the hole made was speedily
plugged up with the handle of a pickaxe;
and to the present day the waters are kept
out of the mine by a wooden wedge wound
with greased oakum.
Standing near that strange place, with
only a few feet of rocky partition between
the mine and the bottom of the ocean, a
terrific rumbling reverberates from gallery
to gallery, and the boulders, rolling over
each other on the bed of the sea, sound
like distant thunder. Salt water oozes
through the granitic ledges, and during tem-
pests, the miners sometimes feel a continu-
ous sprinkling of sea-water. That plugged
portion of the roof is richer in metallic ore
than any other part of the mine, it is said;
but no workman, even if impelled by hope

of untold wealth, would dare venture to
cut out another pound near the danger-
lurking spot.
Every visitor in Cornwall is curious to
see this far-famed mine, which exhibits such
singular combinations of the power of art
and sublimity of nature. Moreover, it is
exceedingly interesting to learn by actual ob-
servation the methods by which two of our
most valuable metals-tin and copper-are
extracted from their hidden beds. Both
these metals have been known from remote
antiquity, and are mentioned frequently in
the Old Testament. From the most ancient
times Cornwall has produced tin in great
quantities, and early historians allude to
the extensive traffic carried on in this article.
Centuries ago, the Phoenicians, the Greeks,
and the Romans, visited Cornwall to obtain
Doubtless it was chiefly because the ore
has been found, until comparatively re-
cently, in but few countries in workable
quantities, that the ancient Cornwall mines
gained a world-wide fame.



IKE most of the
great "inventions"
of modern days,,
the principle of the
steam engine was
known, in its
rudimentary form
at any rate, from a very early
date. tThe first description
of the application of steam
as a mechanical power occurs
in the writings of Hero, a
Greek of Alexandria, who lived in the third
century before Christ. This writer describes
a toy called the Eolipile, the purpose of

which is to produce a rotatory motion by
the action of steam. The best familiar
illustration of the appearance of such an
apparatus in one of its simplest forms,
would be one of those turnstiles, with four
horizontal spokes, which are sometimes
placed in by-paths. Were one of these
revolving stiles made of iron, and hollow
throughout, with a hole in the correspond-
ing side of each of the spokes, and were
the upright shaft to be fixed into a socket
beneath, entering a boiler, then the steam
rushing up the shaft and along the four
spokes, woula hiss out in four jets at the
side openings, and the whole would, owing


to the force of reaction, whirl round in the
opposite direction. Here, therefore, nearly
two thousand years ago, we find steam
applied to produce a rotatory motion. By
connecting the simple rotatory apparatus
above described with additional machinery,
mills could be driven, and other important
mechanical effects produced. The principle
of the Eolipile, however, and of the rota-
tory engines which are modifications of it,
is evidently different from that of steam-
engines usually so called, in which the
power consists not in the mere reaction
caused by steam violently escaping into the
atmosphere, but in the prodigious expan-
sive force of steam itself.
But even this use of the expansive force
of steam was in some degree known to the
ancients. In the images of the ancient
gods were sometimes concealed crevices
containing water with the means of heating
it: and tubes proceeding from these cre-
vices conducted the steam, so as to make
it blow out plugs from the mouths and fore-
heads of the images with loud noise and
apparent clouds of smoke. A more ingeni-
ous device still, and which represents the
utmost extent to which the ancients carried
their use of the expansive force of steam,
is one described by Hero, the purpose of
which seems likewise co have been priestly
In order to accomplish this trick, Hero
directs vessels half full of wine to be
concealed inside of two figures, in the shape
of men standing on each side of an altar.
From these vessels, tubes, in the form of
bent syphons, with the short end in the
wine, proceed along the extended arms of
the figures to the tips of their fingers,
which are held over the flame of the sacri-
fice. Other tubes proceed from the same
vessels downwards, through the feet of the
figures, communicating through the floor
with the altar and the fire. 'When, there-
(ore,' says Hero, 'you are about to sacrifice,
you must pour into the tubes a few drops,
lest they should be injured by heat, and
attend to every joint, lest it leak; and
so the heat of the fire, mingling with the

water, will pass in an aerial state through
these tubes to the vases inside the figures,
and, pressing on the wine, make it to pass
through the bent syphons, until, as it flows
from the hands of the living creatures, they
will appear to sacrifice as the altar continues
to burn.'
From the time of Hero down to the
beginning of the seventeenth century, no
advance appears to have been made in the
application of steam power.
A French engineer, named De Caus, pub-
lished a folio volume, in 1623, on rToving
forces, in which he came very near the
modern steam-engine. De Caus's steam
invention is a modification, in a more patent
and distinct form, of the last-mentioned
artifice of Hero. A hollow copper globe is
filled to the extent of two-thirds or thereby
with water, through a funnel-shaped pipe,
which enters it, and which is furnished with
a stop-cock. Besides this pipe, another
descends nearly to the bottom of the globe,
so as to have its termination beneath the
water. It is likewise furnished with a stop-,
cock, and its nozzle is small. If now the
vessel be placed over a fire, with the stop-
cock of the first pipe shut, and that of the
other open, it is evident that when the
water begins to boil, the steam, being
inclosed, will press down the water, and
compel it to rush up the second pipe, form-
ing a jet.
Forty years after the appearance of this
book, came the celebrated Marquis of
Worcester's "Century of Inventions." In this
work he describes "an admirable and most
forcible way to drive up water by fire, not
by drawing or sucking it upward," but by
a method according to which "one vessel
of water rarefied by fire driveth up forty
vessels of cold water." What value the
marquis attached to this invention, appears
from the striking language he uses with
regard to other modifications of it. Of one
he says, "I call this a semi-omnipotent
engine, and do intend that a model thereof
be buried with me." From his description,
it would seem that he had really constructed
an engine, and there is not much doubi


that the Marquis'of Worcester must be re-
garded as the first person who really con-
structed a steam-engine.
Although, however, it would thus seem
that steam-power was in actual operation
so early as 1656, it.is not till 1699, upwards
of thirty years after the Marquis of Wor-
cester's death, that we find the steam-engine
again pressed on public notice. In that
year Captain Savary exhibited a model of
an engine for draining mines, and raising
water to great heights. The difference be-
tween this and the invention of the Marquis
of Worcester consisted in this, that whereas
"the marquis's model appears to have been
placed on or below the level of the water
to be raised, so that the water was forced
up solely by the elastic force of the steam,
Savary, on the other hand, erected his en-
gine at a height of nearly thirty feet above
the level of the water." The improvement
of Savary, in fact, consisted in combining
* the force of atmospheric suction, as it is
usually called, with. that of steam pressure.
Like De Caus, the next great improver
of the Steam Engine was a Frenchman.
Denis Papin, who had made a great name
by other important mechanical inventions,
conceived the idea of making the steam-
power act through the cylinder and piston.
In De Caus's and in Savary's apparatus
the steam pressed directly upon the surface
of the water; but Papin conceived the idea
of introducing the steam into the bottom
of the receiver, so as to force up, by its
elasticity, a tightly-fitting plate or piston,
which would again descend by the pressure
of the atmosphere as soon as the steam be-
neath was condensed. The importance of
this modification can hardly be overrated,
when it is considered that it amounts to
the application of steam-power to produce
the motion of a rod up and down in a
cylinder. This was the great step, the
conciliation of steam, as it were, into a
regular moving power at the command of
man; and, as M. Arago observes the pro-
curing afterwards, from the strokes of the
piston, the power to turn millstones, or
the paddles of a steam-boat, or to uplift


the massive hammer, or to move the huge
clipping shears-these were but secondary
Improvements in the Steam Engine now
came apace. In 1711, Matthew Newcomen
and John Calley, mechanics, of Dartmouth,
availing themselves of an idea which had
been thrown out by a French engineer,
adopted the modern plan of cooling the
steam by the injection of a stream of cold
water. The old mode of effecting this was
by the removal of the fire These two in-
dividuals constructed a machine which
was meant to raise water from great depths,
and in which there was a distinct vessel
where the steam was .generated. This
machine, like-the small model of Papin,
consisted of a vertical metallic cylinder,
shut at the bottom and open at the top,
together with a piston accurately fitted, and
intended to traverse the whole length, both
in ascending and descending. In the lat-
ter, as in the former apparatus also, when
the steam was admitted into the lower part
of the cylinder, so as to fill it, and counter-
balance the external atmospheric pressure,
the ascending movement of the piston was
effected by means of a counterpoise. Fi-
nally, in the English machine, in imitation
of Papin's, as soon as the piston reached
the limit of its ascending stroke, the steam
which had impelled it was refrigerated; a
vacuum was thus produced, and the exter-
nal atmosphere forced the piston to descend.
The only novelty in Newcomen's engine,
over and above what had existed either in
Papin's or in Savary's model, was the mode
of condensing the steam in the cylinder.
This was effected not by simply withdraw-
ing the heat from the bottom of the cylinder,
as Papin had done, nor by dashing cold
water on the outside of it, as in Savary's
apparatus, but in directing a stream of cold
water into the inside of the cylinder at
every rise of the piston. This improve-
ment-an important one at the time-is
said to have been made by accident, from
the circumstance of water once finding its
way into the cylinder through a hole in the
piston, and astonishing the onlookers by


its results. The injection of cold water
was accomplished by two stop-cocks, which
were turned by hand : the first, for the ad-
mission of steam from the boiler; the
second, for the admission of the cold water
for the condensation of the steam. The
whole action of the machine depended on
the attention of the person who watched,
these two cocks. A curious accident, how-
ever, remedied this inconvenience. A boy
of the name of Humphrey Potter being em-
ployed to tend one of Newcomen's engines,
belonging to Mr. Beighton, found' the con-
stant watching so troublesome, that he set
himself to contrive a way by which the
cocks might be turned at the right time,
and yet he might enjoy himself for an hour
or so at a time with the boys in the street.
Observing that the particular moment at
which the valve required to be opened for
the admission of the steam was that at
which the pump-rod end of the beam was
raised to its highest, and that the moment
at which the other cock required to be
opened was when the piston-rod end was
at its highest, he saw that, by attaching

strings to the stop-cocks, and connecting
them with various parts of the beam, the
rising and falling of the two ends would
turn the cocks regularly as was necessary.
Such was the scogging or skulking gear of
the boy Potter; so called because it en-
abled him to scog or play truant from his
work, and afterwards improved, by the
substitution of rods for strings. The Steam-
Engine was now entirely self-working; the
only attendant necessary was the fireman
to tend the furnace. Newcoinen's engine
was very successful, and is well known in
Cornwall to this day. After Newcomen's
time, little was done for some time to im-
prove the steam-engine, till. Mr. Beighton,
in 1718, made the machine itself shut and
open the cocks by which the supply of cold
water was regulated, instead of having this
service performed, as before, by an attend-
ant. This, as we have said above, was dis-
covered by a boy. This was a great step,
and was to lead to further developments
under the hands of the famous Watt, whose
improvements of the Steam-Engine will be
found narrated elsewhere.


Elephanta are situated on an
S island in Bombay harbour,
S called Charapuri by the na-
tives. The caves are three
in number, hewn from the
3 solid rock, and constitute a
Brahminical temple, some say
to the Hindoo Trinity of
Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva,
the Hindoo supreme god,
and source of all being and power.
The temple, which derives its Egropean
name from the figure of an elephant which
formerly stood near the entrance, is situated
in the centre of a huge hill, which rises
abruptly from the island, and may be seen
for miles round. The great cave measures

about 130 feet long, is about as broad, and
is from 15 feet to 17 feet high. It is reached
by a long flight of steps reaching from the
shore, and is cut out of the solid rock,
a work evidencing the patience and perse-
verance of the excavators, who not only cut
out the rock, but designed beforehand, and
left in the proper place, every separate
pillar, every block for a statue, and every
compartment. Subsequently came the more
delicate artists to portray in the recesses
the avatars of the presiding deity, Shiva.
The entrance is flanked, by two enormous
columns; but the temple is in a very ruined
condition. Out of twenty-six columns which
originally supported the cave, only eighteen
remain, and these are much mutilated. At
Sthe end is the trinurti, or bust of a three-


*- ~if ".**'*-- -*


headed figure, eighteen feet high, represent-
ing the Hindoo Trinity above mentioned-
i.e., Brahma the Creator, Vishnu the Pre-
server, and Shiva the Destroyer. To the
right and left are the small caves, where
are various sculptures and representations
of Shiva: such as his marriage, the deity in
his double character of male and female, as
the Destroyer, as the Ascetic, etc., besides
numerous other sculptured illustrations of
Hindoo mythology. One design bears so
great an affinity to the story of Solomon's
judgment, that we are half tempted to
believe it records that most Oriental deci-
sion : a not very improbable conjecture,
either, when we remember how deeply his
memory is still reverenced in the East, as
the chief of. magicians and hero of all
miraculous deeds.
In addition to this there are several other,
but less important, caves on the island. In
the course of his trip to India, the Prince

of Wales paid a visit to this remarkable
spot. After inspecting the interior of the
largest cave, which was lighted with pyra-
mids of oil lamps arranged in three lines,
and various chandeliers, the Prince dined
at a table placed just beneath the bust of
the huge three-headed idol, upon whom the
sacrilegious hands of unbelievers had fixed
innumerable lamps. Notwithstanding the
thousands of lights, a dim religious gloom
pervaded the cave, and the effect is de-
scribed as grimly theatrical. After viewing
the two smaller caves by the light of green
and red fires, the Prince left the temple and
re-embarked. Outside was a blaze of light;
on the top of the hill gleamed a huge
bonfire and fireworks, lines of white, red,
blue, and green lamps led down the sides,
while the ships in the harbour were illumi-
nated from stem to stern, and saluted the
royal steamer as she passed with portfires
and thousands of rockets.


AMONGST the greatest curio-
sities of the American Con-
tinent are the gigantic trees
found in the Mariposa Valley
in the State of California.
A recent traveller graphi-
cally describes his visit to
"The road led through a
vast forest, with a dense
undergrowth of flowering
shrubs which made the air
heavy with their fragrance. The pines
and redwood, which had been increasing
in size ever since we left the plain, now
assumed gigantic proportions. Again and
again as I approached some forest giant,
I asked, 'Is that one of the big trees?'
But it was only a redwood, attaining not
more than the contemptible height of two
hundred feet At length the grove was
reached, and all that I had heard of these


monarchs of the forest fell short of the
reality. For their size I was prepared, but
their beauty took me by surprise. The
lines of the trunk reminded me of those of
the modern lighthouses,-a broad base,.
from which rises an exquisitely tapering
shaft, perfectly smooth and straight, to a
height of two hundred or two hundred and
fifty feet, when a vast crown of branches is,
thrown out, many of which are as big as
an ordinary tree. Unlike the redwood, to
which they are allied, they only grow in
detached clumps or groves. Their habitat
is on terraces varying from five to seven
thousand feet above the level of the sea.
The scientific name by which these trees,
have been known in England is Wellingfonia
gigantea. This, however, seems to have'
been given in mistake, under the erroneous.
idea that they formed anew species. Really
they are a variety of the redwood or Sequoia,
which grows abundantly and attains an


immense height on the mountain ranges of
"The most important of the trees are
named and numbered,-the Mother of the.
Forest, the Three Graces, Maid of Honour,
Daniel Webster, Richard Cobden, Henry
Ward Beecher, and so on. One, which has
fallen and lies pointing to the south, is
called after Andrew Johnson, the late ex-
President of the United States, on account
of his southern proclivities." The tallest
tree actually measured is the Keystone
State, which is three hundred and twenty-
five feet high. One tree, numbered three
hundred and thirty, was originally over one
hundred feet in circumference at the base.
Another, though one 'side has been burnt
away, still measures ninety-three feet round
the base. A calculation of the age of the
trees, by counting the annual rings, was
made by the Geological Survey. Having
selected one which was deemed suitable
for the purpose, it was felled by means of
augers and wedges, a task which occupied
five men for twenty-two days. The stump,
at six feet from the ground, had a circum-
ference of about ninety feet. A very care-
ful counting of the rings, gave its probable
age as one thousand years. As this tree
was in full vigour, it may be fairly assumed
that those which show signs of decay are
much older."
The following is the account of another
traveller who came upon these monsters of
the forest more suddenly:-
"Sure enough there stood a red-barked
monster dwarfing the large trunks among
which it grew, as a full-grown tree does a
crowd of saplings. Where were our pines,
with their eighteen feet girth, by the side of
a giant some one hundred feet round, breast
high! Of course, the great size of the ordinary
forest timber in which these huge growths are
found, takes off from their immense propor-
tions; but if one were set upon a plain, it

would show like the Eddystone Lighthouse.
It was hard to realize that what we saw were
trees. Their trunks, when we stood close
to them, had almost the appearance of
artificial structures. One that had fallen
was hollow, and had been broken by its
fall. We rode into the break, and through
the prostrate fragments, as if it had been a
tunnel. We climbed upon the trunk of
another, also fallen, and when I had step-
ped fifty-five yards along it, I measured its
circumference, and found it to be over
twenty-five feet. Thus, with its bark on,-
it had been stripped,-it would have been
at least some thirty feet in girth, at a height
of one hundred and seventy feet from the
ground. But these were not the largest
that we saw. The bark of these trees is
red, and nearly a foot thick. It lies on the
trunk, in rough longitudinal ridges like
huge muscles, but so soft that with my
pocket-knife I cut off two great trunks
from a portion which had been detached
and lay upon the ground. The branches
are short, and spring mainly from the upper
part of the tree. The foliage is scant in
proportion to the trunk, and the cones no
bigger than plovers' eggs. The tree itself
is said to be a species of cedar; but it
spends its strength in growing more wood
than leaves. There are about six hundred
of these cedars, of different sizes, some
being comparatively small, in the Mariposa
groups. I do not know the greatest height
reached by any one of these, but in another
grove, the altitude of one is found to be
three hundred and thirty-five feet ; and there
also, a fallen trunk can be ridden through
on horseback for a distance of twenty-five
It is only necessary to add that as these
trees are now carefully protected by the
United States Government, they are likely
to remain for ages to gratify the curiosity
of the traveller.




SN fashioning the "human form
divine," nature sometimes
makes sad mistakes. Occa-
'-: sionally two persons are so
united in bodily structure as
ij to be inseparable. The most
remarkable instance of this
peculiarity is in the case of
thewell-known Siamese Twins.
These men, named respective-
ly Chang and Eng, were born
in May, 18i1. They were of
short stature, Eng being 5 ft. 21 ins. high;
Chang being about an inch shorter. They
had excellent health throughout life, and
possessed good muscular development. The
band that united them sprang originally
from the lower portion of each breastbone,
and kept them face to face ; but their efforts
during childhood to attain a more con-
venient position, produced some bending
of the structures concerned, so that they
stood shoulder to shoulder, in which posi-
tion they usually crossed their adjacent
arms behind each other's backs. When
necessary, however, as at meals, they could
bring both arms forward without inconveni-
ence. The band itself was about four inches
in length, and more than seven inches in
circumference in the centre, and rather
more than three inches deep at its junction
with each body. The nerves of each brother
passed a little beyond the middle of the
band, so that a touch was felt by both over
a central portion about an inch in width,
beyond that portion only by the brother
who was touched. The blood vessels in like
manner communicated, but there was no
interchange of blood between the two; and
experiments showed that chemical agents
introduced into one body had no appre-
ciable effects upon the other. The hearts
of the two brothers were distinct, and even

somewhat unlike, and the respiration was
wholly independent of each other. Their
mental operations were entirely distinct too,
and in playing chess against an adversary,
they consulted one another about the next
move. Their original resemblance, the
necessities of their position, and the fact
that their experiences must have been
absolutely identical through life, combined
to bring them into an extraordinary degree
of concord in thought and action ; but into
no greater degree than may be thus ac-
counted for. It was plainly their study,
and became their second nature, to act in
harmony in all things. They moved as it
by one impulse and without verbal com-
munication, and rarely talked to each other.
But each would feel the other's impulse to
move before a bystander could detect it.
They took pleasure in all sports that could
be pursued in concord. They took no
pleasure in sports that would place them
in opposition, as in playing games of chance
or skill against each other, although per-
fectly capable of playing such if they cared
for them. These interesting twins died a
few years ago, within an hour of each other.
Among the most remarkable twins united
after the fashion of the Siamese, and who
have survived their birth, were two girls
described by Dr. Berry, who lived to be
seven years old. The drawing which he
gives of them shows them to have been
healthy, good-looking, and active. Food
taken by the one, nourished the other; but
they were different in character, and one
sometimes woke while the other slept.
Of twins who have lived united back to
back, the best known instance is that of two
Hungarian sisters, Helen and Judith; they
were born in 1701, and died at Presburg,
in 1723, aged twenty-three. Some disorders
they had separately; others, as measles or



small-pox, together. Judith sank under dis-
ease of the head and chest. Helen, who
preserved her health well till the last, felt
her own strength suddenly fail, and after a
brief struggle, she died also. Sir James
Simpson saw, in 1856, two female children,
Amelia and Christina, then five years old,
united exactly as Helen and Judith. They
were born in South Carolina. Although

united back to back and completely fused,
they were very different in disposition.
When they quarrelled tore bitterly than
usual, they backed at each other with their
elbows. They ran and walked with facility,
one backwards and the other forwards;
and, notwithstanding their partial com-
munity of body, one was sometimes seen
to eat while the other was almost asleep.


