• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Half Title
 Frontispiece
 Title Page
 Chapter I
 Chapter II
 Chapter III
 Chapter IV
 Chapter V
 Chapter VI
 Chapter VII
 Chapter VIII
 Chapter IX
 Chapter X
 Chapter XI
 Chapter XII
 Back Cover
 Spine






Title: Swallow-tails and skippers
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE TURNER PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00081054/00001
 Material Information
Title: Swallow-tails and skippers
Physical Description: 158, 6 p., 1 leaf of plates : ill. (some col.) ; 19 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Dale, Darley, 1848-1931
Francis, Lucy ( Illustrator )
Morrison and Gibb ( Publisher )
Religious Tract Society (Great Britain) ( Publisher )
Publisher: The Religious Tract Society
Place of Publication: London
Manufacturer: Morrison and Gibb
Publication Date: [1891?]
 Subjects
Subject: Children -- Conduct of life -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Conduct of life -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Butterflies -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Natural history -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Teachers -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Caterpillars -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Students -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Brothers and sisters -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Bldn -- 1891
Genre: novel   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Darley Dale ; with a coloured frontispiece by Miss Lucy Francis.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00081054
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002225163
notis - ALG5435
oclc - 190846771

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Page 1
    Half Title
        Page 2
    Frontispiece
        Page 3
    Title Page
        Page 4
    Chapter I
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
    Chapter II
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
    Chapter III
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
    Chapter IV
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
    Chapter V
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
    Chapter VI
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
    Chapter VII
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
    Chapter VIII
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
    Chapter IX
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
    Chapter X
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
    Chapter XI
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
    Chapter XII
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
    Spine
        Spine
Full Text

























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SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS


































































3A




1 Swallow-tail. 2. Red Admiral. 3 & 3a. Grizzled Skipper. 4. Dingy Skipper.
5 & 5a. Small Skipper. 6. Large Skipper. 6a. (Female) Large Skipper.


Il









SWALLOW-TAILS

AND


SKIPPERS






BY

DARLEY DALE
AUTHOR OF THE GREAT AUK'S EGGS,' ETC.






With a Coloured Frontispiece
BY
MISS LUCY FRANCIS






LONDON
THE RELIGIOUS TRACT SOCIETY
56 PATERNOSTER Row, 65 ST. PAUL'S CHURCHIYAP
AND 164 PICCADILLY






















SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS.

-0-

CHAPTER I.

'Child of the sun, pursue thy rapturous flight,
Mingling with her thou lov'st in fields of light.

Yet wert thou once a worm, a thing that crept
On the base earth, then wrought a tomb and slept.
And such is man ; soon from his cell of clay
To burst a seraph in the blaze of day.'-RoGrEs.

R. PALMER'S was a private school, the
numbers were limited to twenty, and it
was the boast of Mrs. Palmer, who was
a young and pretty woman, that the boys were as
happy at school as they were at home ; in fact, she
looked upon them as her family, for she had no
children of her own, and always spoke of her








6 SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS.

husband's pupils as 'my boys.' Needless to say
that the boys all but worshipped her, and to be in
disgrace with her, when such a rare occurrence did
take place, was a far more terrible misfortune than
the severest punishment Mr. Palmer ever inflicted.
The Palmers lived at Brighton, in a large house
facing the sea, at the extreme end of Kemp Town:
the schoolroom was built out at the back of the
house, with which it was connected by means of a
long covered passage; there was a gymnasium and
a tennis-court, and these occupied the space which
was intended for a garden. Mrs. Palmer, however,
contented herself with a conservatory, and never
grudged the boys the piece of ground, though she
dearly loved flowers, having lived in the country
until her marriage.
The boys were assembled in the schoolroom half-
an-hour before preparation-time one evening at the
end of April. It was the first day of the summer
term, and those who had- been away for the Easter
holidays had only just returned. The noise and
hubbub, when they found themselves all together
again, and without the restraining influence of any
master, were tremendous.








SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS.


Suddenly a tall handsome boy of fourteen,
evidently the dux of the school, who had been
leaning against the chimney -piece, shouted out,
' Silence Just listen here, boys.' As he spoke he
held up a small notice-board his eyes had lighted
on, and read as follows:
'Mrs. Palmer, wishing to encourage the study of
natural history, has kindly promised a prize of
books, to the value of five pounds, to be awarded to
the boy who shall produce the best collection of
British butterflies at the end of the midsummer
term next year. The butterflies must be bond fide
collected by some boy in this school, no bought
specimens will be admitted, and the manner in
which they are arranged and labelled will be taken
into consideration in awarding the prize. The
prize books will be limited to works on Natural
History, but beyond this restriction the winner
will be allowed to select what he pleases.'
Three cheers for Mrs. Palmer! hip, hip, hurrah !'
was the unanimous response to this announcement;
and when the excitement had to some extent
subsided, there arose a general appeal to Lionel
Neville, the first speaker, to read the notice again.







8 SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS.
Neville threw his thick, wavy hair off his brow
with a shake of his head, a trick he had, and,
handing the notice to a quiet little boy in the
background, said, 'Let Martin read it this time; he
is more likely to win it than any of us. Here,
Martin.'
'Except you, Dux; it is safe to be you or Martin,'
was the general answer as Martin advanced to the
front.
They were certainly a great contrast, these two,
Martin and Neville. In age Neville had the
advantage by one year only, though, as he was
a tall, fine lad for his age, while Martin was small
and delicate, he looked to be the senior by several
years. Neville was handsome, with dark, flashing
eyes, and a bright, happy expression, which seemed
to say he took life rather easily. He had an
easy manner, and would have been equally at home in
a crowded drawing-room among his elders, as he was
here in the little circle where he was the acknow-
ledged king: Martin, on the contrary, was shy and
retiring, with a nervous manner; he was pale and
delicate-looldng, and, a casual observer would have
said, plain, but this would have been unjust, for he








SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS.


already possessed that highest kind of beauty
which is only seen in perfection late in life, when
culture and study have increased it,-the beauty of
intellect. His whole face was lighted up with pleasure
now as he re-read the notice to the eager throng of
listeners.
'Are you going in for it, Dux ?' asked a round-
cheeked, merry-faced boy named Strickland, the
pickle of-the school.
Rather I know nothing about butterflies, no
more than I do of Sanskrit, but I shall certainly
have a try, for the fun of the thing; some of you
little fellows who have no chance yourselves will
help me, I daresay,' said Neville.
Enthusiastic proffers of help from at least a
dozen small boys.
'Easy, my friends !' cried Strickland; 'just wait
a moment. I have a proposition to make, but
first let me ask a question. Is there any aspiring
youth here who knows a butterfly from a moth ?
When I say knows, I mean, of course, knows the
scientific difference between them. Now don't
all speak at once, but those who do hold up their
hands.'








zo SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS.

One little brown hand, belonging to Willy
Martin, was the solitary answer to this appeal.
I thought as much; but before I go any further
in placing my resolution before this meeting,
perhaps Martin will kindly enlighten your ignor-
ance. Observe, I say your ignorance; needless to
add, I know all about the matter myself.'
Derisive cheers and shouts of 'Tell us, then.'
'My natural modesty and retiring disposition
prevent me, but Martin will, I am sure, throw a
glimmer of light on your darkened understandings,
and then to my proposal. Now, Martin, what is
the scientific difference between a moth and a
butterfly ?'
'There are several'-began Martin.
'Gently, Martin, break it to them by degrees;
they'll never bear it all at once,' said Strickland.
Be quiet, Strick, I want to hear what Martin
has to say,' said Neville.
'First there are the antenna, in butterflies '-
'Speak English, Martin; no one here knows
what antenna are except you and I,' said the incor-
rigible Strickland.
'Don't be an idiot, Strick; we all know the








SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS.


antenna are the feelers on the animal's head. What
about them, Martin ?'
'Well, the antennae of butterflies always have a
little knob at the end, those of moths have not;
and moths can fold them up and hide them under
their wings when they are asleep, but butterflies
can't. Then butterflies always fly by day, never by
night, and very rarely in rainy weather, whereas
most moths are nocturnal in their habits; butter-
flies turn their wings upwards when they are rest-
ing, and moths turn theirs downwards and fold
them round their bodies. I don't remember any
more differences just now,' said Martin.
'Quite enough, my dear fellow, for our feeble
minds. I happen to know one other myself,
though: butterflies have waists, and moths have
not; of course I could put that fact into scientific
language if I chose, but no one would understand
me if I did. Now for my idea. I propose. that, as
there is only one prize, and it is morally certain
Dux or Martin will win it, it is useless for any of
us to try; so I vote we divide into two parties,
and let each. side do its utmost for its chief;
there'll be plenty to do, you know, collecting








12 SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS.

butterflies and caterpillars. What do you all say to
my plan?'
They all had so much to say, and said it so
noisily, that it was some minutes before it 'was
clearly understood that the plan was thoroughly
approved of ; after which it was decided Neville
and Martin should in turns choose their partisans,
and this they proceeded at once to do, Neville
allowing Martin to have first choice. Martin at
once chose Stricldand as his lieutenant; knowing
his propensity for practical joking, he preferred to
have him as a friend rather than as an opponent.
The boys were now divided into two gangs of
ten each, and stood on opposite sides of the room;
when Neville stepped into the midst, and proposed
that every boy should now promise faithfully two
things..
'First, that he will renounce the'- began
Strickland.
'Silence, Strick don't be profane.'
'I beg your pardon; my religious mind at once
reverted to the Catechism when you spoke of
promises.
'Nonsense do be serious. I want every fellow








SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS.


now to promise that he will bring every butterfly
and caterpillar or chrysalis he finds to his chief.
Of course I take it for granted we are all going to
do our best to find all we can. And in the next
place to promise he will willingly undertake any
work which may assist his chief in winning the
prize.'
The required promises were duly made, and
Neville, who hated trouble of any kind, then asked
lazily what was to be done next.
'I should suggest we get some literature on the
subject. I have White's Selborne; can any one
beat that ?' said Strickland.
'I have one very good book on butterflies,' said
Martin.
'Happy thought, Strick! of course we must
have books. I'll write to my people to-night, and
tell them to send me at once the best books out
on butterflies, with coloured illustrations. You
can identify the creatures at a glance then. I
can't be bothered to wade through a volume every
time some youngster brings me a specimen. By
the way, you boys on my side, I shall expect you
always to know the name of everything you bring








14 SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS.

me; it will be splendid practice for you, and will
save me a heap of trouble. You'll have to get
some cheap editions of your own. I shan't allow
any one not in the first to touch my best books
when they come. Martin and his first-class
fellows may have the use of them.'
'Thank you, Dux; that is just like you; but I'll
invest in a regular good one for our side, if Willy
likes,' said Jack Strickland.
I can't afford to get one; but mine is a very
good book; it tells us everything we shall want to
know, only it has no coloured pictures; but it is
awfully good of Dux to lend us his,' said Martin.
Yes; but we'll have one of our own. Those
other fellows are sure to be wanting Neville's just
when we do. Besides, I suppose that will be the
only investment we shall have to make ?'
The first, but not the only one; the first use of
the books will be to tell us what else we shall
want. There are heaps of things I can think of:
cabinets to keep the creatures in, a tray to put the
collection in for the prize, boxes for the cater-
pillars '-began Neville.
'All those I shall make for myself. That will


W- K








SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS.


be one of the things I shall want you to help me
in,' said Martin.
'Then there are butterfly-nets to catch them in,
poisons to poison them with, and, I expect, a
regular paraphernalia for mounting them with;
isn't there, Martin ?'
'They advertise a host of things, but very few
are absolutely necessary: for instance, cork saddles
are capital things to set the butterflies out on; but
strips of cardboard, which you can cut yourself, do
nearly as well. The setting-bristle any one can
make; it is only a cat's whisker, mounted by a
small pin on a piece of cork; it is a necessary
thing for pushing the insect into its place while
setting out; the proper pins, too, are necessaries,
but not expensive ones. Luckily for me, an
ordinary darning-needle makes a very good setting-
needle; and as for nets, you can spend as much
money as you like on them, Dux; but I have an
old one upstairs somewhere which I expect will do
for me. I shall go in more for caterpillars. You
get much more perfect specimens if you rear them
yourself than by catching the butterfly, which is
almost sure to get damaged in taking.'








