Group Title: story of the Spanish-American war and the revolt in the Philippines
Title: The story of the Spanish-American war and the revolt in the Philippines
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00080957/00001
 Material Information
Title: The story of the Spanish-American war and the revolt in the Philippines
Series Title: story of the Spanish-American war and the revolt in the Philippines
Physical Description: 248 p. : ill. ; 29 x 44 cm.
Language: English
Creator: King, W. Nephew ( William Nephew )
Howard, O. O ( Oliver Otis ), 1830-1909
Evans, Robley D ( Robley Dunglison ), 1846-1912
Publisher: Peter Fenelon Collier
Place of Publication: New York
Publication Date: 1898
 Subjects
Subject: Spanish-American War, 1898   ( lcsh )
Siege, 1898 -- Manila (Philippines)   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Philippines
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Told by W. Nephew King ; O.O. Howard (for the army) ; Robley D. Evans (for the navy).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00080957
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - AJD1572
oclc - 06372915
alephbibnum - 001719135

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NMI









THE


STORY


OF THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR


AND THE REVOLT IN THE PHILIPPINES


TOLD BY


W. NEPHEW KING
LIEUTENANT U. S. N.
ILLUSTRATED FROM DRAWINGS IN BLACK AND WHITE


PHOTOGRAPHS TAKEN AT THE
AND


FRONT


PAINTINGS BY THE BEST ARTISTS


FOR THE ARMY
0. O. HOWARD
MAJOR-GENERAL (Retired) U. S. A


FOR THE NAVY
ROBLEY D. EVANS
CAPTAIN U. S. N.


PUBLISHED BY
PETER FENELON COLLIER
NEW YORK
MDCCCXCIX




























COPYRIGHT, 1898, BY

PETER FENELON COLLIER

All rights reserved


Cover and title-page designed by George Wharton Edwards

Illustrations selected and arranged by Walter Russell













































































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Painted by
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THE U. S. BATTLESHIP MAINE AT HAVANA, FEB. 14, 1898.


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CONTENTS


AUTHOR'S PREFACE .
INTRODUCTION FOR THE NAVY
INTRODUCTION FOR THE ARMY
THE STORY OF THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR
AND
THE REVOLT IN THE PHILIPPINES


PAGE
13


By Captain Robley D. Evans
By Major-General 0. O. Howard

By Lieutenant W. Nephew King


ILLUSTRATIONS IN COLOR
ASSEMBLING OF THE FLEET AT KEY WEST. SUNDAY SERVICE ON THE BATTLESHIP TEXAS
UNITED STATES REGULARS LEAVING FOR THE FRONT . .
THE UNITED STATES BATTLESHIP MAINE AT HAVANA, FEBRUARY 14, 1898 . .
KEEPING THE BLOCKADE. FLAGSHIP NEW YORK SIGNALLING ORDERS OFF HAVANA
BATTLE OF MANILA, MAY .
CAPTURE OF SAN JUAN BLOCKHOUSE, JULY 2 . . .
THE DESTRUCTION OF THE SPANISH FLEET UNDER ADMIRAL CERVERA OFF SANTIAGO, JULY 3


H. C. Christy
A. C. Redwood
Henry Reuterdahl
Henry Reuterdahl
J. G. Tyler
H. C. Christy
Henry Reuterdahl


FULL-PAGE ILLUSTRATIONS
Sunday inspection by Captain Evans on board the Iowa . C. D. Graves 11
The Naval Strategy Board in consultation at Washington T. V. C/ominski 13
Mustering in volunteers after the President's call . . . H. Dizler 23
Destruction of the battleship Maine, at Havana, February
15, 1898 . . .. . . . W. Louis Sonntag, Jr. 29
The Maine as she appeared the day after the explosion . . . . 33
The Spanish armored cruiser Vizcaya coaling in New
York Harbor . . . . . . . James H. Hare 35
Night work on the monitor Puritan . . .. W. Louis Sonntag, Jr. 37
Crew of the Maine . . . . . . . . .. Hart 41
The New York chasing the Pedro . . . . . .. Byron 45
The United States battleship Iowa . . .. . . E. Muller 49
Major Estrampa drilling infantry . . . . . James H. Hare 51
The Flying Squadron and its commander . . . Charles E. Bolles 57
In the fire room of a warship during a chase . . B. West Clinedinst 59
Dewey's flagship, the Olympia . . . . . .. . Taber 63
Our different submarine defences . . . .. W. Louis Sonniag, Jr. 65
An amateur Strategy Board . . . . . . A. B. Wenzell 69
The President of the United States and his Cabinet . Berte & Pullis 71
Battle of Manila..... . . . . . Gilbert Gaul 7


IN BLACK AND WHITE
Troops marching through San Francisco to embark for
the Philippines . . . . . . .
On the way to Manila-Officers of S. S. Newport playing
cards . .. . . . . . . .
Light battery going to the front . . . . .
The battle of Cardenas-Gunboat Wilmington, revenue
cutter Hudson and torpedo boat Winslow under fire
After conning-tower of the torpedo boat Winslow, show-
ing marks of Spanish shots. . . . . .
Preparing to move to Cuba-Ninth Cavalry (colored)
leaving Chickamauga for Tampa . . . .
Frigate Lancaster, the only wooden vessel of the old navy
commissioned during the war . . . . .
Burning a Cuban sugar plantation . . . . .
Bombardment of Matanzas . . . . . .
" Charge !"-Cavalry drill at Chickamauga . . .
Lieutenant Hobson sinking the Merrimac in the channel
of Santiago Harbor . . . . . .
Sunday morning in camp of U. S. Regulars (colored) at
Chickamauga Park . . . . . . .


STaber 83


. G. W. Peters
Max F. Klepper

William Ritschel

James H. Hare


F. C. Yohn 101


SGeorge Hare 105
E. TW. Denming 107
Walter Russell I I
F. C. Yohn 115

William Ritschel 121

SW. R. Leigh 123






Troopers of Tenth U. S. Cavalry exercising their horses in
the surf, near Tampa . . . . . .
An evening at the hotel, Tampa, Florida . . . .
Sunday morning inspection of an infantry company . .
The fight at Guantanamo-Marines under Lieutenant-
Colonel Huntington repelling an attack . . .
The Yale arriving at Siboney with transports . . .
The Seventy-first N. Y. Volunteers crossing a mountain
stream just before going into action . .. ..
Spanish prisoners captured at El Caney . . . .
Final charge of Chaffee's Brigade (Seventh, Twelfth, and
Seventeenth Regular Infantry) at El Caney . .
General view of the battle grounds near Santiago ..
Spanish prisoners captured near Santiago, under guard at
General Shafter's headquarters . . . . .
A council of war in front of Santiago . . . . .
Carrying wounded from the field, near Santiago, July 2, 1898
The battleship Oregon . . . . . . . .
He died that Cuba might be free . . . . . .
The war room in the White House . . . . .
"Her consolation" . . . .
The Maria Teresa aground-Broadside view, after surrender


F. C. Yohn
W. Bengough
SLazernick


F. C. Yozn 137
J. C. Hemment 143

J. C. Hemment 145
J. C. Hemment 149

F. C. Yohn 153
W. Bengough 155

J. C. Hemment 157
Gilbert Gaul 163
C. D. Graves 167
E. Muller 175
W. Bengough 177
George Gibbs 183
A. B. Wenzell 185
J. C. Hemment 189


IN BLACK AND WHITE---Continued


The Maria Teresa on fire-Starboard bow view . J
The Almirante Oquendo burning-Starboard quarter view
The Vizcaya-Starboard quarter view, showing terrible
havoc wrought by shell and fire . . . .
Interior view, showing the destruction to superstructure
of the Vizcaya . . . . . .
The New York signalling to "Cease firing," after the sur-
render of Cervera's squadron . . . . .
Naval Constructor R. P. Hobson going aboard the Maria
Teresa to ascertain extent of injury . . .
General Miles' expedition to Porto Rico, as seen from the
cruiser St. Paul. . . . .
The Maria Teresa en route to the United States . . .
Insurgents attacking American troops on the night of
February 4 . . . . . . . .
California troops under Colonel Duboce driving the Fili-
pinos out of the rebel stronghold of Paco, Sunday,
February 5 . . . . . . . .
The advance on Malolos . . . . . . .
Filipinos fleeing from Malolos . . . . . .
Filipino pitfalls at Calumpit . . . . . . T.
Kansas Volunteers taking the railroad bridge at Calumpit .


f. C. Hemment 191
. C. Hemment 195

. C. Hemment 197

C. C. Hemment 203

T. C. Hemment 205

7. C. Hemment 209

[Walter Russell 213
L. A. Shafer 221

Jay Hambidge 227


Gilbert Gaul
G. W. Peters
H. MehZefessel
De Thulstrulp
W. Bengough


229
239
241
245


DEFENDERS OF THE FLAG.
4


Drawn oy T. ade Th ustr/14.


FULL-PAGE ILLUSTRATIONS







AUTHOR'S PREFACE

HIS story of our Hundred Days' War with Spain "
was prepared, not with a view of making it an
exhaustive history, but, as the title itself suggests,
an authentic narrative of our brilliant victory. The
illustrations which adorn its pages are not only the
work of well-known military and naval artists, but
were mainly executed by eye-witnesses of the events
portrayed, and no expense has been spared in their reproduction-
both in colors and in black and white. In relating the details of
operations afloat and ashore, not only have official reports been
carefully studied, but, in many cases, the commanding officers
themselves personally consulted. Should it appear, there-
fore, that undue prominence has been given any partic-
ular engagement, it must not be assumed that others
were not equally as brilliant or as deserving of
space. The results accomplished must, to a
certain extent, limit the historian in his
description. The fact that the greater
part of the volume was written in
the midst of active professional
duties and at sea may give
it, from a literary stand-
point, a claim upon
the indulgence of
the reader.


cCAtiA~A LL.kZd. I


NAVY YARD, NEW YORK,
September 1, 1898.


9


W. NEPHEW KING,
Lieutenant U.S.N.


























































VICTORY.

FIGURE-HEAD OF THE MASSACHUSETTS.












6








INTRODUCTION FOR THE NAVY


HE Navy did its work in the late Spanish-
American War quickly and effectively, thus
proving itself better than the country thought
it, and quite up to what its officers and men
felt it able to accomplish. That it was a
crazy quilt" to begin with cannot be
gainsaid, and will not be questioned by
those who knew its condition. To say that
it was prepared for the work it had to do
would not be true; to say that it was in
bad condition would be misleading. The enlisted force was all
that could be asked-a superb fighting force, most thoroughly
organized and drilled. The officers were far better than might
have been expected, when it is recalled that they had lived thirty-
five years under the worst system of promotion that could possibly
be devised.
The ships were excellent-as single vessels-but the desirable
adjuncts of a fleet, such as fast cruisers, torpedo-boat destroyers,
colliers, etc., were entirely lacking.
Congress had made a start at building a navy, but stopped
long before its work was completed.
We had a few battleships, as good as any that could be built
anywhere, two armored cruisers, a good fleet of protected cruisers,
a fair allowance of gunboats, and half a dozen experimental torpedo
boats. Congress, in its wisdom, had said how large the vessels
should be, how much water they should draw, of what quality of
steel they should be made, the number of guns they should carry,
the amount of coal they should stow, and how fast they should steam.


It is not, therefore, difficult to place the praise or blame for the
condition in which we found ourselves. Such a building scheme
would not, I imagine, be favorably considered in any other country.
Professional men had freely given their advice when asked for it,
and in many cases had urged it without the asking. They felt keenly
the position in which the Navy was, and did all they could to prepare
for the war which they felt must come sooner or later.
When the Maine was blown up in the harbor of Havana, and
war thereby assured, the squadron assembled at or near Key West
was composed of the battleships Iowa, Indiana, and Massachusetts;
the second-class battleship Texas; the armored cruiser New York;
the protected cruisers Cincinnati, Marblehead, Montgomery, and
Detroit; a number of gunboats of various sizes and rates of speed,
and the torpedo boats Cushing, Ericsson, Porter, and Dupont.
RECEIVING SHIP VERMONT.


F




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PHYSICAL D
ARMS -
FRONT,"
COUNT.


-404
PHYSICAL DRILL
DOWN


No torpedo-boat destroyers to guard the battleships; no armored
cruisers to do the scouting and meet the fast cruisers of the enemy;
no colliers to supply the necessary fuel; no ordnance-supply vessel to
give us ammunition; no repair-ship to make necessary
repairs, and no supply-ship to carry fresh water and
provisions.
With the Navy practically in the condition above
described, war was declared against us by a nation
which had been carrying on war for three years, and
should, therefore, have been better prepared than we.
Before the actual declaration of war a flying
)RILL UNDER squadron was organized at Hampton Roads, which took
"DOWN AND
END OF FIRST from the squadron at Key West the battleships Massa-
chusetts and Texas, and from other service the Brook-
lyn, the fastest armored cruiser we had. At the same time, the moni-
tors Amphitrite, Terror, and Puritan were sent south as fast as
their antiquated machinery could take them. They eventually
arrived, all more or less broken down, and took their
places as part of the fighting force.
Active steps were taken by the able heads of
the Navy Department to prepare and forward such
vessels as could be se-
PHYSICAL DRILL UNDER ARMS-"COMING
cured to take the places TO READY."
of the torpedo-boat de-
stroyers which had not
been built, and the ab-
AND UP.RMS- sence of which might
any night have caused
the loss of our entire armored squadron. ^ -
Only those who were there can
know how glad we were at the arrival
of even an ordinary New York tugboat
with a few rapid-fire guns-anything to


warn us of the approach of the vessels we knew the Spanish had
on the coast of Cuba. We were sure of our officers and men, and
if only we could get something to float them in, we felt more
than hopeful of the result.
At ten o'clock on the night of April 21st the
commanding officers of the ships lying off the bar at
Key West were assembled in the cabin of the flagship
New York awaiting the word from Washington for
which they had all hoped, and which would free the
many hands that were eager to wipe out the insult to
the Maine and avenge her murdered crew.
About midnight a torpedo boat came out bearing
the message, "( War declared; establish blockade,"
and the captains returned to their commands to work
the rest of the night over such finishing touches as PHYSICAL DRILL
FORWARD
were still needed to prepare their ships for the crucial
test of battle. An officer was sent into the harbor by the Admiral
to get under way the fleet of monitors and gunboats, and by one
o'clock A.M. of the 22d the long spider legs of the
searchlights could be seen feeling for the buoys as the
vessels, one after another, went out in the black night
to take their places ready
PHYSICAL DRILL UNDER ARMS- r
"READY." for the start.
About 4 A.M. April
22d, Admiral Sampson
headed his fleet for the
Morro of Havana-two
columns of ships as ready
and fit for their work as PHYSICAL DRILL U
DOWN AND
their officers and men
could make them. Before 8 A.M. the
first gun of the war had been fired
by the gunboat Nashville, and the first


UNDER ARMS
D AND UP."


JNDER ARMS-
* FRONT."





prize of the war was on her way
to Key West, eight hours, be it
remembered, after the word had
come to start.
Can anyone ask if we, the
sea-going part of the service, were
ready?
At sundown of April 22 this
fleet of odd composition, led by
the battleship Iowa, steamed across
the entrance to Havana Harbor,
and the five signal guns fired from
the Morro battery announced to the
cafes of the city that the last crate
of Louisiana chickens had passed- --"
in for many a long day to come.
The first stage-that of prep- IN BROOKL
aration-had been passed, and the
curtain was rung up on the second-blockade. The lessons of one
war had been remembered at least by those in command. Chain-
cables and sand-bags were freely used to protect ammunition hoists,
where armor had been left off, and everything possible was done
to strengthen the weak points and
CARRYING ORDERS.
prepare for the ordeal we believed
was near at hand. Twenty hours
after the declaration of war an effec-
IN tive blockade was established, and
thereafter maintained. I think we
proved beyond a doubt that we were
able and ready to use the tools the
Government had put into our hands.
From the day it was established,
the blockade of the Cuban coast was


YN N


most effective, although maintained
under the greatest difficulties.
SCoaling off Havana was impossible
owing to the heavy trade-wind sea,
and practically the same condi-
tions held at Key West for vessels
which could not enter the harbor.
Yet we coaled the ships somehow,
and without unnecessary delay. As
time went on the blockade was ex-
tended until it embraced the entire
coast of Cuba, with the exception
of a short distance about Sagua la
Grande, and the harbor of San
Juan, Puerto Rico. The long list
of Spanish vessels captured and the
NAVY YARD. pitiful stories of starvation from the
blockaded ports tell how vigilant
was the watch and how unrelenting the grip of the improvised fleet.
During the early days of May, while Admiral Cervera with his
fine squadron of cruisers and torpedo-boat destroyers was crossing the
Atlantic, we realized that we did not have a suitable force with
which to meet and destroy him, as we should have done in the open
sea. Our armored cruisers New York and Brooklyn were the only
vessels which could hope to overtake such ships as the Vizcaya and
Colon and have any chance of whipping them when caught. We
felt that these two ships of ours with their splendid crews could be
relied on to give a good account of themselves against three of the
enemy's ships, but the Spaniards, unfortunately for us, had four, as
well as three of the finest torpedo craft in the world. As the Spanish
squadron approached the West Indies, Admiral Sampson planned to
draw from the blockading fleet such vessels as could be spared, and
with them go forth to meet it.





