Front Cover
 Title Page
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Title: Folk-lore journal
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00080956/00007
 Material Information
Title: Folk-lore journal
Physical Description: Book
Publication Date: January 1880
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Bibliographic ID: UF00080956
Volume ID: VID00007
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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Resource Identifier: oclc - 7819478

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Back Cover
        Page 21
        Page 22
Full Text

. Seter:no.quid x r a


* ;" :' ',-, -- '. *. ', .*" -" : ; ," -. " ". " : =.:

C O. , -, TENTS, : .. .

A Draught :-k etch: . r- ..
S. Anthropologial .r. titute Fiom the papers of the late. Dr.
Blc k ... ... ... .. .
The; Stlory of T insh alishali
S..-.. ad. d U. momdsibucu .... Contributed by The Rev. W.
.' -. Ireland 6 '
;-. Some. inor Superstitions and
: Custom of .the. Zulus, _.2 -.'
connected with. Children ,, hMs. "ugh Lan-
S caster .irbutt 10
Much- hj- hng disturbs .
ti ':, "..- bat were lying. .till ,, The Rev. W
Henry R. Bevan 14.:
Reark B e'-".i n ito l g th e Word
emak cin cli. n t -... By The Rev. Roger Price 18
'*** .':".y o :upers"tiO-s'" d .P ... 18 :.. ..= ':." .:-. -. i,

.270, STRAND.
S 1880.

....7" s .

*!, . .: =
- ... .'


Semper novi quid ex. Africa.


JANUARY, 1880.


A. Draught. Sketch for an
Anthropological Institute
The Story of Tmshalishali
and Umlomo'sibucu ...
Some Minor Superstitions.and
Customs of the Zulus,
connected with Children
Much Searching disturbs
things that were lying still
Remarks concerning the word
Kint ... ... ...

From the papers, of the late Dr.
Bleek... ... ... .... 1
Contributed by The Rev. W.
Ireland ... 6

S ,, Mrs. Hugh Lan-
caster Carbutt 10
S The Rev. W.
Henry R. Bevan 14
By The Rev. Roger Price ... 18

270, STRAND.



(By W. H. I. Bleek, PH.D.)

[The following draught sketch for an Anthropological
Institute (possibly still unfinished) was written by the late
Dr. Bleek, within the last few months of his life. Al-
though circumstances, at that time, prevented the realisation
of his idea, it is hoped that, under favorable circumstances,
it may, one day, still be carried out. In the mean time, an
effort has been made to gather up and publish in an easily
accessible form, in the pages of this journal, a small portion
of the mass of floating material alluded to by Dr. Bleek.
The task, although surrounded with difficulties of all kinds,
has not been without encouragement, particularly in that
which has been afforded by the assistance and cooperation
of Missionaries and other residents among the Native

South Africa so rich in its varieties of natural products
and in its diversity of animal life, is most interesting in the
contrasts of human developments to be there met with.
There is perhaps no other country in which such distinct
races of man have been found from old times living together;
and these races are here represented by the most primitive
types of their kind, and therefore the most instructive.
Firstly Kafirs, Betshuana, and Damara, each with a
distinct, though kindred (euphonious polysyllabic Prefix-
pronominal) language, agricultural, pastoral, polygamous,
living under hereditary chiefs, addicted to ancestor worship,
eminently prosaic in their ideas and literature, are the least
A 2