16 SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS.

'But, my dear fellow, you might rear a hundred
caterpillars, and only one, perhaps, be worth keep-
ing,' objected Strickland.
'No, you might not, if you knew what the cater-
pillars were; and I should try and find out before
I decided to rear them; they vary as much as the
butterflies.'
'How did you come to' know all this, Martin ?
You are quite up in butterflyology already.'
'No, I am not. I learnt the little I know from
an uncle of mine, who has a very good collection.
Look here, Dux; don't you think it would be a
good plan if we each call our party after a family
of butterflies ?'
This suggestion met with universal approval,
and led to a warm discussion on the merits of the
different names, the generality being in favour of
Red and White Admirals; but Martin would not
agree to this, because the Red Admiral is only a
species, not a family. 'What do you say to
Ringlets and Hairstreaks ?'
'All very well if we had three parties; but
Ringlets divorced from Tortoiseshells would be a
very ragged lot,' said Strickland.








SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS.


I can't think of any more families. Oh yes,
there are the Skippers; that" is a very good name.
We'll be the Skippers; that is decided. Now
then, Dux, old fellow, what is your side to be
called ?' said Martin.
'Apollos or Peacocks, either suits me,' said
Neville.
'They are only species; and Apollo is not
British, according to Newman. I have it, Neville;
what do you say to Swallow-tails ? You are the
only one of us who lives up to them. Will you
be the Swallow-tails ?'
'Bravo, Martin! adopted nem. con., at least I
advise no one to contradict it, for it is striking
seven; we shall have Newman here directly. We
will have another meeting to-morrow to make
some more arrangements. Here comes Newman.'
Mr. Newman was the tutor, a quiet, studious
man, who had never succeeded in making the boys
love him, and who took but little interest in them
or their pursuits, so long as they. prepared their
lessons carefully; and with his entrance the butter-
flies were forgotten, and the attention of the boys
turned to Latin and Euclid.
B








i8 SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS.

Another meeting was held the next day, but
they agreed little more could be done until
Neville's books arrived at the end of the week,
after a brief study of which on Saturday afternoon,
he ordered all the Swallow-tails to be in readi-
ness to accompany him on a hunting expedition
for caterpillars and butterflies on the following
Wednesday, their first half-holiday.
Meanwhile, on Sunday evening, he and Martin
were invited to supper with Mr. and Mrs. Palmer;
it was a regular institution for two or three boys to
be invited to supper on Sunday ; and from the fact
of Mrs. Palmer choosing the two head boys the first
Sunday, they concluded she had something to say
to them about her prize, and they were right; for
when Mr. Palmer had retired, as he always did
after supper, leaving the boys to the chat they
enjoyed as much as any part of the entertainment,
Mrs. Palmer immediately introduced the subject.
'Well, boys, so I hear you have divided the
school into two parties, and have already settled
that my prize is to be won by one of you ?'
'Yes, I hope you don't object to the plan, Mrs.
Palner, but they all said directly none of them had








SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS.


a chance against us, and already our sides take as
much interest in the prize as if each boy was
working for himself.'
'No, I don't object; on the contrary, I think it is
rather a good plan; it is certainly good for the
other boys, for it is very unselfish of them to work
for you two instead of for themselves, and I am sure
the rivalry between you and Willy will be amicable.'
'Oh yes! Willy and I are too old friends to be
jealous even of such a splendid prize as this.'
'What made you choose butterflies, Mrs. Palmer ?'
asked Willy.
Well, several things, Willy; I know a little
about them myself,-a very little, not half so much
as you do very likely, so please don't put me through
my facings. Then they are such beautiful creatures,
these nurslingss of a day," that I thought it would
do all you boys good to learn to love their beauty;
for I never think boys have such an innate love of
beauty as girls, and they are too full of cricket and
football to pause to think of the exquisite loveliness
of a little butterfly; they would almost think it
beneath their dignity to do so.'
'Yes, I believe we should; we should call it frivo-








20 SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS.

lous and girlish, and girls, are such idiots-I don't
mean women, you know, Mrs. Palmer,' said Neville.
'I know, Leo,' said Mrs. Palmer, smiling, for she
was still only a girl in years. 'But I had another
reason for choosing butterflies, for, while the pursuit
of any branch of Natural History cannot fail, I
think, to teach us more of the goodness and
lovingkindness of God,-and to know Him better
is the real end of all knowledge which is worth
having,-there are so many special lessons to be
learnt from butterflies. The doctrine of the resur-
rection of the body is so beautifully shadowed forth
in the life of the butterfly: first the caterpillar,
whose sole thought seems to be how to get food,
the type of our grovelling life on earth; then the
intermediate state of the chrysalis, or pupa, when
the creature is swathed in its own silky web and
lies dormant, and, to all appearance, dead-this
corresponds with the sleep of death; and lately,
the perfect state of the imago, when the winged
creature, decked in its brilliant colours, bursts the
case which held it imprisoned, and soars aloft,
joyous and beautiful, no longer to be careful and
troubled about its daily fcod, as when a caterpillar,








SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS.


but now an emblem of perfect joy, and of the
human soul when it rises from the dead, happy and
glorious in its perfect life. The analogy might be
drawn out at much greater length than this; for
instance, as I daresay you know, the caterpillar is
subject to many changes, certainly troublesome and
probably painful to it. These changes are types of
our troubles in this life of change; its incessant
eating, and its absorbing care for its own caterpillar
life, are only too like our anxiety and interest in
the things of this world. Then the apparent death-
like state of th'e chrysalis is very significant of that
intermediate state of which we know so little; in
fact, all that we really know is that the soul is
alive, though the body be dead. Then the glorious
beauty of the perfect butterfly speaks to us of that
glorious body which, we are told, shall be ours
hereafter. I have often thought, too, that the
compound eye of the butterfly, with its seventeen
hundred lenses, each of which, naturalists think,
has the properties of a single eye, is a beautiful
emblem of the illumination of mind we may hope
to enjoy when "we shall know even as we are
known;" for, as light has ever been considered the







22 SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS.

type of knowledge, so is bodily vision an emblem
of mental perception, and one of the great joys of
heaven will, I think, be our increased mental
powers,-an eternal joy, for they will be ever
growing, a joy of which we have a faint foretaste
here when we feel we have made real intellectual
progress. But I am reading you a lecture, which I
think I may truly say is not usually a fault of
mine. What are you thinking of, Willy ?'
'I was wondering why the Greeks had the same
word, Psyche, for the soul and for a butterfly ?'
Because even they saw the analogy between
the two: you know they often carved a butterfly
flying away on their tombstones, evidently meaning
it for a symbol of the soul flying to its home. But
it is getting late, and I have not said half I had to
say to you. Whose side is Temple, the new boy, on ?'
'Mine,' said Neville. 'He seems a sharp little
fellow enough.'
'So he is, I believe; he has a very good character,
but he is terribly careless. I hope you'll look after
him, Leo, or he will get into trouble with Mr.
Newman, I fear. There is the prayer-bell, we
must go.'




















CHAPTER II.

'The lovely toy so fiercely sought
Has lost its charm by being caught,
For every touch that wooed its stay
Has brushed its brightest hues away.'-BYRON.

EFORE the next half-holiday parcels of
various shapes' and sizes arrived for
Neville; butterfly-nets, umbrella- nets
for sweeping, collecting-boxes for larve, cages,
lanterns, and phials, cork saddles, pins and braces
enough to set out a museumful of butterflies,
bottles containing chloroform, carbolic acid, ben-
zole, and various other preparations supposed to
be useful in killing or preserving specimens, and,
lastly, a very handsome cabinet, which, as Jack
Strickland said, quite took one's breath away, and
made one feel like the Queen of Sheba when she
23








24 SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS.

saw all King Solomon's treasures. Mr. Palmer
confiscated one or two of the poisons, promising to
let Neville have them when required, and at the
same time comforting the Skippers, whose hearts
were rather failing them, by saying he thought the
Swallow-tails were beginning at the wrong end in
buying a cabinet before they had any butterflies to
put in it.
'Dux, my boy, there is a very old proverb which
says, First catch your hare, and then cook it:" that
is the plan we Skippers mean to go upon,' said
Strickland, as Neville distributed some of his
paraphernalia to his flock on starting for their
first butterfly-hunt.
All right, Strick! you go and catch your hare
this afternoon, and we'll see what our side can do.'
'If you don't bring home a cabinetful of butter-
flies and pails of caterpillars with all those nets
and contrivances, it will be a shame, that is all I
have to say. Here we have only two nets and some
pill-boxes.'
'Never mind, Strick, we have some sticks and
an umbrella or two, they do as well for beating for
larve as those nets of Dux's. But now, before we








SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS.


start, if all the Skippers are here, I want to give
you a few hints. And first, please remember our
principal object to-day is caterpillars, not butterflies,
though, of course, if we come across any rare ones,
we may as well try and secure them, but it is no
use wasting time chasing Common Skippers or
Common Blues; it will be far better to get them-
because, of course, we must have specimens of every
kind we can get-in the larva state. Now, what I
want you to do is to open an umbrella under a
bush, and then shake the caterpillars gently into it,-
your pocket-handkerchief is big enough to spread
under a small plant; then pick out the caterpillars
and put them into your boxes, but mind always put a
leaf of the bush you found the larve on into the
box with them; you may put as many caterpillars
into the box as it will hold comfortably until we
get home, but mind, never mix the larve of different
bushes. Do you all understand that clearly ?' said
the head of the Skippers.
'Yes, yes!' shouted the boys, who were all'
impatient to be off.
All right. Well, now, I want two of the little
boys, Wood and Trevor will do, to get a stock of








26 SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS.

all the leaves we find any larve on, because, you
know, they are very dainty creatures to feed; for
instance, the Fritillaries, which feed on the wild
violet, won't look at a cabbage leaf. You may come
across some chrysalides; of course, if you do you'll
box them. I shall take a magnifying-glass, and see
if I can't find some eggs. And now let us be off,'
said Martin, whose pale face was flushed with excite-
ment in anticipation of the sport he promised himself.
'Isn't it rather hopeless work looking for butter-
flies' eggs ? they are such tiny things, Willy,' asked
Strickland.
'It would be unless you knew exactly where to
look for them, but I think I do, and anyhow I am
sure to come across some with this glass, in beat-
ing bushes. By the way, Strick, I want you to
help me to make some braces for setting out
any butterflies we may catch; I can't afford to
buy saddles and braces, like Dux.'
'To be sure I will! if I don't bring you a saddle
and braces which will lick Dux's into fits, my
name is not Strickland,' said Jack, as the boys
started to take the train to a place a few miles out
of Brighton.








SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS.


It was in the early summer, and on the long
days the boys were allowed to be out till eight;
Mr. Newman went with them, but when they
reached their destination he left them to their own
devices, only telling them they were all to be at
the station again at a certain time, whereupon the
Skippers took themselves off in one direction,
and the Swallow-tails disappeared in the opposite.
Their time was limited to three hours, and it was
wonderful how quickly it fled, now that they had
an absorbing interest in their walk; indeed, the
Skippers were only just back in time to catch the
train, when they were bundled by the tutor into a
compartment by themselves, and when they reached
Brighton they were obliged to walk in twos, so
they could not compare notes till they got home.
'Well, Dux, what luck ?' asked Strickland.
'Splendid. I caught a Red Admiral as my first
prize.'
'Draw it mild, Dux! Red Admirals don't come
out till August, do they, Willy ?' said Strickland.
'This year's don't, but they hybernate as butter-
flies, so very likely Dux is right. May I see it ?'
'Yes, here he is. Lupton Minor, run and get me







28 SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS.

my British Butterfly book; I am sure it is a Red
Admiral.'
Oh yes, it is, Dux, and a beauty too. I wonder
he is included in the Angle-wings, for only the
fore-wings are angled.'
'Angled! I call them scalloped; but I angled
very well to catch him so neatly-he is not injured
at all; that chloroform concern of mine is capital.
Now I must mount him.'
'You ought to get another if you can, Dux; the
under side of Atalanta is so beautiful, such pretty
colours, grey and pink and brown. What else
have you got ?'
Two Peacocks, some Tortoiseshells, and some
little blue and white and brown things, which I
have told my first-class Swallow-tails to look out,
and keep any that are worth having. Oh, I
forgot! we have found a White Admiral.'
Bravo, Dux! why, that is the best of all, it is
so rare; it is rather damaged, though, I see; that is
the worst of taking them in the butterfly state.'
'Yes, but my plan is to catch every one you see;
you can't tell at a distance what they are, and you
may hit on a very rare one, and perhaps catch it








SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS.


without injuring; anyhow, a damaged specimen is
better than none. But now let us see your lot.'
'We have only a few butterflies, but we have
plenty of caterpillars, a few chrysalides, some eggs,
and a stock of food for the caterpillars, so we have
not done so badly, though it does not look much
by the side of your spoil.'
'Did any of you young Swallow-tails think to
bring home some leaves for the caterpillars?'
asked Neville.
But it appeared no one had done so, except one
little fellow, who had brought home some mulberry
leaves it is to be feared he had poached from a
garden, under the impression that all caterpillars
should be fed like silkworms, an idea his chief
seemed to share.
'Bravo, little Gordon you go and feed them now
before supper.'
'But, Dux, surely you know caterpillars won't
eat just anything; they each have a special food, that
is the wonderful part of it; every species of butter-
fly lays its eggs on the particular bush or tree or
grass that its caterpillar likes best, and they won't
thrive on any other. If your caterpillars are not









30 SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS.

put on their native leaves they won't live, I am
afraid.'
'Thunder and lightning, Willy! why didn't you.
tell me that ? However, my caterpillars must take
their chance, I can't humour their fads and fancies;
they must eat what they can get or starve, as we
have to do when we don't like our grub here,
which, I am bound to say, is very seldom. How
did you kill your specimens, Willy?'
'Gave them a nip with my finger and thumb
just under the wings; you can do it .through the
net, and death is instantaneous if you do it
properly. Your butterflies would have travelled
home better, Dux, if you had pinned them into one
of your cork-lined boxes; one pin is sufficient, it
keeps them firm, and they don't shake about and
lose the scales of their wings.'
'What do you mean by the scales, please,
Martin ?' asked a small boy, who was looking on,
all eyes and ears.
'You call it the fluff or bloom, I dareLay, but
if you were to put it under a microscope you
would see the wing of a butterfly is covered with
little tiny scales set in rows overlapping each other,








SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS.


so that one row throws a shadow over the next,
and in this way the beautiful shading of the wings
is obtained; the outside scales are longer, more
like feathers or plumes. All the colours of the
wings are in these scales; if you rub them off
nothing but a thin membrane stretched over veins,
like a fly's wing, remains; see here, in this damaged
specimen,' said Willy, gently removing the scales
off a butterfly to show the truth of his words.
'If you please, Martin, Strickland says if you'll
come into the class-room, he has got the braces
and saddles ready, and he'll help you to set out our
specimens,' interrupted a Skipper.
'May I come and take a lesson, Willy, before I
do mine?' asked Neville; and on Martin's assent
they went to the class-room, where they found
Strickland gravely seated at a table before a donkey
saddle he had been at great pains to borrow; a pile
of braces, borrowed from Skippers and Swallow-tails
indiscriminately, lay by his side, and on the top of
the saddle was perched a tiny little green Hair-
streak, at which Strickland was gazing intently.
A roar of laughter from the group of boys who had
followed their chiefs into the room made him look








32 SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS.

up and ask, with a great assumption of innocence,
what amused them all so much.
'What an idiot you are, Jack! I do wish you
would be serious. You might have made straps
enough to set all we found to-day, instead of
wasting your time in this. way. But it does not
matter, Dux; I have some braces, I'll show you how
I do the four-strap setting, if Strickland will clear
this lumber away; I may have time before the
supper-bell rings.'
So saying,-while Jack pretended to grumble that
it was very hard he never did anything right, and
all his trouble was wasted, and how was he to know
a saddle meant two little pieces of cork bevelled at
the edges, and gummed on to cardboard, with a
space between for the butterfly's body-he would not
like to ride on that saddle; or how was he to know
that little wedge-shaped pieces of cardboard were
called braces,-Willy deftly mounted a butterfly.
He first fastened a pair of braces on to a slip of
wood with mounting-pins, then he placed the butter-
fly over these, so that one brace came lengthwise
under each wing; this done, he thrust a pin through
.the thorax of the insect, slanting it with the head








SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS.


forwards, two more pins kept the antenna in
position, the wings were now arranged with setting-
needle and bristle, and the second pair of braces
or straps were applied over the wings, and nearer
the outer edge than the under ones.
'There now, I shall add all we have worth keep-
ing to this piece of wood, and keep them in a well-
ventilated box till they are thoroughly dry, then I
can transfer them to the box I mean to show them
in,' said Willy.
'Box! why, we have a splendid cabinet for
ours !' cried the Swallow-tails.
'But you can't mount them like Martin,' shouted
the Skippers.
'I am not so sure about that, now Willy las
shown me how to do it,' said Dux.
'Yes, it is all very fine of Martin; but if he is
going to put your side up to all the tips, and you
have the advantage of a splendid plant into the
bargain, whereas all our machinery is some pill-
boxes and a few slips of cardboard and wood, I
should like to know how we are to have a chance
of the prize,' grumbled Strickland, half in earnest.
After supper Martin arranged his caterpillars in
C








34 SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS.

boxes, giving them a supply of the leaves on which
they were found; but Neville was tired with his
exertions, and contented himself with ordering the
new boy Temple and little Gordon to put their
collection all together on the mulberry leaves, and
leave them to their fate. Martin also told off two
Skippers, whose duties were to be to feed the cater-
pillars; but he took good care 'to inspect them
himself every night and morning, not trusting to
the memories of his subordinates. As might have
been supposed, by the end of the week all Neville's
caterpillars, with the exception of one or two which
were less fanciful than the others, sickened and
died; while Martin's throve and grew to admiration
on their natural diet.
Pampered creatures do you know what any of
them are? I daresay they'll turn out common
things, not worth the trouble of keeping,' said Neville.
We must have common butterflies to make the
collection complete, but I hope some of mine may
turn out prizes; for instance, all these in this box
are Fritillaries of some kind, for they were found on
wild violets or plants of that order. See, these are
violet leaves.'








SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS.


'It seems to me you want to know botany if you
take up butterflies. I am sure I have not the
faintest idea what some of your animals are feeding
on. What's this plant now ?'
'Lotus, or bird's-foot trefoil; these are probably
the caterpillars of Red-horns. They all feed on
trefoils and clovers and plants of the leguminous
order-pea and bean tribe, that is. Some may be
Skippers; they like various kinds of food.'
'Why, some of your creatures are actually feeding
on grass! What are they ?'
'Oh, Satyrs, or perhaps Skippers; they both prefer
grasses. I have only a few of those at present, some
I got myself. Imust get some of my Skippers to search
the grass for their namesakes to-morrow afternoon.'
*' Martin, what plant do the Swallow-tails prefer ?
We want to get a specimen of one if possible,' asked
Gordon-major.
'Milk-parsley, I believe, is the only plant you
are likely to find Machaon on; but it is so rare in
this county I doubt your finding it; if you do, you
can feed the caterpillar on carrot leaves, so my book
says. I am going to set the Skippers to beat the
sallows for Purple Emperors t)-morrow.'








36 SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS.

'Do be quiet, Willy. I declare you don't deserve
to win the prize, when you will make the Swallow-
tails a present of our only capital-information,' put
in Strickland.
'My dear Strick, don't pretend to be so selfish.
You know Dux would willingly share his plant with
us if I would let him.'
'Yes; but as you won't, I think it is unfair of
me to learn all your tips, which you have had the
trouble of finding out; however, as neither I nor
any of my crew know what a sallow is, it does
not much matter in this case. Henceforth, Martin,
unless you'll accept some cases or cork saddles in
payment, I won't listen to your information, tempting
as it is.'
'Stuff, Dux! I like telling you the little I
know, and, after all, Mrs. Palmer's object is to teach
us entomology; besides, I really wish to make all
I require for "my collection myself. I am not well
off, and it is far better for me to learn to do the
best I can with as few appliances as possible. You
must know the sallow, Dux; it is a willow, the
Great Goat willow, bearing catkins in the spring,
and the fruit is all covered with down in the autumn.








SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS.


Another caterpillar I am going to search for to-
morrow is the Duke of Burgundy; he belongs to
the Dryads, and they are to be found on primrose
or cowslip leaves. Hairstreaks are to be found on
brambles, oaks, or elms; the Fritillaries on any of
the germanders or violets, the Whites on cabbages,
vetches, or wild mignonette, the Blues on the rest-
harrow, and the White Admiral on a variety of
plants.'
'That is right, Martin. Have it all out; you have
been through all the families now except one, the
Angle-wings,' said Strickland.
'Well, they are to be found on hemp-wort, elm-
wort, and hops; but there is the school bell. I'll
tell you more about caterpillars to-morrow, Dux,
when we come back from our hunt, if you like,'
said Martin.




















CHAPTER III.

Turn, tuin, thy hasty foot aside,
Nor crush that helpless worm;
The frame thy scornful thoughts deride
From G received its form.