I IE Hawaiian's wonderful feat
Sof surf-riding has become
\ ) ~world-renowned. Taught to
swim, sometimes before he
Scan walk, he is a perfectly
amphibious creature. The
2 children play for hours at a
time in the surf; indeed, it is
difficult to say how long a
Hawaiian could remain in the
water. On the fapa-hee-nalu,
or surf-board, the native will
surmount billow after billow with wonderful
dexterity; standing, sitting, or lying at full
length on a plank (about six feet long and
two feet wide, with rounded corners) he
rides old Ocean's huge billows as easily as
the jockey rides his horse.
The harbour of Hilo is well adapted for
the sport. Its beach is a mile and a half
long, and lies in a semi-circle; upon it the
breakers' roar is deafening, and in a storm,
Sthe waves pound upon it with appalling fury.
Taking definite shape far from land, they
sweep across the bay, leaping as they fly,
and tossing spray from their crests. No
craft nor human being could live a moment
in such a sea, one would say; and yet it
was with just such a sea running that all
Hilo turned out to see the surf-riders, for
the rougher the sea the finer the sport.
Depositing their clothing upon the sand-
bank, the bathers plunged into the surf.
For the privilege of coming in upon a wave,

they must swim far out beyond the line of
breakers, and this a native does with
the utmost ease by simply diving undei
each wave. A wave never retards his out-
ward progress nor gives him an unexpected
slap in the face.
We watched the heads appear and dis-
appear with every approaching roller, and
the rapidity with which the natives swam
out against the incoming sea was wonderful.
It seemed no effort whatever; and yet the
wind was blowing a gale, and ships in the
harbour could hardly hold their anchorage.
At from half a mile to two miles away
the surf-riders turned their faces shoreward
and lay-to." One after another enormous
billows came plunging along, under which
the swimmer disappeared only to reappear
and wait for a larger; for only the largest
and most turbulent wave gives one a fair
start and carries its passenger to the shore.
And now comes a comberr," tearing
through the water like an infuriated animal.
At a short distance the native sees it, and
instantly he is transfigured : every fibre of
his being is alive with the intensity of the
moment. He is like a cat watching its
prey, for he must make as instantaneous
a spring, to be caught and borne along by
that ingoing swell : one second too late and
it will drop him behind, Just as it begins
to curl above his head and he feels its lift-
ing force, there is a motion, quick as light-
ning, and our surf-rider is lying full-length

, i


on his board, head downward, in fiont of
the wave, and travelling at the rate of forty
miles an hour. Wii inconceivable dexte-
rity he keeps his {paa-hee-nalz in position ;
always in front of the wave, and pointed
well downward, he is propelled by the
pressure upon the underside of the board.
The wave in its progress picks up passen-
ger after passenger, and as it approaches the
shore, fairly hurling its daring riders forward,
the wild enthusiasm of the spectators breaks
forth in ringing huzzahs; the shouts almost
drown the roar of the surf; and how the
wild scene makes one's blood tingle'! The
uninitiated grow breathless with suspense,

for they expect to see the natives dashed
upon the beach by the breaking wave, more
dead than alive. Not at all! The latter
seem to know byinstinct when the billowwill
topple over, and that moment they bring
their fapa-hee-nalus into a horizontal posi-
tion and drop behind it, and when the'
mountain of "cruel, crawling foam" has
spent itself at your feet, the surf-riders are
several yards out to sea again. If in need
of rest, they take it in the water, coming to
land when the day's sport is over. They
land high and dry with an incoming wave-
always without accident, though completely
submerged by the breaker.


HE gorges in the
mountains of the
eastern states of
S Americaare called
canons, and some
of them are of
immense propor-
tions. One of these, the Royal
Gorge of the Grand Cafion of
the river Arkansas, in Colorado,
is thus described :
"The solemn stillness of death
pervades the scene-the height is so great
that the water below one is as polished
metal, and as stationary as the mighty walls
which look down upon them from such a
fearful eminence. Fairly awed into a bra-
vado as reckless as it is strange to us, we
crawl out upon tottering ledges to peer into
sheer depths of untold ruggedness; we grasp
with death-like clutch some over-hanging
limb, and swing out upon a promontory be-
side which the apex of the highest cathedral
spire in the world would be a sapling in
height. If our first experience upon the
brink of the Grand Cafion was startling, this is
absolutely terrifying, and the bravest at the
one point become most abject of cowards
in comparison at the other. At the first

point of observation, the walls, though
frightfully steep, are nevertheless sloping to
more or less extent; here at the Royal
Gorge they are sheer precipices, as perpen-
dicular as the tallest house, as straight as if
built by line. So narrow is the gorge that
one would think the throwing of a stone
from side to side the easiest of accomplish-
ments, yet no living man has ever done it,
or succeeded in throwing any object so that
it would fall into the water below. Many
tourists are content with the appalling view
from the main walls, but. others more ven-
turesome work their way six hundred to a
thousand feet down the ragged edges of a
mountain that has parted and actually slid
into the chasm; and as we have come to
see it all, the clamber down must be accom-
plished. For some distance we scramble
over and between monstrous boulders, and
reach the narrow and almost absolutely
perpendicular crevice of a gigantic mass
of rock, down which we must let ourselves
a hundred feet or more. As we reach the
shelf or ledge of rock upon which the great
rock has fallen and been sundered, we
glance back, but only for a second-the
thought of our daring making us grow sick
and dizzy. But.a step or two more, and


the descent just made sinks into utter insig-
nificance compared to what is before us.
Then we had the huge walls of the parted
rock as the rails of a staircase ; now we
have nought but the smooth, rounded sur-
face of the storm-washed boulders to cling
to, and, on either side of our narrow way,
depths at the bottom of which a man's body
could never be discovered with human eye.
Behind us, the precipitous rocks over and
Through which we came ; ahead of us, the
Slender barrier of rock overhanging the
appalling chasm, and all there exists be-
tween us and it. Few dare to look more
than once, and one glance suffices for a
comprehension of the meaning of the word
"depth" never before even dreamed of, and
never afterwards forgotten. The gorge is
2,000 feet sheer depth, the most precipitous
and sublime in its proportions of any chasm


HERE is no love-
Slier, few so lovely,
scenes on earth as
S. that which unfolds
-- itself to the tra-
., ,,eller as he ap-
proaches Constan-
/ '. '., i:pl! irom the sea; above
ii' on one of those days of
S early summer when the bitter
blasts from the Euxine have
ceased to blow, and the south
wind, warm from Syrian deserts, tempered
in its course by the snows of Olympus,
chases the last few fleecy clouds away from
the bright blue sky. Before him, as the
anchor drops in the still depths of the
Golden Horn, rise on the southern side of
the long inlet the seven low hills of old
Byzantium-a maze of domes and minarets,
masses of cypress groves and clusters of
tumble-down old houses, Ottoman mosques
and old Byzantine towers and pillars, still

on the continent. The opposite wall towers
hundreds of feet above us, and if it were
possible to imagine an--thin; more terrifying
than the position on thN side, that upon
the other would be, were its brink safe to
approach. Overhanging crags, black and
blasted at their summits, or bristling with
stark and gnarled pines, reach up into pro-
foundly dizzy heights, while lower down
monstrous rocks threatened to topple and
carry to destruction any foolhardy climber
who would venture upon them. The cation,
except in the dead of winter, is approach-
able only from the top, the walls below
being so precipitous and the river such a
torrent as to defy all access. When frozen,
as the waters are for brief periods during the
coldest months, the way up the cation may
be accomplished, but only at the risk of
personal comfort and not a little danger."


girdled round by the same ancient walls
albeit sadly dilapidated now, which in the
days of archers and Greek fire so often
baffled the repeated attacks of Goth and
Bulgar, Persian and Arab, and even the all-
conquering Osmanli himself.
On the northern bank, above the crowded
buildings and Genoese Tower of old Galata,
appear the heights of Europeanised Pera,
gay with official residences of ambassadors
and charges d'affaires, the home of rumour,
speculation, and intrigue. Facing the city,
on the Adriatic shore, are Scutari, with its
groves of tombs, the largest, the most beau-
tiful, the best beloved of all the cemeteries
of the capital, and Kadi-Keui, now a little
village, once known to fame as Chalcedon,
city of the blind." Whilst onwards to
where the Castles of Europe and of Asria
frown at one another across the narrowest
part of the Straits, and the expanse of the
gloomy Euxine is divined rather than seen
beyond, stretch eastwards-beginning with



Tophaneh, the site of the Imperial cannon-
foundry and artillery barracks, and the
Palace of Dolma Bagtche, a little farther
on-suburb after suburb, bright with the
summer residences of Ambassadors
and Pashas, and faced again on the
Asiatic side by answering villages and
Nor is the scene less animated on
water than on land. Great iron-clads,
flying Turkish colours, yet with a look
about them that tells of shipyards on
the Thames; stately passenger steamers
of Lloyds and the P. and O.; bluft
corn-ships from Odessa or the Danube
lie side by side with graceful Greek
feluccas, Italian brigs, and Turkish
coasting craft; while, like dragon-flies,
along the waters flit here and there the
caique of the Moslem water-man and
the private barge of the rich effendi.
It is a truism to say that nowhere
else in Europe can we encounter such
a variety of costumes and figures as in
Constantinople. Turks, Armenians,
Jews, Greeks, Franks, and natives of
the East, jostle each other in the streets.
What Lady Mary Wortley Montagu

wrote a century ago is true at present.
I live in a place," she observes, that
very well represents the Tower of Babel.
In Pera they speak Turkish, Greek,
Hebrew, Armenian, Arabic, Persian,
Russian, Sclavonian, Wallachian, Ger-
man, Dutch, Italian, French, Hungarian,
English ; and, what is worse, there are
ten of these languages spoken in my
own family! My grooms are Arabs;
my footmen French, English, and Ger-
mans; my nurse an Armenian; my
Shousemaids Russians; half a dozen
other servants Greeks, my steward an
Italian ; my janissaries Turks."
Our pictures represent a few of the
more familiar types of the street life.
The useful personage, whose back, bent
crescent shape from constant loads, will
carry up the steepest lane in Galata,
with the aid of straps over brow
and breast, a burden for which in
England we should send a horse and cart,
is an old member of the confraternity of
Hammals, or Porters-Armenian probably
by descent, water-drinker and vegetarian



