• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Cover
 Title Page
 Preface
 Advertising
 Author's preface to the first...
 Table of Contents
 Chapter I
 Chapter II
 Chapter III
 Chapter IV
 Chapter V
 Chapter VI
 Chapter VII
 Chapter VIII
 Chapter IX














Title: Richard Schomburgk's Travels in British Guiana, 1840-1844
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00080954/00001
 Material Information
Title: Richard Schomburgk's Travels in British Guiana, 1840-1844
Physical Description: 2 v. : illus., plates, fold. maps. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Schomburgk, Moritz Richard, 1811-1891
Roth, Walter Edmund, 1861?-1933
Publisher: "Daily Chronicle" Office
Place of Publication: Georgetown, British Guiana
Publication Date: 1922-1923
 Subjects
Subject: Description and travel -- Guyana   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Guyana
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Translated and edited, with geographical and general indices, and route maps, by Walter E. Roth. Published by authority.
General Note: Translation of Reisen in Britisch-Guiana in den jahren 1840-1844.
General Note: A translation of v. 3 and the appendix of v. 2 will not be undertaken. cf. Editor's preface.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00080954
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - AAQ9658
oclc - 01903198
alephbibnum - 000143472
lccn - 22019490

Table of Contents
    Cover
        Cover 1
        Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Preface
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
    Advertising
        Page vi-a
        Page vi-b
        Page vi-c
        Page vi-d
        Page vi-e
        Page vi-f
    Author's preface to the first volume
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Table of Contents
        Page ix
        Page x
    Chapter I
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Chapter II
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Chapter III
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
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        Page 25
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    Chapter IV
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    Chapter V
        Page 192
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    Chapter VI
        Page 228
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    Chapter VII
        Page 259
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    Chapter VIII
        Page 341
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    Chapter IX
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Full Text


The Guiana Edition- No. 17

EDITED BY VINCENT ROTH


RICHARD

SCHOMBURGK'S


TRAVELS IN BRITISH GUIANA

1840-1844.


Translated and Edited
BY

WALTER E. ROTH,


B.A. (OXON), M.R.C.S., (ENG.), L.R.C.P., (LOND.)
Stipendiary Magistrate of the Demerara River District, Author
of "North-Queensland Ethnography," "Animism and Folklore of
the Guiana Indians," "Arts, Crafts and Customs of the
Guiana Indians," Etc.


VOL. I.


PUBLISHED BY AUTHORITY.


THE "DAILY CHRONICLE" LTD., MAIN STREET, GEORGETOWN.
1922.
SECOND IMPRESSION, 1953.














UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA
LIBRARIES







THIS VOL',E HAS BEEN
MICPOF iiED
BY THE UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA LIBRARIES.






The Guiana Edition- No. 17

EDITED BY VINCENT ROTH


RICHARD

SCHOMBURGK'S


TRAVELS IN BRITISH GUIANA

1840-1844.


Translated and Edited
BY

WALTER E. ROTH,
B.A. (OXON), M.R.C.S., (ENG.), L.R.C.P, (LOND.)
Stipendiary Magistrate of the Demerara River District, Author
of "North-Queensland Ethnography," "Animism and Folklore of
the Guiana Indians," "Arts, Crafts and Customs of the
Guiana Indians," Etc.


VOL. I.


PUBLISHED BY AUTHORITY.


TInE "I)All Y (CIHRO\ICLF" LTn.. MAIN STREET, GEORGETOWN.
1922.
SECOND IMPRESSION, 1953.









TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE.



Scme thirty years ago, when strolling along the ponds in the
.~ueensland Botanic Gardens, Brisbane, I gazed in wonder and
awe at thb lovely Victoria Regia lilies which just then happened
to be in t.iom : I never dreamed in those days that I should live
to visit ti eir native home in the reaches of the upper Rupununi
River. It was the first occasion that gave me the name of
Scnombu gk, their discoverer, which thus fixed itself upon my
memoryy ir all time.

Twen y years later, whilst a..- ."'j'._ the literature bearing
on Guiarese Ethnography, I had the pleasure cf perusing iin
the origin al, Richard Schomburgk's Travels, and was at a loss to
understand I how such a monumental, so interesting, and valuable
a work, !.ad become forgotten as it were, and had never been
'done int' English", since it deserves to rank with the highest
works on South American travel and adventure.

On tI 2 other hand I regret to admit that almost every subse-
quent wr ter on Guiana has stolen more or less of the subject
matter w :hout acknowledgment. I read the work a second time,
as few c m escape doing, who 'aste cf its delights, and was
determine d that as soon as circumstances pe:mited I would try
to conve. some of the enjoyment and instruction that I had
derived, others favoured with less linguistic advantages-surely
the Creol s will be anxious to learn something reliable about the
autochth- nous natives, the geology, mineralogy, and general
natural Eistory of their own country, set out as these are i:- as
attractive a form as Waterton's Wanderings or Defoe's immortal
though n mythical Robinson Crusoe.

The I canslation itself has occupied the whole of my time that
could be spared from official duties during the past eighteen
months. It would be idle to deny that I have met with many
and man ra difficult passage, but these have been invariably
cleared i.p by my friend, Rev. J. B. Biezer, S.J.. of the Santa
Rosa Mi sion, Moruka River, who has invariably and most
ungrudgi igiy rendered me most valuable assistance and encour-
agement.

The originall work consists of three volumes, the firt aiki
second c' which are devoted to the narrative oE the Travels
proper: ;he tlird is practically a citalogua oaf the fauna and
flora, co rupled by various wel-knriowT spec.!ists As a large
proportica of t:e names in this '- .' ar.a 1 bs'ee, as wall
as for o; er reasons, a translation of die thi:'d volume has Inot












TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE.


been considered desirable. So again, the Appendix to the second
volume, consisting of a few short vocabularies, and an extract
from Missionary Quandt's Arawak Grammar have likewise been
omitted.

With a view to bringing Schomburgk's record up to date,
I have been in direct communication with the following three
gentlemen whose authority in their respective lines of research
is unassailable-Mr. E. E. Winter, B.Sc., Government Geological
Surveyor, has thus supplied me with certain foot-notes (E.E.W.)
relative to the geology and mineralogy; Dr. F. G. Rose, Govern-
ment Bacteriologist, has similarly given me valuable information
(F.G.R.) with regard to Medicine and Sanitation, while Mr.
James Rodway, F.L.S., the Curator of the Museum and our
Colony's Historian (J.R.) has made many a sacrifice of time,
labour and patience in searching up the latest references to the
natural history and antiquities.

I have also to thank my scn, Mr. Vincent Roth, (V.R.)
Warden and Government Surveyor at Arakaka, for the thank-
less task of typing the whole MSS. for the printer. Strange to
say, the greatest portion of the typing was done in his boat
whilst travelling, or at night in camp, often to the huge wonder,
and occasionally to the terror of unsophisticated Indians who
had never seen a typewriter before: many of them descendants
of those actually described in the subject matter.


For a succinct account of the labours of the brothers
Schomburgk. I would refer the reader to the very interesting and
instructive article "The Schombureks in Guiana" by Mr. James
Rodway, F.L.S., published in Timehri Vol. III., New Series 1889.




WALTER E. ROTH.


Georgetown,
July, 1920.







The "Daily Chronicle's"

GUIANA EDITION
OF REPRINTS AND ORIGINAL WORKS DEALING WITH
ALL PHASES OF LIFE IN BRITISH GUIANA.
EDITED BY VINCENT ROTH.

PUBLISHED:
No. 1-" A VOYAGE TO THE DEMERARY", with an account of the
Settlemen's there and on the Berbice and Essequibo-by Henry
Bolingbrol e-1799-1806. Second Impression, 1942. 2.40.
No. 2-"TRAVELS IN SOUTH AMERICA", mainly between the Berbice
and Esseq ibo Rivers, and in Surinam by Adriaan Van Berkel-
1670-1686- Translated from the Dutch by Walter E. Roth-1925.
Second In pression. 1942. Price S2.40.
No. 3-" NOTES ON ANIMAL LIFE IN BRITISH GUIANA", a Popular
Guide to Colonial Mammalia- -by Vincent Roth-1941. Second Im-
pression, 1942. Price S2.40.
No. 4-"HINTS ON AGRICULTURE IN BRITISH GUIANA", a Text Book
for the use of the small farmer-by J. Edgar Beckett, F.L.S.-1905.
Price 52.4f
No. 5-" LETTEI S FROM GUIANA", a detailed account of Colonial life
of the pe iod-by Dr. George Pinckard 1796-1797. Price $4.00.
No. 6-" THE DIEMERARA MARTYR". Memoirs of the Rev. John Smith
-by Rev Edwin A. Wallbridge-1848. Price $2.40.
No. 7-"OLD TIME STORY". some old Guianese yarns respunby "Puga-
gee Piune 'ss."--1937-1948. Price 52 40.
No. 8-" FISH LIFE IN BRITISH GUIANA", a Popular Guide to Colonial
Fishes-b; Vincent Roth-1943-with an Appendix comprising "The
Fisheries of British Guiana by Prof. H. H. Brown, M.A., Ph.D.
Price $2.4i.
No. 9-" A SOLDIER'S SOJOURN IN GUIANA", by Lieut.-Col. Staunton
St Clair--1806-1809. Price 52.40
No. 10-" CENTENARY HISTORY OF THE EAST INDIANS IN BRITISH
GUIANA'. 1838-1938. by Peter Ruhomon. Price $3.50.
No. l-" EXPERIENCES OF A DEMERARA MAGISTRATE", by Sit G.
William Des Voeux. G.C.M t -lRi-1970. Prire 52.40.
No. 12-"TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA"-by Henry Kirke
-1872-189'. Price $3.84.
No. 13-" PATH-FINDING ON THE MAZARUNI"-by Vincent Roth-
1922-1924. Price 53.84.
No. 14-" ESSAYS AND FABLES IN THE VERNACULAR "-by Michael
McTurk. C.M.G. ("Olow") 189T. Pri r 2Aln
No. 15-" MODERN GRAPHIC ART IN BRITISH GUIANA", a collection
of work of local artists--19,0. Price $2.40.
No. 16-" AMERINDIANS OF HIGHLANDS & RAVANNAHS OF B.G."--
Portfolio of Photographs.-G. Giglioli, M.D., O.B.E.
No. 17-"TRAVEL-S I BRITISH GUIANA "-Volume 1-Richard Schom-
burgk-1 340-1844.
IN PREPARATION
No. 18-" TRAVI LS IN BRITISH GUIANA "-Volume 2-Richard Schom-
burgk-1 40-1844.
Postage 08c. extra.
On Sale at-
THE "D ULY CHRONICLE" LTD., STATIONERY,
23. Main Street. Georgetown 2.







TRAVELS IN

BRITISH GUIANA
]URIING THE YEARS 1840-1841.
Car eied out under the Commlission of

HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF PRUSSIA

BY

RICHARD SCHOMBURGK.



Together wi h a Fauna and Flora of Guiana according to the
works of Johannes Muller, Ehrenberg. Erichson,
I lotzsch, Troschel, Cabanis and others.



Including Illustrations and a Map of British Guiana
DRAWN UP BY

SIR ROBERT SCHOMBURGK.


VOLUME ONE.



LEIPZIG.

At the Publishing House of J. J. WEBER,
1847.







TO HIS MAJESTY

THE KING

FREDERICK WILLIAM IV.




IN DEEPEST REVERENCE AND GRATITUDE


Most Respectfully Dedicated.
BY

THE AUTHOR.









AUTdOR'S PREFACE TO THE FIRST VOLUME.

While su. emitting herewith to the Public the results obtained
,during my st y in a part of South America so important from an
ethnographic,1, zoological and botanical point of view, I feel
myself force both for my own and the reader's sake, to preface
them with a few words of introduction. Herein I would venture
to mention most submissively not only the debt of gratitude,
expressed w.th the greatest reverence, for the high honour
whereby, thr rugh the support granted by His Majesty, Our Most
Gracious Kil q, that liberal-minded patron of the sciences, I was
able to grati: v the wish dearest to my heart that 1 had cherished
from youth maturity, but also to indicate the standpoint from
which my bc ik is to be reviewed, rather than to have it judged
vn an arbitr iry basis.

The resu ts obtained in almost all departments of the several
branches of I' natural Science in the course of the travels undertaken
by my brother, Robert Schomburgk, under the direction of the
Royal Geographical Society of London during the years 1835-1839,
in a part of South America, which up to then was as good as
unknown,-s, far as concerned its geographical, ethnographical,
botanical an( zoological relationship with the whole of the rest
of the Contii ent,-had attracted the attention of men of learning
in the home; nd. This was particularly the case with one whose
.ame like a uiding star will lead the way in Science for all time,
and through vhose friendly consideration I was enabled with my
slender resoa rces, to add my contribution to the knowledge of
the surface-s ructure of our planet, though only as a collector
of material for the further study of the subject.

When my brother, entrusted with a fresh Commission by
Her Majesty the Queen of England, returned to the field of his
former labours, it was Alexander von Humboldt through whose
means I recei -ed the assistance from Our Most Gracious Sovereign,
that enabled me to accompany him to Guiana, and there, with
its numerous treasures, for the most part still undescribed, do
the best I could in the interests of our National Scientific
Institute.

And although, conscious of my weakness, and in spite of the
want of a scientific training, I have ventured to make my observa-
tions public, the necessary pluck was due to the encouragement
and sacrificing support rendered me .by men of learning, as I
realise only too well the claims that Science makes on works of
this kind, and that I am the last person to satisfy them. The
fact is. that s3 a gardener I was not familiar with every essential
scientific problem connected with the branches of Natural
Knowledge f reign to my profession, and that whatever success
I may have a 'hieved was gained as the result of direct experience










viii AUTHOR'S PREFACE TO THE FIRST VOLUME.

with Nature, the most stimulating of teachers, and of the earnest
determination to understand and learn to grasp everything that
she put in my way. The reader must take these observations into
consideration when passing judgment on my feeble efforts.

I am deeply indebted to my brother, and owe it to him if my
labours should prove to be successful. I have to thank him also
for the most important portion of the work under discussion,
the wearisome labour of several; he drew this under his
Commission with the British Government, and when the latter
left it for him to print, readily handed it over to me for
publication.

No one realises better than myself that I have been far from
reaching the goal proposed at the commencement of my journey,
and that my earnest intentions have been only partially fulfilled.
Tie judgment of the critics, who are not always impartial, entirely
corresponds with my own personal dissatisfaction in this case,
but the knowledge of having honestly striven towards my object
through thick and thin is sufficient consolation for me.

Added to the simple description of what I noted and observed
very carefully in the course of my journey is a feeble attempt at
a Fauna and Flora of the Colony, in the compilation of which I
have trusted my own judgment only after having had it
confirmed by the mature experience of others. The inclusion of
this material is entirely due to the energetic support of men who,,
with their courteous assistance and gentle but stimulating advice,
have not only encouraged me in the attempt, but at the same
time have unselfishly and readily supplied me with their own
descriptions of the new forms met with in my zoological and
botanical collections. I feel bound to express my thanks publicly
and particularly to Dr. Klotzsch, Professors Johannes Miiller,
Ehrenberg, Erichson, Dr. Troschel, Mr. Cabanis and others, who.
have helped me so whole-heartedly in the undertaking.

And so, with the most graciously granted permission and the
most respectful expression of thanks, I place my poor work not
only at the foot of His Majesty's throne, but also hand it over to
the consideration of the public in the trust that they will judge it
by no other standard than that which is in correspondence with
the position in life that I have followed in the past, and which 1
occupy at present.

RICHARD SCHOMBURGK.









CONTENTS OF VOLUME I.


CHAPTER I. Page
Departure froi i Voigstedt-Frankfort-on-the-Main-
Ro:,erdam-- oyage to England-Arrival in London-
The Docks- -atural History Institutions-The Niger
Expedition--ersonal Experiences ...... ...... ...... 1- 8

CHAPTER II.
Departure from London-The Travelling Party-Captain
Rothwell-Se a-sickness -Experiments with Sea-
weed-Crossi: g the Line-The New World..... ....- 9-18

CHAPTER III.
Landing-George- own-Historical Retrospect ...... ...... 19-91

CHAPTER IV.

Expedition to the mouth of the Orinoco-Mouth of the
Waini Sand-bank Mora Barima Warrau -
Cumaka vil. age and its environs Commencement
of the rainy season-First trip to the virgin forest-
Chigoes-Bee--rouge-Mouth of the Barima and
Orinoco-Rel urn to Cumaka-Habits of the Sloth-
Arawak chi f Caberalli-River Aruka-Amacura-
Religious Be iefs, Manners and Customs of the War-
raus-Journt y up the Barima-Flora and Fauna of the
river basin- -Akawai-First appearance of primitive
rocks .... ...... ..... ...... ..... ...... 92- 191

CHAPTER V.
Splitting up of the Expedition-Return to the lower reaches
of the Esseciuibo-Network of natural canals-River
Whomana-Wlaini-Obstinacy of the Negroes-Bari-
mani-Beara -Asacota settlement Manners and
Customs of the Arawaks-Court-day-Flora of the
Barabara-E river Morocco-Morocco Mission-Mis-
sionary Ccll ns-Colonies of Ants-Mud-banks of the
coast-Moutn: of the Pomeroon-a district of aban-
doned esta es-Hospital for lepers-Mr. Brett's
Mission-Ta-.acuma Lake-Wandering Ants ...... 192-227.

CHAPTER VI.
Mouth of the Essequibo-Islands at the mouth-Bartika
Grove-Mouth of the Mazaruni-Kyk-over-all Island
-Penal Set-lement-Cuyuni-Carib Settlement Kai-







-tan-Old Dutch mining claims-Divine service at
Bartika Grove-Arrival of my brother at the Mission
-Results of his journey-Return to Georgetown-Fort
Island-Yellow Fever-Plantation L'Heureuse Adven-
ture-The Police Chase ...... ...... ..... ...... 228-258



CHAPTER VII.
,Expedition to the Interior of Guiana- Departure from
Georgetown-Ampa Station-Osterbecke Point-Com-
mencement of the Rapids and Cataracts-Flora of
the lower Essequibo region-Itaballi Cataract-Aharo
-Laying season for Turtle-Gluck Island-Arissaro
Mountains-Commencement of the second series of
cataracts Waraputa Mission Hieroglyphics-Kan-
aima-Twasinki and Akaiwanna Ranges-Tambicabo
Island-Ouropocari Cataract-Ackramucra-Rupununi
Carib Settlement-Kirahagh Aurime Savannah-
Macusis-Victoria Regia-Haiowa, Macusi Village-
Sudis gigas -Savannah fires- Wai-ipukari Inlet-
Tapir Hunt-Awaricuru ...... ...... ...... ...... 259-340

CHAPTER VIII.
.Arrival of the Military Expedition-Our Departure from
Pirara-Savannah Flora-Ant-hills-Canuku Range
-Pacaraima Range-Pirara-Source of the River
Pirara-Aberisto, the Brazilian-Mar de aguas blancas
-Lake Amucu-Islas Ipomucena-Watershed of the
Rupununi and Rio Branco-Flora and fauna of the
neighbourhood of Pirara-Herds of wild cattle-Ar-
rival of Friar Jose dos Santos Innocents and of Cap-
tain Leal-Senora Liberadina-Baducca-Catching and
killing wild cattle-Brazilian vaqueiros-Arrival of a
party of Maiongkong Indians from the Orinoco-Re-
erection of dilapidated houses at Pirara-Construction
of Fort New Guinea .......... 341-363
CHAPTER IX.

Excursion to the Canuku Range-Watershed between the
Mahu and the Rupununi-Awarra Village-Virgin
forest-Bed of the Quaye-River Nappi-Nappi Village
-Burial ceremonies of the Macusis-Industry of the
inhabitants of the Canuku Range-Weapons-Blowgun
-Ascent of the Curassawaka-Chasmarhynchus
carunculatus Rupicola aurantia Ascent of the
Ilamikipang-Strychnos toxifera-Preparation of the
Urari poison-Wassi poison-Return to Pirara-Habits
of the Cathartes aura-Preparations for the journey
to the sources of the Takutu ...... ..... 364-416








CHAPTER I.

Departure from Voigstedt-Frankfort-on-the-Main-Rotterdam-
Voyage to England-Arrival in London-The Docks-Natural
History Institutions-The Niger Expedition-Personal Experi-
ences.

1. The p aceful Home with all its pleasant recollections of a
happily spent Youth, with its many remembrances of nooks and
crannies and the occasion of any event important to the childish
mind, which follow us like faithful companions from early to
old age, already lay behind us on the morning of 29th October,.
1840. Farewell, a farewell perhaps for life, had been taken of
my aged father, my brothers, sisters and friends. Alongside my
brother and his Indian servant I rode in silence over the autumn-
bare plains of golden pasture to a very stirring uncertain Future,
while my heart, still bound by thousands upon thousands of ties
tarried in the Past, and my soul sought to penetrate the Future
in the hope cf answering the anxious thought: "Will you ever
see these folk of yours again, when, after long years of absence,
you once mot e get as close to home as you are now?" But to
what my heal t could neither answer "Yea" nor "Nay,'" that what
my spirit could not fathom, was solved by the faithful prop'let of
my own country, by the legend garlanded Kyffhauser* now
lighted up with the rays of the autumn sun. According to the
oft-proven refrain :-

If Emperor Redbeard takes off his hat,
Fine -eather tomorrow is presaged by that:
Should he however now choose it to wear,
To sh a any journey, just take every care.

its friendly beaming aspect promised me a successful journey, and
a home-coming when I should once again find all upon whom I
had set my love.

2. Howel er much we may smile in calmer moments at our
clinging to such absolutely independent coincidences, they never-
theiess, in times of dire distress, undoubtedly exercise over our
whole persond.lity a power which even the most forcible process
of reasoning is unable to influence.

*Kyffhauser is a range of hills in Thuringia, Germany with the ruined
castles .of Rothenburg and Kyffhausen.
"Hat Kaiser Rothbart ab den Hut
So wird auch morgen das Wetter gut
Hat er ihn aber aufgethan
So sollst du auch das Reisen lahn."
The Kyffhauser was a good omen to the intending traveller. If the
brow of the height were clear, good weather could be expected on the
morrow etc. Emperor Redbeard is Barbarossa who is supposed to be
living in state here asleep and only waiting to be awakened. (Ed.)







IN DUTCH TERRITORY.


3. That faithful friend, the far-stretching meadow-land, soon
passed out of sight, and the horses quickly trotted on towards
Gottingen where my brother wanted to spend two days to make
Professor Gauss's personal acquaintance and at the same time to
familiarize himself at the Observatory with the procedure neces-
sary for meteorological observations.

4. We hurriedly made our way through the pleasant plains
of Gottingen, of romantic Munden, and of Fulda, until, later in
the evening we got to Cassel with its thickly-foliaged mountain-
range and monuments falling to decay: we left again before day-
break, in order to push on to Frankfort. Envious night hid Mar-
burg from our view, dusky morn enveloped Giessen in a mist:
only Frankfort welcomed us in the bright morning sunshine, but
my brother found Professor Riippel away. After a short visit to
Heinrich Meidinger (known by his work: "Travels through Great
Britain and Ireland"), we hurried on at noon to the Railway
Station with the object of reaching Mayence the same day, It was
on this short stretch that our own journey, hardly commenced,
might easily have come to an abrupt ending, because owing to
the carelessness of the driver, the engine together with some
carriages ran off the rails. A momentary shock fortunately
proved the only result of an accident threatening such dire pos-
sibilities, and the waters of Father Rhine, as they rolled along
in all their majesty, soon made us forget all about it. The
moments that I spent absorbed in silent contemplation on the
Rhine bridge at sunset will never be effaced from my memory,
for although the stream has been lauded thousands of times, all
the poetic and prose descriptions still leave something to be
described, and its praises can never be exhausted. I felt this
forcibly, when on the following morning, as the steamer cleft
its way through the bluish green waters, we passed the vine-
covered mountains with their proud castles, the genial valleys
and smiling villages, towns and cities, while the Rhinelanders
returning home from taking the oath of allegiance in Berlin sang
in joyous chorus the old "Am Rhein am Rhein," until finally
the number of our happy fellow-travellers decreased at almost
every stage, and Dusseldorf, where we spent the night, lay before
us in the distant plain.

5. The buildings that smiled at us strangers so pleasantly
from the banks, together with their pretty little gardens sur-
rounded by green fences and natty stone pavements in front of
the dwellings,-in short, the reputed and distinctive cleanliness
and tidiness of the Dutch villages with their red-shingled roofs,
and their many weather-cocks on the ridge-tops, would have
indicated clearly enough that we had crossed into Dutch terri-
tory even if the Customs Office had not already notified me of it.
What I had imagined the interior of a Dutch household to be,







PROUD ALBION.


judging from its outside, was completely confirmed when we
arrived in the eveningg at Nymwegen and spent the night in one
of the Hotels there. Rotterdam on the other hand has quite lost
its outward semblance of a Dutch city, the reason for which may
very well be that as an important port it cannot remain true to
its national traits. Considerable rain, that continued all day
-still further added to the dirt in the narrow and angular alley-
ways.

6. I was not a little astonished however when upon look-
ing out of the window of our room I saw a number of enormous
masts rising in the centre of the city above the pointed gables
and lofty roofs. On going out, I noticed that all the wider streets
were intersected by huge canals, in which the biggest merchant-
men, lying here and there, at anchor, were either being loaded,
or else had already taken up their winter quarters. The immense
number of vessels, from schooner to East Indiaman, naturally
claimed my entire interest because these were the first large
sea-going vessels I had ever seen.

7. On the following morning we boarded the big steamer
'Giraffe" that v'as to take us to the capital of the civilized world.
Our travelling .ompanions were but few; but hardly had the land
disappeared fr( m view than that ghastly bug-bear, sea-sickness,
entered our circle and drove one of us after the other from deck
to saloon. This few hours' foretaste Droved quite sufficient to let
me conclude what was waiting ahead for me. At four o'clock m
the morning we reached the mouth of the Thames when the
moaning and groaning of the pale-faced passengers gradually
eased down.

8. Getting on deck, proud Albion, the sea-encircled isle, the
emporium for the riches of all the world, had already taken me to
her own, while the smoking chimneys, and beautifully constructed
and animated banks acclaimed "Rule Britannia" from both their
shores in self-conscious national pride. Sheerness with its
strongly fortified Fort, and Chatham with its wharves and Royal
Marine Arsenal already lay in the dim distance far behind,
whereas ahead, there arose the little township of Gravesend, in
the background of which a grey dark misty and smoky cloud
.indicated the site of the Giant City where already the fate of
different portions of the world had so often been decided.

9. Immediately beyond Gravesend the environs of the
Thames again became more uniform, the banks flat and swampy,
even the sea wall seemed to be in bad condition. But as
Woolwich came into view, this uniformity disappeared, and from
out of the well-known Artillery park, the immense Arsenals, and
wharves of the Royal Marine (Dock-yards) there fell upon our
ears an uproar, that found its echo in the confused din of innum-







4 BUSY THAMES.

erable steam-engines on the opposite shore. The heaped up
stores in that field of wood and iron, the number of Dock-yards
and Timber-yards for building and repairing the largest ships of
the line, the innumerable Saw and Planing mills, the multifari-
ous hammering in the anchor-smith's and cannon foundry, all
proclaimed loudly enough that England indeed sways her Sceptre
of Sovereignty over all the seas.

