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I\ITWENTIETHCENTURYJAMAICA

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smSYDNEYOLIVIER

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TWENTIETH CENTURY JAMAICABY .,/' H.G.DE LISSERAuthorof"InCuba and Jamaica"WITHILLUSTRATIONSPUBLISHEDBYTHEJAMAICATIMESLIMITED,KINGSTON,JAMAICA1913

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ToJ.F. MILHOLLAND,CROWN SOLICITORFORJAMAICA, ANDHENRYISAAC CLOSE BROWN,REGISTRAROFTHESUPREMECOURT, IDEDICATETHISBOOK, NOTONLYBECAUSETHEYAREMENOFWHOMTHEIRCOUNTRY ISRIGHTLYPROUD,BUTALSOBECAUSETHEYAREMENWHOM TOKNOWWELLISTOTHINKWELLOFHUMANNATURE.

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PREFACENo book on Jamaica, written with intimate knowledge of the countryandits people, has appeared for twenty years. Sir Sydney Olivier'sWhite Capital and Coloured Labourdoesnotpretend totreatof Jamaica only,andis inanycase con cerned mainly with the economicandpolitical aspectsofWest Indian life.Itis the best book of its kind on the subject, though nowandthen I have found myself obliged to disagree slightly with some of its conclusions.MrArchibald Colquhounisanother writer who(inGreater America) has surveyed the West Indian question;buthe has done so fromwhatmaybe called the international point of view. No abler work on the future of America in the Caribbean Sea has been issued since Greater Americawas published;butthough theauthordevotes a couple of chapterstoCuba, on Jamaica he writesbuta sentence or two.MrAlgernon Aspinall's The West Indies holds the field as the most reliableandbest written compendium of information on the British Caribbean Islands. These three books--Sir Sydney Olivier's,MrColquhoun's,andMrAspinall's-arein valuabletothe student of West Indian affairs;butitisnotsomuch thestudentas the general readerthatI have had in mind when writing the chapters contained in this little work. I have aimedatgiving a briefbutaccurate view of life in Jamaica,andatexpressing a few carefully thoughtout

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6 PREFACE opinions on the developmentandfuture of the Jamaica people. I havenotsaid everythingthatcould with profit and tion be said aboutJamaica:the general reader is impatient of length, and I confessthatmysympathies are with him. ToMrC.Thornley Stewart, of Kingston, Jamaica, who designed the coverofthis book, I wish to expressmygratitude. The average English artist has usually failedtotransfer the Jamaica light and colour to canvas: lVIr Stewart has succeeded. Years of residence in Jamaica, astudyof its people,anda loveofits wonderful scenery have enabled him to produce picturesthatare true to lifeandnature. H.G.DELISSER.KINGSTON.JAMAICA.

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CONTENTSCHAP.PAGEI.INTRODUCTORY.JAMAICA'SFUTURE:WITHENG-LAND, CANADA, ORTHEUNITEDSTATESIIII.THEPEOPLEOFJAMAICA33III.THE ENGLISHMAN INJAMAICA55IV.CITY,TOWNS,AND COUNTRY71V.THEPEOPLE'SLIFE93VI. SO;\1E BELIEFSAND CUSTOMS107VII.JAMAICARELIGION:THEMUD ANDTHEGOLD130VIII.REALPOLITICS ANDTIN-POTPOLITICS 149IX.INDUSTRIALAND COMMERCIAL JAMAICA169X. EVOLUTION AND PROGRESS .186

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LISTOFILLUSTRATIONSSIRSYDNEYOLIVIERFrontispieceKING STREln Facing p.16A HOLIDAY CIWWD ATWATERFRONT,KINGSTON}THE ROIliAN CATHOLIC CATI-IEDHAL, IGNGSTON 49BYTHERIOCOBRE COMING FROM MARKET A COOLIEVILLAGE.THEDRIVE,HOPEGARDENS LOADING BANANAS SOUTH CAMP ROADHOTEL,KINGSTONTHEARCHBISHOPOFTHEWESTINDIESA JAMAICA TOWN A COCOANUT PLANTATION A JAMAICA VILLAGE JJ " 81II3ACORNEROFHENRIQUES'PANAMA HATFACTORY}UNLOADING JAMAICAPRODUCEATTHESEA-WALLOFMYERS AND SON ...."128 MYRTLE BANKHOTEL, KINGSTONKING'SHOUSE,THEGOVERNOR'SRESIDENCETITCHFIELDHOTEL,PORTANTONIO 160

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TwentiethCentury JamaicaCHAPTER IINTRODUCTORY-JAMAICA'SFUTURE:WITHENGLAND,CANADA,ORTHEUNITEDSTATESAFTERhaving been almost forgottenbythe civilised world for wellnigh upon a century, the West Indian Islands are attracting attention once more;andit is probablethatwithin another decade the problem of their future will present itselftothe minds of the statesmen ofatleast three civilised countries. Duringtheeighteenth centurytheywere fought for as prizes. They were esteemed for their products;thewealthtobe obtained from them was thoughttobe incalculable; in those daystheywere regarded as'thenaturalcockpit of the European nations inthestruggle for hegemony.' All this seems strangetous now. Whenwespeak of the Tropics, \ve have in mind India, Africa, the islands of the Pacific,andvast stretches of territory on the southern continent of America. The West Indies hardly occurtothe memory,soinsignificant they seem as compared with other lands ofvastextentandof varied resources, where the days are awful with heatandthe nights wonderful with the light of moonandstars. Sometimes one hears of them, hears of them in terms of povertyanddistress.Anearthquake, a hurricane, a volcanic eruption occurs; the world is startled, movedtopityandassistance--then forgets.Whatare a few islands scattered upon the bosom of the Caribbean?Whatare a couple

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12TWENTIETHCENTURY JAMAICA of millionsofpeople, chiefly coloured, in the affairs of the nations of the world? Very littleperhaps;nor isitpossiblethatthe We'st Indies can ever again assume the importancetheyonce had as prizestobe fought for and possessions tobe'held. The reason has become historical.Bythe end of the eighteenth century the British were masters of India. The beginning of the nineteenth century saw Santo Domingo, the richest of the West Indian Islandsatthattime, wrestedbyrevolted slavesoutof the hands of France.Inthe future, the attention of England was to be given moretoEastthanto West Indian affairs,andwhatremained to France of her West Indian possessions was ofbutlittle account. Spain still had CubaandPorto Rico, and clung to them all the more desperately because, after1810,one after another of her Spanish-American states threwoffher yoke and proclaimed their independence.ButSpain herself decayed as the years went on,andlittle was heard or thought about her colonies in the Caribbean Sea. The abolition of the slave trade,theemancipation of theslaves-theseeventsattractedsome attention.Butafter freedom had been pro claimed in the British islands,tobe followedbyfreedom in all the other islands, the West Indies ceasedtobe thought of, ceased to be considered; and, however the people of them might rage and cry, the outside world would not be disturbed.Inthe meantime,andnot far from them, something had happened which was destined to have a far-reachinganddetermining influence upon their future. More was heard about themthanabout the mainland of North Americaatthe beginning of the eighteenth century.Butin the lastquarterofthatcentury a new nation came into existence on the North American continent,andin lessthana hundredandfifty yearsithas grown to such greatnessthatwhatitthinks and says to-day must needs be considered in every

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JAMAICA'SFUTURE13chancellory of Europe.Itisthe growthofthe United States of America,andits aims, its ambitions,andits manifest position as paramount Power in the American Hemisphere,thathave brought about a change in the conditionandout look of the West Indian Islands within late years, a change which evenatthis moment continues to operate,andof whichthefull significanceandultimate issue remain to be seen. To Europe the West Indiesmaybe of little importance. To the United States, they are of the greatest value. A war for the possession of CubaandPorto Rico was fought with Spain in 1898,justfifty years after President Polkhadofferedtopurchase Cuba,andstill a longer interval afterJohnQuincy Adamshadspoken ofboththe Spanish West Indian Islands as'thenaturalappendages of the North American continent.'Ifone reads the opinions expressedbyJefferson, Madison, Buchanan,andothers, astothe inevitable future of the Spanish dominions in the Caribbean, one cannot fail to seethatmany American statesmen have regarded the United States as the inevitable heir of Spain.Intheir opinion,itwasbutamatterof time when the United States should be owner of two of the four principal islands in the American Mediter ranean,andwho shall saythattheyhadbuttwo in mind? Indeed,itis plain enoughthatthe ablest leaders of the American people have foreseen thedaywhennotone or two alone,butperhaps all the West Indian Islands, shall own allegiancetothe StarsandStripes.Itisamatterof historythatnegotiations for the transference of the Danish West Indies have morethanonce taken place betweentheGovern ments of DenmarkandAmerica.Itisamatterof certaintythatsomedaythattransference will occur. The Dutch Islands donotcount for much,andinanycase the Monroe Doctrine securestoAmerica the final ownership of them, shouldtheypass out of the hands of Holland. There is Santo Domingo, the island divided into the republics ofHaytiandSan Domingo, and perpetually a scene of anarchy and strife.

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14TWENTIETHCENTURY JAMAICANoone can doubt what its end will be. General Grant advised its annexation over forty years ago, and the only reason probably why the island hasnotformally been taken possession of is because the problem of dealing with hitherto independent coloured populations--and especially the Hay tians, who fought for and won theirindependence-isone which no American Governmentisdesirous of attemptingtosolve.It \-vas one thingtogotowar with Spain on behalf of the oppressed Cubans, as the storyranthen.Itwould be anothertotake forcible possession of a country which was itself oppressedbythetyrannyof slavery,andwhich has for a hundred years endeavouredtomaintain the freedomitsovaliantly won. Yet the issue isnotdoubtful.. American capital will gotoSanto Domingo1in even greater quantitiesthanhas hitherto been the case.Itwill demand protection, asithas demanded protection in Nicaragua and in the Spanishpartofthe island of Santo Domingo itself. Such pro tection can only be afforded adequatelybythe United States exercising a dominant influence over the Government of the Republic ofHayti;andfrom this to complete control the way willnotbe long. Thus Porto Rico, Cuba,andSanto Domingo will all be underthetutelage oftheUnited States. They constitute three of the four largeislands known as the Great Antilles.Whatis the fate of thefourth-Jamaica?Whatis the fate of all the other islands? might well be askedatthe same time. There are the French colonies, and the numerous British islands scattered about the Caribbean Sea. Both BritainandFrance are Great Powers. Neither of them is a Spain; in none of their Caribbean coloniesisthere anything like tyranny, anythingthatwould give the United States a plausible excuse for intervention. A wantonattackupon either, forthepurpose of wresting away its possessions, would bringatleast two allied fleets into the Caribbean; but, as amatterof fact, there is nothingtobe gainedby1This island is also knownasHaytiandHispaniola.

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JAMAICA'SFUTURE15pursuing this lineofargument. Forifeither the British or the French West Indies are ever takenbyforce,itwill be as the result of a war which will have some other causethana mere desire on thepartof the United States for the islands. America wouldnotengage in a war for such an object. The case of CubaandPorto Rico was different: the enemy was weak, the prize was great. Nowthatthe prize has been won, nowthatCuba and Porto Rico are in the hands of the United States,andthatSanto Domingo canatanymoment be had for the taking, the United States would never think ofattemptingtoacquirebyforce a few West Indian islands whose value to her issomuch less because she already has the finest of the group. She will be contenttowait untiltheythemselves asktobe transferred to her, or until their present owners are willingtotransfer them. As will be seen a little further on, the United States hasmanyweapons to her hands in dealing with the WestIndies:weapons quite as effective as, though very different from,thesort she used in her struggle with Spain. Her writersandstatesmen believethatshe has time on her side,andsome of them openly prophesythatthedayis coming when she will be mistress entirely of the American Mediterranean,andof all the islands inthatsea. The only solution of the West Indian problem which they perceive is for the islands to drift beneath the protecting folds oftheAmerican flag. ThusDrL.S.Rowe, a writer who unquestionably commands respect, laysitdownthat'acombination of economicandpolitical forces, which seem almost irresistible, is driving the West Indies into the arms of the United States.'1 Mr Brooks Adams is of the opinionthat'theArchipelago must be absorbed into the United States, or lapse into barbarism.' 2 I could fill a page with similar remarksbyother writers, men whose views cannot be dismissed with a shrug of the shoulders.Butthere \ Tne Utzited StatesanaPurto Rico.1AmericanCommercialSuprel1laC)'.

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16TWENTIETHCENTURY JAMAICAisno need to dothat.Whatis of more immediate importance from the Britishandthe British West Indian point of viewisa consideration of the prospects of a closerandmore profit able connection between the British West Indiesandthe mother-countrythanhas existed during the lastfewdecades.Itneed hardly bestatedthatthe problem of the West Indies is essentially an economic one.Itwasnotsomuch for political freedomthatthe Cubans fought, as for freedom to find a market intheUnited States. The people of Porto Rico welcomed the Americans,notbecausetheyhadbeen ill-usedbytheSpaniards,butbecausetheybelievedthatindustrialandeconomic progress,andthe benefits whichflowfrom this, would be the result of their connection with the United States. Experience has provedthatthey were right. There can be no questionthatthe development of CubaandPorto Rico duringthelast ten years has been astonishing. The world now knows what America has done for her West Indian possessions-for Cuba is practicallyanAmerican possession. We have now to askifEngland can do as much for her West Indian colonies.Sofar as abilitytodosoon England'spartis concerned, there canonlybe one possible answertosuch a question. She could,bya differentialtaxon foreign fruit, foreign sugar,andforeign coffeeandcocoa, give such a tremendous impetus to the West Indian tradethather colonies in the Caribbean would soon be abletoregard the American market,ifnotas negligible,atanyrateas secondary. And thisiswhat some Tariff Reformers assumethata Conservative Government will do. Only recently (August,1912)one read in the Conser vative papersthatthenextGovernment will be able to give a preference to West Indian sugar which will ensure the rapid revival of the West Indian sugar industry; and, of course,notonly sugar,butthe other articles of consumption mentioned just now will also come in for some assistance. Writing while a Liberal Governmentisstill in power, though diminishing

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JAMAICA'SFUTUREin popularity,itis impossible forthewritertosaythatthenextGovernment,ifConservative, willnotdowhata section of the British Press so confidently promisethatitwill do.Butitis obviousthatthetriumphofthepolicy of Imperial Preference depends onmanyfactors,andthattotransformthatpolicy into a practical programme will be the work of some time. Leavingoutof count the negotiationsthatmusttake place between the mother-countryandthe self-governing COlonies-negotiations whichmayhave no direct bearing. upon the West Indian share of the benefits ofpreferencewehavetorememberthatifthereisa strong Radical, Free Trade Opposition, the Government willnotbe abletogive as large a preferencetothe WestIndianproducts asitmaywish to do.Forinstance,ithas been estimatedthatbytheabolition of the bounties formerly givenbythe Continental Powers on sugar exportedtoEngland,thelattercountry hashadtopayseven millions sterling a year more forthesugar it has consumed.Ifwenow suppose a preference giventoWest Indian sugar, and sugar grown elsewhere in the British dominions,weseeatoncethattheBritish consumer will have topayfor his sugar, for some timeatanyrate, as much as or morethanhe pays to-day. Then if an appreciabletaxisputupon foreign bananas, oranges, sugar, cocoa,andcoffee, the food bill of the Britishermustrise still higher. This would be of immense benefit to the British West Indies.Buthow long wouldtheaverage English and Scotch voter tolerateit?Itmaybe argued thata smalltaxon foreign products will not be paidbythe consumerbutbythe producer anxioustoretain the English market, evenatsome sacrifice of former profit.Itmaybe so.Butiftheforeign producers could afford to losepartof their profit,andstill keep the Englishmarketsupplied ,,,ith great quantities of the things exportedbytheWest Indies,itis difficulttosee where the considerable benefit totheBritish Caribbean colonies would be. The foreign producer would lose something. The British Treasury wouldJ.B

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18TWEN'fIETH CENTURY JAMAICAbenefitbythetaxlaid on foreign imported goods.ButtheWest Indies would be in muchthesame position astheyare to-day .. Suppose, however,thatthetaximposed in favour of West Indian products were paid wholly or in largepartbytheBritish consumer.Inthatcase,ifonemayargue ofthefuture in terms ofthepresent political struggle in Great Britain,theTariff Reform Government wouldnotendure for long.Theincreased cost of living is felt in England as elsewhere to-day, though thereitisnotso keenly felt because there is notaxonfood-stuffs-tea,coffee, cocoa,andsugar excepted.Butlet a heavytaxbe placed on such necessaries as sugar,fruit,andcocoa,andletitbe paidbythe ordinary working-classandmiddle-class man,andall the imperialistictalkintheworld, allthepassionate reminders ofthepartwhichtheWest Indies have played in the historyoftheEmpire, wouldnotprevent him from demanding the abolition of a system which seemedtomake himpayfortheenrichment oftheWest Indian colonies. This, anyhow, iswhatWest Indians have been repeatedly toldbytheLondonSpectatorandother organs of British public opinion,andtheyare coming to believe whattheyhave so often heard. So far astheycan judge, the average Englishmanmaytake pride intheEmpire,buttheimmediate benefits of Free Trade areofmore consequenceandimportancetohimthanthefuture oftheBritish West Indies.Itis truethattheimportation ofrawsugar fromtheWest Indies, though of lateithasmeanta larger expenditure on sugar onthepartof the British consumer, has also meant a larger sale of British manufacturing machinery in the West Indies.Itis also truethatthe sugar-refining business of the mother country depends upontheimportation of raw sugar.ItisclearthattheBritish West Indies could produce great quan tities of cheap sugar if secured for some time against ruthless competitionandthe fear of such competition, andthatthe

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JAMAICA'SFUTURE19increased price of sugartothe British consumer would be balancedbythe benefitstothe British manufacturingandsugar-refining industries. But, in the past,theFree Trade Englishman has displayed much satisfaction in buying sugar cheap,andso-called Free Traders are even now anxioustobuysugar made cheapbythe reintroduction of the bounty system.Inthese circumstancesitis difficulttobelievethattheywill consenttoataxbeingputon certain articles of common consumption for the sake of assisting, or evenofconserving, the British West Indies. From the foregoing,itwill be seenthatthe writer is some what sceptical in regardtothe British West Indies beingsoassistedby the mother-'country as to become largely inde pendent of the United States. This remark applies especiallytoJamaica, which is more dependent upon the United Statesthanisanyother British island. Now, what would happen in Jamaicaifthe United States should offer the colony a good reciprocity treaty? There is nothing impossible in the suggestion. American statesmen, wishingtomaintain their hold on the islands, or even on Jamaica alone, might offer something which would be a temptation too greattobe resisted. The capacity of the United States for consuming the products of these colonies is far greaterthanthatofanyother country; the United States could offertoanyortoall of them a degree of prosperity, a promise of success,atpresent beyond their hopes. They would prefer something less,solong asthatmeant direct continued connection withEngland;theywould deliberately set aside richesandthe foreigner's domination for comparative prosperity merelyandanassured future with England.Butitis the uncertainty of the future which troubles the West Indians;theycan never feel surethatwhat is done in England to-day in regardtothemwillnotbe undone tonOITOw.Inthese circumstances, wouldtheyreject the American offer? Would Jamaica, particularly, rejectit?

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20TWENTIETHCENTURY JAMAICA Not for a moment. They might be prevented from accept ing it,andthatwould give risetodeep-seatedandopenly expressed discontent.Butof themselvestheywould welcomeitas a solution, thoughnotthe best possible solution, of their economic problem. Apart, too, from the material benefits which the West Indians knowtheywould derive from reci procity with America, there are other influences and beliefs which would urge themtoaccept her offer. The proximity of Americatotheislands, theextentofhermarkets, the amount of American capital now devotedtoWest Indian development, the prevailing opinionthatitis America's destiny to be mistress. acknowledged, as well as mistressinfact, of the Caribbean Sea, the growing beliefthatsomedayshe will own most of the islandsinthatsea-allthis is even now operating silently in the minds of the West Indians in favour ofanyAmerican offer whichmaybe made one day.Ifan offer of reciprocity were rejectedbythe order of the mother-country,andthe United States still desiredtokeep the British "Vest Indies economically dependent upon her, economicallyather mercy, she could simply throw her markets opentothe islands, asking for no special privileges in return. Wouldnotthis make the British Caribbean posses sionsbut'mere adjuncts' of the United States? Few persons would hesitate to answer this question in the affirmative, yet the answer really depends upon morethanthe economic factor.If,for example,theWest Indians, although trading with the United States, knewthatif thelatterever closed her doorstothem they still would find a sure place in the markets of the mother-country, they would remain as staunchly British in sentiIlfent as they have ever been. I repeatthattheywould prefer less with Great Britainthanmore with the United States; they would take allthatthelatterhadtogive them,buttheir love would be with England.Ata crisis, they would sacrifice the greatermarketof the United States for the smaller one of the United Kingdom,

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JAMAICA'S FUTURE, 2Ifor loyalty to Englandandpride in the British Empire are no mere words intheBritish West Indies.Butthere is, unfortunately, nothing certain about Great Britain'sattitudetowardstheWest Indies,andtheyare becoming tired of stagnation. Enough has now been said to show how completely, fromtheeconomic point of view, the United States dominates the WestIndiansituation. Isthefact perceivedandadmitted in England? There can be little questionthatit is. Some years agoananonymous writer in theFortnightly Review(believedtobe l\Ir Allwyn Ireland) suggestedtheexchange oftheBritish vVest Indies forthePhillipines.HethoughtthatAmerica,andAmerica alone, could help these colonies to prosperity. More recently still(in the M oming Postof3rdApril,I9II)wehadMrArchibald Colquhoun sayingthat'itis certainthatJamaicaandother WestIndianislands, in view of local, geographical, and economic conditions-andespecially in view ofthechange which will be wrought in those conditionsbytheopening ofthePanamaCanalmust, sooner or later, decide between Canada andtheUnited States.' Now,both Mr Ireland and Mr Colquhoun are in a positiontowrite' authoritatively on West Indian questions. They knowthesituation perfectly. Still more emphatic was the opinion expressed inaneditorial intheSouth American Supplement of the LondonTimes.Speaking of the expansion of the United States, this paper said (July,I9II):-'Itssupremacy in the Gulf of MexicoandtheCaribbean Seaisto-day practically undisputed; there can be little doubt, therefore,thatthe islands of the West Indiesandthe out lying units of Spanish America will, upon the completion ofthePanamaCanal, gravitate in due course to amalgamation withtheGreat Republic of the North.' When English writers express themselvesthusplainly in regardtotheWestIndianfuture, onemaytakeitthattheydonotstandalone.Itis safe to saythatthousands upon

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22TWENTIETHCENTURY JAMAICA thousands of educated men in England hold a similar opinion, while, of course, the mass of the people are indifferent astowhatmaybecome of countries of whose existence they have barely heard.Butitwill have been noticedthatMrColquhoun pointsoutanalternative to American absorption of the West Indies,andof Jamaica particularly. He mentions Canada. And Canada to-day is looming very large on the West Indian horizon.Whatwill be her relations to the islands?Itis impossibletosay definitely: nothing is sodeceptiv.e as political prophecy, though nothing perhaps issofascinating.Sofar as the facts of the situation are concerned,theymayvery briefly be summarised. Canadian statesmen, after giving British West Indian sugar a preference of thirty-threeandtwo-thirds per cent. for a number of years, decided a couple of years agothatsomereturnshould be made for this concession.Atthe same timeitwas suggested,bythe Colonial ., Officeapparently,thatCanada might be abletodo for the British islands what the United Stateshaddone for Cuba. With a view to bringing about closer trade relations between the Dominionandthe British West Indies, therefore, a Royal Commission, with Lord Balfour of Burleigh as its chairman, visited the islandsandtook the evidence of their representative citizens,andshortly afterwards a reciprocitytreatywas arranged. Thistreatyison the basis of a twenty per cent. preference on both sides,andithas been signedbyCanadaandthe majority of the West Indian colonies.ButGrenada isnotapartyto it, nor the Bahamas. More important still, Jamaica refusedtohave anythingtodo with it. The Bahamas would be satisfiedtobe taken over entirelybyCanada:reciprocity merely, they feel, willnotbenefit them much . Grenada prefers to run no risk of injuring her cocoa trade with the United States. Jamaica has emphatically declaredthatreciprocity would be of little usetoher, unless thetreatywere between herself aloneandthe Dominion. Thetreatyis to endure for ten years;atthe end of the first three years

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JAMAICA'SFUTURE23those colonies which have refused to become parties toitmayfindthattheyhave lost the Canadian preference entirely.Jamaicamay, towards the termination oftheprobation period,l fall in line with the other colonies;butonly if quite satisfiedthattheUnitedStateswillnotretaliatebyputtingataxonJamaicabananas. This the United Statesisnotlikely to do,bothbecauseitwants Jamaica fruitandbecause of the largeamountof American capital invested inthatindustry. Other reasons which incline one to discountenance the fear of American retaliationisthe well-known desire oftheUnited States to cultivate friendly relations with the Dominion of Canada,andthe perceptionbyAmerican statesmen ofthefactthata ten-year reciprocitytreaty behyeen a group of WestIndian islands andCanada cannot materially affect the condition of dependence which now subsists between Jamaicaandthe United States. The mere treaty, in fact, if acceptedbyJamaica, will not alterhereconomic situation considerably.IfCanada wants to becomethedominant factor in the British West Indies she has adopted one of the slowest means of achieving her aim. One has no needtoburden one's pages with statisticstoprove how small, comparatively, istheconsumption of WestIndianproducts in Canada.Itissafe to saythat,even allowing for therapid growth oftheCanadian population,itwould be sometwentyyears before Canada alone couldbeginto do for the British Caribbean colonieswhatthe United States has done for Cuba.Buttwentyyears israthera long time for a colonytowait in these days when developmentisrapid,andwhen discontent with local conditions grows apace in every island where the people are animated withanambition to progress. There is little real enthusiasm inthecolonies in regardtothe Canadian reciprocity treaty. There is none whatever in Jamaica. An alternative proposal, a proposaltothe effectthatCanada should take overJamaica1Aboutthemiddle of 1915' .