-- =--

~~~- -5 -2. -. -- -
almost beyond doubt. The street-seller of
those hard, flat ginger-bread cakes, which
seem to possess a mysterious attraction for
the sweet-toothed Oriental; the barber, so
dexterously removing, with the most primi-
tive of razors, the superfluous hairs from
the brow and skull of the true believer;
the Turkish lady, whose yashmak
is no longer a disguise, but the thin-
nest of veils, adding, in fact, an ad-
ditional charm to faces whose regular
features and dark eyes are often
coupled with an unhealthy pallor, will,
meet us again and again on our way to
the bazaars.
Constantinople has two glories : the
glory of the mountains, and the glory
of the sea. In every landscape the
background is formed by the bold
heights of Scutari and the more distant
Mysian Olympus, with its snowy sum-,
mit cutting .the clear air like mother-
of-pearl. In the city itself there is g'
scarcely a yard of level ground. Old
Stamboul is built on a long ridge rising
some two hundred feet above the
waters that lave it on either hand, a
ridge whose top, indented by hollows

and crowned by massive mosques and
graceful white minarets, with here and
there a pile of ancient ruin, offers a
sky-line always changing as the behold-
er moves, but always beautiful. Then
no city has such a sea-a sea deep to
its very margin, intensely clear, in-
tensely blue, penetrating everywhere,
till you can hardly recognize its arms;
a sea that narrows to a river in the
Golden Horn and Bosphorus, and
spreads into a shoreless expanse in the
Broad Propontis, studded with shining
isles, The central spot of every view
is the spot where these three waters
meet: Seraglio Point, where the first
Greek colonists built their Byzantium,
where afterwards stood the palace of
the Eastern Cesars, and where now
stands the ruin of the fortress palace
of the Ottoman sultans; a wilder-
ness of broken walls and towers, with cypress
groves between, and the dome.of St. Sophia
rising behind. There is no spot on earth
that has seen so much history and so much
crime as this, where dynasties of tyrants
have reigned for sixteen weary centuries.




S Ii'-,'-l- is now a good many years rapidly by, and nothing was more hateful
i<, -|,'- ago since I paid my first visit to me at that time than the sound of the
-. \ to the charming town of overseer's bell commanding rest from work
Dresden, the Florence of the for the day.
Elbe. After having thorough- Miss M.," said that functionary, a good
%I .t ly enjoyed the beauties of the old man, who favoured me, as he approach.
surrounding scenery, especially of the Saxon ed one day with the obnoxious instrument,
Switzerland, I devoted my time to the real "Miss M., if you are not careful you will
object of my journey, which was the in- get locked in here some day."
section of the galleries and works of art "Well, and if I am ?" said I, half vexed
in the Saxon capital. and half amused. "I could paint on then
If I had not already formed the intention to my heart's content; it would be perfectly
of profiting by the teaching of an eminent delightful."
artist residing there, my first look on the The old man shook his head and looked
wonderful paintings would have determined at me gravely, almost reproachfully, but
me to follow my calling, and to endeavour he had not the least idea how soon his
to tread as faithfully as possible in the foot- warning words would prove true.
steps of the Old Masters. I did not ask The month of May of the year 18- was
myself whether I could ever paint a picture anything but a pleasant one, and the never-
similar to those I saw there; I only knew to-be-forgotten day of my story distinguished
that I must strive to do it with all the itself by an unusual gloom. A drizzling,
energy of my life. penetrating rain had spread itself over the
However, my longing to receive per- town and its lovely surrounding country
mission to copy from the paintings in the with a grey monotony, which caused even
gallery was not to be satisfied all at once. the brightest picture to appear as though it
Only after nine months'persevering industry were covered with' cobweb. This tempo-
in the studio of my worthy master I rary interruption to the sunny spring weather
obtained the consent of the director of the did not affect my spirits, and I found
gallery, and when in the following spring myself rejoicing mischievously at the small
the doors of the building were thrown open number of visitors to the gallery, and
to the disciples of art, I was among the enjoyed unusual peace and quietude in the
first who profaned the clasi:[c halls with the nearly empty rooms.
presence of paint-brushes and boxes. Many of my fellow-artists' places re-
With a boldness I still wonder at, I mained also unoccupied; not one of them
attempted the copy of Titian's celebrated could boast of as good a seat as I had, there-
"Zinsgroschen." As the picture hangs in fore I was not surprised when a young
a place where people are apt to crowd the industrious painter approached me and
passage, I had it taken down and put in asked permission to share the more favour-
the outer room of the Italian school, where able light in my corner. Both too
I had better light and more quiet. With preoccupied, we only exchanged a few
eager zeal I commenced my interesting polite words, and then relapsed into corn-
task, and soon forgot myself in the con- plete silence. Not a sound was heard, not
templation of the splendid colourings, and even from the outside world. The hours
in wonder at the soul breathed into them came and went imperceptibly. I was
by the great painter. The hours flew astonished to see my companion start up


suddenly, gather up his paints and brushes,
and with a questioning glance at me and a
hasty bow, rush from the room. "Funny !"
I thought, as I went on with my work.
I believe it was the perfect stillness all
around which began to rouse meat last; for
the first time I found myself listening in-
tently for the well-known signal. But no
bell was to be heard A certain rest-
lessness took possession of me, and caused
the tips of my fingers to tingle. I laid
down my brush, then took it up again,
while the lurking malicious face of the
Pharisee on the canvas appeared, to be
watching all my movements. I seated my-
self once more in position, and mixed a
fresh colour, but only to lay down brush
and palette as before, and to determine to
pack up my things for the night.
The gallery should witness for once the
curious spectacle to see me among the first
to go home so hoping that the immortal
spirit of Titian would forgive my human
weakness, I walked rapidly through several
rooms, rather astonished to find them empty,
and reached the inner corridor, from which
exit is gained through the porter's small
How tiresome !" I exclaimed angrily, as
I did not succeed in opening the door. I
tapped loudly, believing that he would come
and let me out. But no, only the echo of
my knocking came back to me; no other
sound reached my ears. The man had left,
and the door was firmly locked. He can-
not be far off as yet," I thought, and called
him loudly by his name; my voice sounded
strange and hollow through the lofty cham-
bers, and a slight shiver passed over me as
I felt what the old man had prophesied
had come to pass-I was locked in for the
It was but too true. I had again omitted
hearing the bell, and a less careful man
than my aged friend had been on duty that
night, and neglected to go the round of
the gallery before retiring from his post.
SIt was not to be wondered at that all had
been anxious to reach their sheltering roofs
on that miserable wet day, even I had not

been able to withstand a certain longing to
get home as the evening drew near. And
now they had all gone, my kind old friend
too; and I? I was the only living thing
among thousands of inanimate ones.
To be fully aware how I was situated,
you must know that none of the officials re-
side in the building, and that the latter stands
isolated in a large open space which is very
little frequented at that time of day and in
such weather. If assistance had been near
at hand, the well closed double-windows
would have defied any attempt on my part
to open them; the same or rather more so
with the doors. Therefore no prospect of
release I must submit to the inevitable,
and I tried to do so.
Returning to my old place, I took out
my things, only just neatly packed together,
and prepared anew for my work. Whal
more did I want? Now I could paint,
paint, paint in peace, and to my heart's
content, untroubled by the warning of the
detested bell And I painted on, leaving
out the head of the lurking tempter; and
forgetting myself in the holy grandeur of
the Saviour's features, painted on till the
darkening twilight would no longer permit
me to distinguish the colours.
But now the feeling of utter loneliness
came over me in its full force, and with it
the question, What shall I do ?" "Make
the best of it," my reason told me, and with
this praiseworthy intention my adventure
appeared to me in a new light. What more
interesting thing could a young genius
think of than a night's quarters in such a
place ? Had a professed enthusiast petition
ed for permission to sleep there, he would
not have received it. i was probably the
first and the last person whom chance this
Involuntarily I still hoped for release
sometimes I fancied I heard a door open,
or a voice call to me. At every distant
sound of wheels, at every angry blast of
wind, I started up, only to sink back into
my seat with a heightened feeling of dis-
appointment. Staring vacantly at the win-
dow, I saw how the raindrops ran like


tears down the dust-covered panes, and
listened to their monotonous drip, drip,"
while a pale sickly reflection from the
evening sky lighted up the silent company
round the walls.
While it cast a supernatural splendour
upon the head of Christ, it seemed, on the
other hand, to invest the eyes of the
Pharisee with a, diabolical expression.
Quickly I placed the picture against the
wall and quitted the room with a good-
night" to its inhabitants as hastily as
though I feared that my loudly-expressed
wish might be returned in the same man-
ner. With regained composure, and the
practical determination to seek a comfort-
able resting place, I began to promenade
through the rooms, evading, however, the
one containing Brenghel's "Hell," "The
Murder of the Innocents," and other similar
ones. I am sure many of you have noticed
that in a dim uncertain light, strange life
seems to stir in paintings. Even some with
which we are familiar in our'own homes,
assume something peculiar, and often fear-
ful, in the pale twilight of evening or
morning; how much more so a whole
collection of pictures in a wide and other-
wise empty space! Putting aside such sad
representations as death-beds, scenes from
the lives of tortured martyrs, and others of
the same class, simple and homely subjects
even look often ghastly enough under the
influence, of struggling light and shade.
Raised arms seem to drop, lifted hands to
fall powerless, an advanced foot appears to
move forth from its frame, calm features
look rigid, agitated ones distorted. Full of
such unpleasant thoughts, I wandered on to
the outer or Old German room, without re-
membering that here I should step out of
the frying-pan into the fire." The first glance
showed me that the soft and touching figures
painted by Durer, Kronach, and others ap-
peared like a veritable company of ghosts,
over whom Adam and Eve seemed to
Retracing my steps speedily, .I sought
protection with Holbein's "Madonna," but
even she did not inspire me with the usual

admiration. There was a painful reality
about the suffering Child in her arms, and
the forms at her feet raised their stiff arms
threateningly to keep me off. I could not re-
main here, so I turned back to my Italians, to
the cheerful Albano, the sweet Carlo Dolce,
to Raphael's La Belle Jardiniere," and the
" Banquet" of Veronese. From Correggio's
" Holy Night a stream of light passed into
my agitated heart, and I wondered why I
had not stayed near it from the first.
But a few steps brought me into the snug
little cabinet memorable to all who have
visited the Dresden Gallery. Here I felt
quiet and at rest as I stood before Raphael's
" Madonna." I placed my trembling hands
on the railing enclosing it, and forgot all
else for the time, as I gazed on her calm,
heavenly face.
Those who have seen the Madonna di
Sisto" may remember the red sofa which
stands opposite to this painting. Many
have been seated there lost in contempla-
tion of its grand beauty. Many may have
dreamt there with eyes open, but I trust
none have been overcome by sleep in reality.
I stood stroking the velvet bolsters on the
couch, as though in apology for seeking
rest there, and, if possible, sleep, in place of
enthusiastic and ardent admiration.
According to my reckoning, for I did not
carry a watch, it was then about nine o'clock.
The light from the windows had grown so
faint that I could barely distinguish the
outlines of the figures on the canvas. When
these had also disappeared, I could think
of nothing better than to lay my head on
the soft cushions and endeavour to sleep.
This resolution was more easily formed
than carried out. Unpleasant thoughts and
feelings increased, and my heart beat
I applied the remedies of childhood, such
as counting, repeating poetry, etc., to calm
my agitated nerves. In vain I was too
painfully conscious of my situation to forget
it for an instant, and if minutes appeared
like hours already, to what fearful length
would the dark, dreary night stretch itself?
Who has not experienced how acute the


sense of hearing grows during the still
watches of the night, especially when we
are labouring under violent inward disquie-
tude? I fancied, sometimes, that I heard
a distant rustling, then again something
creeping nearer and nearer from the farther
rooms, then a breathing or whispering.
I began to believe the most incredible
might prove credible, the most impossible
possible, and I know that at one time I sat
erect staring with wide-open eyes at the
opposite door, expecting to see nothing less
than Herodias entering with the head of St.
John the Baptist on a charger.
From that moment I took the utmost
pains to quiet my excited imagination. I
thought of the daily cares of life, and called
the past and future to my assistance; then
I told myself how safe and comfortable I
was compared to many thousands, resting
there on downy cushions, protected from
inclement weather, secure from burglars
and murderers. But again my thoughts
wandered helplessly from my cosy corner
to the adjoining chambers, and pictured to
themselves dread scenes between gods and
goddesses, saints and martyrs, until my
brain whirled tumultuously. I felt feverish
and full of pity for myself, when I thought
of my distant home and family. I had no
anxiety on my landlady's account, for I had
on several occasions stayed overnight with
my friends when the weather was unfavour-
able, therefore I knew she would not expect
me. I was really getting calmer when
something occurred which threw me out of
my hard-gained composure.
I started up from my seat, then lost my
consciousness for an instant, in spite of my
.good resolutions. What was that fearful
crash Like thunder it rolled on and on
through the lower and upper rooms, and
now all was as still as before. Slowly my
senses returned, but my blood, which
seemed frozen a moment before, now
throbbed fiercely in all my veins.
My face pressed into the cushion, I
listened with breathless suspense, and-yes,
-something stirred in the house; there was a
.creeping, shuffling movement on the stairs


and along the corridors. Strange sounds
I heard, and awful was the echo they
awakened. From all corners of the vast
building, steps seemed approaching nearer
and nearer, doors creaked on their hinges,
and I heard distinctly the rattling of large
keys. Tap, tap, tap it came on through
the first room, through the second, nearer
and nearer to my hiding-place.
I sat motionless, unable to move a finger.
I was only conscious that I should see
something go through some awful scene-
but what? I dared not think of that. I
closed my eyes to shut out the sight of the
dread thing that came towards me with
such fearful certainty.
I remained but a few seconds in this
agonising suspense, though at that time it
seemed to me-oh, how long! A faint
streak of light fell upon my closed eyelids,
and caused them to open mechanically.
Like one in a dream, I gazed on the
apparition standing in the doorway in strong
relief from the darkness beyond. It was a
figure cast in Rembrandt's light and shade,
stepped forth, as it were, from an antique
frame, and the lantern which the old man
held up high towards me threw a red, glow-
ing reflection on a wrinkled brow, fringed
by long silvery hair, and on a pair of dark
piercing eyes, which were riveted on mine,
as mine were on them.
"It is you after all!" exclaimed the old
man, after this silent mutual greeting.
"After all! I thought so. If any one had
been shut in, it must be you. How glad-
ah, how glad I am that I have come; poof
"But how did you know, how could you
guess?" I asked, with a voice trembling in
spite of myself, after my late agitation, and
when I rose my knees shook violently.
Instead of replying, my deliverer, who
was no other than my kind old friend who
had warned me, merely shook his head.
"By-and-by," he said, as he hurried me
through the dismal apartments. I need
not tell you that this time I left the gallery
without regret. When I saw how carefully,
though hastily, my guide fastened each dool


with bolts and bars, I realized fully how
securely I had been imprisoned. I scarcely
ventured to look back, and shuddered to
think of the agonising fear I had undergone,
when I had first heard the creaking and
slamming of the doors re-echo through the
lofty chambers. I was not far enough from
the scene of my sufferings to be able to
laugh at them, and involuntarily kept close
to the side of my conductor.
The old man did not speak a word, and
only stopped when we reached the cloak-
room, where I took my hat from the peg,
and wrapped myself up in my shawl, for I
felt cold and shivery. In the lower corridor
I found my goloshes in their accustomed
corner, and here my friend broke the silence
by saying, as he pointed to them, "Your
thanks are due to them, lady-next to the
Madonna," he added, crossing himself de-
"And to you," I replied, trying to take
his hand, which he withdrew, however,
hastily, as if feeling ashamed.
I will not try to describe the delight with
which I imbibed the night air, damp and
chill though it was, when the last door of
my huge black prison was closed behind
me. The old man accompanied me to my
lodgings, telling me on the way the cause
of his unexpected appearance.
He had been on duty below that day,
and after his colleague had assured him
that all was in order in the upper rooms, he
had commenced locking up for the night.
He went on to say, that often a trifling
thing, which we scarcely notice in passing,'
recurs to our mind with great distinctness
after some time, and so it happened that
while eating his evening soup he had recol-
lected seeing a pair of goloshes in the passage
below before closing the outer door. This
had certainly occurred before, and he told
himself as much; but the more he reflected
the more he became convinced that no
lady-and a lady's goloshes they certainly
were-would leave the building without
them on such a miserably wet day. Arrived
at this conclusion, he had imparted his
anxiety to his wife; but she, good old soul,

like the best of women, had thought too
much of him and too little of the rest of
the world, and had besought him not to
venture near the haunted place at that time
of night. "What else could I do," con-
tinued the old man, "but wait patiently
until the hour arrived in which I am
accustomed to smoke my nightly pipe in
company with my colleagues at a quiet
house close at hand-where I have done
that to-night, you know, lady? "
He smiled, but I could find no words to
express my gratitude, feeling ill and ex-
hausted; but I am sure he understood me,
for he took my hand and shook it heartily
as we reached my door, saying that he
hoped I should sleep as well as he intended
to do. "And now," he added, "my hour
for smoking is past, and I must hurry
home; my good wife must not know where
I have been, else she would not rest all
Why so ?" I asked.
"Oh, never mind," he replied; "it's but
old women's talk-don't you believe what
people may tell you; at the same time,
you had better attend to the signal, and not
get locked in again."
With these words he rang my bell, which
sounded loud and shrill through the silent
house, and when soon after my landlady
appeared in person to let me in, he left me
with a hearty "Good-night !"
My hostess was greatly surprised to see
"Dear me, miss, what weather to come
home in, and how wet you are !" she ex-
claimed. She had not expected me, and
was just preparing to go to bed. On her
asking me whether I had spent the evening
with my friends I simply nodded, for I was
too weary to tell her of what I had gone
through, therefore, leaving her to go to rest,
I sought my own room.
The next day being Saturday, on which
we were not permitted to paint in the
gallery, I found plenty of time to recover
from my excitement. My landlady noticed
my unusually pale looks, and not being able
to evade her sympathetic questions, I im'


pirr..- to her my adventure of the previous
d.;i-. During the first part of my narrative
,,I.: interrupted me frequently with expres-
sions of horor and surprise, but as I went
on she grew silent and looked at me, her
face derdly pale. It was some time before
she i..,:.:. .red herself, and when she did,
t.ildj n.c -.-)mething that I was glad not to
h Ia. 1:.:...'n twenty-four hours previously.
TI : !i! t part of her story was not new
to i,- : I had heard from my friends in
%v, 1i r : i .er the richest treasure of Dresden,
thi: 'i.ii-t. gallery, had been in the days of
tl- r.. ...!riion, and that its preservation was
n -,,ii:. .:. i.ng to the courage of an architect.
In Ili-.- I 1ets the combat raged fiercely, the
ail .- .-rl:..rated with the approaching tramp
io 1 i.:L-..-lt:us multitudes: a human sea which
fl, ,:,J. -.l : obstacles and threatened destruc-
ri.-.r i.:. .:. rything in its blind fury. All
ord.'r ii,,. vanished, nothing sacred was
sp_-i:.J. i id every hour the danger which
thr- r.-: .:.1 the gallery grew more imminent.
N;iI i. II,- but it brought no rest !
Here and there a cannon-ball had already
pierced the walls and shattered the window-
panes. Pale and anxious, the few men on
guard who had not fled walked to and fro
in the darkening rooms, lighted up ever
an.d ii.:, ..y a sudden gleam of fire raging
l,...Ir. Forlorn hope was to be read in
th,:,r ,.r-,T.:d features, when all at once the
irii r,, I.jom we owe the preservation of
so in.-:..,.,ble a treasure rushed into the
, buil.JiI. His presence of mind and exam-
prl :.r !.:.: wonders. What had appeared
ini.... .!i .- wIas carried out. Next morning's
ri:irr. :IIn looked down on the most fearful
de :,:i: ii.:.n, on the broken windows and
bli ,:l.- ..:...l walls of the gallery, but its
pr, -.'.,|, :contents were well packed and
uri i:!niai-l in safe places.
7.i 1, .:.-tess did not dwell long on
thl' ..i- of this courageous act, but
tool: i''" to describe the horrors of that
nI r in ill its details. This is not the
Ifl-:. i.:' ive further particulars of the
Io:,iti,.:i events during those days; it is
.sui:,l-or :to add that after a temporary
'rlai lni-, ir in wooden cases, the works of

art adorned the old walls again in their usual
It was in the month of May, in the year
following the revolution. The sentinel in
front of the gallery was walking leisurely up
and down, whistling softly to himself, when
the clock of the nearest steeple chimed the
midnight hour. Dead silence reigned in
the streets, myriads of stars glittered in the
deep blue sky.
"Strange!" he muttered, as he stood still,
gazing intently upwards. Behind the well-
secured windows he saw flashes of a blue
light, coming and going fitfully, and casting
their rays on the path below.
"Strange !" he repeated, and his first
thought being naturally of thieves, he
hurried to the principal entrance, which he
found, however, fastened as usual. Peeping
through the keyhole into the interior, he
could see nothing; the corridors were wrapt
in utter darkness, but on placing his ear to
a crevice he heard distinctly a loud noise
proceeding from the upper rooms. Was it
the packers busy at work ?
The sentinel knew his instructions.
With a loud cry, "Thieves! thieves !" he
knocked at the door of the nearest official.
In the course of a few moments the latter
made his appearance with a dark lantern
and the necessary keys, but on looking at
the light at the windows, and listening to
the noise from within, he declared that he
could not act on his own responsibility,
and ran off to rouse his superior from his
first sweet slumber.
What can you want?" asked that
worthy. How are thieves to get into
the place?"
"And suppose-they were not-thieves,
sir ?"
"Well, surely you don't believe they are
ghosts ? You coward I'll come, were it only
to drive a cat from the premises.
Bah it's the reflection of the glittering
stars," he exclaimed, disdainfully, on seeing
the light in the windows. Without hesita-
ting further he pushed the huge key noisily
into the lock, and took the lantern to light
the way, his trembling subordinate following


on tiptoe. Yes he heard the same noise as
the others did, but his face expressed neither
fear nor hesitation, simply curiosity.
Suddenly he halted half-way up the stairs,
listening intently, and his companions saw
that he became pale and grave.
Plainly they heard what seemed the mov-
ing of heavy pictures and cases, and hollow
strokes with many hammers. The nearer
they approached the inner doors the more