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- SWOR- .EXERCISE AS..

SWORD EXERCISE ASHORE.


On May 4th the New York steamed along the blockading line
off Havana with the signal flying: Iowa, Indiana, Detroit steer
E. 1/2 N. speed eleven knots "-this was the beginning of the San
Juan expedition. Early that night off Cruz del Padre Light on the
north coast of Cuba we found the remainder of the fleet, and all
stood to the eastward at the best speed we could make-about eight
and one-half knots. The squadron was composed of the following
vessels: New York, Iowa, Indiana, Terror, Amphitrite, Detroit,
Montgomery, and Porter. One steam collier was in company.
As the monitors could not carry coal enough to reach their des-
tination, and it was doubtful whether they could coal at sea, the New
York took in tow the
CREW OF A FOUR-INCH GIN.
Terror, and the Iowa
towed the Amphitrite.
Thus our modern
squadron stood on in
search of a squadron of
fast, thoroughly fourid
cruisers and torpedo-boat


destroyers. Surely we were again doing the best that we could with
the tools supplied by the Government, but this did not prevent us
from wishing that the tools had been different and more in keeping
with the age.
Admiral Sampson had every reason to believe that he would
find Admiral Cervera's ships in the harbor of San Juan, so prepara-
tions were accordingly made to destroy them.
At early dawn of May 12 the American squadron, led by the
Iowa, flying the Admiral's flag, found themselves within easy range
of the batteries at the entrance to the harbor. Not a light was to be
seen, and not a sound came from the sleeping city. Slowly the
ships stood in, and as day-
BOXING ABOARD SHIP.
light broke, the empty
harbor revealed the fact
that the Spanish ships i
were somewhere else.
To season our men
and test our batteries
thoroughly, as much as to












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SUNDAY INSPECTION BY CAPTAIN EVANS ON BOARD THE IOWA. C. D. Craves.

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"JACKIES."


harass the enemy, the Admiral opened on the forts. I shall never
forget the first shot fired that morning. The sights of a six-
pounder on the forward bridge were set at 2,700 yards and the gun
fired at the Morro battery, the shell exploding just at the foot of the
lighthouse tower.
As I saw the explosion I set all range indicators at 2,600 yards.
The bugles sang "Commence firing," and the bombardment of San
Juan was "on." For fully five minutes not a shot was fired in reply,
and then the batteries, one after another, seemed to wake up and in
a feeble way to return the fire. After two hours' deliberate work
Admiral Sampson drew off to the northwest, gave the men a chance
for breakfast, and with the full approval of his commanding officers
stood to the westward to seek Admiral Cervera in some other port.
Off the north coast of San Domingo news was received that
Cervera had been sighted near the island of Curagoa; we knew then
that he would make all speed for some Cuban port, the particular


one depending on the quantity of coal he could get and the rapidity
with which he could stow it. And so commenced a race for the
Windward Passage, the point of strategic advantage which we must
reach first, or Cervera would raise the blockade of Havana if he did
not destroy in his course all the tugs and auxiliaries which then
constituted the blockading fleet. We won the race, and as we
steamed through the entrance of the Old Bahama Channel all hands
felt that we had won the first move in this game of war.
The New York was here detached from the squadron and
hurried on with all possible speed to Key West, the command being
left to the senior captain commanding the Iowa.
It was wearing work, as we tugged away at our monitor-tow,
and the knowledge that scarcely a ship in the fleet had coal enough
to reach her destination was not reassuring. We had the coal with
us, but the movements of the enemy had been such that we could
not spare the time to transfer it from vessel to vessel.
At 8 P.M. on May 17 a torpedo boat, the Dupont, spoke us,
with orders to cast off the monitor and make all possible speed to
Key West. We were certainly much in need of our base of supplies,
but fortunately Admiral Cervera was as much in need of his.
In the meantime the fine flying squadron under Commodore
Schley had been despatched to
Key West, and was ready, with
'bunkers full of coal, to guard
the west end of Cuba and pre-
vent the Spanish fleet from pass-
ing, by the Yucatan Channel,
either to the Gulf coast of the
United States or along the north
coast of Cuba to the relief of
Havana. From the moment that
Admiral Sampson's fleet crossed
the Windward Passage the Spanish





















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CAPTAIN A. T. MAHAN.


CAPTAIN A. S. CROWNINSHIELD. JOHN D. LONG, SECRETARY OF THE NAVY. REAR-ADMIRAL MONTGOMERY SICARD.

Painted by T. V. Chominski, from a
THE NAVAL STRATEGY BOARD IN CONSULTATION AT WASHINGTON. tlotograph by Berle & Pulis.
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fleet was powerless to do us harm. Admiral Cervera had lost the
only opportunity he was ever to have.
Early on the i9th of May Commodore Schley with his squadron
started for Cienfu-
egos, as it was thought -
that the Spanish fleet
might possibly make
for that port in order
to transfer by rail to
Havana some muni-
tions of war which the" -'
ships were known to
have loaded. Twenty
hours later the Iowa
was sent to join
Schley, which she
did off Cienfuegos,
May 22d.
Admiral Samp-
son, with the New
York, Oregon, and
such other vessels as
could be spared, pro-
ceeded to the Bahama
Channel on the north
side of Cuba; thus
the net was swiftly--
drawn around Cer- HOISTING SHIP'S B
vera, who was using
all Spanish energy to coal his ships at Santiago, where he had arrived
at 9.30 A.M. May I9th-almost the exact hour when Commodore
Schley left Key West.
It was soon known that the Spanish ships were not in Cienfuegos,


OAT


so the flying squadron hurried on to Santiago, where at daylight on
May 29th the Colon was discovered moored opposite the Punta Gorda
battery, and the other Spanish ships variously disposed in the harbor.
The fast auxili-
ary St. Paul was de-
spatched to the north
side, and on June i st
Admiral Sampson ar-
Srived with the New
York and Oregon.
From the mo-
ment of his arrival the
fate of the elusive and
unfortunate Spanish
Admiral was sealed
beyond any hope. For
the third time we had
Used the tools given
us for all they were
-worth, but as our bat-
tleships went to the
picket line night after
night we could not
help wishing that the
tools had been a bit
more suitable for the
work they were called
TO THE DAVITS. on to do.
The naval battle
off Santiago, with all its details, is known to the world. If our
fleet had been such a completed fleet as the country required,
in the face of then existing circumstances, the Spanish squadron
would have been found on the Atlantic and captured or sunk





The country now realizes and understands what it needs in the
way of a navy, and if we profit by the lesson we have
had-if we have learned the lesson, in other words
-then the money spent has been well spent,
and we have no word of complaint
for the brave lads who have
gone aloft forever.

















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Drawn by
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INTRODUCTION FOR THE ARMY


HE SPANISH-AMERICAN war was to the
older of our public men a marvel from
beginning to end.
The Navy, which had been increasing
of late years, and in every way preparing
as if in anticipation of a conflict, sprang
forward under the hand of the President
and Congress to its present proportion,
and extraordinary efficiency. How well it
performed its part in the war may be
left to its own able historic writers.
From the nature of the struggle, from beginning to end, the
navy naturally led and performed its part in such a way as to startle
Europe. I do not wonder that the Powers now begin to talk
seriously of a general disarmament and the beauties of arbitration.
Our Army, however, was not behind the Navy in patriotism,
nor in ardor to bear some part in the struggle. Journeying in the
West just after the terrible Maine disaster, and meeting various
assemblies, I noticed that the mass of the people, so far as I could
test public sentiment, denounced even more strongly than Congress
the extortions, the murders by slow starvation, and the treacheries
of the Spaniards-illustrated by the mine explosion in Havana-
and their cruelty in Cuba towards even non-combatants.
For some years our general officers had been called upon to con-
sider and recommend methods of meeting any foreign nation or com-
bination of nations. In the papers prepared they urged, first and
foremost, proper attention to our seacoast defences, and secondly, they
advised the perfecting of our regular army, and its enlargement to a


strength of at least fifty thousand men, so that it might be a proper
and sufficient nucleus for a larger force. They also attached much
importance to an increased efficiency in the National Guard, advo-
cating sufficient strength to meet any contingency for repelling
attacks or for taking the offensive.
The President and his advisers seem to have considered these
suggestions favorably, for, as soon as war was imminent, the President
recommended the increase of the regulars to sixty thousand men
from the usual twenty or twenty-
five thousand. This measure met BLOWING REVEILLE.
with considerable opposition in
Congress, because the people were
anxious to volunteer, and volun- /
teers generally wanted officers of
their own selection. The Na-
tional Guard was first approached;
its members were ready enough
to volunteer, but there was such
a pressure on the War Depart-
ment from the people at large-
north, south, east, and west-that
it was decided that the examina-
tions of the members of the Na-
tional Guard should be exacting.
The result of this severe scrutiny
was that the very best young men,
especially in everything pertaining
to physique, were selected for



















,.. .G. s. .- . . c



SCENE IN A CAVALRY CAMP-TRAINING A REFRACTORY HORSE.


the Army. Again and again, not only concerning the Rough Riders,
who have given their first Colonel, General Leonard Wood, and
their second Colonel, Theodore Roosevelt, an international fame and
themselves their proper meed of glory, but concerning the volunteer
regiments generally, it has been remarked by experts: "They are
splendid men! They are athletes! "
The entire force numbered about two hundred and eighty
thousand men. Had the war continued, there would probably have
been ten army corps, with about twenty-eight thousand in each corps.
The war was too short for such completeness of organization.
To season the men and prepare them for service, southern camps
were chosen, with a view not only of acclimatization, but also of hav-
ing corps, divisions, and brigades ready to be taken at any moment
by army transports across the Gulf of Mexico to Cuba or Puerto
Rico. Camp Thomas, in Chickamauga Park, situated on high,
rolling ground, had at one time as many as fifty thousand men.
Camp Alger, at Falls Church, Va., on ground that lay between the


old Union and Confederate lines of '61
and '62, was another large encampment.
Chickamaugua and Camp Alger became
as it were a main body, with advance camps
at Jacksonville, Tampa, Mobile, and New
Orleans.
Dewey's victory demanded prompt
military support, so another camp, not at
first contemplated, was immediately made
at San Francisco. Its troops, or a goodly
proportion of them, General Wesley Merritt
has since taken to Manila.
As I visited the different camps, I
found in command men already distin-
guished in service-Generals W. M. Gra-
ham, of the Second Corps, at Camp Alger;
John R. Brooke, grand in the Civil War, First and Third Corps,
at Camp Thomas; J. J. Coppinger, Fourth Corps, at Mobile;
William R. Shafter, Fifth Corps, at Tampa; FitzHugh Lee, Seventh
Corps, at Jacksonville; and Joseph Wheeler, Cavalry Division, at
Lake Front, Florida. General James HIS OWN LAUNDRYMAN.
F. Wade, the son of the great Ohio
senator, long in service, commanded
a corps at Chickamauga.
When the time for going for-
ward came, after the famous hunt for
Cervera's fleet, and the finding of it
in the long-necked harbor of Santi-
ago, Shafter, commanding the Fifth
Army Corps, was ordered to put his
force upon army transports, and pro-
ceed under naval convoy to the
southeastern coast of Cuba. The





navy had already made a .
landing upon a round hill
near Guantanamo Bay. There -
Captain McCalla, with his .
marines, aided by a Cuban ",
Colonel, La Borde, and a
small force of insurgents, had
cleared the way, secured an
opening for an advance, and
defended himself gallantly and
successfully against Spanish
attack. The transports ar-
rived with Shafter and his
men on board on the 2dth
of Junc.
In justice to General
Miles, Commanding the Army,
we may mention here that he
had previously, at different
times, communicated with
the insurgent chieftains Go-
mez, Garcia, and others, and
had arranged all the prelimi- :" .
naries to a co-operation of the
army and navy with the in- '
surgents, thus making bona 4gFC.YoH N
ir. t lhM C( P - _.
fide allies of the Cubans. ..--..
In keeping with this, COLOR-BEARER OF
and following up advantages
already gained by the navy, General Shafter in person landed west of
the entrance to Santiago and met General Garcia, where in council
they agreed upon a plan of operations against the city. The troops
were landed on the 22d of June and at subsequent dates. A naval


A C


S. vessel, the Vixen, Captain
.. i Sharp commanding, took an
Sinsurgent force of five hun-
dred, and with some diffi-
culty put them ashore in a
S.: ravine about twelve miles
Seat of Daiquiri. Another
contingent of five hundred
met them near that landing,
and they swept, one thousand
strong, along the shore line
of hills, driving back the
Spaniards. Our navy, at first
W u mistaking them for the enemy,
fired upon them, doing some
damage; but soon our men
realized that Daiquiri was
bo i pen for landing. There the
Rough Riders, some regulars,
and part of General Joe
". K Wheeler's cavalry immediately
began a forward movement,
the insurgents being used as
skirmishers and flankers dur-
ing at least the first day's ad-
vance. Siboney, situated on
.,.. the shore-line railroad and
:AVALRY REGIMENT. still further west than the
first landing, became the sec-
ond available spot for disembarking the troops and supplies.
Without attempting to give any detail of the operations, let me
say that the forces swept forward despite difficulties that it would be
hard to describe. The ground is as rough as the Adirondacks, and

















SIXTH MASSACHUSETTS ON DRILL AT CAMP ALGER.


much like tne uneven parts of the Green Mountains of Vermont.
The cactus, the paths rough and crooked without sign of a wagon
road, the thickets full of entangling vines, many of them impassable
except in narrow trails cut through them, the intense heat with heavy
rains in the afternoon lasting till night-these, coupled with block-
houses on every prominent point and intrenchments which covered a
hidden foe, and occasional streams, waist deep, indicate something of
what our men had to encounter in their advance. Perhaps the most
troublesome of all obstructions was a succession of barbed-wire fences
firmly set with strong posts.
I can see our cavalry and infantry pressing through an opening
along a roadway cut through an otherwise impassable
thicket, cavalrymen and infantrymen on foot and
abreast, the balloon overhead drawing the fire of
Spanish artillery. I behold our men emerging, break-
ing off to the right and left in open order, volunteers
and regulars, the brave Lawton leading to the right,
Kent, Sam Sumner, Hawkins, Wykoff, and other
brave souls pushing to the left. A battalion falters
under the deadly fire. Two others are ordered to
lie down, and those in rear of them make an im-
petuous charge. White soldiers and colored are alike


- eager. All go forward to encounter an enemy whose
artillery and infantry, with smokeless powder, are so
well sheltered that nobody can tell just where the fire
comes from. Forward goes the whole force! El
Caney is taken; San Juan falls, and Spaniards are slain,
imprisoned, or put to flight.
Every other obstruction along the line encircling
Santiago is swept away, and intrenchments are imme-
diately dug. On the extreme right is the Cuban con-
tingent under Garcia. Much of his force has been
detailed to other commands, resting in the rear of them
and ordered to do whatever the Americans demand. The poverty of
the Cuban, his incomprehensible jargon, and his un-American method
of fighting, have brought him into some disrepute. Even the right
brigade, under Garcia, does not fight resolutely the four thousand
Spaniards, of re-enforcement, coming in by the Cobre road.
But at last all the work is done. Some artillery has been brought
up. Strong positions have been occupied, and a fortified line that no
Spaniards could pass has been stretched in a semicircle from the har-
bor, to the eastward, and around to touch the harbor on the west.
Scarcely is this line completed when General Shafter learns that
Cervera with his fleet has passed out through the narrow entrance,


COMPANY E, SIXTH MASSACHUSETTS VOLUNTEERS, PASSING IN REVIEW.





past the sunken Merri-
mac, and met his fate at
the hands of Sampson
and Schley.
The negotiations
end in a complete sur-
render, not only of the
garrison of Santiago de
Cuba but of the forces
of that province to the
number of twenty-four
thousand. This was ac-
complished the i+th of
July, 1898.
Shafter's entire force,
landed and used, was
between fourteen and
fifteen thousand men,
virtually infantry, with a
few batteries of artillery.
The horses of the cav-
alry had been left behind
in Florida, so the men
acted all the while as
infantry. More artillery
would have been used,
and that effectively, had
not the negotiations for
surrender limited its em-
ployment.
The actual losses on
our part of killed and
wounded were about two


p


thousand. But the losses
by fevers, particularly
those of a malarial stamp
-some typhoidal and
some of the yellow fever
type were terrible.
Duty in trenches caused
inen to lie down on fresh
earth, to be drenched
to the skin with rain,
and to sleep in wet gar-
ments, and the next day
to be subjected to extra-
ordinary heat in the fore
part of the day and to
go through the same pro-
cess of wetting and ex-
posure again at night.
The food at first sup-
plied was too coarse for
the sick, and their priva-
tions consequently acute.
Probably our sacri-
fice, all told, will reach
a thousand deaths, and
other thousands will be
sent home with health
impaired for life. Such
is war, even in the midst
of triumph.
General Miles, Com-
manding the Army, had
gone to Santiago just


VOLUNTEERS TAKING THE OATH.
2





before the surrender, but the War Department permitted Shafter
to complete his work and receive the credit for it; and also imposed
upon him the entire responsibility of the beginning and the closing
of the campaign of
Santiago. His troops
were afterward put
in encampment at
Montauk Point on
Long .Island, that
they might recover
speedily from the
climatic influences
of Cuba.
That part of
the Manila campaign
which our army
shared was exciting
and decisive. Ad-
miral Dewey, and
Aguinaldo, the Gen-
eral of the insur-
gents, had left a brief
but important work
for General Merritt.
That work was
promptly and thor-
oughly accom- .
polished. By the pro- TENTH PENNSYLVANIA ID
motions, which the
President has just made, of Generals T. M. Anderson, A. McArthur.
F. V. Greene, and other participants, it is evident that the Command-
ing General, Wesley Merritt, appreciated the qualities of the officers
and men engaged, and accordingly recommended their advancement.