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24TWENTIETHCENTURY JAMAICA alone,anddevelopthatisland, would meet with far more appreciation among the Jamaicans;anditis obviousthatsuch a policy would have every promise of success. Canadamaynotbe able to do very muchforafairly large groupofislands;butshe could do a great deal forJamaicaalone. She could consume a greatquantityofthesugar which the island canproduce; she could take a largequantityof Jamaica cigars, fruit, cocoa, and coffee. The political connection of Jamaica and Canada would, in a word, placetheformer in a position such asithas not occupied since the opening years ofthenineteenth century.Itsfuture would be assured.Itmaybe taken for grantedthatin Jamaica there \','ould be no serious objectiontothe transference onthepartof the majority, ifit were seellthatthebananaindustry would run no serious risk.Thatindustry is, indeed, as much American as Jamaican. To ruin, or almost ruin, a huge AmericanTrustwouldnotbe a very wise. way of hurting Jamaica; besides, the loss of the American fruit market would be, in the existing circumstances, morethancompensated forbythe gainoftheentire Canadian market.Butis Canada pre paredtotake over JamaicaandJamaica alone?Thatis the question she should decide withinthenextten years.Ifshe still holdstoher present policy of being loosely connected with alltheBritish. West Indies, shemaysoon findthatJamaicasentiment hasturnedstill more strongly inthedirec tion of the United States.Ifshe determinestowait fortwentyyears, shemayhave lost the prize. We have stilltoface the question: would the United States calmly allowJamaicatobecomepartoftheDominion of Canada?The answer largely depends on what the United States hopeswillbe the future relations existing between Canadaandherself. Iamone of those who donotbelievethatreciprocity. between the Dominion and the States isa dead issue; I thinkitis a very live issue indeed. The growing Canadian West

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JAMAICA'SFUTURE25wants reciprocity with America. ApartoftheEastwantsitalso. The demand for closer andbettertrade relationships between the neighbouring countrieswillwax louder every year;andthe United States will welcome this change in Canadian sentiment, fortheUnited States has need of Canadian wheat. American statesmen, too, are convincedthatCanadaandthe United States must be friends. They show no dispositionatthe presentdayto belittle Canada or place obstacles in her way. They could hardly fearthatCanada would hold Jamaica against the United Statesatsomedistantday, when the Dominionhadgrownsostrong as to become a menacetothe Republic south of her. A country with ninety millions of people, a country, too, which is still growing in wealthandpopulation, cannot possibly regard with dread a neighbour with lessthaneight million people, even thoughthatneighbourmayalso be rapidly forging ahead. Canadiansmaysaytheylook forwardtothedaywhen the Dominion will have some forty million of people;butthe climatic condi tions of the country cause one to doubt muchifthatmagnifi cent dream of greatness will ever be realised, or realised in a hurry.Butsupposeitshould be some day. How will the United Statesstandthen? Emigrants still flocktoher shores. She is stilltheland of greatest opportunity .. One half oftheemigrants to Canada, too, are menandwomen fromtheUnited States; and thoughtheybecome perfectly loyal to the Dominion, thoughtheymake excellent citizens, there is no reason intheworld whytheyshould be in the least inimical to the land oftheir birth. They are not, as amatteroffact; anditis upon their influencethatthe United States dependspartlyfortheultimate success ofherreciprocity overtures. The relations between Canada andtheUnited States inevitablytendtobecome closerandmore friendly. American influenceisseenandfelt everywhere in Canada. American capital as well as American muscle is assistingtodevelop and buildupthe great Dominion. Consequently there does

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26TWENTIETHCENTURY JAMAICAnotseem much strength in the suppositionthattheUnited States would passionately fight againsttheacquisition ofJamaicabyCanada. Neverthelessitis a possibilitythatshouldnotbe altogether ignored.Butthefight,ifembarked upon, could not be withthecarnal weapons of war.Assaid before, a Great Power cannot be toldthatitmustobeyanoutsider.Whatthe United States could do would be to closehermarkets to Jamaica products, or go furtherandthreaten all the British West Indies with exclusion. As Canada couldnotadequately provide for all of them,andas Jamaica would certainlynotfinditto her interesttobe taken into the Canadian Confederation withtherest oftheBritish West Indies, such a policy would probablyhavethedesired effect.Itwould however, be a challenge thrown intheface oftheBritish Empire,andespecially in the face of Canada. There is nothingthatwould lead onetobelievethatthe United States would venture as far asthat.Great Britain might be willing enough tohandoverJamaicaandher other West Indian coloniestobe adminis teredbyCanada. The arrangement 'would be looked upon as merely a readjustment oftherelationships of onepartof the British Empiretoanother.Itmaybe questioned, however, if the West Indies as a whole would view with contentment such an arrangement, unlesstheywere persuadedthattheywould gainbythe change. They would not, for a considerable timetocome, eveniftheylost nothing inthemeantime. Knowing this, Jamaica would object to going with the others; her inhabitants 'would almost to amandeclare their preference for annexationbythe United States. So far as Jamaica is concerned,itmust beJamaicaandCanada alone, orJamaicaandtheUnited States.Butwouldtheblack and coloured inhabitants of the colonyhearof political connection with the United States? They would, in preferencetoa connection with Canada, which would bring thembutlittle or no material benefit,

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JAMAICA'SFUTURE27which wouldnotplace the island in abetterpositionthanitoccupiesatpresent. Annexationbythe United Statesisnotsomuch dreaded in Jamaica asitonce was. The reason of this changeisto be found in the developments which havetakenplace in the Caribbean during the last few years.Itisknownthatthere is a large colouredandblack population in Porto Rico.Itis also knownthatthose elementsofthe Porto Rican people are as free as the others, are equal with white men before the law, are eligible for public positions,andare prospering financially. Jamaicans, too, are now compelledbycircumstances to gotoNew York, Boston,andthose parts of Centraf America where Americans are the chief employers of labour,andthoughtheydonotlove the latter,theyyet are able to work with them. One even hearsitsaid in Jamaicathatthe conditions which exist in the Southern States between the two races couldnotexist in Jamaica,andthe available evidence goes to showthatthis viewisright. Intense friction between whiteandblack prevails only where they are nearly equal numerically.InNew York there are no serious race troubles,andthis because the Negro elementofthe popula tion is small; and where the Negro is very muchin'the majority the white population recognises the madness of attemptingtostir up active racial hostility.Forone thing,itcould profit absolutely no one,andwould occasion serious loss to the dominant race. The factors making for ultimate success would be on the sideofthe majority. A settled tropical country, where the peasants own much of the land, where the coloured section of the people areandmust always be the chief labourers of the country (the white man not being abletodo manual work in such a climate); a country, too, where the newspaper readers, the patrons of shopsandstores, the patrons of street carsandrailways, the police,anda great number of the professional menandpublic functionaries are members of the coloured section of the people, is a country whereattemptsatdegrading racialdiscriminations must

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28TWENTIETHCENTURY JAMAICA fail. You could not havecars'for white only'and'coloured only.' Forthewhite cars wouldnotpaytorun:theywould travelemptymost of the time. You could not have restaurrants'forwhite men only.'Formanywhite men, knowingthattheir livelihoodmustin the circumstances depend upon coloured patronage, wouldnotcaretoaffront their customersbycountenancing racial distinctions of this kind. You couldnoteven have cars divided into white and coloured com partments.Forif the coloured people refusedtoride in a coloured compartment (as in Jamaicatheywould emphat icallydo)the company, whether public or private, would soon be in abankruptcondition. The native whites of the West Indies wouldnotcaretohave anything like a race \Var stirredupin the West Indies,andno one can seriously imaginethatAmericans would eyer become, inanyappreciable number, residents of the West Indian tropics.ButCanada ispartof the British Empire,andpatriotic sentimentmustinevitably lead West Indians to prefer to remain within the Empire, other things being equal. Thus, while it is truethatinJamaicathe talk is oftheUnited Statesandnotparticularly of Canada,theDominion v..-auld be pre ferrediftheeconomic problem could be settled to the satis faction ofbothparties. Assuming, however,thatwithinthenextdecade, or even withinthenexttwentyyears,theDominion shows no great inclination for political connection \vith Jamaica, with its corollary of freetradebetweenbothcountries,andpremisingthatthe desire of the United Statestobecome possessed ofanisland which commands the Atlantic entrancetothePanamaCanal has grown apace; takingitfor granted, too,thatJamaica, impatient for progressandalarmedatpre carious economic condition, looks anxiously towards incorpor ation inthegreat Northern Republic, what is likely to be Great Britain'sattitudetowards the severance oftheties which bind this colony to the Empire?Thatattitude,itis

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JAMAICA'SFUTURE29obvious,willlargely depend upon the circumstances then obtaining;itwill depend upon the atmosphere of political thought inthemother-country, upon the pressure which the United Statesmaybe in a positiontobring to bear upon Jamaica,andalso upon the practical value which this islandmayhave, in the opinion of British statesmenandpeople.Thatvalue isatpresent small.Butitis constantly statedthatitwill be considerable when thePanamaCanal is opened.Itis laid down in books and newspapersthatthe Canal will affordanadditional routetoBritish warships going east,thatitwill be a new way to Australia, New Zealand,toChina,andthe islands of the Pacific. And as coaling stations are requiredbyfleetsthattravel far,itis contendedthatJamaicaandTrinidad will be important naval stations,thattheywill in the future be strongly fortified,thatBritish battleshipsandcruiserswillbe found in their harbours,andthatsome thing of the martial glory which attachedtothem during the seventeenthandeighteenth centurieswillreturnonce more. This isthecurrent view.Noeminent statesman, ho,\' ever, seemstohave consecratedit with his explicit approval. Speaking of the abandonment ofStLucia as a naval station,MrBalfour once said in the House of Commons(nthMay,1904),that'itis a distinct disadvantage foranyharbour required as a place of repair, refitting, and refreshment,thatitshould be within easy reach of a hostile or potentially hostile Power.' He addedthat'thereare strong reasons for thinkingthatinsofar aswerequiredanyplace of coalingandrefitment in those seas,bothJamaicaandTrinidad would be better.' At first blushitmight seemthatthe re-establish ment of JamaicaandTrinidad as naval stations were con templatedbythe late Prime Minister;buta carefulstudyof his words only reveals the factthathe thinks those islands would bebetterthanStLucia for the purpose he mentions.Sotheywould be;butitis obvious enoughthatiftheUnited States became a hostile, or potentially hostile, Power, the

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30TWENTIETHCENTURY JAMAICA objection which applies toStLucia, which liesbuteighty miles from the French West Indian naval station, must apply with even more force to the island of Jamaica.ForAmericahas'two naval stations in the neighbouring islandofCuba. Not a hundred miles away is Guantanamo. She will have another stationattheMoleStNicholas (to the north of Hayti) when ever she decidesthatshe should lease or take,andfortify,thatplace. New York itself is not fifteen hundred miles from Kingston,andKey West isnotas far. The only way in which Jamaica could be of service as a naval base is with Americaas a friendly Power. Almost the first blowthatwould be struckatGreat Britain in the unfortunate event of hostilities between herselfandthe United States would be the takingofJamaica .Butifthe two Powers continued friendly, would not Jamaica be of value to Britain? Yes,ifthe Canal route weretobe usedasan alternativetothe Suez Canal.Butitwould only be used as an alternative in a case of necessity.Forthe journeytothe East, the Suez Canal is the easierandshorter route for ships sailing from English ports; only New Zealand is brought a few miles nearer to Englandbythe Panama route. And the necessity which should force England to choose the longer route wouldmarka crisis which wouldprobablyprevent her sendinganyships fromher'shores. Thedaythe Suez Canal becomes closedtoBritish ships, or thedayitbecomes dangerous for British ships to endeavour to pass through the Suez Canal,thatdaythe world will knowthatEngland is fighting for very life. The Suez CanalisEngland's natural waterway to the East. However muchitmayhave been internationalised, thefactstill remainsthatin the last resortitis controlledbyEngland. As long as England remains powerful,solong will her waytotheEastbe through the Suez Canal. The great strategic value of Jamaica to the mother-country is not, therefore, very apparent. TheJamaica'station was abandoned long ago, and though a future Conservative

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JAMAICA'SFUTURE31Governmentmaydo something to rehabilitate it, after the opening of thePanamaCanal,thateffort isnotlikely to amounttoa very great deal,andmay even be nullified shortly after. TheEarlof Selbome, in fact, has in a few words stated plainly the new situationthathas arisen in thispartof the world.'Thewhole naval strategic situation,' he said, in a speech delivered on 22nd March, 1904,.'hasundergone a complete revolution. ...Thatrevolution is the birth of the American Navy.' Never were words more true.If,then, economically, Jamaica hasnotllluchtohope for from the mother-country, andifher value from the strategic point of view isnotgreat, why should Great Britain obstinately refusetoallow the islandtobecome connected with the United States of America, in the eventofCanadanotbeing willing or abletomake Jamaica apartof the Dominion? There is the sentiment of Empire, some onemaysay.Thatwas the ground upon which Froude rested his passionate plea for the preservationanddevelopment of the British West Indies,andsince then every writer has beentelling us, in a paraphrase of Froude's words,thatitwas in the West Indian watersthatthe foundations of the British Navy. were laid,thatthe Caribbean has been the cradle of England's naval greatness,thatin the epic of Empire the West Indies must holdanimportant place. Excellent rhetoric, no doubt;butthe policy of nations is riot entirely swayedbyrhetoric. Practical circumstances havetobe considered. And among those circumstances the economic condition of a countryisof the very first importance. To sum up the argument.Whatmaybe called England's tropical interests lie chiefly in Africanandin theEastto-day. America needs tropical colonies,andnaturally prefers thosethatareather very door. Canada also needs tropical possessions, being herself wholly withinthetemperate zone. America believes that, some day,theWest Indian islands will own allegiancetoher flag,

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32TWENTIETHCENTURY JAMAICAandshe knowsthatalready her influence over the majorpartof them is almost supreme. Canada vaguely hopesthatsomedayshemaybe a West Indian Power;butatpresent sheispreoccupied with her own development,andhasnotyet madeupher mindtotrytograsp the prizethatmaybewithin her reach.Thatprize is, for the present,notall the British West Indian islands,butone or two of them only;andunlessshe can decide wIthin the nextfewyearsto take wha:t she can properly manage, shemayfindthather opportunity is gone. The United States would probablynotoppose the Canadian ownership of Jamaica, even thoughthatisland lies directly in thepathto the Panama Canal. She wouldnotoppose this, because she believesthatbetween Canadaandherself there will always exist the friendliest of relationships, based upon a communityofinterestsandatreatyof reciprocity.Butif Canada fails her fortune, the wish of Jamaicatobecome absorbedbythe United States will grow,andits indifference towards the Dominion of Canada will correspondingly increase. The trans ference of the islandbyEngland will in all probability beatthe desire of the inhabitants, a desire created by economic circum stances.Itwill be peacefully, amicably, honourably arranged.'Eventsmockathuman foresight.' Thus says Froude some where, and the present writer pretends to be no morethana simple student of West Indian affairs. Eventsmayprovethathe has seen the future wrongly. His own intimate wish isthatitshould be so. A happy, prosperous WestIndiesa prosperous Jamaica directly owning allegiancetothe mothercountry-thatis the future which he v.-auld much prefer.Thatis the future which all West Indians, and many English men, would prefer. Still, one has to take account of existing tendenciesandfacts; one hastoset down one's vision of the futurejustas one sees it. Whatever one may hope, whatever onemaywish,mustnotbe allowedtocolour or distort one's view ofanimportant situation, whateverthatviewmaybe.

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33CHAPTERIITHEPEOPLEOFJAMAICAOVERtwo hundredandfifty years have elapsed since Oliver Cromwell's soldiers capturedtheisland of Jamaicaanddrove the Spaniardsoutof it. \i\Te knowthattheoldrace of Jamaicans was exterminated,weknowthatfor nearly a hun dred years before Jamaica passed into the hands of the English there were no native Indians in it; their placehadbeentakenbyimported negro slaves,andthese with their Spanish masters werethepeople ofJamaicaatthe time when the English expedition cast anchor inwhatis now knmvn as Kingston Harbour.Itis probablethatsome of the menandwomen whom the English found here were born in the colony; if so,theywere as much natives of the country asanyJamaican of the present day; and noteveryoneof them was forcedtoleave the colony. The Spaniardshadtogo,butitisstatedasanhistorical factthata few Portuguese (mainly Jews), whohadlived intheisland onillterms with the Spaniards petitioned for permissiontoremainandwere allowedtodo so. Many oftheSpanish slaves also escapedtothemountains,andtheretheyformed the nucleus of the rovingpredatory'bands of free negroes who soon came to be knownasMaroons. Thusatthe very beginning of the English occupationwefind in the islandthethree elementsoutof whichthepresent population wastobe formed. We find the Britisher, the Jew,andthe African. Oscar Wilde observes in one of his worksthatAmericanJ.C

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34TWENTIETHCENTURY JAMAICA women are as skilfulatconcealing their parents as English women areatconcealing their past. The quipisclever whethertrueornot;whatistrue, isthata new country would very often like to forget its past, whilethepeople ofitwould sometimes be glad to obliterate the memory of their parents;Itisnotso very long since a newly-arrived Governor-General of Aus tralia warmly congratulated the people ofthatcolony on having developed intosofine a nation in spite of the factthatthefirst colonistshadbeen convicts.Hedidnotremain in Australia longafterthatspeech; thepastwas too recent to be pleasant to recall.Buttwo hundredandfifty years make a considerable period;andalreadyitisnearly eightyyears sincetheslaves were emancipated. Consequently the presentinhabitantsofJamaicashould now be able to begin to lookbackupon their origin without the unpleasant feelingthatitisnotsufficiently r'emote to be discussed with freedom.Theyshould be. able to do this,justas amanmight boast without shame to-daythatone of his ancestors oftheseventeenth century was the greatest murderer of his time.Ithastobeadmittedthatthe claim to being murderers' could with perfect justice have been madebymanyof those English who succeeded the Spanish masters of Jamaica; a considerable number ofthemcould haverunthrough the catalogue of known crimes,andcould have confessed to most of them, withoutanyoneventuringtobelievethattheyhadmaligned themselves. After the islandhadbeen captured, Oliver proposed to send toita thousand Irish girlsanda large contingent of 'Scotch roguesandvagabonds.' This deportation of undesirables from'home'served two purposesatone time;itcleared England, Ireland,andScotland of persons whomtheProtectorthoughthadbetterbeoutofit,andithelped to people Jamaica. There were also the soldiers who had takentheisland.Asmembers of Cromwell's army,andpresumably Puritans, one would have expectedthemto

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THEPEOPLEOF JAMAICA35behave withthatdegree of sobriety and sanctity which was supposedtocharacterise the godly Roundheads.Buteither the climate of Jamaicamusthave affectedthemdetrimentally-afavourite theory with writers on the Tropicsnowadaysor elsetheywere ofanungodly disposition originally; what ever the explanation,weknowthattheir commander, Sedge wicke, wrotethat,'Ibelievetheyarenotto be paralleled in the world a people so lazyandidle,'andhe wondered greatlythat,'such blood shouldrunin the veins ofanyborn in England.' What, then, with 'roguesandvagabonds,'andwith a lazyanddissolute soldiery, it cannot be said the colonyhadmuch to boast of in so far as its first British settlers were concerned. There were some others, however, who would sternly have objected to being classed in such obnoxious categories as thosejustmentioned. These were the people who came from the West Indian island of Nevis, men, women, and children, who, withtheslavestheybrought with them, numbered about sixteen hundred. After these came men from Barbadosandabandof emigrants from New England, planters of substance these last,andofthePuritanvariety.ButPuritanism wasnotdestined to flourish in Jamaica. The soil was not congenialandnever has been.OurNew England settlers might come in good numbers;butroguesandvagabonds, gentlemen known as loose livers in England, buccaneersandadventurers,and'others ofthatilk,' were coming too,andthe charming mannersandcustoms of these gave the tone to society.ItissaidthatGeneral Sedgewicke died of a complication of mentalandbodily troubles, amongstthembeing want of 'godly society.' The subsequent Governors oftheisland were probably selectedasmennotlikelytosuffer through this sort of deprivation. Alltheworld has heard of Morgan, the pirate who governed Jamaica .. Itismorethanprobablethathe was highly appreciatedbytheJamaica colonists of his day. Sir Thomas Mody ford was alsonotabove filibustering,yethe was both Governor

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36TWENTIETHCENTURY JAMAICAandChief Justice of Jamaica. A monumenttohis memory in the Spanish Town Cathedralmaybe seenbythe curious to-day; the legend uponitdeclaresthathe was'thesouleandlife of all Jamaica.'Itis truethatsome one who knew him protestedthathe was'theopenest atheistandmost profest immoral liver in the world';butthat,clearly, was of no importance. For whom amongst the people in the countryatthattime couldnotthe same thing with more or lesstruthhave been said? Lord Vaughan, another Governor, is described as 'one of the lewdest fellows of the age.'Nodoubt he was. Nearly a hundredandfifty years afterwards the same thing was suggested of Lord Balcarres, who doesnoteven seemtohave been a gentleman.Infact, the lessweinquire into the livesandconduct of the Jamaica seventeenthandeighteenth centuryGovernors the better;atthe worst they were no worsethanthe people whomtheygoverned. The only sort of excite ment life afforded in Jamaica in those days was buccaneering, gambling, drinking,andlicentiousness,andthe early settlers indulged in these recreations to the full. They ruined themselvesatdice. Men were known to have gambled away their estates,theneven their carriagesandhorsesthatwere waiting to carry them home. Duelling was frequent; cruelty was a commonplace of existence. They feared the African slaves,andattheslightest suggestion of rebellion or gross insubordination on thepartof thelatterthe masters applied the most terrible tormentstothem. Unruly slaves would be whipped untiltheywere a mass of bloody flesh. Then saltandpepper would be rubbed into the wounds,andsometimeshotwax. Faggots would be tied tothelimbs of a slave, and fire applied to them. Thus he wasburntfrom the extremities uptothe head;burntslowly,sothathe should suffertheuttermost torture. Men who could witness such punishments,andcould even inflict them with pleasure, were of necessity demoralised; consequentlyitisnothing

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THEPEOPLEOF JAMAICA37surprising to learnthatmany of themdrankthemselves to death. Some curious statements of the earlyJamaicadrinkinghabithave been left usbySir Hans Sloane, the Duke of Albe marle's physician, who was inthecolony a little over forty years afteritscapture from the Spaniards.Hekept a list ofthepeople whom he attended, and of oneofthesehe '''Tote: 'DrCooper, aged forty-five years, was a great drinker ofrumpunch,andtold me thathehad had twenty-five several violent fits ofthebelly-ache, with -drinkingthatsort of liquor.'Itis interesting to learnthatshortly after consulting our worthy doctor, this gentleman 'fell into a strong convulsion fit,anddied.' Another gentleman 'used to drink two bottles ofburntwine every night when well, in the night time, to support, as he thought, his spirits.' Sir Hans Sloane addsthat,'hehada great cough, and died.' Notmanyof the white men of the seventeenthandeven of the eighteenth century lived to a good age;andwhen to drink and debaucheryweadd the diseases of the country,theterrible mortality among the European settlers isnottobe wondered at. The gentlemen were more or less all of a type, the white artisans followed their example somewhat,butwere onthewhole more moderate. These formedwhatwemaycall the middle class whites ofthecolony,andmanyofthemearnedanexcellent living. Skilled workmen weresofewthatitpaid to be a good artisan in those days.Itwas these men,andthose of their craftthatcame after them,thattrained the black and coloured artisans who helpedtobuildthesplendid housesandwho made the magnifi cent furniture, which win the admiration of most peopleatthepresent day. There was still another class of white men from the mother country; men whohadindentured themselves to work inthecolonies. They were bound to serve their masters for periods ranging from threetoseven, and even ten, years;theywere littlebetterthanslaves,andsometimes weretreatedworse.

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38TWENTIETHCENTURY JAMAICA They lived much as the slaves lived in the first fifty years of colonisation. They slept on mats in a thatched hut, they were flogged,theywere forced to do menial labour. Hundreds were workedtodeath.Itwas ahardage, human life was held cheap, power was wantonly abused. These men were of aprettydesperate character themselves, being described aslateas 1774 as'thevery dregs of the three kingdoms.'ItwasanEnglishman who wrote the following description ofthem:'Theyhave commonly more vices,andmuch fewer good qualities,thanthe slaves over whomtheyare set in authority; thebettersort of which heartily despise them, perceiving little or no difference from themselves, except in skinandblacker depravity.' One wouldnothave likedtomeetanyof these gentry on a deserted Jamaica road in the year 1750 or thereabouts;butitis difficult to see whatbutdepravity and drunkenness could be expected from white men treated as these indentured servants were,andin such a countryatsuch a time.Foreven the Puritans either died from lack of 'godly society,' orelsefell into line with the profligates. And the indentured labourers never made the slightest pretencetoadmiration for Puritanism. Of the white women who came to the island or were born initduring the first hundred years of its history, little need be said. There werenotmanyof them,andtheyhadvery little influence on the course of affairs.In1673itwas com putedthatthere were 4050 white men in the colony,and2006 women;thatis, morethantwo men to every woman.Inall newly-colonised countries the same story of male preponder ance is told;itis also safe to saythatof the 9504 slaves in the island in 1673, the majority were men.Formen were more usefulinthe fields and plantationsthanwomen,andthe planters were thinkingnotof populationbutof labour. As for the slave girls, many of them didnotbecomesomuch the wives of the men as the mistresses of the masters. The

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THEPEOPLEOF JAMAICA39offspring of such unions became known as the 'coloured' people of Jamaica. Although there werenoteight thousand white persons all told in the island in1671,andthoughitwould seem asifJamaica needed as much population asitcould get,theEnglish settlers desired to expelthehandful of Jews who werethenresident inthecolony. The Jews were traders mainly,and were looked upon with appreciationbythe Governors. They weretheonly persons with business enterprise,anditwastheopinionofSir Thomas Lynchthatthe king could have no more 'profitable subjectsthantheyandthe Hollanders.'Butthe local merchants were jealous. They insistedthattheJews should go. There were, however, only sixteen Jewsatthattime without letters of naturalisation,themajority having becomesubjectsof the English kingandrecognised denizens of the colony. Naturally, therefore, the petition of the merchants was treated with scant ceremony; even thoughit "vas probablyatthis timethattheEnglish colonists fell back most strongly upon religion asanexcellent support in their argument against the Jews. The Jews ought to go,theysaid, for'theyarethedescendants from the crucifiers oftheblessed Jesus!'Pietycouldgono further. Consideringthecharacter of the petitioners, the Jews might with as much unction have arguedthattheir rivals weretheheirs (morally at anyrate) of the crucified impenitent thief. No doubttheking was of this opinion, for hemusthave known something ofthedoings and disposition of his worthy subjects beyond the seas.Asfor myself, I can never read those words about the 'blessed Jesus' without being filled with admiration for the influenceofearly training in the homeandSunday School.Itseemsthata manmaybe a thief, murderer, slave-holder, ,adulterer, and pirate,andyetconsider himselftohavetherighttoappealtotheChristian religion when his supposed interests areatstake.FancyourJamaicagentlemen of the seventeenth century

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40TWENTIETHCENTURY JAMAICA being filled with pious compassion for the'blessedJesus!'The Jews remainedandprospered exceedingly,andsteadily the prejudice against them broke down. Englishmen, Scotch men,andIrishmen came over the water and settled intheisland;themajority died after a brief sojourn, a few made fortunesandreturned home, others lived all their lives in Jamaicaandleft families behind them. Slaves were imported in large numbers, forthenatural increase was small. Many of them were literally workedtodeath, anditcan probably be said with perfecttruththatthe present-day descendants of the earlier inhabitants of English Jamaica are not very many.Forthe first hundred years orsothe populationhadconstantlytobe recruited from the outside. The deaths always exceeded, and greatly exceeded,thebirths. The Jews, being far more temperatethanthe Christians, endured the climate well,andsteadily increased. The coloured or mixed blood population, too, grew steadily.Buttheselatteronly began to formanappreciable element of the population after a centuryhadpassed sincethecomingofthe Englishman totheisland .. In1775thefree coloured people numbered4093.The cessation of the slave trade in1808may accurately be saidtomarkthe beginning of a newandmost important epoch in the history of Jamaica;itmarked the dawn ofanera during whichthepopulation would increase accordingtothe fertilityofthe countrytosupport them,andthe geIieral ofsocialandsanitary conditions.Itdid morethanthattoo.Itheralded the time when slavery would become as much a thing of the past as the slave trade itself; every far-seeing man perceived when the slave trade was. denouncedthatemancipation was certain to follow. Roughly speaking, from about1770to1820-aperiodoffiftyyears-Jamaicareached the height of her prosperity.Itwas duringthatperiodthatthe greatest fortunes

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THEPEOPLEOFJAMAICA4Iwere made,thefinest mansions erected,thatthe largestnumberof white men cametothecountry,andthehighest prices were obtained foritsproducts.In1791, for example,wefindthatthepopulation numbered 291.100 souls of all classesandcom plexions.Thirtythousand of these were white.Atno pre viousorsubsequent counting hasthenumberof the whiteinhabitantsever stoodsohigh;yetitis clear enough fromthealways comparatively smallnumberof nativeandBritish whitesthattheEnglishman never intendedtomakeJamaicaapermanent home, differing in this fromtheColonial Spaniard who settled in the Tropics with nothoughtof returningtoSpain. Many of thosethirtythousandwhitesmusteitherhavegonebacktoEngland or have died without leaving pure blooded issue;bothexplanations, in fact, are true. Thus, forty-three years afterthefiguresjustquotedwere obtained,itwas foundthatthere werebutfifteenthousandwhitesinthecolony, whilethefree coloured (or mixed-blood people), whohadnumbered lessthantenthousand in 1791,had'increasedtoforty thousand by 1834.Atthetime oftheEmancipation there were, of course,manypersons in the island who were born in Africa,andmanyamongthewhite people who could claimtheUnitedKingdom astheirbirthplace.Whatwasthenumberofthenativepopulation, white, coloured,andblack, we have no means of knowing;butfrom 1834 onwards,thepopulation rapidly became almost purely native;theAfricans have diedoutsince,andbutfew British immigrants have cometoJamaica. HencetheJamaicapeople of to-day are almost entirely natives,theofficial census of19IIshowingthatofthe831,000 persons intheisland onthenightof 2nd April,19II,fully 812,500 were borninthecountry. Addtothisnumberthefifty thou sand or soJamaicanswho are nowtobefound in CentralandSouth America(alarge proportion of whommayreturn),andyouhave a population of natives who, born intheisland,andbrought up in it, constitutenotonlythepeople ofthepresent,

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42TWENTIETHCENTURY JAMAICAbutwill be almost entirely the parents oftheJamaicans to come.Forthe population ofJamaicawillnottoanyappreciableextentbe C\ugmented fromwithout in the future. Asiatic immigration hastakenplace,andto-daythereare over seven teen thousandEastIndians in Jamaica.Butthese represent only half the numberthathave been introduced from India since 1845,andtenthousand of them were born in Jamaica. The rest have either died or returnedtotheir native land. The uses to which these coolies can beputare limited,andno one can believethattheywill ever become a considerable element in the island's population. Over two thousand one hundred Chinese were counted in April,19II,andsincethensome more have arrived.Butthey, too, willnotbulk large inthenumbering of the peopleatanyfuture time.Fortheyare entirely shopkeepers, and the field forthemislimited; there are nearly six men to one woman, too, withtheresultthat,however slowly,theChinese wili be absorbedbythe native population. To some extent this absorption has already begun. Half Chinese people arenotunknown in Jamaica. The Syriansandthe oddsandends of foreign peoples whomwefind residing inthecolonymaybe leftoutof consideration;theyarenotsufficiently numeroustomodify the development which the people ofJamaicaseem destined to undergo.Whatisthatdevelopment? I glanceatthe statistics of 1834 once more, and I see from those figuresthatthe populationatthattime was divided as follows:-Slaves Free Blacks Coloured White3II,075.00040,00015,000371,0

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THEPEOPLEOF JAMAICA43I take itthatthere were saine persons of mixed blood among the slaves. How many,itis impossibletodeterminejustnow, for the manumission ofthecoloured element of the peoplehadbegun a hundred years before the Emancipation,thewhite parentsnotonly making their offspring free,butoften leaving them a considerableamountof property.Forpractical pur posesitmaybe saidthatin 1834 there were three hundred thousand black, fifty-six thousand coloured, and fifteen thousand white people in Jamaica.Whatare the relative numbers to-day? Itakethefigures fromthecensus:-White Coloured Black..EastIndian Chinese Not Specified15,60 516 3,201630,18117,3802,1112,905 Commenting on these figures the editor of the census pointsoutthat'thenumber of coloured people has increased in a greater proportion,andthenumber of black people in a slightly less proportion,thanthetotalincrease of the people.'Asamatterof fact, the number of 'coloured' people inthecountry is far largerthanthe figures ofthecensus indicate. A 'coloured'manintheBritish West Indies is one who has both whiteandblack blood in his veinstoanyappreciable degree. There are in these islands people who have a strain of African bloodbutwho write themselves down in the census as white,andare considered such; there areanynumber of black people who also have a strain of white bloodbutwho count themselves or are counted as black.Butthere is also a considerable element of theJamaicapopulation which is

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44TWENTIETHCENTURY JAMAICA known as 'sambo,'anelement with about one-fourth or one fifth of white blood; this Caucasian or Semitic mixture shows itself plainly in their colour or their features,andthey should, strictly speaking, be classified as 'coloured.'Butveryfewmembers of this section of the people havesoclassified them selves in the census. I instituted an inquiry which embraced a very large number of persons, immediately after the census was published. I foundthatalmost every person I could reach, who hadatleast one-fifth of white blood in his or her veins,hadbeen set down in the census as black, the term coloured havingbycustom come to be applied to persons of a distinctly brown or clear complexion. The fact is interesting.Foritshowsthatthe number of mixed-blood people in the colony is largerthanthecensus states, very much larger;itshowsthatrace mixture has been going on more extensivelythanmany students have believed. The probabilities arethata large proportion of the people are still pure-blooded.ButI shouldnothesitate to saythatatleast three hundred thousand, or over one-third, of the present population are of mixed blood, however slightly;andifanyoneshould now assertthatthe proportion is greater, I shouldnotbe inclined to contradict him. The old theory wasthatthe coloured section of the West Indians couldnotreproduce its kind exceptbymating with pure whiteorpure back.Thattheory (never acceptedbyanyscientist of repute) has now gonebythe board.Butthe coloured people of Jamaica havenotonly increasedbyintermarriage among themselves,butbyintermarriage among the whitesandthe blacks,andalsobythe intermarriage of the whites and the blacks. The inevitable result has been their rapid multiplication; they are increasing fasterthananyother element of the population. Will they continue to do so? I expressed some doubts on this point in a former publication;! I there wrotethatitwas to the pure-blooded Negroandnotto the mixed-blood peoplethat lIt, CubaandJalllflica, 1909.