SAY the White Admirals are a distinct
S family, the only genus we have in
England,' cried Martin.
'And I don't care what you say, I am certain
Red and White Admirals both belong to the Angle-
wings. I don't profess to know much, but that
little I do know; and if any one dares to contradict
me, I'll knock him down!' said Neville, working
himself into a passion.
To his amazement a lady's voice behind him
answered gravely, 'You are quite mistaken; White
Admirals are a distinct family;' and, turning round,
38








SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS.


he saw pretty Mrs. Palmer standing in the door-
way.
Neville coloured violently, partly with anger,
partly with shame at having been caught losing his
temper by Mrs. Palmer; but the truth was, he had
been put out in the morning because he did not
know his Latin, and Martin construed a passage
correctly he failed in. Mr. Palmer had reproved
him for not working, which did not tend to improve
his temper; and this afternoon, perhaps because it
was very warm, the Swallow-tails had been lazy in
beating for caterpillars, and had allowed two or
three butterflies to escape them, which, with a little
trouble, they might have caught.
The Skippers, on the contrary, had been very
,active; and when Martin announced that he had
found a White Admiral caterpillar, this was the
last straw, and Dux replied angrily, It was nothing
to make such a fuss about, as all Admirals were
common enough.' Martin had then explained that
Red and White Admirals did not belong to the
same family, whereupon the above result.
Neville would have made his escape if he could
have done so, but Mrs. Palmer blocked the doorway,








40 SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS.

and Martin, seeing who it was, begged her to come
in and look at the afternoon's spoils.
'With pleasure, if Dux will show me his too,'
said Mrs. Palmer; and Neville was obliged to comply
rolcns volcns.
'I think Willy is right about the White Admiral,'
she continued, taking up a piece of honeysuckle on
which a large fat caterpillar, covered with branching
spines, was voraciously feeding. 'And a very
clever caterpillar he is too. He has been asleep all
through the winter in the cleverest cradle of his
own making. You know the leaves of the honey-
suckle fall off during the winter; well, the cater-
pillar, young and small as he is in the autumn,
knows this too, and he also knows that if the leaves
on which he is feeding were to fall to the ground,
he would perish, so what do you think he does ?
He spins a number of fine silken threads round and
round the leaf-stalk and twig on which it is growing;
then, having first of all eaten about three-quarters
of the leaf, with the part which remains, and some
of his own silk, he makes himself a tiny cradle in
which to pass the winter. In due course the time
for the leaves to fall arrives, but the caterpillar's








SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS.


cradle only falls as far as the silken net allows it,
and there he hangs swinging in his cot snugly and
safely all through snow and frost, rain and wind,
until April, when he wakes, and eats for two
months. This one will, I think, begin to spin in a
day or two, he seems full-grown.'
'Oh, please stay and tell us more about cater-
pillars, Mrs. Palmer,' said Willy Martin.
'Yes, do, please; it'll be fair enough if we all
hear,' said Strickland.
'I am not sure that I know as much as you
big boys do, so you must forgive me if I
tell you stale news. In the first place, all the
caterpillars of butterflies are made up of thirteen
rings, called in science segments; the head is the
first ring, and has two antenna or horns, two
feelers, two jaws, and twelve tiny eyes, as you
can see with the help of a microscope; the other
rings are made up of legs, claspers, and spiracles.'
'What are spiracles ? Don't all speak at once,'
interrupted Strickland.
'They are oval holes through which the cater-
pillar breathes, I think,' said Martin.
'Right, Willy. As you must have noticed







42 SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS.


already, caterpillars vary very much in shape,
but entomologists divide them into two great
classes, Exposers and Concealers. The Exposers
are naked chrysalides; the Concealers, which are
very scarce in this country, envelop themselves in
a cocoon of silk before they change. The Exposers,
again, are divided into Suspenders and Girted. The
Suspenders hang themselves up by the tail only,
with the head downwards; the Girted are hung
by the tail and also by a rope of silk slung round
the middle of the body.'
'But you can't tell whether they are Suspenders
or Girted till they change to chrysalides, can you ?'
asked Strickland.
'Oh yes, you can, because all the Suspenders
are either covered with spines or are shaped like
a slug, while the Girted are either like wood-lice
or like cylinders. The most remarkable in ap-
pearance is the Purple Emperor, which you may
find enthroned on an oak tree; he is a slug-shaped
Suspender, with two very long horns and a coronet
on his forehead, but my favourites are those fluffy,
spiny fellows like the Peacock, Painted Lady, Red
Admiral, and the Silver Fritillaries. I don't like








SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS.


those little short, fat creatures, too like wood-lice for
my taste, the caterpillars of the Blues, Hairstreaks,
and Coppers. I see you have some, Dux; certainly,
if you rear all these, you will have a capital
collection, but you are sure to lose some. The
worst enemy of all, in the natural state, is the
ichneumon-fly, which lays its eggs in the soft body
of the caterpillar without killing the poor little
creature. When the eggs are hatched, the tiny
larvas feed on the caterpillar until they turn into
chrysalides; and then one fine morning out fly a
host of these insects, instead of a butterfly, whose
caterpillar is dead before this. However, this is
not so likely to happen to your caterpillars as
starvation, through forgetfulness on your part to
fJed them.'
Of course all the boys protested this was not
likely to occur; but in the sequel Mrs. Palmer
turned out to be right.
'If you keep them till they turn to chrysalides,
you may be rewarded by seeing some of them
change, and the way in which they do it is very
wonderful, so elaborate are their preparations; but
when we think that the creature is taught by the








44 SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS.

Creator how to perform this change, our wonder is
changed to adoration of God for the loving care
which He bestows on so insignificant a thing as a
mere caterpillar, which we often heedlessly tread
under our feet. One great reason why I chose a
branch of Natural History as the subject of my
prize was because, in studying the habits of any
of God's creatures, we are constantly led up to the
thought of God Himself; we find Him in His
works.'
Mrs. Palmer, how shall we know when the
caterpillars are going to change ?' asked a small
boy.
'In the first place, a caterpillar leaves off eating;
and, in the next, it is very restless, and wanders
about, as if seeking a safe place in which to
perform the act of transformation; then it spins a
little silken pillow, and clings to this with its last
claspers for a day or two, till the chrysalis is
formed, when it slowly emerges from the cater-
pillar skin, which slips down to the bottom of the
chrysalis. The next step is to climb up to the
silk pillow, which, as the chrysalis is smaller
than the caterpillar, is above it; this it does by








SWALLOflt-TAILS AND SKIPPERfS.


means of its tail, which is armed with little hooks
or feelers, with which it clings to the silken threads
and swings itself up, till it hangs safely on its
silken pillow. It then very often tries to get rid
of its old caterpillar skin, by twisting itself rouid
and round, so as to break the threads which hold the
skin, after which it remains quiet, perhaps through
the winter, but at any rate for some days (a fort-
night in the spring, seven days in the summer), until
it emerges as a butterfly from its prison-house.'
'I can make chrysalides whirl round by tickling
them,' said little Gordon.
'Don't let me catch you playing any tricks
on my caterpillars when they have changed, or I'll
tickle you, I promise you, young man,' said Dux.
'Little Gordon is right in his' facts, though,
Neville; some chrysalides can be induced to perform
that feat by irritation at any stage, but for the
most part they lie quiescent and apparently lifeless.
They are very unattractive, indeed, repulsive, in this
stage, which answers to the intermediate state with
us; but to change from a poor crawling caterpillar,
even though it be such a handsome creature as
some of those are which you call Woolly Bears, to







46 SWALLOW W-TAILS AND SKIPPERS.

a beautiful butterfly with its jewelled wings, is
well worth the penalty of being a chrysalis.'
'I wonder if the butterfly remembers its caterpillar
life,' said Jack Strickland.
S'I think not; but what is more important is the
fact that we shall certainly remember our earthly
life when we are changed.'
'Do you know why old naturalists used to call
the chrysalis the caurcli stage, Mrs. Palmer ?' asked
Martin.
'What is the Latin for gold, Willy? I will
answer your question by asking another.'
'Aurumn, and chrysos is the Greek for gold; of
course I might have guessed that they meant the
same thing; but why do they call a chrysalis
a golden stage ?'
'I believe because the Vanessas and Fritillaries
and some others are gilded. There is another
word used now very often-pupa, which means
tied up, or swathed, because the creature is bound
up in its pupa state, its different parts being packed
up in the neatest possible way; its antenna folded
down by its wings, which are very small, on each
side of the body. But I have been giving you








SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS.


quite a lecture on butterflies; now, before I go, I
want you to show me your cabinets and all your
paraphernalia, will you?'
'Neville will; I have nothing to show,' said Willy.
But when Mrs. Palmer had seen Neville's things,
she made Willy bring out his, and although, as he
explained, it was too early to judge of them in
their present unfinished condition, still they were
all so neatly executed, that her admiration of them
was as sincere as that she bestowed on Neville's
bought appliances. Willy's cardboard braces were
almost as good as Neville's, and his setting-board,
made of a strip of wood lined with two rows of
cork, answered all the purpose of cork saddles;
while the case he had made to keep his specimens
in after they were dried was really very ingenious.
It was simply a shallow deal box with a
close-fitting lid, the bottom of which was lined
with small square pieces of cork gummed on in
straight rows; these had been cut out of old corks
begged from the housekeeper, sheet cork being
dear; to these pieces of cork a few butterflies were
already fixed, and here they were to remain for the
present at any rate, though Willy intended if








48 SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS.

possible to construct a more permanent case before
the prize was awarded.
'I wonder how many of the sixty-five true
British butterflies you will succeed in getting ?'
'Oh, all, I should hope !' said Dux.
'If we get fifty between us, I shall think we
have done well; we shan't be able to do much
more in the collecting way this term, for the
examinations will be coming on.'
'And you must not neglect your work, or
Mr. Palmer will want me to withdraw my promise;
he rather complains now that this butterfly craze,
as he calls it, absorbs too much of your time and
thoughts, and I believe Mr. Newman will never
quite forgive me for offering such a bait.'
The boys were loud in their complaints of the
tutor's wish to throw cold water on their plan ; but
there was some excuse for him, for, as he complained,
he was constantly finding tiny caterpillars crawling
on the jackets of small boys who had, in the ardour
of their exertions,.put the eggs to hatch in their
breast pockets. Then the dormitories were never
tidy since it was permitted to keep caterpillars in
various stages of growth in them; while the water-








SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS.


jugs were always full of the various plants the
different caterpillars lived on, and Mr. Newman
was as anxious as Swallow-tails and Skippers for
the caterpillars to reach the pupa stage, when they
would require less attention and could be relegated
to the lower regions.
But to his disgust he found the chrysalides
absorbed more of the boys' attention than the
caterpillars, after a week, when they might be
expected, in the hot weather they were having, to
emerge. The interest then in watching for the
eventful change was great, and the excitement
when it actually took place intense, and the disputes
which often arose as to the name of the new-born
butterfly were loud and long, only settled by an appeal
from~ Willy to one of Dux's books. No sooner was
the unhappy butterfly fairly alive than it received
its coup de grdce from some little finger and thumb,
whose owner doubtless delighted in the operation,
and this annoyed the tutor, who declared butterfly-
hunting was one thing,-fair sport perhaps it might
be called,-but raising insects for the mere pleasure
of killing them as soon as they were born was
quite another. Perhaps he never was so glad to
1)








50 SWALLOW W-TAILS AND SKIPPERS.

see the close of a term as one day in the end of
July, when Swallow-tails and Skippers, with their
caterpillars and chrysalides, took themselves home
for the holidays; while the butterflies duly mounted
were left under lock and key in Mrs. Palmer's care
till their owners returned.
The cats shared Mr. Newman's joy at the
departure of the boys, for they had had a very bad
time that term, their whiskers being in great
request for setting-bristles; an instrument most of
the boys, great and small alike, took great pleasure
in making, and considered it an indispensable part
of their butterfly paraphernalia.