JFAN


As soon as the surrender of Santiago became a known fact,
General Miles, with the transports, gathered such of Shafter's
re-enforcements as had not been exposed to battle or sickness, and
also some freshly ar-
rived troops, and
went away eastward
after securing the
navy's solid co-
operation, to effect
a landing on Puerto
Rico. It was ac-
complished at the
city of Ponce, on the
southern coast. Re-
enforcements were
despatched to him
by the War Depart-
ment till his final
strength became six-
teen thousand men.
Brooke and Wilson
went from Chicka-
mauga, Henry from
Camp Alger, and
Schwan's brigade
from Tampa. We
beheld the landing
ITRY BOUND FOR MANILA. of the force, its ad-
vance, the capture,
with scarcely any loss, of Ponce, succeeded by that of town after
town along -the crooked route across the island. The victorious
march was about half completed. Strategic points had been seized
by three separate columns whose final objective was San Juan. The










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MUSTERING IN VOLUNTEERS AFTER. THE PRESIDENT'S CALL. II. Di/ier,,.





inhabitants proper had turned toward us as their
deliverers and welcomed the troops of the Stars and
Stripes. The campaign was being conducted with
steadiness and with care toward its final consum-
mation, when a Protocol was signed between our
SGovernment and Spain, and hostilities suspended.
Sickness followed, however, even the Puerto
Rican army, but sickness has been in every camp.
The cloud of it has been very dark; but after the
Sair shall have cleared and time shall have healed our
soldiers' wounds, there will be a universal feeling of
fi. wonder that so much was accomplished and such
a marvellous victory achieved at so little cost.
The conduct of our troops has received the
ARTILLERY GUIDON. unstinted praise of the military attaches of other
nations who were present on the fields of battle.
We love the volunteers. We appreciate their self-sacrifice and
devotion, but do not let us forget that the regular troops were in


greater numbers in the decisive
battle of this war, for once fighting
together with no break in their
ranks. We may also remember that
the regular soldiers are indeed veri-
table volunteers. They, like the
volunteers, have been enlisted mainly
in our country places or in our
smaller villages by careful selec-
tion; they are equal in physique
to the volunteers, and their prow-
ess has been unquestionable. The
praise of the officers and soldiers
of the regular army will be on
every tongue when all the facts
shall be known, and their useful-
ness can never hereafter be for-
gotten or ignored.


EIGHTEENTH INFANTRY (REGULARS) AT CAMP JACKSON, NEW ORLEANS, I.A.-AWAITING CAMP INSPECTION.
24


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THE STORY


HE battle-cry of Dewey's sailors, Remember
the Maine-echoing across the placid waters
of Manila Bay-tells, in a few words,
the cause of our recent war with Spain.
Whatever may be the verdict of historians as
to the motives that induced our Congress to
assume the attitude it did, the men behind
the guns recognized but one-redress for
the assassination of their sleeping comrades.
A visit to one of our battleships, lying
in the harbor of Key West, just before the
beginning of hostilities, confirmed this fact beyond peradventure.
It was immediately after Sunday inspection, when a war vessel is
always spick and span, and yet, within the massive turrets, down
in the grimy depths of the fire room, still deeper in the bunkers
where the stokers live, my eyes caught three words written in letters
of chalk: Remember the Maine. Either the commanding officer, in
his detailed examination of the different nooks and crannies of the
ponderous fighting machine, had failed to detect them, or they had
been written again as soon as the crew were piped down."
One may imagine therefore, how on the morning of February
16, 1898, the country was thrilled with horror when the cable flashed
the news that the battleship Maine had been blown up in Havana
Harbor and two hundred and sixty-six of her crew had been drowned
and perhaps mangled beyond recognition. Though this tragic event
may be fairly regarded as the beginning of the end-war having fol-
lowed sixty-five days later-diplomatic relations had been strained for
a long time previous; in fact, the American people never quite forgot


OF THE WAR


the Cc Virginius Affair"; and, from time to time, there had been evi-
dences of bad blood between the United States and Spain. Had the
war, which our wisest statesmen saw was inevitable, occurred then,
we would to-day be richer, not in dollars merely but in gallant men.
Under Spanish rule, Cuba had ever been a thorn in our side, and
until the island should be free or annexed to the United States,
we were living in the shadow of a conflict that was destined to
come, sooner or later.
President Cleveland, in his annual Message to Congress in 1896,
used some very forcible language regarding the impotence of Spain to
pacify her rebellious colony, and clearly intimated- that the day was
not far distant when the United States would be forced to intervene
in the interests of humanity. The responsibilities, therefore, that
President McKinley inherited .when he assumed office in March,
1897, were graver than those that fall to the lot of most rulers.
He found a growing sentiment- in favor of free Cuba" permeating
both Houses of Congress; and, with only a few exceptions, the press
of the country inflaming public opinion on this subject. With an
earnest wish to accom-
THE BATTLESHIP MAINE LEAVING NEW YORK FOR HAVANA.
plish what the majority of .. ...
the American people de-
sired, and with diplomatic -
acumen that commanded
the admiration of the
world, President McKin-
ley, by peaceful measures,
succeeded in securing --.. -.-
from Spain one concession





after another. First, General
Weyler was recalled and his in-
human reconcentrado" policy
repudiated. Then permission
falr was obtained for us to send
food to the starving Cubans,
and finally autonomy, as broad
and fair as Spanish promises
could make it, was offered to
them.
Still, the people. were not
satisfied. The press continued
to oppose Spanish, rule. Our
consular officers were requested
CONS~UL-GENERAL FITZHUGH LEE. to report upon the success or
failure of. autonomy, but while their opinions were being prepared
for transmission, the whole diplomatic fabric fell like a child's house
of cards. Scarcely had the insulting letter of the Spanish Minister,
Senior Don Enrique Dupuy de Lome, resulted in his recall, before the
nation was plunged into mourning over the destruction of the Maine.
Amid the chaos and ruin of that tragic night was written, in letters
of fire and blood, the doom of the land of Castile and Aragon.
We have now come to the history-making epoch, which neces-
sarily merits. more detail. Though actual hostilities did not com-
mence until two months and a half later, it has always seemed to
many that war was declared when the Maine was blown up, and
that Spain, then, fired the first gun'.
The Maine, it will be remembered, was one of our finest bat-
tleships; and though, by tonnage, she was classed as a second-rate,
in battery power and armor, we regarded her as one of our most effi-
cient vessels. She was of 6,648 tons displacement, and her armament
consisted of four io-inch guns, mounted in pairs in two turrets, six
of 6-inches, two forward and two aft, and one on each broadside,


eight 6-pounders, and four machine guns. She was also pierced
for seven torpedo tubes, .and carried two 30-foot torpedo boats.
On the water line, her armor-belt was of 12-inches, which was
also the thickness of the barbettes supporting the turrets, the upper
parts being of io-inches. A steel protective deck, two inches thick
on the crown and four on the slopes, covered the engines and boilers.
She was built at the Brooklyn Navy Yard, but her engines were put
in by the Quintard Iron Works. Her cost had been about $2,500,-
ooo, but with battery, ammunition, and stores on board $3,000,000
would have been a more accurate approximation.
Owing to the strained relations between Washington and Ma-
drid, no American war vessel had been in Cuban waters for two years.
So bitter was the feeling against our Consul and citizens, however,
that, in deference to public opinion, the Navy Department decided
to send the Maine to Havana. Her mission was not a hostile one,
but simply to protect the lives and property of American citizens-a
privilege conceded by all civilized countries during a state of war
or insurrection. After the destruction of the Maine, many instances
of unfriendly, even hostile actions, were recalled. Captain Sigsbee,
it is said, selected a certain anchorage, but before his vessel had
" come to," he was courteously informed by the Harbor Master
that the Government had chosen a better location for him. The
berth was one which, according to old shipmasters visiting Havana,
had never been occupied by any vessel during the insurrection. The
reason, they said, was because it lay directly over a submarine mine
Permanent moorings had
THE MAINE ENTERING HAVANA, PAST MORRO CASTLE.
been attached to the buoy,
however, and everything
apparently arranged for the
convenience and safety of
the visiting warship. Some
newspapers even asserted,
though I cannot vouch for





the accuracy of the statement, that the Spanish cruiser Alfonso XII.,
which was lying close aboard the Maine, changed her anchorage and
hauled further away a few hours before the explosion.
Many threats are said to have been made by the ultra-Spanish
element, to the effect that, should the Maine ever have the temerity
to train her guns upon the city of Havana, she would be silenced
within a few moments. At all events, where there was so much
smoke, it is but fair to presume there must have been some fire,
and, day by day, what was at first a suspicion gradually became a
conviction that the American battleship had been treacherously
destroyed, if not by direct orders from the Spanish Government, at
least by certain Spanish officials who alone knew the secrets of the
firing chamber which controlled the mines planted in the harbor.
This conviction, I must add, was entirely or .the part of
the public ; for, if the officials of our Government shared it, they
discreetly kept silent-indeed, many of them were quoted as believers
in the accident theory. Even the Jingoes" in Congress, who,
CAPTAIN CHARLES D. SIGSBEE, OF THE MAINE.it was believed, would burst forth and
E plunge the country into immediate war,
ri' were held in leash by the more conser-
'.Pii ,^ vative members. In this way, no offi-
cial opinion was expressed, either by the
-\ Executive or Legislative branches of our
Government, until the report of the
Board of Inquiry" was made public.
This Board, the members of which had
been named by the Bureau of Navi-
gation, consisted of Captain (now
Rear-Admiral) Sampson, Captain F. E.
Chadwick, Lieutenant-Commanders W.
P. Potter and Adolf Marix. Com-
mander (now Captain) F. W. Dickins,
U.S.N., in the absence of Commodore


MORRO CASTLE, HAVANA.


Crowninshield, then held the important position of Chief of the
Bureau of Navigation, to which office was addressed the many
cipher cable despatches from Captain Sigsbee. Upon these important
communications depended, not only the action of the Navy Depart-
ment, but the attitude of the national Government in the premises.
During these exciting times, Captain Dickins never left his office
day or night, and the President rarely issued an order without
conferring with him. What the country owes this gallant officer,
for his discretion and judgment, during those crucial moments of our
nation's history, none but the President himself fully appreciates.
It was Captain Dickins who first informed President McKinley
of the destruction of the Maine. I have often heard the Chief of
Bureau tell how the news of that tragic night impressed him. At
1.30 on the morning of February I6th, he was awakened by a
reporter, who came to inquire if it were true that the Maine had
been blown up in Havana Harbor. Having heard nothing official,
Captain Dickins replied that he could neither confirm nor deny the
news.- He thought, however, that it must be only one of the many
rumors that were daily being wired to Washington from Havana.
The newspaper man had scarcely departed, however, before a mes-
senger from the Secretary of the Navy, who was then living at the CAPTAIN F. w. DICKINS, U.S.N.





"Portland," came hur-
riedly to his house with a
cable from Captain Sigsbee
to the Department report-
ing briefly the destruction
of the Maine and the
great loss of life. With' it
was sent a short personal
note in lead pencil from
Secretary Long, asking
Captain Dickins to come
immediately to the "Port-
land." It was a wild,
blustrous night, and as
the Chief of Bureau hur-
ried through the deserted CAPTAIN-GENERAL WEYLER.
streets, with the news of
that tragic event fresh upon his mind, war seemed inevitable. The
Secretary was found awaiting him in the hotel office. After a brief
conference, it was decided to inform the President at once. Captain
Dickins, therefore, hastened over to the White House, and was
ushered into a large room adjoining the Executive's bedchamber.
SPresident McKinley appeared in his dressing-
i ,' gown, and the cable was given him.- He read
._ '. I it two or three times with great, gravity, and
Seemed deeply impressed. Then he handed back
the despatch, with. the request that he be called
again if there should be any further details.
While the country waited with bated
-l <3s breath, President McKinley displayed the utmost
coolness and tact under circumstances that would
Shave unnerved nine out of ten men. The
verdict of that Board, he knew, meant either


4


CAPTAIN-GENERAL BLANCO.


peace or war. An appro-
priation of $50,000,000,
for the national defence,
was recommended to Con-
gress and approved with-
out a dissenting voice.
Orders were issued to
place every available vessel
of the Navy in commis-
sion, and all of the navy
yards and ordnance shops
of the country were run
night and day. Trusted
agents were despatched to
scour the European mar-
kets for the purpose of
procuring options upon


all war vessels that could be purchased. In the meantime, the
Governors of the different States were requested to inform the
Secretary of War as to the 'exact number of men they could furnish
within twenty-four hours, and militia regiments were at once
recruited to their full strength.
On the 6th of March, Spain, through her representative at
Washington, intimated to our Government that the recall of Consul-
General Lee from Havana, and the assurance that no more supplies
would be sent in war vessels, would be gratifying. to her. Though
this was more of a request than a demand, public opinion naturally
became excited, and, for a time, it looked as though we were then
on the eve of a rupture. Secretary Day gave out the following
official statement, which met with universal approval:
The President will not consider the recall of General Lee. He
has borne himself through this crisis with judgment, fidelity, and cour-
age, to the President's entire satisfaction. As to the supplies for the

























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Drawn by
W. Louis Sonntag, Jr.


DESTRUCTION OF THE BATTLESHIP MAINE, AT HAVANA, FEBRUARY 15, 1898.


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relief of the Cuban people, all ar- ri
rangements have been made to send
a consignment this week from Key
West by one of the naval vessels,
whichever may be best adapted and
most available for the purpose, to
Matanzas and Sagua."
As soon as the attitude of this
Government was made clear, Sefior
Du Bosc, the Spanish Charge d'Af-
faires, called at the State Depart- FROM TAFFRAIL,
ment and practically withdrew the
request. He stated, further, that it all grew out of a misunderstanding
as to our Consul-General's course regarding certain matters in Cuba;
satisfactory explanations having been made, however, the Spanish
Government gladly withdrew its letter. In view of this action, and
because of the fact that the presence of United States warships
might further inflame the Spanish populace, the Government prac-
tically admitted the force of Spain's mild protest by revoking the
orders of the Montgomery and Nashville. The supplies were sent in
the lighthouse tender Fern, and the Montgomery was. detailed to
protect American interests in the harbor of Havana.
The activity in the Navy was now supplemented by a general
movement of the regular artillery, cavalry, and infantry, to the
Atlantic and Gulf coasts; Camps were established at Chickamauga,
Tampa, New Orleans, and Mobile, and, one by one, the different
regiments were moved so as to be within easy striking distance of
Cuba. A board of naval officers was organized to inspect and report
on all merchant vessels that could be converted into auxiliary cruisers,
and batteries were prepared for them.
In the meantime, Spain, realizing that the. day was fast ap-
proaching when she would be forced to either abandon Cuba entirely
or resort to the arbitrament of arms, began her customary trick of


LO(


S- pleading for time. In reply to a
note, which Minister Woodford pre-
sented on the 23d of March, asking
/ -that a date be fixed for the pacifi-
cation of Cuba, the Spanish Govern-
ment suggested that an armistice be
agreed upon until the Cuban ques-
tion could be finally settled between
.. the two governments. During the
period of this armistice, the United
OKING FORWARD. States was to continue feeding -the
Sreconcentrados," and Congress was
to drop the Cuban question. Thus might matters have been pro-
longed indefinitely, until there were no Cubans left to free, had not
a crisis come in the form of the official report of the Maine Board
of Inquiry. This historic document, the reproduction of which,
in its entirety, is prevented by lack of space, had such an important
bearing upon the events following, that extracts from President
McKinley's message transmitting it to Congress are given below:

" To the Cangress of the United States.