10. The Dock-yards and Magazines were generally sur-
rounded with immense walls, and all approaches seemed to be
occupied by strong guards. Among the buildings that must strike
every stranger the Military Academy which stands immediately
behind the yards, and the Riding School, built in the style of a
Grecian temple, with the Artillery Barracks attached, are parti-
cularly prominent, while to the westward rise the huge Barracks
of the Marines.

11. But one did not really want to look for signs of hustle
and bustle only on the still far distant shores, for around and
close to the roaring steamer this had developed to so high a pitch
that she was several times forced to reduce her speed. Boats,
schooners, merchantmen, and steamers passing up and down
stream, reduced the broad waters of the Thames that were slowly
rolling down into the sea, to a narrow channel, and I gazed in
wonderment at the strange picture that human industry and
activity was unfolding until my eyes rested on a dismasted and
unrigged colossus, the huge hull of one of those former ships of
the line, that was now doing duty as a hulk for convicts for New
Holland. Just then those who were already sentenced to
transportation were being taken ashore to work in the Royal
Dock-yards.
12. My next surroundings also kept me busy, for Greenwich
dipped out of the mass of delightful country houses, out of the
dense enclosure of autumn-tinted gardens, above a regular forest
of chimneys reaching the skies, while the world-famed mistress
of the erstwnle dominant lode-stone, the Greenwich Observa-
tory, rose on the thickly foliaged hill of Greenwich Park; the
most beautiful building in England situate on the bank, the
large Naval Hospital founded by William of Orange and opened
in 1705, hid a portion of the comfortable-looking township.

13. Hardly had we got past this than Deptford, now almost
within reach of the tentacles of London, spread itself out before
us with its old ships, wharves and timber yards of the Royal
Marine where once upon a time Peter the Great served his
apprenticeship.
14. Every turn of the paddle-wheel of the easy-going engine
bore me on to ever increasing hurry and scurry; a real forest of
masts with the colours of all the trading nations of the world







ARRIVAL IN LONDON. 5

gaily floating in the morning breeze, indicated the presence of
docks on both sides of the banks, from which a number of small
boats were rowing up stream and down stream in all directions,
some bringing passengers and goods from ship to shore while a
number of others were conveying them in furious haste from
shore to ship.

15. While contemplating this busy harbour life we arrived
at the anchorage of the "Giraffe" which happened to be imme-
diately opposite the Custom House, when our luggage was
immediately taken possession of by its officers and brought into
the building.

16. Closely intent upon the next minute when I was to make
my entrance into the capital of the civilized world, the outside
of which had already wrought such a powerful impression on
me, I strode lightly at my brother's side towards our lodgings
which, through the kindness of Mr. Shillinglaw, the Librarian of
the Royal Geographical Society, had been engaged for us in
Golden Square.

17. A detailed description of this immense area of houses
with all its lite and strife, its everlasting excitement, its racing
and chasing after a goal, its bright and blinding lights, and still
more dismal shadows, its palaces to which His Lordship who
has been dining out and dining well, hies back in gorgeous equip-
age at night, and its dark and dirty streets along which enervated
Vice sneaks like a wandering skeleton at break of day-in short,
its description of London, the present-day City of the Seven Hills,
lies beyond the scope of what I am attempting in this work.

18. Our departure from London was delayed longer than
we had anticipated, owing to my brother finding his preparations
being far from as advanced as he expected; this however afforded
me an opportunity of getting to know the City better, both in
its outer and inner bearings. The Tower and St. Paul's have
been described long ago, Westminster Abbey has already secured
more than one monograph, and every "Guide in and around
London" contains sufficient information about Somerset House,
Whitehall, the Admiralty, Horse Guards, Westminster Hall, and
fairy-like Regent Street. I accordingly pass them all by, but yet
cannot refrain from lingering a moment on the establishments
that proved of the greatest interest to me and bore most striking
testimony to the wealth of English industry and trade,-the dif-
ferent docks and shipyards. After visiting St. Paul's, Westminster,
in fact all the more remarkable buildings, and admiring the
Parliament Houses now in course of erection, I turned my steps
to the northern side of the Thames and showing at the entrance
of St. Catherine's Docks the necessary pass with which I had been
provided, was allowed to enter. In the huge warehouses, fire-
proof vaults, and on the ground there lay heaps of our northern







THE DOCKS


produce. When in the year 1823, the alteration in the hitherto
bonded-warehouse system was introduced, several private indi-
viduals combined to form a joint stock company and erected
these docks, thus taking the remedy into their own hands, as
they could not submit to the high duties charged by the London
Docks previous to actual sale.
19. From here I hurried on to London Docks in Wapping,
commencing with the small ones, and ending with the larger.
They were established in 1802, cover a floor-space of more than
20 acres which they enclose in a square, and are accordingly
divided into South, West, North and East banks. Huge sluices
lead to the compact Thames flowing past. Immense warehouse
sheds, under which the packing of goods coming in can be reme-
died, and the merchandise piled up in rainy weather are drawn
up around the banks. A paved carriage road, running at the
back, divides them from the long row of fire-proof vaults
of which the large tobacco one consists of four continuous floors
one above the other. The cellars of this mighty warehouse
might well be, the most interesting and largest that Europe has
to show, and were a stranger to venture in without a guide he
would certainly have as little chance of finding the exit as
Theseus did that of the Labyrinth,-unless he had tied the end
of the guiding thread onto the entrance gate. These cellars can
hold more than 100,000 casks of wine: the complicated pathways
are generally lighted up. Each of the four banks has its especial
number, every number its own head-office with its officers,
inspectors and cellar-men who again are collectively subject to
a Central Office and controlled by it. At certain hours of the
day the signal for opening the entrance is given for the subor-
dinate and higher officers, as well as for the labourers, who are
only allowed in after their names are called out. The same
thing takes place of an evening when work is concluded: except
during working hours no labourers, etc, are let in or out. On
completion of the day's work and calling of the roll, the build-
ings are watched by guards on the outside. The captain of an
incoming ship is not even allowed to sleep aboard his vessel.
When the ship arrives, all the sailors are discharged and do not
see their boat until she goes to sea again. To the left and right
of the large entrance-gate of the Docks stand the Customs Office
and the Excise Office.
20. After gazing in awe at these huge areas with their
strictly regulated activities I wandered a mile farther down to
the West-India Docks situate at Poplar. In general they cor-
respond structurally with those of the London Docks, and only
differ from the latter in that they fall into two divisions, of which
one is intended for inward, and the other for outward bound
(Export Dock) ships. I likewise found here the hugest cellars
and vaults for wines and spirits, which however are supplied
with natural light: long sheds resting on cast-iron pillars run
along the banks as with the former, and the discipline is similar.







SCIENTIFIC INSTITUTIONS. 7

21. Yet mother mile farther down on the northern bank
of the Thame, the East India Docks bring these extremely inter-
esting warehouses to an end. They are also partitioned, off for
Inward and Outward Bounds. On the southern bank of the
River are sti]l to be seen the Greenwich or Commercial Docks
which communicate with the Grand Surrey Canal, but as they
are said to be far less important than those mentioned above,
I did not visit them.

22. Our lengthened stay afforded an opportunity of my
getting into closer touch with several departments of Natural
Science which. were hitherto foreign to me, and which I had
at least to ta e advantage of according to instructions received.
The British VIuseum, the College of Surgeons, as well as the
Botanical Ga -dens at Kew, the Zoological Gardens in Regent's
Park, and th a Museum of the Zoological Society were in turn
my almost daily resort.

23. Sir Hans Sloane at his death in 1753 laid the real
foundation o! the present-day very extensive and remarkable
(British) Museum for the whole range of Natural Science, for
Ethnography, Archaeology, and Art, when he bequeathed to the
Nation his significant Natural History Collections and Art
treasures, ou of which in the course of years this important and
most comprehensive institution has taken its rise.

24. Alorgside this stands the College of Surgeons or Sur-
geons' Hall, celebratedd for its excellent collection of anatomical
preparations I had the good fortune to become personally
acquainted x ith its loveable Director, the celebrated Professor
Owen, whose tall, handsome and manly figure, combined with
gentleness, amiability and integrity of character, charm every
heart at the very outset. Under his friendly guidance, I got to
know this important Institution: he also showed me his work
on the Lepidosiren paradoxus, at that time of interest to all
Zoologists ai d comparative Anatomists, that was occupying his
whole attention, the collection having just received a specimen
from Brazil.

25. The Botanical Gardens at Kew must have at one time
proved the .cene of tolerable disorder, a state of affairs which
the never-tiring hands of its present Director, the amiable Sir
W. Hooker, with his recently inaugurated regime had been able
to rectify only to a certain extent.

26. Of remaining Lights of Learning with whom I had the
good fortune to become intimate, I must mention with deepest
respect and honour Messrs. Lindley and Bentham as well as Dr.
Natterer the celebrated -Austrian traveller and naturalist, who
was just then staying in London.







8 BREACHES OF ETIQUETTE.

27. Amongst the many private collections which I had an
opportunity of visiting, there was one that particularly engaged
the whole of my attention: it was the beautiful really fairy-like
collection of humming-birds, the property of Loddiges, the
market-gardener, containing all the species of this interesting
family at present known, and considerably richer in them that
is the British Museum. The perfectly natural and tasteful way of
stuffing, and the charming method of grouping them on the part
of Loddiges Jr. has made the room in which the collection
is set up, a regular Wizard's Den. The comprehensive collection
'of Orchids and Palms belonging to these gentlemen likewise
deserves the most praiseworthy mention.
28. Another friend I must not omit to mention: the mother
of Captain Marryat, the novelist-also a general favourite in
Germany-by whom my brother and I were several times
invited to her pleasant and pretty country-place at Wimbledon
and with whose family we spent the happiest of hours.
29. As the preparations for the Niger Expedition, so unfor-
tunate in its results, were being carried out at the same time as
those of my brother's, we, the Germans of bothundertakings,
used to chum together, and it is with the most painful emotion
that I now recall the hours spent with Dr. Vogel and Rotscher
of Freiburg, the mineralogist, when we gazed into the future
full of hope and most flattering expectations, and had already
met again in spirit for a mutual exchange of past experiences.
Rotscher returned home, like both of us brothers, but poor Vogel
lies covered beneath the damp swampy soil of the deadly Niger.
30. Ought I, finally, to amuse the indulgent reader perhaps
with the many extremely ridiculous breaches of English etiquette
over which I so often put my brother in a fix? Thus, when with
innate German courtesy and chivalry after the most approved
style, I greeted a lady next to whom I had sat at table the
evening before and whom I met the following morning-she
turned her head aside, with an expression of contempt: accord-
ing to English custom, the gentleman must never be the first
to acknowledge a lady in the street. On another occasion a
worthy and distinguished individual called to mne at table,
"Mr. Richard, may I have the honour of drinking a glass with
you?," to which I, having already drunk sufficient and remem-
bering the old ne quid nimis, replied "No, I thank you" whereby
I unconsciously offered him so gross an affront that he at once
jumped up and measured me from top to toe, his eyes aglow
with anger, when my brother managed to explain that I, of
course, had not had the slightest intention whatsoever of insult-
ing him, but had only answered him as any German would.
Very often in the streets my badly pronounced broken English
would cause the greatest embarrassment and draw the most
ridiculous misunderstandings in its wake-but I let all this pass
and am only quite sure that I had to pay honestly for my
apprenticeship.








CHAPTER I.


Departure from London-The Travelling Party-Captain Rothwell
-Sea-Sickness-Experiments with Sea-weed-Crossing the
Line-The New World.

31. In spite of the eagerness and haste with which our
preparations were carried out, it was nevertheless the 19th
December before we could leave London. The expedition,
consisting of my brother as commander, Marine-Lieutenant
Glascott as assistant, Mr. Hancock as secretary, Mr. Walton as
artist, and myself as volunteer, travelled by passenger-steamer to
Gravesend to catch the good barque "Cleopatra" that was to
convey us to t ie goal of our wishes: she had already been tugged
there by steamer from the West India Docks where she had been
freighted.
32. Unfortunately, the 18th December upon which we might
have sailed, proved to be a Friday, when the order of a captain
to up with anchor and leave the Docks could only be expected
to be obeyed under circumstances of necessity, for every sailor
cherishes the firm belief that a sea-voyage commenced on a
Friday, can only terminate in misfortune and loss.
33. It was dark when we reached Gravesend and got a boat
to transfer us to the Cleopatra, already lying at anchor, where
we found everything in an upset. Honest Captain Rothwell,
known to anc esteemed by all travellers to the West Indies,
introduced us to his wife who for several reasons would have
considered it one of the greatest of conjugal crimes not to accom-
pany her husband on all his voyages: she shook hands with us
cordially, and bade us welcome. Both husband and wife were
Scotch. Captain Rothwell had gained his first laurels fighting with
the celebrated veteran regiment, the "Scotch Greys", at the battle
of Waterloo, which continually formed the most brilliant topic of
his interesting conversations. Of course, like all his compatriots,
he gave the credit of the victory solely and alone to Britain.
Rothwell was one of those straightforward and blunt natures often
to be found among sea-farers, was fond of his glass of stiff grog,
and at table, preferably over a glass of wine, he would tell us
about his adventures by land and sea, never reflecting that his
interested hearers were emptying a glass more than they other-
wise would have done. Every happy face was cheery sunshine
for his humour, every sad one a gloomy cloud in a radiant sky:
he enjoyed everything beautiful in whatever form to be met, or
wherever to be found. Mrs. Rothwell learning this thoroughly
throughout her happy married life, must have concluded from
experience that it were better for kitchen and cellar-because the
captain had to see to the victualling of the passengers-as well as
for her lord and master if, during the voyage, she were to take







WAN GHOST OF SEA SICKNESS.


both the former and latter under her special management and
exclusive care. I still remember with a smile the lively quarrels
that usually broke out of an evening in the captain's cabin after
having got Rothwell to talk at table about Waterloo when,
recognizing what brave lads we were, he would call for one flask
of rum or wine after the other, with a view to save himself spin-
ning his yarn dry, and our having to wind it up thirsty. The lively
remonstrances of his spouse against such waste and the loss it
entailed in her cash, were generally answered by a loud snoring
proceeding from his bunk.

34. In the cabin we found our two fellow-passengers: a pale
young lady with those wistful limpid (tiefsinnigen schwimmenden)
eyes so characteristic of Englishwomen that renders them so very
charming if at all backed by a nice complexion, and a young Scots-
man who, as it turned out later, was a Customs officer on his
transfer out to Georgetown. The former was hastening yonder
to an uncle and possibly to a rich husband, a calculation that
unfortunately proved deceptive, because after a three years' stay
slie returned to London without one.

35. The narrow quarters soon broke the ice, mutual
acquaintances were struck up, and the usual bets made between
the prospective passengers as to the day upon which we would
reach our longed-for haven. Each one fixed the amount he
wagered on the day we were to touch terra firm at George-
town, and everybody hoped he would pick the right one and
win the stakes.

36. We were awakened already before daybreak by the
lively bustle and noise taking place on the decks together with
the rhythmic singing of the sailors while heaving anchor, and the
steamer that was to tow us again to-day as far as the mouth of
the Thames, soon put in her appearance. Thick snow covered
the banks of the river. The nearer we got to the mouth, the
higher towered the waves, the more unsettled became the motion
of the ship, the more rapidly I experienced those uncomfortable
sensations premonitory to sea-sickness. We had hardly left the
estuary than I fell a victim to the wan ghost. During ten days
of anguish I lay for the most part unconscious and ate nothing
whatever except a few oranges. What were the hours spent in
groaning when I first got sick crossing from Holland to England, as
compared with what I suffered here? The condition in which one
finds oneself is simply horrible. The heavy dull oppression in
the head, the limited and yet augmented breathing of the chest,
the painful cramps in the stomach, the cold sweat productive
of nausea at the very sight or smell of food, the continual thirst
that never can be quenched, the everlasting longing and yearning
of the spirit when everything is centred in one single hour's stay
upon solid ground-all these torments collectively can only be







STORM. 11.

appreciated by one who has suffered sea-sickness in the whole-
sale line like I have.

37. Banished to my sleeping-quarters I had not the slight-
est idea whether we were still in the Channel, or already making
our way across the boundless sea: indeed I believe my apathy
for everything external must have reached such a pitch that,
had the Captain told me that the ship had stuck on the top of
Chimborazo I would have stared at him just as unconcernedly
as if he had only come to grumble that we had not yet passed
the Straits.

38. The sun of December 29th shone so invitingly through the
port-hole, th it I suddenly felt the wish awakening to try at least
to reach the deck. The worst of the complaint was over: I suc-
ceeded in the attempt. But what a change had taken place in
the surroundings since my last visit! My eyes looked in vain
for land, onlE a few sea-gulls (Sterna) that swarmed around the
ship, indicating that the coast could not be very distant. The
favourable wind had quickened our journey through the Channel
and we were already in the Atlantic.

39. How I envied Mr. Richie, the young Customs Officer, who
had never suffered sea-sickness for a moment, although this was
his very first sea voyage. My other fellow-passengers were the
true reflected images of my own miserable self, and the poor
young lady, from the time of my disappearance, had shown her-
self outside of her cabin just as little as I had.

40. But though feeling as much revived by the fresh sea air,
in place of the musty and evil-smelling atmosphere of below-
decks and cabin, as I was cheered by the boundless area of the
ocean, with Heaven's vault resting on the horizon, I was neverthe-
less soon fo:'ced to seek that hateful confinement again: the
distant sky lad suddenly changed and a few squalls seemed to
indicate the brewing of a storm. Everything remained quiet up
to evening: the ship coursed through the waves fairly comfortably,
and we turned in with the conviction that our fears had been
groundless. We could hardly have been asleep an hour, however,
before we were awakened by the violent and irregular motion of
the vessel, and any one who had not lost his senses through sea-
sickness, could surely have realized from the powerful rocking,
creaking and rolling of the boat now wrestling with the up-rooted
and unfettered waves, from the shrill orders of the Captain
shouted through a speaking-trumpet, and from the yelling uproar
of the sailors attempting in vain to overwhelm the howling of the
storm and the smashing of the waves against the ship, that a
hurricane had burst upon us in all its fury.







12 EXPERIENCES ON THE VOYAGE.

41. For me, these first few seconds were the worst. The
noise of the slackening sails, the oft-repeated vain attempts at
reefing them, the confusing clatter consequent on the storm break-
ing its force on the loosely-hanging canvas before the sailors
succeeded in gaining its absolute mastery, the rattling of the
chains and cables that drowned every word spoken by the men,
all combined to produce so bewildering an effect that the most
firmly determined will must have yielded to the excitement. I
dashed on deck, then down again: everywhere the same upset.
Though stunned by the confusing din and uproar of the natural
elements unshackled in all their rage, I at once thought that the
material and human contents of the cabin were suffering jointly
and individually from an attack of St. Vitus' Dance. Everything
that was not clinched and riveted flew in the maddest fashion
from the one side to the other, and fortunate was he who, even
proceeding with the utmost caution, was not thrown down, rolled
along like the play-ball of Fate, and dotted over in black and
blue, before finally reaching his intended goal. The storm raged
until the 2nd January and reached its greatest violence during
the night of 31st December to January 1st. These were days of
real discomfort and terror: a gloomy grey sky and sea, through
which here and there black spectral clouds rushed like
ammunition-carts to the field of battle. The breeze howled and
growled in deafening din; creaking and loudly shrieking it bore
along with it the moaning and the groaning of the masts and the
dull thundering of the block and tackling tumbling up against
them, while the high plunging waves, greedy for their prey,
stormed the vessel's frail planking which quivered in its very
joints, or else they hid the ship momentarily in their watery arms
and tore off from her decks everything that stood in their way.

42. Even though the terror and confusion in the cabin were
amply sufficient on the outbreak of the storm they were now
increased to a much higher pitch. My dreamt-of courage suc-
cumbed, and involuntarily there crossed my memory during this
awful New Year's Eve the previous ones that I had so often
spent in completely different surroundings, in quite another
frame of mind. Ought I to regard this stormy anniversary an
omen for my future ?

43. On the 3rd January the sky cleared and with it the
troubled faces of the passengers. We found ourselves in the
latitude of Madeira. The thermometer already registered 16 R.
in the shade. The stoves were banished from the cabins, and
everybody was busy getting his summer clothing out of the boxes
and trunks, while the sun, with all its warmth and animation,
now beamed upon the passengers numbed with cold, care and
anxiety. Our pale young lady with the limpid eyes, which the
awful days had almost dulled, again took her place with us. Only
poor Hancock still lay groaning in his berth: the storm had







DOLPHINS.


mercilessly missed him alone whereas in the case of us others
it had driven away the last vestiges of sea-sickness.

44. If Mrs. Rothwell had hitherto regarded the disinclina-
tion for food on the part of her boarders with inward satisfac-
tion, her face now took on an appearance quite opposite to that
of the cheery skies, her former sunny aspect changing to one
of heavy thunder clouds: for the cook could hardly meet the
impetuous demands of the famished folk, and scarcely an
evening passed but an echo of the recent storm sounded over
to us from the Captain's cabin.

45. The deck was henceforth my home which I could only
be induced to leave by the bell for table, and the craving for a
rest. Now for the first time I learnt what real life and activity
on board a ship meant, and watched with delight the discipline
and order that, through the forceful command of the Captain,
reigned over everything. Almost every day the deck was
scoured, every morning before daybreak it was swilled. In storm
or calm, by day or night, a single word drove the sailors as
quick as thought to the extreme end of the rigging, and the
hardly ten-to-twelve year old apprentices, up the very tops of
the masts.
46. The long drawn-out though recently freed waves towered
majestically aloft, and seemed desirous of swallowing the vessel
gliding down into their deep furrows. The water had already
assumed its beautiful indigo colour, and whole herds of sporting
Dolphins or Sea-hogs (Delphinus Delphis) suddenly emerged
above the surface, and then as quickly dived into the unfathom-
able depth, until a number of the festive party would be hit by
our weapons, when together with the whole school, it would
clear away for good. We were still accompanied even by some
sea swallows which now and again when tired would settle on
the sails for rest. Woe to the daring individual who might venture
to kill one of these birds: the anger of the entire crew would
embitter his very moment of the voyage, for sailors recognize in
them the ghosts of their deceased mates who always accompany
their former ship. They are a peculiar people, these sailors: in
their conceits and dispositions quite a true image, but mostly a
reversed one, of the prevailing weather. The Storm is their real
element, the inert Calm their time for growling and for indolence,
until, on the sound of the cease-work bell of an evening, they
collect on deck and try to while away the hours and discontent
in winding off their yarns. At such times, often as an attentive
but unobserved listener, I enjoyed their powerful descriptions of
adventures experienced and storms successfully encountered, or
else amused myself with their still more vivid chanties. On
week-days one cannot find any better descriptive name for them
than "tar-jackets" because they then are really stiff with dirt, our
cook not excepted: on Sundays, on the other hand, they look as if







14 EXPERIMENTS WITH SEA WEED.

they had just come out of a band-box, and the tidied-up young-
sters then proudly parade the decks.

47. We had by now reached the latitude of the Canaries: our
splendid sailer skimmed the seas as briskly as a bird: and with
the fresh wind also holding up we could usually make from six
to eight knots an hour. Though already inspired at sun-rise and
sun-set by the sight of the limitless element, my enjoyment was
further enhanced with oncoming night when the sky stretched
itself out above us with its constellations and equally innumer-
able falling stars, when the moonshine fringed the half trans-
parent edges of the lightly curled waves, and the ship seemed to
swim in a sparkling sea of fire. More or less large luminous globes
swarmed over the whole wide expanse, and with every furrow
that the proudly sailing vessel cut into the approaching waves,
the sparks, flying like glowing iron when struck with a heavy
hammer, momentarily lighted up fts immediate surroundings.

48. During the day, on the other hand, my attention was drawn
to the immense masses of sea-wrack or sea-weed which from
now onward surrounded the ship. The heaping up of this mass of
vegetation has often been the subject of the most versatile secu.-
lation, and extremely varied views have been expressed as to its
origin. Alexander von Humboldt having charged me on my
departure, to make every attempt possible to propagate the sea-
weed in barrels, I fished up huge quantities on the outward and
homeward voyage, and found all the manifold varieties that have
been described, but never a root to which the plant was attached.
I kept larger and smaller pieces of plant in a number of tubs,
supplied some of them hourly, others daily with fresh sea-water,
while others again I left in that originally given them: yet all
became black and were already spoilt within the course of two
or three days. On the outward voyage, in January, notwithstand-
ing the most careful search, I never succeeded in finding fruit,
whereas on my return in the months of June and July, they were
absolutely overstrewn with them.
49. When fishing up a parcel of it in the dredge-net, I at the
same time drew on deck a complete world of molluscs, jelly-fish,
sea-squirts, cuttle-fish, rotifers, crabs and smaller fry, amongst
which the beautiful Physalia utriculus and Caravella ("Portu-
guese Man-of-war" of the sailors) particularly interested me. It
afforded us the most beautiful sight, when with their lovely
coloured tentacles, innumerable specimens passed us by.

50. The nearer we approached the Equator, the more did our
fellow-passengers and sailors who had already crossed the line
chaff those of us who were now about to do so for the first time.
If one of the ship's apprentices had done a kindness to an older
experienced sailor he could rest assured that the latter's thanks
would contain some consolatory reference to the baptismal tonsure







CROSSING THE LINE.


at the fatal ;Lne. So when we did get there finally, it was
known that ve harmless people were to be decoyed on deck.
Here on arrival we suddenly found ourselves surrounded by
sun-burnt faces, and saw Neptune in a sheep-skin turned inside
out and fringed with dripping seaweed, emerging from the hatch-
ways to settle himself on a huge water-barrel. With eyes bandaged
each novice is now led before his throne, roughly enough lathered
by him, and then shaved with a huge ship's cutlass: ten
ur twelve of Ite sea-god's Tritons stand ready with buckets full
of salt water, to wash off the suds left remaining. If we four pas-
sengers who (rossed the Line for the first time were properly
lathered and moused, it fared much worse with the poor ship's
boys and sail )rs who stood on the same footing as ourselves.
The patient limbs for slaughter, who well knew from others'
accounts that any useless opposition would only tend to amplify
the act of endearment, were first of all tied under the ship's
pumps to have the dirt washed off so that they might appear
spick and span before the deity who loves cleanliness so much.
After being half-drowned and released, they were mocked, and
scoffed, and comforted with dry and piquant remarks interlarded
with the most forcible flourishes of rhetoric. One of the Tritons
came up with a vessel full of wet sand and powdered them
with such violence that blood ran down their pallid cheeks when
he led them before the Barrel of State. Here Neptune, with not
exactly a liglt hand, used his ship's cutlass to complete the
shaving of the poor victims, now screaming and wailing most
piteously the while, as the jubilant Tritons poured innumerable
buckets of sea-water over their heads. However funny the
grimaces of those to be baptised might prove to a spectator at
the beginning, he nevertheless felt the deepest pity for the poor
young fellows during the course of the procedure. But were a
captain to abolish this day of gaiety and enjoyment for his crew,
the reputation of his ship amongst sailors would be lost, what-
ever big wages he might offer them.
51. The temperature, ever becoming snore sultry, was
already tiring and oppressive; the sheet-lightning increased;
countless shooting stars crossed the vault of heaven in instan-
taneous flight and the glorious constellation of the'tropical sky, the
Southern Cross, soon showed ahead, while the hitherto guiding
polar star was sinking into the depths behind. Closely packed
swarms of flying fish rose several feet above the surface to
escape the pursuing Tunny (Scomber Thynnus) or our own swift
ship, when, after a flight of often 20 to 50 paces against the wind,
they either fell back into their element, or were driven on to the
deck, where the sailors welcomed the spoil. The brisk contest
carried on between the tunny and the sailing-ship is interesting;
the fish seem only to think it a little joke, because, though often
springing above the surface, they never remain behind their
rival.
52. On ti e afternoon of the 21st January I noticed that the
colour of the water was essentially changed and had assumed a







16 ENTERING THE DEMERARA.

muddy yellow-brown colour. Immediately after, I was very glad
to see in the distance numerous swarms of sea-birds that more
or less slowly drew hither and thither over the surface. But Y
was still more pleased when somebody clapped me on the
shoulder and Captain Rothwell's blunt voice shouted "Now, Mr.
Richard, tomorrow morning early you will have your wishes ful-
filled: to-morrow you will see land and soon stand on terra firma."