distinctly the sound of many voices whis-
pering hurriedly and anxiously reached their
"Forward!" cried the inspector, recover-
ing himself, and opening one door after
another in quick succession.
"Villains !" he roared with an angry
voice, holding the lantern above his head.
Dead silence and utter darkness sur-
rounded him. Motionless hung the pic-
tures around the walls, and hundreds of eyes
looked down from them, as it were, with
silent reproof at the nightly intruders.
As it was in the first room, so it seemed
in all the rest; everything in its wonted
order. If anything ghost-like was to be
seen, it was the white face of the scared
subordinate; even the inspector could not
help shaking his head at what he termed a
strange delusion."
After another fruitless search of all the
chambers, they turned to go, but scarcely
was the first door closed behind them, when
the man laid his finger on his quivering lip,
turning his ashy countenance towards his
superior. The same knocking and hammer-
ing, the same hurried whispering as before,
was heard with alarming distinctness. The
inspector stamping his foot, and without
another word or look, retraced his steps,

undaunted and alone. After a quarter of
an hour had elapsed, during which the
man awaiting his return had heard the weird
noise without intermission, he appeared.
"It is nothing!" he said, with a firm,
hard voice, his face of a leaden hue. "Let
us go home."
Not a word did he ever utter on the
subject," continued my hostess; "the
knowledge of what he saw he has taken
with him into the grave, to which they
carried him soon after. So much is certain,
however, that no one has since ventured at
night-time into the gallery, and that the
same noise proceeds from the rooms yearly
on that day.
"And that day," she concluded, looking
hard at me-" that day was-yesterday "
I could not help shuddering at this un
expected communication, and although I
tried to think that the old inspector had seen
nothing, consequently had nothing to relate,
yet I felt grateful to my goloshes for having
spared me a personal experience in the
matter. My enthusiasm was too genuine
to suffer from this event. I visited the
gallery as before, it grew more and more
home, but for the nights I gave preference
to the humble roof and hearth of my kind
landlady, in whose estimation I had risen
visibly since my narrow escape from contact
with the spiritual world.
I painted and studied with eagerness and
perseverance, and used every hour granted
to the students in the gallery, but the busy
bee," as some ironically called me, never
missed the signal again-never forgot her-
self again in one or the other sweet in-
toxicating flowers of art.-Abridged f is
the "Leisure Hour."




1 ORE than half a
century ago, the
S great powers of
'" Europe united
in a solemn con-
demnation and
"'' proscription of
il. hI:,- i-.t.r de; and England,
1,h n ,, ...: other nations, has
i 'I.:. ,.i..-avoured to give
^ p effect to this verdict of the
-' civilized world. But the slave-
trade has not been extinguished, though in
some quarters where it once flourished it
.now languishes. It annually consumes, it
is calculated, the lives of half a million of
wretched Africans. According to Consul
Churchill, the number of slaves who passed
,through Zanzibar during the five years end-
:ing September, 1867, would not be less than
IIS5,ooo-and this at one port alone Nor
' 'o these figures represent the full extent of


the horrible traffic. Besides those actually
captured, thousands are killed or die of
their wounds and famine, driven from the
villages by the slave-trade; thousands in
internecine war, waged for slaves, with their
own clansmen and neighbours, slain by the
lust for gain, which is stimulated by the
slave purchasers. The many skeletons seen
amongst rocks and woods, by the little
pools, and along the paths of the wilderness,
attest the awful sacrifice of human life,
which must be attributed, directly or indi-
rectly, to this trade of hell. The reports of
the commanders of Her Majesty's cruisers
amply justify all that has ever been stated
of the horrors of the traffic in human beings.
Writing on September 12, 1875, Captain
Ward, of the Thetis, says,-" On the 9th
inst. we were standing leisurely across to
Madagascar, under sail, having put our fires
out, when a sail was reported from the
masthead standing the same way as our-

V i11*;
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mm --


selves. We did not come up with her until
about 5.30, when the first lieutenant boarded
her in one of the cutters, and immediately
after we had the satisfaction of seeing
him take her in tow to bring her to the
ship. There was no necessity to ask for
papers, for a momentary inspection was
sufficient to satisfy the boarding officer that
the dhow was a full slaver; so we at once
set to work to bring the human cargo on
"It was a long business, and by no
means an agreeable one-upwards of 300
souls being taken from the hold. Out of
this number about sixty were Arabs and
crew, and the remainder slaves. She had
only been three days out, and therefore it
may be supposed that the cargo was in
comparatively good condition. Still, many
of them were in a very emaciated state, and
three have died .:nce we received them on
board. One puor old woman, whom I
fouhd lying on her back in the hold, was at
first thought to be dead, but on her being
lifted up she commenced screaming vio-
lently, and struggling with the men who were
carrying her out of this pest-house. She is
now quite well, and in her right mind.
The slaves were stowed on two tempo-
rary decks, each about three feet high, the
upper one being roofed over with cocoa-nut
leaves. Of course the poor creatures could
-not move from the placewhere they squatted,
and the stench in the lower tier was of such
a nature as to make one wonder how any
human being could live there for an hour,
and it would probably have been a full
Week before they were released, had they
not fallen in with the Thetis. After clear-
ing her out and taking as much of her pro-
visions as we thought necessary, we set her
on fire in several places and put twelve
pounds of powder in the lower part of her
hold. In a few minutes we had the satis-
faction of seeing this explode, shortly after
which this vile craft went to the bottom,
never again to carry a living freight."
The following harrowing details of the
capture of an Arab slave-dhow are related
by an officer of HM.S. Vulture -"We

were steaming into Majunga, a port on the
east coast of Madagascar, when a large
dhow was made out inshore of the ship.
When the Vulture was near enough, a boat,
in charge of a young officer, was sent on
board the Arab, whose true character and
the nature of his cargo were soon made
known. On going below, the men found a
framework of bamboo constructed on each
side of the hold, ranging fore and aft, in
which two hundred and thirty-eight human
beings were packed, tier upon tier, like
bottles in a rack. The occupants of each
tier were placed in the closest personal con-
tact with each other,-so much so, in fact,
that, to use the men's homely phrase, they
really were stowed away like herrings in a
cask.' When taken out and placed upon
the deck, their limbs were useless; they
were seized with vertigo, and fell from sheer
inability to stand. Some were found in a
truly shocking condition. One or two
young children were discovered crushed to
death. The lower tier had been laid upon
the sand ballast, and was half buried. One
poor woman really was buried, with the
exception of her face; her mouth was full
of sand, and when taken out she was on
the point of suffocation. The mortality
among a batch of negroes must be some-
times frightful, not only on board the dhows,
but also during the journey down from the
interior. There was a woman among this
lot, who, if her statement is to be credited,
was the only survivor of a numerous band.
Six months since she roamed as free as air
in her native village in the middle of Africa.
The Arabs went with fire and sword; the
village was burnt, and the greater number
of the women and children were made pri-
soners. Then commenced a weary march
of four months' duration. Fresh accessions
of slaves were made as they passed along
on their way to the coast. Manacled
women fell by the wayside, and being un-
able to travel, were left to die in the jungle.
Young children withered like plucked
leaves, and the Arabs, to these more mer-
ciful, struck off their heads and threw them
aside. The woman has survived them all,


but she is alone. Of all the band captured
with her, she states that she is the only one
left alive to tell the sickening tale."
Lieutenant Henn also describes the cap-
ture of a dhow, and the mode of stowing of
the poor creatures. "The dhow, on seeing
us, lowered her sail, and a few minutes
afterwards she was brought alongside with
one hundred and fifty-six slaves in her:
forty-eight men, fifty-three women, and fifty-
five children. The deplorable condition of
these wretched negroes, crammed into a
small dhow, surpasses all description. In
the bottom of the dhow was a pile of stones
as ballast, and on these stones, without even
a mat, twenty-three women were huddled
together, one or two with infants in their
arms. These women were literally doubled
up, there being no room to sit erect. On

a bamboo deck, about three feet above
them, were forty-eight men crowded to-
gether in the same way; and on the upper
bamboo deck there were fifty-three children.
Some of the slaves were in the last stages
of dysentery and starvation. On getting
the vessel alongside and clearing her out,
a woman came up, having an infant about
a month old in her arms, with one side of
its forehead smashed in. On asking how it
was done, she told us that just before our
boat came alongside the dhow, the child
began to cry, and one of the Arabs, fearing
the English would hear it, took up a stone
and smashed it. A few hours after this
the poor thing died, and the woman was
too weak and ill to point out the monster
who had done it from amongst the ten or
dozen Arabs on board."


HE Germans are justly proud
II of Alfred Krupp, the owner
and creator of probably the
i largest, and certainly the
\ most famous foundry in the
world. Nor is their boast a
S false one, that Krupp's guns
are well-known in every
S quarter of the globe, and are
S appreciated and sought for
Z_, with just as much zeal by the
Chinese and Japanese as by the Russians
and Turks, and even the very name of
Krupp's business place, Essen, is far-famed
because of this one man's exertions.
Alfred Krupp was born on April i ith, in
the year 1811, at Essen, in Prussia, where
his father, Frederick Krupp, had a small
steel foundry. In 1826 the elder Krupp
died without leaving any considerable for-
tune to his widow, who, with the assist-
ance of her son, carried on the business
until 1848, when she retired in favour of
her assistant.

Herr Krupp continued to make great
progress with his foundry, but without
attaining any international reputation until
the Great Exhibition of 1851, when he
attracted attention by sending to London
a single block of steel weighing 1,500
kilogrammes. An English firm, however,
produced a still heavier block, and was
considered to have defeated its German
opponent, when, to the astonishment of the
mercantile world, a second block, weighing
2,500 kilogrammes, was sent over from
Essen, and Herr KrUpp remained the victor.
This peaceable contest created no little stir,
and by it the German founder's reputation,
if not fortune, was made. The verdict of
the Exhibition adjudicators was, that "F.
Krupp's foundry in Essen had produced the
best cast steel in the whole Exhibition,"
and that this manufactory had been "the
first to make cast steel in such large and
uniform pieces," etc. Again, in the 1862
Exhibition, Krupp was a most successful
exhibitor, showing, among other samples of


his skill, a cast steel block of 1oo cwt.,which,
being broken into halves by a steam ham-
mer of i,ooo cwt., was found to be per-
fectly pure and free from flaws.
The many other marvels of his skill,
especially in portions of machinery for rail-
way locomotives and steamships, space will
not permit allusion to. One speciality of
Irupp's exhibit in 1851 must not, however,
be passed by without mention, and that is his
east steel guns. The attention of the French
Government was particularly attracted to
this artillery, and the experiments it made
with it afforded convincing proofs of the
practical value of the Essen manufactory.
These guns at that time were of very small
calibre, but Krupp was continually experi-
menting with them, until he finally suc-
ceeded in producing those gigantic pieces
of artillery which are now world-famous.
Indeed, it is asserted that upwards
of 15,000 cast steel guns have, up to the
present time, been made by the Essen
establishment, and disposed of in various
quarters of the globe. In the Philadelphia
Exhibition of z876 Krupp exhibited many
wonders that startled even the Americans,
accustomed as they are to all kinds of
mechanical marvels. It is impossible here
to attempt any description of the various
apparatus which was sent fiom the Essen
foundry, and which not only included field
and mountain artillery, axles, wheels, etc.,
for locomotives and railway carriages, but
even steel plates, springs, and such smaller
Turning towards the establishment where
all these marvels are manufactured, fresh
causes for astonishment are discovered,
Krupp's busy little town 1 II' o even Salt-
aire in area and activity. Altogether, the
establishment covers a superficial area of
i,ooo acres; about 190 of which are covered
with buildings. Whichever way the sight
is directed on Essen, the eye encounters
smoke-grimed chimneys, extensive walls
within which busy smiths are hard at work,
and foundries in which the liquid metal
glows and bubbles, whilst all around is
heard the noise of hammers wielded by

thousands of workmen. In the year 187;,
the Krupp foundry possessed 1,648 various
kinds of furnaces, 298 steam boilers, 77
steam hammers, 294 steam engines, ranging
from two to one-thousand horse-power, or
altogether ii,ooo horse-power, and I,o63
other kinds of machines. These figures will
afford some idea of the amount of skill and
supervision required to maintain everything
in order, and one is scarcely surprised to
learn that last year 8,500 workmen were
employed in the cast steel factories alone,
whilst between 4,000 and 5,000 workpeople
were engaged upon other duties connected
with the establishment. By means of this
army of men Krupp is enabled to turn out a
monthly supply of 250 field pieces, thirty
small and twenty-four large cannons, besides
an enormous quantity of articles for peaceful
To keep all these foundries employed,
Krupp possesses several mines in various
parts of Germany, and even at Bilbao, in
Spain, whence the metal is brought by a
regular line of steamers to the mouth of the
Rhine, and thence conveyed by rail to the
furnace. Altogether the number of people
employed by Krupp in the performance of
these various labours is little short of 5,000o,
who all work together under their employer's
skilful direction with the regularity of a
machine. The daily consumption of coal
by this large army of workers is about 2,200
The creature comforts and requirements
of his people are carefully provided for by
Herr Krupp. He has had 3,277 dwell-
ings erected for his clerks and workmen,
in which everything needful has been
thought of, whilst all their "from home"
wants are supplied by an hotel, eight public-
houses (for teetotalers are unknown in Ger-
many), a mineral-water factory, a steam mill,
a bakery, a slaughter-house, and twenty-two
establishments for the sale of furniture,
meat, shoes, and indeed, every sort of
native and foreign produce. 195,000 kilo-
grammes of bread, of an excellent quality,
are produced daily by the bakery, and sold
at a low price to the workpeople. Fire and


life insurances, invalid and pension societies,
hospital, bathing establishment, four people's
schools, besides an industrial school for girls
and work-school for women, all proclaim
the thoughtfulness of Herr Krupp, their
founder and benefactor.
But it is impossible to recount all the

wonders-wonders far surpassing the fabled
deeds of the Arabian Aladdin-this truly
great man has produced in his little West-
phalian birthplace; it suffices to say, there.
fore, that he himself resides in a newly-
erected and almost magnificent castle on
the banks of the Ruhr at Werden.



SHOMAS EDWARD, the Scotch and, paddling about in the "Inches,"
naturalist, was the son of caught a chill, which resulted in a fever
a private in the Fifeshire and laid him up for some time.
SMilitia, and was born at But no sooner had he recovered than he
S- Gosport on Christmas Day, took to his old ways, one of his chief feats
1814. After the Battle of being the capture of a wasp's nest, which
jPQ-_ i,/ Waterloo had brought the he carried home wrapped up in his shirt,
/Y war to a close, the militia and which his parents plunged into boiling
regiments were relieved from water to render it harmless to the rest of
the duty of guarding our sea- the family; on another occasion he caught
coast towns, and young Ed- an adder, which he sold for fourpence to a
ward's parents went home to chemist in the town, whose shop-window
Aberdeen, where his father worked as a contained many specimens of Tommy's
hand-loom weaver, collecting. At the age of five he was sent
Here Thomas was in his glory. The to school, principally to keep him out of
Green, where the Aberdeen Railway Sta- harm's way; but he was a sore plague to
tion now stands, was then really a green, the teachers, for when he was not playing
and close by were the "Inches," near the truant, he was sure to bring some beast"
mouth of the Dee, over which the tide with him to the school. From his first
flowed daily. The boy was always in the school he was dismissed because a jack-
open air searching for and appropriating daw which he had with him joined in the
every living thing which he could lay his the prayers with a loud caw from the
hands on. He was constantly bringing second he was expelled because his horse-
home beasties," such as tadpoles, horse- leeches, getting hungry, had crept out of
leeches, beetles, frogs, caterpillars, rats, their bottle, and began to feed upon the
hedgehogs, moles, and birds, which, for legs of his fellow-pupils; and from the
want of proper receptacles, escaped and third he was also expelled because he was
overran the house, and sometimes invaded accused of bringing in a centipede which
the dwellings of the neighbours, who com- was found upon a desk, besides getting a
plained greatly of the annoyance caused by severe beating for denying the false charge.
the venomous beasts." Tom was scolded After this he wandered about the
and flogged, deprived of his clothes, and "Inches for a time, and at the age of
tied up to the table, but nothing could keep six years went to work at a tobacco factory,
him at home : once he slipped out with I about two miles from Aberdeen, where
nothing but an old petticoat around him, I he first saw the kingfisher and the sedge.


warbler. It was a happy time for the boy,
but it was not to last. After two years his
parents apprenticed him to a shoemaker,
who seems to have been a drunken and

brutal fellow, as well as a hard taskmaster.
He had no love for animals, and ruthlessly
destroyed the pet sparrows, moles, and
other "beasts," which Edward took home.



The indentures were for six years ; but at returned after a week with sixpence in his
the end of three Edward ran away, and set pocket, which he had saved out of eighteen-
off on a wonderful journey of 0oo miles to pence given to him by his uncle, and re-
visit his uncle at Kettle, in Fifeshire. He sumed work with his old master, still



occupying his leisure hours, which were few
and far between, with his favourite pursuits.
In 1831 he enlisted in the Aberdeen-
shire Militia, and on one occasion narrowly
escaped punishment for insubordination,
having left the ranks while on drill to chase
a rare butterfly which had attracted his
attention. At the age of twenty he re-
moved to Banff, where he fell in love with
a Huntly lass, whom, after three years'
courtship, he married ; and the couple not
only lived happily together, but managed
to bring up a family of eleven children on
an income of 9s. or ios. per week. Ed-
ward would work from six a.m. to nine
p.m. at his shoemaking, and then spend
half the night in seeking for new natural
history specimens to add to his collections.
Somebody once remarked to his wife that
it must have been rather hard upon her to
have had her husband so much away, be-
sides the torn clothes and the "rubbish"
he brought with him when he did come
back; but she replied, "Weel, I didna com-
plain of his interest in the beasties. Shoe-
makers were often drunken, but his beasties
kept him frae them. My man's been a
sober man, and never negleckit his work.
So I let him bide." She was a wise woman.
And a wise man was Thomas Edward too,
for, with all his night wanderings and his
exposure to the cold, he never touched a
drop of whiskey. I believe," he said
himself, that if I had indulged in drink,
or even taken it at all, I never could have
resisted the weather as I did. As to my
food, it merely consisted of oatmeal cakes
washed down by water from the nearest
spring. Now and then, as a luxury, my
wife would boil me an egg or two ; but I
never drank anything but water."
Some of his adventures were really of
a thrilling character. He was often bitten
while endeavouring to capture rabbits,
squirrels, or weasels ; on one occasion he
was tripped up and stunned during a
scuffle with a trio of full-grown badgers;
and at another time he was attacked while
sleeping by a polecat, which, after two
hours' struggle, he only succeeded in over-

coming by the aid of some chloroform,
which he luckily had about him. The only
weapon which he carried was an old gun,
which had cost him 4s. 6d., and which was
so ricketty that stock and barrel had to be
tied together with string ; a cow's horn serv-
ing him as a powder-flask, and the bowl of a
tobacco-pipe as a measure for the powder.
During these night wanderings Edward
acquired an immense store of information
respecting the habits of all kinds of animals,
and after eight years' labour (Sundays ex-
cepted, for he was a strict observer of the
Sabbath), he succeeded in accumulating
2,000 specimens of creatures found in the
neighbourhood of Banff. These, arranged
in 300 cases, he exhibited at St. Brandon's
Fair, Banff, but the receipts hardly covered
his expenses ; added to which misfortune a
collection of about 2,000 plants which he had
made were destroyed by some rats, which
got into the box where they were stored. He
afterward took this collection to Aberdeen,
but there, too, it was a financial failure,
and the disappointed enthusiast sold it for
-20 Ios., and returned to his lapstone and
hammer at Banff, and for a short time gave
up his collecting in despair. The old pas-
sion, however, soon reasserted itself, and
Edward turned again to his old pursuits
with greater zeal than ever.
About this time he became acquainted
with the Rev. James Smith, who lent him
some works on natural history, which he
devoured with avidity, and having by this
time learnt to write as well as read, he
began to send descriptive articles to the
local papers. He subsequently contributed
some papers on Natural History to the Zoo-
logist and the Naturalist, and becoming
better known, carried on a large corre-
spondence with various people who took
an interest in such subjects. He is now
sixty-three years old, and up to a very
short time ago, when by Her Majesty's
special desire, a pension of 50o a year
was granted to him, he was obliged to earn
a living at his old trade. The sketch of
his life given by Mr. Smiles, abounds with
Incident and instructive lessons.



'T I HE following is an
r ',:-- account of a ride
in one of the rail-
-' -: ways which thread
S"' their way among
S 7 ; the peaks of the
".r.. Colorado moun-
SAmerica :
S.:tween Veta mountain
ii..! lie Peaks nestle the
'. n'u l..r cluster of houses con-
stituting Veta Station. Recall-
ing the eye from the distant to the
immediate, it falls with horrified stare
upon the precipice which upon our left
plunges headlong down among the scattered
rocks and blasted trees to the very bottom
of the gorge that but a few moments before
appeared the loveliest of little valleys. As
we draw closer to the car window with that
sense of danger which increases the subli-
mity of the scene, it seems as if we were
hanging over the very verge of the chasm,
so narrow the .ledge upon which we are
passing up, up, ever upward Fainter and
fainter grows the line of the road beneath
us, and upon Veta Mountain, directly oppo-
site, we distinguish a freight train apparently
going in the same direction we are, but in
fact headed exactly the other way, and upon
an incline so steep as to look almost as if
in the act of falling over upon itself. Still
we climb, and every second the scene grows
more terrific in its character. Great streams
of loose stones fall away from the line of
track, poured out as if by superhuman hand
all along down the mountain-sides. Here
we breathe freer, thinking that if aught
should happen to the train, its mad plunge

over the rocky wall would be stopped by
the mighty trees that stand stalwart upon the
brink. Another sudden turn, and there is
nought but the sheer declivity between us
and the track nearly eight hundred feet in
the dim distance below. Nearing Inspira-
tion Point, the wildness of the ride, the
terror-inspiring abruptness of the precipice,
the stone-stayed track-bed, and the hoarse
mutterings of the locomotive, tend to an
excitement that few can control, and for a
moment the fact of being actually above the