At 9.40 o'clock in the evening of the i5th of February the
Maine was destroyed by an explosion, by which the entire forward
part of the ship was literally READ-NG "EX RA
wrecked. In this catastrophe .
two officers and two hundred
and sixty-four of her crew per-
ished, those who were not killed
outright -by her explosion be-
ing penned .between decks by
.the tangle of wreckage, and
drowned by the immediate
sinking of the hull. Prompt





assistance was rendered by the
neighboring vessels anchored in
the harbor, aid being especially
given by the boats of'the Spanish
cruiser Alfonso XII. and the
Ward line steamer City of
SWashington, which lay not far
distant. The wounded were
generously cared for by the
S. authorities in Havana, the hos-
pitals being freely opened to
them, while'the earliest recov-
ered. bodies of the dead were
interred by the municipality in
a public cemetery in the, city.
Tributes of grief and sympathy
were offered from all quarters
THE COLORS AT HALF MAST. of the island.
The appalling calamity fell upon the people of our country with
crushing' force, and for a brief time an intense excitement prevailed,
which, in a community less just and self-controlled than ours, might
have led to hasty acts of blind resentment. This spirit, however, soon
gave way to the calmer processes of reason and to the resolve to inves-
tigate the facts and await material proof before forming -a judgment
as to the cause, the responsibility, and, if the facts warranted, the
remedy due. This course necessarily recommended itself from the
outset to the Executive, for only in the light of a dispassionately ascer-
tained certainty could he determine the nature and measure of his
full duty in the matter. The usual procedure was followed as in all
cases of casualty or disaster to national vessels of any maritime State.
A Naval Court of Inquiry was at once organized, composed of officers
well qualified by rank and practical experience to discharge the on-
erous. duty imposed upon them. Aided by a strong force of wreckers
and divers, the court proceeded to make a thorough investigation on
the spot, employing every available means for the impartial and exact
determination of the cause of the explosion. Its operations have been


conducted with the utmost deliberation and judgment, and, while
independently pursued, no source of information was neglected, and
the fullest opportunity was allowed for a simultaneous investigation
by the Spanish authorities.
The finding of the Court of Inquiry was reached, after twenty-
three days of continuous labor, on the 2 st of March, and, having been
approved on the 22d by the Commander-in-Chief of the Uiiited States
naval force on the North Atlantic station, was transmitted to the
Executive. It is herewith laid before the Congress, together with
the voluminous testimony taken before the court. Its purport is, in
brief, as follows:
"When the Maine arrived at Havana she was conducted by the
regular Government pilot to Buoy No. 4, to which she was moored in
from five and one-half to six fathoms of water. The state of discipline
on board and the condition of her.magazines, boilers, and coal bunkers
and storage compartments are passed in review, with the conclusion
that excellent order prevailed, and that no indication of any cause for
an internal explosion existed at any quarter. At 8 o'clock in the even-
ing of February I5 everything had been reported secure and all was
quiet. At 9.40 o'clock the vessel was suddenly destroyed. There
were two distinct explosions, with a brief interval between them. The


SPANISH CRUISER ALFONSO XII. AT HAVANA.






first lifted the forward part of the ship very perceptibly; the second,
which was more open, prolonged, and of greater volume, is attributed
by the court to the partial explosion of two or more of the forward
magazines. The
evidence of the
divers establishes
that the after part
of the ship was
practically intact,
and sank in that
condition a very
few minutes after.
the explosion. The
forward part was
completely demol-
ished. Upon the
evidence of a con-
current external
cause the finding
of the court is as
follows:

"That the
loss of the Maine
was not in any
respect due to fault
or negligence on
the part of any
of the officers or
members of her CAPTAIN CHADWICK. CAPTAIN S
crew; that the ship THE MAINE BOARD OF INQUIRY,
was destroyed by
the explosion of a submarine mine, 'which caused the partial explo-
sion of two or more of her forward magazines, and that no evidence
has been obtainable fixing the responsibility for the destruction of
the Maine upon any person or persons. I have directed that the


Nmr
ON


finding of the Court of Inquiry and the views of this Government
thereon be communicated to the Government of her Majesty, the
Queen Regent, and I do not permit myself to doubt that the sense
of justice of the
Spanish nation
will dictate a
course of action
suggested by hon-
or and the friendly
relations of the
two Govern-
ments.
1" It will be
the duty of the
Executive to ad-
vise the Congress
of the result, and
in the meantime
deliberate consid-
eration is invoked.
WILLIAM
McKINLEY.
EXECUTIVE MANSION,
"Marc i 28, 1898."

Congress, the
press, the people,
at once became
wild with excite-
ment. In the Sen-
ON. LIEUT.-COMMANDER MARIX. LIEUT.-COMMANDER POTTER.
THE DECK OF THE MANGROVE. ate and House,
resolutions declar-
ing war against Spain followed one another with bewildering rapidity.
Cool heads prevented any of these being adopted, however, until the
President should receive Spain's answer. Though the destruction of
the Maine had not been charged directly to the Spanish Government,












































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THE MAINE AS SHE APPEARED THE DAY AFTER THE EXPLOSION.
33


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the carefully worded re-
v -e port, coupled with the
inference that, in the
opinion of the Board,
the explosion had been
that of a submarine
mine, fixed. the blame
upon Spanish officials.
S- Who but an expert in
petin-: -- handling high explo-
BURIAL OF MAINE VICTIMS AT KEY WEST.
sives, they argued, could
have planted that mine ? Who but trusted officials knew the intricate
wires leading to the firing key, and the combination which closed
the circuit and sent that fatal current on its dastardly mission ?
The message of the President to the Spanish Government, after
calling attention to the loss of the Maine, had asked for an imme-
diate cessation of hostilities, and the removal of the Spanish troops
with a view to the ultimate independence of Cuba. The answer,
which was cabled to the State Depart- A GUN OF THE VIZ
ment by Minister Woodford on the
3 st of March, was not only unsat-
isfactory in every detail, but im-
pertinent as well. Regarding the
destruction of the Maine, more time
was asked before replying to the con-
clusions of the "Board of Inquiry"
that the vessel had been destroyed
by a submarine mine. No regret
was expressed; no apology offered.
All hopes of a peaceful settlement
now vanished, and both countries
continued even more active prepara-
tions 'for war.


CAY


Our Navy Depart-
ment purchased a num-
ber of merchant vessels,
yachts, and tugs, and
the work of. converting
and arming them was
immediately begun. The
most significant of our
preparations for war was
the charter of the Amer-
SPECIAL MEMORIAL SERVICE AT GRAVES OF THE MAINE'S DEAD,
ican liners St. Paul and HAVANA, MARCH 4TH.
St. Louis, and a few days later, of the Newv York and Paris. These
magnificent vessels, owing to their speed and displacement, proved
themselves invaluable as scouts and transports. Though the price
agreed upon, $2,500 a day for each, seemed excessive, the service
they rendered the nation more than outweighed their cost. Four of
our coastwise steamers, belonging to the Morgan line, were purchased,
and renamed the Yankee, Dixie, Prairie, and Yosemite. These ves-
S MAIN ATTER. sels were partly manned by officers
A'S MAIN BATTERY.
and men of the Naval Militia, and
S-rendered very efficient service. The
navy had also been increased by the
purchase of several war vessels abroad.
Still more significant were the orders
issued to our squadron in southern
waters. Decks were cleared for
action, all woodwork was removed,
and the officers sent their personal-
effects ashore for safe keeping. The
gleaming sides, which had won for
our vessels the sobriquet of "The
White Squadron," were soon hidden
by a war coat of sombre gray, which,



















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j. 1fl-Iare.


THE SPANISH ARMORED CRUISER VIZCAYA COALING IN NEW YORK HARBOR.


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while it detracted from their
appearance, decreased their vis-
ibility by many miles. Fires
were started, steam sustained
thde at a working pressure in every
boiler, and each ship was kept
'b t ready to meet the enemy within
fifteen minutes. At night, the
smaller vessels of the fleet were
sent outside of Key West Har-
bor on picket and patrol duty,
WOUNDED SAILORS FROM THE MAINE.
for the battleships, owing to
their great draft of water, were lying almost abreast of Sand Key light.
On the ioth of April, Consul-General Lee was recalled. He
was accompanied by Vice-Consul Springer, three employees of his
office, Consul Baker of Sagua la Grande, six reporters, and all the
American citizens who desired to leave Cuba. The.following day
the President sent to Congress his famous seven-thousand-word mes-
sage, in which he recited this and other revolutions in the Island of
Cuba, the injury done American interests, and the cruel and barba-
rous methods adopted by Spain, which, he said, were not warfare, but
extermination. The document was a powerful and logical argument
in favor of intervention, but did not favor a recognition of either the
belligerency or the independence of the insurgents. It is too volu-
minous to give more
CAPTAIN SIGSBEE WITH A BOAT-LOAD OF COFFINS.
than a brief outline; but
the paragraph referring to-
Spain's action when offi-
cially informed of the
finding of the "Maine
Board," is, owing to its
historic value, given in
full.


"To the Congress
United States.


of the


"These elements of danger
and disorder already pointed out
have been strikingly illustrated by
a tragic event which has deeply
and justly moved the American
STERN OF THE VIZCAYA. people. I have already trans-
mitted to Congress the report
of the Naval Court of Inquiry on the destruction of the battle-
ship Maine in the harbor of Havana during the night of the i5th
of February. The destruction, of that noble vessel has filled the
national heart with inexpressible horror. Two hundred and fifty-eight
brave sailors and marines and two officers of our Navy, reposing in


CUBANS AND SPANIARDS WATCHING THE VIZCAYA IN HAVANA HARBOR.


4 I
L -
A-, 1&.










































































Drawn by
W. Louis Sonntag, Jr.


NIGHT WORK ON THE MONITOR PURITAN.


37





the fancied security of a friendly harbor, have been hurled to death, which springs from the diversity of views between the reports of the
and grief and want brought to their homes and sorrow to the nation. American and. Spanish boards, Spain proposes that the facts be ascer-
The Naval Court of Inquiry, which, it is tained by an impartial investigation by experts,
needless to say, commands the unquali- whose decision Spain accepts in ad-
Sfled confidence of the Government, was vance.'
unanimous in its conclusion that the "To this I have made no reply."
destruction of the Maine was caused by
an exterior explosion, that of a submarine This historic message, which Spain
mine. It did not assume to place respon- claims precipitated the war, closed with
sibility. That remains to be fixed. In the .following appeal:
any event, the destruction of the Maine,
by whatever exterior cause, is a patent "In view of these facts and these
and impressive proof of a state. of things considerations, I ask the Congress to
in Cuba that is intolerable. That condi- i. authorize and empower the President to
tion is thus shown to be such that the "...take measures to secure a full and final
STARVING CUBAN
Spanish Government cannot assure safety BOY. termination of hostilities between the
and security to a vessel of the American Government of Spain and the people of
Navy in the harbor of Havana on a mission of peace Cuba, and to secure in the island the establish-
S and rightfully there. ment of a stable government capable of maintaining
"Further referring in this connection to recent order and observing its international obligations,
SENOR POLO Y BARNABE.
diplomatic correspondence, a despatch from our insuring peace and tranquillity and the security of SE P
Minister to Spain of the 26th ultimo contained the its citizens as well as our own, and to use the
COMMANDER WAINWRIGHT statement that the Spanish Minister for Foreign military and naval forces of the United States as
IG WRECK OF MAINE. Affairs assured him positively that Spain will do may be necessary for these purposes. And in the
all that the highest honor and justice require in the matter of the interest of humanity, and to aid in preserving the lives of the starving
Maine. .The reply above referred CAMP OF RECONCENTRADOS. people of the island, I recom-
to, on the 3Ist ultimo, also con- :. mend that the -distribution of
trained an expression of the readi- food and supplies be continued,
ness of Spain to submit to an and that an appropriation be
arbitration all the differences which made out of the public treasury
can arise in this matter, which is to supplement the charity of
subsequently explained by the our citizens.
note. of the Spanish Minister at "The issue is now with the
Washington of the 'ioth inst., as Congress. It is. a solemn re-
follows: .sponsibility. We have exhausted
"' As to the question of fact every effort to relieve the
38


LIEUTENANT
VIEWIN





intolerable condition of affairs which is at
our doors. Prepared to execute every
obligation imposed upon me by the Con-
stitution and the law, I await your
action."

Accompanying the Message, the
President transmitted to Congress the
consular reports, covering a period from
November I1, 1897, to April i, 1898.
Briefly summarized, they showed that of
four hundred thousand non-combatants WOUNDED SAILO
affected by General Weyler's inhuman
order of reconcentration, more than one half had died of starva-
tion or disease induced by lack of food. These reports were
certainly unanswerable arguments sustaining our right to intervene,
for conditions were described more horrible than
any pictured in the newspapers. THE HELENA RECEI
Now that war had become a certainty, an
incident occurred which many statesmen regarded
as the first move towards European intervention,
and had not President McKinley taken a firm atti- -
tude, and replied in terms which, though diplomatic,
meant in ordinary language mind your own busi-
ness," it is fair to presume that the next conmuni-
cation from the Powers would have been 1" We
cannot permit," instead of We earnestly hope."
The incident referred to
is explained in the follow-
ing note, which was person-
ally presented to President
McKinley by Sir Julian
Pauncefote, the British Am-
bassador. . .... .. .


RS FR


"The undersigned, representatives of
Germany, Austria-Hungary, France, Great
Britain, Italy, and Russia, duly authorized
in that behalf, address, in the name of
r '- ss their respective Governments, a pressing
... i~. appeal to the feelings of humanity and
moderation of' the President and of the
American people, in their existing differ-
ences with Spain. They earnestly hope
"that further negotiations will lead to an
agreement which, while securing the
OM THE MAINE. maintenance of peace, will afford all
necessary. guarantees for the re-establish-
ment of order in Cuba. The Powers do not doubt that the
humanitarian and purely disinterested character of this representation
will be fully recognized and appreciated by the American Nation."


VING HER WAR PAINT.


President McKinley replied as follows:


The Government of the United States recog-
nizes the good-will which has prompted the friendly
communication of the representatives of Germany,
Austria-Hungary, France, Great Britain, Italy, and
Russia, as set forth in the address of Your Excel-
lencies, and shares the hope therein expressed that
the outcome of the situation in Cuba may be the
maintenance of peace between the United States
and Spain by aftording the necessary guarantees
for the re-establishment of order in the island, so ter-
minating the chronic con-
dition of disturbance there
which so deeply injures
the interests and menaces
the tranquillity of the
American Nation by the
character and consequences


- "* 1


)a~





of the struggle thus kept
up at our doors, besides
shocking its sentiment of
humanity.
The Government of
the United States appreci-
ates the humanitarian and
disinterested character of
the communication now
made on behalf of the
Powers named, and for its
part is confident that equal
SOLDIERS CARRYING A WOUNDED COMRADE. appreciation will be shown
for its own earnest and
unselfish endeavors to fulfil a duty to humanity by ending a situation
the indefinite prolongation of which has become insufferable."

On the I4th of April, the House of Representatives adopted,
by a vote of three hundred and twenty-two to nineteen, a resolution
directing the President to intervene at once for the purpose of stop-
ping the war in Cuba, and empowering him to use the land and
naval forces of the United States to secure that end.
The action of the House was mild in comparison with that in
the Senate. The Foreign Relations Committee made an exhaustive
report, which arraigned the Government of Spain as no civilized na-
tion ever has been in the history of the world. Even the crimes of
the heinous Turk paled before those committed in Cuba, where the
mother country was openly charged with exterminating the children
and immolating the women in order that she might repopulate the
island with loyal subjects.
The Spanish Government was also directly charged with the
destruction of the Maine, which, the report says, "1was either
compassed by the official act of the Spanish authorities or made
possible by a negligence on their part, so willing and gross, as to be
equivalent in culpability to positive criminal action."


A resolution even stronger than that ; -
in the House was then adopted-the main
difference being that the Senate, in an
amendment, recognized the independence
of the insurgent government, while the .
House did not.
War was now practically declared, the
only question being in what form would
the resolution go down to posterity. Presi-
dent McKinley was not in favor of recog-
nizing the independence of the insurgent
government at that time, and his wise
counsel prevailed. After a deadlock of
several days, a compromise was effected CUBANS ENLISTING IN TAMPA.
and the resolution passed both Houses in the following form:
"Joint resolution for the recognition of the independence of the
people of Cuba, demanding that the Government of Spain relinquish
its authority and government in the island of Cuba, and withdraw
its land and naval forces from Cuba and Cuban waters, and directing


CUBANS DRILLING IN TAMPA.


CUBAN S


GENERAL GOMEZ.



















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Photograph by
CREW OF THE MAINE. Hart.

D
41


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the President of the United States to use the land and naval forces
of the United States to carry these resolutions into effect.
Whereaf, The abhorrent conditions which have existed for
more than three years in the island of Cuba, so near our own
borders, have shocked the moral sense of the people of the United
States, have been a disgrace to Christian civilization, culminating, as
they have, in the destruction of a United States battleship, with
two hundred and sixty of its officers and crew, while on a friendly
visit in the harbor of Havana, and cannot longer be endured, as has
been set forth by the President of the United States in his message
to Congress of April 11, 1898, upon which the action of Congress
was invited; therefore be it resolved,
First-That the people of the island of Cuba are, and of
right ought to be, free and inde-
pendent.
S"Second-That it is the
- .... duty of the United States to
Demand, and the Government of

demand, that the Government
of Spain at once relinquish its
authority and government in the
island of Cuba and withdraw its
Island and naval forces from Cuba
and Cuban waters.
-FIFTH INFANTRY (COLORED) AT KEY WEST.
Third-That the Presi-
dent of the United States be, and he hereby is, directed and
empowered to use the entire land and naval forces of the United
States, and to call into the actual
THE MARBLEHEAD
service of the United States the
militia of the several States to such
an extent as may be necessary to,,
carry these resolutions into effect.
Fourth-That the United
States hereby disclaims any dis-
position or intention to exercise -.