53. Mr. Walton was the prophet to be acclaimed victor: today
was Thursday, and to-morrow Friday, the day upon which he had
betted, and he consequently took the pool.

54. Daybreak found all the passengers collected on deck,.
earnestly seeking the promised land. As if still swimming in
the haze, a small dark fringe suddenly appeared on the horizon
and a general "Thank God" on the part of the passengers proved
their greeting to the New Continent. All the ship's telescopes.
were fetched up, and quickly handed from one to the other.
The continuous fresh breeze that was speeding us to our destina-
tion, gradually scattered the envious morning mist, and the several
outlines of the shore became gradually more -distinct, until finally
the coast itself, covered with thick masses of foliage, appeared
sharply defined. The crowds of birds that had been previously
noticed in the distance were already swarming around our vessel
in cheery clamour: amongst them the beautiful Frigate-bird
(Tachypetes aquila Vieill.) apparently wanted to choose a perch
on the highest top of our Cleopatra.

55. It was only to-day that we reluctantly answered the clear
summons of the mid-day bell that called us for the last time to
table where Captain Rothwell, in spite of the liveliest remon-
strances of his wife, surrendered as best he could the last rem-
nants of his champagne which was nevertheless drunk with the-
liveliest enjoyment. Our impatience did not allow of us staying
long below, and we quickly gathered on deck once more. We had
approached the coast so closely in the interval that, without
glasses, we could not only see the proud palms rising above the
dense foliage, but also the peculiarly constructed lightship which,
with its far-reaching beacon serves to guide in-coming vessels at
right the vessel at the same time constitutes the Station where
every over-sea ship must pick up a pilot, because, without one.
the entrance into the Demerara mouth would prove fairly
dangerous. About four miles out to sea and stretching across
the mouth there is a large sand-and-mud bar with only two chan-
nels of which one is 9 feet deep at half flood, and the other (the
eastern) 19 feet at high flood, so that no vessel that draws more
than 18 feet can cross it. Once the channel is passed and the
mouth of the Demerara reached, the River itself affords the safest
and most convenient harbour that could hold the whole combined
fleet of Great Britain The arrival of every ship is signalled from







COASTAL VEGETATION.


the Lightship t. the Lighthouse in the City. As soon as we came
in line with the Lightship, a row-boat came off with the pilot, a
coloured man, who now took over unlimited command, so that
Captain Rothwell for once in a way was given a rest. The negro
pullers were naturally enough regarded by us new-comers with
curiosity.
56. With the dangerous bank soon astern, we shortly after-
wards ran into the 4 mile wide estuary of the Demerara. The
land I had yearned and longed for, the land of fairy fancy, of
blood and terror, of the most effulgent hope and expectation for
the people of EIurope, the land where the dignity of man has been
trampled under foot so long, but where now is risen a modern
era which is already illumining the distant Future with its
initial brilliance--the American continent stretched out before me.

57. A number of boats, fishing smacks, sloops with three-
cornered sails, schooners, even two barques that had passed the
channel shortly before us, were forging their way in a motley
throng towards the mouth, while the dense tropical vegetation
with which Georgetown or Demerara was regularly veiled,
prevented us Irom satisfying our inquisitive gaze: we could only
see the majestic Lighthouse with its proud summit and the gaily
flying flag th ough the enveloping cover, and then follow the
huge boiling-house chimneys of the Sugar Plantations situated on
the western b ink all surrounded with beautiful cabbage palms
(Areca oleracea Jacq.) and Coconuts (Cocos nucifera). The Rhizo-
phora Mangle Linn., Avicennia nitida Linn. and Laguncularia
racemosa Gaeit. form the coast and river fringes, of which the
two latter stretch along the uncultivated waterside and sea-shore
in thick unifo am hedges. In the distance they looked just as if
they had been trimmed with shears and from behind their dark
invigorating verdure there peeped the pleasant buildings of the
Estates, until finally on the right or eastern bank, bordered by
the hundreds of masts of merchant ships, schooners and sloops at
anchor, Georgetown, the capital, presented itself to view.

58. The sun was already hurrying towards the western horizon
as we slowly made our way over to Fort William Frederick which
is closely connected with the Lighthouse where our ship's signal
still fluttered, along through rows of merchant vessels under
English and North American flags, whose sailors had crowded
together on the decks to watch the incoming Cleopatra and wel-
come her with a general Hurrah! The crews of the coastal boats
consisted for the most part of half-naked negroes and mulattoes
who were busily discharging ground provisions, and enlivening
their labours with strange sorts of songs. Along the banks
the city showed nothing but an uninterrupted facade of wharves
built on posts, with huge cranes, baggage stores and warehouses
which were given life to by the bustling agency of human hands:
behind them again there rose slim cabbage and coconut palms










18 LAST NIGHT ON BOARD.

which thus hid the remaining portions of the capital. The
Western bank certainly did not show so lively but yet none-the-
less interesting a landscape. The thick border of Avicennia and
Laguncularia concealed in part the Estates' residential quarters
and boiling-houses, enclosed as they were on all sides by
hundreds of small nigger-huts, together with their towering
chimneys which in perspective ever became gradually reduced in
size until they finally indicated but the site of cultivated areas
lying farther inland, where a bluish yellow evening haze limited
the far horizon. The steamer that is always keeping up communi-
cation between both banks, as well as the innumerable boats that
assiduously cross the river next attracted our attention.

59. After a long and fruitless search, the Cleopatra found a
berth and to everybody's satisfaction the anchor rattled down
onto the soil of the New World. But our wish to sleep on shore
to-day was not fulfilled. Evening having set in we were forced
once more to be satisfied with our cabins:-my brother alone
landed so as to wait upon the Governor without loss of time next
morning. Immediately after his departure the Customs-House
officers paid us a visit.

60. In the evening, wd heard the singing of the jolliest songs
on the ships which, according to the distance of their anchorage,
finally became blurred into single chords: the skylarking and
noise betrayed the sailors' dispositions, while in between a few
crude or melodious sounds of different instruments managed to
reach us. Nature had been resting already long in deep repose,
when Man alone showed he shunned its sovereignty: for the dull
thunder of the cannon at the Fort that lightly rolled over the
ruffled surface of the rivermouth and only died away in the far
distance, notified the tatoo, and found its echo in the peal of
bells on the merchant ships and in the booming of the huge signal-
shells of the coasters, until these also were hushed, and the
glorious music of the military in the barracks close to the garrison
was wafted on the gentle breeze, soft and enlivening, over to us.
The previous merry fun and frolic on the decks was now
followed by the deepest silence, only to be broken by the waves
splashing against the ship's planks at high water, or by the isolated
call of a captain for the boat which was to take him back to his
ship.

61. On an average, the current of the River amounts to 21
knots, while at the mouth, owing to the falling of the tide, it 1i
often increased to 7 knots an hour, i.e., 11.9 feet per second.









CHAPTER III.


Landing-Georgetown-Historical Retrospect.

62. Just a.s the firing of cannon had signified the onset or
night, a similar one notified the breaking of day; the Reveille
'sounded through the yet silent city streets and recalled to life
fresh energies and renewed activities. Innumerable boats, laden-
with produce from the estates, were rowing with and against
the stream from the west bank and from farms situate further
inland, towards the capital, to supply it for the coming day with
Plantains (the fruit of Musa paradisiaca Liin.), Maize, Vege-
tables, Oranges Poultry and Fish: others were engaged in cap-
turing the denizens of the deep, to return with them in due
season. In t]le midst of this engaging tumult there gaily
sounded the strange chirp and twitter of the larger and smaller
birds that were searching the thickly leaved trees of the bank
for spoil, or flying to greet the opening dawn, while the anchor-
age was being gradually filled with noisy and squalling negro
women who were waiting to buy the cargoes of the incoming
boats.

63. Our impatience would no longer be curbed and so, full
of mischief and delighted with the glorious morn, we jumped
into the boat that was to convey us to shore. It was only with
difficulty that we managed to force our way through the noisy
crowd of black, brown, half-naked huckster-folk of Georgetown
collected there, who looked upon us with as much surprise and
curiosity as we regarded them. To our great satisfaction, the
wide street we followed ran direct to the Lighthouse Tower,
which straight away prompted us to take a view of the city
from its top. After climbing the 140 steps leading to the gal-
lery, a wonderful panorama unexpectedly came into view. Dumb
with surprise and delight, the eye swept over the heaving and
billowy seas a. far as the distant horizon where Earth and
Heaven met: l.ght fishing-boats pitched and tossed upon the
ruffled waves, o disappear a moment later, while a ponderous
coaster would skim its way through them. Below, there glared
at me the thick forest of masts and flying flags. Spreading
itself before my delighted gaze was the city with its nice wooden
gaudily-painted houses, its overtopping churches and Public
Buildings, its thousands upon thousands of slender palms, its
broad busy streets, and its many canals that ran through it like
so many veins: it was enclosed by more or less distant sugar
estates with many a smoking chimney striving after heaven, the
characteristic, as it were, of modern progress. Far away to the
Westward I noticed the darkly-fringed shores of the Essequibo,
while the Demcrara rolling past beneath us ran like a silver







20 QU 'EST-CE-QUE-DIT"

band through the smiling plain, and waltzed its waters into the
greedy ocean.

64. The peaceful and romantic valleys, mountains and plains
of our native land do not possess the infinite charm and delight-
ful matutinal fragrance of the tropics :-the wanton vegetation,
the vigorous fresh green amidst *a dense dark foliage, the gener-
ally prevalent marked contrast of conformation in the world
of plants, the tropical climate, the tropical sky is all foreign to
them. It was long before we could turn away from the charm-
ing picture, which changed with every second while fresh attrac-
tions and new surprises showed up with every peep, whether
we took it near or far, over the breadth of the ocean, or across
the extensive plains of the coast-line. Hardly had we left the
Lighthouse Tower than we heard the question "Qu'est-ce-que-
dit?" repeatedly asked us from out of the neighboring palms
and foliage trees. In wonder and surprise we turned to look
for the inquisitive fellow, at first however in vain, until we finally
found him to be a yellowish bird about the size of a thrush,
that must have been continually plagued with the most violent
curiosity, for it renewed its enquiries without cessation. It was
the Tyrannus sulphuratus Vieill., the "Qu'est-ce-que-dit?" of
the Colonists. To be or wish to be a Stoic, would have been
impossible today, because every step brought something new to
claim the whole of my interest and curiosity, so that at last I
seemed to be like the boy from the country visiting the big
city for the first time, when he finds his fairy fancy-pictures far
and away surpassed by the brilliant shop-fronts, and the ever-
lasting scurry, hurry and hustle of the inhabitants.
65. The streets through which we roamed were broad and
intersected with spacious canals, while the wooden houses, rarely
more than two storeys high, that stretched along them, were
shaded by a row of palms (Areca oleracea or Cocos nucifera):
with few exceptions a garden enclosed each one, which was
divided off from its neighbours by a canal or ditch. Nature, the
ever-labouring mindful mother was the one and only gardener
to have a free hand in almost all these grounds, though I also
found several which were not only very. tastefully planned but
were kept in regulated cultivation by the ruling and attentive
hand of Man. Nice and prettily-winding paths, bordered with
the most glorious Orange trees richly overladen with their golden
fruit; Erythrinas; big bushes of flourishing Oleander on pleas-
ant verdant lawns; many a Jasmine, Clerodendrum, Ixora, Poin-
ciana, Bauhinia, Quassia, Melia, Gardenia, Punica, lusticia; Hibis-
cus rosa sinensis and chinensis overstrewn with their large red
blossoms; Centifolias and Monthly Roses, which with the scorch-
ing climate had assumed a burnt colour; Balsams that grew like
huge shrubs; Passion Flowers, Clitorias and Bignonias, the stems,
branches and twigs of which had changed into floating garden-







FELLOW COUNTRYMEN. 21

plots-everything reminded me that I was treading the land of
Plenty, the land of Mighty Vegetation. Negroes with heavy
loads on their heads, accompanied by little boys and girls like-
wise securely balancing a bottle or basket with glass-ware in
similar fashion, mulattoes of all shades of colour, carts with jar-
ring wheels dragged by panting mules, all hurried and scurried
past me in such bewildering confusion that what with all this
disturbance, my attention was at last completely lost upon any
one particular object until it found itself centred once more upon
a negress who was carrying upon her head a bucket full of
crystalline material. I could not satisfy myself that the stuff was
really pure ice before touching it, and a voice close by, "By God,
pure Ice!" expressed the sensations which the surprise, still obvi-
ous, had aroused in me. "Ice, by God, pure Ice!" Agreeably
shocked I turned round and behind me stood a vigorous young
fellow whose :;ood-natured astonishment immediately indicated
he was German. My greeting of "Good morning, countryman!"
almost choked ais South German "God greet you" (Griisch Gott)!
After our mutual delight and wonder had subsided, I learnt from
the genial Swabian that he had arrived the day before in com-
pany with 100 Rhinelanders, Wurtemburgers, and Swabians who,
like their countrymen before them, wanted to try their luck.
A second ship from Madeira, with Portuguese, attracted by
similar ideas, reached port at the same time as they did: several
pale, lean, male figures, with their heads covered in a dark blue
cloth cap tapening to a 3-inch high rat-tail tip, confirmed the
truth of the statement.
66. My br other's voice-he had recognized us in the crowd
-soon brought us to his side; he was also astonished on dis-
covering a countryman in our acquaintance.
67. My brother, unfortunately, did not find the house that
his friend Mr. Stutchbury had hired in advance for him, quite
ready for occupation, and was consequently obliged in the mean-
time to take some other rooms that he had formerly occupied.
68. Tired and bewildered with all that we had seen, we now
returned to the ship to arrange for the landing of our things, and
were not a little surprised to find, on stepping aboard, that Mrs.
Rothwell had already prepared an excellent breakfast consisting
of the loveliest Oranges, Pine-apples, and other tropical fruits
hitherto unknown to me: the first were exquisite, the mealy fruits
of the Musa sapientum and Mangifera indica Linn. on the con-
trary, being none the less relished for their sweet and delicate
taste. Night, that comes on so suddenly here was fast approach-
ing when, with the luggage most required, we took possession
of our temporary quarters.
69. Yesterday evening's or rather last night's wealth of
charm was repeated today to perhaps even a higher degree. Con-
sidering that 'he most accurate description by a poetic soul







22 TROPIC NIGHT

however richly blessed must ever remain but a silhouette of the
real article-for language of the most ardent nature can never
enravish and ennoble the reader's thoughts with the sentiments
that captivate and overwhelm the traveller who derives pleasure
from such experiences-how could I venture to express the feel-
ings that stirred my inmost soul when, after sunset, the almost
overpowering balsamic fragrance from the gardens opposite pene-
trated each open window, when every stalk and every leaf of
the gently swaying foliaged domes of luxuriant trees seemed to
whisper in an unknown tongue "Stranger, don't forget us, but
keep the memory of this enchanting Present ever green until the
Future winds us and our mates in its pale and chilly shroud,
when all will finally be forgotten." How can I describe what I
felt when the shrill chirrupy chorus of countless Cicadas and
crickets resounded high and low, when the cloudy haze, illumined
by the brightly shining moon and Venus' equally brilliant star-
light, enveloped ithe whole of the surroundings in a semi-'drans-
parent veil that was being crossed by thousands of luminous.
insects such as Lampyris phosphorea Linn., when fantastically
dressed wayfarers, with open umbrellas to protect them from
the harmful moon-beams and equally noxious evening dews,
filled the intersecting streets, or when the lightly wafted breeze
brought over to us from distant portions of the city the crude
and noisy music of melancholy songs, of negroes at a dance. I
sadly missed for once the pleasant evening twilight hours of
home. America recognizes no intermediate step in the change
between these two divisions of time: Day presses closely onto
Night, as Night presses into day.
70. Overwhelmed with all these vivid impressions, it was
only late in the evening that I turned into my hammock where
I nevertheless vainly sought repose : the open window allowed
thousands of bloodthirsty mosquitoes to sprinkle the first drops
of bitterness in my cup that was yet bubbling in an ecstacy of
delight.
71. Daybreak at quarter to six, with yesterday's bustle of
blacks and half-breeds renewed afresh, already found me at the
open casement.
72. The news of our arrival must have spread quickly over
the city for the friends coming to greet and welcome my brother
soon filled our rooms. After introducing me to the Governor
and families of his acquaintance, I became so inundated with.
invitations that I spent my first week in a real whirl of enjoy-
ment when the impressions recently experienced were blotted
out by new ones, until at last, after settling down into our own
quarters and unpacking and arranging our effects, the Quiet that
had been lost sight of, helped somewhat to revive them.
73. The pretty little house situate in Camp Street.
surrounded by slender palms and plenteously-shaded foliage-
trees, with its cool and airy gallery and its widely projecting







EARLY HISTORICAL DATA.


roof was satisfactory from every point of view. The only thing
to worry over was the high rent that my brother was forced to
pay, for although it only contained some small rooms, he was
nevertheless charged 54 dollars a month: to be added to this were
the extraordinarily high expenses of living, which made me very
uneasy concerning my annual travelling allowance of 432 dollars.
Georgetown is one of those cities of South America where almost
every hour's itay has to be weighed against gold.

74. According to the plans laid down for efficiently carrying
out my work. I ought now to set down in chronological order
all my experiences in the city proper, as well as its environs, in
fact give an account of its whole inner and outer activities during
the longer or shorter visits I paid it at different times. But to
avoid repetition I am including my subsequent observations with
today's and yesterday's and will attempt to sketch so far as it lies
in my power, a true picture of the civilised portions of this
English possession, which bids fair to be of so much promise in
the future as well as of its capital, and propose commencing with
its historical, statistical and topographical aspects. I leave it to
the judgment of my readers whether they approve or reject the-
method of description followed.

75. Contemporary historians are by no means in agreement
as to who really was the first to find Guiana, considering that its
discovery has been ascribed by some to Columbus, by others
again to Vasco Nunnez, and even in part to Diego de Ordas who
could only have landed on the Guiana coast in 1531. The earliest
appreciable attempts at Colonisation were at all events established
by the Dutch since 1581, but, as they themselves found traces of
past cultivation of the soil, the Spaniards, in times previous to
them, must hy,ve sporadically occupied the whole stretch of coast
as far as the mouth of the Essequibo.*

76. During the years 1586 to 1596 the Dutch already had
founded several settlements, from which they were nevertheless
driven by the Spaniards with the assistance of Indians in 1596.
Not at all disheartened by these failures, Jost van der Hooge
established a new Colony called Nova Zeelandia, which, by 1613
must have found itself in flourishing circumstances. In 1602 the
Zeeland merchants van Peeren, van Rhee, de Moor, de Vries, and
van Hoorn arranged for a voyage to the Guiana Coast under the
command of an Ryk Hendrickzoon, for which purpose a charter
granting them exclusive trade-rights was drawn up for them by
the States-General.

77. In 1621 the States-General undertook to supply the
Colonists with Negro slaves from Africa, and now van Peer,
who, with his companions, had been driven out of the Orinoco,
commenced operations afresh at Berbice, whereupon a new

These historical notes, sees. 75 to 79, are unreliable. (J.R.)







24 CIIANGES OF SOVEREIGNTY.

colonisation company, leaving the Texel under command of
David Pieterse de Vries landed in September, 1654, upon the
island of Mecoria between the rivers Cayenne and Wia. Here
again the emigrants found an old castle, which the French must
have built, just as van der Hooge found a similar one in 1596 at
the junction of the Essequibo with the Mazaruni the builders of
which were probably Portuguese.

78. These various attempts seem to have induced several
Englishmen to settle in the so-calld "Wild Coast" Colonies: van
der Hooge already found a party established in the Surinam
River under Captain Marshall who, with about 60 companions,
had settled on the site of what had formerly been a large Indian
village, Paramaribo, but which nevertheless had to be abandoned
owing to the many incursions of the Caribs.

79. These attempts of the Dutch and English proved the
signal for other nations, which were now reciprocally dispossessed
and re-established in one perpetual change. Thus in 1640 the
French took possession of the earlier settlement of Paramaribo
which they subsequently abandoned for the same reasons that
had prompted the English, and in 1652 the latter were once more
its masters. Equally potent quarrels arising within the States-
General considerably hindered the prosperous progress of
colonisation along the coast until, in 1678, a treaty was concluded
with the van Peere family whereby it was to retain possession of
Berbice colony "for ever". The changing fortunes of War,
however, during the past two hundred years brought the colonies
of Berbice, Essequibo, and Demerara from out of the hands of
the Dutch into those of the French, English and Spanish with
the result that by an agreement between Great Britain and the
Netherlands arrived at in 1812 they were handed over to the
former on the stipulation that the Dutch owners were to retain
trading relations, in limited restriction, with Holland. Under
the sovereignty of Great Britain, agriculture and trade rapidly
advanced, for already by that date steam engines were generally
employed at the sugar-mills. The census of January, 1817 gave
a Negro slave population of 77,163 for the Essequibo and Demerara
Districts, and 24,529 for the Berbice: consequently the three
districts between them owned 101,712 slaves, while at the same
time the free population amounted to 8,000. From all statistical
accounts this was the largest population the colony had hitherto
held: it was however considerably diminished in the year 1819
through the ravages of yellow fever.*


It is interesting to note that, in 1917, after an interval of a cen-
tury, the estimated negro population of the Colony, according to the Report
of the Registrar General, was 118,612, while that of the mixed races was
33,860; a total of 152,472 souls, as compared with the total of 101,692
shewn in the census of 1817, (F.G.R.)







EAST COAST INSURRECTION. 25

80. Canning's firm determination to improve the lot of the
entire slave population in a i the British colonial possessions, and
to pave the way even for emancipation, was laid before the
House of Commons, in 1823, and copies of this noble-minded
resolution of the great statesman were despatched to Murray,
the British Guiana Governor. For some reason or another the
latter omitted publishing it without being able to prevent its
contents becoming known. The earliest intimation of the
existence of s ich a document, according to which something was
said to have been done by England for the freedom of their slaves,
was first of all received from one of the Governor's servants by
certain headmen-black overseers of slaves on the individual
plantations under whose direction the other slaves work-and
the rumour soon spread over the entire East Coast that the order
for their complete freedom had been received in the colony from
England, but that His Excellency and the slave owners had kept
the matter secret, and were trying to prevent it being carried
into effect.
81. It was owing to this report that a conspiracy was
hatched amongst the whole of the East Coast slaves according to
which those who joined were to seize all the Europeans on the
Plantations, a id then betake themselves in a body to the capital,
and demand their freedom by force. The plans for the uprising
were drawn up by two young negroes; Paris, a boatman of Plan-
tation good Bape, and Jack Gladstone of Plantation Success.

82. Under veil of the greatest secrecy, and unsuspected b3
their masters the scheme matured, and the 18th August was
fixed for its execution. On the morning of that day the revolt
blazed into flame, the rebels promptly seized practically all the
Estates' owners, as well as the whole white population in gen-
eral, who, some of them bound and some of them stretched on
the stocks, were most cruelly ill-treated by the unrestrained and
vindictive insurgents. Immediately upon receiving notice of it,
the Governor headed a detachment of Colonial cavalry and
started for the East Coast to quell the disturbance, but the
superior forces of the raging rebels forced his speedy return,
That same night all the free slaves were armed so as to permit
of their leaving for the Coast at daybreak with the regular
troops and remaining soldiery to liberate the imprisoned Euro-
peans.
83. The insurgents, 2,000 in number, were collected at Plan-
tation Bachelor's Adventure. A fair number were supplied with
firearms which they nevertheless did not know how to use: the
remainder carried cutlasses, bayonets fixed on poles, and similar
weapons. Before Colonel Leahy, in command of the troops, took
extreme measures, he tried to persuade the licentious crowds to
lay down their weapons and state the reason for their mutinous
conduct, but he was informed "that their Freedom and nothing
else was the cause of their rising: the Kina had already
despatched orders to this effect, without their having been told







26 THE EFFECTS OF EMANCIPATION.

a word: that these had been illegally and irregularly withheld
by the Governor in conjunction with the Planters, and they were
now mutually determined to obtain their rights by force."
84. In spite of the Colonel's remonstrance that the state-
ment was entirely false, that there was not a single word about
complete civic freedom to be read in the royal decree, the insur-
gents persisted in their purpose and Colonel Leahy, being met
by an insulting rejoinder on a last demand to lay down their
arms, found himself forced to give the order to fire. After a
murderous massacre the rebels were completely dispersed and,
leaving behind a number of dead and wounded, put to flight.
From the 20th to 30th August while Colonel Leahy and his troops
were busy hunting for weapons on the different estates, and
looking for the ringleaders, several of whom he captured, Mr.
Hillhouse, followed by a considerable commando of Caribs and
Warraus scoured the forests and seized the scattered fugitives.
Many who were caught with weapons in their hands were
generally shot or hanged on the spot, amongst them Paris, one
of the arch-conspirators, while others, guilty of less active
participation, received from 200 to 1,000 lashes.
85. But the trial of one Mr. John Smith, a missionary of
the London Missionary Society, in whose church or very close
vicinity the plan for the insurrection had been concocted, aroused
the greatest sensation. The accusation made against him was
that he had not only inflamed sedition by his preaching, but
that he had become cognisant of the entire plot without denounc-
ing it. He was tried by court-martial, found guilty of high
treason, and sentenced to death with the right of petitioning the
King for mercy, but died in prison before the Pardon arrived' from
England.
86. The expenditure which this uprising cost the colony ran
into 200,000 dollars. It was the last attempt of the Negroes to
obtain freedom by force, for the ever memorable 1st August, 1838,
reduced the term of apprenticeship, originally fixed at four years,
to two, it being felt that during the latter period the colonies
would only have to suffer still more, and one willingly gave the
slaves, ill-treated up to then, that which they more than once
had striven to obtain in vain by rebellion. On that day a new
Era rose for all the British colonies. Out of the 20 millions voted
by Parliament for giving effect to the Act a sum of 4,268,809
was distributed as compensation among the Guiana Planters,
though the value of all the slaves in Guiana, reckoned by the
purchase prices from 1822 to 1830, amounted to 9,489,559.
87. It was to be feared that the temporary effects of Eman-
cipation could only be detrimental to the economic and manifest
welfare of Guiana, and these fears were realized to an extent of
which perhaps no one even had an inkling. All the labour supply
lay in the hands of the African slaves and, owing to the conditions
and prevailing climate was the only source to be tapped. The
sudden and unprepared-for transition from the condition of a







DWINDLING LABOUR SUPPLY. 27

slave who ha>d no will of his own to that of a self-determining
free citizen was one of the most powerful means of promoting
the in-born and hereditary indolence of the negro. Work had
hitherto only been a burden to this hitherto despised and ill-
treated class who, forced by the rod of correction, had to submit
to it: Emancipation granted him the unalienable right over his
own destiny, and at the same time the liberty to give free scope
to his in-b rn tendency to habitual idleness. The hitherto
bustling hands disappeared from the estates, and every former
labourer there tried to purchase at the lowest rates his own
piece of land: he could get his living from out of its produce
with the minimum of trouble because his ordinary wants and
the inexhaustible productiveness of the Tropics forced him to no
great efforts. The scarcity of labour arising from this cause
increased the daily pay to such an extent that the free negro
who worked for one or two days could earn enough to live as
he liked, comfortably, for the remainder of the week. Without
exaggeration it may be stated that the estates lost two-thirds of
their labour supply which could by no manner of means be
replaced, so that particular works which had to be taken in
hand at definite times, however unusually fatiguing they were
and however quickly they had to be completed one after the
other, could not be undertaken at all or only very inadequately
executed.