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THEPEOPLEOFJAMAICA45the future oftheisland belonged; I didnotthen realise sufficientlythatpersons whomatfirst blush one might term black might really be of mixed descent.Thatthe vast majority of the peoplewillalways be dark is indisputable; there are economic as well as other reasons for this.Butthattheywillalways be pure-blooded is an. assertion open to some question. The time may even come when, in the towns, therewillbe hardly one person of pure African descent. Weturnnow tothewhite population of the colony.Ofthe 15,605 persons classified as white,wemaydepend uponitthata fair number were, strictly speaking, coloured.Itis the same in Cuba, Porto Rico, Mexico, and even in the United States itself; wherever there are two raceswemay count upon race mixture,andin the veins of members ofthewhite popula tion will runthebloodofthe darker race. There were also a number'of persons who were merely here on a visit;atthe lowest computation these amounted to five hundred. The men oftheBritish ArmyandNavy totalledupto 1076and538respectively;ifwesaythatthe white soldiersandofficers are residents,weare still obliged to count thenavymen as visitors. Without elaborately going intothefigures,itcan bestatedwithout fear of contradictionthat,including the army men,notmorethanfourteen thousand of the number classified asthewhite population of the island were permanent residents.Atleast sixteen hundred were transients.If,then,wecompare the resident white population ofthepresentdaywith the numberitstoodatin 1834,itwill be seenthatithas decreased.Ifwecompareitwith whatitwas twenty years ago,itwill be foundtohave decreased. Emigration among this element ofthepeople has been steadily going on during the last two decades. Intermarriage is also another explanation of this decrease of the white populationandthe considerable increase ofthecoloured. TaketheJews of Jamaica, people who have been colonists

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46TWENTIETHCENTURYJAMAICA for twohundredandfifty years,andwho have been identified with every phase, oftheisland's fortunes. One reads with surprisethatin1881theynumbered 2535,andthatin19IItheirnumberstoodat1487 only.Thata large number of Jewshavemarried Christian5 duringthelasttwentyyears is indisputable,andtheprocess of amalgamation continues still.Butin spite ofthatweshould confidently have expectedthatby19IItheJewswould have numbered over 3000. souls, whereaswefindthattheyare lessthanhalfthatnumber. This meansthatmanyhavegonetotheUnitedStatesof America,andindeeditistothatcountrythat many otherJamaicanshave emigrated inthelasttwo decades,andes pecially sincethebeginning ofthenineteenth century. There are greater opportunities inanyoftheStatesthaninJamaica;and,besides,theincreasing competition ofthedarker people is drivingthefairer peopleofJamaicatoseek a livelihood inotherlands.Itwasboundtobe so. Over ahundredandthirtyyears ago aJamaicahistorian argued strongly in favour ofthetraining of coloured artisans, hispointbeingthattheywould forcethewhiteartisantocharge less for his labour.Hedidnotconceiveitpossiblethatthenew men could drivetheoldoutofthefield of employment altogether, for, of course, he couldnotforeseetheJamaicaofthetwentieth century.Butthis hasnotonly happened;but,in histurn,thecolouredorbrownmanhas been driventoa certainextentoutof theranksoftheartisanbythedarkerman, whohasshown him self quiteascapable of learningtousethetools oftheskilled workerasanyotherman. The inevitable effect of educationmustbetogive the poorer or weaker classes ofthepopulation a chancetocompete withthewealthierordominantsection;theinevitable effect of the spread of democratic ideas isanincreasing unwillingnesstorestrictanysphere of occupationtoone class ofthepeople only. Then there istheeconomic factortotakeinto consideration.

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THEPEOPLEOFJAMAICA47Whateversentiment or prejudicemayprompt,men will strivetogettheir work doneatthe cheapest rates, and, in a colony like Jamaica, willnaturallycome tothinklessandlessaboutraceandcolour as time goes on. Competenceandcost will affect the question of employment far morethancomplexionandclass; avenues to a decent livelihood once closed todarkmenandwomen are opening to-day,andtheeffect of this will be seen inthepopulation of to-morrow. Now though, owingtoa continued mixture of blood, the timemayarrive when very few ofthepeople willnothave a white strain in their veins, I donotsee how the majority ofthepopulation can ever become fair, or even brown.Fortheinhabitantsof pure African descent have always outnumbered,andvastly outnumbered, the colonists of pure British descent,andthe black population increases steadily.Sodoesthecoloured,butthe white does not.Itmayin the future. Theremaysomedaybe asmanyastwentythousand white men and women intheisland.Butbythattime there will also be over a million native Jamaicans, most ofthemdarkandblack; the white men, too, will probably come as temporary exploitersandnotaspermanentresidents.Whatis possibleisthatrace admixture will continue until there is something like uniformity of complexion in theJamaicapopulation; ifthatshould ever be the case,thefuture averageJamaicanshould be adarkperson showing distinct indications of a white strain.Whatis known intheWest Indies as clear'sambo'should be the average colour,andthere would also be thousands of persons of lighter hue.Everyconceivable shadeandgradation of colourmaybe found inJamaicato-day,andthe mixture of blood hastakenplace in such varying degreesthattheold classifications have to someextentbecome obsolete. The Spaniardsitwas who, intheWest Indiesandin Spanish America, first established these categories of colour. The offspring of whiteandblacktheycalledmulatto;ofmulattoandwhite, quadroon; of

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48TWENTIETHCENTURY JAMAICA quadroon and white, mustee;andsoon. The offspring of mulattoandblack was termed sambo; and the children of a samboanda black were usually considered as black,andaresoto-day in Jamaica, the complexionnotclearly showing the result of race mixture.Butthe features almost invariably do;andno experienced observerbutmust be struck in these daysbythe difference between the features of thousands of presumably pure-blooded Jamaica peasantsandthe features of African Negroes. The prognathous face is gradually dis appearing in this West Indian colony; the features are be coming refined. This, of course, isnotmerely the effect of race mixture. To some extentitis also the consequence of civilisa tion,andpossibly of climatic influence. Educated menandwomen of undiluted African blood differ much in appearanceandfeatures from the common people;itcan scarcely be doubted, indeed,thatphysicalandmental influences are play ing theirpartin modifying the old racial stocks and creating new types in Jamaica. Whether a uniform type of individual will eventually be produced in this island ornotcannot be dealt with inthischapter.Whatcan be maintainedatthis pointisthatthe Jamaican ofanycolourisnot precisely like any other man; he is a Jamaican, and has characteristicsthatare common more or less to all his fellow countrymen. Oneisnotbornandbrought up in a country for nothing. One doesnotread the same papersthatall one's fellows read, hear much the same sort of talk all the year round, come into close contact with all other classesofthe people,eatthe same food,andenjoy the same recreations, without one's mind becoming assimilated to the minds of one's countrymen. The Jamaican whose parents were English or French is Jamaican in his habitsandcustoms, in his speechandideas. Heisnotan Englishman, he isnotaFrenchman,-hewill bethatonly if he has been entirely brought upoutof the colony. His accent and manner proclaim himatonce for what heis,as well as his way of looking

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THEPEOPLEOFJAMAICA 4Q upon life.Heis easy-going, drawls a little, is often vehe-. ment in expression,buta kindlymanatheart.Hetakes life asitcomes, grumbling;butin his grumble onemaydetect an undertone of contentmentsolong as fate isnotunduly unkind. To describe him as a brute oranoppressor would be laughable; he is more giventocondoning offencesthantopunishing them. Hemaybe condemned on the score of his easy acceptance oftheprevailing loose moralandsocial condi tions;butthose conditions do not startle him in the least, for he was born inthecountryandis usedtothem;notbeing a hypocrite as a rule, he doesnotcryoutagainst them.Ifyou take the Jews of Jamaicaitwill be foundthatthey too are distinctively Jamaican, thinking, acting,andliving precisely as do the other people 6f their respective classes. Thus the Jewish planterislikeanyother planter of his stand ing in the community; he thinks astheydo in terms of sugar, bananas,andrum, is a greathaterof Free Trade, is satisfiedthatthe island has been steadily going backwards, is like all his class inclinedtobe extravagant,andis patriotic after his planter fashion.Fortwo hundredandfifty years, as said before, havetheJews been in Jamaica.Bythe middle oftheeighteenth centurytheyhadwon to wealthandimportance; a century ago they were entertaining the Governors of the colony.For over a hundred yearstheyhave been amongst the most public-spirited of Jamaicans, have filled the highest political positions, have served the country in every capacity. The consequenceisthatthough the number of Jews in Jamaica to-day is smallerthanitwas somethirtyyears ago, yet Jewish influence is everywhere perceivable in the colony,andJamaicans of all classes are proud of every JamaicaJewwho distinguishes himself either in the islandorabroad. There is no separate Jewish class in Jamaica; there are many classes. of Jews. These associate with Christians accordingtoclassandnotaccordingtorace; race indeed has andlesstodo with Jewish enterpriseandsocial intercourse every day.J.D

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50TWENTIETHCENTURY JAMAICA JewsandChristians work sidebysideandcompete sidebyside against other combinations of JewsandChristians; thetruthisthatanappealtorace wouldnotmeet withanyheartyresponse either amongsttheJews ortheChristians of Jamaica. There isnotaJewin Jamaica who is a native who hasnotChristian relativesorconnections. Thereis.nearly as much Semitic as European blood flowing in the veins ofthecoloured population. Intermarriagemaystill further lessen the numbers oftheJamaica Jew, asitis already threateningtolessenthenumbers of the English Jew;yetthe Jewish contributiontoJamaica civilisationispermanent,anditis impossibletoforgetthatsome of the ablest business menandpoliticians of the colony have been,ifnotalways pure Jews,atanyratemen of Jewish descent. The coloured or mixed-blood people of the country, ranging fromdarktofair, are also divided into classes;theytake their place with the other members of the population accordingtotheir class. Thus some are simply peasants or domestics. And as such,theyare ofaninferiorstatustopeople of purely African parentagebutof a superior class. Notthatcolour discriminations are unknown inJamaica,orthatitis no advan tagetobe clear-complexioned; unquestionablyitisanadvan tage,andmust of necessity besoin a country like Jamaicaatthepresent stage of its evolution.Butproperty, personal worth,education,-thesecount for much also,andtheywill often outweighanddo outweigh the mere advantage of colour. As for the higher classes ofthecoloured people,theymix with the higher classes of the white residents ofthecountry on terms of social equality;andwhatmaybe calledthemiddle classes of the Jamaica coloured population, mix with the white middle class people also accordingtotheir socialstatusandfinancial position. Asthecoloured section of the people has grown with re markable rapidity during the last hundred years,andasitis certain to become larger duringthecourse of the present

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THEPEOPLEOFJAMAICA51century; as some persons have even gonesofar astothinkthatthe timemaycome when there will be feworno purely black people in Jamaica,itmayserve a useful purpose dohearwhat a competentstudentof West Indian racialantsocial conditions hastosay on this section ofthe Ja'nlaica people. I quote from Sir Sydney Olivier'sWhite Capital and Coloured Labour.'Iamconvinced,' he writes,'thatthis class asitatpresent exists is a valuable.andindispensablepartofanyWest Indian community,andthata colony of black, coloured,andwhites has far more organic efficiencyandfar more pro miseinitthana colony of whiteandblack. A community of whiteandblack alone is in far greater danger of remaining, insofar astheofficial classes are concerned, a community of serfs, concessionaires,andtributaries, with,atbest, a bureau cracytokeepthepeace between them.'Inother words,thepresence of a large number of coloured people, ranging from dark to fair, helpstoweldthecommunity together into some thing likeanorganic whole,andeven gives promise of a fair degree of homogeneity inthefuture. Now I have suggested abovethatthere is such a thing as a Jamaican as distinct fromanAfrican or or even from a Trinidadian. I have tried to show, however briefly,thatthere is a way of livingandthinking commontoall Jamaicans of the same class, withoutanyparticular distinc tion of religion or race. Here, then,wehave a most important socialandintellectual factor in the development of organic unity;andthe coloured section of the population, forming asitdoesbotha ladderanda link betweenthewhiteandtheblack sections, constitutes a racialandpolitical factor withoutwhich anything approximatingtoeffective solidarity would beoutof the question. As forthemass oftheisland's population, those categoried as black, even though mixed-blooded in a certain degree, formthebulk ofthe agricultural workers,thepeasant-pro prietors,andthe artisans. They are'thepeople,'andthey

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52TWENTIETHCENTURY JAMAICA number three .. fourths of the population.Whatis theirattitudetowards the other sections of the Jamaicapopulation?Theirattitudeis a friendly one for the mostpart;itisanattitudeof peaceandgoodwill. Between alltheseveral sections of the Jamaica people there is a certain amount of jealousy,andthis jealousy is often expressed in terms of colour. There is also, as is inevitable in every country, a goodmanyindividual dislikesandperhaps hatreds,andoften these are also expressed in terms of colour. A quarrel between a blackanda coloured manmaysometimes take the form of referencestothe colour of each;butthis becomes rarer every day,andthe old sayingthatthe black manhadno love for the brown,butheartily disliked him, is decidedlynottrue to-day. The black man doesnotdislikethebrownmanassuch.Hedoesnotdislike the white man. Whiteandbrown again, in spite of the occasionally harsh language indulged inbyindividuals amongst them when alluding to the bulk of the Jamaica people, donotreally dislike the black man,andarebyno means desirous of seeing him kept downandoppressed. Anything like ill-treatment ofanindividual blackmanbya white or coloured manatonce raises a storm of protest,notmerely from black men,butequally from whiteandcoloured men. Even the complaints of criminals inthePenitentiary find a hearing among the whiteandcoloured sections of the community; conversely, the black voter, who is in the majority, has no sort of hesitation in sending whiteandcoloured mentothe Legislative Councilandtothe Parochial Boardstorepresent him. An appeal for his support on the score of colour wouldnotmove him much; suchanappeal has been frequently madebydemagogues,butsooften hasitfailedthatitisnotnow considered a good political card.Itisratherdifficulttosay in what proportion the peasantryandworking classesstandtothemiddle classes, and thelattertothe highest class. I have already pointedoutthatcolour alone doesnotdetermine class in Jamaica, thoughitmayhave

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THEPEOPLEOFJAMAICA53muchtodo with it. Among the artisans, peasantry,andwork ing classeswemust countatleast one hundred thousand of those persons who are specified in the census as of mixed blood; while a good many of the white inhabitants belongtothemiddle class,anda fewtothe working class sections ofthepeople. Even the classification of the population accordingtooccupations is no absolute guide. There are92IIprofes sional persons in Jamaica. These would include the highest officials, the elementary school teachers, as well as doctors, lawyers, parsons,andmany others who would be recognised as professional men in other countries, as well as some who wouldnotbe. One thing is certain, there is much difference in the socialstatusof the professionalmanwho earns a thousand pounds a yearandtheman who is passing poor upon fifty. The people occupied with commerce, too, range from those who are shop assistantstothose who make between threeandfour thousand pounds a year;andof the 19,754 persons en gaged in commercial pursuits and undertakingsinJamaica, the number earning over three hundred a year is decidedly intheminority.Inagriculture, again,wefindthatthe heads,thebigger men, are few;sotaking men, women,andchildren together,ifweputthehighest classes of the country---:-the classes withanincome or salaryofsix hundred a yearandupwards-atabout ten thousand souls, our estimate may not be far out.Itshould hardly be necessarytoaddthatthis money cate gory is a very imperfect one, since there are people with money who are considered asnotof the best class in the social hierarchy of the colony, while there are others who, though comparatively poor, are recognised as the social equals of the wealthiest. The middle classes, split into a number of smaller classes, might number about eighty thousand. This leaves us with seven hundredandthirty-one thousand persons who are peasants, peasant-proprietors,andworking people;andof thetotalpopulation of Jamaica the vast majority live outside ofthetowns. The chief towns of the island total uptofourteen,but

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54TWENTIETHCENTURY JAMAICA these fourteen contain, in round figures,but120,000people, which leaves the inhabitants ofthe countrydistrictsat7II,000.The country gentlemen live on their plantationsandestates, visitingthecityandtheneighbouring towns often, going on frequent visitstoEnglandandtheUnited States,butstill identifying themselves with parochical matters, being members of boards, justices ofthepeace,andso forth. Their homesand their influencestandfor civilisation inmanya backward district. Thepeasantryrecognise thisinaninstinctivesortof way, fortheyshow no desiretogetawayfromtheneigh bourhood of the big man.Theyprefertobe in his vicinity,andhe in histurnlikesthemnear him, beingthussure of a good supply of labourifhis relations withthemareatall cordial, which more oftenthannottheyare. Do I picture a sort of tropical paradise, in so far astherelations betweenthedifferentracesandclasses ofthepeopleareconcerned?Thatisnotexactlymyintention;atanyrateI would hastentoaddthatthere is enough oftheserpent of snobbery to make life inJamaicainteresting; there are sufficiently numerous classandpersonal distinctions to createthatamountof social unhappiness without which no British community wouldbecomplete. Snobbery, saysM.Andre Seigfried, is a characteristic of British civilisation. Soitis;andthecivilisation ofJamaicais British. There are innumer able classes inJamaica;classes amongst the white, classes amongstthecoloured, classes amongsttheblack; there are there fore ever present in everyJamaicatown those lines of social demarcation which too often are a source of bitternesstothose for whomtheyform a bar.Butthegreat mass ofthepeople arenotaffectedbysocial considerations. The peasant inthevillage doesnotanxiouslythinkaboutwhatmaybe said of him shouldhebe seen associating with So-and-So. HenceitmaytrUly be saidthatthere is as much social happinessandcontentment in Jamaica,takeitfor all in all,asthere isinanycountrywhere the population is of one race, orispractically homogeneous.

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55CHAPTERIIITHEENGLISHMANINJAMAICAWHENI mentionedto a Scotchman resident in Jamaicathatinmychapter on the EnglishmaninJamaica I intendedtoincludetheScotchandIrish colonists, he demurred. A Scotchman isnot an Englishman, he contended,andthe contention is as old as the two peoples.Itis perfectly true, of course;butformypurposethecaption I have chosen will do very well, thoughitmaybe necessary for me hereandtheretorefer specifically to ScotchmenandtoIrishmen. Accordingtothecensus for19II,there are settled in Jamaica1291persons who were born in England,13who were born in Wales,239from Scotland,and123from Ireland.Thenumber is respectable, thoughitis below two thousand. These 1666 persons includetheGovernor as well as thearmyprivate;anditisnottoo muchtosaythattheir influence on the lifeandtheaffairs of the country is far greaterthantheir mere number wouldseemtoindicate.Yetatthevery outset one is forcedtoremark the differ ence which exists between the Englishman of to-dayandtheEnglishman of a hundred years ago in Jamaica. A century since he wasnotonly inthecolony in much larger numbers,butwas in reality the dominant Jamaican.Hewas the chief landowner, he governed the island as a member of the House of Assemblyandof the Governor's Council: he wastheJamaican,thereal colonist, the other sections of the colony didnotcount for much. The whitemanof pure British extraction who was born in the country didnotregard him self as anythingbutan Englishman.Inthevastmajority of instances he would, if of thebetterclasses, have been educated

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56TWENTIETHCENTURY JAMAICA in England,and'home'tohim would always mean England. When the boom in sugar declinedandemancipation follO\ved. he returnedtoEnglandifhe could, as amatterof course;butin Jamaica lie was never astranger:he was the owner or,atleast, the director. Allthatis changed to-day.Inspite of the factthatlarge tracks of landareheldbyBritish absentee proprietors still; in spite, too, of the factthatmen from the United Kingdom are amongst the biggest plantersat the present time in Jamaica, the Englishman is often regarded,andregards himself, as a stranger; he is distinct from the Jamaican,andisbutthe largest of the groups which make up the non-native population of the island. This is the inevitable result ofmanycircumstances. A great deal of the land is now heldbywhite men who were bornandhave grown up in the country,bycoloured men who ,either acquired their possessionsbypurchaseorinheriteditfrom white ancestors,byblack men who form the peasant proprietary of the country. Then, the vast majority of the island's officials are natives.Itis nowratherthe exceptionthanthe rule for Englishmentobe appointedtothe Jamaica Civil Service; even amongst the heads of the most important Government Departmentswefind a fair number of natives. Thus the Governor is an Englishman;butthe next most important official, the Colonial Secretary, who frequently acts as Governor, is a Jamaican. The Collector-General is a Jamaican; the last Treasurer was aJamaican-his'place hasuptothetime of writingnotbeen filled; one of the three judges of the Supreme Court is a West Indian from one of the other colonies; another is a Jamaican. The late Attorney General was a Jamaican; the present-Attorney Generalisa man from one of the smaller '\' est Indian islands; the Crown Solicitorandthe'Registrar of the Supreme Court are both Jamaicans; the Director of Education is a Jamaican; the Administrator-General andtheSurveyor-General are Jamaicans.Soweseethatthe number of Englishmen, as

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THEENGLISHMANINJAMAICA 57 compared withthenumber of Jamaicans, in the public service is very small;andthe tendency is not towards increasing the English personnel. The same thing holds true of other departments ofthelife of the colony.Inthe preceding chapter allusion was made to the white workers in woodandstoneandiron who were once the artisans of Jamaica. There is hardly one left now. There are English professional men (chiefly parsonsanddoctors), English accountants, English clerks, shop-assistants, buildersandcontractors, engineers, merchants,andmagistrates;butthe number of natives in the same callingsandprofessions is far greater. The colony has grownanddeveloped, and, as its development has proceeded, what has taken place in other colonies has taken place here. The native, the man on the spot,fillsmost of the positionsthatthe man from the United Kingdom could fill;andthe man fromtheUnited Kingdom comes to Jamaica as a stranger.Yetthe mannersandcustoms of the country, insofar astheyare civilised, approximatetoEnglish mannersandcustoms;thelife of the country bearstheindelible impress of English influences; the language is English, the literature is English, the sentiments of the people are more Englishthananything else,thereligion is English,andJamaicans are proud of their connection with the British Empire. The word 'home'tothe educated Jamaican has two significations.Inthe first placeitsignifies Jamaica.Butitalso signifies England,andEnglishmanandJamaicanwilltalk of England as'home'without either man being conscious ofanyincon gruity intheexpression as usedbythenative.Itis the commonest thingtohearanEnglishman ask a Jamaican if he is going'home'this year,andthelatterwillreply'yes'or'no'quite simply. Hence, though the Englishman comingtoJamaica in these days comes as a stranger, he is less of a strangerthanthe Englishman who goestoCanada, ,,,,,here, as he has probably heard beforehand, he isnotliked. The

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58TWENTIETHCENTURY JAMAICA difference isthathe goes to Canada in considerable numbers, andmore oftenthannotdevelops into a good Canadian.Itis only the minority of Englishmen who become Jamaicans;thatis, settle in the country for good, without intention of returning home.Ina tropical colony,theplace of the English man is of necessity small. Yet of its importance there cannot be two opinions. The Englishman who remains in Jamaica forbuta few yearsmustberegarded as always a stranger, Herarely hasanydeep interest in the country,andfor the mostparthardly ever understands its people. There have, indeed, been Englishmen who have lived for over twentyyears inthecolonyandhave leftitwith almost as little knowledge of its inhabitants astheyhadwhen firsttheycame. They have been entirelyoutof sympathy with their surroundings;theyhave mixed as much as possible ,\lith other English only;theyhavenotliked Jamaicaandthe Jamaicans. The sentiments of men of this type are very soon discovered.Forthe most part,theymake noattempttodisguise them. Thenaturalconse quence isthata good many Jamaicans,andeven educated Jamaicans, gettobelieve.thatthe Englishman as such is contemptuous of all things Jamaican, even thoughtheymayknow Englishmen, Scots,andIrishmen who accept the local conditionsandthe people for the bestthatthere is in them,andwho identify themselves with most of the efforts madetofurther the progress of the community. Englishmen themselves are keenly alive to the faults of their countrymen in Jamaica,andiftheysometimesstandbyone anotheritisnotbecause they dislike the people,butbecause a very natural feeling of comradeship compelsthemtosupport the Englishman who finds himselfatodds in a strange land. The Jamaican would dothesame if heandothers of his country found themselves wheretheywere for the mostpartoutsiders.Itwould, however, be a mistaketoimaginethatthe British element in Jamaica is alwaysto

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THEENGLISHMANINJAMAICA 59 be found fighting as one body of men againstthenatives in the interest of individuals from the mother-country; as amatterof fact, the Britisher in Jamaica constitutes no class apart, especially after he has been in the colony for some time,andhas become acquainted with the peopleandwith their point of view. The greatest critics of Englishmen are very often Englishmen;andwherewefindanEnglishman being vigorously backedbyhis countrymen,wemay be certainthattheyare his personal friends,andwemaybe equally certainthatamongst his assailants are other Englishmen.Insuch a case, clearly,itisnotsomuch amatterof raceandcountry asitis amatterof classandpersonal friendship. There is hardly amanfrom the United Kingdom residing in Jamaica to-day who' doesnotcount Jamaicans amonghis'friends; there are Englishmen who are more friendly with Jamaicansthanwith other Englishmen;andI have no hesitation in sayingthatthe Englishman who is generally disliked'byJamaicans is equally dislikedbyEnglishmen.Itis amatteroftemperament. At first,itis probable, everymanfrom'home'who comes to Jamaica feels himself out of place, is bored or disgustedbytheentirely different conditions in which he finds himself, is filled with a longing for thelandhe has left,andis, in consequence, disposedtorun down everything he sees,andtobe contemptuous of the countryandits people. The untravelled Jamaican doesnotunderstand this feeling,andresents it; the travelled Jamaican knowsthat,toa considerable extent,itwill wear awayifthe new-comer be the right sort of man. Anditdoes wear away. The shock of changeanddifference, which isnaturalandinevitable, loses its effect after a while, thoughitisapttoreturn every time a man comes back from a holiday in the United Kingdom.Itwears away,andone beginstoappreciate what is good in tropical life in the Jamaica of this century.Forone thing,theEnglishman can never complain of the hospitality of the Jamaicans. Many Jamaicansmaycriticise