advanced of the Bantu nations who are spread over almost
the whole of South Africa, and to whom the great mass of
the Negro race throughout Africa seems to belong.
Secondly the Iottentots, speaking in several closely re-
sembling dialects one clicking monosyllabic Sexdenoting
language, pastoral, occasionally polygamous, organised in
tribes under chiefs, originally worshipping the moon, &c.,
with poetical ideas, and a traditionary literature full of
myths and fables, and with a decimal system of counting
which is of easier application than the Bantu (Kafir, &c.)
one,-are certainly the lowest known representative of those
nations possessing Sexdenoting languages, which fill North
Africa, Europe, and part of Asia, and among which are
found the most highly cultivated nations on earth.
Lastly the Bushmen as far as is known speaking only
dialects of one harsh clicking and guttural monosyllabic
language of -the Genderless (Max Miller's Turanian)
Class, which is phonetically more primitive even than that
of the Hottentots, a hunting nation, worshippers of the
moon, &c., generally strictly monogamous, poetical in their
ideas, with an extensive original folklore mostly of a mytho-
logical character, and resembling in this the Hottentots, but
destitute of any numerals beyond the third, and very
deficient in any political organisation, and notwithstanding
that in artistical faculties and inclination they exceed the
other aboriginal -South African nations, yet far inferior to
them in all points of civilisation.
Besides these three distinct aboriginal races, there are
also not only those who have been introduced in historical
times, either natives of the Indian Archipelago, or Negroes
from tropical Africa, and different European nations in
their various physical and moral. habits as they develop
themselves in South African ground, to be studied. Of no
small importance is further the -mixture of the different


races, and its effects on the formation of body and mind,
and in the habits and customs produced by such mixtures.
There is thus a richness of ethnological and anthropo-
]ogi-al material to be met with in and on the borders of this
Colony, a richness without parallel perhaps in any other
quarter of the globe. The importance of this material has
also been practically acknowledged by its being selected as
a most eligible field of observation by movie than one scholar
who has made it the special object of his study. Especially
Dr. G. Fritsch must here be mentioned, who has given us
a work on the Natives of South Africa, which by the dil-
igent scholarly digestion of the great mass of materials col-
lected by hini exceeds probably every other anthropological
work. In fact we do not know any other part of the world
wvdiI.h can show a similar complete description of its native
Yet, of course, the subject is far from exhausted, and it
cannot be expected that an Author who has only had three
years of pei'sonal experience in South Africa, could be either
on all points correct or could in any way achieve to penetrate
thoroughly many sides of his important subject. But by
furnishing a valuable text book, he has supplied the want of
a comprehensive manual, which shows us at once what is
generally known, and what has still to be further inquired
into, and on what points especially the researches ought to
be carried on.
There are a great many people in and oil the borders of
this Coldny who by their circumstances or profession, have
necessarily a good deal of valuable information regarding the
natives, either on special points, as e.g., doctors of their
physical constitution, or of special races, with whom they
continually come in contact, as the Missionaries, Govern-
ment agents and special Native Magistrates, or even as
travellers or traders. All this information which in many


cases is based upon the experience of a great number of
years, is in itself exceedingly valuable, but there is a great
fear of a great deal of it being lost to science, if no organ
is found, by which it can be collected, and made public
property. And at later periods it can never be replaced, as
with the vast strides which South Africa is making in the
progress of civilisation, the native races will either be swept
away, or so altered as to lose many of their ancient habits,
customs, traditions, or at least greatly to modify them.
At the same time the different ethnological and anthropo-
logical Societies established all over Europe are constantly
pressing for such information and help as it is not in the
power of a single individuum to give, and they and the
Museums also are desirous of all sorts of objects which can
serve to illustrate the ethnology and anthropology of South
It is therefore proposed to invite all those who take an
interest in the anthropology and ethnology of South Africa,
and those particularly who have any special knowledge of
the Natives, be they Missionaries, Government Officers,
medical practitioners, or others who continually come in
contact with the Natives, to join in the formation of an
Anthropological Institute. This is to hold meetings once
every month at Cape Town (with branches if possible in the
country), to issue a periodical, and to establish, in con-
nection, if possible with the Museum already existing, an
Ethnological Museum, which is mainly to be dedicated to
the Natives of South Africa but from which also other types
of mankind are not to be excluded, in so far as this is prac-
ticable by a system of exchanges with other Societies and


(Contributed by the Rev. William Ireland.)
Esikatini esitile kwa ku kona amakosana amabili, amagama
awo ku ngo Shalishali no 'Mlomo'sibucu. Ku yi lowo ena
bantu bake.
Ngolunye usuku ba bona umhlambi wezinyoni zi dhlula.
UShalishali wa ti ku 'Mlomo'sibucu, Ma si hambe si zi
landele, si yo bona lapo zo lala kona, si zi bambe.
Ba hamba bona nabantu babo. Za fika emblangeni, za lala.
Ebusuku ba ngena, ba zi bamba eziningi kakulu. Se be
qedile uku zi bamba, ba bona umlilo ukudana. Wa ti
UShalishali, Nakuya ikaya. Umlomo'sibucu wa ti, Qa,
asi k6 ikaya. Kepa UShalishali wa ti, Tula, Umlomo'sibucu.
Umlomo'sibucu wa tula.