88. The European labourer thanks the man who gives him
work: the free negro on the other hand, in addition to his pay,
asks his employer to thank him for dedicating his services to
him. So as to enable them to continue part-cultivation of the
estates, the planters naturally compete with one another in the
pay they offer these men and, even if offering the highest wages,
one must still be considered fortunate to keep a servant, because
the slightest inducement causes him to throw up his job: he
knows quite well that ten other employers will receive him with
open arms. Plantations that were formerly worked by 4-600
slaves do not possess more than 100 now. With the scarcity of
labour, capital was also naturally withdrawn, and one estate
after another went to ruin. Cotton cultivation had first of all to
be abandoned, because it could not enter into competition with
the North Anerican article carried on with slave labour. All
cotton plantations were turned into cattle farms and pasture
lands: at present the coffee estates are following suit.

89. In 1841 Guiana owned but 213 Sugar estates, 67 coffee
plantations, and 31 cattle farms. The produce of all the Plan-
tations in 1842 amounted to 52,043,897 lbs. sugar, 1,543,652 gallons
rum, and 1,214,010 lbs. coffee estimated at a total value of
4,583,370 dollars: as compared with previous years this gives a
decrease, during the past five, of 55,762,352 lbs. sugar, 1,436,644
gallons rum, and 3,061,722 lbs. coffee at a total value of 5,648,269
dollars.







28 GERMAN IMMIGRANTS.

90. The chief solution for the best measures to reneay the
present precarious state of the Colony lies in answer to the
-question: "Will the black population return to the condition
they were in formerly i.e. will they want to work?"-to which
up till now as I have already stated, they only feel constrained
so far as their own sweet will and momentary needs may prompt
them.
91. However many also the efforts hitherto made to replace
the lost supply of labour by Immigration, they have almost all
proved unsuccessful on account of the awful climatic conditions,
and so far have not managed to restore the declining value of the
landed property. East Indians, Negroes, the unfortunate prison-
ers on forfeited slave-ships, Canadians, Portuguese from
Madeira, even Germans all came on here with the result that
already by 1842 Guiana had 20,071 immigrants brought out at a
cost of 380,000 dollars: yet, with the exception of the two first-
named, none of them withstood the climate: the largest number
fell a sacrifice to the never satiated Angel of Destruction.*
92. The few Hill-Coolies justified to the fullest extent the
hopes that had been placed on them, because with the honest
will to work they are the best to defy the attacks of the tropical
atmosphere. The poor 400 Germans, mostly Rhinelanders and
Wurtemburgers, enticed here by an emigration agent of the
name of Reis between 1839 and the beginning of 1841, had the
best will to work, but almost all succumbed to the awful climatic
influences. Notwithstanding that the larger number of them
laboured practically speaking only in the shaded coffee fields,
yellow fever broke out amongst them within a few months of
landing, when it claimed many a victim, and finally-particularly
in the second and third year after arrival-raged amongst them
to such a degree that it pretty well snatched away the remainder.
It is not to be denied that although the majority of them drew
this terrible epidemic upon themselves through the unrestricted
taste for strong drink, particularly rum, of which they obtained
as much as they liked on the estates, there were nevertheless
others who kept themselves completely free from this vice. On
my departure from Demerara in June 1844 some 20 of the Ger-
mans were still left. The 10,000 immigrant Portuguese died to

Dr. Carlos Finlay, of Havana, first promulgated the theory of the
propagation of yellow Fever by the mosquito before the Royal Academy
in that city in 1881, while the, experiments of Reed, Carroll, Agramonte
and Lazear, of the American Board, thoroughly and finally implicated
Stegomyia fasciata as the agent of its transmission in 1900. Now, twenty
years later. Stegomyia fasciata is as ubiquitous among us as ever it was
and our freedom from Yellow Fever is not to be attributed to the activity
of our Sanitary Authorities. A plausible theory was suggested in one
of the numbers of the Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology for
1919, by an American Surgeon General, to which reference may be made.
It is certainly unfair to lay iso much emphasis on the taste for strong
drink as a factor in the mortality from this disease; this taste has under-
gone no atrophy in the intervening years (F.G.R.)







PORTUGUESE.


just the same extent and at the time of my departure had dwin-
dled in a very short period down to 3,000. Intemperance in the
use of spirituous liquors had far away less to do with this terrible
mortality of the Portuguese than their filth and sordid avarice
that induced them to buy up provisions which even a negro
would not have eaten.
93. The Portuguese of Guiana are the Jews of Europe. With
the same p-rseverance, the same calculating craft and guile,
after making a point of discovering the little weaknesses of
every seller, they will wheedle him, and soon close the bargain
to their advantage. If this trick fails and the vendor kicks them
out of the front, the back door finally opens the way to the end
in view. Dealing honestly by means like these in numbers of
articles old and new, they hurry off to the more remote estates
whence it is not long before they are back to the city with
double and three times the amount of money originally paid, to
commence their haggling afresh, until they finally acquire a
capital of fr( m 4-600 dollars when they return to Madeira.
94. Onl3 an Egoist without a conscience and without a
character caii ask the German or European workman in general
to emigrate to this portion of South America. Everybody who
lets himself be inveigled will fall an irretrievable victim to those
diseases which the European rarely withstands and will never
escape so long as he has to earn his bread as a labourer under
the scorching sun in the plantation fields.*
95. England's grand achievement that restored to millions
the human rights of which they had been robbed, has at
any rate proved a grievous blow to all West Indian colonies
because it undermined the basis upon which they had been
founded and had flourished. Life must bud afresh from a
healthier germ for the growth of which Guiana again, to a large
extent, bears all the favourable conditions. South America has
as yet had no history of its own but there is a very rich harvest
gathering toward its development as soon as all the contradic-
tions with which its political expansion is still burdening her,
can be overcome.
96. The extraordinary decline in profit and income that
took place throughout all the Estates immediately after emanci-
pation is shewn in the accompanying 12-year review, based on
the official data with which I was most readily furnished on
making application for them. The total amount of annual income
is estimated by the total customs duties levied on similar quan-
tities of the staple products mentioned:-

Europeans have lived for generations in Barbados, for example,
without mental or physical degeneration. Probably, if Malaria chiefly,
but also the other preventable diseases, were eliminated, this Colony
would be found to be almost as wholesome a place for the European as
his native home. (F.G.R.)








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ANALYSIS OF POPULATION. 31

97. According to the Census of 5th October 1841 the whole
population oj British Guiana consists of
Creoles, born in British Guiana ...... 65,252
Creoles, immigrant from West Indies ...... 9,899
A fri cans ...... ..... ...... ...... 15,796
Portuguese from Madeira ...... ...... 2,219
English, Irish and Scotch ...... .. 2,162
French, Dutch and German ...... ...... 445
Coolies (Asiatic) ...... ...... ..... 343
North Americans ...... ..... 159
Native Country not mentioned ...... ...... 1,320

Total ...... ...... 97,595


Up to 15th October 1841, the following immigrants were yet
landed:-

From the West India Islands ...... ...... 2,285
From M adeira ...... ...... ..... ...... 3,066
From Africa ..... ...... ... 713

Total ...... ...... 6,064


From Jai:uary 1842 up to January 1843:-
Froml M adeira ...... ...... ...... .... 1,663
From the West India Islands ...... ...... 966
From Africa ...... ..... ...... ...... 2,218

Total ...... ...... 4,847


Including the total number of immigrants from the years
1835 to 1843, it will be seen that in this interval there landed in
Guiana:-

Port iguese from Madeira ...... ...... 10,458
Inhabitants of the West Indian Islands ...... 6.566
Freed Slaves and Emigrants from Africa...... 4,610
Coolies from Asia ...... ...... ...... 560
Germans and Maltese ..... ...... ...... 400
Native country not mentioned, who came
partly from over the West Indies
Islands, and from captured slave
ships, and took work .... ...... .. 8,397

Total .. ..... 30,981







32 GEORGETOWN.

Consequently on the 1st January, 1843, the total population
of British Guiana, exclusive of aboriginal Indians, amounted to
120,000 souls, of which 23,000 alone fall to the share of George-
town, the capital.

98. After these short prefatory remarks on the general
history and statistics, I turn to the capital itself. Georgetown,
or Stabroek during the Dutch supremacy, is situated in 6' 49' 20"
lat. N. and 580 11' 30" long. W. on the eastern or right bank ot
the Demerara River--not on the western bank as Codassi mis-
takenly places it in his so important atlas of Colombia,-and
numbers 23,000 inhabitants of whom not less than 19,000 are.
Mulattoes and Negroes. The white population consists for the
most part of English, because but very few of the Dutch who
were formerly settled here prolonged their stay when the Colony
was ceded to Great Britain. The negroes on the other hand con-
stitute by far the larger number of inhabitants, and except for
Water Street which runs directly along the bank of the Demerara
and is only occupied' by merchants whose storehouses and
wharves reach into the River, there is not a single thorough-
fare that is exclusively inhabited by Europeans. From the way
that it has been laid out, the city at first sight shows the regular
straightgoing Dutchman, because all the older buildings are
in alignment, so that the streets collectively cross at right angles.
The latter are generally wide and divided down their centre by
canals which communicate with one another and with the River:
the two sides of each street thus separated are joined up with a
number of bridges. Owing to the extraordinary moisture of the
atmosphere, and also on account of the situation of the city being
on the immediate coast-line and alluvial soil, the two-to-three-
storeyed houses are almost always raised from off the ground by
3 to 4 ft. high hard-wood posts; they are lined up to the roof with
strong boards, and covered with shingles of the same material,
the whole being painted in darker or lighter oil colour accord-
ing to the owner's taste. Pretty gardens surround the natty
structures, ornamented as they are with verandahs and porticoes,
and so lend a most pleasing exterior to the streets which are
always being kept sweet and clean by the so-called Town Gang, a
kind of Sanitary Police. Amongst the sanitary regulations is one
prohibiting any pig being seen on the streets, when it is out-
lawed, like dogs without the licence-token in our larger cities,
and becomes a welcome spoil for the Gang. As soon as the negro
children, scuffling about in front of the door, see the well-known
brigands making their appearance at the farther end of the
street, they will rush into the house and warn the mother of her
prospective loss: and yet almost daily the stiffest skirmishes
continue to take place between the owners and the "souvenir"-
seeking Health Officers, which often give rise to the most laugh-
able and ridiculous scenes. If the owner succeeds in dragging
the squeaking and grunting beast out of the hands of the merci-
less officers over his threshold he saves it and is not punished.







EVE LEARY BARRACKS. 33

Unfortunately, such a squabble at which hundreds of other
negroes will collect out of the sincerest sympathy without daring
to lend an active hand under pain of severe punishment, mostly
ends to the c etriment of the unfortunate bone of contention,
because the Town Gang carry large cutlasses, with which,
directly the victory threatens to incline to the owner's side, they
will chop the pig's legs or otherwise hinder its escape. I have
been eyewitne s at scenes that not alone were worth the brush
of a Breughel twice or thrice over, but also afforded demon-
stration of the hardness, bordering on the truly marvellous, of a
negro skull.
99. Quite close to the mouth of the Demerara lies Fort
William Frede: ick, built of mud and fascines. Although it is of
course extreme ly weak and could only withstand the fire -of an
advancing flot:ia for a short while, the landing of one might
nevertheless ti rn out to be difficult, because not only the Fort
but the whole coast-line in general finds its strongest and most
powerful defei ce in its approaches-the marshy bottom of the
shallow water together with. the ebb and flow. -The garrison
consists of a detachment of Artillery under the command of a
Major.
100. Near the Fort rises the Lighthouse tower, east of which
the beautiful but unoccupied Camp House, the residence
of former Gov rnors, who in those days were also the Troop-
commanders, Iseeps clandestinely through the thick foliage of
giant trees: the lovely, large and roomy Eve Leary Barracks are
attached to it, nd the two Military Hospitals border the immense
parade ground. The barracks could boldly measure swords with
all the institutions of that nature that I have had the opportun-
ity of seeing a home and abroad, and be certain of victory
besides. The s-.ldiers sleep on mattresses in large airy quarters.
Each of the hos jitals with their clean and neat kitchens, and their
beautiful tanks is estimated for several hundred patients. .As
regards cleanliness and careful attention, the military lazarets
are particularly, distinguishable from the Colonial Hospital: the
sick are even divided off into different wards according to their
complaints. The light construction of these buildings specially
possesses this Ireat advantage, that what with the sultry and
oppressive temperature, it admits of a continual change of air
which is still further very greatly maintained by suitable ventila-
tion. A shady alley-way of thickly-leaved trees and slender
palms leads to Ihe blessed God's acre for the officers, the soldiers'
cemetery being on the farther side of the Barracks. The whole
garrison of Gu.ana at the time of my stay, in addition to the
artillery menti ned, was made up of the 52nd regiment of the
Line, and a fev companies of the first West Indian Regiment.
101. Whatever respect everybody must have for the oft-
tried valour f the last mentioned Regiment which was
especially demonstrated in the negro uprising of 1824 when folks.







34 PUBLIC BUILDINGS -AND CHURCHES.

fought their own countrymen, it is nevertheless to be admitted
that I could hardly refrain from laughing when for the first time
I saw filing past me these black figures in red uniforms with
their mis-shapen extremities stuck into white pantaloons. The
officers are Englishmen. England possesses in the West Indian
colonies two such African regiments which at the present time
are specially recruited from captured slave-ships. When one of
these runs into a Colonial port, a recruiting officer goes on board
and looks out far the fittest people for military service. Every
one is of course willing to join the Colours.

102. Though these young men of Mars in red uniforms and
white pantal'ons, with their black fists, black features and curly
woolly hair, are already funny enough to look at, their faces
nevertheless present an appearance something truly awful owing
to the different tribal marks or Totems which in earliest youth
are burnt or cut into their forehead, temples, cheek, mouth, and
additionally, in other cases, to the filing of the incisor teeth to a
point. The larger number come from the Coromantyn, and are
recognized by the three or four long cuts on each cheek; the
others are Congo-negroes, natives of Mozambique and Sierra
Leone. Attached to the military forces proper is an Officer of
Engineers who has to superintend the Royal and lives
close to the Barracks.

103. In the Stabroek portion cf the present city cf George-
town that has still retained its name from former times, and close
to the river, stands the Public Buildings, which includes ,11 the
Official Departments. Its purity of style shows that architects are
likewise to be fund in Georgetown who have kept free ll:t Oile
mixture so affected at the present day. The huge imposing
structure which is detached, is bu:t lof brick and ornamented
with ample but simple stucco, at an expenditure cf under
50,000. All public ekecutiuns take place on the splendid, large,
open space in front of its chief facade.* Alongside are the
Main GuErd and the pleasant Scotch Church: somewhat farther
,way is the Cathedral of the Episcopal Church, likewise of
brick, which cost about 26,000. Christ Church, not less
imposing, was built by a company of shareholders. The Church
of the Catholic Community, several years ago, when Guiana
was enlarged to an :;. :.1.,- vicariate under the titular bishop
of Oriense with five priests, was raised to a Cathedral. Besides
the church, buildings mentioned, there are eight Chapels under
the charge of Wesleyans, Baptists, the London Missionary
Society, and Mico Charities. It is surprising -that only an
exceptionally few negroes pass over to the State Church, most


STim' DlIeminara Ice Iouse Hotel is now situatlcd pra!iica l: in the centre
of this ,pace.-(J.R.)-







DISEASES. 35

of them jo iing Catholicism and the different church communi-
ties, partic ilarly the Baptists.

104. I have already spoken of the new Colonial Hospital
and nsed o ily add, that as regards construction, it can be held
up as a'm del for the tropics. The whole is intended for 300
patients. ,I ot fir off is to be seen the Hospital for Sick Sea-
men, with the Madhouse closely annexed. Five-sixths of the
latter's occ pants are negroes.
105. Y illw fever stands at the head of the diseases pre-
vailing in Georgetown and its immediate environs as well as
generally t ie whole coast-line: following it are intermittent and
acute feve 3, the oft-times very dangerous dysentery, diarrhoea
and dropsy Pthisis, like the different forms of consumption in
general is unknown on the coast, and people so afflicted com-
ing here ft om Europe or North America have found complete
recovery. Syphilis in all its varying stages is found particu-
larly zamorn the mulattoes and negroes, though it is far from
being so d structive in its effects as in colder climates: amongst
the Indirns of the interior it is quite unknown. Almost without
exception diseases run an uncommonly quick course, so that
llea!th anr Sickness borCn'er cn a marginal limit that is hardly
ever expe~ .enced in colder zones. In perfect possession of all
one's stirer :th and energies, one has no guarantee that he may
not be rol bed of them within the next hour: on the other
hand there appears to be a markedly increased vitality in the
transition Jcorn serious sickness, absolute exhaustion and weak-
ness, to its restoration of complete health-the convalescence
is just as : apid as the onset.+

106. A.nongst the buildings that ought to : I' a spirit
in search )f amusement, both Theatres take first place. The
first was 1 uilt in 1828 by subscription amongst several Dutch-
men fond of the stage, for amateur theatricals, a hobby that
nevertheless soon got so absolutely tired of being ridden, that
the buildir would remain quite empty were not a concert to
fill its sp;,ious flooring occasionally. The second was estab-
lished as private speculation whither North America incites


+ If we omit Yellow Fever, this is almost a faithful picture of present-
day condition s. The observation with regard to the remarkably favourable
influence ex( acted in Tuberculous disease in those who have contracted it
in Europe o N. America by residence in this Colony is amply borne out
by the writer 3n own experience. The conspicuous absence iof glandular and
bone-infectio i in children, the universal prevalence of the pulmonary type,
the remarkal le constancy of a family history of the disease, the very rapid
cour-e in tlh negro in this Colony are all evidence in favour of its recent
introduction and r,.1...1-- spread by the direct agency of infected
secretions. he I .... with regard to Syphilis is a remarkably
accurate one Tertiary Syphilis is comparatively rare in the post mortem
room, while Locomotor Ataxia and General Paralysis are far less common
in the necro and mulatto than in the European in Europe. (F.G.R.)







COLONIAL INSTITUTIONS.


its Thalian youth to cross the expanse of ocean in order to
fan again, or continue aflame the taste for dramatic Art now
dead or dying in British Guiana.
107. Two Turf-Club meetings-for where could Englishmen
exist without them?-which usually take place at the beginning
and middle of the year, were days of diversion and enjoyment
not only for the fashionable world, because they always finished
up with Balls, but also for the other classes of Georgetown resi-
dents. The heydey however of these pleasures was already past,
because in the spring of 1844 the Club was closed.
108. Every other day there appeared for a time three
local sheets, the Royal Gazette, as Government newspaper, the
Guiana Times and the Guiana Herald. The life of the last one
was but short-it went almost as quickly as it came.
109. Scientific Institutions have been attempted it is true
from time to time, but they either perished while yet in infancy
or, respited awhile under miserable circumstances, died at last
from internal consumption-a cause of mortality otherwise
quite unknown in Guiana. I might almost doubt whether one
dare cast e, more propitious horoscope for the three new
Societies founded in 1844, the Agricultural Union,* the Astro-
nomical, and the Botanical Society, because the Colonists col-
lectively show too little interest in scientific aspirations, this
being completely absorbed by the racing and chasing after com-
mercial end practical pursuits.
110. Two Financial Institutions, a branch of the West Indian
Colonial Bank, and a local one, the British Guiana Bank, adjust
money transactions. The latter is founded on shares, of which
6,000 issued at 50 each are all in the hands of the Colonists:
in 180, 50 per cent. had already been paid on them. The report
for 1840 shows a favourable state of ffajirs; the profit on the
original capital! paid into it amounted to more than 11- per
cent., of which however, only 4 per cent. was divided half-
yearly, the surplus being placed to the Reserve Fund.
111. A Savings Bank was established a few years ago, and
under the supervision of Governor and Executive, has already,
in the short course of its existence, shown excellent results.
112. The current coins of the Colony consist almost only
of Spanish whole, half. and Quarter dollars. The Spanish dollar-
amounts to three guilders colonial money, which is divided into
3, 2, 1, 2, I, and A- guilderpieces, and, for purposes of reckoning-
no actual coinage-it is divided into 100 cents, or 4 shillings and
twopence. According to our German money, the Spanish dollar
is worth 1 thaler 10 silver groschen. Local gold cr copper

The present Royal Agrie-utural and Commercial Society.-(J.R.)
tNow absorbed in the Royal Bank of Canada. (Ed.)







MARKETING CONDITIONS.


money is no in circulation. The current paper money in 1832
amounted t 2,199,758 Guilders, but is at present almost
redeemed bS proceeds from the land-tax and land-sales. As
regards weights and measures, English ones are taken as the
standard, though the Dutch is still far more used in the former
case: the later's hundredweight differs from the English by 10
lbs., 110 lbs. Dutch equalling 100 lbs. English. The whole receipts
and expenditure for the Demerara, Essequibo end Berbice Dis-
tricts from :st January to 31st December 1842 amounted to:-
Receipts 965 621 dollars 71' cents, Expenditure 965,621 dollars
713 cents. Ihe credit balance of the Colonial Treasury on 1st
Js.nuary 184, amounted to 103,749 dollars 91 cents.

113. The recently built Market-place situated in the neigh-
bourhood of the new Town Hall forms a highly interesting and
lively picture, and as regards elegance of surroundings could
undoubtedly be surpassed by but few European ones. The
whole place is bordered by the finest shops up to which the
clean and sootless butchers' stalls extend: these again lead to
the large sl ughter-houses built over the river where all cat-
tle have to >e killed and cleaned, only after ivhich can they
be brought in to the stalls.* All dirt and useless remains
immediately fall into the stream running along below where
they are st aightway caught in the greedy jaws of countless
sharks and other carnivorous fish or else carried away with
the falling lide. The number of these voracious monsters in
the neighboarho-od of the slaughter-house is inconceivable and
God help h m who accidentally or imprudently slips into the
water. In l e case of a negro who during my stay fell into
the water ol'e only found a few gnawed bones when the tide
fell not hal' an hour later.
114. B; t however plentifully the market is supplied with
meat and p ultry, they both command en unusually high figure,
for the areas m that, in the former case, unless sold on the same
day as slau. htered the meat turns bad, rnri in the latter because
poultry-far idng is no longer festered to the extent it used to
be previous to Emancipa+ion when the slaves specially carried
it on as a ide business, although even now the main trade in
fruit, ducks fowls, turkeys and guinea-fowls is in the hands of
the negroes A large number of geese and turkeys are in the
meantime imported from North America. The usual prices of
meat and 1:read per pound are:- beef 25 cents, ham 45 cents,
pork 22 c- s, and bread 11 cents. Fish and poultry are still
dearer in c mparison. Although the rivers of Guiana harbour
the most v. able and tasty fsh, it is yet impossible to bring
them down from the interior into the city in a fresh condition,
because owv ng to the damp warm atmosphere they hardly

*In 19,3 one would have to search far a-nd wide for the spotless
butclier's sta 1 1 (F.G.R.)







38 VEGETABLES.

remain eatable beyond a few hours: Georgetown has therefore
to rest content with those caught in its immediate vicinity.
North America almostt always supplies butter and such like,
for which the ice-ships offer the grandest opportunity. Fresh
butter prepared in the Colony is one of the greatest luxuries:
the cows supply so little milk that butter manufacture can only
be thought of on the largest estates and farms.

115. It is unnecessary to state that the poor people can
rarely provide themselves with fresh meat. Their main food
accordingly consists of imported salt meat, for even the
loccl meat slted immediately after slaughtering is quite
spoilt in a few days owing to meteorological con-
ditions, and so-called salt-fish, a sort of stock material that is
brought into ithe market' from Newfoundland. A piece of such
salt-fish and a few roasted or be"led plantains form the ordinary
fare of a tegro or poor mulatto.