clouds upon a railroad train is not heeded.
Nevertheless it is true, for below us wreathe
the snowy fleeces like softly-fallen snow,
out from which the peaks rise in sublime
magnificence, and appear to fairly double
their towering height. As if intensely im-
pressed with the utter solemnity and majesty
of the scene, the ponderous engine length-
ens its sonorous breathing, more slowly
strides along its steel-bound way, and passes
the dizzy depths with motion so stately
as to suggest new thoughts of nature's
wondrous influences.
We steadily watch until the last ray is
lost in the twilight haze, and the last tint
faded into the wondrously clear blue of the
night; then over the mountain-sides ; upon
the sharp-cut faces of the peaks, down into
the moss-carpeted valleys, into the car
windows until the lighted lamps look like
dusky sparks of smouldering fire, shines the
evening star. Those who have seen the
Alps, have enjoyed to the fullest the glo-
rious vistas of Switzerland, and have since
crossed the Sangre de Cristo range over
Veta Pass by starlight, declare there is
nothing in all Europe to equal it."


.;- THE Q

r- IONGST the most
< w'; wonderful of natural
Phenomena are the
I Geysers of Iceland.
-These are hot-water
Fountains, which, from
(-. :.: volcanic cause find an
.: in the surface of the earth,
) and hurl hot water and steam
to an immense height. These
springs of hot water are not con-
fined to Iceland; in some parts of
America they are also to be found on an
enormous scale. The Iceland Geysers
are thus described by an appreciative
"About ten minutes past five we were
roused by the roaring of Stockr, which blew
up a great quantity of steam; and when my
watch stood at the full quarter, a crash as
if the earth had burst, which was instan-
taneously succeeded by jets of water and
spray rising in a perpendicular column to
the height of sixty feet.
As the sun happened to be behind a
cloud, we had no expectation of witnessing
anything more sublime than we had already
seen; but Stockr had not been in action
above twenty minutes, when the Great
Geyser, apparently jealous of her reputa-
tion, and indignant at our bestowing so
much of our time and applause on her
rival, began to thunder tremendously, and
emitted such quantities of water and steam,
that we could not be satisfied with a dis-
tant view, but hastened to the mound with
as much curiosity as if it had been the
first eruption we had beheld.
However, if she was more interesting in
point of magnitude, she gave the less
satisfaction in point of duration, having
again become tranquil in the course of five
minutes; whereas her less gaudy but
more steady companion continued to play
till within four minutes of six o'clock.


Our attention was so much taken up with
these two principal fountains, that we had
little time or inclination to watch the
minutiae of the numerous inferior shafts
and cavities with which the track abounds.
The Little Geyser erupted perhaps twelve
times in the twenty-four hours ; but none
of its jets rose higher than eighteen or
twenty feet, and generally they were about
ten or twelve. The pipe of this spring
opens into a beautiful circular basin about
twenty feet in diameter, the surface of
which exhibits incrustations equally beauti-
ful with those of the Great Geyser. At the
depth of a few feet, the pipe, which is
scarcely three feet wide, becomes very
irregular, yet its depth has been ascertained
to be thirty-eight feet. There is a large
steam-hole at a short distance to the north-
west of the Little Geyser, which roars and
becomes quiescent with the operations of
that spring. A little farther down the
track are numerous apertures, some of
which are very large, and being full of clear
boiling water, they discover to the spec-
tator the perilous scaffolding on which he
stands. When approaching the brink of
many of them, he walks over a dome of
petrified morass, hardly a foot in thickness,
below which is a vast boiling abyss, and
even this thin dome is prevented from
gaining a due consistence by the humidity
and heat to which it is exposed. Near the
centre of these holes is situated the Little
Stockr, a wonderfully amusing little foun-
tain, which deals its waters in numerous
diagonal columns with great regularity every
quarter of an hour.
Nor is it in this direction alone that ori-
fices and cavities abound. In a small gully
close to the Geyser are a number of holes
with boiling water; to the south of which
rises a bank of ancient depositions, con-
taining apertures of a much larger size than
the rest. One of these is filled with



beautifully clear water, and discovers to a
great depth various groups of incrustations
which are very tempting to the eye of the
beholder. The depth of this reservoir is
not less than fifty feet. On the brow of
the hill, at the height of nearly two hundred
feet above the level of the Great Geyser,
are several holes of boiling clay; some of
whicli produce sulphur and the efflo-
rescence of alum; and at the base of the
hill on the opposite side are not less than
twenty springs, which prove that its foun-
dations are entirely perforated with veins
and cavities of hot water.
'On my return this way from the north,
I again pitched my tent for two days
beside these celebrated fountains, and
found their operations still more mag-
nificent and interesting than they were
before. The Great Geyser continued to
erupt every six hours in a most imposing
manner. In some of the eruptions the
jets seemed to be thrown much higher
than they were in the preceding year,
several of them reaching an elevation of
not less than a hundred and fifty feet.
What rendered my second visit to the
Geysers peculiarly interesting, was my
discovery of the key to Stockr, by the
application of which I could make that
beautiful spring play when I had a mind,
and throw its water to nearly double the
height observable in its natural eruptions.
The morning after my arrival I was
awakened by its explosion about twenty
minutes past four o'clock; and hastening
to the crater, stood nearly half an hour
contemplating its jet, and the steady and un-
interrupted emission of the column of spray
which followed, and which was projected
at least a hundred feet into the air. After
this, it 1,. .Ii 1I; sank into the pipe, as it
had done the year before, and I did not
expect to see another eruption till the

following morning. However, about five
o'clock in the afternoon, after a great
quantity of the largest stones that could
be found about the place had been put into
the spring, I observed it begin to roar with
more violence than usual; and approaching
the brink of the crater, I had scarcely time
to look down to the surface of the water,
which was greatly agitated, when the erup-
tion commenced, and the boiling water
rushed up in a moment, within an inch or
two of my face, and continued its course
with inconceivable velocity into the atmo-
sphere. Having made a speedy retreat, I
now took my station on the windward side,
and was astonished to observe the elevation
of the jets, some of them rising higher than
two hundred feet; many of the fragments
of stone were thrown much higher, and
some of considerable size were raised to an
invisible height.
For some time, every succeeding jet
seemed to surpass the preceding, till the
quantity of water in the subterraneous
caverns being spent, they gave place to
the column of steam, which continued to
rush up with a deafening roar for nearly an
The periodical evacuation of Stockr
having been deranged by the violent
experiment, no symptoms whatever of a
fresh eruption appeared the following
morning. As I wished, however, to see it
play once more before I bade an everlasting
farewell to these wonders of nature, and
especially being anxious to ascertain the
reality of my discovery, I got my servant
to assist me, about eight o'clock, in casting
all the loose stones we could find into the
spring. We had not ceased five minutes
when the wished-for phenomena recom-
menced, and the jets were carried to a
height little inferior to what they had
gained on the preceding evening."

~-" -4~4j



N their slave
journeys th
S, dealers son
e7>- ^require to
-''i' -. the lakes an
-" which are
.- quent in
For this purpo
S.- ,-' "C'.i!;' use a 'irl
V native boat most inge
contrived out of the tru
tree. Sometimes the


e Ar
d rive
so fi
se th
nk of

P I P Q U E.

ng consists of a double boat, being two trunks
ab joined together. This, from its construc-
es tion, it is almost impossible to upset, and
ss it is consequently much in favour where
ers the passage is dangerous. On smooth
re- waters, however, the pirogue represented
ral in our engraving is generally used; and,
ey propelled by stalwart paddlers, makes
a rapid progress through the water. In
ly South America, a particular kind of vessel,
f a with two masts and a sail, is also called a
ue pirogue.

L -' 'om the Red Sea by a strip of
indy desert very little more
S"tQ\Y. v than 70 miles wide; it is this
only which prevents Africa
S from being an island, and pre-
Svents ships from sailing from
Europe to India by way of the
Red Sea. Hence, from very
early times, ingenious men
have formed plans for cutting
a ship canal across this barrier. The nar-
rowest part is from Tineh on the Mediter-
ranean to Suez on the Red Sea; but as
this is a barren region of sand, sandstone,
and salt swamps, a route was sought for
which would avoid a certain elevated tract of
sandstone country. The surveyors found
a peculiar depression or level, not much
above the sea-level, marked in different
places by the Bitter Lakes, Lake Temsah,
the Karash salt-marshes, Lake Bellah,
Lake Menzaleh, and the plain of Pelusium;
this, though a wretched country for a
settlement, offered a favourable route for
a canal. The Egyptians under Pharaoh-
Necho commenced such a work as early
as twenty-five centuries ago; indeed, some
authorities believe that the canal was

actually finished, and applied to the pur-
poses of trade; that it was from o18 to i65
feet wide, and from 15 to 30 feet deep.
But be that as it may, the canal became
choked with sand. Traces of it are still
visible along the depressed line of route
(about 90 miles long) above adverted to.
The Greeks and the Romans, the Saracens
under the Calif Omar, the Genoese and
the Venetians, all in turn contemplated
the possible restoration of the old Egyptian
canal; indeed, the emperor Trajan really
restored it in the second century A.D., and
the Calif Omar in the seventh century;
but the shifting sands had in every case
hitherto conquered the engineers, by gra-
dually choking up that which had been
excavated. The celebrated Robert Ste-
phenson, who was engaged with French
and Italian engineers in surveying the
isthmus at various times between 1847 and
1853, came to a conclusion that a really
practical and permanent ship canal cannot
be formed in that region; instead of this
he constructed a railway for the Pasha of
Egypt, from Alexandria on the Mediter-
ranean shore to Suez on the Red Sea
shore; and this railway has ever since
rendered excellent service. It was left for



M. Lesseps, a Frenchman, to accomplish
this marvel of engineering.
Beginning at the northern or Mediter-
ranean end of the canal, there is the new
town of Port Said, built on a strip of sand
which separates the sea from Lake Men-
zaleh. Although so recently formed, it has
a population of several thousand inhabitants,
with streets, docks, basins, and quays.
The Mediterranean being at this part very
shallow, depth for a harbour could only
be obtained by constructing two piers or
moles, the one a mile and a half and the
other a mile and a quarter long, formed of
huge blocks of concrete or artificial stone..
The enclosed area, 500 acres in extent, has
been dredged out to a depth sufficient for
large merchant-ships. Basins and docks
are connected with this harbour ; and then
begins the canal itself, just ioo miles long.
For four-fifths of the distance, this canal is
327 feet wide at the surface of the water,
72 feet wide at the bottom, and 26 feet
deep. The remaining one-fifth is 196 feet
wide at the water surface, with the same
bottom-width and maximum depth as.the
other. The great surface-width has been
adopted to render the banks very gradual
in their slope or shelving, as a precau-
tion against washing away. No less than
96,000,000 cubic yards of stone, sand, and
earth have been excavated to form a canal
of such large dimensions ; and an immense
amount of manual labour, aided by dredg-
ing machinery of unprecedented magnitude
and power, has been needed in the work.
The part of the sloping banks a little above
and below the water-level is protected by
rough stone pitching, to resist the action of
waves caused by passing steamers.
From Port Said the canal crosses several
miles of Lake Menzaleh, a kind of shallow
swamp, which requires an embankment to
mark and confine the two banks. Then
comes the Kantara cutting, three miles
through hillocks of sand. This ends at
Lake Bellah, a kind of salt marsh, through
which the canal runs about nine miles,
with side embankments. Next to this
comes a portion of plateau eight miles

long, in some parts of which, near El Guisr,
the canal had to be dug to the vast depth
of 90 feet in hard sandstone-an immense
labour, where the width of the canal is so
great. Then we come to the central part
of the canal, Lake Temsah, where, just
about 50 miles from each end, is the new
and flourishing town of Ismailia, provided
with streets, roads, merchants' offices,
banks, hotels, cafes, villas, a Roman Catholic
chapel for the French inhabitants, a Mo-
hammedan mosque for the Egyptian and
Arab population, a theatre, a hospital, a
railway station, a telegraph station, an
abattoir, a bazaar, and quays and repairing-
docks for shipping. This town is one of
the most remarkable of M. Lesseps' cre-
ations. The canal then passes through
nine miles of dry land, where the Serapeum
cutting has called for a vast amount of
excavation. To this succeeds a passage of
23 miles through the Bitter Lake, which has
for ages been a dry salt depression, but
which is now filled with sea-water from the
Mediterranean and the Red Sea; the canal
itself being marked out by lofty and broad
embankments. No less than 1o,ooo,ooo
cubic yards of water have been admitted to
fill up this great depression. A further
portion of 17 miles, through dry land and
shallow dried-up lakes, carries the canal to
Suez, involving extensive blasting at the
Chalouf cutting. At the junction with the
Red Sea at Suez, all the necessary piers,
docks, and quays, have been constructed.
A subsidiary work, without which this
great ship canal could not have been con-
structed, is the Sweet Water Canal. This
is about 40 feet wide by 9 feet deep. It
brings the fresh water'of the Nile, from a
point a little below Cairo, to Ismailia and
Suez, and by means of large iron pipes to
Port Said. This minor canal is literally in-
valuable, seeing that it supplied fresh water
for the thousands of men employed in the
works, and is gradually fertilising what was
before a sandy desert. The really grand
Suez Canal was opened for traffic in
November 1869, and ships of large burden
now pass through it.



.; V TISTINGUISHED for majestic size,
I great power of vision, strength
of wing, rapid flight, indomitable
-. : courage, and almost resistless
S powers of attack, the eagle is
r justly considered the king of
birds, and is often introduced as an apposite
symbol of human royalty in sacred and
secular literature. On the monuments of
Nineveh the head and wings frequently
occur as the emblems of kingly power;
and in the pages of inspired prophecy the
noble bird is repeatedly employed to repre-
sent Oriental sovereignties for the time over-
powering and triumphant. The eagle soars
loftily, and builds its platform nest in high
places, upon the brow of tall cliffs, or on
the uppermost branches of the towering
cedar-tree, itself flourishing far up the slope
of a mountain chain. The prophet Ezekiel

writes of the king of Babylon as "a great
eagle with great wings, long-winged, full
of feathers," which "came unto Leban-
on, and took the highest branch of the
The parent birds show tender solicitude
for their young, and provide liberally for the
wants of the helpless brood. The quantity
of food collected for them is so ample that
several instances are on record of poor
families obtaining sufficient subsistence in
straitened times by daily visiting the nests
for spoil. As soon as the eaglets are able
to cater for themselves, they are roused
to exertion by their natural guardians, con.
strained to quit the nest, incited to ply their
wings, instructed by example how use them,
and aided in their early attempts, till with
confidence and courage they can cleave
the air like their parents.


..i :. of the most remarkable fresh-
l' -. water fishes of South America
Sthe Gymnotus electricus, or
-.- ectrical eel. Its singular
properties enable it to arrest
S. -.iddenly the pursuit of an
'- --:., '- tiemy or the flight of its prey,
:, suspend on the instant
). ery movement of its victim,
and subdue it by an invisible
power. Even the fishermen
themselves are suddenly paralysed at the
moment of seizing it, while nothing external
betrays the mysterious power possessed by
this creature.
The .French astronomer Richer was the
first to make known the singular properties
of this American fish. I was much

astonished," he says, "to see a fish some
three or four feet in length, resembling an eel,
deprive of all sensation the arm and neigh-
bouring parts which touched it. I was not
only an ocular witness of the effect produced
by its touch, but I have myself felt it, on
touching one of these fishes still living,
though wounded by a hook, by means of
which some Indians had drawn it from the
water. They could not tell what it was
called, but they assured me that it struck
other fishes with its tail in order to stupefy
them and devour them afterwards, which is
very probable when we consider the effect
of its touch upon a man."
When full-grown the gymnotus measures
between five and six feet in length ; its
colour varies with age, and the nature of the

C 1



water in which it dwells. Generally it is
of an olive-green, with the under part of the
head of a yellow tint mingled with red;
and a double row of small excretory open-
ings in the skin, from the head to the tail,
are thus coloured; these openings appear to
belong to mucous glands, which secrete the
slimy fluid with which the skin is lubricated.
The mouth is wide, and the interior, as far
as the gullet, is furnished with little teeth
disposed in rows, and very closely set; the
tongue is fleshy, and covered with papille.
The apparatus which gives to this eel its
terrible powers, and renders it capable of
discharging an electric shock of such vio-
lence as to throw down horse and man,
occupies the under parts of the tail, .or
terminal portion of the body. It consists
of four longitudinal
masses; two large ,
above, two small be- ."
low, each being com-
posed of a vast '. '
number of membran-
ous lamine, or thin
plates, closely set to- \
gether, and nearly ..
horizontal. These /
plates have their ex-
ternal margins affixed
to the skin, and they
rise to a level with the vertebral column;
they are, besides, united to each other by
an infinite number of transverse small verti-
cal laminae, and thus are formed a multitude
of transverse cells, or minute prismatic
canals, filled with jelly-like matter, and
abundantly supplied with nerves.
"I never remember," says Humboldt,
"to have experienced a more terrible blow'
from the discharge of a Leyden jar of great
size, than one which I received on putting
my two feet on a gymnotus which was
dragged out of the water. During the rest
of the day, I felt great pain in the knees,
and in almost every joint of the body. A
blow on the stomach, a stone falling on the
head, a tremendous electric explosion, pro-
duce in an instant the same effects : nothing
is distinguished, all is vague, when the whole

nervous system is thus shocked violently at
the same moment." It is scarcely necessary
to say, that in the pools, lakes, or meres,
tenanted by this formidable fish it reigns
supreme: what, indeed, can withstand its
assaults? It comes not upon its foe with
teeth, nor the common weapons of its race,
for then force might be opposed to force;
but it deals destruction by the agency of
means against which strength and courage
are of little avail.
On the nerves with which these creatures
are furnished depend their electric power;
but how or in what manner the accumulation
of electric fluid takes place, the means which
the animal has of discharging it or not,
at pleasure, or in what direction it pleases,
and the theory of its production-these
points are all enve-
loped in mystery.
We are presented
.''t\ with nerves, and a
:\ large laminated appa-
ratus; and we find
that these nerves and
This apparatus of
plates constitute, in
\': ,v % some mysterious
:. manner, an electro-
c.. .; galvanic battery, go-
verned as to its use
by volition: but we know no more. How
soon are we stopped by impassable barriers
in the progress of our investigations among
the wonders with which the great field
of creation teems! How soon do we
discover the limitation of our minds and
their inadequacy to grasp a part, a small
part, of the ways and workings of the
Almighty !
The sketch on the opposite page repre-
sents a section of the terminal portion of
its body, containing the electrical apparatus,
and serves to convey a clear idea of the
arrangement of its plates, and the relative
magnitude of the upper and lower double
series. a, the upper and larger pair of
electric organs. b, the lower pair. c, ex-
ternal lateral muscles. d, eight dorsal
muscles, imbedded in fat and cellular tissue.


and having a concentrically laminated
structure. e, the spinal column. f, the
swimming-bladder, which is of an elongated
form and of great length, measuring from
two to nearly three feet.
The mode of capturing the electrical eel
is described by a naturalist, Bonpland, who
stopped at Calabozo, on the Orinoco, in
order to witnessit. While our hosts were
explaining to us this strange mode of fishing,
a troop of about thirty half-wild horses and
mules had arrived, and
the Indians had made
a sort of circle, press-
ing the horses on all
sides, and forcing them ,
into the marsh. The
Indians, armed with /i c
long canes and har- !.
poons, had placed -P--
Sthemselves round the
basin, some of them
mounting the trees, the
branches ofwhichhung
over the water, and by \>-
their cries, and still
more by their canes,
preventing the horses
from landing again. --
The eels, stunned by
the noise, defended
themselves byrepeated
discharges of their
batteries. For a long
time it seemed as if
they would be victor-
ious over the horses.
Some of the mules
especially, being almost stifled by the fre-
quency and force of the shocks, disappeared
under water; and some of the horses, in spite
of the watchfulness of the Indians, regained
the bank, where, overcome bythe shocks they
had undergone, they stretched themselves at
their whole length. The picture presented
was now indescribable. Groups of Indians
surrounded the basin, the horses with
bristling manes, terror and grief in their
eyes, trying to escape from the storm which
had surprised them; the eels, yellow and

livid, looking like great aquatic serpents
swimming on the surface of the water, and
chasing their enemies, were objects at once
appalling and picturesque. In less than five
minutes two horses were drowned. An eel,
more than five feet long, glided under one
horse, and discharged its apparatus through
its whole extent, attacking at once the
heart and viscera, probably benumbing and
finally drowning it.
When the struggle had endured a quarter
of an hour, the mules
and horses appeared
less frightened, their
manes became more
S erect, their eyes ex-
\ pressed less terror, the
eels shunned in place
S of attacking them, at
-' the same time ap-
proaching the bank,
S when they were easily
taken by throwing
little harpoons at them
attached to long cords,
the harpoon sometimes
hooking two at a time,
Being landed by means
/, of the long cord. They
were then drawn ashore
without being able to
communicate any
Several of thesewon-
derful fish have been
brought to England in
a living state. A fine
gymnotus was kept for
many years at the Polytechnic Institution in
London. Numbers of experimenters were ac-
customed daily to test its powers; and the
fatal, or at all events the numbing power of
the stroke was evident when the creature was
supplied with fish. Though blind, it was
accustomed to turn its head towards the.
spot when a fish was dropped into the
water, when it would curve itself slightly
stiffen its muscles, and the victim turned
over on its back, struck as if dead by the
violence of the shock.
D 2




-, ,- ,, NE of the most interesting
'-ii relics of RegalRome is the
'- old Mamertine Prison, con-
''- structedbyAncus Martius, and
described by Livy and Sallust.
i Wallsbuiltof enormous blocks
F of stone form a cell, cold and
dark and damp. But in the
S floor is a small opening lead-
ing down into a yet more
horrible dungeon. Sallust
speaks of it as a place about
ten feet deep, surrounded by walls, with a
vaulted roof of stone above it. The filth
and darkness and stench make it indeed
terrible." Here the African king Jugurtha
was starved to death, the accomplices of
Catiline were strangled, and Sejanus, the
son-in-law of Tiberius, was executed. Tra-
dition affirms that yet more illustrious
sufferers were confined here. In this state
prison it is said that the apostles Peter and
Paul were immured. Of this, however,
there is no evidence; but the papal le-
gends which so often invest even a probable
tradition with incredible marvels, are not
wanting here. An indentation in the wall
of the staircase is pointed out as having
been made by the head of St. Peter when
forcibly struck against it by the inhuman