Ba'hamba, ba ya ku leyo 'ndhlu, ba ngena b'osa izinyoni,
ba zi dhla. Se be zi qedile ba lala. Leyo 'ndhlu kwa ku e y
amazimu, Amakanda izinyoni, ba wa beka a zungeza iziko.

Pakati kwo 'busuko a fika amazimu. A dhla amakanda
izinyoni. A ti, So ba dhla, ngemvula emaqabaqabana. So
dhla lo, si dhle lona, se sule ngalonat, e ti ogeina ngo Shali-
shali no 'Mlomo'sibucu. 'Mlomo'sibucu wa we zwa e sho njalo.

A muka amazimu. Ngangomso 'Mlomo'sibucu wa ba tyela

The above story was furnished to the Rev. William Ireland, of the
American Mission in Natal, by Jeremiah Mali, a Native Teacher. The
translation and notes here given are by Mr. Ireland.
f This, the cannibals say to one another, as they point out their victims,
Slda means literally to wipe," like wiping the lips after a feast.



Ohce upon a time, there happened to be two petty chiefs,
whose names were Shalishali and 'Mlomo'sibucu. Each of
them had his own men.
One day, they saw a flock of birds passing. UShalishali
said to 'Mlomo'sibucu, Let us go, and follow them, and we
shall see where they will sleep, and catch them."
They went, they and their men. They (the birds) reached
the reeds, and slept. At night they [i.e., the men] went
in3 and caught very many indeed. When they had finished
catching them, they saw a fire, a little way off. Said
Shalishali, Over yonder is our home." Umlomo'sibucu
S said, "No; it is not our home." But UShalishali said,
"Hush up! You rotten mouth !"* So Umlomo'sibucu
hushed up.
They went on, and came to that same house ; in they went,
S and roasted the birds, and eat them. When they had
S finished them, they went-to sleep. That house happened to
belong to some cannibals. The heads of the birds, they
placed so as to surround the fireplace.
In the middle of the night, the cannibals arrived. They
ate up the heads of the birds. They said, We will eat
them in a rain, even in a regular downpour. We will eat
this one, then that one, and finish off with these,"- meaning
that they would keep 'Shalishali and 'Mlomo'sibucu for the
last. Umlomo'sibucu heard them saying so.
The cannibals went off. On the morrow, 'Mlomo'sibucu

* Such is the interpretation of the name.


a ku bonileyo; ba ti, Unamanga. Wa ti ke, A ke si lale
obunye ubusuku. Ba tabata intambo ba zi bopela ezinzwani
zabo bonke, ba lala.
Amazimu a fika ebusuku, a ti, So ba dhla ngemvuyana,
emaqabaqabana. So dhla lo, si dhle lo, si sule ngalona.
Umlomo'sibucu wa ba zamazisa, ba wa bona amazimu.
Ekuseni ngangomso, kwabutana amazimu amaningi ku leyo
'ndhlu. A ti, Vimba pezulu, vimba pansi, a ba ze bazi
ukuba ba zo puma ngapi.

Omunye wabantu baka 'Mlomo'sibucu wa hlabelela, wa ti,
Ngenziwe u.'Shalishali waseMbo; a to Nansi indhlu, kanti
yindhlu yezilo. A m yeka, wa puma; kwa buya kwa sho
omunye, na ye, a m yeka, wa hamba. Kwa buye kwa sho
omunye, na ye wa m yeka wa puma; bonke ba sho njalo, ba

Amakosi a sala odwa. 'Mlomo'sibucu wa sho, Ngenziwe
u Shalishali waseMbo, u te, Nansi indhlu, kanti i yindhlu
yezilo. A m dedela, wa puma. Wa sho no 'ShaliThali, a
nqaba ukumyeka; wa pinda, a nqaba. Wa tata itye eziko,
wa ti, Ngi ya puma manje; e sho njalo, wa li ponsa pandhle.
Itye la bukazeka, a li xotya amazimu eti u yena. Itye la
gingqika. Amazimu a sa libele yitye, wa puma, wa hamba,
wa fumana abakubo.