116. The lively and interesting picture presented in the Meat
and Fish Market is repeated in a far better frame in the
Fruit and Vegetable one which is infinitely better supplied, for
here the most varied kinds of produce of the Tropical, mix with
those of the Northern clime, e.g., cucumber, beans and spinach.
Salad, cabbage and cauliflower are only used as so-called lettuce,
since the first and second do not form a head and the last does
not produce a flower. Onions succumb to the same wanton over-
growth, which also leads only to rank leaves: they are there-
fore imported in whole ship-loads from Madeira, and yet these
are far behind those of Europe in pungency, for they can be
enjoyed raw, absolutely without tears. Our early green peas find
their representative in the pods of the Cayanus indicus Spr.
known under the name of "Pigeon Peas," which at all events
surpass those of ours in delicacy of tasio. Vegetables just as
much relished Ere supplied by the young green seed-vessels of
Hibiscus esc.lcnius Lin, and the leaves ol F~ olacea deca-id.ra
Linn, and Clevae pentaphylda that are used as spinach. Very
favourite dishes are the roots and young leaves of the Colocasia
escuienia Schelt and the tasty "cabbage-palm" which the beau-
tifui Orodoxu, -Arcca oicracea nIart. and l-1 oleracea Mart.
supply. Naturally, quite a moderate portion cf the last dish ccsts
the slim palm its life which has to be sacrificed to obtain the
edible portion: this consists of a compact cylindrical body in
between where the fronds separate from the trunk, and when
properly prepared is nowise inferior to the finest European vege-
table and resembles our asparagus in flavour. There are still to
be mentioned the roots of the 'Arrow-root" (Maranta indica
Rose and M. ramosissima Wall.), the different species of Capsi-
culm, and Zingiber officinale Rose., the huge calabashes, the large
maize-cobs and cassava roots, in addition to huge stacks of coco-
nut, so celebrated for its milk which however seemed to me so







FhUIT.


insipid, that I though I was drinking nauseously sweet vhey.
Yams (Dioscor 'a alata and D. sativa Linn.),.Potatoes (Crnvaolclus
Eatatas Linn.), "sweet" Cassava roots (Janipha L,'!i..i Humb.
Bonp., a non-p aisonous species closely allied to Janipha Manihot)
which are eat n roasted, overloaded bunches of Plantain (Musa
parad'siaca Li n.) and the Bread-Eruit (Artocarpus incisa and
A. Integrifolia Linn.) constitute, when piled up in big heaps, the
most motley n ixture. As the "Irish" potato, in spite of every
attempt, does 3 ot thrive on account of the -climate in conjunction
with hard and vigorous soil but only gives -a 4 to 5-foot high
legume, the list-mentioned fruits and roots might be regarded
as its.represel tatives. In addition to these there still come no
end of differently shaped, coloured, and fragrant tropical fruits,
tempting Pine apples and juicy Oranges of all varieties, fruits
of the Sapodill v* (Achras sapota Linn.) Mango -(Mangifera indica
Linn.), Passio fruit (Passiflora eduls, P. quadrangularis, P.
laurisea great : s'ma Gaert.), the Grias caullflora Linn., Guava
Psidium pyrif, runt and P. pomifcrnmr Linn., Soursop (Anona
mu'rcata Linn ) the juice cf which provides the loveliest lemon-
ade, Custard \pple (Anona squanmsa Linn.) with which one
believes he is enjoying rich cream and cinnamon, the Chiyso-
phullum Cain to Linn., Pa'w-paw (Carica PapayA Linn.). Pas-
sion fruit (Pas iflora edul s, P. quadrangularis, P. laurifolia Linn.),
all three =kov n uindr the name of Simitu and, Granadilia), -the
MyriK s ..' Si Humbr. Bo-np., Eanana (Musa sapientuI Linn.),
MecLccca b'ji ga Linn., and many others, under whatever name
they go by. / nd along W;ith all the squabbling, the pushing, and
the yelling of he negro women, the racing and the chasing of the
busy buyers, resh columns of negro and mulatto in all shades
of colour wit i filled baskhes on their heads were cont: "iaily
pressing their way in from the river-side, striving to avoid com-
ing too late \ ith their loads. Fix all this together in a fame,
so that the i-,! t; -.. l..i.. .ed animated yet unfamiliar picture can
be surveyed .t a glance, and then you will understand why,
almost every morning I strolled about in the midst of this mov-
ing mass cf i umanimy. But while the eye caught sight of the
fruits of Afri' a and the Eastern Indies, it searched in vain for
those of Euro e: not even a full bunch of grapes-was to be seen.
It is true th;'t many attempts have been made to transplant
grapes from i adeira, from the Cape, and from the Rhine, but as
with Prophet Isaiah's cousin, only sour ones were reaped. The
same thing h ppens with apple, pear, peach, and apricot trees,
which grow t a huge size, but rarely blossom, and never bear
fruit. I hav seen just as little of figs, strawberries, red cur-
rants, goosebe:ries, and raspberries. The dried 'fodder for horses
and mules is also imported from North America and England,

Not in the ext. They are the present-day vernacular terms
-(Editor).







IMPORTS.


because the fodder grasses of this place are not in any sense
:adapted for hay: the European varieties of corn likewise do not
thrive on the fatty soil and hot climate.

117. If we turn now from the Market to individual streets
we find here numbers of shops offering for sale everything that
a European accustomed to luxury and high living can possibly
wish for, because all parts of the world vie in sending to Guiana
what it lacks. North America furnishes flour, potatoes, salt fish,
salted and smoked beef, and pork, peas, biscuits, cheese, butter,
herrings, horses, pigs, ducks, etc., rice, onions, dried apples and
pears, leather, furniture, iron-ware, and the chief article of
impbrt, ice, which has become a most valuable staple product,
especially i: Massachusetts whence it is exported to Bombay,
Canton, Madr.s, Calcutta, Mauritius, and the whole West Indian
g: cup of Islands as far as Guiana. In Boston alone there are
at present 16 companies which ship ice to the East and West
Indies, to 'New Orleans and other southern ports. By means of a
machine, the ice is sawn into quadrangular blocks, at least 12
inches thick, and packed on board the vessel with straw and
hay in thin air-tight wooden boxes. These ice-ships are utilised
at the same time for the transport of fresh meat, butter, etc.
England on the other hand supplies Guiana with its manufac-
tured articles, linen and cotton fabrics, silk-stuffs, jewellery
goods, sails, towels, soaps, tar, bricks, and tiles: in addition to
these, with iron, glass, and china-ware, musical instruments,
paper, gunpowder, lead, copper, tin and zinc, silver, and gold-
ware, medicines, distilled waters and a number of delicacies in
hermetically sealed tins, beer and porter in bottles and barrels.
France, Spain, and Portugal send wine, e.g., champagne, bor-
deaux, burgundy, madeira, claret and sherry, while Father Rhine
even despatches his precious grape juice to the tables of the
wealthier Colonists where it naturally becomes quite a different
drink, for during the course of the journey it not only loses its
aroma but also its colour.

118. In contrast with this huge quantity of Imports, Export
is limited solely to sugar, coffee, rum, syrup and an inconsider-
able amount of cacao. The former very extensive export of
cotton has sunk to nil since Emancipation, because the material
obtained by free men cannot compete with that won by olave
labour. Were the conditions of Guiana to stand on the same
footing with those of the Slave-States of America as regards
amount and cheapness of labour, an area of cultivation would
then present itself right here along a stretch of some 280 miles
-of coastline-from the mouth of the Corentyne to that of the
Orinoco-where all kinds of cotton shrub could be grown with
the most magnificent results.









119. But in spite of goods and manufactured products being
for the most part imported from Europe and North America,
there is no lack whatever of mechanics and artificers: these are
almost generally Europeans though the mulattoes who particu-
larly show plenty of skill and adroitness in these branches, fre-
quently get the better of them at present. As regards trades
demanding greater handiness and manual dexterity the negroes
develop far less talent: they work mostly as masons, carpenters,
smiths, and coopers, yet without being able to achieve-so far
as durability and neatness of work are concerned-what one
might reason.ibly demand in view of their enormous charges.
The tailoring and shoe-making trades are generally found in
the hands of the mulattoes and the French, who have drawn
here from their settlements in the Islands. The journeyman
tailor also in Guiana can always be picked out amongst thous-
ands by his clothes: he is likewise the coxcomb, the faultless
fop.

120. In connection with sanitary police, it is indeed a
wicked shame that everybody may trade in physic as he pleases,
tne result of which is that the saddest accidents unfortunately
often take place. Such a one happened a few days after our
arrival when a woman asked for quinine for her sick children
and received strychnine: the little ones naturally died under the
most ghastly sufferings.

121. The Governor and Government Executive manage the
civic administration on the lines followed at the time when the
Colony was ta'en over on the part of Great Britain. The highest
Executive or Colonial Parliament consists of the Governor, the
Chief Justice, the Solicitor General, the Royal Tax-gatherer, the
Government Etate-Secretary and an equal number of unpaid
individuals who are chosen from among the Colonists by the
College of Eietors.

122. The College of Electors is composed of seven members
appointed fron- among the inhabitants for life: the Government
Secretary keeps hde votes sent him, and the sealed canister in
which they are contained may only be opened in the presence of
the Governor and of at least two other members ef the Govern-
ment. Formerly the owners of 25 slaves could only be voters:
at the present time any one who pays 5 in customs duty has
the right to vote.

123. When a vacancy occurs, the College of Electors names
two candidates from whom the Government appoints one as the
member and publishes his name in the Gazette. The unpaid or
Colonial members of the Legislature serve three years and retire
in rotation. One or more annually give up their seats, but can
be re-elected. The Governor, as President of the Administration,







FINANCIAL REPRESENTATIVES


has a casting vote, every remaining member, one vote. Inde-
pendently of this right of vote, the Governor, at every meeting,
can exercise absolute veto over statutes and ordinances, though-
the same may have been passed by a majority of votes, and no
ordinance has the force of law before it is ratified by him. The
Queen can confirm or disallow every statute.

124. The College of Financial Representatives which repre-
sents the people with regard to Finance, consists of six members
who, like those of the Electors, are appointed from among the
inhabitants for two years.

125. The Government decides in all money arrangements: as
soon as the Budget is sketched for the current year, the nature
of the taxes and other duties discussed and passed by a majority
of votes, the estimates are handed over to the Financial Repre-
sentatives who, in conjunction with the Government, still sub-
mit certain particular points to examination. During this dis-
cussion every person, member of the Government cr Financial
Representative, has an equal vote. As soon as the proposed
Ways and Means are approved and passed, they have the force
of law.

126. The Supreme Civil Court of Justice in British Guiana
consists of a Chief Justice, two Judges, a Secretary to the Chief
Justice, a Registrar and a Book-keeper bound-by-oath. All civil
complaints and cases of debt are in the first instance brought by
the so-called C',:i. .:i .0 before one of the judges who reports
his opinion to the assembled tribunal which then confirms or
disallows this d1...iI decision. If the plaint concerns a mat-
ter of a value more than 500, an appeal from the decision of
the Supreme Court is permissible to the Privy Council.

127. The Dutch Statutes, especially the laws, orders and
regulations of the States-General must be taken by the Judges
as basis for their decisions.

128. The Supreme Criminal Court of Justice consists of the
three Judges of the Civil Court and three Assessors whose quali-
fication is accurately defined. The names of all who are to be
appointed assessors are placed by the Secretary of the Court in
a box, and chosen by ballot: they can however be rejected by
the accused. The assessors have equal powers with the judges
and these six decide, by a majority of votes, on the guilt or
innocence of the accused. ane Chief Justice has the casting
vote. Sentence must be passed in open Court, and the verdict
of each judge and assessor as to guilty or not guilty recorded.

129. The lower Criminal Court in Georgetown is under the
control of the Chief Sheriff of British Guiana; in Essequibo and
Eerbice, under the Sheriffs of these districts. The leriff, as







DRINKING WATER SUPPLIES. 43

President, and three Magistrates constitute a lower criminal
court which has the power of dealing with smaller thefts and
offences. In certain cases the Sheriff decides alone. Legally
speaking, court has to be held three times a month in each dis-
trict.
130. As a r.;sult of the Slave Acts, to settle disputes between
masters and servants, definite tribunals were set up under
Special Magistrates appointed by the English Government, and.
are still retained. There are thirteen of these Magistrates and
a travelling OLicer, all of them backed by a number of con-
stables to upho d them in carrying out the administration of
justice.
131. The arrangements for regulating intercourse between
the Indian population and the Colony, for protecting the Indians,
and advancing -heir welfare, were formerly entrusted to six
Protectors, six Station commanders, and three Assessors. In
place of the lat er, three Superintendents and six Post-holders
nowadays control the rivers and creeks. The present order of
things is but of little advantage to the aborigines, and assumes
a constabulary c aracter rather than fulfilling the original object
in view when he Protectors and Station-commanders were
appointed in 179 '.
132. The Po.ice in British Guiana consist of an Inspector-
General and a Secretary, two Sub-Inspectors for the Demerara
and Essequibo Districts, and one Sub-Inspector for the Berbice,
15 Sergeants and 105 Constables for Demerara and Essequibo, and
6 Sergeants and 2 Constables for Berbice. In the Demerara and
Essequibo are fiv( prisons: viz., Georgetown, Mahaica, Wakenaam,_
Capoey, and the lew Penal Settlement at Mazaruni: in Berbice
there are four, viz., in New Amsterdam, in Sts. Clement
and Catherine P rish, in St. Michael's,, and the fourth in St.
Saviour's.'i
133. Owing to the complete absence of fresh water every
house has a tank or cistern for catching rain, but owing to the
long-continued drought, it evaporates uncommonly quick. It
was on this account that the Government recognized the neces-
sity for bringing 'resh water from distant lying rivers, because
owing to the extensive lowlands being subject to tidal influences
over a considerable area, the coastal streams are as unpalatable
as those of the bliny ocean itself. To remedy this urgent -want
and obtain fresh after, Major Staples" determined upon boring
an artesian well, i3 the sinking of which an extremely favourable

'*The present law for the better protection of the Aboriginal Indians
(Ord. 28 of 1910) wls based on the experience gained by the Translator
in framing the Queensland nd West Australian statues. (Ed).
Se.e "Geograp isch-statische Beschraibung von Britisch Guiana,
etc." By R. I-I. Schmburgk.
OThere is authority for the correct spelling of this name either as
Staple or Staples. For the benefit of his Teutonic readers, Schomburgk
writes it Stapel: in the course of the text it will be noticed that certain
other patronymics ha' e been slightly altered for similar reasons. (J.R.)







ARTESIAN WATER.


opportunity presented itself of learning the particular strati-
graphical conditions down to a considerable depth, along this
immense stretch of alluvial coastline.
134. Clear water though still strongly impregnated with iron
'first showed itself at a depth of 140 feet. The following
geognostic results were obtained as far as this point. Twelve
feet below the surface, the borer struck a bed of half-charred
Curida and Rhizophora trees which at a depth of 40 feet was
followed by a bed of blue loam about 50 feet thick that again
overlay a second belt of timber about 11 feet deep. Immediately
below this a 9 foot thick bed compact grey-white clay was
pierced, which somewhat deeper down was mixed with plenty
of sand and appeared violet-coloured, and then followed a
yellow-tinted one.
135. This favourable result induced several farmers,
particularly on the West Coast, where they had suffered most
from water famine on account of continued drought, to repeat
the attempt on their own properties. To show how dependent
tae livestock on the coast is upon weather conditions, the fact
may be instanced that upon one farm alone, 500 out of 1,300 head
of cattle perished during the long drought of 1831.

136. At the present time 17 artesian wells have been sunk
in Georgetown, partly by private enterprise and partly by
Government. These give a daily supply of 96,000 gallons of
water which has a temperature of 84' Fahr. and is about 5
higher than that of the river-water of a morning.*

TEMPERATURE OF THE ARTESIAN WELL AT PLN. MON
REPOS ON THE EAST COAST OF GEORGETOWN.

Temperature
Temperature of the water
of the air. of Artesian Wet Bulb
1844 Time well. Thermo-
meter,
Fahrenheit Fahrenheit
Thermometer. Thermometer

W inu E. by
9 a.m. 84.2 84.2 78. in E. by


7th 12 noon 89. 84.5 82.5 Sky ly
*March
Wind E. by
3 p.m. 86.5 84.5 79.5 N.
Sky partly
clouded

*In the matter of drinking water supply, too, we seem to have retro-
gressed: w.e cannot boast of 96,000 gallons of artesian well water daily
for the supply of the town. (F.G.R.).







RELIGIOUS LIFE.


137. Although the water, owing to the quantity of iron it
contains, is not adapted for drinking purposes it can be neverthe-
lss utilised for all kitchen requirements-except for tea, which
cannot be drunk if made with it after a short exposure to the
air-and all other purposes in general : cattle swill it indeed
more freely than any other water. According to the analyses
that have been carried out with absolutely corresponding results
it contains a quantity of iron dissolved in carbonic acid, and a,
small amount of magnesia.

138. During 1835, a year so notorious for the spread of
yellow fever, the convalescents at the garrison, under Dr. Bone's
orders, had to drink this water of a morning, with marked
results.
139. As the water streams out of the bore it is still quite
clear, but on escape of the gas, the released iron forms on its
surface a pellicle which then becomes deposited at the bottom :
on filtration now, it retains its pure colour. If the water be
filtered before complete escape of the gas, the process is continued
later, the sediment forming in the kitchen and other wares.

140. A peculiar phenomenon in some of the wells appears
to be this that the height of the flow strictly depends on the ebb
and flow. In some bores the difference during the interval is
not less than 18 inches, and when spring tides set in, even 2 to 3
feet. Although many explanations have been attempted, no one
has yet fully solved the problem, although there can be no doubt
that the increased pressure at flood tide and perhaps the varying
stratigraphical arrangement of particular beds may be paramount
causes.
141. The greatest depth to which the bores have been sunk
hitherto is 200 feet, without the base of the alluvial strata being
pierced. The varied stratigraphical relations also differ from
one another according to locality, and only correspond in that,
v.ith all of them, the huge layers of rotten wood, even at a
depth of 175 feet are always to be found.

142. Let us now glance at the outward form of Religious
Life, and the means adopted for its advancement. The only
church which the English met with on their occupation in 1803
was that on Fort Island, where the service was subsequently
supplied by the army chaplain of the English troops and a
preacher from the Dutch Reformed Church. By 1810 a new-
edifice was dedicated in Demerara, the capital of the Colony, to
be followed in 1819, 1820 and 1825 by three others in Demerara.
and New Amsterdam when at the same time the Demerara,
Essequibo and Berbice Districts were split into parishes. Up to
that period the whole of Guiana did not possess more than three
clergy. Public Schools, beside the Saffon Institutes, were quite
foreign until, in tie interval between 1824 and 1831 the Colony







46 SOCIAL AMENITIES.

redressed the grievance, and expended 26,000 out of her own
resources for the purpose : as a matter of tact, in 1832 the sum
for the support and maintenance of Religious institutions, includ-
ing the erection of new schools, alone totalled 14,337 exclusive
of the amounts spent on the like objects before and after. As a
result of these united efforts the Established Church by 1836 had
seven rectors and one curate : the Dutch Reformed Church two
preachers, the Church of Scotland five, and the Roman Catholics
two priests. Besides these clergy the various church commmni-
ties had another twelve catechists and teachers whose total
salaries ran into 10,000. It was only in 1838 that the Colony
was raised to an Archddaconate, in the Diocese of Barbados, and
the number of Established Church clergy increased to 18 with 28
teachers and several mistresses, as well as 10 Colonial curates
and catechists: in this same year the number of churches,
chapels, etc., exclusive of eight private schools already aggre-
gated 47. In 1842 the members of Committee accepted Dr. Austin
as their Bishop in the Archdeaconate, the Roman Catholics having
been organized already under Vicar-Apostolic Clancy, Bishop of
'Oriense in Partibus with, at present, five priests and several
schoolteachers. At the same time Georgetown was dignified a
City.

143. To these Ecclesiastical Institutions must still be added
the brisk activities of the Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Society
with its eight chapels, the London Missionary Society, the
Baptists, and others whose labours amongst the free negroes
since 1838 have been crowned with the greatest success.

144. As my brother had become acquainted on his previous
visit with the nicest families in the city, the inner scc&l life of
the Colonists was disclosed earlier and easier than might other-
wise have proved to be the case with me. But what I had left
behind in the old world I found again in the new-in many
respects even more crude, indeed in certain cases, essentially
more revolting. The Europeans constitute here, as in all other
Colonies, the only aristocracy, and one would almost believe it
impossible that a people, to whose high-minded principles ith
elevation of their hitherto degraded fellow men to the standpoint
cf a free folk wasindeed due, should be ruled by such one-sided
and narrow prejudices.

145. In the Governor, Sir Henry Light, I found an extremely
lovable and estimable man whose white hair only too plainly
showed that many a year had already crossed his path. His wife
and family were still living in England, owing to his having
taken up the appointment only a short while before. Besides his
official position he had at the same time to assume another
locally-political one, because in Georgetown the upper classes
are divided into two contending camps, on account of which their
mutual social intercourse is as impossible as in our smaller







DUTCH AND GERMANS.


German towns. The Governor must always lead the party
formed of the officials and certain of the wealthier estate owners,
while the ph] enters dissatisfied with the administration, merchants
etc., form thn recruits for the other: "The Brigade" is the term
generally apl lied to the former.
146. The unlimited hospitality of the West Indies, already a
by-word, continues to be so in Georgetown where one finds it
particularly :n families who pin their faith on plain honest
domesticity to which they must ever remain true so long as
Fortune does not shower her favours on them as bountifully as
she has in the case of others amongst whom the most spend-
thrift and ostentatious luxury has indeed become the rule. The
result today is that almost the whole of the so-called English
society retains an extraordinarily large amount of ceremonial
stiffness and, in its sporadic seclusion, generally something in the
way of unnaturalness and affection.
147. Afte the novelty had worn off, the soirees, dinners,
luncheons etc. began to pall on me, though it was with all the
more inward satisfaction that I accepted invitations from the
Dutch families, for every visit I paid them made me think I was
once more back in my beloved Home. I found amongst them
almost everywhere the same honest simplicity, cordiality, and
-intimacy peculiar to our own social circles. The German feels
at home with these Dutch families, the cold dividing barriers
drawn by etiquette between the sexes in most English families
having taken .,o root in the Dutch ones: once introduced into
the latter, the strangerr is forthwith regarded as a member of the
family, and uCr restricted intercourse reigns between him and all
who belong to the smaller or larger coterie.

148. Amor g the Germans settled here, who all came to pay
a visit soon aiter our arrival, was Mr. Bach, an Oldenburger,
from the little town of Jever, the owner of an important coffee
plantation on .ie Demerara: he won my heart at sight, just as I
subsequently 1 earned to esteem him still more on discovering
him to be, not alone the only, but also an excellent botanis,
My brother had already told me on the voyage across that one
of the most excellent collections of orchids was to be seen in this
grounds. Unfortunately a severe sickness with which I was
attacked prevented me accepting his invitation to stay with him,
for some time to come. Among my other countrymen, mostly
mechanics, who had formed a home here was a certain Konig
who, with the impulsivenesss of a German bred and born, had
anglicized himself and changed his name to King: from many
hints later let f.1 it was easy to he seen that he must have had
a very adventurous past. It seemed that he had served in the
Hussar Guards a: Potsdam and became a non-commissioned officer,
but, having got into some scrape or other, had considered it wiser
to get away clandestinely and come out to the West Indies where
finally, in Demerara, he made an ample living by stuffing birds







48 HOUSES OF ARISTOCRACY

and mammals: he sold these to the ships' captains and Garrison
officers before their return to Europe dearer than what they
could have bought them for in England. His acquaintanceship
certainly did not contribute to exactly the most pleasant of the
recollections which I brought back with me to Europe.
149. Before entering into any further details of my life in
Ceorgetown, let us take a peep into the internal arrangements
of the houses of the aristocracy. Like that of their lives their
whole get-up exceeds the ordinary bounds of good old English
comfort. The chief requirement of a comfortable residence natur-
ally consists in giving ventilation as much scope as possible and
assisting it still more in opening all doors and windows: but
each window is here supplied with green jalousies which are let
down when the glass windows are opened, and so that the lights
should burn evenly of an evening, large tastefully cut glass
globes are placed over them. On the first floor, the more or less
roomy dining-hall generally occupies the middle of the building:
next to it are two side rooms. Behind these apartments runs a
gallery, on which are to be seen both the steps leading to the
next floor as well as a pantry, a small room for keeping the table
linen and service as well as the food removed from the table.
The kitchens are never in the main building but generally in out-
houses: there are no vaults and underground cellars, and
likewise no basements. The upper floors are arranged as on the
lowest one. Stone houses are generally discounted, because
during the rainy season they are usually reckoned damp and
unhealthy. Shingle roofs are even preferred to those with tiles,
because they supply a much better and healthier water to the
cisterns than the latter. The most glorious wooden mosaic covers
the walls and floorings of the rooms but unfortunately this is
now being greatly supplanted by carpets coming into fashion: to
keep this wainscoting and flooring continually clean, both are
rubbed weekly with lemon-juice or shaddock (Pompelnuss)
which not only fulfils its purpose, but considerably cools the air
and spreads an extremely pleasant perfume throughout the
building.
150. The beds of the sleeping rooms consist generally of
mattresses with a light feather pillow: the great four-poster is
surrounded with a thin gauze to keep off the absolutely unbear-
able mosquitoes at each season. Every adult member of the
family has his own bedroom.
151. Five p.m. strikes and everybody with any pretensions
at all to culture, position, or outward superiority, hurries off to
the Promenade, the Spanish Alameda, the Italian Ccrso, the one
public place where the whole aristocracy is seen united, though
divided by political and domestic differences: he who goes on
foot would expose evidence of his own poverty, and would
accordingly prove 'impossible' in those circles. As a rule, walk-
ing is avoided here more than anywhere else and any one enjoy-
ing but a fair amount of means keeps his own trap which is very
generally a light two-wheeled vehicle called a gig, or at most a







RIOT OF FOLIAGE. 49

phaeton. Gigs bring officials to their offices, merchants to their
warehouses, physicians to their patients, the world both pretty
and ugly to the promenade, to "The Ring;"-then it is that the
younger and wealthier ladies mounted on their palfreys and
surrounded by equestrian knights and knaves, accompany their
mother sitting in her gig or phaeton. The Ring, at the same time
the public highway, is formed of an avenue of beautiful cabbage-
palms (Oreodoxa oleracea) which stretches for an hour from
the western end of the city along the River.*

152. I know of no tree that is better suited to such a purpose
because it diffuses a charm that has in fact something really
fairy-like about it. The peculiar rustling of the fronds arising
from the breezy atmosphere, the sudden opening of its large-
flower-bunch, after bursting its capsule with a fairly distinct
report and, during its erotic ecstacy, scattering a regular rain of
pollen through the air which it fills with delightful perfume,-
everything in short combines to make a promenade along such
an avenue one of the most enjoyable of pleasures. On the west-
ern front of t lis avenue, and shaded by it, there stretch certain
of the planters' residences as well as their boiler-houses and
quarters for the staff : the former are enclosed in the most
delightful gardens, and divided from the lands of their neighbours
by glorious hedges of Poinciana pulcherrima Linn., Hibiscus rosa
sinensis Linn., Jasminum grandiflorum or Gardenia florida Linn.,
Clerodendron imerme Wall, etc.

153. What are all our pretty rose-bushes compared with this
fresh and brilliant mixture of red, yellow, white, and blue?
What is the Northern floral fragrance by the side of this perfect
perfume? If ie turn our gaze from the outer circuits to the
inner, the house itself is found to be regularly enveloped with
trees of the glorious Jacaranda rhombifolia Meyer, and J. procera
Spr., Cassia fistula Linn., with its long dependent pods, Cassia
multijuga Rich., Erythrina Corallodendron and E. speciosa Andr.,
while the golden fruits are to be seen glowing in the dark green
foliage of the Orange-trees, and the beautiful Aeschynomene
coccinea and A. grandiflora Linn., with their large butterfly buds,
illumining the fairy-like blossoms of Ixora coccinea Linn., in
between the lovely hedges.
154. On its eastern front the Avenue is directly bordered by
the dwellings of the negroes working on the estates : these are
intersected by green grass flats where an equally beautiful
naturally grown flora comes into prominence. The rich wealth
of flower of Asclepias curassavica Linn., Crotalaria glaba Willd.,
Ruellia tuberosa Linn., Leonotis nepetaefolia R. Br., Stachy-

*The avenue Is the present Houston Palm Avenue: the Ring-the cir-
cular area where the carriages, etc. turned-of which no traces remain,
was at the entrance of Agricola Village.-(J.R.)