gaoler ; and a spring of water which rises
from the floor is declared to have burst
miraculously from the rock for the baptism
of his two guards, Processus and Martinia-
nus, though, unfortunately for this tradition,
the fountain is described by Plutarch as exist-
ing in the time of Jugurtha's imprisonment.
Indeed there is every reason to believe
that this chamber was originally a well-
house or a subterranean cistern for collect-
ing water at the foot of the Capitol, from
which circumstance it derived its name of
Tullianum, from tullius, the old Etruscan
word for spring, and not from Servius Tul-
lius, who was erroneously supposed to have

built it. The whole chamber in primitive
times was filled with water, and the hole in
the roof was used for drawing it out. Not-
withstanding its sacred reputation, the water
tastes very much like ordinary water, being
very cool and fresh, with a slight medicinal
taste. A rugged hollow in the wall of the
staircase is pointed out as the print of St.
Peter's head in the hard stone, said to have
been produced as he stumbled and fell
against it coming down the stair a chained
prisoner. It requires no small amount of
devotional credulity to recognize the like-
ness, or to believe the story.
But there is no need for having recourse
to such ecclesiastical legends in order to
produce a solemn impression in this cham-
ber. Its classical associations are sufficient
of themselves to powerfully affect the
imagination. There is no reason to doubt
the common belief that this is the identical
cell in which the famous Jugurtha was
starved to death. The romantic history ot
this African king is familiar to all readers
of Sallust, who gives a masterly account
of the Jugurthine war. When finally defeat-
ed, after having long defied the Roman
army, his person was taken possession of by
treachery, and carried in chains to Rome,
where he adorned the triumphal procession
of his conqueror Marius, and was finally
cast into this cell, perishing there of cold
and hunger. What a terrible ending to the
career of a fierce, free soldier, who had
spent his life on horseback in the boundless
sultry deserts of Western Africa The tem-
perature of the place is exceedingly damp
and chill. Jugurtha himself, when stripped
of his clothes by the greedy executioners,
and let down into it from the hole in the
roof, exclaimed with grim humour, "By
Hercules, how cold your bath is "
A more hideous and heart-breaking dun-
geon it is impossible to imagine. Not a
ray of light can penetrate the profound

._- _


darkness of this living tomb. Sallust spoke
of the appearance of it in his day, from the
filth, the gloom, and the smell, as simply
The height of the vault is about sixteen
feet, its length thirty feet, and its breadth
twenty-two feet. It is cased with huge
masses of volcanic stone, arranged in
courses, converging towards the roof, not
on the principle of the arch, but extending
horizontally to the centre, as we see in
some of the Etruscan tombs. This peculiar
style of construction proves the very high
antiquity of the chamber. It is especially
interesting, to use the words of Freeman,
"as showing that men were at this time
making various attempts to bring stones, so
as to overlap and support one another; but
the perfect arch, with its stones poised in
mid-air by a law of mutual mechanical sup-
port, had not yet rewarded their efforts."
Besides Jugurtha, several other notable
prisoners were confined in this cell. It
played the same part in Roman history
which the Tower of London has done in
our own. Here, by the orders of Cicero,
were strangled Lentulus, Cethegus, and one
or two more of the accomplices of Catiline
in his famous conspiracy. Here was
murdered, under circumstances of great
baseness, Vercingetorix, the young and
gallant chief of the Gauls, whose bravery
called forth the highest qualities of Julius
Cmsar's military genius, and who, when
success abandoned his arms, boldly gave
himself up as an offering to appease the
anger of the Romans.
S"From the Tullianum, or Prison of St.
Peter," says Dr. Macmillan, who recently
visited the ruins in the Forum, "we were led
through a tortuous subterraneous passage of
Etruscan character, a hundred yards long,
cut out of the rock. It was so low that we
had to stoop all the way, and in some
places almost to creep, and so narrow that a
very stout person would have some difficulty
in forcing himself through. The floor was
here and there wet with the overflowing of
neighboring drains, which exhaled a noi-
some stench; and we had to pick our steps

carefully through thick greasy mud, which
on the slopes was very slippery and dis-
agreeable. We followed each other in
Indian file, stooping low, each with a wax
taper burning dimly in the damp atmos-
phere, and presenting a most picturesque
appearance. This passage was discovered
only a few years ago. Numerous passages
of a similar nature are said to penetrate the
volcanic rock on which the Capitol stands,
in every direction, like the galleries of an
ant's nest. Some of these have been ex-
posed, and others walled up. They con-
nected the prison with the Cloaca, (which
had its outlet in the river Tiber), and
doubtless furnished means by which the
bodies of criminals who had been executed
might be secretly disposed of. The passage
in question brought us to four other cham-
bers, each darker and more dismal than the
other, and partially filled with heaps of
rubbish and masses of stone that had fallen
from their own roofs and sides. At the top
of each vault there was a man-hole for let-
ting a prisoner down with cords into it.
A visit to these six vaults of the Mamer-
tine Prison gives one an idea that can never
be forgotten of the cruelty and tyranny which
underlay all the gorgeous despotism ot
Rome, alike in the kingly, republican, and
imperial periods. Some of the remains may
still be seen of the Scale Gemonce, the
'steps of sighs,' down which the bodies ot
those who were executed were thrown, to
be exposed to the insults of the populace.
The only circumstance that relieves the in-
tolerable gloom of the associations of the
prison is, that Nmevius is said to have
written two of his plays while he was con-
fined in it for his attacks on the aristocracy:
a circumstance which links it to the Tower
of London, which has also its literary remi-
After having been immured so long in
such disagreeable physical darkness,-ap-
propriate emblems of the deeds of horror
committed in it,-we were truly glad to catch
at last a faint glimmer of daylight shimmer-
ing into the uppermost passage, and to
emerge into the open sunshine."




_ ~ II I ~ _I_ sl~ Il________pp______j~

_I____ __l~--L------~ I^--------I11~ -s




FEW years ago a statement went
1 the round of the papers, to the
effect that an. American had
S- jumped overboard from the Na-
tional Liner steamship Queen,
some miles from the Irish coast,
and had succeeded in gaining the
shore safe, warm, and dry, a violent storm
notwithstanding. Although it was men-

tioned that the adventurer was equipped
with a life-saving apparatus, the statement
taxed the credulity of most people who
know what the sea is in a storm. The fact,
however, was well authenticated that Cap-
tain Paul Boyton, of the New Jersey Life
Saving Service, Atlantic City, did so quit
the vessel, and after remaining in the sea
for seven hours, and drifting some miles



.... --- -


along the coast, he was at length cast ashore
high and dry at Trefaska Bight, on the
Skibbereen coast, and the next day made
his way to Cork, where he rejoined his
anxious friends on board the Queen.
Captain Boyton soon became better known
to the people of England, and his experi-
ments excited great curiosity. He crossed
the Channel, went up the Thames and
other rivers, and proved in every way the
value of his invention, and his name and
achievements are now familiar round the
The aquatic feats with which Captain
Boyton astonished the good people of
England were accomplished by means of a
dress which, though known by his name, is
really the invention of a Mr. C. S. Merriman,
of New York; Captain Boyton, a man of
great pluck and resolution, having been
commissioned to introduce it into Europe.
This life-preserving garment is made of solid
india-rubber, and is in two parts, the lower
being the pantaloons, to which boots are
attached, and the upper the tunic, with
sleeves, gloves, and helmet connected to it.
The pantaloons are formed with a waistbelt
or hoop of steel, which is elastic and has a
rib of india-rubber running round the out-
side. The tunic has a similar rib of rubber
around the inside of the waist, which is
drawn over and contracts under the rib on
the pantaloon belt, and by its elasticity,
gripping in tightly, forms a water-tight joint.
This joint is further secured by an outer
belt of rubber fastened with a buckle.
Having put on this suit in the order indica-
ted in our description, the operator next
proceeds to inflate it, which he does by
blowing in turn through five tubes, fitted
with stop valves, each tube communicating
with an air-chamber. Of these chambers
there are two in the pantaloons, two in the
tunic, and one in the helmet. In the front
of the helmet an aperture is left large
enough to show the eyes, nose, and mouth

of the operator, and the act of inflating the
helmet brings the edges of the rubber in
close contact with the face, so that there are
only a few square inches of exposed surface.
The suit weighs r5lb., and when fully in-
flated is stated to be capable of sustaining a
weigh of 3oolb., which allows for the weight
of a person saved by the wearer from
drowning; besides which, the inventor has
provided for the contingency of damage to
any one of the air-chambers. The suit
when out of use is packed away in an india-
rubber bag weighing about 21b. This bag
has a compartment round the mouth in
which three gallons of water may be stowed
away. In the bottom of the bag are placed
provisions, signal lights, etc., and air is
blown into the water compartment, which
expands the mouth of the bag inwards and
so closes the opening, which can further be
strapped tight. Equipped in this dress,
and thus provisioned and provided with
a paddle, the voyager is unsinkable, and,
apart from danger from sharks or from con-
cussion with rocks, there is no reason why
he should not remain in the water for an
indefinite period. As the dress fits loosely
and is put on over the ordinary clothing,
the temperature of the body is equally
maintained. With a little practice, it can
be put on and inflated in two minutes.
Captain Boyton's first attempt to cross the
English Channel, from Dover to Boulogne,
was frustrated only by want of knowledge
of its conflicting currents, and the refusal of
the French pilot to take any responsibility
after nightfall.' His second attempt was
made under more favourable conditions, and
crowned with complete success, his voyage
having occupied the twenty-four hours all
but twenty-two minutes. Since that adven-
ture, the dress has been successfully tried
by others, and there can be no question
that Captain Boyton has added a most
wonderfully efficient means to those already
in existence for the saving of life at sea.



Si NGINEERING science,
,, '. and the skill dis-
-- played in overcom-
Sing physical diffi-
S '.: culties, have been
-. '' wonderfully deve-
S'loped during the
.-! t ..entury. A striking
,:,: ...f this is found in the
S T I T-unnel, begun by Sir
Mark Isambard Brunel in
1825, continued by his son, and
completed in I843. This work, though now
applied to a use of which its originator
little dreamed, is still the most important
subaqueous tunnel in existence, and appears
likely to remain so, at least till the railway
tunnel between England and France has
become an accomplished fact.
More than three-quarters of a century
ago, the idea of connecting the shores of
the Thames by a subway was proposed.
This was by Mr. Ralph Dodd, an engineer
well known in his time. The attempt was
made, several miles lower down the river
than the present tunnel, and was a signal
failure. Dodd's tunnel fell in, and has long
been abandoned to the water. The idea,
however, took root, and in 1805, the year
of Trafalgar, a company was incorporated
by Act of Parliament, under the name of
the Thames Archway Company," with the
object of forming an archway or tunnel
beneath the bed of the river at Limehouse,
sufficiently capacious to allow of the transit
of vehicles through it. Under Mr. Vazie
and Mr. Trevithick, great progress was made
with the work. But in 1808, when a drift-
way had been carried to within 200 feet of
the opposite shore, the river broke in upon
the works, and finally destroyed the whole
undertaking. As early as 1814 the atten-
tion of Mr. Brunel was directed to the
subject; and in 1823, backed up by the
Duke of Wellington, he seriously submitted

to the public a plan for the construction of a
tunnel. Mr. Brunel had been engaged in
constructing a small tunnel at Chatham,
and passing one day through the yard,
he observed a piece of wood which was
perforated by the borings of a well-known
sea-worm called the Teredo navalis, or
Calamitas navium, as Linnsus named it.
The thought occurred to him that a ma-
chine might be constructed, protected in a
similar manner to the hard cylindrical shell
of this worm, and which would tunnel with
great rapidity. The idea was elaborately
worked out, and though afterwards mate-
rially altered, was substantially the mode in
which this great undertaking was completed.
The Act incorporating the company re-
ceived the royal assent in June, 1824; but
in consequence of a dispute relative to the
site of the property required for the Rother-
hithe shaft, the works were not actually
commenced till February 16, 1825. A brick
cylinder was first built on the Surrey side,
42 feet high, o50 feet in circumference, and
150 feet distant from the river. In the
inside of this cylinder the excavators worked,
cutting away the earth and supplying its
place with brickwork, till they had reached
a depth of 65 feet; another shaft was then
sunk lower for experimental purposes, when,
at a depth of 80 feet, the ground suddenly
gave way, and sand and water were blown
up with great violence. From this shaft
the tunnel itself was begun, at a depth of
63 feet. Mr. Brunel proposed to make his
tunnel 38 feet broad and 221 feet high,
leaving room within for two archways each
15 feet high, and each wide enough for a
single carriage and a footpath.. The men
worked in a frame which Mr. Brunel called
a shield, ivhich was pushed forward from
time to time by means of large horizontal
screws, which abutted on the brickwork of
the arch at the top, and against the in-
verted arch at the bottom. This shield was

a..., v ^. i \ \ l-Jl


divided in a very ingenious manner into
cells, each of which was capable of being
moved separately. "As the miners were at
work at one end of the cells, the bricklayers
at the back were as busy as bees in forming
the brick walls of the tunnel top, sides, and
bottom, the crushing earth above being
fended off by the top of the shield till the
bricklayers had finished. Following the
shield was a rolling stage in each archway,
for the assistance of the men in the upper
cells." The work proceeded slowly, but
without any serious interruption, to the 26th
January, 1826, when water burst in; but,
after some difficulty in stopping the leak,
the water was pumped out, and the work
was resumed, and continued without further
interruption till early in September.
The arrangements not proving entirely
effective, it was suggested to extend the
action of the frames. To this Brunel was
opposed, but circumstances combined to
overrule his judgment, and to induce him
to sanction what his first mechanical con-
ceptions and his subsequent experience
condemned. The extraordinary energy,
ability, and enthusiasm of his son, Mr.
Isambard Kingdom Brunel, who had been
appointed resident engineer, seemed to
offer to Brunel compensation for almost any
departure from his original plan. The
necessity for increased supervision, however,
became more and more pressing. On the
morning of Friday, September 8, 1826,
water was observed to drop from the tails
of some of the frames; this was checked by
a stuffing of oakum. In two hours diluted
silt made its appearance, and during the
night it burst in with considerable force,
so great as to require the united efforts of
their men to retain the necessary stuffing in
its place. The utmost vigilance was re-
quired for several days to keep the men at
their post. On Monday, the Iith, the
contest had again to be renewed; water
and silt occasionally bursting from the back
of the frames when any attempt was made
to move on. Timbers were now introduced
in front, where the ground was more solid,
and, capped with clay, were forced up by

powerful screw-jacks. While this operation
was going on in front, gravel and pieces of
yellow mottled clay forced themselves in
behind. Upon an effort being made to
move forward the contiguous frames, water
appeared in front in such abundance as
to threaten destruction to the faces. To
relieve the ground, borings were made
through the brickwork of the centre pier,
and pipes inserted at the back of the frames.
After considerable labour, at ten o'clock
on the night of the iith, the object was
attained, and the water flowed with great
velocity, promising to relieve the pressure
and to prevent the further dilution of the
silt and clay. All was now in full activity;
the din of workmen and the plashing of
water, broken in its descent of twenty-two
feet by the iron floor plates, was deafening,
when suddenly the water ceased to flow;
the workmen ceased their labour, and not a
sound relieved the intensity of the silence.
" We gazed on one another," said a narrator
of the scene, who was present, with a
feeling not to be described. On every
countenance astonishment, awe, perhaps,
was depicted, but not fear. I saw that
each man-with his eyes upon Isambard
Brunel, the resident engineer, and then
only twenty years of age-stood firmly pre-
pared to execute his orders with resolution
and intrepidity. In a few moments-
moments like hours-a rumbling, gurgling
sound was heard above; the water resumed
its course, the awful stillness was broken,
life and activity once more prevailed, and
the works proceeded without further
material interruption." The threatened
catastrophe had passed over, and the work
had now so far advanced that permission
was given to strangers to visit the works;
a shilling was charged, and they were
allowed to proceed down the western arch-
way about 300 feet. In May, 1827, how-
ever, came the long-expected disaster. Two
vessels had anchored just above the head
of the tunnel, and a great quantity of soil
had been washed away from above the
Mr. Beamish, the resident assistant


engineer, in his Life of Brunel," thus
describes the occurrence:-
"As the water rose with the tide it
increased in the frames very considerably
between Nos. 5 and 6, forcing its way at
the front, then at the back; Ball and
Compton (the occupants) most active.
About a quarter before six o'clock, No. 11
(division) went forward. Clay appeared at
the back. Had it closed up immediately.
While this was going forward my attention
was again drawn to No. 6, where I found
the gravel forcing itself with the water.
It was with the utmost difficulty that Ball
could keep anything against the opening.
Fearing that the pumpers would now be-
come alarmed, as they had been once or
twice before, and leave their post, I went
upon the east stage to encourage them, and
to choose more shoring for Ball. Goodwin,
who was engaged at No. ii, where indica-
tions of a run appeared, called to Rogers,
who was in the act of working down No. 9,
to come to his assistance. But Rogers,
having his second poling-board down,
could not. Goodwin again called. I then
said to Rogers, Don't you hear?' Upon
which he left his poling for the purpose
of assisting Goodwin; but before he could
get to him, and before I could get fairly
into the frames, there poured such an over-
whelming volume of water and sludge as to
force them out of the frames. William
Carps, a bricklayer, who had gone to Good-
win's assistance, was knocked down and
literally rolled out of the frames on the
stage, as though he had come through a mill
sluice, and would undoubtedly have fallen
off the stage had I not caught hold of him,
and with Rogers'assistance helped him down
the ladder. I again made an attempt to get
into the frames, calling upon the miners to
follow; but all was dark (the lights at the
frames and stage being all blown out), and I
was only answered by the hoarse and angry
sounds of Father Thames's roarings. Rogers
(an old sergeant of the Guards), the only
man left upon the stage, now caught my
arm, and gently drawing me from the
frames, said, 'Come away, pray, sir; come

away; 'tis no use, the water is rising fast.'
I turned once more; but hearing an in-
creased rush at No. 6, and finding the
column of water at Nos. ii and 12 to be
augmenting, I reluctantly descended. The
cement casks, compo-boxes, and pieces of
timber were floating around me. I turned
into the west arch, where the enemy had
not yet advanced so rapidly, and again
looked towards the frames, lest some one
might have been overtaken; but the cement
casks, etc., striking my legs, threatened
seriously to obstruct my retreat, and it was
with some difficulty I reached the visitors'
bar (a bar so placed as to keep the visitors
from the unfinished works), where Mayo,
Bertram, and others were anxiously waiting
to receive me. I was glad of their
assistance ; indeed, Mayo fairly dragged me
over it. Not bearing the idea of so pre-
cipitate a retreat, I turned once more ; but
vain was the hope The wave rolled on-
ward and onward; the men retreated, and I
followed. Met Gravatt coming down.
Short was the question, and brief was the
answer. As we approached I met I.
[Isambard] Brunel. We turned round : the
effect was splendid beyond description.
The water as it rose became more and
more vivid, from the reflected lights of
the gas. As we reached the staircase a
crash was heard, and then a rush of air at
once extinguished all the lights.
Now it was that I experienced something
like dread. I looked up the shaft, and saw
both stairs crowded; I looked below, and
beheld the overwhelming wave appearing
to move with accumulated velocity.
Dreading the effect of the reaction of
this wave from the back of the shaft upon
our staircase, I exclaimed to Mr. Gravatt,
'The staircase will blow up i' I. Brunel
ordered the men to get up with all expe-
dition; and our feet were scarcely oft
the bottom stairs when the first flight,
which we had just left, was swept away.
Upon our reaching the top, a bustling noise
assailed our ears, some calling for a raft,
others for a boat, and others again a rope;
from which it was evident that some unfor-


tunate individual was in the water. I.
Brunel instantly, with that presence of mind
to which I have been more than once wit-
ness, slid down one of the iron ties, and
after him Mr. Gravatt, each making a rope
fast to old Tillet's waist, who, having been
looking after the packing of the pumps
below the shaft, was overtaken by the flood.
He was soon placed out of danger. The
roll was immediately called-not one absentt"
Fortunately, no lives were lost; but this
irruption was only the forerunner of
another, attended with the most melan-
choly results, and which was preceded by
an accident which troubled Mr. Brunel even
more than the influx of water. On June
27, 1827, two of the directors, having
expressed a wish to obtain a view of the
shield, embarked in a small boat for that
purpose, which was unfortunately overload-
ed and upset, and one of the party, a miner,
was drowned. One of the most striking
characteristics of Brunel's inventions was
the means he provided for the protection of
life, and, notwithstanding all the difficulties
by which the operations of the tunnel were
beset, no life had yet been sacrificed when
the necessary care had been taken.
By January, 1828, the shield had ad-
vanced to the middle of the river. Mr. I.
K. Brunel, the son of the great engineer,
judging that a more rapid rate of progress
would also be more safe, and calculating
on the tried skill, courage, and physical
power of some of the men coming on in the
morning shift on January 12, 1828, ven-
tured at high-water, or when the tide was
still rising, to make an important advance ;
but the shield was not, as was afterwards
proved, thoroughly well secured. In a
short time a column of ground, eight or ten
inches in diameter, was forced in, and this
was immediately followed by the over-
whelming torrent. So rapid was the influx
of water, that had not the workmen quitted
the stage immediately, they must have been
swept off; a rush of air suddenly extin-
guished the gas lights, and they were left to
struggle in utter darkness. Five men were
drowned, and the tunnel was again filled

with water. One of the great advantages-
which Brunel believed the shield possessed
was the security it afforded to life; but,
unhappily, the confidence which that sup-
posed security inspired supplied a tempta-
tion to incur risks against which no protect.
tion would avail. In letter to the directors
Mr. Brunel, jun., described the scene as
follows :-" I had been in the frames with
the workmen throughout the whole night,
having taken my station there at ten o'clock.
During the workings through the night no
symptoms of insecurity appeared. At six
o'clock in the morning (the usual time for
shifting the men) a fresh set came on to work.
We began to work the ground at the west top
corner of the frame. The tide had just
then begun to flow, and finding the ground
tolerably quiet, we proceeded by beginning
at the top, and had worked about a foot
downwards, when, on exposing the next
six inches, the ground swelled suddenly,
and a large quantity burst through the open-