.= '/























CHAPTER IV.

'Why, lovely insect, dost thou stand
And wave thy quiv'ring wing,
As half afraid thou wert aloft
On fields of air to spring?
But now has reached thy slender form
A sunbeam warm and bright,
And instant thou hast upward sprung
Towards the source of light.
Thus in the portals of the tomb
The trembling soul shall stand,
Till beams of faith and mercy point
Its way to the promised land.'

VILLE'S parents lived near Monmouth,
at a place called Bicknor Court, which
is actually in the county of Gloucester-
shire, though close to the border-land between the
two counties. It is one of the prettiest parts of
England, for the lovely Wye, winds through the
valleys at the foot of the richly-wooded hills;
51








52 SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS,

while beyond the Gloucestershire hills the Welsh
mountains, range after range, stand out against the
distant horizon. Nothing seems wanting to com-
plete the beauty of the landscape; wood, water,
hill, and dale all combine to make a piece of
mountain scenery, which, although on a smaller
scale, is equal in beauty to many parts of Scotland.
It had been arranged before the boys left Brighton
that Martin should spend the latter part of the
holidays at Bickmor Court, and accordingly he
arrived there in the middle of August, and found
Neville all excitement about a large picnic to the
Forest of Dean, which was to take place the next
day.
'Perhaps we may find some butterflies, Dux;
so I shall take my net. I brought a box or two
with me, in case I had any luck, but my mother is
taking care of my chrysalides; nearly all mine have
turned, except the White Admiral which I lost,
and a few I expect will not come out till next
spring. How are yours getting on ?'
'I don't know. I gave mine to Gordon to look
after, as I could not ,be bothered with them in the
holidays; but I have been out butterfly-hunting








SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS.


two or three times, and have found several Duke of
Burgundys and Marbled Whites, and some rather
good Hairstreaks.'
'I expect this is a good place for butterflies.
I mean to have plenty of hunts while I am here.
'Yes; I knew you would want to, so I waited
till you came. By the way, I believe the Purple
Emperor has been found in Dean Forest; we may
come across him to-morrow.'
'And so they did; but the wary monarch was, as
usual, taking such high flights from his favourite
seat on the uppermost branches of a mighty oak,
that Neville, after looking at him for a few minutes
in disgust at his soaring habits, turned away, and
would have abandoned all thought of him but for
Willy, who, to comfort himself, suggested that
perhaps it was not the Iris after all.
'The grapes are sour, Leo,' laughed Colonel Neville.
'It is Iris, sure enough; the question is how to
catch him. Now if I only had a dead stoat or a
weasel we would bring him down fast enough. He
is not very nice in his feeding for a butterfly; dirty
puddles and small birds or stoats, well advanced in
decomposition, are some of his favourite dishes.








54 SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS.

Perhaps I could get some bait at the Speech
House; it is worth trying.'
Accordingly Willy went back to the Speech
House, and presently returned in high glee with a
piece of rabbit skin and the wing of a dead thrush,
which he nailed to the trunk of the oak; and then,
with his net by his side, sat down at a little
distance to watch the effect. In ten minutes' time
not one but three Purple Emperors were regaling
themselves on these tit-bits, and, watching his oppor-
tunity, Willy slipped forward, and with a dexterous
movement swept all three prizes into his net. He
then nipped one after the other through the thorax
as quickly as possible, lest through fluttering about
in- the net they should rub any of the scales off
their beautiful wings.
All these had the purple lustre from which the
monarch takes his title over the groundwork of
their wings, which proclaimed them to be males,-
in the females this ground colour is rusty black ;
the seven white spots on the fore-wing and the
band which crosses the hind-wings obliquely,
extending into the' fore, were pure white, without
the yellow tinge which is another mark of the








SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS.


female; the under side was very different to the
upper, the black here shaded to pale grey; the
antenna were very long and gradually clubbed,
which gave them an aristocratic air of refinement,
and is probably the butterfly's sign that 'blue
blood' is in his veins. They were evidently not
intended to walk like mere ordinary plebeian
butterflies, for their fore-feet had no claws, and
were quite unfitted for walking.
'Well done, Willy! I have always heard that
Iris is one of the most difficult butterflies to net.
You managed that very neatly,' said Colonel
Neville, as Willy secured his prey in a box he had
brought with him.
'You shall have one, Dux, if you'll accept it;
perhaps you may get another here between this
and the time we are to send in our collections.'
'One is enough for me, thanks; but do you think
I ought to ought to take it, father ?'
'Well, Willy won't want more than two for
himself, will you?'
'Oh no; but I wish we could get another, Dux,
for you; you see the under side varies so, that we
ought to have two specimens; I mean to try for








56 SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS.

duplicates of all mine, so as to mount one flat and
one with the wings set up showing the under side.'
'Are there any more of this family to look for,
Willy ?'
'No; the Emperors are a family all by them-
selves, and I believe Iris is the only British species.'
Oh, well, we have done with the Apaturidm then,
thank goodness! I am as glad when we have
finished a family as I am when I have had a tooth
out.'
'I am afraid, Leo, you are not a very ardent
entomologist,' said Colonel Neville.
'No, I am not; I don't care for the trouble, I own,
but I should like to win the prize very much, all
the same; five pounds' worth of. books is not to be
despised, especially when the giver is as pretty
and nice as Mrs. Palmer. Perhaps this is a good
hunting-ground, Willy; we may as well make hay
while the sun shines, so, if you like, we'll have some
butterfly hunts in the next few days.'
This they did, and on the whole had very fine
sport, for, as money was no object to the Nevilles,
the boys went by the train to another part of the
country every day. One of their best bags was








SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS. 57

made in the neighbourhood of Stroud, where they
found several Marbled Whites, which they caught
in rough pastures. Neville had previously found
some of these, but Martin was glad to get some
specimens of both male and female, and Leo had not
noticed that the black and white wings of the latter
differed from the males' by being thickly covered
round the wings with gold dust. They also found
one or two Comma Butterflies that day : these are the
most angle-winged of the Angle-wings, and are red-
dish-brown in colour, with two little white comma-
like marks on the under-surface of their hind-wings.
Willy thought they were hybernating specimens, as
it was too early in the year to find. those hatched
in the preceding spring. The Chalk-hill Blue and
the Pale Clouded Yellow were also among the spoil.
The next day they went to Clifton, and there
Willy, after a long, tiring search, was rewarded by
finding on a piece of cow-parsnip two of the
yellowish-green chrysalides of the Swallow-tail
Butterfly; these were girted and attached by the
tail to the plant, their eared heads drooping down-
wards. These Willy expected to hatch the following
May, and he was very glad to have found them in








58 SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS.

this stage, as, from their power of emitting a very
powerful scent in the caterpillar stage, they are
interesting to watch; moreover, he was anxious to
obtain perfect specimens of this handsome butterfly.
On the whole, the boys were well satisfied with
their sport in Gloucestershire, and if their helpers
had only helped as well in other parts of England,
the collection ought to be growing apace; but of
this they were not very hopeful. However, a letter
from Strickland, who was spending his holidays at
his home in Norfolk, reassured them, at least as
far as he was concerned; still, the style of the
epistle was so characteristic of the writer that they
had great difficulty in deciding how much of it
was truth and how much fiction.
It ran as follows:-

'BURNHAM RECTORY, GiEAT YARMOUTH.
'MY DEAR FELLOWS,-When shall we three
meet again ? Alas only too soon, for time flies
like butterflies in 'the holidays. How about the
holiday task ? That Martin is slaving away at his,
I know; just pinch him for me, Dux. While as for
you, you idle son of a gunner (the Colonel was in the








SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS.


R.A., I think), I am just as sure yours is not begun.
" It is as forward as Strick's anyway," I hear you
say; but gently, my boys, gently; dear, good, in-
dustrious Strick's is done, essay composed, written,
and neatly copied by-his sister. Go up top,
Strick. I mean to, my boys, I mean to. Nice sister
mine, quite a kid too, and very much at the service
of her darling brother. Wouldn't I let her know
it if she weren't ? I'd cut her hair for her, and
buy her cayenne-pepper sweets, and amuse her pet
cat by the half-hour making setting-bristles, if she
didn't do my holiday task for me; and she knows
it. Always manage your womenkind, or your
womenkind will manage you; that is one of my
dad's maxims, and I follow it, as I do all his ex-
cellent advice. Ahem! good, obedient, pious boy that
Strick. Bravo, Strick! Swallow-tails and Skippers,
Admirals Red and White, Ringlets and Tortoiseshells.
I declare I have written two pages, and only once
mentioned butterflies, the real object of my letter.
Now to business. What sport, my friends, what
sport ? This child has done his little best, and
with rather good results, I flatter myself.' Is it
Painted Ladies you want ? come to Yarmouth; here








60 SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS.

in the season they are as common as flies, and much,
oh, much dearer though the cabbies put it on
pretty considerably, I can tell you. Or is it
Peacocks ? here they are male and female, sunning
themselves on the jetty. Talking of Peacocks
reminds me of a splendid joke I accidentally played
on my Pater the other day. One of the Skippers
sent me a post-card to say he had just' sent me a
brace of splendid Peacocks, and he hoped they
would arrive undamaged. The Pater reads the
card, and when I come down I find him raging
against me, my friend, and the Peacocks. Did I
suppose I should be allowed to keep peacocks in
his garden ? didn't I know they played ducks and
drakes with the flowers ? Useless for me meekly to
urge I knew my Peacocks would not injure so
much as a blossom; I was ordered to hold my
tongue and not talk such twaddle. I was to
let him know the instant the birds (brutes he
called them) arrived, and he would send them
back immediately; they should not set foot in
his garden. I could not resist saying they
would prefer flying to walking, whereupon I was
told to leave the room, as the head of the family








SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS.


hadn't patience to listen to such folly; peacocks
flying about his garden indeed and I to speak of it
as if they were sparrows; didn't believe I knew
what a peacock was. For the sake of peace I left
the table, inwardly chuckling, and when an hour
later the parcel post arrived with my Peacocks, I
went into his study, and, holding out the box, said,
"Here are the Peacocks, father." His face was a
study, but he ended in a fit of laughter. Served
him right for reading my post card. But to
business again. Greenhorns here predominate
over Ied-horns. I can secure an unlimited supply
of the former; as for Ringlets, 1 could obtain every
variety if I only had the courage to ask for them.
I am on intimate terms with several Skippers,
one Grizzled Skipper in particular takes me out for
a sail occasionally. I met. two Admirals at a
musical party the other day. The Camberwell
Beauty is lodging in our parish, and I hear there
is a Duke at the Grand Hotel; no doubt it is
Burgundy. I often get- the Blues when I think
how soon the holidays will be over, and I enclose
some inverted Commas-" ." By-bye.
'JACK STRICKLAND.'