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60TWENTIETHCENTURY JAMAICA Englishmen. as a body,butfor the individual Englishmantheywill do a great deal; first, becausetheyarebynature hospitable; secondly, because he isanEnglishman; thirdly, because he is a stranger;andlastly, thoughbyno means least, becausetobe an Englishman in Jamaica carries a good deal of prestige with it. Itcould not be otherwise. Consideringthatthe governing classes have been mainly English,thatthe colony belongs to England,andthatevery Jamaican is as firmly convinced asanyEnglishmanthatBritain is the greatest country in the world,itfollows as amatterof coursethatthe individual Englishmanstartsin Jamaica with much in his favour.Buthis success or his popularity will depend upon his own qualities eventually; andthere are few Englishmen,ifany, ofanyexperienceandofanyposition in the colony, who will preferanyEnglishman as suchtoa Jamaican who shO\vs himself capable.Thatmayhave been the case once upon a time. The glamour of prestige, the tradition of efficiency, the mere factthatone was an Englishman may have helped one all through life,justastheyobtain for one a fair chance to-day.Butmorethana fair chancetheaverage man from England will scarcely get to-day. A very proper feelingofnational pride, to say nothing of! ordinary pity, will prevent Englishmen in Jamaica from callously letting a countryman sink into the gntter;butifhe willnotrespond to the assistance they offer, they will leave himtohis fate. The beach-comber Englishman hasnotbeen unknown in Jamaica, though happily rare. Anditis btlt honesttoaddthateven the Jamaican of the humblest class feels sadandsorry whenanEnglishman in Jamaica goestoruin and wreck. The men who come from the United Kingdomtofillposi tions as clerks, accountants, inspectors .of police, merchants, etc., live quietly as ordinary members of the community. SometimestheymarryJamaicans, take very little interest

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THEENGLISHMANINJAMAICA.61in politics, helptoorganise sports,andare popular inthecircles in whichtheymove.Butthere are others whose influence is extensive. The great English planters are mostly men who have succeededbydint of perseveranceand-ability, and, living in the country parishes, they are each of them a con siderable force. Amongstthefourteen elected members of the existing LegiSlative Council, there are three Englishmenandtwo Scotchmen;andone of the Englishmen, a largebananaplanter, is certainly one ofthemost popular men in the island. Nobody questions the sincerity of his interest,andthe people of his parish are proudtohave him represent them. The present Mayor of Kingston (September,1912)isanEnglish man.Atthelast election of the MayorandCouncil he was returnedatthetopof the poll, chiefly, of course,bythe votes of the working people. There is, I think, a certain jealousy of Englishmen,butthe individual Englishman has nothingtofear fromit.Itis directed against a classandnotagainst a person, consequentlyitcan harm no one. There is, on the other hand,anunquestionable admiration of Englishmen, an admiration grounded on their achievements in the world. This admirationmaynotalways extendtothe individual Englishman,butasthemember of a class he benefitsbyit. Englishmen are welcomed in the political as well as inthesocial life of the colony. And in the social life of the colonytheyare often the leaders. Some of the highest officialsanda few ofthegreatest planters being Englishmen,theyset the tone of societyandform the exclusive 'set.' Their way of life in the colony is much asitwould be in England. Dinner parties, lawn-tennis, afternoon calls, afternoon tea, with ridinganddriving,andvisits to the theatreandattendanceatthe races form their recreations forthemostpart;andthese too are the recreations of alltheother classes of the people who have any thing like social desiresandambitions. The difference is mainly one of degree.Thisisabit of English life transportedtoJamaica;and.ittestifiestothe influence of the Englishman in Jamaica.

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62TWENTIETH CENTURY JAMAICAThe majority oftheEnglish residents, then, do identify themselves with the \ lifeofthecolony-someof coursetoa greaterextentthanothers. There are two classes ofthemwhich come frequentlyanddirectly in touch with thepeoplethe ministersandthe officials; each class does so in a different way,andithas been claimedbyone Governor of the islandthatin promoting general welfare of the peasantryandworking peopletheGovernment (with its officers) come firstandthe ministers neXt. Iamnotcertainthatthis dictum can be altogether atcepted: there aremanywho would reverse the positions and wouldputtheministers first.If,indeed,wetake the of the island for the last fifty years, there can be no question about the ministers oftheseveral denominations:inthe colony having done more for the great mass of the intheway of upliftingandcivilising them,thanthe Government has done.Ifwemerely takethehistory of the last eleven or twelveyears-thefirst years of the presentcentury-the 90vernment does intruthstandforth conspicuously astheleading influence in a dozen different movements all making' for the amelioration of conditions in Jamaica,andfor the ofthecommon people.Itisnotthatthe Churchesandtheir ministers are doing less.Itisthatthe Governmentandits officers are doing more.Butthe pioneers in education,theteachers of morality, the sworn friendsofthe friendless,thedowntrodden, the unconsidered, have formanydecades been the missionariesandtheministers,anda great deal of what\ is of good report in Jamaica must beattributedtotheir untiring zealandtothe personal effortstheyhaveputforth. The ministers have come far more into personal contact withthemass of the peoplethanhave any other class of Englishmen,andyour EnglishorScotch parson has been, asitwere, the head of a largeandheterogeneous family, the leader of a considerable section of the people; he has been guide, philosopher,and he has been politician also when

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THEENGLISHMANINJAMAICA 63 necessary,andhas never hesitatedtoenterthe political arenatofight actively for the welfare of the masses. His home has been a centre from which has radiated sympathy. His family --hiswifeandhimself moreparticularly-haveknowntheinterior of hundreds of homes, some of them of the most humble description;andthis personal association, this kindly inquiry intothetrivial worriesanddetails of the peasant's life, hashadaneffect on the lives of the people greaterthanmost persons appeartohave imagined. As a rule,theparson from'home'has cometoJamaica with lofty spiritual idealsandwith a determinationtoaccomplish some noble work. Disappointments awaited him; hardships hadtobe endured; often he has thought heisbuilding on shifting sands. I remember one Scotch parson who confessedtome how heart weary he was, how sadatthinkingthatheandhis fellow labourershaddone so little.Hewas alludingtothe large percentage of illegitimate births which the Government records showed year afteryear:he feltthathe had no founda tion of charactertobuild upon,andthatthe influence of himselfandof men like him counted for nothing inthecolony. I wasnotsurprisedatthislament:Ihadhearditbefore. I had hearditfrom Catholic priest, as well as fromProtestantparson.ButI knew something about Jamaica's past,andfor myself I couldnotbutthinkthatthe missionaryhadbuildedbetterthanhe knew,hadaccomplished considerablethingshadassisted greatlytocivilisethecountry,tochange its manner of living,toimproveitsocially, morally,andreligi ously intheshort space of sixty years. They have trained a native ministry which is no discredittothem. A hundred years ago Jamaica was almost entirely heathen. To-day, in spite of remaining superstitionsandloose sexual connec tions,itis a Christian country. As I intendtodeal with Jamaica religion further on, I willsaynothing more upon this pointjusthere;butImayremarkthatthepersonal influence of the men who havetaughtandhave preached

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64TWENTIETHCENTURY JAMAICA tothe people has had as much to do with the improvement observed as the doctrinestheyhave disseminated. The mere preaching would have altered nothing. The sympathy,thekindness, the interest which the British missionariesandministers give constant evidence of have borne and will bear fruit of inestimable value. Tht> foremost Englishman in Jamaica to-day, all things considered, is amanwho cametothe country over forty-five years ago as a simple parson. To-day he is the Archbishop of the West Indies, having wontothathigh position through sheer force of character and ability.Heisnotmerely the head of his own Church.Ina way he is the unofficial head of all theProtestantChurches. An Englishman of English men, he is also a Jamaican of Jamaicans; sothatwhile the Englishmen in Jamaica are very proud of him as a fellow
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THEENGLISHMANINJAMAICA 65 The English official has also been describedbya Governor, Sir Sydney Olivier, as a 'missionary,'butitmust beadmittedthathe is a very well-paid missionary, though in the majority of instancesitcannot be deniedthathe earns his money. His contact with the people isthatof a director,notof a friend.Heknowsthemfrom the outside for the mostpart;andthough in his dealings with them he is a.ctuatedbya sense of justice, he is usually a manapart;though hemaytake a:pride in his workandmaysincerely wish to improvethecolony, he cannot havethataffection foritwhich the life long colonistandthe native have; he hasnotthe sanle kind of stimulus which the missionaryandthe minister have. He hastodo with things far morethanwith men. Even as judgeandmagistrate he is abovethecrowd,andnotin it.Yetthis comparative aloofness is more the result of conditionsthanof explicit determination. Men ofthesame classandposition in England donotmix more with the working people therethando the English officials inJamaicawith theJamaicapeople of the lower orders. The difference between the two sets of men isthat,asanEnglishman, the. official moreorless understands his own people: whatever the differencein class,theyare of one blood; whereas, in Jamaica,ittakes the Englishman timeandsympathyandclose acquaintanceshiptounderstand the average Jamaicanandthe Jamaican point of view. Yet, even in this connection also, there has inlateyears been a wonderful improvement in the relationships existing between the English officialandthe people;thetime has gonebywhen the official element formedanexclusive caste; whenitwas regarded as amatterof coursethattheyshould constitute one section of the community,andtherest ofthepeople another. The filling of some of the highest official positions with nativesandthe general advance in cultureandcivilisation on thepartof the country as a whole have servedtobridge the chasm betweentheEnglish official arid thenative;the personal friendships, comradeships,J.E

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66TWENTIETHCENTURY JAMAICA the social intercourse,andconstant interchange of ideas between English officialandJamaica gentleman make of these both one class; and, as a member of this class, the English official learns moreaboutJamaicaandJamaicans'thanhe otherwise would.Itmustalso be addedthatthe English heads of large administrative departments have for capable native officers a genuine appreciation. This is generally the outcome of timeandexperience.Atfirst the new chief is inclinedtobe critical,toassume ignorance on thepartof his subordinates,toexpect English methods in conditions which arenotEnglish.Buthe learns after a while what he ought to expectandwhatis impossible in the circumstances,andin his annual reportstothe Governor he very often-Imight say healwaysrefers in high terms of praisetothe men. under him, nine tenths,ifnotall, of whom maybe Jamaicans. Nor is the average English head of department desirous of filling vacan cies in the Civil Service with men bornoutof the country.Thatis not, indeed, the policy of the Government;butindividual officials could hamperandhinder the Governmentjfmindedtodo so,andcould strongly urge the importation of young officers. As amatterof fact,theyprefertotrainmen found on the spot,andthis policy naturally commends itselftothe community, the older members of which remember the time (not twenty years since) whentobe a Jamaican wasrathera seriousbarto offkial preferment. I have purposely lefttothe last the remarks I have to make on the Governors ofthecolony, the men directly respon sibletothe ColonialOfficefor the proper administration of the island's affairs. Of the seven who have governed Jamaica since 1866, one was a Scotchman, oneanIrishman, one a West Indian (from Antigua) ; the other four have been English. Of only one of these canitbe saidthathis adminis tration was marked by feebleness.Hewas a weak though entirely well-meaningman:he wasnotequaltothetask

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THEENGLISHMAN IN JAMAICA 67laid upon him. The other men have been energetic: five of them have been conspicuous for their ability. This is a good percentageandanexcellent record. Highly paid as is a Jamaica Governor, there arenotmany competent Jamaicans who would saythata good Governor wasnotworth thea year he receives;andthere are few who have been in touch with Jamaica Governorsbutknowthattheyare amongst the hardest worked men intheisland.Inmypresent remarks Imustdeal with the Governor as an Englishman,andnotmerely as the head of theGovernment-asthe chiefpartofanadministrative machine.Thatistosay, I wishtodeal with his character, withwhathe is or should be,andnotparticularly with his duties. Naturally,itisnotpossible practice,oreven in discussion,todifferentiate between the manandthe public functionary: the influence the man derives largely from his position. Stillitis indisputablethatposition alone will help nomantogain the respect of the WestIndians:characterandreputation count for as much as placeandpower . A reputation for impartialityisone ofthebest assetsthatthe English official,andespecially the English Governor, in the colonies could have, thoughnotevery Governor has pos sessed it.Itis indeed very difficult in Jamaicatowinthereputation of being impartial; even if you are, you will often be thoughtnottobe. A Governor begins his administration under difficulties therefore; he is the man upon whom the searchlight of public opinion is always beating; he can never feel surethatthose who applaud him to-qay willnotcensure him to-morrow. Consequently, the career of a Governor can only be calmlyandadequately judged after he has beenoutof the colony for some years. Now, what is the general opinion of the Jamaica Governors since1866?The general opinion isthatallof them have been deeply interested inthecountry,andthatmost of them have worked their hardest for it. The wishtosucceedmayandprobably does have much

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68TWENTIETHCENTURY JAMAICAtodo with their exertions. Even a Governor thinks of promo tionandpraise.Butthere has also been, as an animating andinspiring principle, a high sense of duty,' a feeling of obligation towards the peopleandthe Empire,andthis has helped morethanone Governor through ahardandtrying time. No Jamaica Administrator has ever been suspected of furthering his own financial interests. No Governor has ever been considered an unimportantquantity .. Eventhe.weakest of them has been credited with some ability, and all of them have been credited with good intentions. Great Britain, then, has on the ,"'hole been well served bythe men she has sentouttogovernJamaica:theyhavenotbeen incompetent place-seekers or impecunious younger sons.Hadtheybeen, the firstto,have uttered a loud protest would have been the English residents in Jamaica. For a criticalattitudetowards their Governors distinguishes them as much asitdistinguishesanyoneelse. One israthersurprisedtolearn from the figures of the censusthatthe American residents in Jamaica number as many as 337. This shows how littletheyinterfere with the public life of the colonyandhow unobtrusivetheyare. Consideringthatsixty-one per cent. of the island's export trade is with the United States of America,andthatmillions of dollars have been invested in the countrybyAmerican capitalists,itwouldnothave been astonishing if the Americanhadbeen a little more evident in Jamaicathanhe is.Heis here, however, simply as amanof business,andhe minds his own business; he is a courteous man, pays well, recog nises ability,anddoes nothingtomake himself objectionable. The consequence isthatthe Americanisnotdisliked in Jamaica. On the contrary, he is liked. He gives no evidence of his innate colour prejudice, accepting the conditions ofthecountry as he findsthem;'while the average American tourist, who now annually comestoJamaica in his thousands, never

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THEENGLISHMANIN,JAMAICA 69 showsanydisinclination to ride in the street cars with coloured people. The American visitor who has once been to Jamaica, indeed, is more oftenthannotlikelytoreturn. The Roman Catholic Church is represented by Americans in Jamaica, the Bishopandpriests being members of the Society of Jesus.Butitis of the genius ofthatChurch,andparticularly of the Jesuit Order,thatthe attention ofthe outsider is hardly ever drawn to the nationality of the men who serveit;consequently few persons in Jamaica think of the Catholic college as apartof the American community. And here again one sees how little of separateness, of hard and-fast boundary lines, there is in regard to the social life of Jamaica, using the word social in its widest significance. The Roman Catholic Bishop takes his place in,the colony as a bishop, as the local head of a Christian Church;his partici pation in movements of a philanthropic nature: is eagerly sought; he is respected, is liked, is regarded as 'one of. theleadersofthe country.Inthe controversiesthattakeplace between Catholic and Protestant the personality of the Bishop is never drawn in;thesort of criticisms 'levelledatChurch dignitaries even in Roman Catholic countries wouldnotbe tolerated for one moment in Jamaica.Thecustom, in fact. is to identify both priestandparson with the country;theyatanyrateare never foreignersandstrangers. 'Their work being amongst the people, they become associated with the peopleandthe country in the mindsofeveryone. The Canadian residents numbern-amere,handful. Writing inanEnglish paper(The Daily Chronicle)in August.I9I2,SirHarryJohnston gaveitas his opinionthatthe American was more liked in Jamaicathanthe Canadian;andas SirHarryJohnston was in Jamaica for a short time only,itistobe presumedthathe was told thisbysome of the people whom he met. On the whole, Ithinkhe is right. I have heardthesame thing myself., The Canadian is believed to be as prejudiced as the American;andnotas freewithhis money.

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70TWENTIETHCENTURY JAMAICA 'American' and 'open-handedness' almost seem to be inter changeable terms in the minds of thousandsofJamaicans. The Canadian, then, is credited withthebadqualitiesofthe American minus the good ones,andthus the individual Canadian is prejudged.Butwhat does the Jamaican know of the canadian? Canadian visitors to the island have hitherto been few; the number of the residents has already been given as only 77.Itis quite truethatthe Canadian doesnotspend his money as freely as the American does; he has less to spend for one thing. He is not extravagant in his own country,andtherefore is carefuloutof it. Yet, the question has to be asked again, what does the Jamaican know of the Canadian?Notvery much, thetruthbeingthathe misjudgestheCanadian through ignorance. No one who knows Canada and the Canadians, however little,butmust appreciate the factthattheCanadians have excellent qualities, and are,takethem for all in all, a fine people. Perhaps this will be realised in Jamaica beforelong:itought to be realised if the two countries become more closely connected.Itis not, however, the Jamaican alone who is somewhat prejudiced againsttheCanadian; the English resident is quite as much so;andhis feeling is probablytheresult of what he has heard of the Canadianattitudetowards Englishmen.Thatattitudeitisnotwithin the scopeandpurpose of this little worktodiscuss; one can only regretthatpeopleofthesame stock mainly,andunder the same flag; should sometimes show themselves unfriendly towards one another. And onemayhopethatthis antagonism (which is, after all, not very deep-seated) will wear away undertheinfluence of abetterunderstanding. No one can denythattheCanadians in Jamaica offend nobodybytheir conduct;andthose who know them donotdislikethem-justthe contrary. When there are more Canadians in the colony, Canadians generally will bebetterunderstood.Intimetheywill be liked.

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71CHAPTERIVCITY, TOWNS, AND COUNTRY JAMAICANSare sometimes apologetic in speaking of their capitalandof the towns of their island;buttheyhardly say anything about the country proper. They perceivethatKingston is sadly lacking in many of the attributes of a capital city; they know its defects,andare daily awarethatits appearance isnotcalculatedtodazzle or impress the stranger.But theyV'.rm remind youthatKingston is not' the island,justas the Canadian in Toronto or Montreal will solemnly protestthatifyou have seen only the eastern cities of Canada you havenotseen Canada. The Jamaican, having done hisdutytohis countrybyreminding youthatKingston doesnotstandfor it, leavesittoyoutoformandpass your own opiniononJamaica as a whole,andcomplacently awaits a favourable verdict.Hehas hearditso oftenthatanything else would be surprising. From the time of Columbustothepresentdayevery writer has been tryingtofind appro priate adjectives with whichtoornament his words of praise.Itwas lefttoan American touristtogiveitashis opinionthat'theisland is very handsome!' 'Handsome' is here used in a new association,butthe sincerityofthesentiment excuses the novelty oftheexpression, This handsome island hasnota handsome city; yet, to meatanyrate,thecity hasaneternal fascination, I never weary of it.Itmaybe variously described: for example,theterm 'tin-roofed town' would be appropriateifappliedtothe lower section ofit,thebusiness section known as 'down town.'After a great firehadburntdown most of the houses in lower Kingston,thirty years ago, some meanshadtobe

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72TWENTIETHCENTURY JAMAICA found of making the buildings fireproof. Thenitwasthatsomeingenious person suggested corrugated iron roofing,andcorrugated iron roofingithas been to this day. The dullgrayof the metal strikes a most inharmonious note in a country of vivid greensandblues;andiron as a covering, with a thermo meter normally over eighty degrees in the shade, doesnotgive one the impression of being the coolest thing imaginable. Or youmaydescribe Kingston as'theplace where one moves slowly'; slowly,thatis, as compared with the move ment in the cities of England or the United States. I pointedoutthe absence of hustle onedaytoan American visitor whohadlanded onlythatmorning.'Idon'twonderatit,'he thoughtfully replied, ashemopped the perspirationoffhis face.'Iguess I would move slow tooifI livedhere:Ithinkhe would,andnothing more amuses the residentthantohear themannewly arrived in the country lay down the law onthenecessity of the people. 'getting a moveon!'Of course,theycan do thisif they want.Butthe movewillcome to a full stop after a while. You cannot spend your energyandhave it,anditis a wise economy of energythatgivestothestreets of the cityanatmosphere of comparative leisure. Perspirationmaybe healthy,buttoo muchofitis.adecided nuisance. Or again, you maydescribe Kingston as'acitywith a noble background of mountains and sloping gently towards the sea.' This is the conventional descriptionandborders uponthepoetic;italso has the meritofbeing true.Butevery description packed in a sentence isatbestbutpartial,andnotatalltheequivalent of a good photograph: you cannot compassacitywith a phrase. Even 'tin-roofed town' isnotwholly true of lower Kingston..Forthe principal business thoroughfare now has most of its buildings roofed with cement, which alone makesita streetapartfrom every otherintheisland.Itis,. too, the streetthatone sees most of, the street where. the. Government offices are,andmost of

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CITY,TOWNS,_AND COUNTRY73the leadmg storesandshops.Itrepresents much of Kingston,andto say ofitthatit.is tin-roofed would moveaUthe inhabitants of Jamaicatoprotest. Kingston has had the advantage of being destroyedbyfire two or three times,andof being shaken downbyanearth quake inJanuary,1907. Except forthatlittlematterof the corrugated iron roofing,ithas benefited muchbythese catas trophies, having improved -itself on each occasion as far asthemeans, tastes,andambitions of its inhabitants would allowittodo so. When a man erects a building in Kingston, he doessowith the feelingthathe has accomplished some thing withthenature of the everlasting about it. He does,notforeseethedaywhen his successorsmaywishtoimprove uponwhathe has done,maywishtoteardown the structure createdbyhimandputsomething finer in its place.Hedoesnotforeseethatday, for he calculatesthatthose who will come after him willnotwishtodo anything madly extravagant. Kingston issopurely a. commercial city, in fact,thatbeautyisnotmuch consideredbythose responsible for its architecture; a man strivestoget all hecanoutof his property,andthe public would neverthinkof suggestingthathe oughttoimproveitfor the sake of appearances merely.Yetthewish for a fine city is in the hearts of Kingston's inhabitants,andwhen fate or accident affords themanopportunityto improve their capital they make someattemptinthatdirection. Kingston was rebuilt after a great fire in 1882,afirewhich destroyed the business section of it. Forfive-and-twenty years after its rebuilding no change took place inthestyle of structure adopted,andvery few new places were built. Then came the earthquake of 1907,andsincethatyear the city has gotatleast one street of whichithas good reasontobe proud, a street which as a businessandcommercial centre isthefinest in all the West Indies.Itis well paved, well servedbyelectric cars, taxi-motors,andhorse cabs;thebuildings on either side are strong, earthquake

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74TWENTIETHCENTURY JAMAICA proof,andsufficiently commodious for the purposes theyare intendedtoserve;inthis thoroughfare, too, are the new public gardens,and'thecolonnades in front of the stores enable the pedestriantowalk nearly the whole length of lower King Street without being roastedbythe sun. 'Quite a modem street,'thereadermaysay,andthe observation will be just.Anyonecoming straight froma country where buildings fiveorsix stories high are therulestill more,anyonecoming from a city whereanystructure of lessthanfourteen stories isnotconsidered very high,maynowandthen feelinwalking about King Streetthaton either side of him are dwarf buildings:thatis the effect of custom..Yet, so long as he is in the shade, hewillappreciate the change.Hewill observethatthe people who pass, singly, in couples, in groups, all look as if care-free,thatthereisa nonchalant swingabouttheir movements, a ca.relessnessthatattracts. Here he will see every shade of complexion to be found intheisland. The buggiesandmotor cars drawnupbythe side walks contain dames of fairorolive hue; on their heads thehatsof'thelatest fashion,' on their bodies simple White dressesthatlook cool in the heat of the day. Girls of chocolate colour, with dresses fitting them 'like gloves,; step briskly along, almost as briskly as they wouldina northern city. Swarthy men, black men, brown men, fair men moveupand do\VD, notrapidly,butwith what, after a while, the visitor would cometoconsider a good pace, the heat considered;andvehicles continuously ply for hire, the cabmen calmly breaking thela\ .... thatforbids themtoappealtothe pedestrian for patronage. One of the attractions of Kingston is'thefacility with whichthelaw relatingtominor matterS can be broken. Jamaica has the reputation of being a very law-abiding country,anditdeserves its good name; dangerous crimes are few; compared with Porto Rico, say,. Jamaica isalmostcrimeless.Butthe laws relatingtotrifling misdemeanours are many,andare often ignored. Nowandthen the police

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CITY, TOWNS, AND COUNTRY75makeanattackupon cabman or taxi-.cab driverandhale him before the courts, charge him with furious driving,orannoy ing passengers, or with some other offence of which he has been guilty a hundred times;butthewarningandfineareunheeded, for one cannot be virtuous in small things as well as virtuous in large. There is a law against loitering in the streets. The police man can ask youto'moveon'ifyou break this law.Buteverybody breaksitathis sweet willandpleasure; halfthejoy of life in Kingston consists in loitering. You loitertolookatsome interesting object you have seen a thousand times before,andcouldnotforget if you tried; you loiter to greet your friends; you loitertogazeatthesmartly dressed shop windows; you loitertopass criticisms onanymotor-carorother equipagethatyouthinkyou are seeing for the first time; you loiter becauseitis hot; you loitertoenjoy the breeze asitsweepsupfrom the sea, the breezethattempers the heat of the hottestdayandmakes life bearable; you loiter because loitering is in the atmosphere, in your blood, in the blood ofeveryonearound you. Loitering is pleasant; and, besides, you knowthatyou will accomplish theday'swork, know toothatin northern citiestheydonotwork much harderthanyou do. Loitering is one of your recrea tions; the rest of the time you givetowork. You willthinkthestreets of Kingston desertedifyou are accustomedtocrowded thoroughfares; you willthinkthecity strangely silentifyou have become usedtotheroarof a great metropolis. The people shunthesunbyday,and(presumably) the moonbynight, except on SaturdaysandSundays.ButSunday is a separate theme, a themetobe dealt with as a thingapart;let us confine ourselves heretoweek-daysandweek-a-day topics. While, then, you will always find a few people in the streets ofjamaica'scapital city, there never, except on holidays, will be anything in the least approaching a crowd in them. One seeks the shelter

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76TWENTIETHCENTURYJAMAICA ofyardsandhouses here;nordoes population overflow into the streets, asitdoes in cities which have passedthemillion mark.Sixtythousand inhabitantsmaybe congregated on a square mile or so oflandwithout their presence being obtrusively obvious.Letus gobacktolower King Streetagain-indeed,we have never leftit--andsee how compact is our life; how very near is one thingtoanother. Hardware stores, haberdashery, grocery shops, drug shops, book shops, jewellers' shops, a bank,theGovernment offices, achurch-youwill findthemall within aquarterof a mile. This isJamaica'sBroadway, Oxford Street, Boulvard des Italiens, too, if you like;butafterthe sun has gone downitis deserted, for street promenad ingisunknown in Jamaica. The citizens ride inthecars whentheywishtoenjoy the open air. They do not, like those oftheneighbouring Spanish-American countries, assemble on regular nights oftheweektowalk about, meet their friends,andlisten to the music ofthe band. A publicbanddoesplayeach Thursday;butitplays intheafternoon, in the CentralPark,which isthenorthernboundaryof lower King Street; chiefly girls andchildren go to listentoit.NotthatJamaicans arenotfond of music;theyvery much are.Butthehabitof prom enading hasnotyetbeen acquired,andsotheykeepathome. The business section ofthecityis small compared withthatgiven overtothe residences,totheoneortwostorybuildings in which the people live. No house in Kingston,orinanyother parish, is higherthantwostories. Most ofthemare built half of brick, half of wood,andsheer upon the street.Butthe farther one getsawayfrom the lower portion ofthetown the finer dotheresidences become; here you find cot tages standing in their own grounds, with flower gardens in front of themanda generalairof quiet comfort; here you find villadolJl with all its conventions; here abidethe'respect able' people. There areplentyof slums in Kingston too;manyofthelanes are slums;andthere is a lane between every two principal streets.Whatwould you have? The people