ing thus made. This was followed instantly
by a large body of water. The rush was so
violent as to force the man on the spot
where the burst took place out of the frame
(or cell) on to the timber stage behind the
frames. I was in the frame with the man;
but upon the rush of the water I went into
the next box, in order to command a better
view of the irruption ; and seeing there was
no possibility of their opposing the water, I
ordered all the men in the frames to retire.
All were retiring except the three men who
were with me, and they retreated with me.
I did not leave the stage until those three
men were down the ladder of the frames,
when they and I proceeded about twenty
feet along the west arch of the tunnel. At
this moment the agitation of the air by the
rush of the water was such as to extinguish
all the lights, and the water had gained the
height of the middle of our waists. I was
at that moment giving directions to the
three men, in what manner they ought to
proceed in the dark to effect their escape,
when they and I were knocked down and
covered by a part of the timber stage. I
struggled under water for some time, and at


length extricated myself from the stage; and
by swimming and being forced by the water,
I gained the eastern arch, where I got a
better footing, and was enabled, by laying
hold of the railway rope, to pause a little,
in the hope of encouraging the men who
had been knocked down at the same time
with myself. This I endeavoured to do by
calling to them. Before I reached the
shaft the water had risen so rapidly that I
was out of my depth, and therefore swam to
the visitors' stairs, the stairs of the workmen
being occupied by those who had so far
escaped. My knee was so injured by the
timber stage that I could scarcely swim or
get up the stairs, but t/e rush of the wafer
carried me up the shaft. The three men
who had been knocked down with me were
unable to extricate themselves, and I grieve
to say they are lost, and, I believe, also
two old men and one young man in other
parts of the work." To fill up the hole and
regain the frames, Brunel resorted to the
means which had proved so successful after
the former irruption, and about 4,500 tons
of clay and gravel were absorbed by the
hole. The same alarms, anxieties, and
fatigues were again experienced, pressing
only more heavily in consequence of being
deprived of the active superintendence of
Isambard Brunel, who had been severely
injured in the late accident. The next
irruption was in November, 1837, and
the last in April, 1840, about eight in the
morning, it being low water at the time.
During a movement of the poling-boards in
the shield, a quantity of gravel and water
rushed into the frame. "The ground
rushed in immediately, and knocked the
men out of their cells, and they fled in
a panic but finding the water did not
follow, they returned, and by great exer-
tions succeeded in stopping the run when
upwards of 6,000 cubic feet of ground had
fallen into the tunnel. The fall was atten-
ded with a noise like thunder, and the
extinguishing of all the lights. At the
same time,'to the horror of Wapping, part
of the shore in that place sank, over an
area of upwards of 700 feet, leaving a cavity

on the shore of about thirty feet in diameter
and thirteen feet in depth. Had this
taken place at high water, the tunnel would
have been filled ; as it was, men were sent
over with bags of clay and gravel, and
everything was rendered secure by the re-
turn of the tide. Sometimes sand, nearly
fluid, would ooze through minute cracks
between the small poling-boards of the
shield, and leave large cavities in the
ground in front. On one of these occasions
the sand poured in all night, and filled the
bottom of the shield. In the morning, on
opening one of the faces, a hollow was dis-
covered, eighteen feet long, six feet high,
and six feet deep. This cavity was filled
up with brickbats and lumps of clay. One
of the miners was compelled to lay himself
down in this cavity, for the purpose of build-
ing up the further end, though at the risk
of being buried alive."
While all this was taking place, the funds
of the company had become exhausted, and
an appeal was made to the country. A
public meeting was held, attended by the
Duke of Cambridge, the Duke of Welling-
ton, and many other noblemen and gentle-
men of distinction. The Duke of Welling-
ton proposed a series of resolutions express-
ing his confidence that the great work
would be crowned with success. "Of my
own knowledge," said his Grace, "I can
speak of the interest excited in foreign na-
tions for the welfare and success of this
great undertaking. They look upon it as
the greatest work of art ever undertaken."
The result of this meeting was that Z18,500
was at once subscribed, but the scheme to
raise money on debentures completely
failed. Up to that time the company had
raised and expended a total of Z17o,ooo,
and the public rightly thought the security
for a further outlay was very uncertain.
The water having been cleared out of the
tunnel, a mirror was placed at the end of
the visitors' arch, and which, having been
stuccoed and lighted with gas, continued
to be an object of great attraction to visit-
ors from all parts of the world. At last
Government consented to make a loan of


246,0oo to the Tunnel Company, under
the condition that the money "should be
solely applied in carrying on the tunnel it-
self, and that no advance should be applied
to the defraying of any other expense until
that part of the undertaking which is most
hazardous shall be secured." Isambard
Brunel was then too much engaged in rail-
way undertakings to permit his giving assist-
ance to his father, and Mr. Beamish suc-
ceeded him in that office, and had the
honour of completing the tunnel. The
work was continued, with varying fortunes,
till March 25, 1843, when it was opened to
the public.
The total length of the tunnel is 1,200


.--{ Ai- ITHIN the state of California
There is a perfect natural
theatre, almost as symmetri-
cal in arrangement as if it
had been artificially erected. It is at a
place called Temple Canon, some four and
a half miles from Canon City, and was
discovered but a year or two ago. The
climb is not steep, though rather rough,
especially to effect an entrance into the
temple proper, which can only be accom-
plished by clambering over several huge
boulders, which, if removed, would ren-
der the illusion of a temple and stairway
all the more striking. Once passing in
through the great rifts of rock, for all the
world like the stairway to some grand place
of amusement, the body of the temple is
reached, and to the tourist's astonishment,
before him is a stage with overhanging arch,
with "flats" and "flies," with dressing-rooms
on either side, and a scene already set as
if for some grand tableau. If so intensely
realistic from the parquet, as the broad
circling floor might aptly be termed, or
from the parquet or dress-circles, as the
higher ledges would suggest, the clamber
up to the stage itself renders it all the more

feet; its cost from first to last was about
1450,0oo, of which IS8o,ooo was sub-
scribed or lent, and the remainder advanced
by Government. "The carriage ways were
originally intended to consist of an im-
mense spiral road, winding twice round
a circular excavation 57 feet deep, in
order to reach the proper level. The
extreme diameter of this spiral road was to
be no less than 200 feet. The road itself
was to have been 40 feet wide, and the de-
scent very moderate;" but as the work pro-
ceeded, the plans were very much modified.
The tunnel now forms part of the East
London Railway, between Wapping and
Rotherhithe stations.


so, for there is found ample room for a full
dramatic or operatic company to disport
upon, while in the perpendicular ledges
and caves on either side twenty-five or
thirty people might retire and not be ob-
served from the body of the hall. The
stage is at the least thirty feet deep, and
some sixty to seventy broad; the arch
above fully one hundred feet from the floor
of the canon, the stage itself being about
forty feet above the floor. The arch is
almost as smooth and perfectly proportioned
as if fashioned by the hand of man, and
during the wet season the water from a
stream above falls in a great broad sheet
over its face to the floor of the canon
below. At such times the effects from the
stage of the temple is, as can be imagined,
exceedingly fascinating, for there, entirely
protected from the water, one looks through
the silvery sheen out upon the scene be-
low. Upon the rear wall of the stage quite
an aperture has been hewn out by some
action, and the shape it is left in is peculiarly
suggestive of tableaux preparation. All is
bleak, bare, and towering walls, and a more
weird spot to visit cannot possibly be



v naturalist, was a
man of wonderful
courage. When
S. he had once made
up his mind to a
certain course, no
I': ..'i.....- s or dangers could
-,t ) .i..t.-r him from carrying it out.
H: lad formed a wish to add
a Iir_ snake to his collection,
but had long been disappointed
in catching one. At last he was told by
an old negro that a huge serpent was lying
amongst some mouldering trunks. Ac-
companied by two negroes and a little
dog, he immediately started to capture it.
How he succeeded will be best told in his
own words, merely premising that the snake
was of a rare kind called a coulacanara;
that it was about fourteen feet in length,
and strong enough to crush a single man to
death. He confessed that when he first
saw this monster he was alarmed.
"But I had been in search of a large
serpent for years, and now, having come
up with one it did not become me to
turn soft; so, taking a cutlass from one
of the negroes, and ranging both the sable
slaves behind me, I told them to follow me,
and threatened I would cut them down
if they offered to fly. I smiled as I said
this, but they shook their heads in silence,
and seemed to have a bad heart of it.
When we got up to the place, the
serpent had not stirred, but I could see
nothing of his head, and judged by the
folds of his body that it must be at the
farthest side of his den. A species of
woodbine had formed a complete mantle
over the branches of a fallen tree, almost
impervious to the rain or the rays of the
sun. Probably it had resorted to this
sequestered place for a length of time, as
it bore marks of an ancient settlement.


I now took my knife, determining to
cut away the woodbine and break the twigs
in the gentlest manner possible, till I could
get a view of his head. One negro stood
guard close behind me with a lance, and
near him the other with a cutlass. The
cutlass which I had taken from the first
negro was on the ground close by me in
case of need. After working in dead
silence for a quarter of an hour, with one
knee all the time on the ground, I had
cleared away enough to see his head. It
appeared coming out between the first and
second coil of his body, and was flat on
the ground. This was the very position
I wished it to be in.
I rose in silence, and retreated very
slowly, making a sign to the negroes to do
the same. The dog was sitting at a dis-
tance in mute observation. I could now
read in the faces of the negroes that they
considered this a very unpleasant affair,
and they made another attempt to persuade
me to let them go for a gun. I smiled in
a good-natured manner, and made a feint
to cut them down with the weapon I had
in my hand. This was all the answer I
made to their request, and they looked
very uneasy. It must be observed we
were now about twenty yards from the
snake's den. I now ranged the negroes
behind me, and told him who stood next
to me to lay hold of the lance the moment
I struck the snake, and that the other must
attend my movements. It now only re-
mained to take their cutlasses from them,
for I was sure, if I did not disarm them,
they would be tempted to strike the snake
in time of danger, and thus for ever spoil
his skin. On taking their cutlasses from
them, if I might judge from their physio-
gnomy, they seemed to consider it a most
intolerable act of tyranny in me. Probably
nothing kept them from bolting but the
consolation that I was between them and


the snake. Indeed, my own heart, in spite
of all I could do, beat quicker than usual;
and I felt'those sensations which one has
on board a merchant vessel in war-time,
when the captain orders all hands on deck
to prepare for action, while a strange
vessel is coming down upon us under
suspicious colours.
We went slowly on in silence, without
moving our arms or heads, in order to pre-
vent all alarm as much as possible, lest the
snake should glide off or attack us in self-
defence. I carried the lance perpendicu-
larly before me, with the point a foot from
the ground. The snake had not moved,
and on getting up to him, I struck him
with the lance on the near side, just behind
the neck, and pinned him to the ground.
That moment the negro next to me seized
the lance, and held it firm in its place,
while I dashed head foremost into the den
to grapple with the snake, and took hold
of his tail before he could do any mischief.
On pinning him to the ground with the
lance, he gave a tremendous loud hiss, and
the dog ran away, howling as he went.
We had a sharp fray in the den, the rotten
sticks flying on all sides, and each party
struggling for superiority. I called out to
the second negro to throw himself upon
me, as I found I was not heavy enough;
he did so, and the additional weight was
of great service. I had now got firm hold
of his tail; and after a violent struggle or
two, he gave in, finding himself over-
powered. This was the moment to secure
him; so, while the first negro continued
to hold the lance firm to the ground, and
the other was helping me, I contrived to
unloose my braces, and tied up the snake's
The snake, now finding himself in an
unpleasant situation, tried to better him-
self, and set resolutely to work; but we
overpowered him. We contrived to make
him twist himself round the shaft of the
lance, and then prepared to convey him
out of the forest. I stood at his head, and
held it firmly under my arm; one negro

supported the belly, and the other the tail.
In this order we began moving slowly
towards home, and reached it after resting
ten times, for the snake was too heavy for
us to support him without stopping to
recruit our strength. As we proceeded on-
wards with him, he fought hard for
freedom, but it was all in vain. The day
was now too far spent to think of dissecting
him. Had I killed him, a partial putre-
faction would have taken place before
morning. I had brought up with me into
the forest a strong bag, large enough to
contain any animal that I should want to
dissect. I considered this the best mode
of keeping live animals when I am pressed
for daylight, for as the bag yielded in every
direction to their efforts, they would have
nothing solid or fixed to work upon, and
thus would be prevented from making a
hole through it. I say fixed, for the mouth
of the bag was closed; the bag itself was
not fastened or tied to anything, but moved
about wherever the animal itself caused it
to roll. After securing afresh the mouth
of the coulacanara, so that he could not
open it, he was forced into the bag, and
left to his fate till morning.
I cannot say he allowed me to have a
quiet night. My hammock was in the loft
just above him, and the floor between us
half gone to decay, so that in parts of it
no boards intervened betwixt his lodging-
room and mine. He was very restless and
fretful, and had Medusa been my wife,
there could not have been more continued
or disagreeable hissing in the bed-chamber
that night. At daybreak I sent to borrow
ten of the negroes who were cutting wood
at a distance. I could have done with half
that number, but judged it prudent to have
a good force in case he should try to escape
from the house when we opened the bag.
However, nothing serious occurred. We
untied the mouth of the bag, kept him
down by main force, and then I cut his
throat. He bled like an ox. By six
o'clock the same evening he was com-
pletely dissected."



., *.. .' ow various are the localities in
V .- i which the palm tree may be
found! Some on mountain
tops, almost in the range of
S,'- perpetual snow; others rise
S from the edge of coral reefs,
w ith their roots beneath the
) level of tropical seas. Some
luxuriate in 'swamps, or
b flourish by the banks of pe-
rennial streams ; others grow
in the midst of arid sand, and
amidst pathless deserts. In habit some are
solitary, others gregarious. No order of
plants, in short, is so varied in circum-
stances of growth, and so little reducible in
this respect to rules and generalisations.
More remarkable still are the palms in
their economic uses to man. In some parts
of the world the inhabitants would be almost
incapable of existing without them. They
afford food, clothing, furniture, weapons,
and every implement and appliance that
raises man above the purest savage state.
Here are some of the multitudinous uses of
the cocoa-nut tree:-The heart, or very
young leaves, called the "cabbage," is an ex-
cellent vegetable, either cooked or dressed
in stews, hashes, or ragouts. The Cin-
galese use the dried, old leaves as torches,
both for themselves during the dark nights
and to carry before the carriages and palan-
quins of Europeans; they also use the
spathe for a similar purpose, as well as for
fuel; and at Rotuma and other Polynesian
islands it is also adopted for a like purpose.
At Tongatabu, one of the Friendly Islands,
combs are made of the midrib of the seg-
ments, the upper part being beautifully
worked with the fibre of the husk, or bulu.
"These combs, from their neat appearance,
were," says Bennett, "in great requisition
during the time I visited that island, and all
the women were busily employed during
our stay in making them, to exchange with

the papalangi (foreign) officers and crew for
trifling articles. The combs were stained
by the bark of the koko-tree of a dark red-
dish colour, intended as a rude imitation of
tortoiseshell. "
The washermen of Ceylon burn the foli-
age for the sake of its alkaline ashes. The
midribs of the leaves, when tied together,
form brooms for the decks of ships. The
Cingalese use the unexpanded leaves in
forming ornaments on the occasion of any
festival, decorating arches, etc., in various
picturesque forms of crowns, flowers, etc.
There is one portion of the tree which
much attracts the attention of the observer,
-it is a kind of network at the base of the
petiole, which when very young is delicate,
beautifully white, and transparent, but when
having attained maturity becomes coarse
and tough, and changes to a brown colour.
It is stripped off in large pieces, which are
used in Ceylon as strainers, particularly foi
the toddy, which is usually full of impurities
when first taken from the tree, as its sweet-
ness attracts innumerable insects. At
Tahiti it is called Aa ; and besides being
used as sieves for straining arrowroot, cocoa-
nut oil, etc., the natives, when engaged in
such occupations as digging, fishing, etc., in
order to save their bark-cloth, join several
portions of this network together, and hav-
ing a hole in the centre, in a manner similar
to their mat garment called Tiabula, wearit
as an article of apparel, merely for the time
in which they may be so engaged. It is
certainly a garment neither to be admired
for its flexibility or firmness, but well adap-
ted for fishermen, or those occupied in the
water, as it is not easily injured by wet,
whereas bark-cloth would be utterly
destroyed in the water, its substance
resembling paper both in strength and ap-
A tree produces several bunches of nuts;
and from twelve to twenty large nuts, be-


sides several small unproductive ones, may
be seen on each bunch. In good situations
the fruit is gathered four or five times in the
course of the year. It is most used as an
article of food, both meat and drink, when
green or young (oua of the Tahitians,
koroomba of the Cingalese); in that state
it yields an abundance of a delicious
cooling beverage, to which Madeira wine,
brandy, etc., is sometimes added. .
Passing over "toddy," arrack, omejar,
jaggery (coarse sugar), and other secondary
products, the rind or husk of the cocoa-nut
is very fibrous, and when ripe is the roya or
coir of commerce, now so extensively used
in Europe and North America for matting,
brushes, hats, etc. It is prepared by being
soaked for some months in water, washed,
beaten to pieces, and then laid in the sun
to dry. This being effected, it is again well
beaten, until the fibres are so separated as
to allow of their being worked up like hemp,
similar to which it is made up in ropes of
any size, from the smallest cord to the
largest cable, but it will not receive tar ; it
is rough to handle, and has not so neat an
appearance about the rigging of shipping as
that made from hemp, but surpasses the
latter in lightness and elasticity, and even,
it is said, durability; more so if wetted
frequently by salt water. From its elas-
ticity it is valuable for cables, enabling a
ship to ride easier than with a hemp or chain
cable. Bennett remarks that he was once
on board a ship, in a severe gale, when
chain and hemp cables gave way; and
the vessel at last, most unexpectedly, rode
out the gale with a small coir cable.
Among the Polynesian Islands, where this
tree grows, the coir is used in the manufac-
ture of s ennit, some of which is beautifully
braided, and devoted to a variety of pur-
poses. At Tonga, one of the Friendly
Islands, the natives dye the sennit, called
"kafa," of various colours, using it in tying
the rafters of the huts, etc. The rope for
their canoes is all manufactured from this
substance. The husk from which the
fibrous substance has not been separated
is used in Ceylon in lieu of scrubbing-

brushes for the floor; and brooms, mats,
and bags are also manufactured from it.
Another valuable production of the cocoa-
nut is the oil, which is an article of exporta-
tion from Ceylon and other parts of India,
Polynesia, etc. It is used in various articles
of domestic economy; besides being an
excellent burning oil (for which it is most
admired, giving out neither smoke noi
smell when burning, and having a clear
bright flame), it has since had an additional
value and more extended use in Europe,
by the discovery of its capability of being
manufactured into candles, rivalling wax or
spermaceti, at the same time without being
much higher in price than those of tallow.
Soap has also been manufactured from it;
and it is lavished by the Asiatics, Polyne-
sians, and other intertropical natives over
their persons ; and at Tongatabu and others
of the Polynesian Islands is used scented
with sandal-wood, which gives a delightful
fragrance to the flowing tresses and elegant
persons of the dark beauties of those fas-
cinating islands. In cold weather this oil
(like most of the vegetable oils) becomes
very hard, and requires to be melted before
it can be used for burning.
The date palm is largely distributed over
Eastern lands, especially Egypt, Barbary,
and Arabia. It is the most conspicuous ob-
ject of the oases in the great African desert.
It shoots up its straight and tapering stem
to the height of fifty to sixty feet. The stem
is marked by numerous ring-like ridges.
The bright green leaves are on the top, and
drop their feathery shapes like a canopy.
A large group of flowers appears in what
is called a spathe, one of which contains
12,ooo blossoms; and three such clusters
are found on each tree. One species of the
palm is said to exhibit the great number of
200,000 flowerets in a single spathe.
This tree produces its fruit under its
leaves. It begins to bear at about six
years of age, and is fruitful for upwards of
two hundred years. Each bunch of fruit
weighs about twenty-five pounds, and one
tree yields about a hundredweight every
season. Dates are a principal article of


food in many parts of the East. They are
eaten green, dried, or beaten into meal, and
serve for food at all seasons of the year.
The Arabs have a saying that "a good
housewife may furnish her husband every
day for a month with a dish of dates
differently prepared." They also boast of
its medicinal virtues. From the leaves
they make couches, baskets, bags, mats,



URINC the last few years
i -the use of bicycles has
Become very popular. They
are simply a development of
the old "rantoon," or three-
wheeled velocipede. These
S old-fashioned vehicles some-
times did good work. In
1862 two men came from
Q Bristol on one velocipede to
London, on a visit to the
International Exhibition, ac-
complishing the journey in twenty-one
hours, and returning easily in eighteen.
The two-wheeled variety, however, has
far outstripped this, and it is by no means
unusual for eighteen miles an hour to be
accomplished by it. Paris is all alive with
this machine. In the Bois de Boulogne,
and on the suburban roads near the capital,
such races are conducted under all sorts
of conditions. As a skilful bicyclist can easily
do his twelve or fourteen miles an hour, and
can continue this for four or five hours at a
stretch, there is certainly a potentiality of
contesting a rather formidable race. In
one instance a Frenchman accomplished 123
miles right off. When the velocipede first
made its appearance in England, which was
nearly half a century ago, the "dandy
horse" was the suggestive- designation
bestowed on it. That was the period when
that now extinct biped the dandy flourished.
Then it was that the class who now form
the "fast men" about town made most

and brushes; from the branches, cages
for their poultry; from the fibres of the
boughs, thread and rope; from the sap,
a cooling drink; the body of the tree serves
for fuel; and their camels are fed on the
date-stones. Indeed, among the many use-
ful trees given by the kind providence of
God to the eastern people, there is not one
more serviceable or more prized.