62 SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS.

Now who on earth is to know what Jack has
really done ? How much of his letter is true, I
wonder ?' cried Martin when they finished Jack's
effusion.
'Precious little; if he has kept the Peacocks
that is about all he has done, I expect we shall
find when we get back to school.'
A week later the boys were all assembled again
at Mr. Palmer's, entertaining each other the first day
with an account of the way in which they had spent
their holidays, and even the Butterflies were for-
gotten that first evening.





















CHAPTER V.

'From every chink
And secret corner, where they slept away
The wintry storms ; or rising from their tombs
To higher life; by myriads forth at once
Swarming they pour ; of all the varied hues
Their beauty-beaming parent can disclose.'-TioMsoN.

ACK was very mysterious as to his butter-
fly collection; he assured Skippers and
Swallow-tails he had made a splendid
one in the holidays, but he would not let any one
see it until it was all properly arranged, and then,
he said, it would be so good that he should exhibit
it one half-holiday at a penny a peep, for the
benefit of Mrs. Palmer's missionary-box. No
entreaties could induce Jack to show ohe single
specimen, or even to whisper the name of any, until
a certain Saturday afternoon, when, having per-
63








64 SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS.

suaded Mr. Newman to let him have the class-
room for his exhibition, he locked himself up, to
arrange his specimens. By this time, though'
Skippers and Swallow-tails all agreed it was a
hoax, their curiosity was so excited by Jack's
tempting and judicious hints that they all gladly
paid the penny entrance-fee.
The collection was laid out on the long table in
partitions made of books and slates, the name of
each specimen was written beneath it, and the
whole were arranged in classes.
First of all came the pretty bell-shaped wild
flower labelled duly, Common Fritillary; the next
was another flower of the same plant washed
over with silver paint, and palled Silver-washed
Fritillary; then a likeness of the Queen of Spain
cut out of one of the illustrated papers, labelled
Her Majesty Argynius Lathonia, Queen of 'Spain;
then followed another piece of Fritillary, daubed all
over with hair-oil, and labelled Greasy Fritillary;
next a blank sheet of paper with an enormous
comma painted on it; then a small piece of tortoise-
shell, labelled Small Tortoiseshell, then a large
tortoiseshell card case, labelled Large Tortoise-








SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS.


shell; next a photograph of a very pretty girl
headed Camberwell Beauty; then the most attrac-
tive object in the exhibition, a stuffed peacock in a
screen, which took up a large piece of the table, and
had been .borrowed from Mrs. Palmer's drawing-
room,-this was labelled simply Vanessa lo, its
common name being so obvious it was unnecessary
to repeat it; then came a print of an Admiral of
the Fleet in cocked hat and naval uniform, painted
a brilliant vermilion, and, needless to add, named
the Red Admiral; further on was another copy of
the same print painted white on a green ground, to
do duty for the White Admiral. This gentleman
was framed and very ostentatiously placed by him-
self, while a notice was appended to him stating he
was the only member of his family in this country.
Dividing the Admirals was a coloured photograph
of an actress, labelled Painted Lady; then came a
likeness of the Emperor' of Germany .-coloured
purple by Jack; then a piece of marbled staircloth
labelled Marbled White; then some ringlets made
out of tow, and coloured and duly labelled, Small
Ringlet, Brown Ringlet, etc. Then a small fish,
with difficulty obtained in the Brighton fish-market,
E








66 SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS.

labelled rightly the Grayling; then some pieces of
heath, called Large and Small Heath; a copper
kettle labelled Large Copper, a penny labelled
Common Copper, a farthing called Small Copper,
followed the Heaths: these, with a piece of brim-
stone for the Brimstone Butterfly, a dress-coat
for the Swallow-tailed, some blank sheets of white
paper for the Whites, and some grasshoppers
secured by a silk thread to represent the Skippers,
were the mor- remarkable features of the show;
and the roars of laughter the collection produced
amply repaid Jack Strickland for the time and
trouble he had wasted on it.
Even Mr. Palmer honoured the exhibition with
his presence, and enjoyed it as much as any
of the boys. The only person who did not quite
approve of it was Willy Martin. He thought
butterflies much too serious a subject for his
aide-de-camp to joke about, and was also dis-
appointed to find Jack had been so idle during
the holidays.
Idle, my dear Skipper I assure you the amount
of thought I have given to this work of art is more
than I give to'-








SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS.


'Your studies throughout the term, ch, Strick-
land ?' interrupted Mr. Palmer.
'Yes, sir. At times I was buoyed up with the hope
that Mrs. Palmer might bestow the prize upon me
in consideration of the talent displayed here,
although it is before the time.'
'I am sorry for your disappointment then, so is
Martin apparently.'
'No, sir; I am sorry Strick has nothing else to
show, only this rubbish, after leading me to think
he had added to the collection in the holidays.'
'So I have, Martin, honour bright. I have
taken up a new branch of the subject, and a very
interesting one it is: I have been going in for
butterflies' eggs this vacation; it is not such excit-
ing sport as bird-nesting perhaps, and I should be
sorry to breakfast off them, but it is great fun all
the same when you go in for it in a scientific way,
not in the hap-hazard fashion adopted by some of
you little fellows who have been hatching all
manner of eggs into grubs as useless as yourselves.
By the same token, some of my best eggs are
Swallow-tails; there is a place on one of the Broads
near Yarmouth where they abound, so one day I








68 SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS.

watched a lady Swallow-tail who I knew by her
busy air had some important business on hand.
Presently my lady settled on a piece of milk-
parsley and laid some eggs. I did not disturb her,
but I marked the spot, and when she had dis-
appeared I secured the plant with some little pale
green oval eggs on it. I took the milk-parsley
home bodily and planted it in my own garden, well
out of my Pater's sight. In a day or two they
changed to blue, then to black, and in about a week
the caterpillars began to be hatched, then I thought
it time to secure them, so I took them up to my
room and gave my sister charge of them.'
'And where are they now, pray?'
'Upstairs safe and sound, and beauties they are
too, splendid colours, but greedy little wretches; the
first thing they did was to eat their own egg-shells
the moment they were hatched. I brought a good
supply of food for them, and they ought to turn
soon.
'They are very late; Swallow-tails often lay in
May,' said Martin.
'Yes, they are; but all the better, for they'll
remain in the chrysalis state all through the








SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS.


winter. By the way, Martin, did you know, if you
touch these caterpillars they can throw out a
strong smell of fennel from one of their horns ? it
is such a lark, I often stir mine up on purpose.'
'Proper science that, eh, Martin ? Like old
Strick, though; I never thought he could be serious
for long,' said. Dux.
'I like that, when I am teaching you all; I
have gone in for it thoroughly, I tell you.'
Oh, all right tell us some more then.'
'Well, perhaps none of you know that if the
butterfly is in a great hurry to lay her eggs, and
can't find the particular plant her caterpillars like,
she chooses the nearest she can find to it; and to
be sure the eggs remain on the plant she glues them
to it.'
'The Marbled White does not; she drops her
eggs anywhere among the grass,' interrupted
Martin.
'Another fact I have observed is, butterflies
seldom live long after laying their eggs. Then my
father has a microscope, so I got him to
examine some eggs for me, and we found the shell
is very like the skin which lines a bird's egg, and









70 SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS:

the inside very like the white of one, but it had no
yolk. But the most curious thing was, no two
eggs of a different species were alike when under
the microscope; some are round, some oval, others
pear-shaped, some are like a miniature melon,
fluted just in the same way too; some are quite
smooth, some covered all over with little specks;
a few have a tiny lid at the top for the convenience
of the young caterpillar on his entrance into the
world.'
'Oh, come, draw it mild, Strick! You don't
suppose we think you saw all these eggs under
your Pater's microscope.'
'I did not say I did. I saw a good many though,
and he told me the rest. I daresay you won't
believe it, but some of these eggs, about the size of
a pin's head, are most exquisitely ornamented.'
'Yes, I believe it, I have seen them under a
microscope; the Queen of Spain egg is like a tiny
white wicker basket. One of the wonderful things
about these eggs is, no amount of heat or cold will
kill them, for numbers live all through our hardest
winters. Do you know, Strick, your Swallow-
tailed chrysalides are awfully pretty to watch in the








SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS.


spring, when they are beginning to change; the
colours of the butterfly show through the chrysalis
for some days, and later on the pattern of the
upper wings does the same, and when he does come
out, he is as much out of his element as Dux was
the first day he put on his swallow-tails.'
'There is evidently something in the name, if
men and Swallow-tail butterflies all make their
ddbut into society as if they were ashamed of
themselves,' said Dux.
'Men I do like that, don't you, Strick ? I can
tell you the cause of the butterfly's shyness, though
his wings are so small when he first comes out from
his shell, that they can't support his body. I know
you will all say I am fudging, but it is as true as
ste6l, that you can see the wings grow, and in an
hour they are full-size.'
'Well, we have heard enough about Swallow-
tails. Just tell us a little about Skippers and their
eggs, Martin; we may as well try to find some,' said
Gordon.
'Yes, tell us about ourselves, Martin,' cried the
Skippers.
'To begin with, we are Concealers, that is, the







72 SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS.

chrysalis is enclosed in silk. The egg of the
Grizzled Skipper is laid on brambles, but it is such
a common butterfly, you need not trouble after the
eggs. The Small Skipper lays on the grass, and
the caterpillar passes the winter there. The
Lulworth is the rarest of the Skippers; I don't sup-
pose we shall get one, as none of us come from
Dorsetshire or Devonshire, and those are the only
counties, except perhaps Warwickshire, where it is
found. But the principal thing I want my Skippers
to do this term and next, is to look for hybernating
species of caterpillars, chrysalides, and butterflies,
and help me to get on with the case I am making
for the 'prize, and to prepare braces and boxes for
setting all the specimens we hope to get in the
spring.'
'I mean to go in for caterpillars next year; I
have come to the conclusion you get much better
specimens if you rear them yourself than you do
if you catch the butterfly ever so carefully, so you
Swallow-tails can look out for hybernating cater-
pillars,' said Dux.
'Yes, that is all very fine, but where are we to
look ?' said Gordon.








SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS.


'Yes, tell us that please, Martin,' cried a chorus
of Skippers and Swallow-tails.
'So I will, when I have found out the most
likely places, but not to-day; any more butterfly-
ology on the top of Strick's intellectual treat, which
he gave us in his exhibition, would be too much
for your minds; moreover, I hope we are going in
for some football before the afternoon is wasted.'
This suggestion met with universal approval,
Jack Strickland excepted, and he tried in vain to
induce some of the others to remain and help him
to clear away his exhibition.




















CHAPTER VI.

'Observe the insect race, ordained to keep
The lazy Sabbath of a half-year's sleep.
Entombed beneath the filmy web they lie,
And wait the influence of a kinder sky.'
Mns., BARBAUJLD.