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CITY, TOWNS, AND COUNTRY77are poor,andmust live where they canandas cheap as they can. The fortunate thing for them isthatthere is no cold,andconsequently no intense suffering. They live mainly in the open air; theybutsleep in their tiny rooms,andpreferitso.Butthere are also suburbs in Kingston where thebetterworking classes live; where there are pianos if you please,androse gardens. Thesemaynotbe very many, neverthelessthatthey do existisinteresting. And they are steadily on the increase. This West Indian city now has a theatre, whichitobtained after five years of argumentandheated discussion. The earthquake having overthrown the theatre which the munici palityhadbuilt,thequestion was, how was another play housetobe obtained? The Press suggestedthatthe Legis lative Council should give a grant to thecityfor this purpose,andthe Governor didnotseem unwilling.Butsome of the city parsons protestedthatpublic money shouldnotbe used for such a purpose,anda few other folk joined them inthatprotest. Then the Press, or, rather, one section of it, sug gestedthatthe city itself should borrow the money requiredandbuild the theatre;buthere again the parsons protested,andone or two 6f the newspapers threw their support on the parsons' side. Thenitwas suggestedthatataxof a shilling per head should be levied on all tourists comingtothe island, as is the case in Costa Rica.Butthis brought the shipping agents into the field of battle,andthe parsons cametotheir support,andone or two newspapers followed. The parsons,itwas plain, didnotwant a theatre. The opposing newspapers wanted something to oppose. Nobody could agree as to what should be done,andsuch fierce things wer'e said inthatfive year discussion about the theatrethatsome persons must have wished the controversy might continue for ever. The de1?ate wasthething;itoften is the only thing in the island. Then happened the unexpected,anda fruitful source of contention was taken away. A prominentandwealthy Jamaican, Colonel

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78TWENTIETHCENTURYJAMAICA CharlesJ.Ward, who is one of the biggest sugar plantersandmanufacturers of native liquors inthecolony, quietly an nouncedthathe would givethecity the amount requiredtoprovide the theatre, whereupon some of the parsons saidtheywithdrew their oppositiontothetheatre, or wordstothateffect. The donation of ColonelWardwas,000(not by anymeans his only gifttoJamaica); the building itself has been constructedbya native firm of buildersandcontractors, after a design furnishedbyone ofthebrothers connected with the firm. The competition for the best design wasanopen one,andtheprize was wonbya native, Mr Rudolph Henriques, a very young man who acquired the knowledge he possessesbydintof his own exertions. An impartialandcompetentjurygave him the award,andhis brothers obtained the contract for erectingthebuilding.Itstands on the site oftheformer theatre,andunquestionably isthebest play house in all the West Indies, including Cuba.Itis one of the few handsome structures in Kingston,andone is pleased to be abletopointtoitasaninstance of native generosityandpublic spirit,andof native abilityandtalent. As the seat of the island's government, Kingston isnaturally the centre of the island's commercial, professional,andofficial life.Itis in Kingstonandinthebordering parish of 'St Andrewthatyou will find the chief officialsandmanyof the men who are the leaders of the country;outof the 1666 persons from England, Ireland,andScotland, for instance,II36live in KingstonandStAndrew.It is the one city of Jamaica.Itsharbour, which has the reputation of ranking among the largestandfinest in the world, makesitthe colony's chief port; this harbour is like agreatlagoon, withbuta"narrow openingtothesouth-west,andis a magnificent sheet of water fringed with mangrove plantandcocoa-nutpalm. The harbour, indeed, dwarfs into insignificance the little city lying on the lip ofthegreat plainthatsweeps down from the mountains' baseformiles and miles; one looksatthe

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CITY, TOWNS, AND COUNTRY 79 shining lake-like water, the mighty wall, green-clothedandc!oud-capp'd, in the background,andatthe mass of houses apparep.tly huddledupon a tinypatchof land, where for every house there seem a dozen trees,andone perceivesthatwhatman has done showsuppoorly beside theworkof nature.Butnature has beenatthis work for a hundred thousand years,andman hasjustbegun. Thecitypossesses hotels, of course,andthese inthe.months when tourists cometothe island are filledtoover flowing. The chief hotels in Kingston aretheMyrtleBankandSouth Camp Road Hotels; the firstisbuiltbythe sea, the second is situated in the city's finest residential quarter,andbothhave the benefit of the breezethatcomes from the sea in the day-timeandof the delightful winds thatsteal down from the mountainsatnight.Itis these breezesthatnever lull except. during the month of September,thatmake theheatof a tropical city like Kingstonsodifferent from what one hastoendure in New York, Boston, ortheeastern cities of Canada during the summer days. There one gaspsandsuffocates; in Kingston, in Jamaica generally, so long as you can find abitof shade there will be some windtokeep you from panting, while you need never fear sunstroke, with ordinary care. I have never heard of a case of sunstroke in Jamaica myself;butthis isbythe way. To returntothehotels,itmaybe saidthatthey serve a double function: the first, naturally, is to cater for guests,andthistheydo in a manner creditabletothem;theother function is the organ ising of public dances,andin thistheyalso succeed admir ably. Balls are frequently givenbythem,andatsome of these you will find hundreds of handsomely dressedpeopleJamaica'sbest--andwill get some idea of what a social func tion in the West Indies is like. On the whole, there is nothing quite so lively in theway of public entertainment as the dances arrangedbythese hotels,andtheir foreign guests seemtoenjoy them thoroughly. They afford the average

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80TWENTIETHCENTURY JAMAICA visitor the only chance he will have of meetingatclose quarters thebetterclasses of Jamaicans.ButI think I have said enough of Kingston in this chapter, though notallthatI could wishtosay. After all, there is something about it, something about the life of it, which one cannot tell of on paper,butwhich givestoitanindividuality of its ownandconstitutes its main source of interest.Itisnotbeautiful; except in the winter monthsitisnotcool;itisnotin the slightest degree impressive;itisnotcharming, like Havana;itisnoteven historic. Andyetitis interesting,andthe more familiar you are withitthe more Interesting itgrows. One loves to watch its people walking, sauntering along its streets, standingat thf" street comers, greeting one another with audible cordiality, obviously taking life asitcomes,andnottroubling much about the morrow. One sits in the Central Park,andhears the orators there discoursing to a seated audience of two orthree-itis nevermore-onthe subjectsthathave been discussed for the last four or five years with no appearance of finality. Life doesnotvarymuch in this city; change, unless causedbyaccidentorcatastrophe, comes imperceptibly; old age creeps upon one unawares. The cables bring daily the news of the outer world, of battles, murders, great speeches, epidemics,andepoch making discoveries,and the people take them all as a matter of course.Itisnotignorance,itisnotlack of interest, this.Itis habit mainly, the habit of going through the day calmly, through the long days of resplendent sunlight, only varied nowandthenbythe darkness which the thunder-clouds cast, a darkness which resolves itself into a torrential showerthatwashes the atmospheretoa crystaline purity, through which one looksatthe soft-shining snow-clouds driftingandfloating above in a concave ocean of azureandgold.Butitis not in Kingston evenatits best,itisnotin Kingston with its surrounding ramparts of mountainsandthe blue seaat.its feetthatyou will see the islandatits greatestbeauty

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THEDRIVEHOPE GARDE!'oS SOTHCAMPROADHOTEL.KIGSTO

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CITY, TOWNS,ANDCOUNTRY81 andfascination.Itisawayamongstthehills,itis onitslevel savanahs,anddownbyitslongnorthernshorethatyouwill learnwhatitisthathascausedJamaicatobe classed as one ofthethreemostbeautiful islands intheworld:withCeylonandJava,andnotas inferiortothese.Letuspictureour selvesasabouttotravelthroughsomepartofitfor adayortwo; we \villgobymotor-carthewhole way, forFranceandJamaicaarethetwo countriesthathavethebestroads.Itis morning whenwestart,andthecityis quietly awakingtothework oftheday. Westirthedustupas we. pass,littleshops open,andsleepy women peeroutatus; groups of artisans, clerks, labourers,andothersarestrolling downtothe lower partofthecity,andthoughthesunisrapidlymountingoverhead,thereis still something of freshness inthemorning air.Fortwoorthree milesourrouteleadsnorthward.Pastthemarket,which isalreadycrowded with buyersandsellers,pasthousesdilapidatedandold,butstill crowdedwithpeople,pastthenorthernboundaryofthecity,andintothecon tiguous parish ofStAndrew.Thecharacterandappearanceofthebuildingshavechanged.ThispartofStAndrew's parish isinrealitybutanextension oftheresidentialareaof Kingston;everymanwho lives here worksinKingston;butlandis cheaper hereandtheratesarelow;itis cooler too,andhardlya housebuthasitsown grounds, with fruit treesandshadetrees,andgrassandflower beds. Some handsome houses we pass,builtof woodandbrick,orof brick alone, intheWestIndianfashion;thehomes these of officialsandprosperous merchants. \Ve tumsouth-westward now,havingreachedthevillage of Half-way Tree. South-westward werunfor a while,andnow we aresurroundedbywastes of green, enveloped in silenceandoverarchedbyamightydomeof blue.Howstillitis!No sound is heard, savethatmadebyourcar;nohumanbeingstobe seen except ourselves.Evenanimalsarerare;itlooks asthoughthispartoftheJ.F

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82TWENTIETHCENTURYJAMAICA countryside were deserted.Yet we knowthatbehind the trees, buried amidst the tall grass, shieldedbythethick foliage, are cottages hereandthere,andpeople;andperhaps, althoughwedonotsee them, some curious youthsmaybe peepingatus from behindthathedge or lolling within the shadow ofthatthicket. Soonwecome to a shallow river running acrosstheroad;wedash throughitandspeed onwards. We are now intheregion of cultivatedlandandof visiblehumanhabitations. V\Teare intheparish ofSt Catherine--ijaints seemtohave been popular with the Jamaicans ofthepast-andon eitherhandofthehardwhite road, for milesandmiles, are plantationsofthebanana.Fromninetotenfeet high,andeven twelve feet, are the stems of these plants, the thickestpartof the stem beingabouttwoanda half feet in diameter.Itisso softthatyou could run a knife through it,itis so weakthatthe single bunch of fruit which hangs from its summit amongthebroad spear-like, olive-green leaves causesthewhole treetoheel over.Itis this fragility which makes a storm so serious a thing to theJamaicaplanter.Itis not pleasanttolookthisevening upon abananaplantationinfull bearing,and to-morrow morningtosee nearly every tree brokenandlevelled to the ground . Theroadhere is dusty, sodustythatyou cannot see far in front of you.Itis one of the great highways of the island,andbynight and dayhuge wagons filled with fruit, laden with sugar, or piled high with merchandise pass, continually over it. Theretheycome, some ofthemslowly drawnbyoxen, which nothinginthe world will induce to a reasonably active pace,orbysturdymules, whichstandfirst amongst the local beasts of burden.'Whoop!Hoo-hoo!'Dashow 1 This the call of the driversandthe sharp crash of the bull's hide whip asitstrikes the body of some recalcitrant cow or erring mule. 'Cow, cow,cow,cow!'Crack! The whipcracksthis time intheair,buttheanimalskilOwthatit will fall upon them shortly, for your driver in Jamaicaisnotanardent

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CITY, TOWNS, AND COUNTRY memberofthe Society for the PreventionofCruelty to Animals,themembers of which, indeed, he regards with unmitigated contempt.Hetalks to his horse, mule, or ox as ifitwere a rational being. He believesitunderstands him very well,andthatwhenitdoes anything of an annoying natureitdoessoout of sheer cussedness, or from a desire to be personally provocative. Thus he resorts to warning, abuse,andblows, in dealing with his animals, arguingthatthey should be beaten because they have sensetounderstand,andalsothattheyshould be beaten because they have no soulstobe saved. Thus through dustandcartsandshouting menwecome to Spanish Town. Hereisthe oldest town in the island, a place which was the head-quarters of the Spaniards when an English buccaneer attacked Jamaica morethanthree hundred years ago.Itison recordthatwhen Cromwell's commanders captured Spanish Town (orStJago de la Vega, asitwasandstill is sometimes called) he found halfofitdeserted. Half ofitis deserted still. This town, indeed, seems always to have lived up to its reputation of desertion;ithas alwayshadmore housesthanpeopletooccupy them;ithas alwaysbeen a silent funereal sort of place. Yetitwas for a long time the English capital ofJamaica.The Legislature met there, the Governor lived there, the Supreme Courtsatthere, the Cathedral was there,andtraditionandthe historian Leslie actually saythatonce upon a time a theatre was there. The old Governor's House (King's Houseitwas called, of course), the old Assembly Rooms, the old Court House,andthe rest of the State buildings are stilltobe found in Spanish Town to-day. They surround a square in the midst of which is a littleparkfilled with tropical shrubsandtrees. They are interesting reminiscences of a bygone day, and the town itself is from this point of view interesting.Itspopulation is over seven thousand,butyou would never suspect it. You would drive through one of its long streetsandnotmeet morethana dozen human beings, a

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84TWENTIETH CENTURY JAMAICA sad-looking goat,anda score orsoof dogs who look as if they too were historical chiefly. The problem has always beentofindoutwhat the people of Spanish Town do for a living, for there is very little commerce in the place,andbutone industry.Itis the centre of a bananaandsugar parish, however,andit is to be presumedthat many of those who are employed on the plantationsandestates live or keep their families in Spanish Town.Ithas a handful of people of the professional, planter,andofficial class,andthese form the upper crust of the society of the town. They are more or less like a large family, and their social intercourseandamusements are all after the English pattern. Living in a dull town, one becomes used to mere dullness,andone learnstomake the most of friendshipsandsocial reunions.Itis all provincial,yetIshould saythatas much happiness comes to the people of Spanish Town as to those of townsandcities of far greater pretensions. From Spanish Townwego northbywestandthrough the heart of the country.Forsome distancewehavetheRio Cobre on our left,andgreat mountains of limestone on our right; the road ishardandlevel,anda cool wind makes the journey delightful. The river is shallow here,andbeautiful exceedingly. The waterisstreaked with colour, emerald green near the banks where the wild cane grows, silver where the white sands gleam through the hyaline medium,darkblue wheretheforest trees cast their shadow over the water. Placidlyitflowsalong, litupwith. the light of the sun. The mountains totheright of us rise sheer into the sky,sohighwecannot see their summits aswelook upwards .. Hereandtheretherock cropsoutbareandyellow-white or brown;butfor the mostpartthe sides of these cliffs are covered with vegetation,anditis throughanavenue of greenthatwego.Foron the other side of the river the ground rises also, in places,andwhereitis levelandwhereitisnotare treesandtrees,andyetmore trees.

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CITY, TOWNS, AND COUNTRY Our way is now towards Moneague, a town where,inthe very midst of summer,itis always cool. The temperature changes perceptibly as our car speeds upwards, a glorious breeze blows incessantly,andtravelling is a delight. We reach the town,andnowweare in the region of upland savanahs; fenced pastures dotted with cattle are on eitherhand;magnificent silk-cotton trees standoutsingly, dead or dying in the grip of the parasitic creepersthatwind them roundandprey upon their sap. The sun is vertical,butits rays occasion no inconvenience;weare too highupfor theheattoaffect us much. Before reaching Moneague,wecrossed one of the highest roads in the islandandsaw some of the most wonderful scenery. We crossed Mount Diablo, the devil's mount, called so, doubtless, because of the peril ofitin days gone by. Time was when even the strongest pair of horses would strainandpantastheypulled a light buggyupthe hill;anda slip was dangerous, for on onehandwas a towering wall of cliffs,andon the other a succession of yawning precipices. To-day a motor-car makes nothing of the steep incline,andparapets have been built to prevent an accident.Butthe view remains as of yore, a view which few writers can adequately describe; which, indeed, is indescribable. Bits of the landscape frame themselves into perfect pictures between breaks in the hills. You look down upon sleeping villagesaglow with sunlight, upon range upon range of greenest hills rolling awaytothefar-off horizon. The sky is of most delicate blue; everytintof greenisvisible; cultivated spots appear; and,iflatelyithas been raining heavily, youmaycatch a glimpse of a lake shining like silver in the distance. Pass this way again a month hence and you will look in vain for this lake. Only nowandthen,atlong intervals, doesitappear-athing of beauty whileitlasts.But Mount Diablo has been passedandMoneagueisreached,andnow our journey lies directly northwardanddownward.Weare going towards the sea.

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86TWENTIETHCENTURY JAMAICA Down, down, steadily downwards, and with every milethetemperature grows slightly warmer. And here you observe oneofthecommonest featuresoflife in Jamaica; in adayyou can pass fromthewarm lowlands to the coolest heights, to elevations which remind you of northern countries in the verdant spring months, to a temperaturethatmaybe likened tothatofanIndian summer. And as you travel you will be temptedattimes to ask if Jamaica is very sparsely populated,sofew, comparatively, are the people you see. Yet let your motor-car break down, and you will be surprisedatthenumber of curious folkthatwill appear, whence, you can scarcely guess! Still it is truethatthecountry could support a much larger number of inhabitants,andwill, as time goes on. The lowlandsatlast!Wetumdue west now, and in alittlewhile, unexpectedly,thesea of the northern coast bursts upon our view. We have come to Ocho Rios, the place oftheeight rivers;weare in the parishthathas been called'theGardenofJamaica';weare inthatportion of the country which Columbus first sawandwhere he first landed,andwhere he lived a whole year in sicknessanddistress.Inthis parish was built the never-completed Spanish city of Seville; and from one of its little coves the last Spanish Governor of the island setoutin his open boat for Cuba, a fugitive. Nowhereisthe sea more beautifulthanhere.Allthe colours oftherainbow are reflected fromitssurface,andin the distance the waves dash themselves to foam againsttheline of breakersthathereandthererunparallel to the shore. Thisiscultivated country. Our journeyisbytheseashore;butsometimes the sea is hidden from our sightbytrees and peasants' gardens,andfor long distanceswetravel through a lane of green steeped in the shadow thrownbyoverarching trees. Hutafterhutwepass,andlarge cattle pens, and peasants trudging their way along stolidly,andgivingyoupolitely'thetime of the day.' Buggies drawnbypairs of tough,

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CITY, TOWNS, AND COUNTRY wiry country poniesrattlepast at a jog-trot pace, their occupantschiefly farmers owning from fiftytoa hundred acres of land, making a good livingandcontented with their lot. They know youatonce for a stranger,andgaze curiously,butnever rudely,atyou,andyou knowthatyou will bethe source of a few minutes' speculation to them,andmayeven constitute the staple ofthatevening's conversation.Itis afternoon now, the sunisslanting westward,theshadows are lengthening ontheroad. We have lunchedat Moneague, andknowweshall arriveatStAnn'sBayintime for dinner;werecline comfortably in our car,andfeelatpeace with all the world. An hour passes; another. V/e are in rocky regions again.Whatisthat?The roar of faUing water has smitten our ears,anda glimpse of a great volume of something white has been caughtbyoureyes as we hurried along; we halt, and, alighting, walk back to look upon one of the waterfalls for whichtheisland ofJamaicais famous. The noise is thunderous, as through a narrow gorge a huge bodyofcream-coloured water leaps into a chasm below. The rock here is yellowish-whiteandsoft, the soil is ofthesame compositionandhas coloured the water. This is a branch of the Roaring River,anda littlelateron we shall see the real Roaring River Falls, the immense cascadethattumbles over a mass of rocks withaninfinity of foamandflashes of pale green-shallseeitthrough a tangled medium of tossing trees,andshall carry awayanunforgettable memory ofit:a joy for ever. Nighthasfallen whenwereachStAnn's Bay, supposedbysometobe the place where Columbus first landed.Itis a town builtatthefoot of a hill, a town of wooden houses chiefly, and having2592inhabitants.Itsstreetsrunupanddown,andatnightare shrouded in darkness. Save forthelanternswith which the higglers lightuptheir bowlsandtraysof fruitandbreadandfried fishandcakes,andfor the gleam which comes fromthetwo or three shopsthatare open, there is no lighting. Everybody movesaboutindistinctly,thesound of

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88TWENTIETHCENTURY JAMAICA a piano makes itself distinctly heard a long way off; a primi tive town this,yetpicturesque becauseofits very primitive ness and simplicity. Flowers grow profusely here, the cratons are gigantic;andafteritrains the skyatsunset is a riot of colour, a tumultuous blaze of crimson and purpleandgold.Itis one of those towns which, somehow, you never forget, with its dark streets and hereandthere a little lantern gleaming. We shall have accomplishedourfirst day's travel throughJamaicawith the convictionthatthehotel accommodation is good. \Ve have had good food whereverwehave stopped,thebeds have been comfortable, and the attendance satis factory. This way of travellingismuch more convenientthanspending a wholedayin a train and taking our meals in a dining-car;thatsort of thing wearies one after a while, as the writer has often found when sight-seeing in other countries. Starting in the early morning fromStAnn's Bay,wehugthesea-coast once more,andthe fartherwegothe more sugarestateswebegin to see. Sugar was once the chief product of Jamaica, andisstill one of the principal exports. The cane is planted in squares,andthegreen spearsandpale purple plumes ofitbendandwave asthewind passes over them. From the chimney of the boiler-house, where the juice of the cane is turned into sugar, a column of thick smoke ascends,anda sweet odour pervades the road.Fartheron,alas!wecome upon other sugar estates,butthese are as quiet asthegrave, as deserted as a churchyard. They are abandoned properties; the sugar-works have fallen into decay,thefields are overgrown with weeds and wood, the 'Great House,' where the planter or his overseer once lived,isnow the habita tion of bats. This is one ofthetragedies oftheold Jamaica industry. Once fortunes were made out of sugar, then a bare living, then came the time whenthecompetition of European bounty-fed sugar told the Jamaica planter of his approaching ruin.ButJamaica will always make sugar, for modem machinery and modem science have come to the aid of the

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CITY, TOWNS, AND COUNTRY89planter,andsomeofJamaica's sugar soils are among the best in the world.Butitis when one has passed throughtheparish ofStAnnandenteredthatof Trelawnythatthe fullextentandmeaning ofthedecadence of the sugar industry become apparent.Fora largepartof Trelawny is deserted to-day; estate after estateispassed, all in a condition of ruin;itneeds no further knowledge to convince onethatthis parishatanyratehas never recovered from the blow whichitreceived during the nineteenth century. The effect ofsomanyruins, of expensive sugar-works given overtoabsolute neglect, of fine mansions dismantledandfalling slowlytopieces, is sad dening in the extreme. We observe, too,thatthe peoplewemeet in partofthecountry seem poorerthanthosewehave seen elsewhere, andthatis indeed their condition. Still,theyappear cheerfulandhappy. They screamouta requestatus as,ve go by---'Beg you atup!'atupbeing equivalent to three half-pence.Itisonlyaboutherethatyou will hear this word;itis, like some other terms, quite peculiar tothedistrict.Inother parishes the peasant will beg you a shilling, though not expecting to have his wishes attended to. He has learntthattourists are liberal,andraises his demand accordingly.Butin Trelawny, where probably few tourists go,thesimple peasantiscontent with asking for a tup,andis apparently equally contentifno attention is paid to his request.Itiswhile on our waytoFalmouth,thechief townofTrelawny,thatwesee some of the finest scenerythatthe island has to show. Up a high hillweclimb, then, aswereach its summit, a steep precipice breaks away upon our left. We look down,andbelow us lies a valley through which a wide dark-gleaming riverflows-theRio Nuevo on its way tothesea. Cocoa-nut trees and bananas are growing thickly on its banks,andin the fertile fields on either side of it,andthemetallic polish of fronds and leaves flash backtherays of the sun as theymoveand,rustle in the wind. Gray-green

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90TWENTIETHCENTURYJAMAICA mountains surround this valley, with hereandthere a house visible on the sides of them,andinthevalley itself a collec tion ofhutsmarks the site of a village where the peasants live. A stone bridge spans the river,andthe roadthatpasses overitloses itself among the hills. The air is delightful,anda scarcely broken silence seems to brood over this beautiful spot, a silence piercedbutnot disturbedbythe piping of little birds.Asweapproach Falmouth,weonce again have the sea in view, a multi-coloured sea breaking on delicate, fine white sand,andalong the edge of the shore grow thousands of cocoanutpalms, tallandslender, laden with fruit,andwildly waving their branches when struckbya puff of sea breeze. Seeing them thus, with their yellow-green fronds glinting in the sun, one begins to wonder if, after all, the famous Royal Palmismore beautifulthanthey. The writer has seen forests of Royal Palms inCuba--hundredsof thousands of them covering the ground for miles. And yetthese shore-lovingcocoa-nutssurely they have nothingtofear fromanycomparison with their rivals of Cuba?Sowethink;butsoonweare entering Fal mouth,andthe firstthoughtthatcomes to us isthatthismustbeSunday.Asamatterof factitis Saturday, the busiestdayin all the island.Butsostillanddesertedisthis to,m thatone would neverthinkitcould beSaturdaythere.Falmouthisthe classical example of a deserted city in Jamaica. Spanish Townispopulousanda hive of activity compared with it. Onceitrivalled Kingston;itwas the chief sugarportof the island, the produce of two rich parishes was shipped from its wharves. To-day nearly all its wharves have rotted,andbuta few planks remain in certain spots, or a few stumps of piers, to remind onethatthere once were wharvesandwarehouses alongthesea-front of the town. We remarkthatmost of the houses are large. We noticethatmost of the houses are closed,andthatthere isnotone amongstthemthatlooks lessthana hundred years old. Two thirds oftheshops are closed-morethantwo-thirds, We

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CITY, TOWNS, AND COUNTRY91count three persons intheprincipal street, onedrayisstanding outsideanemptywarehouse;wespyamanlookingoutofthewindow oftheGovernment building which dominatestheto\Vl1.Thedustisinches thick upon the street, grass grows everywhere; this surelyisa townthathas been dead for sixty years; some wouldsaydead beyond the hope of resur rection.Yetitisnotnecessarily so. The Parish of Trelawnyisslowlybutsurely developing as a banana-growing district,andthebetterthe trade relations betweenJamaicaandCanada orJamaicaandthe UnitedStatesbecome, the hope there will be for theJamaicasugar industry.Itis impossible foranyonetodoubtthatall the Great Antilles have a most promising industrial future. And inthatfuture every parish of Jamaicamustshare. The one thing of interest to learnaboutpresent-day Falmouthisthatithas nearly three womentoevery man,andthatthemajority of its'men'are either minorsorpersons longpastthe meridian of life.Itmaybe of some interesttolearn alsothatthis once-flourishing town, where the planters used to congregateandmoney flowed like water,had2517inhabitants inI8gI(whenithadalready decayed)andbut2288in1911.Furtherdecay seems impossible to us as we ride between the silent, shuttered, dust-covered housesandpass intotheopen country once more. Our journey will endat Montego Bay, twenty-one miles off. There are other towns whichwecould visit, magnificent stretches ofcountrywecould pass through, beautiful water fallswecould pause to gaze upon,andhigh mountainswecould cross. The journey is well worth taking,butthis timewecannotdo it. The whole of the interiorandthesouth side ofthecountrymustbe left unvisited;andthis(ifthetruthmustbe told) because other topics demand spaceandattentionin these pages. Ourroadisno longer level,butrollsupanddown; the gradients are still easy,anditis pleasanttoseethatin this parish ofStJames, whichwehave now entered, there are

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92TWENTIETHCENTURY JAMAICA sugar estatesatworkandbutfew signs of desertionandpoverty. WhenwecometoMontego Bay,wefind a town of wooden houses mainly,buta townthatlooks prosperous enough in its quiet, contented, tropical way. Six thousand six hundred people live in it,itsupports a weekly newspaper,ithas several large, well-built churchesandgood hotels;anditcalls itself the capital of the Northern parishes.Itisa busy town, as commercialandindustrial activity goes in the British West Indies; its wealthier classes live on'thehill,' poorer people live on the levels,andeveryoneseemstoaccord very well with every one else, in a placid provincial sort of way. One of the chiefest persons in the town is an American vice-consul, whose vice-consular position cannot be the reason why he resides in Jamaica, since he is reputedtospend a largepartof his official salary in helping forward local efforts towards improvement.Inhimwehave an instance ofanAmerican identifying himself with the islandandbeing one of the leaders in everything inthatpartof the country where he resides. He certainly does a great deal for Montego Bay. Our journey isatan end.Ithas been hurried;wehave only caught a brief glimpse of things from the interior of a motor-car. \Ve have stopped nowhere, exceptatnight;wehave visited no ancient mansions, listened to no weird legends, explored no caves,andhardly talkedtoanyof the people. Our impressions have been concerned with externals only,andwehave only partially seen apartof those. And, when night finds us on'thehill' of Montego Bay,andwewatch the town twinkling with lights below, with thedarksea rollingouttothe far horizon in front of it,weknowthatwehave passed through some of the most magnificent country in the world,butfeelthatbyno effort of ours can we conveytoanyother mind a vividand true impression of the thingswehave.seen.