Wa ba tyela ukupuma kwake. UShalishali wa ye kohlwe
induku yake, endhlini. UShalishali wa tata enye, wa yi-


told them what he had seen; they said, You lie." So, he
said, "Let us sleep another night." They took a cord, and
tied their toes together; all did so, and went to sleep.
The cannibals came in the night, and said, "We will eat
them in a shower of rain, even in a regular downpour. We
will eat this one and that one, and wipe up with this one."
'Mlomo'sibucu shook them, and they saw the cannibals.
Very early the next morning, there collected- a large num-
ber of cannibals, at that house. They said, Stop it up
above, stop it up below, and they will not know where to
get out."
One of the people of 'Mlomo'sibucu sang, as follows: I
was made by Shalishali of EMbo; he said, 'Here is a
house,' and forsooth it is the house of wild beasts." They
(the cannibals) let him alone and he went out; again
another said the same, and him they let alone, and he went
away. Still another repeated the same thing, and he also
they let alone, and he went out; all said the same, and went
The Chiefs remained alone. Then 'Mlomo'sibucu said,
"I was made by 'Shalishali of EMbo, he also said, 'There
is a house,'* and lo it is the house of wild beasts."t They
let him alone, and out he went. So also said Shalishali;
they 'refused to let him out; again he said so, again they
refused. He took a stone from the fireplace, saying, I am
going out now;" having said this, he threw it outside. The
stone rolled along, the cannibals chasing it, supposing it was
he. The stone rolled on. While the cannibals were
detained by the stone, he got out, and went on, and over-
took his people.
He told them how he came to get out. 'Shalishali forgot
his stick in the house. 'Shalishali took another, and stuck

* Or,." Yonder is a house."
I Or, the abode of wild beasts."


gximeka emhlabatihi, wa ti, ku 'bantu bake, Uma lenduku i
zaidazama, ngoba ngi ye za ; kepa tuna i wile ngobe ngi jile.

Wa hadiba, wa fjumana amazimu se a libele ukuxotya itye.
Wh ngena endhlini wa li tata, wa hamba.
Lokd kwa ba kupela kwensumansuihane, yd Shdlishali no


(Contributed by Mrs. Hugh Lancaster Carbutt.)
Although iiahy of the uipeiktitiiins and customs of the
Zulus have already been d -.r some among the following may have remained hitherto tin-
I believe that the fii't chirm to which a nevly-lioru
infant. is subjected, takes place when it is about ten days
old; it consists in partially burying the child at a spot, or
beneath sbime tiee, thi has been -triu.k by lightning. The
Sole hi which the child is laid need not be more than two or
three itiches in depth; and when the mother puts it iii, the
" doctor '''chews some medicine root, and squirts it over the
child, mitttering an incantation as he dbes so. The child is
not allowed to remain long in the hole. It is usual for the
father to be pi'esent at the ceremony as well as the mother,
and when the parents and doctor leave the spot with the
child, it is imperative that none of the party looks back ; for,
by so doing, the entire efficacy of the charm would be


it in the ground; and said to his people, "If this stick
shakes, take it as a sign that I am coming; but, if it falls,
then understand that I am dead."
He went, and found the cannibals still detained, chasing
the stone.
He went into the house, and took the stick, and went off
with it.
Thus ends the tale of Shalishali and 'Mlomo'sibucu.