LANDING MARINES AT KEY WEST FROM TRANSPORT.


IN KE


sovereignty, jurisdiction or control over said island, except for the
pacification thereof, and asserts its determination when that is
accomplished to leave the government and control of the island
to its people."

President McKinley signed the Cuban Resolution at 11.24 on
Wednesday morning, April 20, 1898; he then notified the Spanish
Minister, Seiior Polo y Bernabe, who at once asked for his passports,
leaving the affairs of his country in
EY WEST HARBOR.
Sthe hands of the French Ambas-
sador and the Austro-Hungarian
Minister.
The following ultimatum was
then sent by cable to the Govern-
ment of Spain:


ARRIVAL OF TWENTY





"To Woodford, Minister, Madrid.
You have been furnished with the text of a joint resolution
voted by the Congress of the United States on the 19th inst.,
approved to-day, in relation to the pacification of the island of
Cuba. In obedience to that act the President directs you to immedi-
ately communicate to the Government of Spain said resolution, with
the formal demand of the Government of the United States that the
Government of Spain at once relinquish its authority and government
in the island of Cuba, and withdraw its land and naval forces from
Cuba and Cuban waters. In taking this step, the United States
hereby disclaims any disposition or intention to exercise sovereignty,
jurisdiction or control over said island, except for the pacification
thereof, and asserts its determination, when that is accomplished, to
leave the government and control of the island to its people, under
such free and independent government as they may establish.
If by the hour of noon on Saturday next, the 23d day of April,
instant, there be not communicated to this Government by that of
Spain a full and satisfactory response to this demand and resolution
whereby the ends of peace in Cuba shall be assured, the President

U. S. S. WILMINGTON.


will proceed without further '
notice to use the power and
authority enjoined and conferred
upon him by the said joint reso-
lution to such extent as may be
necessary to carry the same into
effect."

The severance of diplomatic
relations was regarded by Presi-
dent McKinley as a declaration
of war; therefore, at three
o'clock on the afternoon of
Thursday, April 2 st, orders
were sent Admiral Sampson to
proceed at once, with the ves-
sels under his command, to the
northern coast of Cuba, and
there establish a blockade.
General Nelson A. Miles,
Commanding the Army, and
Commodore A. S. Crownin-
U. S. F. S. NE\
shield, Chief of the Bureau of
Navigation, were then called to the White I
a conference with the Cabinet the following
adopted:
To blockade the coast of Cuba, without
making an attack on the defences of Havana.
To blockade Manila and other places in the
Philippine Islands.
To retain the Flying Squadron, under Com-
modore Schley, at Hampton Roads until further
orders.
To establish, as soon as practicable, a base


T-7


W YORK, STATIONED SEVEN MILES OFF KEY WEST.


House, and after
programme was


CAPTAIN F. E. CHADWICK, COMMANDING
THE NEW YORK.
-~--~5-------- -ai s-


r





of supplies in Cuba, and .-
then despatch a military ,,.. .._ -.
force to protect'it.
To call for oo,ooo000 ..
volunteers for the Army, as
soon as Congress should grant
the necessary authority.
To charter three hun-
dred transports for troops.
The first naval prize
of the war was the Buena
Ventura (Good Luck), a
'Spanish merchant steamer
plying between New York
and Havana. She was
captured on the morning CAPTURE OF THE BUENA
of April 22d by the Nash-
ville, Commander Washburn Maynard, just after the squadron had
got under way and was steaming out of Key West Harbor. A
prize .crew, under Ensign T. P. Magruder, was put on board the
Spanish vessel, which was brought into Key West. She was loaded
with lumber and is said to have been worth $500,000. The Pedro,
a Spanish steamer, which had discharged at Havana and was proceed-
ing to Sagua la Grande,
E NASHVILLE AT ANCHOR IN KEY WEST HARBOR.
on the north coast, was
the next prize. She was
captured April 23d by
the New York, and sent
into Key West with a
prize crew, under Lieu-
tenant E. E. Capehart.
At midnight of the
. --- 2 Ist, the Columbia and


VENT


.. ,, Minneapolis, two of our
.' fastest war vessels, left the
Flying Squadron at Hamp-
ton Roads, and proceeded
to sea under sealed orders.
S It was thought, at first,
That they had been in-
structed to hasten to the
relief of the battleship
Oregon, which was then
off the South American
coast, but later it was
learned that they had been
.- -sent on scouting duty, to
locate if possible the Span-
ish squadron.
URA BY THE NASHVILLE. s squadron.
On the afternoon of
April 23d, the President issuedhis first call for volunteers for the
army-one hundred thousand was the number originally desired,
but this was increased to one hundred and twenty-five thousand
at the last moment. Though the call was made on Saturday, it did
not go into effect until the
TORPEDO BOAT ERICSSON.
following Monday.
Great Britain was the first
nation to issue a proclamation
of neutrality, which she did on
the 25th. By its terms, all
United States vessels were re-
quired to leave British ports
within forty-eight hours. This
made it impossible for us to
utilize either the Albany or -
Somers; the former was in an





































































Photograph by
THE NEW YORK CHASING THE PEDRO. Byron.
Phoogap t .





unfinished condition at an
English shipyard, while
the latter, a torpedo boat
purchased .in Germany,
had put into Falmouth for
repairs.
On the 24th of April,
Spain issued a proclama-
tion, declaring null and
void all treaties between
her and the United States,
and giving five days for all
American vessels to leave
Spanish ports. She also
announced the fact that a
neutral flag would protect
all merchandise not con-
traband of war, but main-
tained the right to issue


JACKIES ON THE INDIANA WATCHING THI


letters of marque, declaring at the same time that she would treat as
pirates all privateers of other nations.
Early in the morning on the same day, the cruiser Detroit cap-
tured the big liner Catalina, a Spanish steamer trading between New
Orleans, Havana, and Spanish ports. She was the largest and most
valuable of the prizes captured
THE SPANISH PRIZE PANAMA, CAPTURED BY THE MANGROVE. valuable of the prizes captured
t -. thus far, having a displace-
ment of five thousand tons,
and with her cargo was said to
be worth $550,000. Shortly
before daybreak, while the
flagship New York was await-
ing the arrival of two small
-coasting schooners, after which


the Wilmington and Cush-
p ing had been sent, the
lookout reported a mer-
chant ship bound east,
chased by the Detroit.
The flagship quickly started
in pursuit, firing first a
blank cartridge, and then
a solid shot across her,
bows, as she drew near.
The chase proved to be
the Catalina, with a prize
crew on board from the
Detroit. She was loaded
with a general cargo and
provisions for the Spanish
army, and was sent into
Key West. Later in the
E MANGROVE CAPTURE THE PANAMA.. day, the gunboat Helena

proved to be equally as fortunate by capturing the Miguel Jover, a
Spanish steamer from Havana bound to Barcelona. The prize was
met one hundred miles east of Havana, and no other vessel being
within signal distance at the time of the capture, the Helena was
entitled to the full value of the vessel and cargo, which was said
to be worth $250,000.
THE MANGROVE.
Later in the day the
most exciting. event of the
war, thus far, occurred while
the vessels of Admiral Samp-
son were lying off Havana. i
At ten o'clock, the look-
outs at the masthead of the
New York, Cincinnati, and .. -i


L-.
CAPTAIN H. C. TAYLOR, COM-
MANDING THE INDIANA.,









j lf


SOME CAPTURED SCHOONERS IN KEY WEST HARBOR.


Marblehead reported a suspicious- .b
looking steamer heading inshore.
Chase was at once given, and as TAI A
THE CATALINA, A CA]
soon as it was discovered that
the stranger was a battleship, decks were cleared for action and
the crews called to quarters. The wind was then blowing from
such a direction that the chase's flag could not be distinguished,
but everyone on board, from commanding officer to apprentice
boy, believed and hoped that the first fight was at hand. Upon
drawing closer, however, the stranger proved to be the Italian
cruiser Giovanni Bausan, standing in for Havana.
On the 25th of April, the President sent a message to Congress,
transmitting for its consideration and action, copies of the corre-
spondence between the
TORPEDO BOAT P01
United States and Spain
since the passage of the
resolution demanding
the evacuation of Cuba.
The message was re-
ported to the Commit-
tee on Foreign Rela-
tions, which, after a ?" ; :. -"-
two hours' session, "'.
reported the following
declaration of war: _mEa __ _"


PTUR


RTER


.47


THE NEWPORT WITH PRIZES IN TOW.

_. First-That war be and
7the same is hereby declared to
ED SPANISH STEAMER. exist, and that war has existed,
.ED SPANISH STEAMER.
since the 21st day of April A.D.
1898, including said day, between the United States of America
and the Kingdom of Spain.
"Second-That the President of the United States be and is
hereby directed and empowered to use the entire land and naval
forces of the United States, and to call into the actual service of the
.United States the militia of the several States to the extent as may be
necessary to carry this act into effect."

It was an historic moment when the resolution was passed
unanimously, and as the clerk began to read it, the silence was
impressive. From one
: CHASING A PRIZE.
CHAS A PRIZE. end of the House to
the other, the fall of a
pin might have been
heard.
It was a difficult
matter for us to decide
upon any definite plan
of action afloat, for
the reason that our ves-
sels had to be moved
as circumstances might




S .... demand, to meet those of the
m enemy. He had then concentrated
his armored cruisers, torpedo boats,
and destroyers, at the Cape Verde
Islands, under Admiral Cervera. A
thousand wild rumors were quickly
spread throughout the country.
First, the New England coast cities
were to be bombarded, then an
OR O: -M attack was to be made upon the
RS O HE MONITOR URITAN. Gulf coast, while incoming vessels
reported having seen Spanish warships in the track of the big liners.
Looking at the checkered career of those unfortunate vessels, in the
light of events to-day, our efforts to run them to cover was like
chasing a will-o'-the-wisp, for the Spanish Admiral seems to have
had but one object in view-to keep as far away as possible from
our warships. The Navy Department decided, however, that the
sea power of Spain must first be crushed; then our vessels would
be free to commence offensive operations against the Spanish coast;
while the troops would be able to effect a landing in Cuba, without
CAPTAIN P. F. HARRINGTON, COMMANDING THE a powerful fleet of convoys.
PURITAN.
A At eight o'clock on the evening of April
26th, the little light-house tender Mangrove
won glory for herself, and prize-money for her
officers, by bringing into Key West the Spanish
liner Panama. This vessel had sailed from
New York with supplies for the Spanish army,
before hostilities had begun, and was not aware
of the existence of a blockade, when she was
hove to by a blank shot across her bows.
Ensign Dayton was sent aboard, as Prize
Master, with a crew of two men. The Indiana,
which was within signal distance when the cap-


ture was made, soon came up, and sent Naval Cadet Falconer with
fifteen marines to re-enforce Ensign Dayton. The most remarkable
feature of the capture was the fact that it was an American bluff"
pure and simple. The Mangrove's armament consisted of nothing


Lii


I--; ---


TURRET AND GUNS OF THE PURITAN.

larger than 6-pounder rapid-fire guns, while the liner was a very speedy
vessel. The Mangrove's searchlight did more than her battery, for the
night was dark and stormy,, and Captain Quevado was led to believe
that his captor was a much larger vessel.




























I,


1 .


SPhotograph by
THE UNITED STATES BATTLESHIP IOWA. E. Muller.


I-- -- --





On the same day the
President issued the follow-
ing historic document, es-
tablishing, in a measure,
the rules upon which the
war would be fought:

" By the Prefident of the
United States-

"A PROCLAMATION.

"Whereaf, By an act
of Congress, approved April THE MONIT
25, it is declared that war
exists and that war has existed since the 2ist day of April A.D. 1898,
including said day, between the United States of America and the
Kingdom of Spain; and,
Whereaf, It being desirable that such war should be conducted
upon principles in harmony with the present views of nations and
sanctioned by their recent practice, it has already been announced

DECK VIEW OF THE PRAIRIE. CAPTAIN C. J. TRAIN, OF THE PRAIRIE.


I.


that the policy of this Gov-
ernment will be not to resort
to privateering, but to ad-
here to the rules of the
Declaration of Paris,
Now, therefore, I,
William McKinley, Presi-
dent of the United States of
America, by virtue of the
power vested in me by the
Constitution and the laws,
do hereby declare and pro-
claim:
The neutral flag
covers the enemy's goods,


OR AMPHITRITE.


with the exception of contraband of war.
2. Neutral goods not contraband of war are not liable to con-
fiscation under the enemy's flag.
3. Blockades in order to be binding must be effective.
"4. Spanish merchant vessels, in any ports or places within the
United States, shall be allowed till May 21, 1898, inclusive, for loading


CAPTAIN W. H. BROWNSON, OF THE YANKEE
BIrniBB*i.S aai *


h" ,


ii i














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Alf C
S.1 "- -- --.







MMGfogafih b v
MAJOR ESTRAMPA DRILLING INFANTRY. T,,,,771'S.1.Ha,-e.


51-


an~ :,


r




their cargoes and
departing from such
ports or places, and
S such Spanish mer-
chant vessels, if met lL
at sea by any United
States ships, shall be
permitted to con- -
tinue their voyage
if, on examination
of their papers, it .
' shall appear that
their cargoes were
taken on board before the expiration of the
above term; provided that nothing herein con-
tained shall apply to Spanish vessels having on
board any officer in the military or naval service
of the enemy, or any coal (except such as may
be necessary for their voyage), or any other
article prohibited as contraband of war, or any
despatch of or to the Spanish Government.
"5. Any Spanish merchant vessel which,
prior to April 21, 1898, shall have sailed from
any foreign port, bound for any port or place in
the United States, shall be permitted to enter
such port and to discharge her cargo, and after-
wards forthwith to depart without molestation;
and any such vessel, if met at sea by any United
States ship, shall be permitted to continue her
voyage to any port
not blockaded.
6. The right
of search is to be
exercised with strict
regard for the rights
of neutrals, and the


GENERAL GOMEZ'S ESCORT.


COIONEI. BOSA, CHIEF OF GOMEZ'S STAFF, AND ESCORT.


voyages of mail
steamers are not to
be interfered with
except on the clear-
est grounds of sus-
Sa t picion of a violation
of law in respect
to contraband or
Blockade.
< In witness
-- e rs whereof, I have
hereto set my hand
and caused the seal
of the United States to be affixed.
Done at the city of Washington, on the
twenty-sixth day of April, in the year of our
Lord one thousand eight hundred and ninety-
eight, and of the Independence of the United
States the one hundred and twenty-second.
WILLIAM McKINLEY.
"By the PRESIDENT,
JOHN SHERMAN, SecrctZaiy of State."

At one o'clock on the afternoon of April
27th, the peaceful blockade was broken, and
for the first time since the Civil War three
of our national vessels went into action. The
result was encouraging to both officers and men,
for it showed not only a state of perfect dis-
cipline, but accurate
gunnery as well.
Few, if any, of the
sailors on board the
vessels engaged had
been under fire:


CUBANS ON THE MARCH, DOUBLE FORMATION.
52


SHARPENING A MACHE


CUBAN SENTINEL.





Before, and the cool, deliberate
manner in which they went at
their grim work was a forecast of
glory to come. As the first step
in active hostilities, rather than
from any result achieved, does
the bombardment of the shore
batteries at Matanzas merit a
detailed description.
Admiral Sampson, in the
CUBANS SHOUTING 'VIVA CUBA LIBRE" early morning, decided to leave
his blockading station off Ha-
vana, and take a run to the eastward as far as Matanzas. Reports
had reached him that the Spanish artillerymen were erecting shore
batteries at every commanding position along the north coast of
Cuba. Matanzas was the centre of activity, and not only were the
soldiers working like beavers, night and day, but they had twice fired
upon one of our torpedo boats, the Foote. The city of Matanzas
is fifty-two miles east of Havana, and is situated at the head of a
bay, four miles distant from the sea. To the west of the entrance
GENERAL GOMEZ'S CHIEFS OF STAFF DEPARTMENTS. lies Point Rubal Caya, to the east
S-- vPoint Maya, both heavily fortified,
owing to their elevation and com-
manding positions.
r % When the flagship reached Ma-
tanzas, she found the monitor Puritan
S- ".and the cruiser Cincinnati lying off
and blockading the harbor. Before
attacking, the Admiral decided to
.make a reconnaissance for the pur-
pose of ascertaining the enemy's
NA 1 strength. He was particularly anx-
~~ ious to definitely locate all of the


batteries, the type and calibre of
guns they mounted, and, above
all, to put a stop to any further
strengthening of the defences.
If, of course, this reconnaissance
should draw the enemy's fire, .
then it would be in accordance
with the etiquette of war to re-
turn the compliment. With the
above ends in view, the three
vessels steamed boldly into the
bay, their decks cleared for ac-
tion and guns shotted. The
New York, with Admiral Samp-
son and Captain Chadwick on GENERAL CARILLO AND STAFF RECONNOITRING.
the bridge, was leading. A few hundred yards off the port quarter
lay the monitor Puritan, and still farther astern, off to starboard, was


GENERAL GOMEZ'S STAFF AND ORDERLIES.
,jV












A NIGHT INCIDENT.