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r 93CHAPTERVTHEPEOPLE'SLIFEITwas in relation to the tropics, I believe,thatsome one wrote a hymn about 'where every prospect pleasesandonlymanis vile.' The compliment to the physical features of the countries thus characterised is all right,butthe inhabitants of them might justly murmuratbeing held up,soto speak, as blots upon the landscape. However, consolation may be found in .thefactthatitis beyond the power of a landscape to be vile;thatsort of thing is left to the lord of creation,andmarks him out as superior to the inanimate world. Besides, tropical man isnotall vile. He is like man in almost everypartof the world,a composition of goodandbad, angelicandbestial, falseandtrue. He has his virtues as well as his shortcomings,andwemusttake him aswefind himandnotexpect perfec tion. And yetthatis whQ.t most persons who are new to countries such as the West Indies,orwho remain extremely foolish nomatterwhere they havt' live.dor how long they have lived, will insist 'upon doing. They credit the West Indian working classes withanunlimited amount of stupidity,anddemand from them the recognition of the highest moral standards. They"are always ready to tell you what the Negro is incapable of in the way of sustained mental effort,andthey seem to take a sort of pride in this.Butthis willnotprevent them from expecting him to show a degree of intelligence equal tothatof a college professor,andif hedoesn't-andof course hedoesn't-theypoint to his failure as proof of their contention.Ifyour Jamaica peasant were to act as he is popularly expected to act, he would have qualified for saint ship.Ifhe lived as he is presumably expected to live, he would

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94TWENTIETH CENTUHY JAMAICA workabouttwelve hours a day, with brief pauses for meals, would save nine-tenths of his wages, would be content with whatever was paid him, would be absolutely honest, painfully truthful, absurdly devoted to work, always cheerful, would never answer back, and would show a dog-like fidelity to those who wouldnotthink twice about him after hehadceased to be ofanyservicetothem. Well, he does nothingofall this. He goes sometimes,itmustbe admitted, tothevery opposite ofwhatis expected from him,anddoes much lessthanhe reasonably could. Thusitis quite truethatmanyof the labourers donotwork morethanthree days a week,andthatmanyof them lovetotake lengthy spells of rest ,,,hentheythinktheyhave toiled long enough.Butitisalsotruethatoftentheycannot get work when they want it, and in some of the parishestheplanters cannot find employment forthepeople surrounding them for morethantwo or three days a week. Then there are the illegitimacy statistics. Briefly stated, sixty-twopercent. ofthechildren born annually in Jamaica are illegitimate,andthe rate doesnottend to grow less.Ithas been practically stationary forthelasttwentyyears, while the proportion of married peopletothepopulationisjustabout halfwhatitmight be. 'This is very shocking,' Ihearsome one say,butsomehowitdoesn't shockanyonevery violently intheWest Indies. Youmayattributethistotheclimate if you like, or to useandwont.Itisnotimpossibletoregard with equanimity in the Tropics .. thingsthatwould send the temperate zone into hysteria,ifonly they were published in the newspapers. Even Mr William Archer con fessesthatthe moral condition of Jamaica doesnotappealtohimasimmoral,andhe doesnotwanttochange it.1Such istheeffect of latitude upon one's ideas.But,tobe serious, youmustrememberthatthe people of Jamaica have begun to learn about high standards of moral conduct, according to European ideals, only in late years.In1Through AJro-America.

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THEPEOPLE'SLIFE95the second chapter of this book I have said enough about the oldJamaicamannersandcustoms,andthe class of colonists who came here, to convincetheintelligent readerthatno one was likelyto learn morality from them. Nor did the slave bringanyexalted moral ideas with him from Africa; there a wife was property,andifadultery was severely punished,itwas asanoffence against property. Polygamy was arid is practised in West Africa,andthe monogamistideal-namely,home, love, domesticity, one wife,andthedue observance of socialduties-doesnotappeal to the West African savage. The upper classes of the Jamaica people always defend the peasant's way of lifebysayingthateven if he doesnotmarryheisfaithfultothe woman he selects as his partner.Ina considerable number of instances this is no doubt true; I should saythatcomparative faithfulness was the rule, the absolute being difficult to achieve in normal life. The Jamaica peasant doesnotmarry, because he doesnotwant to be tied for ., life to one woman. Apart from the responsibility of marriage, which he fully appreciates, heisawarethathemaynot get on very well withthewoman he is supposedtospend his whole life with, anditdoes not appeartohimtobe reasonablethathe shouldmarryfor worse as well as for better. Wemustbear in mindthatMrBernard Shaw is also decidedly of this opinion. No one shouldmarryfor worse, says M"r Shaw,andin the average Jamaican peasant he hasanenthusiastic supporter.Soour peasant marries rarely; so tospeak,hereversesStPaul's dictumandsays,'it is betterto burnthanto marry.' And frankly, the results of some ofthemarriagesthattakeplace-andthey arenotso few afterall--are -not calculated tofilltheheartof the people with admiration for the institution of monogamous marriage. My wife having left mycare and protection, Iamno longer responsible for her,' is a legend whichnotinfrequently onemayread in the newspapers. Sometimesthewife will retaliatebysayingthatshe has been forced to leaveherhusband's protection; and

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96 TWENTIETHCENTURY JAMAICAa'tevery sittingofthe Circuit Court the local papers have a couple of columnsofprint entitled'TheStoryofSome Un happy Marriages,' reading which you might be justified in believingthatthe reporter found much happiness in recording the proceedings of the divorce court. The number of married couples in Jamaica is about150,000,anditisatonce obviousthatthis number does not represent the better classes alone.Allclasses marry in the island, peasants as well as professional men; still the bulk of the lower or \vorking classes are unmarried, and showatpresent no tendency to change their mode of life.Butithas also to be taken into accountthatthose persons who are above the peasant class think it incumbent upon them to marry, and this itTespective entirely of colour. Social position largely determines what a man's marital relations shall be,andthe simpletmthisthatno disgrace attaches to members of the labouringand peasant class who do not choose to get married.InKingston the working classesanddomestic servants live chiefly in the lanes of the cityandin the poorer suburbs; inthecountry parishes the peasants live in villages, forty, fifty, or even a hundred together. They supply the neighbour ing plantations with labour, and apartof their timeisspent in cultivating their own patch of ground. 'When you learnthatthe number of planters returned in the censusof19IIwasII2,542,you will understandatoncethatthere are a great number of peasant planters in the colony, over a hundred thousand as amatterof fact. Life in the village is very simple. The duties one has to perform arenotnumerous,butdiggingandplanting arenotsoeasy as onemaythink, especially when the planter or labourer has to toil under a pitiless sun. The houses the people live in are oblong structures of plaster and wattle thatched with palm leaves or straw, plasterandwattle houses roofed with shingles,andwooden houses shingledandfloored, the last description of building having gained in popularity as the people's circumstances have improved.In

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TirE ARCllDlSllOP OFTIm WESTINDIES

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THE PEOPLE'SLIFE97,everyvillage is a shop,andsometimes two;notvery far away as distance goes inJamaica is a schoolhouse,andnowandthen a rural policeman passes through the place. The law is observed here, the Churchisrespected. And so the daysgoby, calmanduneventful,andnot unhappilywemaysafely believe.Asitis with the domestic servantthatstrangers andthebetter-class people of the towns come chiefly into contact,andas this section of the people, maleandfemale,numbersno lessthanforty thousand, let us see howtheaverage servant is trainedanddevelops.Itwill beapparentthatifoutof a population of lessthannine hundred thousand, most of whom serve themselves, the number of domestics is forty thousand, almost everybody who hastheslightest pretensions to be considered anybody employs a servant.Infact, you arenotrespectable' if you have not a servant.Thatatleastisone law of Jamaica life. And when you have learnt howthedomestic servant lives, you have: leai'nt how the working class people of all the Jamaica towns live . NoJamaica peasant woman ever troubles her mind about the future ofhergirls whiletheyare still very young; so long as there is a roof over their headsandsomething each day for them to eat, sheiscontent to take no thought of the morrow, knowingthat,as she herself ""ill tell you, the Lord is certaintoprovide.Butthedaycomes when she is obliged to recognisethatthegirls are growing to woman's estate, andthenshe realisesthatthelittle family field cannot much longer support so large a family. Then she prepares for the inevitable parting with her eldest daughter. She saysitis now time forthelatterto'look living,'andthisiswhatthe girlmayherself have been thinking for some time. While she has been ripen ing to womanhood new ideas and sensations have crept into her brainandheart. At the little village church she,may, have seen someyouthwhomtoher eyeshadallthewonderful qualities of manliness, or, on some visitto'town,' shemayhave caught a glimpseofsome one of whom she has been thinking everJ.G

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9B TWENTIETHCENTURYJAMAICA.since. So motheranddaughter are agreedthatthe parting of the ways has come;butthe mother doesnotknow what vague thoughtsandfeelings are fermenting in her daughter's mind, never quite perceives the v.:oman in the growing, maturing girl. Now in somepartsof the island field-workisalmost the only form of employment open to women.Butmost of the girls dislike it,andpublic sentiment atthe idea of girls of tender age working along with boysandmen under circum stances conducive to the most thorough demoralisation. The aimandambition of every decent countrywoman, therefore, istosecure forhergirls good places as domestic servants. Hence, whileitmaysometimes be somewhat difficult to obtain cheap female labour for th fields, women for household work are neverhardtofind; with the resultthatalmostanyoneinjamaica,withanypretensions to respectability, invariably keeps a servant,andsometimes two, for wages are low,andyourjamaicadomestic is content with surprisingly little. Often, however, when a mother. is planning the future of one of her girls, the girl solves the problem for herselfbyquietly goingoffwith ayouthwho has caught her fancy. When this happens theremaybe perturbationanddistress inthefamily,butitdoesnotlastlong; for there is alwaysanelderly friend to remind the motherandtheothersthat,"Godmoves in a mysterious way, His wonders toperform";thatperhaps (whoisto tell?) thismaybe the best thingthatcould have happened toJane;thatinanycaseJaneisonly one of thou sands who have done the same thing;andthatitisthedutyof us all, being good Christians, to shoulder our crosses humbly,takecourage,andgo forward.' Such consolationisalways accepted,andisusually effective. Perhaps the elder female relatives ofJanerememberthattheythemselves acted in precisely the same manner in the days of their youth. And thoughitistruethatJanehadno right to follow their example, there is clearly no sense in fretting overwhatcannot possibly be undone. ThusJanegoesout

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THEPEOPLE'SLIFE99 into the world on her own account;andsoon her people learnthatsheisgetting on very well, orill,as the casemaybe.Inanyevent, the friendliest of relationships are soon re-estab lished between the girl and those she has left in her desireto'look a living,' and no further word of censureisuttered against her. Few girls, however, will venture to take the bit in their teeth beforetheyare sixteen or seventeen,anditis when they are about twelve years of agethattheir mothers begin to think of having them learn something by whichtheywill be able to earn their bread. Onedaya woman, accompaniedbya girl, may arrive in one of the towns, having walked all the way from a village some tenorfifteen miles distant. Perhaps this woman has heard of a lady who wants a servant girl, perhaps she merely hopestohear of one. She has brought some produce with her to the town-market,andthis disposedof,after much higglingandmanyunnecessary appealstoconscience and Providence, she sets'outwith hersturdylittle daughter to seek for some one whomaybe willingtogive food, clothing, and shelter to the child in exchange for her simple services. This person may be a stranger in the town, may be a visitor from Kingston,thatfar-off city where' (as the story runs in the country districts) cars run about without the aid of mules and carriages without the help of horses; where wealth isabundantandlife a long series of intoxicating enjoyments. News of the stranger's arrival somehow reaches the old woman's ears;aninterviewissolicited; does the mistress want a school girl? Probably the mistress does;butis she a good girl? Oh, yes; the parson is prepared to give her a good character and to protesttothe excellence of her Christian upbringing; her mother also has taught her how to work, and now suggestsanunfailing remedy for all indications of insubordination or laziness on' herpart:'Flog her well, missis,ifshedon'twantstohobeyy'u;flogher well, ma'am,ifshe takeupwidbadcompany. When Iputher wid a kine, good lady like you,

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100TWENTIETHCENTURY JAMAICA who will take care of her, she mus' do whaty'utell her.Don'tspare de lashan'spoil de chile, missis.'...Thus the bargain is struck. The girl is handed over to her first mistresstobe taken away and trained in the way she shouldgoin the future. The mistressmaybe a'white'or'coloured'lady, or a 'brown female.'Itis chiefly thelatterwho makesita pointnottopaywages, substituting therefor such sound moral admonition as shall suffice to make religionandmorality a very bugbear to the youthful catechumen.This'female' sometimes makes her livingbyselling milk, bread, fruit,andother things; keepsatleast two schoolgirlsata time; teaches them to cook, clean, wash,anddo other household work in an indifferent manner; whips them when they misbehave;andalways tells them of the girls she has trained,andwho now (accordingtoher uncontradicted version of the story) are a credittoChurchandState,andspend much of their time in congratulating themselvesthatin early life they came under the tuition ofsogood a mistress. Sheisnotunkind as a rule, fornotonly is the average Jamaican a kindly person, and public opinion much aversetothe ill-treatment of children,butthelatterare independent enough to run away if exist ence is made a burden to them. More oftenthannottheysleep on a bundle of rags on the floor;butthis they take to be no hardship. They are fed on' coarse food: rice, yams, sweet potatoes, bread, saltfish,andsplit-peas, red-peas, gongo peas,andpumpkin soup forming the staples of their fare, with meat occasionally.Butfor fresh meat most of them never develop a liking,nothaving become accustomedtoitin their youth. Their passionisforprettyclothing,andthistasteis gratifiedtoa limitedextentbywise mistresses. Thus their life may pass from yeartoyear untiltheyare eighteen. They are notunlike serfs,but they arenotunhappy. Their relatives occasionally come to visit them. They stand on a familiar footing with their mistresses, are consultedbythelatteron business enterprisesandeven

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THEPEOPLE'SLIFE101on matters of domesticconcern; are praised often, designated as ungrateful upon those occasions when they. manifestanunwilling disposition; and, as they increase in experienceandvalue, are given pocket moneysothattheymaynotsteal. This, of course, doesnotprevent them all from stealing. Hence a girl sometimes obtains the reputation of being a 'puss' quite early in life,andonce having developed a strong disposi tiontolevy contribution on other people's goods,itis rare indeed. to find her becoming honest in later life. Then thereisalways some trouble about boys. An inclination on thepartof the girls to linger in streets and lanes after nightfall with members of the masculine sex has to be sternly sup pressed,'bigmissis' even goingsofar as to declareattimes her unalterable determination to send the offender back to her parents in the country,andthus deprive herofall the benefits of a high and progressive civilisation which,inher mistress's opinion, sheatpresent enjoys.Butthedaycomes when custom stales and threats are of no effect. The school girlmaybe eighteen now,anda spirit of unrest has developed strongly within her.Itmaybethatshe is in love,andwishestoleave.Ifso, she may tell her mistressthat she isgoing to the country to see her people, andthusmake a comparatively honourable exit; or, her courage failing her, shemayone night decamp suddenly, taking herfewarticles of clothing with her. When her flightisdiscovered, her mistress will saythatshe ahvays expected something of the sort to happen,andmayin her anger accuse the poor girl ofsomany crimes and misdemeanoursthatyou(ifa stranger) will wonder how such youthful depravity could possibly exist.Butour 'schoolgirl,' when seventeen or eighteen,maysimplyfeelthatthe time has arrived when she should becomeanindependent, wage-earning woman. She may hint this to her mistress, who will then seethatitis quite im possible for this schoolgirl to remain much longer with her. Perpetual fault-finding, discontent, and quarrels now denote

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102 T\VENTIETH CENTURY JAMAICAthe developing estrangement; then one day the climax comes,andshe goes for good. Sheisnow her own mistress, her 'own woman,' as she herself puts it, and henceforth she is responsible to herself alone. For the most part, her career will bethatof a domestic servant. Her early career will have been differentifshe has been a schoolgirl in a better-class family. There shemayhave beenputto look after the younger. children, run errands,anddo odd jobs about the house.Ifa girlofsteady character, shemayremain for years inthathousehold, her manners becoming refinedandher appearance steadily improving. She may marry'outof the family,' as the local expression goes,andalways she will keep up friendly communication with those to whom she will believe (and rightly)thatshe owes a great deal;orshemayremain a trusted servant till her death. Faithful, perfectly satisfiedthatthose she serves are the finest people intheworld, efficient and somewhat arrogant towards the rest of the servants, she rulesthathouse hold as one born to command. Sheisreferred to asan'old time person,'such as you never see in these degenerate days. She herselfisconvincedthatwomen of her type have passedoutof existence for ever, the younger generation of Jamaica girls being entirely without virtues ofanysort. How do they live, these women, on whom falls most of the domestic work of Jamaica? Briefly I have given some idea of their existence in their 'schoolgirl' days, in the days when they hadnotto think of what they should eat, whattheyshould drink, or wherewithaltheyshould be clothed. Then they were without means of their own,butalso they were without care. Andatthe worst they could always return to the country,tothe little village in the hills, to the thatchedhutnestling under the great rustling lea ves of the banana, certaintofind there a shelter for a while. Indeed,solong as the old people are alive, the little home in

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THEPEOPLE'SLIFE1 the country will always haveanopen door for the daughter who has goneoutinto the world. Yet no grown woman likes to return home, except on a short visit,andas a person of independent means. Very rarely will the girl who has'takenthe world upon her shoulders' consenttolet her people knowthatshe is in desperate straits. She loves her independence, she takes a certain pride in being able to manage her own affairsanddirect the courseofher own life.Inher progress fromyouthto old age she passes throughmanyexperiencesandsuffersmanyvicissitudes,butto her old 'home' shebut rarely returns for good. Always she acts upon the principlethatsufficient untothedayisthe evil thereof. She doesnotfret about the future. She does not think of it. She struggles on through adversity untilbettertimes come round. Sometimes your servant will be glad to sleep in oneofyour servants' rooms, with which every Jamaica houseisprovided. There are generally hvo of these; small boxes as a rule, and builtataboutthirtyor forty feet away from the' house. These are sometimesplainly-veryplainly-furnishedbyemployers; as a rule, however, your servantissupposed to have her own furniture, which more oftenthannotconsists of a truckle bed, a deal-board table,anda couple of small boxes as substitutes for chairs. The walls oftheroom will be decorated with picturescutoutof old newspapersandperiodicals;andtwo servants usually sleep in one room. Thisbypreferenceandfor company;andatnighttheybarthe doorandbolttheshutter,andclosethejealousie windows tight, thus excluding as much fresh air as possible. This room istheirsleeping apartment, and exceptatnighttheyscarcely use it. Most of their timeispassed in the kitchen, in the wash-house, in the streets, in the yard. Mo!'\t of their life is passed in the bright sunshine, inthefull blaze of it, with the blue sky above their heads. Theymaynotthinkof these,yetitis this environment of blue skyandbright sunthathelps them to accept drudgery and ill-fortune with such

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I04 TWENTIETH CENTURY JAMAICAlight-heartedness. So long asitis warm and there is colour in the sky, their hearts are glad.Butmost often your servant willnotsleeponthe premises. 'She would be glad to do so,but--'Thatsettles it. There is no sense in insistingthatshe shall sleep if you want to retain her services. Perhaps she has a little child or twoathome,andthe possession of those childrenmaycompel her to giveupa comfortable room in a big and fairly sanitary yard,andmay oblige her to rent a little place in an insanitary yard, paying the rentoutofthescanty wages she receives. Yet, after all, the children are dearer to herthanthe compara tive comforts of a room attached to your residence; besides, the daymaycome when theymaybethe only barrierthatstands between herandthe Union Poorhouse. Your servant's day's worl.;: doesnotend when she leaves for her little home.Ifyou have undertakentofeed her, she will take her dinner. away with her, and, arrivedathome,'maydo some cooking on her own account.Bythe threshold of her little room (built all ofwood)she will place a box,andon the box a lighted stove. A tiny saucepan is soon steaming on this stove, what time her little ones stand patiently round waiting until their dinnerisprepared. 'When the food is cooked,itissupplementedbythe victuals she has brought with her, and carefully apportioned out to each one according to his or her needs; then the children will be biddentosay grace, for spiritual matters are never' far from the thoughts of the West Indian ,womanatanytime. The meal over, the chlIdren areputto bed. Then the mother either sits in her ovm roomandtalks to her next-door neighbours (from whom she is dividedbythin partitions of board only), or she squats on a box in the yard and converses with others who congregate there, or strolls to the gateto see whatmaychancetobe happening in the dusty lane. Early in the morning she will riseanddo some washing for herself or her children. Periodically she comes into possession of a 'friend,'andthen,

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THEPEOPLE'SLIFE.105for the time, her burden may be lightened.Butas her family grows, grows alsothenecessity for hertowork harderandmore steadily. Then somedayher eldest girl goesoffto 'look a living' for herself, or her biggest boy departs to carveoutan independent career. Andthenit is that, perhaps for the first time, she realisesthather life is slipping awayandthat. she is no longer young. Ifshe livestobe old, she will probably become a regular memberofa church,. andherchildren will seethatshe and their father do not starve.Butifthere arc no children and Caroline is still in the morning of womanhood, she indeedisa per sontobe envied. Her chief concern and the delight of her life is dress; she insists upon taking the Sundays-off which are hersbyagreement, and on public holidays the chancesarethatshe may suddenly fall sick for the purpose of attending a picnic. To many persons the way in which their servants dress in these daysissomething of a mystery.Butto the initiated thereisno mysteryatall about the matter. Some years ago there appeared in Jamaica a small number of men who could barely speak English, whowentabout with packs on their backs,andsoon came to be knownbythe generic name of 'Turks.'Later on they were recognised as Syrians, and from the first they set themselvesoutto get into touch with servants and other people of much the same class. They soldandstill sell everything. Boots, cloth,jewellery-allthese and more are to be found in the wonderful packs of the Syrians;bypaying a shilling a week,ortwo shillingsatthe most, you may have a dressora fine pair of shoes costing a poundandupwards. The temptation is great,andCaroline cannot resist it.Soon Sundays or on important holidays, did you meet your' servant in the street 'tis ten chancestoone you wouldnotrecognise heratfirst,sobravely is she decked out. Her joy reaches the highest heights when she receivesaninvitation to a wedding; for to be one of the 'gesses'atsuch a functionisa rare privilege (weddings themselves being rare);andto .

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106TWENTIETHCENTURY JAMAICA dressinwhite or pink muslin, wear white shoes, adorn one's hair with -roses,and be driven through the streets in a carriagesothatall the world mightstare-couldexistence have finer and more exquisite pleasure to offer? She thinks not;sofor weeks she will save money (and run herself intoanyamount of debt), all for the sakeofbeing a guestatthe wedding. And toeveryoneshe meets she will show the card of invitation with its letters of gold,andshe will want her mistresstosee her in her resplendent garments, and for days, weeks,andmonths after she will speak ofthatwedding, and narrate. the things said to herandthe things she said, and perhaps she will leave her employment before she has finished paying the Syrian the full amount she owes him, for well she knows he has charged her double the money the things she took were worth, he having argued (not wrongly)that she wouldnotbe anxioustomeet her obligations in good time. The ambition of Carolineisto have a dress'justlike the mistress own.' She is not envious,butemulous. Andifthereisone thing she objectstomorethananotheritis being chargedwith dishonesty, for between'taking'and'stealing' a little of your essence she draws a firm line.Ifshe is honest (as most often sheis)she will leave your money alone; your clothes, too, she will leave undisturbed.Butif,after she has repeatedly given proof of such incorruptible rectitt:de, you should find fault with her for merely'taking'a little sugar,oreven for'taking'a little essence, the chances arethatyou will lose forthwith a servant with outraged feelings. She will henceforth regard you as utterly mean,andwill almost prefertostarvethanto continue working with such as you. You can, of course, pointoutto herthatyou have objectionstoyour essence or powder being disturbed,andthe warning may be heeded.Butshe mustnotbe ridiculed before the other servants, or spokentoroughlyandharshly. Whatever you do, in fact, you mustnotridicule the peasant people of Jamaica or shame them before others. An insulthurtsthem morethan an injury.

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107CHAPTER VISOMEBELIEFSANDCUSTOMSNOTmore than a century has passed since the work of Christian ising the people of Jamaica was begun;atthe beginning of1800the island was practically heathen. A great number of the peoplethenliving had been brought from Africa, most of the slaves born in the country had African parents;anditis a favourite saying among the white men who have lived in theDarkContinentthatonly a sheet of fine paper divides West Africa from hell. Therewefind all the superstitions which have degraded and brutalised the minds of men; therewefind the worship of imaginary evil beings; and,itneed hardly be said, the people who came from West Africato Jamaica in the days oftheslave trade were steepedtothe lipsinall the abominations ofthatcountry. They brought their beliefs with them. They remembered their practices. Before the emancipation of the slaves most of those practices couldnotbe openly indulged in,yetthatdidnotprevent them from being carried on in secret. One thing, however, I donotremembertohave seen mentionedbyanyearly writer on Jamaicahistory:I do notrecollectanyreference to human sacrifices here.Ifthey did take place, all knowledge of them must have been sedulously kept from the mastersandthe Government.ButI donotthinktheytook place,andnone has ever been heard of since freedom was proclaimed. To-day, the very memory of such a thing has gone from the minds of the most debased practitioner of African witchcraft. And this witchcraft itself, or obeah, as itislocally known, is rapidly undergoing modifications; is

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ro8TWENTIETHCENTURY JAMAICA progressing from the tragicanddangeroustothe merely ridiculous:Whatis obeah? Excellent descriptions. of the practice ofitaretobefound in a score of books dealing with Jamaica;notone authentic explanation of its originandmeaning has been given before. Writer after writer refersitback to ancient Egyptian religion;weare toldthatobeahisderived from the wordDb,the Egyptian word for serpent, anditis assumedthatthe serpent or snake plays an indispensablepartin the practice of obeah.Asamatterof fact,itdoes not. Authori tative works, especially thoseby MissMary Kingsley and Colonel Ellis, have been written on West African religionandwitchcraft,andvery little is said about snakes in them. I have,indeed,nevercome upon the word obeah in connec tion with Africa, thoughitmaybe used somewhere on the West Coast, for allthatI know to the contrary.Whatexactly corresponds to the old obeah ism of the West Indies is what is generally described as witchcraftbystudents of West African beliefsandcustoms; and witchcraft amongst the West African peoples is as much hated, condemned, and feared asithas ever been in these islands, For the \Vest African wizard (or obeahman) is not a priest, and has never been regarded inanycountry save as a dangerous person. Obeahism itself has undergonesogreat an evolution in Jamaica, the originofitissocompletely forgotten,thatitmaybe well to tracethatorigin here, to show whatitwas in Jamaica a century ago, whatit was atthe end of the nineteenth century, and what itisto-day.Inthis,vay ''\'e willobtain some ideaofthe progressive forcesatwork in Jamaica; for the progress from base superstitions to saner beliefs is one of the finest evidencesofa developing civilisation: Let us see, then, how a man becomes a \vizard in West Africa. The West African natives, and particularly those of the Gold Coast (from whichpartof Africa the larger number of the Jamaican slaves were brought), believe in a number of

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SOMEBELIEFSAND CUSTOMS gods of different classesandunequal power. All these gbds have their priestsandpriestesses,butthere is one particularly malignant spirit which, ontheGold Coast, has no regular priesthood. Heiscalled Sasabonsum,andanyindividualmayputhimself in communication with him. Sasabonsum's favourite residenceisthe ceiba, the giant silk-cotton tree. He is resorted to in the dead of night, hisvotarygoing to the spot where he is supposed to live, and, collecting there a little earth, or a few twigs, or a stone, he prays the godthathis powermayenter this receptacle.Ifhe believesthathis prayer has been heard, he returns home with his suhman, as the thing is now named, and henceforward he has a power which is formidable for injurious purposes, to\'vhichhe offers sacrifice,andto whose worship he dedicates a specialdayin the week.Bythe aid of this suhman he can bewitch a man to death. He can also sell charmsthatwill cause death or bodily injury. To other less pernicious uses his charmsmayalso beput:thus a suhman charm, in the shape of a bundle of twigs,isvery efficacious for keeping thieves away from a house or provision ground, if hungupwhere it can be seen.Buta man with such a 'power' is, potentiallyatleast, a very dangerous person.Anyonemaygo outandget asuhmanifhe likes,butthere arefewwho dare doso.They are afraid of Sasabonsum, the witches' god;theyare likewise afraid of the opinion of their neighbours, who, knowingthatpower to doharmisvery likely to be used harmfully, condemn the keeping of asuhmanas prejudicialtothepublic welfare. There are also the priests, who are the proper and legitimate means of approaching the gods. These look upontheman who has a suhman asanupstartrival,andtheykeep a vigilant eye on him. Themanwith such a malignant power, therefore, often avoids publicity;buteither through the temptation of gain, or because he wishes to be respectedandfearedbythepeople, or because he thinks he is powerful enoughtoflout public opinion, he sometimes letsitbe knmVIl thathe has asuhman.