BEAUTIFUL WOMEN


tarpheta jamaicensis Vahl. and Tiaridium indicum Leh. vie with
the enlivening groups of Lantana Camara Linn., Cassia alata and
C. occidentalis Linn., Mimcsa, and Cordia until one's view is
lost in the sugar, plantain, and coffee-fields and in the giant
bushes of bambu now and again rising behind the houses, when
it finally becomes limited by the dark fringes of the virgin forest.
The water trenches running along the Avenue are covered with
the beautiful Eichhornia azurea Kunth, and Limnocharis
Humboldtii Rich. It is only in this changing and vivid contrast
that the landscape succeeds in obtaining that infinitely delightful
charm which the Imagination conceives approximately enough
under an atmosphere of ice and snow, but which can only germin-
ate into infinitely sublime Reality in the Tropics.

155. The lovely avenue soon fills with mysterious rustle,
with floral fragrance,-the sun hurries on towards the horizon
and sheds its golden rays once more upon the fashionably got-up
dandies speeding along on their proud steeds, or upon ladies
dressed in the latest London styles in elegant gigs, bright
phaetons or on sprightly mounts. One drives or rides a few
times up and down, returns home to dine as the sun sets, and
then goes to bed ad lib.

156. Among the numerous members of the fair sex I would
have awarded the prize for beauty to Miss Ross and to Miss
Dalton, had not the whole of Georgetown already done so. But
however many the lovely female forms and attractive features,
the faded yellowish tint which one generally finds shared
equally between the men and women from the lowest to the
highest,-although the latter never expose themselves to the rays
of the morning or mid-day sun-did not make a very pleasant
impression on me. The most blooming European complexion, the
indication -of a cold climate, disappears without a trace after a
three or four months' stay : and with it there also goes that
buoyancy, that over-bubbling Love of Life, which in Germany
is so often the flower-scattering companion of Beauty.

157. In the families of the upper classes I generally found a
high degree of culture, often a combination of the purest woman-
liness with the richest intellectual gifts : the men, at least the
senior portion of them, have mostly retained the characteristic
trait of the race to which they or their forbears belonged : the
younger generation, it is true almost always shows precocity and
extraordinary intellectual talent, but exactly resembles the fruit-
ful tropical soil which, unless carefully tended by the owner's
hand, is soon overgrown with weed.

158. The ladies of the higher classes usually spend tl-,ir
time in reading, and now and again, though only to break the
tiresome monotony, in light feminine tasks. The kitchen only







BALLS


knows the lady of the house and her daughters by name, and
the remaining cares of a housewife are just as much unknown
to the former as to the latter. Pleasure, Pleasure, that is the
everlasting slogan, the sphere, the summit and shining light of
the fashionable world, just as it is that of the poorest negro.
On two occasions within a short interval I was afforded the
delightful opportunity of gazing on, and wondering at the abso-
lutely genteel and lovely world of Georgetown gathered within
a limited are The first was at the Races, the second at a
private Ball got up by the Croesus of the capital. The ball
commences at 9 o'clock, and the gentlemen must appear in black
clothes.
159. I almost doubt whether Lucullus could have had his
table arranged with better regulated refinement. Here were
the rarest gifis of Nature from all parts of the world, united in
the smallest cf spaces : from the Cape to my native Rhine the
grape had contributed a supply which had been previously cooled
in big ice-tubi : the other refreshments, dishes etc.-it is no use
saying anything further. Like everywhere else the prize for
beauty amongst this brilliant assemblage was indisputably taken
by three Creole ladies, and I had the good fortune to dance with
two of these earthly goddesses. As already mentioned all ladies
are heartily fond of dancing, but they are correspondingly bad
dancers. The ball was over at 4 o'clock in the morning.
160. It is unnecessary to state that a ball, given in such a
relaxing climate, in spite of quadrilles and country-dances only
being indulged in, cannot be one of the so-called pleasures for a
German : but the pretty and ugly Creoles think otherwise. With
white trousers and white jacket, a silk handkerchief negligently
slung round his neck, at 11 o'clock in the morning, the time for
a morning call, the dandy, the man of the world, the gentleman
of bon ton, hurries to his swagger lady-friend just as the negro,
-one might almost say the European ape,-does in his own
sphere of life, and enquires after her health, listens to her heart's
desires for the day, or possibly, as one more favoured, takes
lunch with her on cold meat, fruits and cakes. Lunch is an
interpolated repast between the real breakfast and the chief
meal which is only served in the evening : at the latter and at
night, everybody must appear in dress coat and black trousers.
161. In European families English is of course the general
language of conversation : not so among the coloured people and
negroes, who talk a mixture, one might almost say, a real
"pidgin'" (Kauderwilsch) derived from almost all the idioms of
;urope and-Africa, the indigenous "so-called "Creole-Dutch" : the
Dutch language which was brought by the first owners of the
Colony constitutes its basis. In the course of the constant
This .is still in restricted use in the Essequibo, at least, and is known
as "Takkey, Takkey." (A.R.F.W.)







CREOLES


changes of ownership, the next-following temporary p.ssessors
on each occasion left behind certain traces of their language
with the result that, in the course of time, among the coloured
people and negroes, many a common expression is seen to be
derived from the Dutch, French, English and African occupation,
and has now also spread amongst the indigenous coastal tribes.
162. Just like their speech, the coloured population also
consists of the most different racial relationships, amongst which
one particular degree, in spite of its general name, still has a
special designation. By "Creoles" one understands all those who
have been born in British Guiana from immigrants, whether both
their parents are Europeans, Africans, East Indians, or their
mother the one, and father the other : all children born in the
Colony are Creole. This definition extends even up to domestic
animals, according to which we get Creole horses, Creole cows,
Creole pigs, Creole sheep etc.
163. A second general term "Coloured people" comprises all
the different gradations arising from the mixture of Europeans
with African and Indian women. The race resulting from the
mixture of Europeans with negro women is called "Mulatto."

164. Mixtures of Indians and Negroes are very rare, the
former generally regarding the latter with supreme contempt,
even hating them like hereditary enemies* This is expressed
in the most glaring manner whenever they meet. The appear-
ance of such hybrids differs strikingly from that of the remaining
ones. Ail whom I have had the opportunity of seeing were
specially marked by slim vigorous stature and muscular strength.
Their colour is a dark copper or coffee-brown and, as regards
their facial features, incline much more to the Ethiopian than
to the American race. Though the cheek-bones still continue to
be strongly prominent, it is nevertheless not so striking as it is
among the Indians, where it appears to a much greater degree.
The nose is broad, it is true, but not turned up : even so, the
lips are still always thick, but not puffy. The most striking thing
about them is without doubt the extraordinary hair which as it
were does not seem to know in what direction to incline, whether
towards the curly wool of Africa or the smooth hair of America,
and so stands on end half-curly, A lighter complexion and
smooth hair shows at once the mixed descent of Indian and
European.
165. The race produced from the mixture of a European and
mulatto woman undoubtedly constitutes one of the most beautiful
stamps of human being for which in remaining portions of the
New World, particularly in North America, are reserved the
special terms creole, mestique, and kastize, and in the Spanish

*What with the opening-up of the Colony, the gold-mining and balata
industries, this is very far from being the case now, (Ed.)







GRADATIONS OF COLOUR 53

possessions, quadroons. While the males of this mixed race
appear to advantage amongst all other men, the female sex finds
its perfection in Guiana. Their full truly plastic figure is still
further improved by natural grace, by real elasticity and spright-
liness of movement by the delicately formed hands and arms,
and pretty feet. while the dark brown sparkling eyes, the swarthy
glowing complexion, the beautiful ivory-white teeth, and the
luxuriant curl:.- black hair lends to the face a charm which is
peculiar even to itself alone.

166. The different gradations in the colouring of the mixed
breed can be fairly accurately represented in quite a simple
manner wit: a glass of port wine and a glass of water, when
one pours the half of each into a third empty glass. This
mixture represents the mulatto colour. If one fills with this
mixture another glass half-way, and then again pours into it an
equal portion cf clean water, one has the next generation. After
repeating the experiment ten times, every mixture of port-wine
colour has ent rely disappeared and one has accurately the ten
shades of coloi.r from black to white until agaun pure white.

167. In sp te of the fact that in the last mentioned mixed
breed (European and Mulatto) the physical gifts mostly keep pace
with the intellectual ones, these people nevertheless up to the
present belong to the despised class of East Indian pariahs, for
whom every entrance into the circles of the pure-blood
aristocracy still remains closed.

168. This brutal situation is the cancer that continues to
make every social unification impossible, and not alone destroy
the social life, but in connection with the political, must lead
within the not very distant future, to a state of affairs that
threatens to b, all the more dangerous for the motherland in
proportion as t-lis class happens to be the more numerous, just
as it is, at the same time, and taken as a whole, the better
educated and t ie more intellectually gifted.

169. The bonds of married life are tied more loosely here
than they can possibly be in any other Colony. The least
wealthy, yet to be sure rich, planters, the merchants, even Gov-
ernment officer, inspectors, estates' managers, and their ser-
vants are married, but usually live in concubinage with coloured
people, negro cr Indian women. Many children born of such
unions receive their education in England, yea, even in South
Germany. Endowed with the most ample physical and intel-
lectual gifts, so.i and daughter return home, to their native soil
where, upon th ir first football they find themselves condemned,
like Pariah and Helot, back to the existence which English
national Pride and Slavery, that dark spot in the history of
,n-l!:;ld, have devised for them. They say good-bye to Europe







MULATTOES AND NEGROES


but cannot take farewell of all the claims to such a life as that.
to which they are entitled by their refinement and wealth,
because the father at his death frequently bequeaths them all
his property. Life in all its bitterness spurns them with frigid
callousness, contempt dodges their every step, and scorn is meted
out to those who strive to force their way through these cold
and inhuman barriers. Deep hatred fills the impassionate heart
with disdain for the ideals which European education taught
them on the other side of the ocean, and the breast burning for
satisfaction soon tears away and casts aside the veil of woman-
liness. Finery, the grasp at temporary pleasure, and the taste
for illicit love are in very great measure the sad consequences
of this neglect. If in isolated cases the European disregards
these prejudices and still marries a coloured woman upon whose
reputation even the most stinging envy can find no stain, the
blot of birth indelibly remains: all the aristocratic circles are
open to the husband, but to the wife they are impenetrably
closed. Thus in the hearts of the coloured people there is devel-
oped that passionate hatred which hovers over the Colony like
an Avenging Angel more threatening than the one the negroes
cherish: for, with the latter the sources are much more
superficial.

170. Still more striking however is the reciprocal action
which this complete segregation of white society from that of
the coloured exercises again upon the different gradations of
the latter, and in this social relationship of the Present may
perhaps lie the only guarantee that the motherland will retain
her hold on the Colony in the Future. The coloured man regards
the mulatto and creole negro with the same contempt that the
latter looks upon the non-creole negro who comes here as an
emigrant or freed slave, although he shares his colour absolutely.
In their mouths the word "nigger" is the commonest term of
abuse, and woe betide him who offends his falsely-understood
feeling of freedom and illimitable arrogance. "I am a free man,
have the same rights as you, and know how to defend them,"
are words to which the most harmless remark, or an apparent
disregard for their boundless oft-ridiculous self-confidence gives
rise. The contempt shown the negroes by the mulattoes is
mutual and often enough have I heard songs, wherein the
negroes are so fond of expressing their feelings of hatred or of
love, amongst which the following, of which I am only men-
tioning its general tenor, takes chief place:-"The whites have a
native country; the blacks also have one, but the mulatto
searches for one in vain, he seeks and finds none. Poor is the
man, contemptible is the man who has no native country: the
mulatto has none."
171. Their mental and physical indolence, in short their
collective intellectual powers that stand on a very low level,
allow of the negroes being endowed with but a few good quali-







NATIVE DANCES


ties among which their unlimited gratitude shines forth as the
most brilliant. Impelled by it, they readily and willingly offer
their lives for those to whom they believe they are indebted,
though in contrast with this beautiful and chief characteristic,
the unbounded thirst for revenge which only too often seeks
alid finds satisfaction in the most awful sufferings of their
victims, is very striking. Not only in connection with his
physique but also in regard to disposition a marked difference
is shown between the creole negro and the one brought out
straight from Africa: the latter is reserved and mischievous,
the former iver cheerful, light-hearted and ready for a joke.
Physical listlessness and laziness, especially among the women,
have already had to make way for a certain elasticity and
mobility that lends a particular charm to the black figure when
one sees her, with her striking white pearly teeth and sparkling
eyes, hurrying through the streets in a white muslin costume.
Their figure; become ridiculous however when in their apish
efforts to clothe themselves in the most absurd European
fashions witi glaring colours, they make real caricatures of
themselves: nflortunatdly tiis is the case with nine-tenths of
them.

172. Witil the onset of evening, there sound from every
quarter the monotonous notes of drum and tambourine, instru-
ments which passionately excite the indolent muscles of the
Africans and their descendants who always dearly love a dance:
they will keep it up until break of day. I was often witness
of their crude native dances which nevertheless are only danced
by immigrants and former slaves: the creole negroes are
ashamed of them, and are only happy when indulging in country-
dances, quadrilles, etc. The native dance as a rule takes place
in the open. Only let the ponderous fist strike the drum and
holiday-makers and working people will swarm from all sides
to the seductive call of the instrument,-if one may call a barrel
or hollow tree-trunk covered with cow, bullock, goat or sheep
skin by the name of instrument-and a crowd of hundreds is
collected in no time. In measured beat and slow, the ladies,
draped in white muslin, and adorned with huge red-coral
chains, trip it with the men in circles advancing and retiring:
the excitement of the musicians, for in most cases the triangle
or a violin is yet added to the drum, becomes aroused, and pro-
portionately with it the action of the partners. The blows of
the drummer fall ever quicker and harder on the skin which
possibly only withstands the treatment by virtue of its being
so thick: the dancers are soon transported with wild bacchanalian
lust, when what with a series of disgusting jerks, "winds" and
contortions they resemble Furies rather than human beings.
But this is still too tame for the spectators, the gesticulations
and distortions are not sufficiently out-of-the-common. All of a
sudden, three or four fresh performers, no longer able to resist







SLAVE NAMES


their inner impulses and devilish appetites, spring into the
exhausted throng. The music now takes on a swifter turn, the
dance waxes more fast and furious, even more demoniacal, and
the sybilline spirit that grips them, likewise seizes all the onlook-
ers who, with yelling voices and clapping hands goad the waning
strength of both partner and musician to further exertion:
finally this frenzy has to succumb to absolute lassitude when,
bathed in perspiration, foaming at the mouth and faint with
exhaustion, the dancers sink to the ground and fresher people
take their places. However interesting in one respect these
scenes might be, the odour, so unpleasant to a European, indica-
tive of a single negro at a distance of even five paces neverthe-
less used to keep me at a respectful distance: at a gathering
such as this it amounts to a suffocating atmosphere wherein the
whole of Olympus together with the heroes of the Past and
Present are disporting themselves in the monotonous din of
a delirium of dance. Cicero foots it with proserpine, Mercury
with Cleopatra, Nelson shakes hands with Neptune, Nero fails
into the arms of Napoleon, Hamlet jokes with Aurora, while
Romulus and Remus, Blucher and Wellington haste with wad-
dling goose-step to join the happy throng, and Mercury shouts
to Ombre, Whist, and Spadille, with Venus and Helena telling
them to hurry up. These extraordinary names date from before
emancipation when it was obligatory on the slave-owners or
estates' managers to give names to children born on the plan-
tation, and which were mostly inspired from scme reminiscence
of the past, or from the particular business on hand when the
news of a newly born child happened to be announced.

173. If one turns now to the over-done gaudily decorated
ball-room of the Creole negroes, where only quadrilles and
country-dances are fancied, the Paradise of Deities and Heroes
is re-enacted save that the Gods and Goddesses appear in other
costumes. Silk covers their mortal bodies. Minerva foots the
light fantastic in crimson spencer and white gown before Mars,
who is perspiringly anxious about cutting the latest French
capers properly, while Diana, in a sky-blue dress and white
spencer, gazes in the eyes of love-lorn Narcissus: she is either
blushing away from off her brows the small dishevelled tufts of
hair which, woven from her short curly wool and owing to its
uncontrollable nature, stands out from her head like horns, or
toying with the huge ear-rings that drag her long ears still
longer, or perhaps passing enormous links of her heavy gold
chain negligently over her fingers; while her ill-shaped feet are
stuck in red or white satin shoes.

174. An example of the extent to which the taste for finery
is really carried among the creole negroes was afforded us by
Captain Rothwell who showed us, on the trip out, a heavy gold
chain and ear-rings purchased by him for 15 and 5 respec-







WEEKLY SOCIALS


tively to the order of an old immoderately fat negress who
kept a huckster's fruit shop.
175. Though the insufferable stench from the company of
Gods and Goddesses had driven me out of their presence into
the open air, the overpowering perfume contributed by Rose,
Jasmine, Orange, and Eau de Cologne in the ballroom almost
threatened to stifle me: in spite of everything, Art had not been
,quite able to overcome Nature, which gradually commenced to
recover her disputed sovereignty.
176. The gentlemen are the faithfully reflected images of
the ladies. A black or blue frock-coat covers the faultless
shoulders : a red, yellow, or sky-blue vest worked in with goid
-this is enclosed with a huge watch-chain and heavy pendant,
from which one would in most cases tell the time in vain-covers
the powerful chest: the white dancing pumps neatly laced up to
the knees : the silk stockings and red or yellow shoes emphasize
to advantage the slim build of the extremities. A Master of
the Ceremonies, with hat under his left arm, leads the dance and
tries to curb the all too lively "Irresistibles." One hardly knows
which to consider the more ridiculous, the costume, or the con-
tinual turning, bowing and scraping of the man stuck inside it.
Our German provincial townsman knows how to offer Mr. Burgo-
master his snuff-box really graciously enough, but compared with
the elegance of the creole negro, that is only shade as compared
with brilliant sunshine, while the skipping around of the Teuton
when he happens to reach the door at the same time as Mr.
Syndicate or Mr. Senator are only shavings in contrast with
Hercules' club. Questions like "How is my lady Aurora today,"
or "Why is my lady Daphne not here yet?" are to be heard
repeated in thousandfold echoes.
177. Nevertheless, this polished exterior of an aped etiquette
soon crumbles gain into its rightly recalled natural state by the
inordinate taste for champagne and other liquor:-boundless
oiutality replaces the initial polish, and the powerful blows of
the equally powerful fist quickly put the whole pack of divini-
ties to rout. The last stage is the ever recurring refrain with all
gatherings of negroes, be they creole or not.
173. The weekly evening socials of the Prince Regent Society,
the Victoria Society, and Fancy (Mask) Balls of the creole
negroes all wincLup with bleeding heads, torn dress-clothes, rent
garments, and tattered spencers, and the English merchant or
officer whose company has been requested with a perfumed card
of invitation must haste to reach the doors before the boiling
passions exceed all limits.
179. Cock- fighting, that probably has been handed down
from the English, together with its associated betting and disor-
derlinsss is hel by the negroes in even higher estimation than
dancing. The limitless licentiousness finally forced the Governor







58 COCK-FIGIHTING

to prohibit these exhibitions under the severest penalties, but
nevertheless without being able to suppress them. Just as in
Europe gambling has been driven from public resorts into thieves'
dens and behind secret doors, so cock-fighting has been forced
here into enclosed yards or spacious rooms, but as the pugnacious
fury of the birds becomes rapidly supplanted by that of the
spectators now thoroughly aroused, it requires no delicate sense
of tracking on the part of the police, as in Europe, for the
offenders to be discovered: the indiscriminate shouting, together
with the hefty thumping blows of the combatants indicate not
only within the city, but also outside it in the forest, on the
Easter Tuesday, the places where the law is being broken.

180. Easter Tuesday from the remotest times was the special
heydey for cock-fights. Since its prohibition the yards and
rooms have nowadays become too small. The location in the
forest already fixed upon several weeks before, is secretly noti-
fied to the black population. Tuesday appears-the Police scatter
themselves in the environs and soon return to Georgetown
accompanied by negroes dripping with blood.

181. A good fighting-cock is the most treasured possession
of a negro, the object of his tenderest endearment; in fact, a well
trained champion that keeps itself hardy and bold, yields its
owner but little less than the best race-horse. Indeed, the rage
for betting has so greatly increased since the prohibition, that
rings are immediately formed on the streets as soon as a fight
occurs among the scattered fowls, the favourable opportunity for
giving vent to it being gladly seized. Should such a fortunate
accident happen on a farm, and there are no other spectators
to wager with, the son bets against his father, the father against
the mother, and God help him who wants to stop the sport by
unseasonable interference.

182. As to the upper classes, for those fond of betting, the
Turf Club Meetings were days to be looked forward to and
enjoyed. It was then that one could search in vain for a healthy
negro throughout the whole city: indeed, the very servants
would immediately throw up their situations were the master or
mistress to prevent them taking part.

183. The streets fill at daybreak, and dense crowds indicate
where bets are already being booked. Rigged out in the most
beautiful of the beautiful that his wardrobe comprises, in white
trousers, dazzling a long way off, a blue dress coat and glittering
vest, with a fuming cigar in one hand and a faultless stick in the
other, the negro, full of hope, hastens to the Course. I shall
never forget my first Georgetown Race-Meeting with an atten-
dance of at least 10 to 12,000 negroes, whom the whole of the
police force was unable to control.







RACE-MEETINGS 59

184. The animals nominated for the races are kept in special
trellis-worked horse-boxes under the two equally large Grand-
Stands for the aristocracy and coloured people, where the track
starts and ends. Running the eye of an expert over his particu-
lar favourite, the negro makes his choice and with victorious
step hastens to bet with the first person he meets. The signal
for a start is likewise the signal for a fight on the flat. Words
to soothe them on the part of the peace officers are words wasted
in the wind: better results are obtained with the 18-inch long
staves, weighted at one end by lead, with which they whack in
i time the heated heads of the delinquents, who are dragged by
the feet out of the dense crowds, it being out of the question for
them to come along without resistance. The now empty horse-
boxes under the grandstands are occupied by the bleeding,
cursing, and unfortunate bookies vainly exerting themselves to
get out, and where, like Tantalus, they are prevented profiting
by a winner or loser. Truly I have never seen an angered tiger,
lion, or raving baboon, shaking and tearing at the bars of its cage
more furiously than these negroes boiling with rage at those of
their particular stall until at last, their exhausted rage finds
gratification in the thrilling blows which, as surely as B. follows
A., take place amongst those finding themselves in one and the
same horse-box.

185. A new comer, and as yet unacquainted with the char-
acter of the negro, I at first felt pity for the poor devils at these
procedures of the police which really seemed to be more than
tyrannical, since they were being treated not as human beings
but like refractory brutes. Still more did my finer feelings revolt
at seeing the sweet-scented frail and delicately-smiling English
women and creoles regard these terrible scenes of ill-treatment
with such indifference as if they were daily familiarised with
them:-which certainly is the case. But I was forced only too
soon to the absolute conviction that by such measures alone
could the negro be controlled, and that he would be able to live
just as much without food and drink as without whacking. One's
compassion is lost on becoming more intimate with his character
and principles.
186. As our house was for the most part surrounded by
negro quarters and the building at the back was likewise occu-
pied by them, Sunday always proved a holiday for me, for from
the gallery I was then able to look down on my neighbours,.
whom on a week-day I would readily keep three paces away
from, and see them hurrying off to church in white silk or muslin
garments, as sweet-scented as rose or jasmine stocks, though, for
an hour beforehand they would be watching the weather with
their smouldering stumpy clay pipes in their mouths. This was
the funny side of our building : though its yard almost daily
provided scenes where the parents, not like human beings, let
alone of the same flesh and blood, punished their children in a
way that precludes them being treated as men and women them-
selves. How often did the howl of woe, the crying and whimp-







ELEPHANTIASIS


ering of the youngster writhing under the blows of its inhuman
mother or pitiless father call me to the window: How often did
I draw back with closed eyes and stuffed ears on seeing one of
the furies tearing the clothes from off her boy or girl in heedless
frenzy, seize it by the hair, throw it on the floor, and then like
an enraged beast stamp upon the writhing and groaning child-
or when, after tying hands and feet she hung it up and, raving,
foaming, and yelling, let out with a three or four strand rope,
not worrying where the blows fell, till blood flowed from the
pounds, mouth and nose. Still more brutal are the fights and
matrimonial disputes between man and wife, or between two
jealous female rivals. Teeth and nails are here the ultima ratio,
and I have seen fights taking place below my window where,
on one occasion the two contending devils had bitten into one
another like raving bull-dogs, and could only be parted by each
one retaining in her bloody mouth a piece of the other's flesh
while, on another, the daughter had bitten off her mother's fore-
finger, the latter reciprocating with a snap from off her daughter's
breast.
187. If the negro's bare appearance by itself alone fails to
exert quite the most favourable impression upon the newly-
arrived European, it becomes really horrible when afflicted with
one of those innumerable loathsome diseases to which he is far
more subject than any other inhabitant of Guiana. Among these
are specially "Yaws," Frambosia, and "Barbados Leg," all of them
varieties of Elephantiasis where the whole body is covered com-
pletely with yellow ulcers that are considered just as contagious
as syphilitic sores, but reckoned incurable. Elephantiasis and its
counterpart, where the negroes afflicted with it are nothing else
than wandering skeletons over which the skin hangs in immense
folds, are just as plentiful as other scabious diseases, and I shall
never forget the impression which the sight of the first case of
Srambosia made on one, with every hair already fallen off and
hands and feet in complete suppuration. The most awful thing
about this disease is that though those who are afflicted with it
have no hope of cure, they can nevertheless linger on for years
before being released from their sufferings by Death. The disease
commences with the growth of a number of small swellings which
first of all develop between the muscles and the skin: these grad-
ually burst, pass into a state of suppuration and even attack the
gullet and nose which caves in at the very first. The most awful
stench drives everybody out of the sufferer's vicinity. Finally,
the skin is loosened entirely from the muscles and actually rots
away, until the suppurating process, spreading from the fingers
and toes right over the body at last puts an end to the patient's
infinite misery." So much for the negro population of Guiana.

*This is, of course, the old conception of "Elephantiasis," which
included Yaws, "Bush Yaws,', what we now know as Elephantiasis, and
other manifestations of Filariasis, Leprosy and probably other conditions.
The condition which is here so graphically described is probably that which
we now know as Leprosy. (F.G.R.)







POST-HOLDERS 6!