SCENES ON THE
BLOCKADE.


the cruiser Cincinnati. The vessels were
ranged for battle ir. the form of a triangle.
This enabled each to employ both broadsides
at the same time.
A few minutes before one o'clock, while
the flagship was seven thousand yards away
from the batteries, a small puff of smoke,
which, in the distance, looked little larger
than that from a cigar, seemed to rise almost
out of the earth. Before the sound of the
explosion could be heard, however, an 8-inch
shell from Point Rubal Caya came shrieking
for the New York, but fell a few yards short.
Before the wind had cleared the atmosphere
to the westward, there was another puff of
smoke from the batteries on Point Maya, and
another shell fell short of the flagship. s
The New York promptly replied with
EARLY MORNING OFF BAHIA HONDA.
*^---^-; ;-- -- ,.,:.

'. &aH. -... r .s -s


both starboard and port batteries, and then,
porting her helm and swinging around, she
closed in from seven to three thousand yards,
using first her forward, then her after guns,
until she seemed literally a blaze of fire from
stem to stern. As the batteries on Point
Rubal Caya were being rapidly pushed to
completion, the flagship stood over to the
westward and engaged them, while the Puri-
tan was ordered to silence those to the east-
ward, on Point Maya.
As soon as the range was accurately
established, the New York began to deliver
three shells a minute in Rubal Caya with
marvellous precision. Every shot would be
followed by a great cloud of yellow dust and
masonry, interspersed now and then with a
Spaniard or two. Over to the eastward, the
IOWA AND AMPHITRITE OFF HAVANA.





monitor was doing some excellent shooting herself, though Point
Maya was much farther away, and the range had not been obtained
with any degree of accuracy. As soon as this was known, the
Puritan's shells began to burst right over the fortifications, and great


SCENE OF NAVAL OPERATIONS.


was the destruction wrought by those 12-inch projectiles. Far astern,
the Cincinnati had been an anxious spectator, and Captain Chester
was patiently awaiting the signal that would order him to go into
action. When it began to look as though there would not be enough
of the shore left to make a target for his gunners, he made signal


asking permission to engage the enemy. Scarcely had this
request been granted before the Cincinnati ran close up to
the shore, within, at least two thousand yards of Rubal
Caya, and opened fire with her broadside guns. She and
the New York left little of the batteries ashore.
After the signal had been made to re-
tire, there was one last despairing shot from
Rubal Caya. This was answered by the
Puritan's great 12-inch rifle,. and so ac-
curately that it struck the shore gun itself,
ploughed its way through the earthworks,
and exploded with such destructive effect
that there seemed to be nothing left to CHAPLAIN CHIDWVCK, OF THE MAINE.
mark the location of the gun except a gre.
hole in the earth.
Not a single American vessel was ruck
or a man injured during the action, i -ough )
H.r n,,BTI three shells exploded very close to the New,
MCU .,PE York. The fact that such targets as our
S ', ships presented were not large enough for
vI oo the Spanish gunners to hit, demonstrated
i,: their poor marksmanship thus early in the
war. There were, in all, one hundred and
eleven shots fired-eighty-six from the three
American warships and twenty-five from the
shore batteries. The loss of life on the
Spanish side has never been ascertained. It
was supposed to be very great, though Cap- t .
tain-General Blanco, in his official report to the Spanish
Government, facetiously reported that the only loss of life
was that of a mule. This animal later became known to
history as the Matanzas mule," and served as a motive for
innumerabCOMMANDER C. C. TODD, OF THE
innumerable cartoons in our comic periodicals. WILMINGTON.





The next cap-
ture of importance
was made by the
monitor Terror. Her
prize was the Guido,
a Spanish steamer
bound from Coru'a .. .
to Havana, with
MUSTERING SAILC
provisions and MUSTERING SAIL
money for the Spanish soldiers. The Terror, having a
speed of only six knots, had to depend entirely upon her
guns to effect the capture. When the enemy was first
sighted, and a blank cartridge failed to bring him to, his
iLlhts were quickly masked and an attempt was made to
esc, )e. So accurate was the fire from the American guns,
howcer, that four 6-pounder projectiles accomplished
quite \as much as speed. The first shot entered the
\Guido's pilot house, wounding Quartermaster Manuel
Rivas. The second carried away her lifeboat. The
third destroyed the pedestal upon which stood the
standard compass, and the fourth brought down part of
her rigging in a bight.
Though the bombardment of the shore batteries at
Matanzas may be regarded as the first action of the war,
the auxiliary cruiser Eagle, formerly the yacht Almy,
claims the honor of having been the first vessel of our
navy to engage one of the enemy's warships. The action
took place off Cienfuegos, Cuba, on the afternoon of April
29th, and had the news of this plucky fight reached the
United States the following day, the little Eagle would
have been covered with the glory that she well merited.
It happened that the Cienfuegos affair was reported to
Washington, by one of our own vessels arriving at Key


)RS I


West, only a few days after
Admiral Dewey's great vic-
tory at Manila. This, of
course, so eclipsed the Eagle's
engagement, that while the
country was flooded with en-
thusiasm for the hero of
.. Manila, the press did not
INTO THE SERVICE. give to the exploit the at-
tention that it would have otherwise commanded.
The Eagle, under the command of Lieutenant W. H. H. South-
erland, reported to Admiral Sampson, off Havana, on the morning
of April 25th. She was immediately assigned to duty with the divi-
sion under Commander B. H. McCalla, of the cruiser Marblehead.
This division consisted of three vessels, the Marblehead, Nashville,
and Eagle. On the same afternoon, the three vessels were ordered to
the south coast for the purpose of intercepting the Spanish armed


LIEUTENANT W. H. H. SOUTHERLAND,
COMMANDING THE EAGLE.


LIFTING GUN SHIELD OF U. S. S.
MAINE.











































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Copyright, 1898, by P. F. Collier.


*I.-_- ,..- ,


.- .: .'" : .


NEW YORK.


MARBLEHEAD.


A--
OOE. '- - MAYFLOWR.







| FOOTE. MAYFLOWER.


KEEPING THE BLOCKADE. FLAGSHIP NEW YORK SIC NAILING A.


~-avla,,. .I ';:,LW -:-. -

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.w.,:~.* o' -n : -. '-

INDIANA. CUSHING.
Painted by
Renry Rerle dabhl.


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.. LUMIVIYIUUUKI. L nHLY.


j. IHE MASSACHUSETTS.


THE FLYING SQUADRON AND
57


4. THE BROOKLYN.


ITS COMMANDER.


5. THE MINNEAPOLIS.


0. THE COLUMBIA.


Copyright, 1898, by
Chares E. Bolles.


-- ---~~


I


I. I n 1- A O.




























CAPTAIN F. J. HIGGINSON, OF THE
MASSACHUSETTS.


CAPTAIN CHARLES D. SIGSBEE.


transports Alicante and
Montserrat. They reached
Cienfuegos on the morning
of April 29th, when the
Nashville captured the
Spanish steamer Argona-
uta, bound from Batabano
to Cienfuegos, the Marble-
head and Eagle standing
by to aid her if necessary,.
After the prize had
been taken, the Eagle was
directed to proceed to the
mouth of Cienfuegos har-
bor, where she was to be
placed on blockade duty.
Scarcely had she taken her
position, fifteen hundred
yards from the lighthouse
on Colorados Point, before
the Spanish torpedo gun-
boat Galicia, supported by
a smaller vessel, left the
harbor and steamed over in
the direction of the Eagle.
Both of the enemy's ves-
sels opened fire upon the
American, their shots faill-
ing quite close and all
around her. The fire was
immediately returned from
the Eagle's 6-pounders, at
ranges varying from -four


Lofyriglht, 1898, by E. Muller.


BATTLESHIP MASSACHUSETTS,
58


thousand to twenty-two
hundred yards. For fif-
teen minutes the fire was
well sustained on both
sides, that from the Ameri-
can vessel being so ac-
curate that the Spaniards
were forced to retire, the
Galicia having been struck
twice. One shot pierced
her smoke-stack, and an-
other passed through her
boiler.
The Eagle, having
pursued the Spaniards to
the entrance of the har-
bor, came within range of
the batteries on shore.
These opened fire on her,
and were soon joined by
one of the Spanish vessels,
which steamed out to re-
new the attack. In the
meanwhile, Commander
McCalla, who had gotten
under way in the Marble-
head at the sound of the
first gun, hastened to the
relief of the Eagle. With
blazing sides he steamed
for the harbor mouth, and
quickly silenced the en-
emy's fire ashore and













































IN THE FIRE ROOM OF A WARSHIP DURING A CHASE.

59


I19


Painted by
B. west Chinedinti.


_ I




afloat. A few weeks later it
was learned that the Galicia
had been so severely injured by
the fire from the Eagle's guns
that it required five weeks to
repair her.
The Eagle's battery con-
sisted of four 6-pounders and
two Colt automatic guns, while
the Galicia carried two 4.7-inch breech-loading rifles, four
6-pounders, one machine gun, and two torpedo tubes.
Washington, in the meantime, had become greatly dis-
turbed over the report that Germany had declared that she
would not permit the bombardment of Manila, owing to the
vast mercantile interests owned there by German subjects, but
the same report announced that no opposition would be offered
to our landing troops. Commodore Dewey, however, regardless
of what Germany would or would not permit, was steaming at full
speed across the China Sea, with orders to use his own discretion

THE EAGLE.


pr s~~


/ "in capturing or destroying the
Spanish fleet.
A few days before the
American squadron sailed from
Hong Kong, there was read to
the crews of each vessel a
unique manifesto from the pen
of Captain-General Augusti. It
was what is known in Spanish
as an "hoja suelta" (flying
sheet), and appeared in the form
of a written address to the Fili-
pinos. As an exhibition of su-
preme ignorance and impu-
dence, I venture to say it has
never been equalled in the his-
THE FORWARD SIX-POUNDER ON THE EAGLE. tory of the world, and for this

reason I give it below in full. The evident intention was to awaken
intense hatred of the Americans, and every human passion, religious,
social, and patriotic, was appealed to, with the hope that the natives
would be excited to a white heat. The document in question read:


"Spaniard : Between Spain and the United States of North
America hostilities have broken out. The moment 'has arrived to
prove to the world that we
FORWARD DECK OF THE EAGLE.
possess the spirit to con-
quer those who, pretending
to be loyal friends, take ad-
vantage of our misfortune
to abuse our hospitality,
using means that civilized
nations count unworthy and
disreputable.
"The North Ameri-
can people, constituted of


r


/71


.-. I :___


- ~t.le~- :
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all social excrescences, have ex-
hausted our patience and provoked
war by their perfidious machina-
tions, their acts of treachery, their
outrages against the laws of nations
and international conventions.
The struggle will be short
and decisive. The God of Vic-
tories will give us one as brilliant
and complete as the righteousness
and justice of our cause demand.
"Spain, which counts upon
the sympathies, of all nations, will
emerge triumphant from this new
test, humiliating and blasting the
adventurers from those United States
that, without cohesion, without his-
tory, offer humanity only infamous
traditions and ungrateful spectacles
in her chambers, in which appear
insolence, defamation, cowardice,
and cynicism.
"Her squadron, manned by
foreigners, possessing neither in-
struction nor disci-
pline, is preparing
to come to this ar- SPANISH PRISONERS IN THE
chipelago with ruf-
fianly intention, robbing us of all that means life, honor,
and liberty, and pretending to be inspired by a courage
of which they are incapable.
"American seamen undertake as an enterprise
capable of realization the substitution of Protestant-
ism for the Catholic religion, to treat you as tribes
refractory to civilization, to take possession of your
riches as if they were unacquainted with the rights


HOL


of property, to kidnap those per-
sonrs they consider useful to man
their ships or to be exploited in
agricultural and industrial labor.
"Vain designs, ridiculous
boastings Your indomitable brav-
ery will suffice to frustrate the
realization of their designs. You
will not allow the faith you pro-
fess to be made a mockery or im-
pious hands to be placed on the
temple of the true God, the images
you adore thrown down by un-
belief. The aggressors shall not
pollute the tombs of your fathers.
They shall not gratify lustful pas-
sions at the cost of your wives'
and daughters' honor, or appro-
a. private property accumulated in pro-
vision for your old age.
1"They shall not perpetrate
these crimes, inspired by their
wickedness and covetousness, be-
cause your valor and patriotism
will suffice to punish THE ARGONAUTA.
a base people that are.
LD OF THE NASHVILLE. claiming to be civi-
lized and cultivated.
They have exterminated the natives of. North America,
instead of giving them civilization and progress.
Filipinos, prepare for the struggle, and, united
under the glorious Spanish flag, which is covered with
laurels, fight with the conviction that victory will crown -
your efforts, and to the calls of your enemies oppose
the decision of a Christian and a patriot, and cry
'Viva Espaa !' "





Among the brilliant actions
of the war, the Battle of Manila
stands solely and pre-eminently
alone. It was the first and only
fleet engagement-the single ac-
tion that was fought to a finish;
and Rear-Admiral Dewey, on that
memorable "May Day," not only
> carved another name in the Tem-
ple of Fame, but won for himself
a place by the side of Nelson,
Perry, and Farragut.
There have been attempts,
by some carping critics, to lessen
the glory of this great achieve-
ment, owing to the fact that our
vessels were of a more modern
type than the enemy's; but these
very writers, either through igno-
rance or malice, have neglected
to record the fact that though
the Spanish fleet may have been
inferior in armament it was supe-
rior in numbers, and that it was
re-enforced not only by modern
fortifications and shore batteries,
\but by a harbor mined with the
latest type of modern torpedoes.
', Lord Howard avoided an en-
)CH.
gagement with the "Invincible
Armada." Nelson lured the en-
emy into the open sea. Perry lay
off a friendly haven, and Farragut


COMMODORE GEORGE DEWEY, COMMANDING THE ASIATIC SQUADRON IN THE PHILIPPINES.
62


operated from a base; but Dewey,
with a hostile fleet before him
and the pathless ocean behind,
steamed boldly into an almost un-
known harbor, realizing that it
was either victory and glory, or
defeat and annihilation. There
have been battles in which the
odds against the victor were
greater-engagements longer and
more stubbornly fought-actions
that have had a more potent in-
fluence upon the history of na-
tions-but not one wherein the
entire force of the enemy was
destroyed without a serious casu-
alty on the other side.
From this standpoint, the
"Battle of Manila" occupies a
unique position in the annals of
modern warfare, and adds another
to the list of brilliant triumphs of
the American Navy. Talleyrand
says: Nothing succeeds like
success"; but even had Dewey
failed, his pluck and dash in en-
tering a strange harbor, strongly
fortified, mined with floating tor-
pedoes, and distant eight thou-
sand miles from his nearest base,
would have placed him in the list
of daring, though unsuccessful
commanders. His ability as a


FLAG LIEUTENANT T. M.
BRUMBY, OF THE OLYMPIA


CAPTAIN D. B. HODGSON
COMMANDING THE McCULLO












































6 *


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Photograph by
Taber.


DEWEY'S FLAGSHIP, THE OLYMPIA.


'''


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fighter, therefore, needed to be supplemented by the skill of a navi-
gator and the forethought of a strategist.
In recording the history of this engagement it may be interesting
to recall other great naval battles.
At New Orleans, Farragut had one vessel sunk, thirty-seven
men killed, and THE UNITED STAT
one hundred -,.-. .
and forty-seven i
wounded. -
At Mobile "


ES A


At Navarino, the allies had one hundred and seventy-seven
killed and four hundred and eighty wounded, and the Turks six thou-
sand killed.
At Lissa, the Kaiser went down with all on board; and the
Austrians, at Lepanto, lost about eight thousand men, though they
succeeded in
SIATIC SQUADRON.
-..-- -- --killing twenty-
-. five thousand

irik Bhi Turks.y have
I S --I Many have
ir.MP' .f i .1 t fdr 1ff^ j i, ^^**


BOSTON. BALTIMORE. PETREL. OLYMPIA. CONCORD. RALEIGH. McCULLOCH.


THE SPANISH SQUADRON OF THE PHILIPPINES.


COMMODORE DEWEY, COMMANDER
OF THE AMERICAN SQUADRON.


ADMIRAL MONTOJO, COMMANDER OF
THE SPANISH SQUADRON.


Bay, the Tecum- -
seh was tor-
pedoed, and the
loss of life on DON ANTONIO DE ULLOA. VELASCO. ISLA DE CUBA.
loss of life on
the Union side was very great: one hundred and sixty-five were killed
and drowned, and one hundred and seventy wounded, while the
Confederates had only ten killed and sixteen wounded.
At Lake Erie, Perry had twenty-seven killed and ninety-six
wounded, the British loss being forty-one killed and ninety-four
wounded.