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IIOTWENTIETHCENTURY JAMAICAButifhe should be publicly accused of being a wizard,andisnotstrong enoughtodefy the crowd, his chances of escapingdeathare few, foraninfuriated, terror-stricken African people arenottobe trifled with.Ifitisbelievedthathe has deliberately bewitched someone-andevery West African believes himself bewitchedprettyoften during the courseofhislife-hemustbe a very powerful or very lucky individual indeedtoescape the consequences of his alleged wickedness. A priest, ontheother hand,mayalso sell you charms to scare away thieves, help you to prosperity, or keep away disaster. All this comes withinthefunctions of a memberofthe West African priesthood.Hemayeven undertake to'putdeathupon a man,' as the wizard does,ifheissufficiently well paid for the business.Butpriests donotcare to indulge in this sort of thing. Their main function is to propitiate the gods, to unbewitch people; in a word, to prevent disasters from occurring. They know, too,thatiftheycame to be regarded as willing toactthepartof common murderers foranyoneandatanyprice, their influence would beshaken:attheveryleasttheywould bebitterlydetested. Then, as things go in West Africa,theymake a very good revenueoutof their witch-doctor work; consequently they generally leave bewitchings to those who make a practice of them.Bothwitchesandwizards, priestsandpriestesses, were brought toJamaicainthedays oftheslave trade,andthe slaves recognisedthedistinction between the formerandthe latter. Even the masters sawthatthe two classes ,verenotidentical,andsotheycalled thelatter'myalmen'and'myalwomen'-thepeople who cured thosewhom the obeah menhadinjured. Of the present-day descendants of these priests or myal men more will be saidlateron.ItisprobablethatmanyoftheAfrican priests became simple obeah men after coming to Jamaica, for the very simple reasonthatthey couldnotopenly practice their legitimate profession.But,

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SOME BELIEFSAND CUSTOMSIIIwhen known as obeahmen, however much they might betreatedwith respect,theystill werehatedandfeared.Everyevil wasattributedto them. The very name of them spread terror. They worked with charmsandspellsandpoison. When amansaw a bundle containing oddsandends of thingsatthethreshold of his door, he gave himselfupfor lost; and, if terror didnotdo its work effectually, poison would be employed.Itis relatedthatone old obeahwoman alone was responsible forthedeathof a hundred slaves in fifteen years. This was inthemiddle ofthenineteenth century. At the close ofthelastcentury one sometimes heard ofanobeahmanconfessing, when on the point of death,thathehadbeen the cause of several persons dying, though this was probablyanexaggeration.Forthe fear of obeah, terrible a hundred years ago, has decreased steadily ever since emancipation.Itis still to be reckoned \"ith, butis much feeblerthaneven when I witnessed the scene I describe below;anditshould be mentionedthatthe obeahman to-day is mainly employednotto work othersharmbutto bring good fortune.Heisnotsomuch a terror as a fraud.Itwas intheyear 1897thatIhadanopportunity of seeing a high-priest of obeahismatwork.Inone of the yards of Kingston,justa little above the northern limit of the city proper, there lived an old woman who was considered a good member of the church to which she belonged. Shewentfre quentlytoreligious services, supported the church to the best of her ability, was scrupulously cleanlyandrespectful to her superiors,buthardandunyielding towards those whom she disliked. She was a firm believer in obeah;anditwas even darkly whisperedbyher enemiesthatshe oncehadbeenanobeahwoman herself. Shehadtwo children of her ownandseveral step-children;andwhen her second husband died she possessed herself. of all his goodsandchattels, including theyardin which she lived. To thisher

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IIZTWENTIETHCENTURY JAMAICAstep-children objected, not unnaturally, for there was a will,andshe wasnoteven mentionedinthe\vill.Noone, how ever; was prepared to resort to lawjustthen, for the very good reasonthatno one felt quite sure of his or her legal position. Some members of the oldman'sfamily, however, delegatedbythe rest, came down from the hill districts to the north onedayandtook forcible possession of some of the rooms in the yard. Physical force being ontheside of the invaders, the old womanhadperforce to submit, though with rage in her heart. She uttered vague threats against them,andtheyreturned her sinister remarks with interest. They felt surethattheywould be injuredbyher some day,ifonly she should get the chancetowork them harm.Forherpart,she was satisfiedthattheywould stopatlittle to drive her out of the place. The old woman's son lived \vith her,buther daughter did not. She lived in the hillstothenorthof the city,andhadsetuphousekeeping withtheman who wasthefather ofherthree children,andon whom, unluckily, anotherladyhadcast envious eyes. This led to manybitterquarrels between Susanah(astheold woman's daughter was called)andthe other woman;atlast, one day, a fight took place between them,andSusanah was severely wounded in the head withaniron bar. She was senttothe nearest hospital, and the woman went to prison; she recovered, and for a year orsoeverything seemed togowell with her, as usual. Then she began to complain of severe pains in her head,andthese steadily grew worse. The crisis came one day when, working in her little provision field on the hill-side, under a vertical sun, she fell down in a fit;andwhen she recovered consciousnessitwas to scream and raveandtoss herself doctor would have said she was deranged. Shehadmoments and even hours of calmnessandlucidity, She hadatthose times a faint idea ofwhatshehadbeen doing,butdeclaredthatshe couldnotrestrain herself, Her madness continued;

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JAMAICATOWNA.JAMAICAVILLAGE

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SOMEBELIEFSAND CUSTOMSII3eventually her mother went for herandtook her to Kingstontohave her treated for the mysterious maladythathadsosuddenly afflicted The old womanhadno doubt what ever astothe nature of the complaint.Itwas clear that. Susanahhadbeen obeah ed, anditwas her half-brothers who lived in Kingston whohaddone the deed! A ghost had been'puton her.' All this I learnt afterwards as a result of diligent inquiry.WhatI saw for myself wasthatthere was noattempttocall in a doctor toseetheunfortunate woman who was a victim bothtomadnessandto superstitious fears. Night after night, day after day, in a tiny room raisedbuttwo feet from the ground,andwith its two small windows carefully closedtoprevent a draught, Susanah lay mourningandtossing upon a wooden bed. The room was always crowded with people,partlysympathetic,partlycurious to see a woman who was being hauntedbya ghost.Atthe threshold of the door a sheet of tin was placed, and heaped up on this was a mixture of bush and weeds ofanawful smell,andbits of cows' hornandhoof,anddried orange peel,andone or two powerful drugs.Thewhole heap was kept burning continuously,dayandnight,anda thick smoke fromitrose upwardsanddrifted into the room. This was supposed to be a means of driving ghostsandevil spirits away,andsometimes the watchers would sing with the same object in view. The sound seemed to distress the sick woman, for often in the midst of the lugubrious howling of the people she would spring from her bedandscream,andmake a desperate effort to rushoutinto the yard.Atsuch timesitwas believedthatthe ghost was particularly active in working its wretched will upon her,andher mother, her face a pictureofrageandterroranddespair, wouldmutterterrible threats against her enemies,andinvoke curses on their heads,andwould heap more cows' hornandstinking bushandasafcetida on the smokingplatteratthe threshold ofJ.H

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114 TWENTIETHCENTURY JAMAICA the door, and the women intheroom would read aloudtheBible story of themanpossessedbydevils who lived among the tombs,andthen, liftinguptheir voices, would endeavour, byrepeating verses of Scripture, to exorcise the ghostthatwas tormenting poor Susanah.Forthreeorfour weeks this sort of thing went on .. Over fifty persons lived in the yard,andthe otheryardsintheimmediate neighbourhood were as crowded. Hence there were always betweenthirtyand forty persons to gather after night fall round the room in which Susanah lay, forthepurpose of watchingherandofdiscussingherstrange illness. Most of them believed shehadindeed been obeahed,andclearlytheobeah was strong, since the power ofithadnot been brokenbythesinging of hymns,thereading of the Bible, nor evenbytheburning of cows;homand stinking weed. Tben something occurred which proved to the full how terrible was the ghost whichhauntedthewoman. Susanah's brother, goingoutonedayatnoontopurchase drugs toburn atthethresholdofthe, room, suddenly fell down in a fit. Shrieks of horror rose from those who saw him fall,andI, hearingthenoise (though livingatsome distance from the yard) rushed in to seewhatwasthematter. ThereOntheground the youngmanlay, unconscious and gasping, the victim of his own superstitious fears. When he recovered, he told the anxious group around himthatjustas he wasaboutto leave theyardhe felt 'some thing cold blow upon him,'andthenhadfallen down. The consensus of opinion wasthatthe ghost was angry with him for interfering with its ,.... ork,andsohadpunished him. This determined his mother upon a desperate course.Asa member of a church, she could not call inanobeahman. to lookatSusanah without cutting herself off from religion and definitely taking a place among those who were considered to be dealers in evil. Yetherneed was great,andsuperstition was always stronger in.hermindthanfaith. She feltthatshehadto

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SOMEBELIEFSAND CUSTOMS!ISfight obeah with obeah. She decided to seek help from those who dealt withandhad control over the spirits of hell. During her daughter's illness, however, the old woman hadnotbeen able to earnanymoney;andher son's time had beensomuch takenupwith fighting the ghost (and with fighting his own fears of the ghost)thathe also was in abadfinancial condition.Asfor Susanah's 'husband,' he didnotseemtoassist very greatlyatthis crisis, having, I believe, transferred his affections to some other lady. Yettoemploy an obeahman requiredmoney-threeguineasatleast;anditwas difficult to find this amount. Nevertheless the old woman found it. A thrifty woman, she hadputbyafewshillingsatdifferent times; every penny of these savings she now drewoutof the Government Savings Bank;andnow she was left destitute, save for the rent from two or three smallrooms-nota pound a month in all. Still, she couldatlast make a great effort to cure Susanah.Soone day,ataboutnoon, the people in the yard was startledbya peculiar demonstration madebya man who was tothema stranger.Hewas a tall fellowandjet-black; intelligent lookingandsubstantially dressed. He was standing in the yard, talking aloudandatlarge, in a languagethatno one else understood. Presumably he was addressing the ghost,butthe address was only apartof the performance. Presently he went inside the roomandclosed the door, he and the sick woman remaining alone together. Then rappings were heard,andsounds as if a struggle were taking place; of a sudden the doorflewopen,andthe obeahman rushed into the yardanddown the whole,length ofitto where the kitchen was situated. Hehadin his hands a tumbler covered with a towel,andin this receptacle was theghostcaughtatlast. This was the claim he made,atanyrate. Hehadpreviously caused a holetobedug behind the kitchen,andinto this hole he deposited the covered tumblerandburied it, speakinganunintelligible jargon all the while. His work

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n6TWENTIETH CENTURYJAMAleA.completed, he solemnly warnedthespectators on no accounttodig the tumbler up,anunnecessary warning, sincenotone of them would have toucheditfor his life.Hewent back to the room where the sick woman was lying, ate a tremendous. lunch,andassured Susanah's motherthatalthough her daughter was necessarily weak after the ordeal she hadjustgone through, she nevertheless was cured,and v,ould be abletogoabout her business as usual on the following day.Alllistened to his words with respect,notunmingled with fear. Having been paid inadvance-alittlematteralways insisted uponbyobeahpractitioners-hetook his departure amidst the blessings of the deluded old woman. ThenextdaySusanah was asbadas ever,andithadto be admittedthatthe obeahman had failed. The explanation wasthathis 'power' wasnotas great as was the 'power' of themanwho had been employedtoobeah Susanah.Bitterwastheold woman's disappointment,yetshe didnotdream of remonstrating with themanwhohadfailed. She knewthatremonstrances would availhernothing,andshe didnotbelieve she had been duped. She simply knewthatnow shemustemploy one of the most powerfulandnotorious' obeah men in Kingston, a man whohadbeen twicetoprison,butwhose reputation still stood high as a worker of witchcraft. This man charged her five pounds,andthe unfortunate woman setoutto raise the moneybyevery means in her power.Forsevera} days she went about selling her household gods. She offered a good mattress for a few shillingstoone ofmyservants; hearing of it, I remonstrated with her. 'Surely,' I saidtoher,'youcannot believethatthis obeahman can help your daughter?''Don'tsay so, massa;don'tsayso!'she answered, with a touch of indignation in her voice .. 'Ify'udon'twant you' servant tobuyde mattrass, she needn'tbuyit;butdon'ttell mewhatI knowbetterdanyou:

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SOMEBELIEFSAND CUSTOMSII7Suchananswer,andespecially the tone in whichitwas given, showedthatthe woman's nerves were strained to breaking point. Even her habitual feeling of respect was no proof against a morose tendency to regard with suspicionanyonewho should now counsel hertopause in her foolish effortstorid Susanah of the ghost. She raised the money, reducing herself to direst poverty in the endeavour to do so. The Sunday after the conversation just recorded took place, 1 went intotheyardtosee how the sick woman was getting on, being curious(1must confess)toknow what more wastobe done withSusanah. Under a guinea treethatgrew closetothelatter'sroom, 1 noticed a small white kidsotightly securedthatitwas crying pite ously.'Poorlittle thing,' I cried sympathetically,'whydon'tyou slacken the rope?''Don'tsorry fo' him, massaIdon'tsorry fo'him!'the old woman ejaculated.'Himis a littlebrute!'1 began to suspectthatthekid was being reserved for some particular purpose.Itwas so. 1 got a hintthatdaythatsomething mysterious was to take place on the same night,andI took good careto-bewhere I could seewhatwas to be done. The new obeah man was a very different sort of person from the one who had failed to cure Susanah; he went about his business in a grave, quiet, methodical manner, as though impressed with the importance of it. At about half-past eleven he appeared,andwith some bundles of wood whichhadbeen laidatthe foot of the tree to which the white kid was tied he kindled a great fire. Round this fire he drew a circle,andin the circle he placed a box. To this box Susanah, robed all in white, was led from her room, and uponithe gentlyputher to sit.Herhead was tied with abitof white lawn, she wore white shoes,andshe seemedtounderstand quite wellthatthis was a ceremony for exorcising the ghost which she had been told was haunting her.

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lIBTWENTIETHCENTURY JAMAICA Quietly she sat there while the obeahman, waving his hands and chanting, began his horrid work. A number of persons stood round; fed constantly with fuel, the fire blazed up with a fierce crackling sound,andthe sparksfiewupwardsinshowers amongst the leaves and the branches of the tree. Still the obeahman waved his handsandswayed his body, chanting the while, andall the time the woman sat silent upon her lonely seat gazing straight in frontofher, and the terror-stricken spectators looked on with fear-filled eyes. Midnight came, the great bell oftheParish Church telling forth the hour distinctly upon the silent night. Before the last strokehaddied away the obeahman had leaped upon the kid, severed the ropethattiedittothe tree, and, liftingitupbythe head, had plunged a sharp knife deep into its up turned throat. The poor brute criedoutonce asitfelt the cruel stab, a sharp, half-smothered bleat;butitwas dead a second after, and the blood, spurting from the ugly wound, was falling over Susanah's headandbody. Whiteandred her dress stood out now in the bright glare of the fire; her face was drawn, her eyes stared wildly as though striving to see somethingthatlay beyond in the darkness. Concealed behind a fence, I could see everything clearly without myself being seen.It was easy to perceivethatthe spectators were horribly frightened. This was something new tothem: a sacrifice such as the majority,atanyrate,hadnever before assistedatin all their lives. And now anotherpartof the ceremony was to be per formed. Drawing some of the wood away, the obeahman thinned thefireuntilitbecame a narrowbarof glowing embers. When the flames died down pitch darkness descended on the scene, save only where Susanahandthe obeahman were standing. The two figures stoodoutfaintly; the woman was placed in front ofwhatwas left ofthefire,andagain she was sprinkled with blood. Then,ata word from the obeahman, Susanah gathered up her skirts and leaped lightly over

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SOMEBELIEFSAND CUSTOMSII9glowing bar; leaped once, twice,andyetagain,andthenpassedoutofthecircle. The man wipedtheperspiration from his brow. His work was accomplished. ThenextdayI saw Susanah walkingabouther yard, to all appearances cured!Itmaybethatfaith in the obeah manandin the ordeal shehadgone throughhadhada great effect uponhermind;itmaybethatshehadgradually been winningtosanity, andthat,persuaded nowthatthe ghost was laidatlast, shehadbecome comparatively calm once more.Butthe'cure'was not for long.Ina few days she was raving again; in a few weeks she was dead.Hermother soon followed her; her brotherisstill alive,andno doubt still a firm believer in ghosts.Butthe verynextyear the Legislative Council passed such a stringent law against the practice of obeahthatsuch a scene asthatI have described couldnotnowtakeplace without detectionandpunishment following. And sincethattime thepolice-anative policeitmustberemembered-havebeen so active in the repression of obeahismthatits high priests have become fewer, and its practice has diminished steadily. I should say it would be difficult foranobeahman to do now inanypartoftheisland what I saw two of them do in 1897 in the city of Kingston. Nowandthenobeahmen are capturedandtaken before the courts;butthe mosttheyare charged with is pretending to be able to 'give luck' to those who resorttothem. They are shameless cheats;butitis proofthatthe fear of their supernatural power has consider ably lessened when those whomtheypersuadetoconsult them will sometimes report them to the police!Itwilltake some timeyetfor thesegentryto lose all theirinfluenceitwill takemanyyears. Yet, consideringwhattheir power was a hundred, fifty, or eventwentyyears ago,itmaybe said with certaintythatthe combined effect of religion, education,andlaw has broken the back of a practice which spells withcraft pureandsimple, and which inthepast has often ledtomurder.

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120TWENTIETH CENTURY JAMAICAThe other ceremony I will now describe is of a much more pleasantandaltogether different character. I was living in Kingston when, one night, about five years ago, I was startledbyhearing a long-drawn-out shriek.Itfell away to silence, then rose againandagain, a series of piercing soundsthatstabbed through the darknessandwaxedandwaned with monotonous regularity.Ina minute or two I wasoutin the streetandendeavouringtolocate the direction from which the sounds were coming; the only other living beingstobe seen were two boys, whose peculiarattitudeattractedmyatten tion. They were kneeling with their heads held close to the ground,andlistening intently.'Whatis thematter?'I asked them. 'Nine-night,sah:theyreplied laconically.'Where?'They bent their heads still nearer to the ground, were silent for a moment, then pointed positively in a north eastern direction.'Itis there,sah:said the elder of the hvo; then withthevolubility of the Kingston gamin he went on to explain to me how heandothers of his type were always abletodetect where a'ninthnight' was being held in Kingston.Itappeared from what he saidthata very large'number of persons madeita point toattendthis ceremony,andthatthesehadbyconstant practice become abletohear the sound of singingatalmost unimaginable distances.Byplacing their ears close to the ground, they claimedthatthey could discover the direction from which the sound proceeded;andas, though'ninthnights' are supposedtobe family gatherings chiefly,anystranger is freetoattendthem,itis indubitably truethat/ thousands of persons in the West Indies periodically derive a great deal of happiness from the death of a fellow creature. Nothing can give a whole neighbourhood more solemn satis factionthantolearnthatsome one has died in the locality. There is first the wake, then the funeral, then the'ninthnight';and as the West Indian of the lower classes

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SOME BELIEFSAND CUSTOMS121midnight orgies of a semi-religious nature, and has specialised in the singing of Moody and Sankey's hymns, even an epidemic would in someofthe islands lose something of its terror in view of the opportunitiesitmight afford in the way of funeralsandwakesand'ninthnights.' I handed the elder of the two youths a shilling: could Igoto this'ninthnight'?Helookedatme doubtfully,butagreed.'Iwillteck y'u, sah,' he said;'buta nine-nightisa funny ting.Y'umust be sarrawful untilitcome to about two o'clock; for ify'ulaugh beforedattime dere is some mandatwillteck stick an' lick y'u.Y'ucan'tmeck fun asy'ulike.' He \vas full of worldly wisdomandexperience was this youth;andas I had heard of frivolous persons being beaten with bits of prickly cactus tied to sticksbygentlemen of a religiousandbelligerentturnof mind, who maintainedthatthe singing of hymnsandthe reading of the Scriptures should occupy the firstpartof a'ninthnight' ceremony, to the total exclusion of all other matters, I faithfully promised to be as sad as the situation might seem to warrant. I more readily gave this promise as I realisedthata policeman wasnotlikelytobe within hailing distance of the place where the'ninthnight' was being held.Sooffwestarted in a north-westerly direction,myguides ingenuously giving me lessons in theartof howtobe happy though workless. They were not untidily dressed. Both wore battered strav,' hats;bothcarried sticks;bothconfessed proudly to never having done a stroke of hard work in their lives. Nevertheless, asmanmust have some occupation, theyhadlearnt to play on the Jew'sharpandthe guitar,andhadcultivated their voices to the pitch of loudness and shrillness suited to wakes,'ninthnights,'andrevivalist demonstrations;andwith these accomplishmentstheywere for the present satisfied.Aswewalked on they explained to me thatall that it wc!-snecessary to doata'ninthnight' was

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122TWENTIETHCENTURY JAMAICA to enter boldly, take a seatifone were vacant, look 'sarraw ful,' and, for the rest, behave aseveryoneelse did.Itwas alsoprudentfor a strangertosit near the gate, formanypersonshadbeen knov.'1l to experience a desiretoescape hurriedly from the scene of a too enthusiastic'ninthnight.' We walked for about aquarterof a mile,thesound of the incessant singing guiding us,andthen I found myself in one of the poorestandmostwretched of the slum-suburbs of Kingston. Inhabitedbya heterogeneous population whose means of existence has been a problemtothose who interest themselves in the condition oftheJamaicapoor,itcombines the characteristics of a villageanda slum. Gutters pavedandunpaved abound,andin all of them fetid water stagnates. Trees and bush grow everywhere; the streets are narrow and Lrooked; andthe architectural aspirations of the owners of house property there have been expressed in designsthatare peculiar to the place. Thus, for example, some ingenious persons have collected a number of old kerosene cans, carefully flattened them out, nailed themtoa skeleton of postsandrafters,andthus constructed a house on the most economical principles. Others have builttinyhousesoutof oddsandends of board. Then there are yards with long rows of tene mentrooms-smallkraalseveryoneofthem-anda few shops, a little church or two, and dustanddirtand indiffer ence everywhere. Asweentered the village the singing, which had ceased for a moment or two, burst forth againwith increased violence,andthe air was filled with sound. I heardthewords,-Knowthatthe Lord' is God alone,Hedoth createandcandestroy,thunderedoutbythe sonorous voices of the men, and sent to piercethedarknessandthesky abovebythe shrill ear splittingcrescendoof the women. My guides paused before an opengate;this wastheplacewewere seeking,

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SOMEBELIEFSAND CUSTOMS 123Let me describethesceneexactly.asI saw it. A great booth ofdirty .. hite canvas,andunder this booth a crowd of persons of all agesandofbothsexes. This was what first caughtandheld one's attention. The crowd was assembled in the centre of a large yard, and.atsome distance from the gate; and above the booth towered a giant tree. Theremusthave beenatleast a hundred persons huddled under the frail canvas covering, some sitting on chairsandbenches, others squatting on blocks of wood.Inthemidst ofthemwas a table, on which were and mugsandBiblesandhymn-books;andI noticed a smaller table covered with a white cloth,atthe head of whichsata coal-black elderly man, who apparently presided over the proceedings. On either side of the booth,andalong the whole length of the yard, ran a range of rooms,notmorethannine feet in height from floortoroof. At the thresholds of some of these roomssatwomen and children,andon nails driven intothepoles ,,,hich supported the booth afewstorm-lanterns hung. Kerosene lamps placed on the tables gave forth a brilliant light. Theheatwas intense, foritwas August. Everything stoodoutdistinctly: the sable faces shining with perspiration, the glistening white teeth, the swaying bodies of the hymn-intoxicated people. There "vas some thing weird and wild and garishaboutthatmidnight gathering of menandwomen shoutingunderthe calm star-lighted sky, vociferatingthattheLord is God alone, while the rest of the city was hushed in the silence of sleep. I entered the place with some hesitation,andas I didsoall eyes were turned upon me, thqugh thesinging didnotcease. Onemanroseandcourteously offered me a chair a littleapartfrom the singers; some of the younger women staredandgiggled; afewwithered dames glaredatme suspiciously. Rememberingmyyoung guidehadsaidthatthereligious men present would probably resent anything onmypartwhich smacked of levity or contempt, I lookedatthe old women

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124TWENTIETHCENTURY JAMAICA withsoserious a countenancethatthey probably decidedthat I appreciated the importance of the function. While the singing continued, I had time to glance curiously round. One of the little rooms which I faced stood with its doorandwindows wide open, and from where IsatI could easily see intoit.A large iron bed, covered with a clean white spread, was conspicuous; the rest of the furniture consisted of two small tables; evidently the chairs belonging to the room were being utilised in the yard. The room I observed,anditlooked as thoughithad been garnished for some particular purpose, Seeing me gaze into it, one ofmyguides came over to me with the explanation,'Inthere, sah, the woman dead.' After wards I discovered what he meant,andwhat the meaning of this peculiar'ninthnight' function was. Nine days before some one had died inthatroom, a woman whose childrenandrelativesandfriends were now, on the ninth night since her decease, holding a ceremony for the purposeoftaking a last leave of her spirit.Itis believedbythe peasant people of the West Indiesthatifthis leave-taking should be neglected, the wraith of the. dead person would constantly hover near her last earthly residence,andbe a source of discomfortandeven serious dangertoits living occupants. The custom, of course, was brought over from West Africa, where, even to-day,itmaybe witnessed in all its pristine elaboration.Onthe West coast, eight days after the death of a husband, the \vidow proceeds to the sea shore, attended by a great concourseofhowling people, beat ing drumsandblowing shells. The noise is made for the purpose of scaring away the ghost; arrivedatthe sea, the woman plunges into the water, throws away the clothes she has been wearing since the death of her husband, puts on a new garment,andreturns home. During the interval foodanddrink have been placed in thehutfor the use of the dead one,andhe is spoken of just asifhe were alive.Butwhen the ceremony of ghost-laying has taken place,itis assumed

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SOMEBELIEFSANDCUSTOMS125that,if no hitch has occurred in the proceedings, the ghost will have been deprived of all power of workingharmto the widow or hernexthusband.Inthe West Indies the 'ninthnight'ceremony is held not only for men,butfor womenandchildren as well. Very rarely a night passes inanylarge West Indian townbutyou will hear the sound of vociferous singing, which indicates either a wake or a'ninthnight.' Andatsome timeorother during the proceedings the singers will loudly proclaimthatthe Lord is God alone,thatbeingtheone item which seems never to be omitted. On this night of which I write, the hymns were givenoutversebyverse, sothatall should have a chance to sing. The manatthe head of the smaller table reads with stentorian voice,andwith a sublime disregard of all the rules of pronun ciation.Hepauses as he ends a verse, then leads the singing, the assembled guests valiantly following in his wake. Jealous of his authority, one or two old women suggestthathe is 'hiking a note too high,'andendeavour to create a diversionbysinging the hymn in an entirely different key.Butjealousy doesnotprevail over vested authority; consequently the hymn, in spite of occasional cacophony, goes on to the last word. Another hymn followed, and another; then the leader suggestedthat'p'rhapsone of de sisters would liketooffer a word of pr'yer.' There was nothingthatthe sisters would have liked better. Prayer came naturallyandfluently from their lips; they embraced the whole world in their supplica tions,andsovehemently protested their beliefthatwhatthey asked for would be granted,thatthey ledatleast one of their listeners to suspectthattheyhadserious misgivings onthatscore. This singingandpraying had been going on from about ten o'clock,andnowitwas nearly one. I begantohear murmurs. I detected a note of discontent. One man, in a loud whisper, expressed the opinionthatthough spiritual