destroyed. This operation is supposed to instil courage into
the unwitting little heart of the future man or woman ;-such
courage, that even when lightning, the most fearful of all silos
(beasts), is flashing on every side, and the thunder roars as r
if the very earth would burst, he or she may not even
momentarily close an eye.
The temporary burying of children at a later- age is
thought to be a deterrent of disease, more especially of fevers
and colds. Mothers of children take their little ones, from
any age reaching to five or six years, early in the morning
some little distance from home, and dig holes wherein each
child is placed separately, and into which earth is thrown, until
the child is unable to move any part excepting the arms
which are left free ; the body being in an upright position.
The mothers then walk away, and behold them from afar;
and, after a short time, return, and remove them.
Another charm to prevent sickness is one which is some-
times called Umtagati, and at others Umtshopi, Girls are
here the actors. When Umtagati is to be "played," they
rise early in the morning, and go to some convenient brook
or river by the edge of which grows a kind of broad-leaved
soft rush, which they pull, and fashion into a fantastic kind of
dress. This is made in the form of fringes, a rope being'


plaited first, equal in length to the circumference of the
waist of the girl who is to wear it; on the rope, she works on
the rushes, making a fringe that will touch the ground as
she moves. Another is made to fasten round the chest
under the arms, and a third, thickly worked, is worn as a
cloak round the neck, thus concealing the arms. A hat is
then made in the same manner, the rushes, however, instead
of being bent over the foundation string or rope to make the
edge of the fringe, are allowed to stand upright, thus giving
a girl in this green costume the appearance of a moving
bunch of grass. Each girl being thus arrayed, they set out
on a round of calls to the kraals of the neighbourhood, at
each chanting a weird song, and dancing, and gyrating in a
most fantastic manner, frequently increasing the effect of their
grotesque appearance by wild whoops and unearthly yells,
until the smaller children begin to scream from sheer fright;
for now the mothers forcibly lay down on the ground all the
younger ones, who cannot be persuaded into doing so, and
an Umtagati jumps over each one, from the tiny mite, just
learning to crawl, to urchins of from twelve to fourteen years
of age. After all the little ones of the neighbourhood have
been "jumped," the performers go off and kindle a fire to
burn their Umtagati, and as it is always made of the greenest
rushes, it takes some time before it is consumed. Any gar-
ment, or ornament, which a girl happened to wear whilst
playing Umtagati, must also be burnt, otherwise the efficacy
of the charm is quite destroyed.
Among the charms to prevent sickness from visiting a
kraal, is the umliuba or custom of the girls herding the cattle,
for a day. No special season of the year is set apart for
this custom. It is merely enacted when diseases are known
to be prevalent. On such an occasion, all the girls and un-
married women of a kraal rise early in the morning, dress
themselves entirely in their brothers' skins, and taking their


" knobkerries" and sticks, open the cattle pen or kraal, and
drive the cattle away from the vicinity of the homestead,
none of these soi-disant herds returning home, or going near
a kraal, until sunset, when they bring the cattle back. No
one of the opposite sex dares go near the girls on this day, or
speak to them.
The Zulus, I believe, never allow hopelessly deformed
children to live, but, I do not think that-they actually kill
a deformed child, in cold blood. The following incident,
which came under my own observation, illustrates, probably,
the usual mode of putting such a child out of the world.
A young married woman, living on my father's farm, had
a baby born to her; but, it was shortly discovered that there
was something wrong with the little one, and when it was
about a month old, the mother found that she could not place
it in a sitting posture on her lap ;-it seemed, indeed, as if it
had no hip joints, and moreover it never took notice of things
as other babies do; nor did it cry after the usual manner of
babies, only occasionally making a kind of croaking and
choking noise. The mother was naturally greatly distressed
about it, but always hoped that it would grow strong and
come right." At the end of a year, however, the child had
grown very little, and was as helpless and deformed as on
the day of its birth. Meeting the mother about this time, I
was surprised to observe that she had not the. usual little
helpless bundle tied on her back ; but, as she appeared more
depressed and mournful in her manner than ever, I refrained
from asking her what had become of her baby. Some time
afterwards, I learned from other natives, that the child was
no more + although no one said it was dead; and I found, on
further inquiry, that the father had, a few weeks before, gone
away at daybreak one morning, with the baby, and a kid, to


a large forest in the neighbourhood, which was known to be
the hiding-place of a leopard. He tied the kid to the branch
of a bush, and placed the unhappy little bundle of deformity
close beside it. The kid would bleat, and then-my inform-
ant chose to leave the equal fate which would doubtless
befall the two helpless little creatures, to my imagination.