*. been the theories
advanced to ac-
count for the
-STILLA. DON JUAN DE AUSTRIA. ISLA DE LUZON. m as s c-
marvellous suc-
cess of the Americans at Manila. Some have charged .the Spaniards
with cowardice-others have deemed them deficient in gunnery.
Neither of these accusations, however, is fair or true; for the pierc-
ing of the cruiser Baltimore and the bursting of a number of shells
on the decks of our ships prove that the range was correctly esti-
mated and the aim good; while the fact that, despite the terrific


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A-HOLLAND SUBMARINE BOAT EJECTING SHELL.
B-WHITEHEAD TORPEDO.
C-HOWELL FISH TORPEDO.
D-SIMS-EDISON AUTOMOBILE FISH TORPEDO.
E-FIXED BOTTOM MINES.
F-BUOYANT MINES.
G-BUOYANT MINE WITH TIDAL ADJUSTMENT.
H-ANCHOR FOR GROUP OF BUOYANT MINES.


Drawn by
TV. Louis Sonntag, Jr.


OUR DIFFERENT SUBMARINE DEFENCES.


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great disadvantage. Dewey seemed to have divined
this, for had he followed the Castilian maxim, and
waited till maiana, the Spanish fleet would have been
riding to their anchors many miles away from the
Manila battleground.
The Americans, it was thought, would never dare
to force a passage into Manila Harbor under cover of
darkness. For, were not the dangers of navigation
Great, and had not all lights and beacons been extin-
guished ? It was, therefore, in the nature of a sur-
prise when the Spanish sailors turned out of their
hammocks in the gray of early dawn, and traced the
outlines of six American warships confronting them
in battle array. Admiral Montojo's vessels were all
at anchor, moored bow and stern, some not even with
h-e,. n -h d-d- fires banked. And when, later, they slipped their
PANORAMIC VIEW OF THE CITY OF MANILA, CAPITAL OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS.
cannonading the Spanish fleet had to face, not a single
ship surrendered is an evidence that the enemy fought
with a courage born of despair. As a lesson in naval
warfare, it was a triumph for the gun, for neither did
the ram nor torpedo play any part in the conflict.
Our success was due to the marksmanship of the
American sailors and the rapidity of fire from their lad-: -
guns, which completely dazed the enemy. a
Another factor that contributed to Admiral
Dewey's success was surprise-an element that has
before won great battles. He fought the enemy where
he, not they, desired. The Spanish Admiral, it is said,
intended to engage the American fleet in Subik Bay, a
small arm of the sea, thirty miles to the north and east
of Manila. Here, the geographic features of the land-
locked harbor would have placed the Americans at a






cables and got under
way, it was not to
manceuvre for a rak-
ing fire, as did our l
ships, but only to hug
the shore, knowing
that the deep draft of
the American vessels
would not admit of
their fighting at close
quarters. CHURCH
Though Admiral
Dewey's was the brain which outlined the plan of battle, and his
supreme intelligence directed the forces that destroyed the enemy,
victory was due, not to his energies alone, but to the superb dis-
cipline of the crews that fought under him. It was the acme of
organization-the perfection of detail.
Scarcely was a signal hoisted on the flagship, before, it was
instantly and faithfully executed by the commanding officers of the
different vessels. A point to starboard or port out of the prescribed
course-a knot less in speed-a slower fire in the main or-sec-
ondary batteries-the
ondary batteries-the PLACE OF EXECUTION-CRI
mistake of a degree in
elevation, or of a few
yards in range-might
have prolonged the
conflict and cost the
lives of many Ameri-
can sailors.
Down in the
grimy bowels of the
ponderous fighting
machines, where the


AT M


-- .. -- temperature rivalled
Hades, the stokers
gY were firing the fur-
Snaces, unmindful of
the din and roar of
battle overhead. The
quartermaster at the
helm, the petty officer
at the gun, the surgeon
in the cockpit, and
MAYJAY-JAY. the engineer at the
throttle, each contrib-
uted his mite to the glory of the day. Thus were the Spaniards
taught that the "men behind the guns" are factors in the battle
problem of far more importance than modern ordnance-than even
the most superb courage.
The American squadron was lying in the harbor of Hong Kong,
when the following official cable was received:
"Washington, April 26th. Dewey, Asiatic Squadron.-Com-
mence operations at once, particularly against Spanish fleet. You
must capture or destroy it. McKINLEY."


MINAL AT THE GARROTING POST.


These were the
orders that had been
anxiously, I may say
longingly, anticipated
ever since the news of
the destruction of the
Maine had been flashed
under the Pacific.
From forecastle
to cabin you could not
fail to observe that


SPANISH-MALAYAN WOMAN.










PICTURES FROM THE
PHILIPPINES.


sense of relief, which
comes only after long .
days and nights of weary I,'I-
waiting. In the glitter
of the keen eyes that
were so soon to sight
those monster guns, and .F
startle the world by their -
ON THE RIGHT BANK OF
marvellous accuracy, one
could not detect the slightest trace of desire for acquisition of ter-
ritory, or dream of empire. It was "an eye for an eye-a tooth
for a tooth."
The fleet then consisted of the protected cruisers Olympia,
Captain Charles V. Gridley; Baltimore, Captain N. M. Dyer; Bos-
ton, Captain F. Wildes; and Raleigh, Captain C. G. Coghlan;-the
gunboats Concord, Con- ENTRANCE TO RIVER
mander Asa Walker, and ,
Petrel, Commander E. P.
Wood; the revenue cut- J
ter McCulloch, Captain
D. B. Hodgson; and the "
transports Nanshan, Lieu-
tenant B. W. Hodges,
and Zafiro, Ensign H. A.
Pearson. The two last-
mentioned vessels had
been purchased by di-
rection of the Commo-
dore-the Nanshan with -
three thousand tons of -
Cardiff coal on board,
and the Zafiro for use as
a reserve magazine vessel.


PAS


At the request of
the Governor-General of
Hong Kong, forty-eight
4. Y hours after the declara-
tion of war the Ameri-
can vessels were cour-
teously invited to leave
the harbor. The squad-
PASIG, HARBOR OF MANILA. ron then steamed to-
ron then steamed to-
wards Mirs Bay, a Chinese roadstead lying to the north of the island of
the same name, where a stop of two days was made. At two o'clock
on the afternoon of Wednesday, April 27, I898, the squadron got
under way, and stood out into the China Sea, pointing their prows
for the Philippine Islands, distant six hundred miles to the south and
west. While making passage, every hour was utilized in preparing
for battle. On the first
IG, HARBOR OF MANILA.
S night out, the stillness
S ; of the mid-watch was
t broken by the blare of
the bugle on the flag-
ship. This was quickly
a answered by red and
.... ,.t..n sir.white signal lights on
the different vessels, and
seven minutes after the
order, although the men
had been suddenly awak-
ened, all of the ships were
stripped for battle, and
'Captain Gridley reported
to the Commodore :
The squadron is ready
for action, sir."


THE


NATIVE IN STREET COSTUME.


R








I I


/
A
kf


Painted by
AN AMATEUR STRATEGY BOARD. A. B. Tenzell.


1 .1 _--





On Saturday morning, April
3oth, the lookout at the masthead
reported: "Land ahead." It was
the island of Luzon, the largest of
the Philippine group. The crucial
moment had come, and the squad-
ron was hastily prepared for ac-
tion. The sheet chain cables were
bighted around the ammunition
hoists, and nets of tough manila-
rope were woven and stretched
beneath the boats, to shield the
crew from flying splinters. The sailors were then called upon to
make many sacrifices, and yet there was not a murmur. In order to
remove all inflammable material, it was deemed advisable to dispense
with all articles not absolutely necessary; so overboard went Jack's
chests, tables, chairs, books, and last, but not least, his treasured
" diddy box." This contained little trinkets, locks of hair-enough
to have made a good-sized mattress-and the photographs of his best
girls from every quarter A TYPICAL
of the globe. It is also
said, though I have not
been able to verify the
statement, that the
Commodore called upon
his officers and men for
a still greater sacrifice,
and that this they as
cheerfully made: though
not an order, he advised
each to have his hair
shingled as close as pos-
sible. This was for the


T, IS


twofold purpose of withstand- i iTJ'i l 1 lll ii!i I
ing the heat and facilitating
the work of the surgeon in
case of scalp wounds.
After sighting the Phil-
ippine coast, the Baltimore,
Boston, and Concord were
detached and sent ahead on
scouting duty. They steamed
first for Bolinao Bay, but
found no trace of the enemy TAME BUFFALO TRAINED TO FARM WORK.
there. Then they called in
at Subik Bay, where it was thought that the Spanish fleet might be
lying in ambush. The harbor was deserted, save for the presence
of two Spanish coasting schooners, the crews of which were conven-
iently ignorant. They had not seen the Spanish fleet-did not know
where it was-or even the direction of Manila. The senior officer did
not stop to capture or destroy them. He had bigger game in view.
In the afternoon the scouts joined the flag, and the whole
OF LUITE. squadron lay to off the
ISLAND OF LUITE.
entrance to Subik Bay.
Then a signal from the
.flagship was made for
the commanding offi-
cers to repair on board,
where a council of
war" was held in the
cabin. When the re-
ports from Bolinao and
Subik were made, the
Commodore replied :
"- Very well, then; Ma-
nila it must be." The


LICENSED


CAPTAIN J. B. COGHLAN.























































































PRESIDENT McKINLEY.


LYMAN T. GAGE,
Secretary of Treasury.


JOHN D. LONG,
Secretary of Navy.


WILLIAM R. DAY,
Secretary of State.


RUSSELL A. ALGER,
Secretary ef T7ar.


THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES

71


Photograph by
AND HIS CABINET. zerie -7 PuZ:.


_ _ ~P I 111


--III





captains were informed
that the bay would be
entered that night by
the Boca Grande, the
southernmost channel,
for he was convinced
that the enemy was there
anchored under the guns
of Cavith. It was then
6 o'clock on the after-
noon of April 3oth, and
MAJOR-GENERAL H. C. MERRIAM. three hours' easy steam-
ing should bring the
squadron to the entrance
of the bay, thirty miles
distant. The red sun..
VIEW OF MANILA, FROM THE GREAT BRIDGE THA
sank into the sea that
afternoon, but its rich tropic afterglow and the pale zodiacal light
found few enthusiasts among officers or men. Each was thinking
of the thrilling drama, perchance tragedy, that the morrow would
doubtless bring forth.
The course was shaped for Corregidor Island, which, though
commanded by heavy batteries, held the deeper water. Here, also,
the current was swift and erratic, making it improbable that any sub-
marine mines would be encountered. It
IN PANGASINAN, THE RICE DISTRICT OF THE NORTH.
was just 8 o'clock when land was reported
dead ahead. All lights were immediately
masked, and the squadron formed into
single column of vessels, with the flagship
..leading. After her came the others in.
the following order: Baltimore, Raleigh,
Petrel, Concord, Boston. To the rear of
the fighting vessels came the transports


T C(


Nanshan and Zafiro,
and then the little Mc-
Culloch.
As the squadron
steamed by Corregidor,
orders were given in a
whisper, and there was
no sound on board save
the steady throb of the
n engine and the swish of
the propellers. It was
the desire of the Com-
modore not to draw the
t. fire of the forts, but to
steal into the bay undis-
covered, if possible, and
CONNECTS THE "NEW," CITY WITH THE "OLD."
then to surprise the
Spanish fleet at daybreak. Past the shore batteries sneaked the
first division of the squadron without a sign of recognition, though
the flagship was within easy range. The gauntlet had been almost
run, when suddenly the heavens were illumined by a shower of
sparks from the McCulloch. This was followed by the shrill blast
of a bugle ashore, and then the deep boom of a gun across the
water. It was the first practical demonstration of the bad marks-
manship of the Spanish gunners, DRYING SUGAR IN A FACTORY YARD.
for where that shot, and two
others that succeeded it, fell no -
one has ever been able to dis-
cover. At all events, it struck -
no target smaller than the ocean.
The insignificant attack was
answered by a +-inch shell from
the Concord, an 8-inch from the .


72
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REINA CHRISTINA.


BATTLE OF MANILA, MAY I.


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C(opyri4hri. 1898, by P. F. Collier,


CASTILIA.


BOSTON.


EIALTIMORE.


OLYMPIA.


'Pait'ld by
J. G. Tyler.


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ADMIRAL CERVERA OFF SANTIAGO, JULY 3.


OBA1L COLON.


OQUENDO.


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Boston, and a 4-pounder from
the McCulloch. Each of
these is believed to have done
some damage, for cries were
S- heard ashore, and the bat-
Steries soon became silent.
After this harmless pre-
Se a lude from a fortress that was
and st s in said to be bristling with
Krupp guns, the American
squadron steamed slowly and
NATIVES LAUNCHING A CANOE.
uninterruptedly in the direc-
tion of Manila. The night was dark, and that silent sail over a
tropic sea, with the peaceful stars overhead and possibly death below,
is one that will be long remembered. Those brave men, who made
history and won glory for the country they loved, will tell it to their
children's children- how in the blackness of the night, eight thou-
sand miles away from home and friends, they had planted the stars
and stripes in a new empire. If you would realize the moral effect of
the torpedo, picture to yourself the shattered ruins of a proud warship
in the foul waters of Havana Harbor, and how, without a moment's
warning, or an opportunity for defence, you might be lifted bodily
from the sea and dropped down
HAULING A CANOE WITH TRO


into eternity.
After the harbor forts were
passed, the squadron slowed' down
to steerage way. The retreat "
sounded across the water, and the
men, who for hours had stood at
their guns with lanyards in hand,
were given a brief respite. The
crews were so exhausted from the
nervous pitch to which they had


been- keyed that they slept : : --
beside their guns, despite the -, ..-'
anxious anticipations of a
day that has since passed
into history illumined by the
most glorious victory in the
annals of the American Navy. 77,
A glance at the chart ----
will show that to the south "
of New Manila there is a -*---.-
wide bight, or pocket, in the
GOING ASHORE IN A CATAMARAN.
bay. On the end of the
point, toward the sea, is Cavit6; and upon a narrow tongue of
land, extending northeast from Cavite, stands the Arsenal. Powerful
shore batteries had been erected at Cavite, the Arsenal, and New
Manila; and under cover of these, well back in the bight, lay the
Spanish fleet at anchor. From a strategic standpoint, the position
was almost impregnable, for before any guns could be brought to
bear upon a vessel at anchor, they would themselves be exposed to
a severe cross-fire. Here it was that Commodore Dewey found
the enemy at daybreak on Sunday, May ist.
It was just 5 o'clock in the morning when the American
fleet, in single column of vessels,
)OPS UP ON THE BEACH. .
SP ON THE BEACH. standing toward Manila, steamed
by at .a speed of eight knots. The
flagship -Olympia led, followed by
T the Baltimore, Raleigh, Petrel, Con-
cord, and Boston. The McCulloch
.. .. ^ and the two transports stood over
S. .... to the westward, away from the

line of battle. The Spanish fleet
lay to starboard at a distance of five
S' :,thousand yards, and the flagship


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Reina Cristina, followed by the larger
vessels, immediately slipped her cable and
got under way. As soon as the Olympia
came within range of the guns of New
Manila, they opened fire upon her. Com-
modore Dewey signalled the Concord to
reply with her secondary battery, as he
feared that the great guns of the larger
vessels might miss the shore batteries and
destroy a part of the crowded city.
Off Cavite, two submarine mines
were exploded just ahead of the flagship.
The sea rose in great geysers that sparkled
in the rising sun, but did no damage.
The Spaniards had miscalculated the ves-
sel's position. A few minutes' delay in
transmitting the electric current might
have destroyed the flagship and sent her
to the bottom like her unfortunate sister
the Maine. It was quite evident that the
Spaniards were not able to manipulate
submarine mines in war as successfully as


CHAPEL ON PLAZ


Ilk I *
'


CATHEDRAL Al


they did in peace. Dewey stood on, not
hesitating for an instant. Now the heavy shore batteries opened on
the American fleet, and shells were bursting on all sides. Still our
gunners replied not-they were saving their projectiles for more
effective work.
A WORKHOUSE.
-- w'. After seeing the
smaller vessels safely an-
chored out of the line
of fire, the American
Commodore made a de-
TWp tour to the east, and


then stood on toward New Manila, where
the city walls and church towers could
be seen crowded with spectators. It was
his intention to engage- the enemy while
steaming in an ellipse. When the forts
and fleets had been passed, our vessels
wheeled, presented their port broadsides
to the enemy, and then headed south.
Suddenly, above the roar of shot,
Sthe shriek of shell, and the whistle of
;A, CAVITE. machine-guns, there arose a mighty shout
from four hundred throats,
Remember the Maine !
From ship to ship the refrain was
taken up, until it echoed across the still
waters of the bay. The Commodore then
turned to his fleet captain, and said:
"When you. are ready, you may
fire, Gridley."
Now the battle was on, and Dewey
7 ,.... prepared to return his compliments to
Montojo. The turret of the flagship
T CAVITE.
began to revolve slowly, bringing the
8-inch guns into action. For an instant the Olympia reeled and
then shook from stem to stern, throwing a hail of shot and shell
upon the Spaniards ashore and afloat. The other vessels of the fleet
soon joined in the chorus of this
Sh NATIVE MAKING CORD.
weird battle-hymn-this deep-
voiced requiem for their com-
rades of the Maine. The Span- "
ish vessels fought with fierce
determination. Their shots fell
thick and fast, but the God of .:.