188. The nati yes are only very rarely to be sn irl town,
and when thy are, very surely belong to one or other of the
Warrau, Akawai or Waika, Arawak and Carib tribes: these col-
lectively occupy the coastal areas, and for that reason have held
intercourse with the Europeans for a long time past. Unfortu-
nately, almost always as a result of it, the whole shady side of
civilisation, not its bright one, has passed over to these Indians,
although an immense gulf still continues to exist between the
viciously inclined African and similarly disposed Indian,
between a drunken negro and a drunken native.
189. The inhabitants of the real Interior never appear in the
city and only carry on trade through the mediation of the tribes
just mentioned who barter from them their birds, tamed mam-
mals, hammocks, plaited baskets, earthen-ware vessels, feather
decorations, fruits, resins etc., in exchange for European
articles such as knives, scissors, hatchets, axes, powder, spot-
print, beads etc. : the former take these into the hinterland and
trade them to advantage for products of the local tribes. Unfortu-
nately, these trading coastal-tribes have such a propensity for
drink that they often spend the greatest portion of the money
earned in satisfying their greed for spirits although they only
come and go like birds of passage. When such parties of Indians
are noticed in the city, the negroes do not let them out of their
sight but follow them like jackals or vultures after a caravan in
the desert, and as soon as the vast quantity of liquor imbibed
begins to take effect, get hold of the remaining money or "trade"
already bought, either by fair means or foul.
190. Before Emancipation, when the Colony still particularly
required the services of the Indians, the authorities kept a large
house or caravanserie for them in the west end of the town,
where they couldalways find a camp on their temporary visits.
Now that their help is no longer required these quarters have
been allowed to go to ruin.
191. With a view to encouraging intercourse between the
aboriginal natives and Planters and with the Colony, to protect
them from sel:ah and self-interested employers, and to keep an
eye on those who had shewn themselves prepared for permanent
settlement, in fact, the promotion of their material and spiritual
welfare, six Protectors and six Post-holders were originally
appointed. Of the latter, one always lived on the Pomeroon,
Essequibo, Demerara, Berbice, and Courentyne at stations estab-
lished there, where they at the same time had to watch strangers
who passed up and down the rivers. The Protectorship was an,
honorary office, to which fell the inspection of the Post-holders
and was generally filled by estates' owners or well-known mer-
chants. They are at present replaced by three paid Superin-
tendents who have to travel through the districts every quarter.
In 1842 the Colonial Parliament determined upon doing away
with these appointments of Post-holders and Superintendents
and leaving the Indians unprotected to their fate, but with a







TREATMENT OF ABORIGINALS


-severe reproof from Lord Stanley, the then Colonial Minister,
its action was not approved.
192. Though this Department must have exerted a very
beneficial effect upon the indigenous populations in paving the
way for their civilisation and material welfare had it been car-
ried on with fidelity and conscientiousness, this was unfortunately
the case in only a few well-known instances. With the small
salary received from the Colonial' Government the Post-holders,
especially in earlier times and even up to now, were guilty of
many an oppression and swindle on the wards under their charge:
this entirely undermined the good object of the purpose in view,
and the Indians, on seeing themselves deceived and cheated by
their protectors were alienated for ever from the civilisation
that was already scarcely won.

193. Owing to this treatment and exploitation of the harm-
less aborigines on a basis of the meanest selfishness, whereby they
had to perform the hardest woodcutting tasks on the timber
grants, months at a time, for a few worthless glass beads, labour
of the most serviceable nature has been lost to the Colony, the
employers themselves frankly admitting that an Indian, as a
workman, is worth double a negro. The slightest suspicion of
deceit on the part of his employer sends the Indian back to his
wandering life in the forests, never to return. Even were the
present-day conditions and scarcity of labour to force the Plant-
ers or Timber-grant owners to reward their honestly rendered
services like honest employers, it would be impossible to obliter-
ate the distrust which in earlier times has been inscribed in
indissoluble letters on the memory of those deceived : on the
other hand, even the honourable employer is not sure of his
Indian labourer, because the latter only hires himself out when
the want of certain articles, that have become necessaries to the
tribes living in the neighbourhood of the city, forces him to
work. Upon earning as much as will supply that want, nothing
will hold him back from his favourite hammock, or his beloved
hunting and fishing grounds, until some fresh requirement drives
him to town again. The Colony owes the poor neglected Indian
an old-time heavy debt, the present-day repayment of which is
not to be expected. While it wanted him to suppress the many
msurrections of the slaves, it used to wheedle him and once a
year fix a certain day to give him a big spread and valuable
presents, whereat several thousands, wearing the most beautiful
feather ornaments would generally be gathered : all these means
of recognition have been abandoned. "They are now of no more
use to us, and there is no need to worry any more about them,"
is the stereotyped answer which the astonished. questioner
receives. No one remembers that almost all the negro revolts
were suppressed through the help of the Aborigines and that in
the Coromantyn negro rebellion in 1793 and 1794 the Caribs alone
sent 800 young warriors to assist the overpowered Colonists.







COTTON BUSHES.


194. During our almost four years' stay with these "Tribes
without Tears," all the signs we gathered point incontestably to
the fact that the Present is the closing scene for them in that
great drama which everywhere is, and will be, renewed where
European culture gains and has gained a footing.

195. The many European-introduced diseases that have
become in different ways indigenous amongst the tribes of the
interior, particularly small-pox, are helping on this closing scene
to an increased degree. In 1794 the Caribs were still able to
place 800 young fighters in the field: according to the census of
1841 the whole coast tribe including women and children only
amounts to 500. Nine-tenths of the Arawaks have disappeared
in the interval, and half of the Akawais and Warraus are no
more.

196. After several days' stay in the city I was constrained
to visit the m:re or less distant environs, to make myself at
home and con ersant with the field of my labours. Of course
my earliest excursions could and only dared be of short duration,
my brother an1 few acquaintances having impressed upon me
the most sacred duty of not exposing myself too suddenly to the
sun's rays which exert such a harmful influence on the newly-
arriving European. My trips were accordingly limited to between
six o'clock day-break and eight, when it was always incumbent
on me to hurry back to the protecting roof and avoid the danger
threatening.

197. On leaving the city proper, almost all the roads lead to
the same surrounding sugar, plantain, and abandoned cotton
estates: upon the latter, which at present form pasturage for
cattle as already mentioned, one now and then finds an isolated
cotton-tree (Gcssypium herbaceum), dotted over with its large
yellow mallow-like flowers, that rises like a sort of memorial
of former extensive cultivation. What a beautiful and fairy-like
sight must these cotton-fields in blossom have presented in the
olden days!

198. The whole cultivated portion of the Colony, but parti-
cularly in the immediate neighbourhood of Georgetown, is an
alluvial flat, exposed to flooding during the spring-tides. A
front dam extending along the whole stretch of coast-line parallel
with the sea or river .on the inner side of which run the public
streets, protects the estates and has to be kept in repair by the
respective owners of estates bordering on it. To save the plan-
tations from being flooded in the rainy season from the land side,
a similar dam is raised there. Trenches or canals divide the
different properties one from another, with, in addition, a main-
outlet canal, 12 feet broad and 6 feet deep surrounding every
estate into which all the smaller ones open. With the com-







FERTILITY OF SOIL


mencement of the ebb, the banked-up waters within can be run
off by means of large sluices into the main canal, this being in
communication with the so-called navigation trenches that divide
the estate into different fields, and along which the cut-down
sugar-cane is transported in large punts to the mill.

199. Originally every Colonist was allotted a frontage of 100
Dutch roods and a depth of 750 roods, or 250 acres for cultivation.
It was only when this area was cultivated and cleared that he
was allowed an extension of his property and in return for a
small sum another 250 acres could be granted him. Every
Colonist was allowed to procure land in this way until, on com-
ing into collision with the next estate, he found an insur-
mountable obstacle to the further extension of his property. The
superficial area of individual estates varies mostly between 300
and 2,000 acres, although at present only a few can keep more
than from 100 to 500 acres under cultivation. The cultivated
ground usually consists of a rich stiff and clayey marshy soil of
great depth which is in many cases mixed with salty and vege-
table matter. In this soil, the sugar-cane lasts for from 20 to
30 years, and indeed even up to 50 years without requiring new
transplanting. If only to give an example of the extraordinary
fertility of this soil, I would mention that 6,000 lbs. of sugar or
26,000 lbs. of plantains are often harvested annually from one
acre, though one finds such capacity for produce only quite
close to the coast, and on the banks of the rivers: amongst the
latter, only so far as the salt water reaches at flood-tide, which
on an average is mostly ten miles. Beyond this, are to be sound
barren sandy or yellow loam flats which are very gener-
ally covered with a three to four-foot deep light vegetable sub-
stance called Pegass. This soil is suitable only for coffee plant-
ing.

200. The district comprising the estates, like that of the city,
has a flora of its own. The luxuriance of the gardens and open
spaces, to the wealth of which the East Indies, Africa and the
West India Islands have contributed, disappears here and the
monotonous uniformity of Rhizophora and Ficus is only occasion-
ally interrupted by pleasant avenues of Erythrina Coralldendron
Linn., Tamarindus Indica Linn., Artocarpus incisa Linn., Persea
gratissima and Orange-trees. These either lead to the individual
estates' properties, or stretch along the dams and canals dividing
the different plantations from one another; they are hemmed in
with a thick undergrowth of Lantana in a number of varieties,
as well as with Cordia hirsuta Willd., C. Schomburgkii Benth.,
Cassia alata, C. occidentalis Linn., C. latifolia Meyer, C. veneni-
fera Rod., C. calliantha Meyer, Psidium and a number of Mimosa.
The broad grass and pasture flats are generally covered with
Ascelepias curassaviaca Linn., Crotalaria glabra Willd., Ruellia
tuberosa, Hibiscus bicornis Meyer, H. spinifex Linn., H. brasilien-







EIRDS 65,

sis Linn., Leon,_;s : .:...: ...~i Tiaridium indicum Leh., Stachy-
tarpheta jamais ensis Vahi, Solanum erythrocaipum Meyer, S.
mammosum Li n., S. verbascifolium, Chenopodium ambrosioides
Linn., PhyllantLus hypericifolia and P. Niruri which are enliv-
ened by a faun peculiar to the city and its environs. Next to
the inquisitive little chap which immediately after landing
attracted my at ention so forcibly with its "Qu'est-ce-que-dit," I
took equal int rest in the numerous carrion irows, Cathartes
aura and C. fo tens Ill., which, as proteges of the law have
become almost :s tame as domestic fowls, because anybody who
either within tle city or its environs wants to sacrifice the bird
to his love of port, is mulcted in a fine of 50 dollars. There
cannot however be any cleaner sanitary police than these crea-
tures: indolent and sullen they perch with relaxed wings upon
the fences, hedt es, roofs, and trees until the tempting smell of a
carcase or oth r refuse allures them to the open drains and
street gutters, )r onto the pastures beyond the city, to start
their work of destruction n on some dead beast which in a few
hours they h ve already changed into a cleanly prepared
skeleton.

201. Outside the city, just the same as inside, one hears
repeated from out of every tree the everlasting question
"Qu'est-ce que-dit" of the Tyrannus sulphuratus or T. flavus
which, together with its relatives, the T. crudelis Sw. and T.
Lictor, constitute the main body of the feathered army of occu-
pation. T. flavus is the most unsubdued of the whole family,
the fear and tei rr of its smaller mates which it only too gladly
chases or robs of its young and eggs, just as it is at the same
time the most alkative and inquisitive; T. crudelis is already
dull of tongue, vhile all other species have forgotten how to ask
the question. 1. crudelis and T. sulphuratus replace our swal-
lows and wag-t ils and with shrill note chase for part of the way
every bird of prey that puts in an appearance. The Tanagra
Sayaca Linn. arid T. olivascens, the blue and brown "sacky"
respectively of the Colonists, are just as plentiful as these in the
city, while as soon as one gets into the country the husky
screams of the (Crotophaga Ani Linn. are to be heard. These are
the "old witches' of the Colonists, that perch either in the shadows
of the bushes or in and among the cattle and let themselves be
carried about on their backs, like our starlings upon the sheep.
The fact of their liking to stay close to a dead beast to pick insects,
maggots, and larvae has probably given rise to the false impres-
sion that they live on carrion : the former together with the
fruits of Psidium pyriferum and pods of Cayanus indicus constitute.
their only food, for which reason they can be often greeted near
fields containing the latter. The peculiarity that several females.
join together during the laying and breeding season to form a
common nest the size of which depends upon the number of asso-
ciated prospective mothers, wherein to lay and hatch their eggs:







66 BIRDS.

in common, does not invariably present itself with Crotophaga
Ani, because I invariably found only from five to seven greenish
white eggs in a nest: as I subsequently discovered, the peculiar-
ity only takes place with C. major. The thick bushes running
along the trenches are enlivened with the dainty Muscicapa
bicolor Gm., or "Cotton-bird," so named from its building its nest
only from out of that material, and M. leucocephala Tem. or
'"Parson Bird" a term acquired from its black plumage and little
white head; the trenches themselves are dotted with the Parra
jacana Linn., Ardea scapularis Ill., and A. nivea Lath., while the
frequented and trodden carriage-roads and foot-ways have been
chosen by the pretty red-breasted Icterus guianensis Briss and
black I. sericeus. On nearing the avenues of Erythrina, the
charm of their lovely floral decoration is increased yet tenfold by
the large number of humming-birds, particularly Trochilus
pectoralis Linn. which, like a swarm of bees, flitter round the
innumerable blossoms while the shrill cry of the little Psittacus
taipara Linn. is to be heard coming from the red flower bunches:
.the latter birds, unlike the former, that are content with the
nectar alone, actually at the same time pick away at the pistils,
hut never at the stamens of these fragrant flowers. When one
turns one's gaze from the blossoming Erythrina to the flqwering
tamarind, the gold-glistening Trochilus moschatus Lath, is seen
hovering round it in similar fashion while the loud chatter from
out of its feathery leaves betrays the garrulous companies of
dull green Psittacus passerinus Linn. and P. gregarius Spix. The
Icterus icterocephalus Daud., I. xanthornus Daud., the Tanagra
magna L. Gm., T. Jacapa Gm., T. niggerima Gm., Euphone
violacea. E. chlorotica and Cassicus niger Daud., fly with confus-
ing clamour over the rich plantation fields while the shy little
Crex mustelina peeps cautiously out of the grass, and as quick
as thought draws back immediately upon noticing anything sus-
picious. Crex melampyga and Porphyrio martinica have chosen
the plantain or sugar fields for hiding-places.

202. German poets, unaware of the sympathy existing
between a pair of Psittacus passerinus, have chosen a pair of
doves as Love's idyllic symbol:-but how far the refinement of
the one surpasses that of the other In the case of Psittacus,
absolute harmony reigns between the reciprocal Willing and
Doing. When the one eats, so does the other: if one takes a
bath, the other accompanies it: should the male start shrieking,
the female immediately joins in: when the one is sick, the other
feeds it, and supposing several are settled on a tree the respec-
tive pairs never separate.

203. During the ripening of the fruit of the Psidium
pyriferum and pomiferum, whole flocks of Psittacus menstruus
Linn. visit these trees, but when the season is over, disappear
as quickly as they came; the same thing also happens with the







GUN LICENCES.


blue headed Psitlacus Maximiliana Kuhl. during the ripening of
different species of Ficus which grow in the vicinity of the coast,
Both species in the Colony are considered great delicacies in
Georgetown.

204. Amongst mammals, only representatives of beasts of
prey are really to be seen in the immediate vicinity of the city,
because except for a Nasua, Gulo, Procyon, Didelphys, Chiro-
nectes and now and then a Jaguar, it is rarely that a deer, a
Dasyprocta Aguti or a Coelogenys Paca puts in an appearance:
a far more frequent visitor on the estates farther remote is the
jaguar in particular.

205. Everybody who wants to carry a gun, i.e. to hunt over
the cultivated portions of the Colony, has to pay a yearly licence
of 8 dollars: only Indians are exempt from it. The reason for
the tax dates from the time before Emancipation when it was
imposed to render the carrying of fire-arms by negroes a matter
of difficulty, though after they obtained their freedom it was
considered advisable to retain it; the idea was that the whole
black population instead of devoting their attention to work,
might rather spend their time in the noble art of hunting, and
the precaution has naturally borne but little fruit considering
that the price of a gun and the amount of the tax are earned
quickly enough.

206. It still seemed as if I were to be everywhere the first
to pay the penalty which foreign custom, the sea, and the
climate exacts from everybody-some lucky dogs excepted. In
London I committed so many a breach of English etiquette that
I got laughed at: on the voyage out I was the first to succumb
to sea-sickness, and here again I was the first amongst all the
passengers on the "Cleopatra" to fall a victim to yellow fever.
Whether it was my neglect to pay more attention above every-
thing else, to the warning about avoiding exposure to the direct
rays of the sun, than I could possibly do in view of my disposi-
tion and the thousands of natural history treasures which sur-
rounded me, or whether it was a matter of constitution-at any
rate, the mental excitement into which the new unhabituated
life had transplanted me, was now only too soon to be appre-
ciably deadened by the unutterable pains and torments of that
awful disease which I suffered to a degree beyond anything
which even the doctors themselves could call to mind for a
long time past.

207. My brother and I had spent the evening prior to the
attack amongst some of our acquaintances: on returning home
I tumbled into my hammock and felt fine. Towards morning a
dull oppressive headache awakened me from sleep and as I







68 YELLOW FEVER ATTACKS AUTHOR.

hoped to relieve it on my usual morning outing, made as early
a start as possible. But how I had deceived myself! I could have
been away hardly an hour when my strength gradually failed,
the headache increased, and insufferable pains in the back now
became associated with it. I dragged myself home as best I
could, cast aside the specimens collected on this fateful excur-
sion, and threw myself into the :ammock, where my brother
found me already half senseless with most frightful fever. His
first look only too evidently convinced him that I had fallen a
victim to the terrible Destroying Angel of the Tropics, though
I myself learnt the real nature of the disease only on my
convalescence.

208. After giving the people around me the strictest orders
not to satisfy my ignorance on any account whatever, he imme-
diately hurried off to call in a well-known 'doctor, who assured
me that I was only suffering from the usual climatic fever and
would soon get over it. Twenty grains of quinine and as much
calcmel, which I had to take every two hours either as powder
or pill were the medicines the first doses of which I took while
yet in a state of consciousness. This stage nevertheless dis-
appeared rapidly enough, for which reason I can really only
say but little concerning my illness from personal experience:
the description of its course is only according to what was sub-
sequently told me. After the calomel had taken effect, they
had stopped it, but continued dosing me with quinine. All
mental exertion ceased : the following three days are a blank
in my life-I cannot include them in it. By next morning they
had already shaved my head and spread the whole back of it
and nape with a spanish-fly plaster. All measures proved of no
avail : the fever still increased and finally, to sustain my entirely
exhausted strength, they applied the most powerful stimulants :
indeed, even during the most critical stage they had given me
within a couple of hours two bottles of champagne, had packed
my whole body in ice, and wrapped it round with towels
soaked in ice-water. In spite of four of the best medical men
being in continual attendance, and of everything being done to
avert the onset of the last stage of the disease, this neverthe-
less took place on the afternoon of the fourth day. With the
appearance of the black vomit consisting of a coffee-like evacua-
tion that now set in and at the same time indicated the initial
internal disintegration, the doctors gave me up as past help.
The breathing and the heart-beats were no longer noticeable and
all had left the death-chamber. Mr. Glascott then returned to
the room, laid his hand again upon my heart, and bent his face
once more over my mouth and still found breath. The quickly
recalled medicoes renewed their operations and the blood sud-
denly burst from mouth and nose to such an extent that it
was six hours before it could be arrested. The hope of recov-
ery was again awakened in my brother, and the doctor's "if







CONVALESCENCE.


your brother survives till midnight, there is hope," after ces-
sation of the bleeding, were the first words of consolation from
the self-confident and well-known Dr. Smith. I lived over mid-
night and was ilso for twenty years the first case in George-
town that had :survived an attack of yellow fever after onset
of the black vomit.

209. I accordingly remain indebted for evermore to my
friendly and self-sacrificing physicians whose combined efforts
I have alone, after God, to thank for my life. Probably none of
them will ever see this expression of my gratitude, yet I am
forced to give utterance to it. And although I am deeply
indebted to all, I feel more particularly so to one of them, a
countryman, become so dear to me, Dr. Koch of Nurnberg, who
in the year 1833 had fled to avoid the Investigations into the then
Student Corps, and proved himself to me in Georgetown an hon-
ourable and noble German: neither day nor night did he leave
my bedside, until he was finally and fully convinced that all
danger was past. It was through him also that I learnt I had had
Yellow Fever-and that I had indeed been attacked was demon-
strated at first sight in the looking-glass which he held before
me, wherein-not myself, no, it could not be-but a citron yellow
-hollow-eyed bald-headed fellow met my astonished lustre-less
gaze: even the whites of my eyes had taken on the colour. As
previously mentioned, the convalescence progresses in equal pro-
portion with the rapidity of development: the almost visibly
declining vitality at the outbreak of the disease is restored at just
as quick a rate as soon as the crisis is over. Notwithstanding my
having to learn o walk all over again, and that at first I could not
move an arm, much less the whole body from one side to the
other. I nevertheless made a fair recovery within the course of four
weeks : of course, in addition to my strong constitution, the bene-
ficial and lively knowledge of the general sympathy, even on the
part of those still unknown to me, contributed a good deal to
this. Every morning my room was brightened with the freshest
and most exquisite of flowers: thq most luscious fruits smiled
at me from neatly plaited little baskets on all the tables and no
sooner was my health sufficiently re-established to allow of my
leaving the room, than the Governor's carriage came every even-
ing to our house to enquire whether I might go for a drive:-
in short, everything had combined to make me forget that under
a foreign sky and among comparative strangers, I had overcome
a disease which only a few, attacked to the extent that I was,
had been able to survive.

210. My illness had made inany a heart quake, but particu-
larly that of Mr. Walton the draughtsman of the Expedition.
Hardly had he learnt that I was down with yellow fever than he
-very hastily exchanged home and city for a remotely situate
plantation. But as his residence here also could not protect him







70 AN ARTIST'S FLIGHT.

from slight, climatic fever his well-cortrived, calculating caution
replaced his former rash enthusiasm for travel, with the result
that, what with the many rumours spread concerning dangers
threatening our Expedition, he made up his mind to return as
quickly as possible to England where he would be safe from
perils and yellow fever. His determination was fixed and my
brother's persuasive powers that he should postpone the delivery
of his already written resignation to the Governor proved of no
avail. Although His Excellency was not quite satisfied as to the
urgency of his return and did not want to let him go under any
consideration but particularly because our preparations were
visibly nearing completion at a very early date, my brother man-
aged to arrange that the matter be left in the hands of a Medical
Board. This fortunately decided that Mr. Walton could not
accompany the expedition without danger to life, and thus he
parted from us without having seen realized his fantastic dreams
of the sylvan scenery of a tropical virgin forest. During his stay
Mr. Walton had only painted one single small landscape, which
however cost the Colonial Department more than 300 it having
very generously paid his passage out and home, together with
his stipulated salary up to the time of his arrival in England.

211. Months must necessarily pass before another artist could
be despatched from England, and the Expedition would have had.
to leave without one had not a young doctor of the Colonial Hos-
pital, Mr. Echlin, who was at the same time a skilful draughts-
man, readily offered his services to accompany us into the
interior, not only as artist but also as medical officer, until the
gentleman requisitioned for should arrive from London.

212. It would be about another four weeks before we could
leave for the mouth of the Orinoco. Before getting ill I had
already received the most pressing invitations not only from our
gallant countryman, Mr. Bach, but also from the owner of one
of the largest sugar estates (Zeelandia) on Wakenaam Island at
the Essequibo mouth, Mr. Arrindell* and his sweet wife, to come-
and spend a time with them. My illness had so far prevented
me accepting, but now the doctors themselves insisted upon my
leaving the city until the expedition was ready to start so that
I might join it in perfect health and strength. However gladly
I would have hurried off to Mr. Bache, Zeelandia was neverthe-
less recommended as the healthier spot, and I had to follow
their advice.
213. The estate's schooner which came to the city twice
weekly offered me a quick passage to Zeelandia where I was,
affectionately and heartily received by Mr. Arrindell's equally
charming family-Mrs. Arrindell and Miss 'Ross, a near relative

He defended Rev. John Smith after the East Coast Slave Insurree-
tion, and lived to become Chief Justice, and I.e Knighted, (J.R:)







ENGLISH LESSONS. 73

of Mr. Arrindell who, having no children of his own, had adopted
her on the death of the latter's father, the doctor on the Island.
of Tortola.
214. Miss Ross was undoubtedly the most beautiful creule
I had as yet seen : 17 years of age, intellectual, and gifted with
a sparkling humour. What wonder then that-with the loving
attention and motherly care of Mrs. Arrindell and the
intimate terms like those of sister and brother that were quickly
established between Miss Ross and myself, and allowed of my
soon having no secrets to hide-my health returned more quickly
than I could ever have dared to hope. In the continual company
of these ladies the days sped like lightning and if the conversa-
tion flagged of an evening, the rich and choice library quickly
started it on its course again. There was only one thing that
these ladies could not stand, and that was my English pronuncia-
tion. Taking compassion on me Miss Ross gave me lessons
and never indeed did a teacher have a more diligent pupil, nor
a learner thirsting for knowledge a more perfect instructress. I
made giant strides and must regret all the more sadly that my
brother's summons to Georgetown prevented my reporting
whether Miss Ross would have progressed as rapidly with her
German that I had commenced teaching her, as my English
pronunciation ceased jarring upon her ears.
215. Just as Mr. and Mrs. Arrindell treated me, a stranger,,
so they treated their subordinates, and I must admit that I had
never as yet seen such amicable relations between employers
and employed as was daily, nay, hourly, unfolded before me.
216. Every morning and evening the whole of the servants
gathered in Mrs. Arrindell's room where she read the prayers;.
just in the same way, in conjunction with the estate's school-
teacher, the former clergyman having been transferred, she led
the Sunday prayers in the little church, while Miss Ross accom-
panied the singing on the organ.
217. Although at first Mrs. Arrindell's motherly anxiety
would on no account let me accompany her and Miss Ross on
their daily morning outing, which was always on horseback, it
was not many days before she was unable to resist my keen
desire to learn something about the laying out, cultivation and
management of the estate-and a third horse soon stood saddled
at the front. Accompanied by the ladies than whom I could
not have wished for better mentors, I commenced my economic
and industrial enquiries. Miss Ross, though.but a novice in the
noble art sat her spirited little Viotoria in such dashing and easy
style as to make me think that in the pretty creole with dark
sparkling eyes and black hair covered by a broad straw hat I
already recognized one of the Amazons whose realms we hoped
to be the first to discover on our journey to the interior. It was
on these morning rides that I learnt to know not only the island
itself, but with the manager's help, also something about the
methods of sugar-boiling and other matters connected with it.






PLN. ZEELANDIA.