OR the next few weeks football was all
the rage, and absorbed so much of the
boys' leisure, that, except Willy Martin,
they were all too much occupied to think of their
butterflies, whether living, dead, or hybernating.
However, one day a boy named Jennings had his
arm broken by a kick, whereupon Mr. Palmer put
a stop to football for the rest of the term, to the
indignation of the boys and the delight of Mrs.
Palmer, who openly told the boys if she were her
husband, they should never play such a horribly
dangerous game.








SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS.


'A nice slow term we shall have, all through
that little muff breaking his arm: no football, and
of course there is no cricket and no swimming in
the winter, no anything but Euclid and Ctesar,
C.sar and Euclid, day after day, varied by
arithmetic and algebra!' grumbled -Neville one
wet half-holiday, after the football had been
stopped.
'Poor old Dux, it is hard lines. Can't we do
anything in the lepidopteral line ?-fine word that,
Dux, make a note of it, my boy, to vary the
monotony. How about hybernation, Martin ?
Have you found anything to tell us about that ?'
said Strickland.
'Yes, plenty, and as we are -all here I'll
tell you all I know, if you like, and next half-
holiday we'll ask to go into the country and have
a hunt.'
'All right! fire away, Willy. I don't feel very
keen about anything except football just now,' said
Neville.
'To hybernate, as you all know, I suppose,
means to pass the winter. Well, all butterflies
live through a winter in some state, because








76 SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS.

the life of a butterfly from beginning to end lasts
a year.'
'I thought a butterfly lived only for a day
till we took up the subject,' interrupted Strick-
land.
'When I say a year, I mean from the time the
egg was laid to the time the young butterfly lays
its own eggs and dies. Well, some pass the
winter in the egg-state,-eight do,-but we need not
bother about them; it would be silly to look for
hybernating butterflies' eggs. Twenty-five hyber-
nate in the caterpillar state, ten in the chrysalis
state, and ten in the butterfly state. Of course I
am speaking only of British species.'
Of course, but where on earth do they hyber-
nate ? That is what I want to know,' said Strick-
land.
I am coming to that, but first let me tell you
that any given species of butterfly always hybernates
in the same stage; for instance, Io hybernates as a
butterfly, so all the future generations of Peacocks
will hybernate as butterflies; the Grayling hyber-
nates as a caterpillar, and all its descendants will
do the same. The caterpillars hybernate on their








SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS.


own peculiar plants, so that when they wake up
they may find a good breakfast ready to hand after
their long night; the chrysalides hang themselves
up on railings, fences, outhouses, or on hedge-
mustard, reeds, vetches, or other plants; and
butterflies choose all manner of places, from a
church to a pigsty, though they seem greatly to
prefer a pigsty. A hollow oak tree is a favourite
place for Peacocks; indeed, any hollow trees seem to
suit all hybernating butterflies, also barns, stables,
any building where they are not likely to be dis-
turbed, will do for them. Unless you are on the
look-out very sharply, it is very difficult to find
them, for they choose places as near as possible the
colour of their wings when folded up back to back,
which is the attitude in which they pass the
winter, and that colour in nearly all the hybcrnators
is some shade of brown.'
'Do you mean to say a butterfly will stop for
six or seven months in a barn or a pigsty without
moving ?'
'Well, if an unusually warm day occurs, they
will come out of their holes, and perhaps even fly
a little distance, but they soon find their way








78 SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS.

back to their hiding-places, unless they are caught
or meet with some accident. As a rule, if we.
wait till the spring, and then find a hybernator
who has lived through the winter, his wings are
almost sure to have lost some of their beauty, but
I fancy if we could catch them napping now, at
the beginning of the winter, they would be all
right.'
Tell us which are the ten hybernators, then
we shall have some idea if they are worth the
trouble of looking for in pigstys and barns,' said
Neville.
C. album, Antiopa, Io '-began Martin..
'English names, please, or the little ones will
be all at sea,' interrupted Strickland, with a comical
grin.
'The Comma Butterfly, Camberwell Beauty,
Peacock, Brimstone, Clouded Sulphur, Clouded
Yellow, Large fortoiseshell, Small Tortoiseshell,
Painted Lady, and Red Admiral. Now, the Comma
does not like the sea, so it is not known in this
county, therefore we need not look for that; nor
need we trouble about Antiopa, which is very
rare, and generally taken in Kent; we might by








SWALLOW- TAILS AND SKIPPERS.


chance find some Large Tortoiseshells; Edusa we
are not likely to get in Sussex; all the others we
may have the luck to pop upon. I have heard of
eight or nine Peacocks being found in one stump
of an oak.'
'I have heard of diamonds being found, but I
never yet met the man who found them; so, my
dear Skippers, if you like to hunt pigstys and
churches for hybernating butterflies, you can, but
the Swallow-tails will, I think, wait till the spring
before they resume their lepidopteral labours, as
Strick calls them.'
'Well, Dux, at any rate you will be spared the
error most beginners fall into of supposing all
hybernators are double-brooded; and you will know
the hybernated Brimstones, which appear occasion-
ally in the winter and. in the spring, are not the
children of the autumn species--another popular
delusion. But I shall search for hybernating
caterpillars and chrysalides chiefly, because the
butterflies are never so fresh as those which are
hatched in the spring.'
'Let us hear which pass the winter in the
chrysalis state.'








So SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS.

'The Swallow-tail; he braces himself up among
the reeds near his favourite hog's fennel. The
Wood White is a very beautiful chrysalis, slender,
and of a lovely pale green colour with some
pink rings round it; it fastens itself up by the
tail, with the thread round the body; this is a
good one to try for, because as a butterfly it is
rarely, if ever, seen to settle. The Large White
-by the way, Dux, did you know some butter-
flies migrate like birds, actually cross the
Channel ?'
'No; I don't believe it,' said Neville, who was
still hankering after football, and not in the best
of humours.
'It is true, though; the Large White is one of
the migrators, the Small White and the Green-
veined White, are the others which have been
seen arriving on the beach in numbers; they alight
on and rise from the sea as easily as on land,
generally choosing a calm day for the passage.
These three Whites all hybernate as chrysalides,
the Large and Small on cabbages or wild
mignonette, and, as they are the commonest and
most mischievous of all our butterflies, the more








SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS.


we clear away of their chrysalides the better. The
Green-veined White has nearly as bad a name as
the Large and Small, but Newman says he is not
half so'-
'White as he is painted,' interrupted Strick-
land.
'Just so, and he is to be found on the water-
cress or hedge-garlic or some of the crucifera;
those who don't know what are the cruciferous
plants must find out for themselves.'
'Of course we can't expect Martin to be
professor of botany as well as of natural history; as
it is, I think Palmer ought to give him a salary.
Shall we memorialize him on the subject ?' asked
Strickland.
'Be quiet, Strick, unless you have heard enough
about hybernating for to-day,' said Willy..
'Yes, do listen, Strick; it is a nice easy way
of getting information, and, since we have nothing
else to do, no football, no anything, we may as
well hear all Willy has to tell us,' echoed
Dux.
'That is very little, my stock of information is
nearly exhausted. The Green-chequered White is
F








82 SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS.

one we have as good a chance of finding here as
anywhere, for Sussex is its favourite county, Kent
and Sussex opposite the coast of France. There
are really two broods of this in the year, and it is
the second brood which passes the winter in the
chrysalis state, tying itself up by a belt round the
middle of its body, and also by its feelers to the
wild mignonette. The chrysalis is pale brown,
spotted black. Then Orange-tip, which is another
White '-
'Thanks for that news,-orange is white! Go on,
my boy, go on; if you told us black was white, we
should all meekly bow our heads in dignified
silence,' interrupted Strick, as he bowed his own
in a very undignified fashion, to avoid the book
Dux threw at him.
'Orange-tip is also to be found on any of the
cruciferous plants all over the kingdom; it is a
very queer-shaped chrysalis, pointed at both ends,
dingy green in colour. The Duke of Burgundy
is to be found in the chrysalis state on the
under side of primrose and cowslip leaves during
the winter; he is pretty common, saving his
grace'-








SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS.


'That is what we all wish to do,' said the
not-to-be-silenced Strickland.
'And the chrysalis is a very delicate yellowish-
brown covered with hairs.'
'His grace .evidently shirks shaving in the winter
-finds it too cold, like Dux and me, hence these
beards.'
'I'll have you, out of the room, my boy, if
you don't take care. Go on, Martin, don't pay
any attention to poor Strick's feeble witticisms,'
cried Dux, as Strickland sat stroking his chin.
Azure Blue, which is common in the south of
England, has been known to hybernate as a
chrysalis, so there is no harm in searching holly-
trees, which, with the ivy, are its favourite food;
ancd lastly, the Grizzled Skipper, which passes the
winter on the bramble or the wild raspberry in
the chrysalis state. And that is all I have
to tell you to-day.'
'By the way, Martin, how do hybernating
caterpillars manage to get on when there are no
leaves for them to eat during the winter V'
'Most of them have to fast, and make up for
lost time in the spring. That reminds me that the








84 SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS.

caterpillars of the Black-veined White are very
curious creatures; they are gregarious, and live in
small communities, spinning themselves a summer
tent for the warm weather, and a heavier one
under which they pass the winter packed close
together. In the spring they separate for ever,
and each goes his own sweet way, to feed on the
hawthorn. The Glanville Fritillary also makes a
ten tin which to hybernate, but its tent is shaped
like a ball, and blades of grass are woven in to
make it more substantial; sometimes not more
than a dozen, and sometimes as many as fifty or
sixty, are found inside these tents, which are made
on the narrow-leaved plantain.'
'I shall certainly have a look for these cater-
pillars, if it is only to see their tents,' said
Neville.
You won't find the Glanville Fritillary, it is
only known in three counties, Hampshire, Kent,
and Wiltshire; but I believe there are a great
many caterpillars which make some kind of shelter
for themselves; for instance, the Heath Fritillary
makes a little house by drawing down two or three
of the scabious leaves on which it feeds, and joining








SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS. 85

them together with a web; it then eats the leaves
and moves on to make another house. In the
winter it spins a web to shelter it; and now I am
off;' and Martin, tired of teaching, went to amuse
himself.




















CHAPTER VII.

'A beautiful creature,
That is gentle by nature,
From flower to flower let him fly,
Beneath the summer sky,
'Tis all that he wishes to do.'
WonDSwonTH.