A child very often has a name assigned to it long before
it is born; probably because it is not considered etiquette
for the people of the bridegroom's kraal to speak to, or of
the bride, by her own name, and she is, therefore, frequently
known as The mother of So-and-so," before even the
marriage ceremony has taken place; although women more
correctly take the name, or surname, of their father, on their
marriage. Thus, a woman, whose father's name is Jiba,
is known as oka-Jiba, literally, She of Jiba (i.e., Daugh-
ter of Jiba). But, should a woman be known as "The

(Contributed by the Rev. W. Henry R. Bevan.)
Motho o na a ile gp rema litlhare; a feta a leka litlhare,
'me cotlhe tsa na mashoe; 'me a pagama lencoe, a fitlha a
bona setlhare se se ntle; 'me yana a choara lencoe, a le
kgokgolosa foa tlase ga setlhare; 'me yana lencoe ya kgokgo-
loga, ya ea go tsena mo setlharing, ya cosa phuti. Phuti ea
taboga, ea ea go tsena mo setlharing. Ntekoa nare e robetse
mo setlharing. 'Me ea siia, e tshaba phuti. Nare ea kopana
le motho a comile, 'me ea 'molaea. 'Me batho ba bona
manong, ba taboga, ba fitlhela motho a shule. Ba se ka ba


mother of Nobatagati at her marriage, her first child will
receive that name, if it be a girl. If a boy, the masculine
form 'Mtagati would be used.
There seems to be no special ceremony when the child is
named ; the father, or grandfather, merely stating before a
few people, when the little one is a few weeks old, that it is
called So-and-so,-giving it a name referring to something
which may have happened either during the marriage nego-
tiations of its mother, or at its birth. This is known as its
" great" or true name ; for, it will receive many nicknames,
or names of butshinga (mischief), before it reaches the sere
and yellow leaf. This year, for instance, many children will
receive the name of Cetshwayo, or of some battle field, or
impi; already I know three babies who are thriving under
the respective names of Cetshwzayo, Sikuku*, and Nqoba-

[= Quieta non movere.]
A man went out to cut wood, he tried the trees as he
passed along, but they were all bad; so he climbed up a rock,
and at last he saw a good tree. So then he took a rock, and
rolled it down from under the tree; the rock rolled down,
and went into a bush, and disturbed a duiker. The duiker
ran, and got into a bush. A buffalo happened to be lying
in the bush. The buffalo ran away, (for) it was afraid of
the duiker. The buffalo met a man who was hunting, and
it killed him. But when people saw the vultures, they ran,

This is the Zulu, and. I believe, the real name of the Chief whom the
newspapers call Seeocoeni.


itse se se 'molaileng. 'Me yana ba ema, ba botsanya,-
"-Motho eo o bolailoe eng ?" Yanong ba bona tlhako.-
" Tlhako e e ntle ea nare!-Nare e rile e tla tloga, e tla go
bolaea motho, e coa kae ? "-Ba e latela ka tlhako; ba
fitlhela e lule mo setlharing. Ba re, Nare e rile e tia coa
mo setlharing, e cosicoe eng?" Ba ne ba batla se se e
cositseng. Ba bona tlhako ea phuti. Ba botsanya-"Phuti
e rile e tla tloga, e tia go cosa nare, e ne e coa kae?" Le bone
ba e latela ka tlhako; ba re, Phuti e ne ea coa mo se-
tlharing se.-Phuti e rile e tla tioga, e coa mo setlharing se, e
cosicoe eng ?" Ba bona lencoe; ba re, "Lencoe ye, le rile
le tloga, le tla go cosa phuti, le coa kae ? Ba re, Lencoe
ye, le coa mo mayenga." Ba le latela, ba re, Lencoe ye,
le kgoromelicoe eng ? Ba fitlhela lencoe le lule fa tlase ga
setlhare.-Ba re, Motho ke eo o tlositseng lencoe, a rema
setlhare se." Yana ke gone ba tlogang, ba re, Ana motho
eo o na a batlang ?-litlhare li le lintsi:-a- tloga a tia go
cosa li letseng."