218. Zeelandia is a large estate lying immediately on the
northern spit of the island of Wakenaam, so that it is being
continually washed by the billows of the ocean and exposed to
the cooling breezes of the sea. Not far from the landing stage on
a refreshing lawn, fringed by majestic cabbage-palms and fruit-
laden orange-trees stood the charming mansion with its open
gallery : it was enclosed by a thickly hedged crescent of Clero-
dendron inerme and Hibiscus rosa sinensis. The manager's
quarters as well as as the store and boiling houses were erected
some distance away. Attached to these on the westward, and
extending at right angles along the banks of the Essequibo was
a long row of nice white dwellings : these were for the working
negroes living on the estate and were surrounded and shaded by
a broad leafy roofing of Hura crepitans Linn., and lovely
Aeschynomena, Erythrina, Bauhinia. Poinciana and Gardenia.
The extensive and prolific cane-fields, etc., lay in front of the
owner's residence.
219. In accordance with the changes it has already effected
socially and industrially, the application of steam power has
exercised considerable alteration and simplification in the process
of sugar-boiling. What formerly required a number of hands
can now be done. by it alone, while the small supply of manual
labour at present offering can still be utilised by the estate for
field-work instead of being frittered away uselessly.
220. Although the cultivation of cane and its manufacture
by boiling is generally known, both processes vary so much and,
in several respects so essentially, according to the nature of the
lands producing it, that it may not perhaps prove uninteresting
to many a reader, were I to give a short sketch of the particular
procedures.
221. After the land intended for cane cultivation has been
cleared of all timber, thoroughly turned up with hoe and spade,
supplied with irrigation trenches, divided into beds, and
surrounded with parapets and dams to prevent the water from
out of the canals getting into the plantation, parallel drills one
foot broad and nine inches deep are hoed across all the beds at
intervals of from four to four and a half feet. Into these drills
at intervals of every two feet are stuck either three or four "tops"
-the tops or terminals of old plants which are best suited for
the purpose-or else cuttings, 15 inches long with three or four
eyes in them, that have been cut from off the top ends of the ripe
canes at harvest time. Twelve inches of earth cover them so
that only three inches are exposed. They have not succeeded as
yet in propagating the plants from seeds in Guiana. Six to
eight of such drills constitute a bed, and each bed is separated
from its neighbour by a one or two foot drain leading into the
irrigation trenches already mentioned. Within four weeks, time
the cuttings have caught, when the earth is moulded around the
young plants, a portion of the heaped-up soil filling up the
interspaces between and around each. At the subsequent weed-
ing more earth is similarly moulded up so as to supply the roots







SUGAR CULTIVATION. 73

-with quite a thick bed of soil. Three months after planting, the
young plant already sends out new shoots (canes) : from now on
until the sixth month it has to be kept scrupulously clean, and
to give it air, must be trashed i.e., cleared of its dead leaves. In
khe course of ten months, particularly on new and still virgin
soil, the cane reaches maturity, when it is cut and the first crop
harvested. The genealogy of the field commences with this first
harvest for each succeeding one is accurately recorded so that
the manager can always tell whether the cultivation is in its first
or eighteenth crop. When this is reached the land is planted
-with fresh tops or cuttings, and new records begin. The first
crop is always the richest in sugar. The cane also varies in size
-with the fertility of the soi. In a new moist soil it often reaches
a height of from ten to sixteen feet. while in dry limy ground it
rarely exceeds' from six to ten. Soon'after the crop reaches
maturity, the root-stack (stool) starts sending out new shoots for
the next crop or ratoon. In a rich soil and with good attention
and care, the original plant can even supply 18 crops. The
ground receives no other manure than what it gets from its own
fallen trash. The chief work that can only be carried out by
manual labour is the continual hoeing and weeding and the
removal of shoots springing up after the rooting out of the
timber, especially those of the Cecropia peltata Linn., which on
account of its far-reaching roots is the greatest enemy of the
planters, for it not oply impoverishes the soil, but if even a
rootlet as long as one's finger is left behind it will start afresh
and likewise multiply through the germinal capacity of its seeds.
Indeed, according to the nature of the bush and size of the trees
carried, the cost of bringing under cultivation an acre of land
intended for agriculture runs into 70 to 100 dollars. Two strong
labouriers can keep three acres in good condition and ever bring
them to maturity without having to over-exert themselves.
According to general opinion, a deep rich clayey soil mixed with
sand or gravel and decayed vegetable, as well as a loamy one
mixed with rotted plant material, are the most suitable for sugar
cultivation. With such a hoil, based upon twelve years produce,
inclusive'of good crops and bad ones dependent upon unsuitable
weather, every acr6 annually yields on an average 2J tons of
sugar, 250 gallons syrup, and 100 gallons rum 34 per cent. over-
proof.
222. A moderately damp yet hot year with the thermometer
varying between 80" and 90' F. and South and East winds
prevailing, is generally considered the most favourable weather
for cane production, while a lower temperature with ruling
North-West and North-East winds and unusually hot and dry
weather is considered to be most prejudicial. The most favour-
able period in the development of cane for the production of
sugar comes immediately after the arrows (blossoms) are formed.
223. On the larger and rationally worked estates one sixth
of the whole area under cultivation is newly planted every year,
and the main crop gathered in January, February, March, or







SUGAR MANUFACTURE.


during the last tour months of the year : the months of October,
November, December and January are reckoned to be the best
.or quality of sugar. The capital outlay, to keep an acre under
good cultivation, together with the cost of manufacture cf its
proceeds, runs on an average into 80 to 90 dollars.

224. After cutting, the ripe cane is brought in so-called
punts to the mill where it is squeezed between three iron rollers
turned on their axis by steam power. The rollers are fixed as
in a triangle with their surfaces so closely approximating one
another that on the first time through all the juice contained in
the cane is expressed, and runs into a tank placed below, from
where it is pumped into a tub standing on a higher level. The
czessed-out cane (megass) falls into a barrow which, after being
flled, is brought on rails by a simple mechanical contrivance
to the large "megass logie" to be dried, after which it is used for
hiring the boiling vats.

225. After the tub is filled, a quantity of unslaked lime is
thrown into it to promote separation of the coarse vegetable
particles and the contents then led into the boiling vat: this has
to be done fairly rapidly, because the juice quickly starts to
ferment, a process that has to be prevented at all costs. Along
the fire walls stands a row of four to five copper vats in decreas..
ing sizes in which by pouring out from the first into the second
etc., room is made for the juice rushing down from the tub. In
the last and smallest of the vats this is thickened to the
consistency of syrup, and is conveyed from there to,the Trays
or Vacuum Pan. The scum rising during the boiling process
runs off in a gutter leading to the distillery. The vacuum-pan
row generally employed is placed either immediately opposite or
somewhat farther away from the vats : in the latter case the
syrup is pumped into them. After the sugar has completely
separated into individual crystals, the crystalline mass still mixed
with the non-crystalline fluid molasses is crammed into large
square air-tight iron boxes across which at about a third of
their depth from below is stretched another wire-mesh false
bottom upon which the stuff rests. The empty lower space is
exhausted of its air by means of two steam-power pumps open-
ing into it, by which means the whole of the molasses is extracted
from the crystals lying above almost absolutely pure, and led into
a cistern near by. Through these simple improvements and
implications of the whole boiling process there is a saving of
three'tenths in time alone, because at present the whole process,
which formerly required eight days, in addition to undivided
attention and labour, is now completed within 15 hours. After
the molasses is extracted, the raw crystals are immediately packed
in large casks, which nowadays do not require to be pierced
with holes to drain off the molasses since none remains behind
among the crystals. After running off the molasses from the
iron boxes and completing the fermentation of the scum the
whole is brought into the distillery. The captains much prefer this







VALUE OF SUGAR PLANTATION. 75

form of sugar to that crystallised by earlier methods, when during
the voyage the molasses escaping into the ship's hold, whither it
trickled from hogsheads that had been drilled, had to be pumped
out daily, a procedure which in the case of large vessels, meant
on an average an hour's loss per diem.

226. Windsor Castle, a sensibly arranged and intelligently
conducted sugar-estate of 750 acres on the Arabian Coast,
together with the attached .buildings and working plant was
legally appraised at the following value, the subjoined particulars
of the property giving the necessary details:-


411 acres cultivated land for sugar-cane at $200 per
acre ..... ...... .... ...... ...... ......
40 acres for cultivation of plantains at $84 per acre ....
250 acres for later cultivation, but not yet cleared, at
$30 per acre
3 Megass Logies, with the log-carts and rails belong-
ing thereto.... .....
Steam Engine and Steam Mill, together with Vessels
for Juice, etc ...... ...... ...... .... ......
Boiler House, with Vats, Clarifiers, Coolers, etc.,
Manager's House, Cisterns for Molasses, Distilling
Rooms and Distillery Apparatus ...... ...... .....
Boats and Cane Punts _
Landing House and other spaces, Crane etc. ..... .....
Bridges, Sluices etc.. ..
Live Stock ........... .....
Labourers' Dwellings ...... ..... ......
Residence and Office ....
Hospital for Sick Labourers. .
Cooperage and Timber Yards, Store Rooms etc.

Total


$ 82,200
3,360

7,500

14,000

18,000


16,000
2,00o
1,600
2,660
1,500
24,000
5,000
1,000
2,500

$ 199,520


And yet at the present time the owner would hardly get
$40,000 for it.

227. A cane-field swaying backwards and forwards in the
light seabreeze, undoubtedly constitutes one of the most pleasing
of landscapes, becoming even more delightful and imposing
however to the observer's gaze when enclosed in beautiful fields
of plantain with their huge sapgreen leaves. The plantain (Musa
paradisiaca) which before Emancipation was the chief ingredient
of the slaves' dietary, is cultivated upon almost every estate. The
same role that the potato plays in the national economy of
Europe is taken by the plantain in the West Indies. If bananas
are eaten only when ripe, plantains are chewed when already
half-grown, enjoyed in all stages, and prepared in the most dif-
ferent ways. Taken out of the skin half-ripe, roasted on tbh







76 PLANTAIN CULTIVATION.

ashes, and then eaten with butter, they take the place of bread
at breakfast : in a half matured condition boiled with spice and
meat, they form a very tasty vegetable : dried and pounded they
afford a splendid flour for puddings. When quite ripe, as shewn
by their yellow colour, they are used as vegetables as well as
eaten raw, but in the latter case are no good for the European on
account of their easily giving him dysentery.

228. Plantains are also propagated by suckers because as
with the sugar-cane, the seed does not arrive at complete
germination. Within ten or eleven months, the young sucker
already bears fruit, of which individual bunches frequently weigh
from 60 to 70 pounds, and I have been informed of a number of
cases where one acre has yielded 30,000 lbs. of plantains. As
every stalk only bears once, this is cut down at the same time
as the crop, so the whole of the sap in the root-stock may supply
the young suckers of which from three to four are left.

229. The cultivation of the plantain requires but little care.
The weeding of the field once or twice, and the cutting down of
the trunk with its ripe fruit is all the work required. The
Banana (Musa sapientum) is less frequently cultivated and
generally eaten only when ripe: it also requires from 9 to 10
months to ripen, but then easily becomes rotten unless the indi-
vidual fruit is cut off and dried in the sun or oven. The stem
of the banana is shorter and more compact than that of the
plantain, just as the fruit also at maturity can be distinguished
from that of the latter by its brownish red colouring and more
compact growth. Amongst other varieties there is distinguished
above all others in virtue of their vigorous growth the Musa
Cavendishii Paxton and M. chinensis Sweet, a dwarfed variety.

230. For some years past an extremely peculiar disease has
introduced itself in the Musa plantations: this has become
particularly dangerous owing to its having proved so infective
that if one shaft is attacked the whole plantation follows suit and
perishes. Unfortunately one has not yet found any remedy fox
this "Worm" disease as the Colonists call it.
231. When the tree is attacked its outward appearance imme.
diately shows it and the whole plantation has to be cut down
to prevent the-further spread to others. The disease itself starts
from the innermost vascular bundles which take on a brownish
colour intermixed with a number of black spots. This decom-
position of the sap soon extends to the whole shaft. The growth
of the plant as well as that of the fruit is arrested and a resinous
exudation renders the latter absolutely uneatable. If the same
piece of land is going to be replanted, suckers from a healthy
plant must be used, because experience has taught that even the
suckers contain the diseased material of the mother-plant.
Unfortunately my stay was too short to make myself absolutely
certain of the real cause : in my opinion the whole phenomenon







SUGAR ESTATE LABOUR.


comes about through a parasitic mould, which has its origin in
the altered chemical relations of the soil consequent on the
existing state of cultivation. Ten years ago the pest was com-
pletely unknown, but at the present time has gained such strides
that it becomes the serious duty of the proprietors to have enquiry
made into its origin on scientific lines.
232. As the owners of the larger estates reside for the most
part in England, their control is almost always placed in the
hands of a Manager who has to direct the whole cultivation as
well as transact all outside and inside business. Associated with
him are the Overseers who are employed in greater or less
number according to the size of the property, and fairly corres-
pond with our German Verwalter for they are generally young
men who want to learn the thorough groundwork of Estate
Cultivation and Management. Next to these are the Headsmen
(Drivers) chosen from the most diligent labourers, under whose
direct supervision the out-door and in-door work is carried on.
An estate often has from six to eight such Drivers. Owing to
the well-known indolence of the negro the field-work is let out
by piece work : those employed in the boiling houses and farm
buildings receive a daily wage because they are not engaged there
permanently until they can prove their ability after long expe-
rience. Every labourer who works upon an estate receives free
quarters, free medical treatment and medicine, and, according to
the number: of his family a fixed piece of land for cultivating
what is required by his own household, or else a fixed quantity
of plantains weekly. If the plantation is at all extensive, the
proprietor is bound to keep, at his own expense, a school-teacher
for the labourer's children. If on the other hand the properties
are small, a joint teacher is usually engaged by three or four
neighboring ones, just as several estates have a common
preacher and a common church. Briefly put, the above is
probably what was most worth knowing among the things I noted
during my stay on the Zeelandia Sugar Estate.
233. In the charming and bountiful fruit-gardens the beauti-
ful bread-fruit trees (Artocarpus incisa and A. integrifolia)
particularly attracted my attention, and I do not consider it out
of place here to supply a short sketch of its introduction from
Asia and Islands of the Pacific to the West Indies. Although
Captain Dampier had already in 1688 brought to Europe the first
reports concerning this tree, the information nevertheless passed
unnoticed until Captain Cook's companion, the celebrated Dr.
Solander, revived it in glowing terms. The idea of obtaining bread
without any toil as Nature's spontaneous gift sufficed to secure
its general attention: subsequently it even inspired a Byron.
Petitions were soon despatched from the West Indian Colonies
to George III praying that the tree should be introduced at the
cost of the State into all the Colonies the climate of which
allowed of its cultivation.
234. Under Bligh, at that time Lieutenant, who had accom-
panied Captain Cook on his last expedition, the "Bounty", a
Government ship of 215 tons burden, was put into commission to







MUTINY OF "BOUNTY."


obtain young plants from Otaheiti. An ample space supplied with
large hatchways and draughts was wholly set apart between
decks for their reception and was at the same time packed with
a number of large cases having double bottoms : the plants were
to be placed in these while the superfluous water was to run off
into the lower spaces, the roots being thus protected from stagna-
tion. The ship managed to start on her journey to the Society
Islands by the end of 1787. At Cape Horn contrary winds forced
Lieutenant Bligh to make for the Cape of Good Hope, and sail to
the Islands via Australia : he finally reached them on 10th Octo-
ber, 1788. By 3rd April, 1789, 1,015 living plants had been set in
the beds prepared for them on board ship, and next day the
Bounty weighed anchor and turned for home.
235. On the 28th April however a mutiny that had already
been hatched by the crew at Otaheiti broke out, Lieutenant Bligh
was set upon in his sleep and gagged, and any one not wishing
to join the mutineers ordered to stand alongside him. Of the
forty-six forming the crew eighteen remained loyal, thirteen of
whom. together with Lieutenant Bligh, were then forced to step
in to the long-boat that was lowered into the water, four of them
being kept back without any reason being offered. Lieutenant
Bligh says in his account of the mutiny, "People will ask me, what
was the motive for this deed? I can but find the one and only
reason that the mutineers probably flattered themselves that
amongst the natives of Otaheiti they would spend a happier life
than in England."
236. After supplying these fourteen outcasts with 150 Ibs.
bread, a few planks, some wine and rum, a quadrant and ship's
compass, the vessel turned about and left them to their fate.
Inflexible and courageous the outcasts started on their voyage
and fortunately reached Tofoa, one of the Friendly Islands, but
the hostility of the natives induced them to put quickly to sea
again. They soon made New Holland whence they turned to the
Eastern Archipelago and after inexpressible hardships landed at the
Island of Timor. The Dutch Governor rendered every assistance
and arranged for both Bligh's and his companions' passage to
England, where he was straightway gazetted Captain and Com-
mander of the Royal ship "Providence" which was put into com-
mission again with the utmost despatch to repeat the voyage.
237. She sailed the 3rd August 1791 in company with the
"Assistant" : both ships reached Otaheiti safely on 9th April 1792
and by 17th July 1781 tubs and barrels were brought on board
with healthy plants : the vessel left the Island and after many a
danger arrived on 2nd October at Couzang between New Holland
and New Guiana, where the plants that had died on the
voyage so far were replaced by new specimens, and on 17 (?)
December* she dropped anchor at St. Helena, where Captain
Eligh took on board some other kinds of fruit-trees, amongst
them the Akee (Blighia sapida).

The text has September which is clearly an error.-(Ed.).







BEACH RIDES.


238. On 23rd January 1793 he got to St. Vincent where he
left 333 bread and 211 other fruit-trees, taking in exchange about
,500 tropical plants for the Botanical Gardens at Kew. From St.
Vincent he made for Jamaica where he delivered 347 bread-trees
and 276 other fruits. He also took the new plants to Grand
Cayman and other Islands, and finally landed in England on 2nd
August 1793.

239. In spite of all the trouble and risks taken, in introduc-
ing the bread-fruit, subsequent events showed that the encourag-
ing and confident hopes centred on its cultivation were not to be
fulfilled at all. The plantain and banana have neither been
replaced nor superseded, because it is only in cases of extreme
necessity that the negroes turn to bread-fruit as an article of
food.
240. In company with my charming Cicerone I was soon
able to extend the area of my excursions farther afield along the
virgin forest through which practicable roads had been cut on
all sides so as to establish regular communication between the
different estates on the island.

241. What hours of innocent pleasure we spent together
when, at low tide, engaged in mutually instructive conversation
we rode along the beach, now lapped with the waves and cooled
in the breeze, or when we turned into the half-obscured shady
paths of the primeval land covered with trees, and for minutes at
a time watched the airy movements of the elf-like Aernauta
Nestor. Anchyses phorbanta, Hector Protesilaus down to the little
Chorineus. As these flittered under the dazzling sunlight in one
continual chase over the flower carpet of lovely Securidaca
volubilis Linn., their colours ever changed from glittering gold
to darkest indigo-blue, from bright carmine to a deep red, or
from the clearest emerald to the most luscious green. I also
found here for the first time pine-apples with leaves five to six
feet long which had grown so thickly, one in between the other,
that they formed absolutely impenetrable hedges. The fruits are
generally very small but, as a compensation, are exceedingly
sweet and aromatic.
242. The fauna showed their correspondence with that in
the environs of the city. Nothing however interested me so
much as a regular colony of Cassicus persicus Daud., which had
selected as their home an unusually large Bombax globosum close
to my study window.

243. I had never yet experienced such excitement and noise
amongst birds. The whole of the residents of this huge tree were
just then busily engaged in improving their long purse-like nests
and building new ones. Its peculiarity of successfully imitating
the cries and notes of all the four-footed and winged creatures
found about has earned for it the name of "Mocking Bird". There
can hardly be a more turbulent or noisy songster than this mimic.







80 MOCKING-BIRDS

If the rest of the animal world is silent, it sings its own particu-
lar song which has something quite pleasant about it. The
Toucan perhaps will let its hollow voice suddenly ring forth,
and the Cassicus turns into a Toucan: should the various wood-
peckers start their hammering, the Mocking Bird is a wood-
pecker: let the sheep bleat, and the bird is never at a loss for
an answer, but if no other sound falls for a few seconds, it harps
back again onto its own peculiar note, until this is interrupted
perhaps by a gobble-gobble or quack-quack in the farm building,
when it immediately turns into a turkey or a duck. This mimicry
is accompanied simultaneously with such extraordinary move-
ments and contortions of the head, neck, and whole body that I
have often had to burst into loud laughter at the garrulous and
assuming bird. Cassicus haemorrhus Daud. is very generally
associated with C. persicus upon the one tree, where their nests
hang close together in fraternal concord, but is completely defi-
cient in the gift of imitation. After the breeding season both
species separate, and each flies in its own fiock. The Icterus xan-
thornus Daud or Plantain Bird, just as plentiful, also hangs its
bag-like grass-blade nest on bush and tree: its abruptly ending
note has something unusually soft land sad about it, while that of
Icterus icterocephalus Daud. is only a twitter. The sweetest song-
ster however was unquestionably a wren (Tryothorus) which also
seeks the neighbourhood of man as keenly as the latter loves
and cherishes it: an empty bottle, which is quickly usurped by
the pretty singer for its quarters, is purposely hung here and
there under the roofs of the galleries and porticoes. Its melodious
note greets the earliest rays of the morning sun and accompanies
it until it dips on the far horizon into the vastly deep. The little
creature at the same time becomes so tame that it will come
in through the open window or the study, and perching on the
sill, warble its lovely little tune in front of the occupants. Here
.as elsewhere it is strange that Nature for some reason unknown
to us should deny a beautiful voice to the birds it ,graces with a
brilliant plumage, but grant it to those from whom it has with-
held one.

244. Mrs. Arrindell having given me to understand that, for
some time past, a pair of alligators were lurking in the draining
trench immediately behind her fowl-coop, to the serious detri-
ment of its occupants not only my curiosity to watch these
voracious gentry at close quarters but also my fondness for
hunting would allow of no rest until I should lay the mischievous
brutes in triumph at her feet. Cunning and cautious as they were
I finally succeeded in outwitting both the thieves : they were
Alligator punctulatus Spix. Neither of them was more than four-
feet but dowered with such a tenacity of life that it was long
before we managed to kill them, although I had shot them both
in the eye, and particularly to avoid damaging the skin had used'
ball cartridge. The negroes begged for the flesh : they consid-
ered it very delicate and tas-ty.







LOWER ESSEQUIBO. 81

245. Among the domestic animals, I got a great surprise with
the sheep which, in the small flocks that are kept on every
estate for their mutton, I took to be goats : the wool changes
completely into smooth and straight mohair, on which account
they are shorn immediately after importation into the Colony
so that at least one fleece may be secured.

246. In these glorious surroundings, in this dear and charm-
ing family, my five weeks' stay had flown quicker than a dream,
when one morning my brother in company with a Mr. King,
the Superintendent of the Barima and Essequibo Districts unex-
pectedly entered my room. They had come to fetch me for a
short trip to Bartika Grove, a Mission Station on the Essequibo
where my brother wanted to induce some of the coloured people
living in the neighbourhood who had been with him as boat-
hands on his previous journeys, to accompany him again to the
mouth of the Orinoco. My most necessary things were quickly
packed and within a few hours we were waving good-bye from
the schooner to our friends ashore. The vessel my brother took
advantage of was on her way to Bartika Grove, to load granite
and belonged to a countryman, Mr. Spamann who, after a forty
gears' residence in the Colony had earned a fairly considerably
competency : unfortunately the poor fellow had lost his mother-
tongue almost completely, for the way he spoke it was so broken
that I should have taken him for anything but a German.

247. Facing like watchmen the twenty mile broad estuary of
the Essequibo are the three large wooded islands of Leguan,
Wakenaam and Tiger Island all of them decked with sugar
estates, Leguan, stretching along the Eastern bank, is about twelve
miles long, and contains 24 plantations : Wakenaam, off the
Western shore, nine miles long and three broad, has 18 estates :
Tiger Island with three plantations, is situate somewhat more to
the Northward and is closer to the Western bank.

248. The commencing flood-tide carried us slowly up the
p.oud stream along the channel between Wakenaam and Tiger
Land until suddenly, at the Southern extremity of the latter,
a regular island-archipelago spread itself before my astonished
gaze. Following this, and divided by but a channel, is Parrot
Island, while the 15-inile long Hog Island only cultivated at its
Northern end, rather springs itself onto Wakenaam. To the East
of Hog Island we find Fort Island (Large and Small) which, con-
stituting the central point of the whole trade of the Colony
during the times of Dutch occupation, is at present only occupied
by ) few coloured people who have erected their unassuming
houses among and in the ruins of the proud fortress of former
days. To the West of Hog Island, Great and Little Truly
(Trouili) Islands are to be seen : they have received their name
from the Manicaria saccifera Gart.. which the Colonists call Truly-
Palm : a few estates are also situate on Great Truly. Closely
connected with these two islands is a regular chain of smaller







:82 LAKE-LIKIE RIVER.

ones of which I only make mention of Buriabanelle, Kuketritte-
kute, Large and Small Laulau as well as Mawuwekute. On the
eastern bank, on the other hand, near the Fort Islands, the most
important are Kuaepaluri, Kakatiri, and Quatte-banaba. It
is only on the Western bank in its lower reaches that there flow
into this majestic river a number of small tributaries, amongst
which the Capouye, Iteribisce. Supenaam, Arocari, Werri-werri,
and Abenacari or Groote Creek are the most conspicuous.

249. We had to pass Large and Small Lulu (Laulau) Islands
before both banks of the Essequibo became visible in the far
distance, though they still lay eight miles apart. As we ever
kept in the middle of the stream, the dark edges of the smooth
stretch of water let me have a good guess at the wealth of foli-
age, but not to distinguish the different sorts of genera and
species composing it. It was only the palms, such as Guilielma,
Maximiliana, Oreodoxa and the slender Leopol-dinia vying with
the boiler-house chimneys in their efforts to reach the skies, as
they towered with their graceful crowns above the obscure
fringe, that were distinguishable at a distance through their
characteristic shapes of frond.

250. In the absence of any favourable wind we had to cast
anchor with the commencing ebb and wait for the next flood-tide.
The river here looked like some inland lake studded with numer-
ous woody islands, because those situate behind were so closely
packed together that the river mouth was completely hidden. A
number of high chimneys that rose in isolated spots above the
luxuriant growth of tropical forest, and indicated the creative
hand of man, lent to the surrounding landscape an infinite
charm, and at the same time a character which I have found
peculiar only to the Essequibo: the thousands of parrots that
towards sundown were flying over the water with deafening din
'from West to East further helped to improve it. Judging from
the rank vegetation, the land here must be unusually fertile.
We were able to resume our journey before daybreak, a little
after which Mr. King, with a view to visiting certain of the
settlements on the Eastern bank, left us for the corial which, as
he had been expected, we soon saw being paddled towards us.
Daybreak was greeted with the same flocks of parrots, which
now flew over the stream from East to West probably looking
to plunder fruit-trees anywhere in this direction of the com-
pass.

251. The washing tide soon brought us to Itaka Creek which
joins the Essequibo from the Eastward. The first rocks now
appear. They belong to the primitive series, stretch unusually
iar into the river and at high flood, are completely covered by
the waves, for which reason a very experienced steersman is
necessary to avoid all the dangers attendant on the passage of
-boats. Partly to avoid these, and partly also with a view to




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