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Painted by

BATTLE OF MANILA. Gilbert Gaul.


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War was on the side of those who -were fighting
to avenge the crime of the century. Dewey stood
on the forward bridge of the flagship, glasses in
hand, directing the movements of his vessels as
though engaged in target practice, instead of
fighting a battle that was destined to place him
upon the pinnacle of fame.
With helm a-starboard, straight for the Span- A COMPOSITE OF A
ARCHI
ish fleet he headed, closing in until the distance
was reduced to four thousand yards. Here the water shoaled, and
he was forced to slow down. Steering a course parallel to the
enemy's line of battle, he continued to fire in column of vessels,
giving them first broadsides from his port battery, then wheeling
and opening upon them with his starboard. Five times did the
American ships file by the Spaniards, closing in at each turn until the
range was two thousand yards. The .Spanish flagship seemed to bear
the brunt of the action, and soon was burning fiercely. Admiral
Montojo then shifted his
flag to. the Isla de Cuba, AGUINALDO, CHIEF OF THE INSURGENT F
and by doing so escaped
the fate of the captain
of the Cristina, who was
killed shortly afterwards: -
The Castilla and Don An-
tonio de Ulloa were next
to follow, sharing the fate
of the flagship.
During the action,
several of the -American
vessels were struck, but,
strange to say, no one was
killed and very little dam-
age done. One shell, which


FILIPI


came shrieking toward the Olympia's forward
bridge, burst a few hundred yards short, one frag-
ment carrying away part of the rigging, another
crashing into the spar deck directly under the
f iH Commodore, and a third smashing the bridge
Bgratings. Another shot parted the signal halyards,
which were in the hands of Flag Lieutenant
ICAN AND PHILIPPINE Brumby. The Baltimore was pincushioned by one
rURE.
shell, while another ripped up her deck, disabled
a 6-inch gun, and exploded a box of 3-pounder ammunition, wound-
ing Lieutenant F. W. Kellogg, Ensign N. E. Erwin, and seven men.
A shell struck the Boston's port quarter and burst in Ensign
Dodridge's stateroom. This started a hot fire, which was soon
extinguished. Another passed through the Boston's foremast, not
far from where Captain Wildes was standing; and still another set
fire to the port hammock netting.
It seemed as if the -guns of the entire fleet were concentrated
upon the Spanish flagship,
NOS, AND A GROUP OF HIS FOLLOWERS. C w
Reina Cristina, when she
attempted to break the
American line. Her helm
was soon put over, how-
ever, and she ran in again.
It was then that the great-
est shot of the battle was
made, by an 8-inch shell
from the Olympia. This
struck the Spanish flagship
square in the stern, tearing
its way through partition
bulkheads and engines until
it reached the after boiler.
Here it exploded, scattering





bits of steel and mangled human bodies in every direction. This
single shot practically disabled the Spanish flagship, killing sixty of
her crew, including the executive officer and captain.
While the Olympia engaged the Cristina, two small boats from
the Mindanao attempted to torpedo the American vessels. One
attacked the flagship,
while the other headed
for the transports. The
former, which managed
to live until within five
hundred yards of the
Olympia, was sunk,
smothered by machine
and rapid-fire guns ;
while the latter was -,,A .,--
driven back by the
little Petrel with her
four-pounders.
At 7.30, after the
American fleet had
steamed by the enemy
for the fifth time, the .
Commodore decided to
retire beyond the range .. o
of the Spanish guns, .A-. .
and give his men a M
chance to rest and eat HONG KONG, BRITAIN'S GREAT SEAPORT IN CHINA, AN
breakfast, for they had
fought, thus far, on nothing but hard-tack and coffee. Another
reason was to give the atmosphere a chance to clear, for the
bay was so enveloped with powder-smoke, and gas, that it was
impossible to distinguish either forts or ships. The situation was a
practical demonstration of the necessity of using smokeless powder in


D Al


battle. The Spaniards misunderstood the American move, for as soon
as our vessels stood away from the line of fire, a mighty cheer went up
from Montojo's sailors, and the soldiers manning the Cavite batteries.
They were doomed to bitter disappointment later, for the Commodore
remarked: "Let them amuse themselves as they will; we have not
begun fighting yet."
As soon as our
fleet had retired to the
western side of the bay,
the captains were sum-
moned by signal on
board the flagship. To
the surprise of every-
one, there were neither
-" *i casualties among the
---. 2. i men, nor serious dam-
age to any of the vessels.
This seemed almost in-
Scredible after a two
hours' hot engagement.
At i i o'clock the
action was resumed, and
the excellent work of
the early morning car-
ried to a glorious finish.
The fleet was again
ADMIRAL DEWEY'S NEAREST POINT OF COMMUNICATION. formed in single col-
umn of vessels, this time
with the Baltimore in the lead, followed by the Olympia, Raleigh,
Petrel, Concord, and Boston. The Baltimore, heading straight for
the Cristina, which was still afloat, bore the brunt of the concen-
trated Spanish fire.. Time and again she was struck, but still there
came no reply. When the- range was finally reduced to three





thousand yards, she put her helm over, swung around, and
poured into the former Spanish flagship a broadside that
literally staggered her. When the smoke-clouds rolled
away, the Cristina had blown up, and all that remained
of her crew were swimming for the beach.
After the destruction of the Cristina, the Baltimore
trained her guns upon the Austria, in which she was
joined by the Olympia and Raleigh. The Spaniard
fought with desperation, but a shell from the Raleigh
struck and exploded her magazine. Up went her decks
into the air with such force that fragments of the ill-fated
vessel actually tore away the bulwarks of the Elcano,
which lay near by. The Petrel with one shot easily fin-
ished the latter vessel. The General Lezp, which had
given some trouble in the early part of the action, was
then engaged by the Concord and soon silenced, her crew
jumping into the sea as soon as she caught fire. The
Velasco and Castilla were the next to pe put out of exist-
ence by the Boston, aided by the Concord and Baltimore.
The Don Antonio de Ulloa was the last of the Spanish
vessels to sink, and she was game to the end. With
colors nailed to the mast ard guns firing as long as there
was a man left to serve them, she went down beneath
the waters of the bay.
Admiral Don Patricio Montojo y Pasaron, who from
the deck of the Isla de Cuba saw around him the shat-
tered and blazing hulks of his once fine squadron, now
hauled down his colors and escaped to Manila. The
fleet then turned its fire upon the shore batteries, and
so terrific was the cannonading, that Cavite soon ran up
the white flag, and the battle of Manila had passed into
history. At the masthead of the American flagship flut-
tered the signal Cease firing," but before this was
78


AUMIKAL SCHLEY IN FATIGUE UNIFORM.


ADMIRAL SAMPSON IN FATIGUE UNIFORM.














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THE HARBOR OF MANILA, AND SUBIK BAY.

SLIGHTLY REDUCED, IN FAC-SIMILE, FROM THE CHART PREPARED BY THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT. THE SCALE OF THE LARGER MAP IS ABOUT THREE AND ONE-HALF MILES TO THE
INCH; OF PORT SUBIK, SEVEN MILES TO THE INCH. THE DARKER SPOTS ON ISLANDS, SHOALS, AND POINTS INDICATE POSITIONS OF LIGHTHOUSES. THE FIGURES WITH WHICH MANILA
BAY IS DOTTED INDICATE DEPTH OF WATER, IN FATHOMS.


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ALFONSO XIII., KING OF SPAIN, AND HIS MOTHER, THE QUEEN REGENT.


answered the little Petrel had run further into the harbor and sunk
the Duero, Quiros, and Villalobos.
The loss of life on the Spanish side is not known with certainty;
at first it was thought to be about six hundred. Admiral Montojo,
however, is said to have reported to the Governor-General that four
hundred and fifty men were killed and wounded on the ships, and
one hundred and seventy-five in the forts.
On the opposite page is a list of the different vessels taking part
in the action, showing their dimensions and armaments in tabulated
form, and the number of sailors that manned them.
As soon as the news of the victory of Manila was officially con-
firmed, the Secretary of the Navy, by direction of the President, .sent
the following cable to Commodore Dewey:
"Washington, May 7th. Dewey, Manila.-The President, in
the name of the American people, thanks you and your officers and
men for your splendid achievement and overwhelming victory. In rec-
ognition he has appointed you Acting Rear-Admiral, and will recom-
mend a vote of thanks to you by Congress. LONG."

Three days later the President sent the following special message
to Congress:
" To the Congress of the United States.
"On the 24th of April, I directed the Secretary of the Navy to
telegraph orders to Commodore George Dewey, of the United States
Navy, commanding the Asiatic squadron, then lying in the port of
Hong Kong, to proceed forthwith to the Philippine Islands, there to
commence operations and engage the assembled Spanish fleet.
Promptly obeying that order, the United States squadron, con-
sisting of the flagship Olympia, Baltimore, Raleigh, Boston, Concord,
and Petrel, with the revenue cutter McCulloch, an auxiliary despatch
boat, entered the harbor of Manila at daybreak on the Ist of May
and immediately engaged the entire Spanish fleet of eleven ships, which
were under the protection of the fire of the land forts.
"After a stubborn fight, in which the enemy suffered great loss,





AMERICAN SHIPS


~LENGTH COM-
VESSEL. CLASS. TONS. LENGTH COM ARMAMENT.
IN FEET. PLEMENT.


Olympia.*
Baltimore.
Raleigh.
Boston.
Concord.
Petrel.


Protected cruiser.
Protected cruiser.
Protected cruiser.
Protected cruiser.
Steel gunboat.
Steel gunboat.


5,870
4,400
3,200
3,200
1,700
890


34-0
327.6
300
270.3
230
176


400
400
350
35.0
250
150


Four 8-in., ten 5-in., fourteen 6-pounders, six I-pounders.
Four 8-in., six 6-in., four 6-pounders, two 3-pounders, two i-pounders.
One 6-in., ten 5-in., eight 6-pounders, four i-pounders.
Two 8-in., six 6-in., two 6-pounders, two 3-pounders, two i-pounders,
Six 6-in., two 6-pounders, two 3-pounders, one i-pounder.
Four 6-in., two 3-pounders, three i-pounders.


SPANISH SHIPS


VESSEL.


Reina Cristina.*

Castilla.

Don Antonio de Ulloa.
Don Juan de Austria.

Velasco.
Isla de Luzon.

Isla de Cuba.

General Lezo.
Elcano.
Marques del Duero.

Isla de Mindanao.
Quiros.
Villalobos.
Two torpedo boats.


CLASS.


Steel cruiser.

Wooden cruiser.


Iron
Iron

Iron
Steel


cruiser.
cruiser.

cruiser.
sloop.


Steel cruiser.

Gun vessel.
Gun vessel.
Despatch vessel.

Auxiliary cruiser.
Steel cruiser.
Torpedo gunboat.


LENGTH
TONS. T.
IN FEET.


3,520

3,342

1,130
1,130

1,152
1,030

1,030

524
524
500

4,195
315
315


282

246

210
210

2IO
185

185

157-5
I57.5
157-5


376.5
155
I55


COM-
PLEMENT.


370

300

130
130

'73
i6o

160

97
i16
98


6o
60


ARMAMENT.


Six 6.2-in. (Hontoria), two 2.7-in., three 2.2-in. rapid-firing, two i.5-in.,
six 3-pounders, two machine.
Four 5.9-in. (Krupp), two 4.7-in., two 3.3-in., four 2.9-in., eight rapid-
firing, two machine.
Four 4.7-in. (Hontoria), two 2.7-in., two rapid-firing, five machine.
Four 4.7-in. (Hontoria), three 2.2-in. rapid-firing, two 1.5-in., five
machine.
Three 5.9-in. 4-ton (Armstrong), two 2.7-in. (Hontoria), two machine.
Four 4.7-in. (Hontoria), one 46-pounder rapid-firing, two 3-pounders,
two machine.
Four 4.7-in. (Hontoria), one 46-pounder rapid-firing, two 3-pounders,
two machine.
Two 4.7 in. (Hontoria), one 3.5-in., two rapid-firing, one machine.
Three 4.7-in. (Hontoria), two rapid-firing, two machine.
One 6.2-in. muzzle-loading rifles (Palliser), two 4.7-in. smooth-bores, one
machine.

Two 2.2-in. rapid-firing, three machine.
Two 2.2-in. rapid-firing, two machine.


* Flagship.
81





these vessels were destroyed or completely disabled and the water bat-
tery at Cavite silenced. Of our brave officers and men not one was
lost, and only eight injured and those slightly. All of our ships
escaped any serious damage.
"By the 4th of May Com-
modore Dewey had taken posses-
sion of the naval station at Cavit6,
destroying the fortifications there
and at the entrance of the bay and
parolling their garrisons. The
waters of the bay are under his
complete control. He has estab-
lished hospitals within the Ameri-
can lines, where two hundred
and fifty of the Spanish sick and
wounded are assisted and pro- i
tected.
"The magnitude of this
victory can hardly be measured
by the ordinary standards of naval
warfare. Outweighing any mate-
SMAJOR ROBE, FOURTEENTH INFANTRY (RE
rial advantage is the moral effect
of this initial success. At this unsurpassed achievement the great
heart of our nation throbs, not with boasting or with greed of
conquest, but with deep gratitude that this triumph has come in
a just cause and that
Sgra o G STEAMER CITY OF PEKI'
by. the grace of God ...
an effective step has .
thus been taken toward : .. .
the attainment of the
wished-for peace.
"To those whose
skill, courage, and de-
votion have won the -
fight, to the gallant -* .. -
commander and -the


brave officers and men who aided
lable debt.


;GUL


him, our country owes an incalcu-


Feeling as our people feel and speaking in their name, I. at
once sent a message to Commo-
dore Dewey, thanking him and
his officers and men for their
Splendid achievement and over-
whelming victory, and informing
him that I had appointed him an
acting Rear-Admiral.
I now recommend that,
following our national precedents
and expressing the fervent grati-
tude of every patriotic heart, the
thanks of Congress be given to
Acting Rear Admiral George
Dewey, of. the United States
Navy, for highly distinguished
Conduct in conflict with the.
enemy, and to the officers and
men under his command for their
ARS), AND OFFICERS OF HIS BATTALION. gallantry in the destruction of the

.enemy's fleet and the capture of the enemy's fortifications in the bay
of Manila. WILLIAM McKINLEY.
"EXECUTIVE MANSION, May 9, 1898."
Following is the
4 THE WAY TO MANILA.
text of the resolution
that was immediately
passed by Congress:
Joint resolution
.. .. tendering the thanks of
Congress to Commo-
dore George Dewey,
United States Navy, and
to the, officers and men


82








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Photograph by
TROOPS MARCHING THROUGH SAN FRANCISCO TO EMBARK FOR THE PHILIPPINES. Tabe-.


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of the squadron
under his command.
Resolved, By
the Senate and House
of Representatives of
the United States of
America, in Con- THE CHINA, CARRYING TO MANILA GENERAL GREE
gress assembled, that
in pursuance of the recommendation of the President, made in
accordance with the provisions of Section I,io8 of the Revised
Statutes, the thanks of Congress and of the American people are
hereby tendered to Commodore George Dewey, U.S.N., commander-
in-chief of the Asiatic station, for highly distinguished conduct in
conflict with the enemy, as displayed by him in the destruction of
the Spanish fleet and batteries in the harbor of Manila, Philippine
Islands, May I, 1898.
Sec. 2. That the thanks of Congress and the American people
are hereby extended .through Commodore Dewey to the officers and
men under his command for the gallantry and skill exhibited by them


NE AND STAFF AND TWO BATTALIONS OF REGULARS.


from six to seven,
to provide for Com-
modore Dewey's pro-
motion :

Section i :
That the number of
Rear-Admirals in the


United States Navy, now allowed by law, be and is hereby increased
from six to seven, and this act shall be construed and taken as validat-
ing and making in force and effect any promotion to said rank of
Rear-Admiral in the United States Navy made heretofore or hereafter
and during the existing war and based on the thanks of Congress."

Senator Lodge also presented and the Senate passed a resolution
authorizing the President to present a sword to Rear-Admiral Dewey
and medals to the officers and men under him who were in the battle
of Manila. It appropriates $1o,ooo for the purpose.
The day that Commodore Dewey was fighting his great battle


on that occasion.
"Sec. 3. Be it
further resolved that
the President of the
United States be re-
quested to cause this
resolution to be com-
municated to Com-
modore Dewey, and
through him to the
officers and men
under his command."

The following
is the bill passed by
Congress raising the
number of admirals


/





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i*""" ' ",


/ ,.,


--
-. -I - A M -- ----
Cohyright, t898, /iyj. S. Jolkimeam.


in Manila Bay, news
reached Washington
of the departure of
Admiral Cervera's
squadron from the
Cape Verde Isl-
ands. It had sailed
at daybreak, April
29th, for a destina-
tion unknown to our
Government, and, as
events -showed later,
unknown even to its
Commander in-
Chief. The vessels


U. S. CRUISER CHARLESTON, DESPATCHED WITH SUPPLIES TO COMMODORE DEWEY.


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