characteristic demonstrations in the matter
of dress. They wore black velvet stocks,
six inches in width, in lieu of neckties, and
carried their shirt collars up to the level of
their eyebrows. The rest of their attire was
in keeping with the extravagant neck-gear;
huge high-crowned cylinders, all but guiltless
of rims, covered the head; a full-breasted frill
seemed bursting like a pigeon's crop from
the feeble embrace of a scanty vest of light
buff; the dress-coat of blue cloth, with its
burnished yellow buttons, hung down behind
in a point like a pheasant's tail; the waist
was compressed with stays tightly laced in
to the narrowest dimensions, and contrasted
with a pair of balloon-shaped pants, full-
blown at the hips, and growing small by
degrees and beautifully less until they ter-
minated in high-heeled Wellingtons armed
with solid iron tips which made an incessant
clatter on the pavements. This tout ensemble
was accounted the thing "-and whoever
desires to contemplate it in its picturesque
proportions has only to refer to the carica-
tures of the period.
Who was the inventor of the new toy we
have not been able to learn, nor is it by any
means certain whether it was really invented
at the above date, or was simply a restora-
tion of an old hobby. It began to be
popular in the west of England about the
close of the year 1820, and during the
general excitement on the subject of the trial
of Queen Caroline was made the medium of
sundry political jokes of a very doubtful


kind, with which the names of Brougham,
Majocchi (my jockey), and others were
whimsically connected.
The machine consists of two wheels, each
about three-fourths of a yard in diameter,
placed in the same line, one exactly following
the other, their axles turning in strong iron
frames fixed to a long wooden shaft above
them, and parallel with their line of revolu-
tion. The shaft, which curved upwards in
front and downwards in the centre, was
fitted with a cushion or pad on which the
rider rested his arms, and bore a saddle in
the centre which he bestrode. The front
wheel turned easily, like that of a modern
permbulator, and its motions were regulated
by means of a handle so placed that it
could be grasped by both hands, while the
arms rested on the pad, the width of which
pad was about eighteen inches. The feet
of the rider touched the ground, the height
of his horse being so adjusted as to enable
him to walk freely with it between his legs.
There were no treadles, or any other mode
of propulsion than by "punting" the ground,
as it were, with the feet; and as the rider
had to balance himself as he went along-
for the horse would fall prostrate if unsup-
ported-it was no easy matter for a novice
to keep the saddle. But the difficulty was
got over by perseverance : if the horse was
falling to one side a pressure on the pad on
the opposite side would restore the equili-
brium; or if that failed, a rapid turn of the
guiding wheel in the direction of gravitation
would effect the desired object. It was the
custom to let the machines out to hire for
the benefit of the young fellows who emula-
ted each other in their displays of equita-
tion during the long summer evenings.
Broken heads, bruised elbows, scarified shins
and other small casualties usually resulted
from these displays, and now and then an
ambitious aspirant, more plucky than pru-
dent, would have to be borne off the ground
and led home to be doctored.
As the management of the machine
became better understood, its real capabili-
ties began to be ested, and accomplished
equestrians boldly undertook longjourneys,

and performed them, too, in a manner more
or less satisfactory. One young gentleman,
we remember, travelled to a town fifty miles
distant in a single day ; but it was noticed
that he did not make the return journey by
the same conveyance, but came back inglo-
riously on the top of the stage-coach. The
truth was, that the common roads of that
day were not at all adapted for such a mode
of progress, especially when speed was an
object; the dandy horse had no springs,
and as a consequence the roughness of the
roads was apt to register itself in a series of
bodily bruises and contusions not at all
pleasant to endure.
To excel in this species of equitation it
was necessary that the rider should possess
a tall and slender figure and a convenient
length of leg. Performers were not wanting
who were qualified by nature in these re-
spects, and it was really an agreeable sight to
watch their graceful evolutions, connected,
as they sometimes were, with feats of no -
small risk and daring. In some measure
the performers, when seen in action on
ground suited to the purpose, might be
compared to skaters on a field of ice. A
really clever rider, like the accomplished
skater, could disport himself gracefully and
rapidly upon a very small area-cutting
figures on the pavement, and tying knots, as
it were, by his swift and whirling movements.
There was a young artist residing in Bath,
whose exhibitions of skill in this way were
marvellous to witness, and who generally
made his appearance on the flagstones of
the North Parade about sundown in sum-
mer, where a numerous circle of admirers
would await his coming. Now and then a
race would come off between a number of
competitors--the course generally chosen
being a very slight incline of a mile and a
half-the riders starting up, and returning
down the hill. It was rather heavy punting to
get rapidly up the ascent, but no effort was
needed to come down, as the rider had
only to sit still and preserve an even balance
with his feet on the axletree of the front
wheel, and allow the inachine to take its
course. But in a race, the racer would of


course resort to punting even in going down,
in order to distance his fellows; and herein
lay the danger, for if the foot struck the
ground with any force while going ten or
twelve miles an hour, the shock was likely
to pitch the rider from the saddle, to divorce
him from his steed, and perhaps do serious
damage to both.
The pleasure of this exercise depended
very much upon the progress the rider had
made in the art of managing his uncon-
scious nag. Hundreds of persons who began
experiments with the expectation of doing
wonders threw them up in disgust after
a few trials, and hundreds more, after
persevering for weeks and months without
sufficiently mastering the art, were fain to
abandon it. On level ground most persons
could do pretty well after a few lessons, but
there was very little enjoyment to be got
out of a level run unless the ground was
perfectly hard and smooth, and the rider had
learned by experience how to economise
his powers. In ascents at all steep the
punting was sheer hard work, and if the
incline was steep and long the best plan was
to alight from the saddle and push the horse
up the hill. This was compared by the
critics to a man's carrying his own horse
instead of being carried by him-but in fact
it was far easier to walk up the hill with
the horse than without it, as by leaning on
the pad most of your weight was transferred
to the wheels. But whatever might be the
trouble of the ascent, there was ample
compensation in coming down again, when
you had nothing to do but sit still and be
whirled onwards. One precaution, how-
ever, was necessary, and that was to be sure,
in the first instance, that the hill you were
to descend was not too steep.
It happened on a certain afternoon that
one of the best riders in the town where
the writer was then living set out for a
village about four miles distant, and seated
at the summit of an ascent above a mile in
length. He had no trouble in reaching his
destination, and after resting awhile set out
on his return. Suspecting no danger, he
began the down-hill roll, and ere a couple

of minutes had elapsed found himself
thundering along at a frightful pace. He
had no means of stopping or even of retard-
ing his career, as to have put foot to the
ground would have been to be thrown, and
all he could do was to guide himself over
the smoothest part of the ground and keep
clear of obstacles. But the momentum
added every instant to the velocity of his
flight, while the level ground yet lay far in
advance. Still, by careful piloting and
balancing he kept his seat, though now
advancing in bounds with the ground sink-
ing under him. He would probably have
escaped with a whole skin, had it not been
that the road took a sudden turn to the
left just at the foot of the hill; but by the
time he had reached the turn his pace had
become so furious that the guiding wheel
had lost its hold of the ground, and could
not avail to turn him in his course. The
consequence was that the machine dashed
right on ahead, flew up a little grassy bank,
and crashed through the drawing-room
window of a gentleman's house, carrying
away the sash, scattering the glass in ten
thousand fragments, and depositing the
unexpected visitor, bruised, bleeding, and
bewildered, in the centre of a small tea-
party. Had he missed the window, and
encountered the stone walls, he had most
likely been killed on the spot; fortunately,
however, he came off without any very
serious injury. This man was one of the
most accomplished riders of the day ; one of
his exploits, which bore the look of extreme
peril, though it was really less dangerous to
the rider than to the machine, was to kneel
upon the saddle, and then to stand upright
upon it, while going at a quick pace down
a gentle declivity, balancing himself without
the aid of the pad, and guiding his course
by means of cords attached to the handle
of the driving wheel.
Such was the velocipede of our boyhood.
If it did not decline as rapidly as it came
into fashion, it yet disappeared gradually,
and, as to its original form, had vanished
in the course of a few years. There were
several causes that had a share in setting it


aside. In the first place, as it grew com-
mon it became a nuisance to pedestrians ;
it could only be used advantageously on
smooth and firm ground, and the riders
therefore made choice of the flat flagstones
of the foot-pavements or the gravel walks
of the parks and suburbs. This led to
complaints but too well founded from the
promenading gentry, and then to inter-
ference by the municipal authorities, who
dealt a fatal blow to the dandy horse by
sweeping it summarily from the footways,
and limiting its exercitations to certain
specified localities. Another cause of de-
clension was the injurious effects of such
riding as we have described upon the bodily
health. Severe cases of rupture and many
other painful disorders were proved to have
thus originated, and the verdict of medical
men was unanimous in condemning the
The two-wheeled velocipede had hardly
subsided, when the three-wheeler made its
appearance. It was constructed on a
different plan entirely-the driving wheel
being turned by the action of treadles, the
saddle replaced by a comfortable seat-the
feet of the rider being always clear of the
ground. But it was, and is (for it still
exists), but a meek and tame affair com-
pared with the two-wheeler, being capable
neither of the high speed nor the elegant
evolutions of the original invention. For
full forty years past this machine has been
seen at intervals in the suburbs of London;
it is generally an article of home manufac-
ture, being constructed for the most part
by the rider, who has produced it for his
own gratification, and has added some
modifications or improvements of his own
contrivance. Commonly it carries but a
single person, who is given to stopping at
suburban public-houses in order to recruit
his driving power by a glass of ale; but
sometimes it carries double, the riders
relieving each other at the treadmill. Some
few years back we encountered in the Green
Lanes near Stoke Newington, a huge family
velocipede, having two driving wheels, each
six feet in height; between the tall wheels

sat paterfamilias and his biggest boy, work.
ing most energetically, not treadles, but
manuals-while materfamilias and a goodly
nest of little ones of various ages enjoyed
themselves luxuriously in an open car at
the rear.
In the Hyde Park Exhibition of 1851, a
three-wheeled velocipede was forwarded
from the town of Bedford: it was the only
representative of its class in that tremen-
dous gathering of industrial labours; and
what is more remarkable, the only contribu-
tion sent by the flourishing town of Bedford
to the World's Fair.
The modern bicycle, however, which has
been carried to such perfection of late years,
is a marvel of workmanship and finish.
The machines used in racing sometimes
weigh only 25 lbs., with a 50 to 54-inch
driving wheel, and the ordinary roadsters of
the same size from 40 to 60 lbs. It is cal-
culated that there are now more than
1oo,ooo bicycles in the United Kingdom,
and at the Hampton Court meet of London
clubs held in this year, nearly two thousand
riders of the silent "iron steed" appeared
in the chestnut avenue of Bushey Park, and
the long ranks of their bright machines,
glinting in the sunshine, made up what spec-
tators pronounced to be a very pretty sight.
With respect to the pleasure to be de-
rived from riding these machines, there can
be but one opinion, and their ever-increas-
ing popularity will sufficiently attest it. Al-
ready tourists have penetrated into every
nook and corner of old England, gathering
stores of health from their exertions, and
some have even penetrated France, Ger-
many, Italy, and Switzerland. There is a
great charm to a good rider in feeling so
entirely independent to go wherever he
may choose, and be able to cover, without
much fatigue, a distance of too miles a day,
and have a good view of the country
through which he is passing from his ele-
vated position.
In racing, one mile has been covered in
2 m. 43 s., and in a road race from Bath to
London the winner performed the distance
of 105 miles in 8 h. 23 m.



k, ,c HE occupation of this visit, for the play of its huge fins-or
a diver is ne- paddles, rather-caused a great swirling in
I cessarily a very the water, and I was terrified lest they
dangerous one. should draw and catch the air tubing and
--. any stories are break it, for presently it came closer still,
': .: told of the hair- and it was with difficulty I kept my balance,
breadth escapes so strong were the currents made by their
h.. I-. I m happened to mem- motion. The men on board were in a
l l -.-i t: !i class. Besides the fright, and at first did not obey my signal
rnl .4:, :,.::;dents from damage to haul up quickly. At last they complied,
'i. itoi t Ier-tight clothing, or and my visitor made off.
\ to the machinery above, there Once, however, I did not escape so
is the danger of falling into crevices in the easily. I have seen them pass near me
ground, and in some waters from voracious hundreds of times, but they very seldom
fish. Sharks are usually the aggressors in come so close as that. Sometimes, how-
these cases ; though, as will be seen from ever, they will almost touch the ship's side,
the following anecdote, told by a diver at though I never myself knew them to do
Concepcion, in South America, not in- what a Russian captain witnessed. I was
variably, a boy when Kotzebue visited this country,
In the bays and seaports of South and he told me that in Concepcion Bay
America may generally be seen playing one rested against his brig for fully three
among the shipping the animal called the minutes, perhaps mistaking her hull for
" bottle-nosed" whale. Never being med- another whale. You may see the occur-
dled with, they are very numerous. Once rence mentioned in his book.
or twice these huge animals had annoyed One day, however, I saw one almost
this diver, and even endangered his life, in do the same thing, for he came alongside
the following singular manner, told in his and remained stationary, and so close that
own words :- I was afraid he would compress the air-
"Once I was caulking the side of a tubing between his body and the hull. He
schooner I had been stopping a leak in. was within my reach, and I took up from
I was sitting comfortably enough on my the stage where it lay an auger I had been
stage hard at work, when a shadow fell on working with, and let drive into him with
me, and on looking round I saw a mon- all the force in my power. It would have
strous object, like the submerged hull of been wiser, however, if I had been more
another vessel, rounding her stern close to gentle, for the sudden start, and the whisk
me. Antonio, that's the man who pumps he gave with his flukes as they rushed past,
the air down-was in his boat, but could do upset me off the stage. Most fortunately
nothing. Slowly the huge creature's head the affair only occupied a few seconds, else
approached, and I was in hopes it would it would have been all up with me. I had
proceed on. But, apparently struck by the a rope round me, and was quickly hauled
-sight of my helmet, and a red flannel over- to the surface, but I was half dead when
all shirt I was wearing, it stopped and they got me on deck."
stared at me as if trying to make out what Mackerel, it is well known, are very in-
on earth-or rather under water-I was quisitive fish, and singularly enough can-
,doing there. I was not at all pleased with not resist the sight of red. This peculiarity


once led to an adventure that might have
ended tragically :-
"Another day I was attacked in a very
extraordinary manner. I said just now that
I once had on a red shirt, which I put on
over all. I take care never to wear one
now. I was busy with an auger boring a
hole, when I felt a tug at my arm, and
before I could well realise what was the
matter, I felt a dozen similar tugs in differ-
ent parts of my body. I was attacked by
a shoal of mackerel-it seems that red
is a colour that always attracts them-and
before I could count ten I had as many of
these fish clinging and biting furiously at
me as could by any possibility find a spot
to get hold of. I happened to be standing
on a kind of ladder, and so powerfully did
they drag at me, and so encumbered was I
by the multitudes which hung from every
part, that I had quite a job to mount it.
Each fish here weighs a couple or three
pounds, so you may fancy the pull when
hundreds at once were at me."
The vocation of the diver, however, is
attended with greater perils than these.
Once, when replacing some worn sheets of
copper on the bottom of a whaling brig
which had anchored in the bay for a few
days, this man was visited by two mon-
strous sharks, who, however, kept at a
respectful distance from his stage, awed
perhaps by his strange figure and the noise
of his blows on the metal. They had ac-
companied the brig for weeks, and followed
her into harbour.
A very expert diver had been employed
to recover the treasure from the Peninsular
and Oriental Company's ship Ava, wrecked
some years ago on the coast of Ceylon.
Having, in a gutta percha dress made his
way into the saloon, he was busy searching
for the bullion, when to his horror, he saw
a huge ground shark come sailing in at the
door. With great presence of mind he lay
motionless on the locker, and watched it
silently and grimly cruising about. One
can well imagine his feelings when he saw
its cold, green eyes fixed upon him, and
felt it pushing against the leaden soles of

his boots and rubbing against his dress,
the slightest puncture in which would have
been certain destruction. After ten min-
utes of suspense, which must have seemed
an age, during which the monster came back
twice or thrice to have another look at him,
his courage and coolness were rewarded by
seeing him steering his way back as he
came. Afterwards he always armed him-
self with a large dagger when he went
down to the wreck, from which he re-
covered altogether _;/220,000, having spent
850 hours under water.
Those who have read Victor Hugo's
"Les Miserables" will remember his fear-
fully vivid description of a combat with the
piuvre, or cuttle-fish. Such things some-
times occur in reality to divers, when en-
gaged in exploring the broken ground
which this creature particularly frequents.
"The only time," said the diver who
told the story, that I was ever really
frightened-really in great danger-was
once up in the north of Peru, where I had
gone to recover a case of valuable ore and
silver in bars, which has been lost some
years before while being hoisted into the
vessel. It was two days before I found it.
It lay on a broad, flat-topped rock, in about
three fathoms of water, and the wood was
so rotted that I had to return for more
hide ropes to lash round it before I could
trust it to the chain and hooks. When I
went up for these, the agent of the company
to whom the ore belonged advised me to
defer the job, as a norther had been long
brewing, and the place was very exposed to
swells; but after taking a good look at the
weather, knowing that these northerly gales
often last a week, and being anxious to
finish the job-knowing, too, that it would
not take long to do so-I resolved on
descending. So over the boat's stern and
down my ladder I went, and in a few
minutes had the case securely lashed, after
which I rolled and pushed it to the edge
of the rock under the chain and hooks
hanging from the boat's bows, slipped the
hooks into the hide loops I had made, and
then hastened to get off the rock (which


was only three feet or so in height) to go
to my ladder; and it was high time to do
so, for I felt that a heavy swell was now
setting in, so that I could hardly keep my
footing on the bottom. Perhaps you can
imagine my feelings when I tell you that I
had no sooner put my legs over the side of
the rock-my feet had barely touched the
ground-when I felt both ankles seized
and held with irresistible power. I had
been grasped by the tentacles, or arms, of a
cuttle-fish, which had its lurking-place there.
Now you must know that I have an in-
stinctive loathing of these creatures. I had
seen them often enough, and generally they
darted off the moment they caught sight of
my figure. But this one had not been
aware of my presence until my legs suddenly
presented themselves before his eyes.
After the first few fruitless plunges I
made to free myself, I turned almost faint
with fear and a kind of horror and disgust;
but this did not last long, for I soon got
'mad,' as the Yankees say, at the idea of
being noosed, lassoed, and held prisoner
there by such a puny creature as that. Al-
though I had heard wonderful stories as to
its extraordinary strength and ferocity when
meddled with, I could not but think I
should soon free myself, and again and
again I tugged and strained, and pulled
and pushed, but all in vain. Strong man
as I am, I was powerless. I could not
drag the creature from its holdfast on the
iock, and I knew well that if I ventured
my hands near, they too would be seized
in that frightful grip, and I should be
bound, hand and foot, like a poor boy in
the south I had heard of, who, when gather-
ing shellfish, was thus seized and held in a
stooping position till the tide overwhelmed
and drowned him.
Meantime most urgent signals were
being made to me from above to hurry;
and when I at last paused, breathless, after
a long, frantic effort, I gave way to utter
despair. But my faculties were still awake,
and I observed that the creature would not
loosen its hold by straight pushing or pull.

ing, and therefore determined to try and
screw it off the rock. You see it was human
intellect against superhuman strength.
I held on to the case, and with its aid
tried, but soon found I could not manage it
that way. The projecting edge of the rock
hindered me. I therefore hit on another
way. I pulled down some more of the
chain out of the boat (I was sitting on
the rock, you must remember), and then
taking the case up on my knees, I let it
down in front of me, and then tilted it
over till it was at a proper distance, and then
I left the rock and sat on the case. I was
now opposite the beast, and could see that
it held on by three of its tentacles, the
other five being round my legs. These
tentacles were not more than two feet long,
and the creature's body was not bigger than
my fist. Its eyes glared when it saw me,
and it tried hard to bite, but the boots and
thick stockings beat it.
Well, to make my story short, I turned
and twisted, but I doubt if I should have
got him to let go in time by that means
alone. But I could now see it, and tried
to crush and bruise the creature with my
boots as well, but its tenacity was amazing.
It was not till I picked up a long piece of
slate stone off the bottom, and began in
desperation to saw at its tentacles, that it
at last let go. But it did so only to fasten
all its suckers on me, and try more furiously
than ever to bite me with its parrot-shaped
bill. I succeeded, however, in keeping my
hands and arms free, and I instantly made
the signal to 'hoist away.' I kept tight
hold of the chain, and was hoisted with
the case, and very glad, though much as-
tonished, they all were to see me ascend
that way. I hastily explained what had
happened, and they pulled me in, and
while all haste was made by the rest to
get ashore (for the first blast of the norther
struck the boat as I got to the surface),
Jacques (that's my man) cut the cuttle-fish
away piecemeal, for pulling it off was out
of the question, so tenaciously did it cling
to the very last."


..- -



ROM very early periods of history
the domesticated pigeon has been
celebrated for its love of home,
as well as for the remarkable cer-
tainty with which it made its way
back from long distances to the
spot where it was bred or kept.
Even as far back as the middle ages, and

in ancient times, the pigeon post was known,
The historian Diodorus Siculus, above two
thousand years ago, speaks of pigeons as
being employed for this purpose; and about
five hundred years since, relays .of carrier
pigeons formed part of a telegraph system
adopted by the Turks.
It is recorded that the Crusaders would

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