Ke gone puo e ne ea simologa yalo; 'me batho ba re,
"Ana motho o na a tloga a tla go rema, a cosa li letseng !-
Tlhotlha logolo e cosa li letseng."

E thaegile fa.

SNOTES ON TIhotlha logolo e cosa ii letseng.
(By the Rev. W. Henry R. Bevan.)
This is an old Secoana saying.
Another form of it is Tlotlo-logolo lo o phage lo cosa li
letseng, which I cannot translate.


and found the man dead. They did not know what had
killed him. So then they stood and asked one another,
"What was this man killed by? Then they saw a hoof
(-print). A fine hoof (-print) of a buffalo -When the
buffalo went out for to kill the man, where did it come
from ?"-They followed it by the hoof (-print); they found
it came out of a bush. They said, "When the buffalo came
out of the bush, what disturbed it ? They looked for what
had disturbed it. They saw the hoof(-print) of the duiker.
They asked one another, "When the duiker went for to
disturb the buffalo, where did it come from ? and they too
followed it by the hoof(-print); they said, The duiker
came out of this bush. But when the duiker went for to
come out of this bush, what disturbed it ? They saw the
rock; they said, This rock when it went for to disturb the
duiker, where did it come from ? They said, This rock
came from those rocks."- They followed it (up), and said,
"What pushed this rock?" They found the rock had come
from under a tree. They said, "Oh! it was a man who
moved the rock, in cutting down this tree." And so then
they went, and said, Whatever did that man want?-there
were plenty of trees ;-he went and disturbed things that
were lying still."
So this is how the saying began; and people said, The
man went out for to cut wood, and disturbed things that
were lying still! Much searching disturbs things that were
lying still "-
Thus (the saying) became established.

I do not understand the grammatical construction of the
proverb in the first form of it which I have given, although
I have guessed at the general sense of it. I shall be very
glad if some one who knows more Secoana than I do will
explain both forms in the Folk-lore Journal.


The story upon the proverb is in modern Secoana. It
was very well told by a clever young man, who seemed to
repeat it accurately from memory, just as he had heard it;
and I have written it down verbatim from his lips.
It is full of auxiliary verbs, which are as baffling to a
translator as the Greek particles. One recurring phrase I
have rendered by the provincialism "for to." I did this
just to indicate the redundancy of the original: * *
The Phuti is a small mouse-coloured buck. I am told it
is called in Dutch duiker.

In a letter dated Molepolole, Oct. 21st, 1879, the Rev.
Roger Price writes as follows :-
I was deeply interested in Bishop Callaway's paper*
which first appeared in the Cape Monthly Magazine *.
In a foot-note Bishop Callaway says, It would be very
desirable to know if the Waganda have a word corresponding
to Unkulunkulu." Having a slight knowledge of the dialects
of Eastern Africa, especially of the Kiswahili, it occurred
to me that there was a very striking correspondence be-
tween the very word Kintu mentioned by Stanley, and
Unkulunkulu. The prefix Ki in Kiswahili, like the prefix
Se in Secwana, is frequently used to express what belongs
to or represents or distinguishes the radical part of the word
to which it is prefixed from others. For instance, Secwana
not only means the language of the Bacwana, but any thing
and every thing which is peculiar to that people:-it is
Secwana as distinguished from what is peculiar to people of
other nations. The same is true, I think, of the prefix Ki in

[* The paper here referred to by Mr. Price was entitled Some Points of
Correspondence between the Folk-lore of Central Africa and that of the
Kafirs, and Chaldea," and appeared in the Cape l2ionthly Magazine for
March, 1879.]


Kiswahili. It strikes me therefore that Kintu would'mean
a representative man or person (a kind of abstract humanity).
If I am right in my surmise, it seems to me that it would
have a very striking correspondence to the Unkulunkulu of
the Zulus.
Of course both the Se of Secwana and the Ki of Ki-
swahili have, as well as the more limited use which I have
pointed out, also a much wider and general application."
[The Rev. J. Rath (formerly in Hereroland), who read the
above remarks, has added to them the following note : Com-
pare otyiherero, otyindu."]

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