HE butterfly mania lay dormant, like some
of the butterflies and caterpillars during
the winter months, in spite-of Martin's
lecture on hybernation. True, he and some of the
Skippers made some excursions and secured some
specimens of hybernating butterflies, chrysalides,
and caterpillars, but the Swallow-tails were content
to follow the lead of their chief, and rest from
their labours. In the spring, however, the quest
for butterflies in every guise was renewed with
even more ardour than it had been prosecuted
86








SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS.


with the previous year, and as the time for the
rival collections to be given in drew nearer, the
excitement began to get very great.
One morning in May, Mr. Newman appeared to
be troubled with a very bad cold while hearing
the younger boys their lessons; at last, after a
deal of sniffing he could stand it no longer, but
broke out,-
'What on earth is this extraordinary smell ?
it is enough to poison us all. Do any of you boys
notice it ? I daresay not; boys have no noses.'
To his surprise, however, there was an almost
unanimous cry from the class that they all noticed
it, though no one could account for it.
'Please, sir, it is up in our dormitory too, and I
believe it comes from some of the caterpillars,' said
little Gordon.
'Of course, no doubt of it; one of you has some
caterpillars in his pockets, I suppose. Any one who
has, will have the kindness to produce them at once,
or I'll search the whole class. Now turn out your
pockets, and put the contents here on my desk.
Miller, you are the top of the class, you begin.'
Accordingly little Miller obeyed, and five boys







88 SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS.

one after the other produced a heterogeneous mass
of string, knives, bulls-eyes, marbles, catapults,
dirty pocket-handkerchiefs, and, in some cases, a
few infant caterpillars in process of hatching, at all
of which Mr. Newman looked in profound disgust,
but contemptuously allowed the owners to retain
their possessions. At last a boy named Murray
advanced and produced a pill-box, in which, even
before he had removed the lid, it was evident the
offending object lay. Holding his handkerchief to his
nose, the irate tutor peeped into the box and beheld
a very large smooth caterpillar of a reddish-brown
colour, which emitted a very strong and offensive
odour.
'Pray where did you get this disgusting grub from?'
'Off a willow-tree, sir; I think it is a very rare
butterfly, so I am keeping it for Neville.'
'Rare indeed! the rarer the better for the
olfactory nerves of humanity. Go and fetch Martin;
he may know what it is, and if valuable it may be
kept in some outhouse. Pray have you any more
specimens upstairs ?'
'No, sir; I carry this about because the other
fellows won't have it in the box with the rest of the








SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS.


caterpillars,' said Murray apologetically, as he went
to fetch Martin.
'Now, Martin, do you want this abominable
insect ? if not, let it be thrown away at once, it
scents the school.'
Martin glanced at the caterpillar and answered,-
'No, sir, it is the larva of the Goat-Moth; we
don't collect moths for the prize, only butterflies.
You won't lose the smell, Murray, for days, if you
ever do; it clings to the ground and the wood
these moths bore in for years.'
'This is pleasant. Now, Murray, go and bury
that thing as deep as you can in the yard, then
change all your clothes, and give those you have
on to the servants to be purified and fumigated
before you put them on again,' said Mr. Newman,
after which Murray retired amid the suppressed
laughter of the rest of the class.
But this was only the beginning of Murray's
troubles with regard to caterpillars, for he and
Gordon had charge of Neville's, and it was their
duty to search for the proper food every half-
holiday, and to feed the caterpillars every morning.
If the supply ran short in the week, as had








90 SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS.

happened once or twice, one or other of them had
to ask leave and go on a foraging expedition
between or after school hours. A week or two
after the episode of the Goat-Moth, little Gordon
was ill for a few days, and Murray, whose ardour
had somewhat relaxed, forgot to feed the cater-
pillars, which, by Mr. Newman's orders, had been
turned out of the dormitory and transferred to a
cupboard in one of the class rooms. So one
Saturday afternoon, when Murray went to the cup-
board to see how his caterpillars were off for food,
to his horror he found one boxful dead from
starvation. Now Neville was known to have a
very passionate temper, though he did not often
indulge it, but Murray, who was a timid little boy,
felt he had given provocation too strong for his
chief to resist, for the loss would, in all probability,
spoil Neville's chance of the prize, as there were
one or two rather rare specimens in the box, and
how to break the news to Dux he did not know.
He could not consult little Gordon, for he was in
quarantine for a few days, lest the sore throat from
which he was suffering should develop into anything
more serious. At last he decided to take Martin








SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS.


into his confidence, perhaps he could suggest some
way of repairing the loss ; but just as he was going
to seek Martin for the purpose, Dux came bustling
in, a sudden fit having seized him to examine his
caterpillars himself.
'Here, Murray, you have charge of my cater-
pillars, just go and fetch them here; I want to see
how they are getting on.'
The caterpillars were in the cupboard of the room
Neville was in, but Murray, not daring to confess
the accident which had befallen them, went out on
pretence of getting them, but in reality to get out
of Dux's way till the storm had blown over,
resolving to take refuge among the Skippers, for he
knew all the Swallow-tails would be too indignant
with him for his carelessness to stand between him
and Neville. The Skippers might screen him, and
Martin, who was very good-natured, would very
likely help him to repair some of the mischief he
had done by transferring some of his own cater-
pillars to him, or, at least, telling him where he was
likely to find the kinds he had suffered to perish.
He found Martin and Strickland busy making
part of the case in which th2 butterflies wore to be








92 SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS.

finally arranged, in an outhouse, and in fear and
trembling he made his confession.
'Abominably careless of you too, Murray ; I'd lick
you well if you were a Skipper,' said Strickland.
'I expect Neville will be awfully savage; you
had better keep out of his way for a while. What
caterpillars are they ?' said Martin.
'Violets,' said Murray meekly.
'Violets what on earth do you mean ?'
'I mean they live on wild violets and wild
heartsease, and it is a long way to go for the leaves,
and Gordon is ill, and I forgot to look at them, and
they are dead; all the other boxes are alive.'
'Live boxes and violet caterpillars! your lan-
guage is involved, young man. Are they rare ones,
Martin, do you think ?' said Strickland.
Fritillaries chiefly, I suppose, and I believe Dux
told me he had one or two good ones, but I doubt if
he will know what his loss is ; how many were there ?'
Twelve; there were one or two Queens of Spain, I
think. Do tell me where to find some more, Martin,
please; I am awfully sorry, but if I can only find
some of them again, perhaps Dux won't lose the
prize.'








SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS.


'Hullo here comes Dux; I can hear him storm-
ing ; he is in one of his baits, you had better get out
of the way, Murray,' said Strickland.
'Where am I to go? he is coming across the
yard,' said Murray, looking vainly round for a
chance of escape.
'Get behind here; I won't let him touch you,
said Martin kindly, for he knew when Neville was
in a rage he was not likely to have much mercy.
Murray stepped behind Martin into the corner
he had pointed out, just as Neville, armed with the
first stick he had caught up, and a very formidable-
looking one it was, burst into the building pale
with fury.
'Martin, have you seen that little wretch Murray ?
I'll 'break every bone in his skin when I find him!
He has killed all my caterpillars. Oh, there he is !
if I don't half kill him my name isn't- How now,
Strickland what do you mean by standing in my
way?'
'Gently, Dux, gently a little gentle chastisement
won't hurt the boy, but I am not going to look
on and see you beat a little delicate fellow like
Murray with that blunderbuss.'








94 SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS.

'You are not going to look on! what do you
mean ? How dare you talk to me like this ? I'll lick
you as well as Murray if you don't move out of my
way;' and as he spoke Neville attempted to push
past Strickland, almost knocking him over in the
attempt, but Martin caught hold of his arm and
held him back.
Wait a bit, Neville; you'll be sorry for it, if you
attack Murray while you are in a white heat.'
'Two to one, are you ? I believe it is a planned
thing; you have bribed Murray to kill my cater-
pillars. I'll fight you both, and settle him afterwards,'
said Dux, struggling with Martin and Strickland,
who were trying to hold him.
Meanwhile some other boys had found their way
to the outhouse on hearing the noise, and Dux,
hearing them, called out, 'Swallow-tails to the
rescue!'
'Two can play at that game; Skippers to the
rescue!' cried Strickland, and in a few minutes every
boy in the school except little Gordon, and Murray,
the cause of the fray, was engaged in the battle.
Fighting and struggling, they soon got out into the
yard, where there was more scope for action, and for








SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS.


ten minutes the battle raged fiercely. Sometimes
in single combats, sometimes mass against mass, the
boys struggled together in wild confusion, shouting
with rage and pain, wrestling, and using their fists
very- freely, for their blood was up, and none of
them were responsible for their actions.
In the midst of this melee a window was thrown
open, and Mrs. Palmer, putting her head out, called
out entreating them to stop; but they were all much
too excited to pay any attention, if in the noise
they heard her voice; whereupon, greatly to her
regret, Mrs. Palmer, who was afraid the boys would
hurt each other seriously, for already some noses
were bleeding, went to her husband and sent him
to the scene of action.
'Boys, what is the meaning of this ? Stop this
moment! do you hear me ? Stop, I say !' cried Mr.
Palmer; but even he had to speak several times
before the struggling mass separated, and even then
one or two rushed forward on to their opponents
again and again before he at length succeeded in
stopping the fight.
At last there they stood, panting and perspiring,
two or three with black eyes, some with noses and








96 SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS.

lips bleeding, all very much dishevelled, with burn-
ing cheeks, and glaring angrily at each other, still
too angry to feel ashamed of themselves.
Murray, come here; you appear to be a spectator
only, tell me the meaning of all this,' said Mr.
Palmer.
'Please, sir, it is all my fault,' said Murray,
looking very much inclined to cry, though he had
secretly been longing to take part in the fray, if he
could only have decided which side to take, but
his conscience would not let him go against the
Skippers, who were protecting him, and of course he
could not fight against his own side.
For in truth the rivalry between Skippers and
Swallowtails had been waxing very great lately, and
there had been a good deal of bitterness, especially
this term, as the prize was to be awarded at the
end of it; so perhaps all the boys had readily
seized this opportunity of avenging their imaginary
wrongs.
'No, sir, it is the Skippers' fault; there has been
a vile plot'-began Neville.
'Be quiet, Neville! I am not addressing you,'
said Mr. Palmer sternly. Now, Murray, tell me








SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS.


how this fight originated,' he continued, while
Neville bit his lip and raged inwardly, though he
dared not speak again, while Murray told his
tale.
'Oh, it is a fight about this butterfly prize Very
well, I shall know how to deal with that. And
apparently Neville, Martin, and Stricldand were the
authors of it; is this so ?'
'Yes, sir,' answered the three culprits.
'I shall know how to deal with them also.
You three will come to my study at twelve o'clock
to-morrow'; the rest of the school will remain in the
big schoolroom till tea-time, and employ their half-
holiday in writing out some Students' Hume : the
first and second classes will write two hundred
lines each, the juniors one hundred, and they will
be brought to me to-morrow morning after prayers,
when I shall have more to say to you all on this
subject. Those who are hurt go indoors and wash
yourselves; the others go at once to the schoolroom.
Murray, you will do the same imposition as the
other juniors. There is to be perfect silence until
tea-time; I shall stay with you, to see that it is
observed.' So saying, Mr. Palmer followed the boys







98 SWALLOW-TAILS AND SKIPPERS.

into the schoolroom, where they sat down to their
impositions in solemn silence.
As a rule, Mr. Palmer was very lenient with the
boys, but if he did take it into his head to be
severe, the occasions were generally remembered
for some time to come. Fighting was strictly
forbidden, so the present offence was a very great
one, and, as the boys all knew, Neville, Strickland,
and Martin were in for a flogging, for that was the
meaning of the appointment at twelve in Mr.
Palmer's study. That was unpleasant enough for
the trio at any rate, but in addition to this the
boys all felt pretty sure, from Mr. Palmer's manner
and remarks, that he intended to withdraw the
promised butterfly prize, which was the severest
punishment next to expulsion he could have hit
upon, and this silence which he had imposed upon
them prevented them from talking the matter over
and seeing if anything could be done to avert such
a calamity.
In the confusion and -excitement both master and
boys had forgotten it was a Saturday, so a gleam
of hope burst in upon them when Mr. Palmer,
remembering it, announced,-




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