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126TWENTIETHCENTURY JAMAICAfood was admirable in its way, something more material was required if one was competentlytogo through with the business of the night. Another guest remarked to a relative of the deceased, 'See here, I come to sing fory'uto-night,an'look howy'utreatme!'The tone was reproachful, the suggestion beingthatreward sweetens labour, andthatthemanwho sings oughttobe strengthened with foodanddrink forthe'singing. Suddenly I heard ashout-'Fryfishandbread advance!'Itcame from one of the guests whohadsofar forgotten per sonal dignity in his hlmgerthathehadundertakentosolicit refreshments publiclyandwithout shame. The appeal wasnotignored. The hymn-book fell from the leader's hands,anda movement on the outskirts of the crowd caused every onetoglance with a look of expectancy inthatdirection. Satisfactionwas'visibly expressed on the faces of most of the people when three or four women were seen approaching with trays, foreveryonethen realisedthatthe religiouspartof the'ninthnight' wasatan end,andthatthe time for feasting and speech-makingandrejoicinghadcome. Small sprats fried in cotton-seed oil, large slices of bread, fritters made of a mixture of flour and picked saltfishand pepper, coloured withanattoandfried in oil; bananasandoranges; cupsofcoffee sweetened with heavy moist sugar; huge mugs of chocolate flavoured with cocoa-nut milk, were handed round. Then there wasrumfor the men, and a little ginger-wine for the older women, some of whom murmured gentlythatStPaulhadstrongly advised the takingofa little wine for the stomach's sake; and in the midst of a buzzofconversation the feasting began.Butnoteveryone was satisfiedthatthe ceremonyhad.ceasedtobe entirelyofa religious nature. Not far from me was a 'sister' who had been anxiously a'waiting her opportunitytooffer a prayer. Disgustedatfindingthatshe wouldnotbe able to dosoduring the rest of the function, she accepted

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SOME BELIEFSAND CUSTOMS127 a cup of chocolate as a very inadequate compensation for her disappointment. She loudly muttered something about 'those people who make them belly them God,'butthe general opinion clearly wasthatthere had been enough of prayer. The change from grave,togay was absolute. The girls, too excited to be sleepy, beganto make jokes with one another, while the young men engaged in open love-making. There was no longeranyneed to be sorrowful,andmyguides gave me ahinttothateffect.Infact, one would have thoughtthatthe guests greatly rejoiced in thedeathof the woman,butfor the circumstancethatthey loudly expressed their regretthatshehadleft them,anddwelt with considerable emphasis on her extraordinary virtues. No such person,itappeared, had ever existed,andnowthatshe was dead her equal couldnotbe found.Itis truethat,as I subsequently learnt,itwas only a month orsobefore she diedthatshe hadhad a fight with a neighbour,andhad been fined in the police court in consequence of it. Several of her intimate friends had also been in the habit of accusing her (behindherback) of many grave crimes and misdemeanours.Butall this was now forgotten;and under the influ ence of sympathy, excitement,andrefreshment,weare all agreedthatthe world is poorerbythe lossithas sustained. Nevertheless, the most of us find consolation in the factthat,after all,ifthere had been no death there would have been no'ninthnight.' Comfortedbythatthought,weloudly renew our expressions of regretandpayfurther tributes to the memory of the deceased. Nothing could nowturnthe meeting into a religious function once more;butifthe time for prayer had passed, there was still an opportunity for speech-making. The leader knew this,andseizing a favourable moment he rose to his feetandremained standing' until the last waisper had died away. Slowly and deliberately he surveyed his audience, endeavouring the whiletoconveybyhis looks an impression

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128TWENTIETHCENTURY JAMAICA of mental suffering. When he feltthathe held the attention of every one, he began:'My friends, disisa sarrawful occasion. We isallhuman, all gottodead. Idon't'fraid to dead me self,butIdon'tliketosee young people lay downan'just deadoffwidoutanyreason.'(Amurmur of applause from the young people; encouragedbyit, the speaker determines to please the appreci ative ones still further.)'Itisweole people who istodead.' (Gestures indicating disapproval are madebythe elderly.) 'Yes, I say,itisweole people who istodead, because ... because...becauseweisprepare fo' heaven.' (This compliment, perhaps becauseitis entirely undeserved, recon ciles the old peopletohim, thoughnottothe idea of dying.)'Weisprepare fo' heaven,butde young folkses hastoenjoy demselves firs',andiftheydead young, how can dem enjoy demself? Andifdem dead while dem enjoying demself, how dem is to be saved?' He paused with the airofamanwho has askedanunanswerable question;andas no one was abletosay howanyonewho washappyon earth could possibly expect salvation, he again tookupthe burden of his discourse, greatly encouraged theretobythe sympathetic groans of the elderly, who wishedtointimatethattheywere now in extrememisery-acondition which clearly entitled themtomansionsupabove.'Oursister was young. She has die in the evening of her youth.Butin spite of dat, Idon'tmeantosaydatsheisnotgone to 'er Fader's home, for aldough she was a han'some female she keepoutof de way of temptation, an' nobody use toattendchurch more regular. Whenever on a Sunday mornin' she pass me place, she use to callout:"FaderB., I gonetochurch,yah!"An' I usetosay,"Walkgood, me daughter, say a word forme."A female likedatmus' gone to heaven; an' de best tingwecan do is to follow in him footsteps. 'Hesatdown, the applause being enthusiastic. This

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1'[; ,r \,NLOADINGJAMAICAPRODUCEAT THE SEAWALLOFMYERS&SON

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SOME BELffiFS ANDCUSTOMSI29address is regardedbyall as finally marking the close of the firstpartof the'ninthnight,'andpreparations are immedi atelyandopenly madetopasstherest ofthemorning (foritis now three o'clock) in merry-making. Tales are told, games played, wrestling matches between adventurous youthsandardent damsels take place. The'ninthnight'becomes a picnic under the morning stars. More refreshments are handed round, the laughter is now as loud as the singing was before. Clearly the period of mourning is over. And then the skies begin to lightenandthe shrill crowing of a thousand cocks is heard. The air becomes fresh,andthe stars grow pale. And soonitis 'good-bye'and'good bye,'andyet again 'good-bye.' All the mourners are going home; most of them will havetobeattheir work an hour or two hence. Astheydepart, I noticethatthe dead woman's sister goes into the clean unoccupied room, and, takingupa covered jar, pours the wateritcontains into the yard. 'Well,' she remarks, 'we done wid Cecilia now,'andthose. who hear her heartily agree. Thus good-byeissaid to Cecilia also,andthe hope isthatshe will never returntoearthtofrighten her friendsandrelatives. And why should Cecilia return, since her life,atbest, must have beenhard?J.I

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13CHAPTER VII J AMAleARELIGION:THEMUDANDTHEGOLDWEare told in the census of the islandthat'thepeople were asked to state the name of the religious denomination with whichtheywere connected, or the name of their religion: I should imaginethata large number set themselves down a being Episcopalians, Baptists, Presbyterians or what not, mainly because theyhadbeen baptized as such;theygavethename of their religionandpassed overthatpartof the question which referred to the denomination with which they were actually connected. This, indeed, is obvious enoughtoanyonewho knows Jamaica; you are a Presbyterian evenifyou havenotbeen in a Presbyterian church for twenty years; youarea Presbyteriansolong as you were christenedbya pastor ofthatdenominationandhavenotchanged your religion since. 'When thereisa controversy onfoot-andthere always is a religious controversy on foot inJamaica-youcalltomindthatyouareor have been connected with suchandsuch a denomination,andaccordingly take sides with all the bitterness of religious raneour; or, rather, with as much bitterness as istobe found in a country where peaceandnotstrife is the ruleandwhere thefoeof to-day is very often the friend of to-morrow.Inmuch the same spirit you answerthequestions asked as to your religionbythe census paper,andthus the churches are credited with a larger number of adherentsthanare to be found on their rolls.Forexample,theChurch of England is credited with having 266,478 persons attachedtoitin19II.These, of course, in clude children;butwemustnotforgetthatpeople are admitted

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JAMAICA RELIGIONatan early age intotheAnglican Church,andthatthe latest printed returns ofthatChurch give the number of its communi cants as41,000 .. Evenifwemultiplied this figurebyfour, to include the children who have not been confirmedandthe grown-up persons whoattendAnglican places of worshipbuthavenotbecome registered communicants,weshould still have something like a hundred thousand people to account for. These hundred thousand have declared themselvestobe Anglicans,butthe Church,wemaysafely say, doesnotsee as much of them asitwould like.Itis much the same with all except the smaller denominations. Thus I takeitthatthe SeventhDayAdventistsmayjustly boastthatevery member of their body is fervent in church membership;butthenthe SeventhDayAdventists only number 3955. And there are some half a dozen denominations in Jamaica with lessthana thousand members each; these have few backsliders or weak brethren; every memberismore or less vocalandmilitant.Inspite, however, of the factthatthousands of people gavethename of their religion to the compilers of the census, though theyhadlong since drifted away from the churches, there were still over ninety-five thousand about whose faith no answer was returned. This caused the editor of the censustoremark:'There are no doubt many persons throughout the island whose connection,ifany, withanychurch is very slight.Itisprobable that-the more conscien tious of this class when faced with the question left it un answeredbothas to themselvesandtotheir children.'Thatlittle complimentabout.conscientiousness makes pleasant reading,butI have already hintedthatthe number of the un conscientious outnumbers those whose silence pro claims themtobe outsidethepale of organised religion. And yet, even as I write these words, a doubt assails me.' Are there many persons -in Jamaica who have no sort of connection with the Churches? I seriously question it. The connection may be very slight,maybebuta memoryandan intention;

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132 TWENTIETHCENTURY JAMAICAyetitis there. The memory is perhaps of the time when one wenttoSunday School; the intention isthatatsome time in the future, when one has beguntolive a godly, sober,andrighteous life,andhas sufficiently decent clothestowear, onewillattendsome church, andmayeven become a member of it. There are very few' Jamaicans, in fact, who arenotgoingtoIjoinchurch'atsome time or other in the future,iftheyhave not yet arrivedatthatrespectable stage.Fortobe a member of a church isnotonlytohave stamped upon one the hall-mark of respectability,itistohave taken a definiteandimportant step heavenward, and heaven is the goal of the majority of Jamaicans. The pointtograsp isthatthe average Jamaican isnotanunbeliever,andhas anaturalliking for religion.InJamaica, as in every other Christian country in the world, more womenthanmenattendreligious services; yet men are frequent in attendance too. Counting out-stations \vith churchesandchapels, there are about eight hundred buildings devotedtoreligious purpose.s in Jamaica;andifwesaythatabout one fourth of the island's population is in close connection with the Churches (whether as members, Sunday School scholars, adherents, or frequent visitors),weshall have made a fair estimate. Do the flgures show badly?Isthe result poor for a century of effort?Isone entitledtodraw the conclusionthatthree fourths of the people hardly hear anything about religion, are never inside a church, are almost in a heathenstate?To these three questions I should give a decided negative. The number of persons in the colony who absolutely never gotochurchmustbe negligible, the amount of religious knowledge possessedbythe people is astonishing. Much ofitmaybe distorted, yet a great deal ofitis not. I have saidthatthe average Jatpaican has a liking for religion.Letme nowaddthathe takes to Biblical information as a duck takestowater.Ifheputinto practice allthathe knows concerning the Way,

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JAMAICA RELIGION133theTruth,andtheLife,hewould be somethingofa saint.Hedoes not; no one ever does;butyou must not imaginethathe is a heathen; you will findthathe can argue very well upon religion,andwill quote you a dozen texts of Scripturetoprove his points.Ina community where one-halfofthe adults live together without going through the ceremony of marriage,andwhere the Churches must of necessity set their faces against all well known instancesofsexual misconduct,itfollowsthatlarge numbers of persons must keep themselves away from church membership. Yet these occasionallyattendthe services,and it must be borne in mindthatmost of them have learnt some thing about religionatthe elementary school or evenatopen air religious meetings. One striking aspect of life in Jamaica is, indeed,theextraordinary church attendance, especially in Kingstonandthe towns.Inthe country districts many of the churches areatconsiderable distances from someofthe surrounding villages,andthis would to some extent explain a .poor attendance.ButIamnotawarethatthe attendance anywhere in Jamaica has beensopoor during the last decade as to warrantanyonewriting to the papers toask:'Whydonotthe Peoplegoto Church?' On Sunday nights particu larly, in every considerable centre of population, the churches are crowded. One maysaythatthe occasion is regarded asanexcellent opportunity to enable many folk to wear their dressesandfinesuits, to sing, to meet one another, to have a good evening's recreation. There is no doubt sometruthinall this. Still, if one believesthatchurch-going has a benef icent, a civilising influence, one neednotinquire too closely into the motivesthatbring a large congregation together. Thefactitselfisof some importance, anditisthe fact I am concerned with here.ButI must reservetoalater stagemyremarks on what I may call'thegold,' orbetterpartof Jamaica religion; here I want particularly to deal with'themud,' with those aspects

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134 TWENTIETHCENTURY JAMAICA of religion which are debased, with those professedly religious persons who mingle the most wretched superstitions with Christian rites. If we consult the census again,weshall findthatamong the736,000persons whose religion was defined,II35were described as Bedwardites. These Bedwardites are the followers of one Mr B edward who announced twenty years agothathehadhada vision in which he had been toldthata streamtothe north-west of Kingstonhadblessed heal ing properties,andthatwhoeverbathedin it, in faith, would be cured of their bodily ills. Crowds resorted to this newJohnthe Baptist, andthelucrative business of baptismandbathing has continued ever since.Inthis, perhaps, there is no particular harm,butsincetherise of Bedwardism,andencouragedbyit, there has been a recrudescence ofwhatwas known fifty years ago as 'Myalism,' a practice or cult which is nothingbuta modified formandremnant of the old West African priest danceanddivination.Inthe last chapteritwas mentionedthatthe old 'myal men' undertooktocure the evil wroughtbythe obeahman. Thusweseethatthe myal man was a witch doctor. The term'myal'is no longer used in Jamaica; instead,wehave 'revivalist,' a most respect able word. Our modem Jamaica revivalists, therefore, claimthatthey are preaching Christian doctrine,andthatno doubt is their intention. Accuse them of heathenish practicesandthey would be mortally offended.Yetoile has onlytoattenda revival demonstration, and, in spite of the Christian veneer, the real originandmeaning of the thing will not remain hidden.Letme describe one such demonstration as I saw it.ltwasanEaster Sunday afternoon, about six o'clock; the sun was rapidly going down,butheatstill radiated from stone walls and streets; the dust lay thick everywhere,andonly the presence of gaily-dressed groups of dark-hued people relieved the monotony of the scene. I was strollinguponeofthe long streets when I caught sight of a revivalistbandmarching swiftly towards me; it consisted of aboutthirty

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JAMAICA RELIGION135persons, two only of whom were men. All the women were robed in white, all wore turbans of white twisted into fantastic shapes; all were screamingouta hymn astheyswept along the thoroughfare, while one of them, waving a long wand, performed a sort of circular dance in the midst of her com-..pamons. I followed the band a little while. The leaders ofitwere the two men; these marched in front,andata word from one of them the women presently haltedandlined themselves on a side walk againstthewall of a shop, one of the number standing in front of the others with closed eyesandthe look of a maniac. An open-air meeting was to be held,andthe order ofitmust have been carefully arranged beforehand. The two men walkedupanddown in front of the line of the women uttering sharp exclamationsandencouraging their followerstofurther efforts in screaming. These men were of a villainous appear ance, hypocrisy, debauchery,andconceit being written on every lineament of their faces.Bothwere dressed in semi clerical garments,anditwas easy to seethatthey were endeavouring to ape the manner of a minister of the Gospel. Each of the white-robed womenhadabitof withe twisted round her left wrist,andeach carried a short cane. Noticing this, I rememberedthat when the priestsandpriestesses of the African Gold Coast were abouttodance in honour of the godsandtobecome possessedbythem, they bound their wrists with addorandcarried bundles of canes in their hands.! Here then, clearly, was the survival ofanAfrican custom masquerading as a native Christian revivalist demonstration. I decidedtosee the thingoutto the finish. When the hymn cametoan endatlast, a woman with a damaged eye began walking rapidlyupanddown the side-walk, waving her wandandspeakingatthetopof her voice. She couldnothave been morethantwenty-five years of age,but1See Ellis'sTshi-speaking PeoplesofWest Africa.

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136TWENTIETHCENTURYJAMAICAalreadyshe. had developed a cast of countenancethatindi catedbothfanaticismandcomplete demoralisation of character: Shehadatrick of closingandopening her damaged eye as she spoke,andthis didnottendtoimprove the impression she gaveatfirst sight. Yetitwas plainthatshe stood high among these revivalists, for sheitwas whohadbeen selected this eveningtopreach. Not foraninstant did she pause in her pacingtoandfro..She swept with a look the crowd which had beenattractedbythe noise.'Ihave comeoutheretospeak to you to-night, which arebuta poor pilgrim onmyjourneyhome,'-withthese words she commenced her address.'Iamthe vilest of sinners, a miserable woman who was going downtohell.ButI can tell you I was rescuedbythe spiritan'theblood,an'baptized unto life;an'wort'lessan'unwordy though I am, yet I can tell you what de blood has done for me.' 'Yes, oh,yes!'came in a shout of encouragement from her listening companions.'Icannot keep silent.''No!speak on!' thundered the men.'Bybaptisman'the blood we are redeemed,an'let us take carethatwedonotneglect our salvation untilitbe too late !' 'Amen, amen,' from the white-clothed people, some of whom were now emitting horrible gruntsandgroans. 'Long, long agoitwas asked in heaven,"whowill go down to savemankind?"an' although there was cherubimsan'seraphims, angel an' archangel, none could be found except the Son,an'to-day, this blessed Easter Sunday,weare bound to rememberthatsacrifice, fo' to-dayHeis risen!''Risen, risen! PraiseGod!'was the crythatwent up,notonly from the revivalistsbut from some members of the crowdthat'hadnow assembled in the street,andnow three or four of the revivalist women began touttershort impassioned speechesandthe hubbub became great.

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JAMAICA RELIGION137Atthis moment the young woman caught sight of a mock ing face amongst the crowd. Pointing a threatening finger in its direction, she burst into invective. 'Some here will mockan'laugh, an' will want to ask whywemoveupan'down,an'cannot rest, an' go on in a foolish way.Butwesayweare deemptyvessels of de Master,an'thatwhen His Spirit fill uswemus' testify.' 'Yes,wemus'testify!'from the male leadersandthe rest, followedbyan incoherent splutter of words. 'Asfb'dose people who laugh, hell is gapin' wide for dem, the devil is prepare fordemoThem can laugh now,butthedayiscomin' when they will gnash their teeth an' cry aloud in anguish for mercy, an' none will be found.Ah!thatwillbe a day, a dreadfulday!'Then pandemonium broke loose for the space of a few minutes,andanathema maranatha was pronouncedbythese evil-living fanatics onthewhole city of Kingston. When a lull came, the young woman concluded her speech with the request,'Iwill now askmycaptain to raisethathymn for me,"WhenI Survey the Wondrous Cross." The words were scarcelyoutofher mouth before the man hadstartedtoscream forth the hymnatthe top of his voice,andpresently a crowd of over a hundred persons were shoutingitout. Whiletheysang one old woman among the revivalists wentoffinto a fit, from which she soon recovered: The con clusion of thehymnwas the signal for the revivalists' departure; they formed a processionandmarchedupthe street. As they went the bells of a dozen different churches pealed forth, and the darkness fell suddenly. Hundreds of people hurried ontothe several servicestobe heldthatnight,andthese, I noticed, took no thought of the revivalists. The crowdthatfollowed thelatterconsisted mainly of the debased, the diseased,andthe unclean; I followed too, for I knewthatwhat Ihadseen wasbuta minorpartof the practices of these revivalist bands.It was behind closed doorsthatthe weird

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138TWENTIETHCENTURY JAMAICAdances of West African tribal religion would be held,andI wantedtosee themthatnight. The captainsandtheir women marched for about a mile untiltheyreached a slumtothe north of the city, known locally as Hannah's Town. They disappeared into a yard, the fence of which was formed principally of a thorny cactus, the stout candelabra-like stems of which sprang as high as twenty feet into the air. The gate was of board,andwas hung on hinges on an upright post standing closetoa cactus plant. A curious observer would have noticedthatthe iron plate bearing the number of this place was nailed upside down upon the gate.Justbehind the gatesata man clothed in white, with a small dish in onehandanda whip in the other. 'One penny,' he said laconically toeveryonewho passed inandwho wasnotof the order of the revivalists. I paidmypennyandwent in with the rest; I noticed a few persons who had evidently come to see what a 'faith working,' or revivalist dance was like;theywere clearly respectable people,andhad no connec tion whatever with the revivalists. Perhapsitwas with a view of raising some revenue from thisclass.of visitorsthatthe revivalists were in the habit of demandinganentrancefee.Theyardwasanextraordinarily long one. The entrance was narrow,butfartherupwas a wide open space,andthe crowd already gathered there showed methatitwas onthatspotthatthe crowning ceremony of the revivalists wastobe held. There was something weirdandgrotesque about the scene, somethingthatcaused the hearttobeatswiftlyandthe blood to course rapidly through the veins. The night was dark,andthe farther corners of the yard were shrouded in obscurity. To the left, as one looked towards the west, great trees grew; on the opposite side were other trees; in the centre of the open space already mentioned wasanoblong arrangementofstonesandrope, each little pile of

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JAMAICA RELIGION139stones a foot high,andabout three feet apart,andthese stones served as props for the rope, which marked the boundary of the enclosure in which the dancers weretoinvoketheSpirit. At the top of the enclosure was a covered shed, the back ofitboarded up, the frontandsides ofitopen. This shed was connected with the roped-in enclosure; you passed from one to the other,andboththings viewed as one, as they were intended to be, resembled a cross. The shed was brightly lit with lanternsandcandles; fes toons of crotons and other evergreens swung overhead; fruitandground provisions were scattered about,andflowersandcoloured clothandribbons.Butitwas upon a platform under the shedthatthe lights blazed brightestandthe flowers were strewn in thickest profusion; a slightly raised platform orna mentedandarrangedsoastoresembleanaltar.'Whatisthat?'I asked some one standing near me. 'The sanctuary,' he replied, indicating the shedandallthatitcontained. The idea of a sanctuaryandanaltarhad evidently been borrowedbythese people from the Roman Catholics for spectaculat purposes, though they would have described themselves as Protestantstothe core. The yamsandplantainsandfruitthatI saw scattered about the enclosure were a sort of offering to the supernatural powers. Andsothe sanctuary glittered in all its bravery of colourandlight,andthe wind stirredandrustled the branchesandleaves of the gloom-enshrouded trees,andthe stars looked down upon the strange, fantastic gathering. And soon other people begantoarrive, and every nowandthen you could see a white-robed figure emerge from the surrounding darkness into the lighted space. There were fully two hundred persons inthatyardthatnight. About fifty of these wore costumes of white; the rest ,vere spectators, many of them sympathetic. While Ihadbeen looking around me a number oftherevivalistshadstepped within the rope enclosure,andabouttwenty of these

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140TWENTIETHCENTURY JAMAICA had ranged themselves in two lines facing each other, in a peculiar crouching attitude. Between these two lines stood three young womenanda girl child, all dressed in the prevail ing garb of white, all wearing great white turbans,andeach carrying a long lithe switch in her right hand. Suddenly the two lines of crouching women raised a chant, a low, weird, monotonous chant, quite unlike anything Ihadever heard,andwhich sent a thrill down one's spine as one listenedtoit.Asthe blood-chilling tune rose, the standing womenandchild began to move their feetandbodies in unison with it. Roundandroundtheymoved, slowly, keeping accurate timetothe monotonous infernal singing. Rising slightlyattimes, falling, rising again,butnever becoming loud; quickening nowandthen, the tune scarcely varying,andnever losing its tone of infinite weariness, the chant went on. The dancing women sang also--gibberish,itseemed to me. Not one word could I understand;itwasnotEnglish,anditishardly possiblethatitcould have been a treasured African dialect, for African words are hardly heard in the British West Indies to-day. The revivalists themselves call this languagethatthey use'theunknown tongue,' the tongue of the spirit or spirits which take possession of them while they dance themselves into a frenzy; and their leaders profess to be able to understand it.Itconsists of a spluttering forth of senseless sounds. After a while, those who sang and spoke begantofoam slightlyatthe mouth. And in the eyes of the gyrating women was a strange, far-away look asofpersons in a trance. A tall, quiet, authoritative-lookingman-notone of the two already mentioned-directed the proceedings. With folded arms he watched the dancers wheeling roundandround. The spectators looked on, some ofthem whispering, for absolute silence wasnotimposed. One of them attempted to light a cigarette.Hewas peremptorily stoppedbya woman.'DeSpirit won't comeifyou smoke, or if anybody here been drink in rum,' she explained.

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JAMAICA RELIGIONAllatonce a piercing cry broke from two of the women who were sitting, or rather crouching, within the enclosure, acryhalf laugh, half scream, accompanied with convulsive shuddering. The chanting quickenedjusta little, the voices of those who chanted rose triumphantly, the dancing women rocked their bodies toandfroandbreathed with a fierce, hoarse, audible sound; the coming of the Spirit was nigh. Over a hundred persons, revivalistsandothers, were now moving themselves from side to side asifswayedbyanim pulsetheycouldnotmaster. Dozens of them were shuddering as if seized with ague. A slight tremorranthrough my body; I became cold with horror and disgust. The scene was bestial. And now amansprang violently into the enclosureandbegan swiftly moving his body upanddown, jerking himself backwardsandforwards with prodigious effort,anduttering a continuous 'hum, hum, hum,' as he did so. He was trying to become possessed of the Spirit,butthe attention of every one was fixed,noton him,buton the three women and the little girl who still wheeled roundandround,andwere now speakingandsinging in a tone of voice which conveyed a suggestion of immeasurable distance. The girl was reelingandtottering now. Of a sudden she threw up her arms ex claiming,'Depitcher full,' then sprang forward as if about to fall upon her face. Immediately one of the dancing women struck her with her switch. 'You are bad, wicked!'exclaimed another of them, in the same strange, distant, unnatural voiceinwhich shehadbeen singing;'whydid you strike de chile?' She struck outatthe offending 'sister' as she spoke,andhalf a dozen other whips lashedatthe young woman with terrible force. There was no shamaboutthis castigation; you could have heard the sound of the lashing several hundred yards away. The supposition was thatthe woman who had struckthechild had donesounder the influence of an evil

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142 TWENTIETH CENTURY JAMAICA spirit,anditwas this spirit which was now being whippedoutof her.Inthe meantime the dance continuedandthe excitement visibly grew. Then,atlength, the woman who was being lashed broke from her chastisers and rushed into the 'sanctuary,' where she fell prone, face downwards, on the ground.Asshe did so, the cry went up, 'She gonetoconfess!' "Vhat she confessed I never heard, for now the child toohadfallentothe earth, her body contortedandtwitching asifshe were in afit.The two lines of chanting women were swaying from sidetoside asifpossessed,andevery nowandthen one, two,andthree of them would emitthatweird hysteri cal shriek which I couldnothear without shuddering. Most of them were talking in the 'unknown tongue,' the leader interpretingatintervals .. Once he was especially impressive, imposing silence with a gesture.'DeSpirit say,' he enunciated solemnly,'thatlast Sunday night there was abadwoman here wid an axe. Nobody could see her,butitwas she who injure de sister who is now in de hospital.'Hepaused a moment, thenadded:'Oursisterisdead.'Heceased,anda loud, long wail burst from the members of his band.Hemust have heard of the death of the woman in the hospital during the earlierpartof the evening,buthe announceditas thoughitwere a revelation madebysome supernatural agency through the mouth of one of the half hypnotised dancers,andno one seemed to doubt him. The wailing continued,andthe chanting. The wailing grew louder with every momentthatpassed. Looking towardstheenclosure again, I now observedthatseveral new dancershadentered it,andthatoutside ofitwere a number of women lyingstarkon the ground, apparently senseless. A few others were beating themselves on the ground; these, like the rest, were supposedto'have the spirit.' Only one man,andhe the leader, appeared quite unmovedbywhat was proceeding, he alone was unaffectedbythe frenzy which had unquestion ably taken hold ofhisfollowers.

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JAMAICA RELIGION 143About eleven o'clock I got weary of thescene-thegloom of the huge yard, the lighted enclosure, the wailingandchant ing and the swaying, dancing, hystericalcrowd-andsoI left.Butthis invocation of thespirit-whatwasitbuta slightly modified form of the divination dance of the priestsandpriestesses of the Gold Coast of West Africa? Substitute the names of the Trinity for those of African deities,andinpartsof West Africa to-day you would find menandwomen painted whitelandrobed in white dancing and prophesying much as these lower-class people didthatnight in a suburb of the capital city of Jamaica. Why arenotthese practices prohibited? Partly, no doubt, becauseitis believedthateducationandhigher religious influencesmaywell be lefttoexterminate what remains of West African superstitions in the island. This belief is grounded in reasonandsupportedbyexperience.Noreally decent peasant would dream for a moment of becoming a revivalist, and the power of revivalism has been steadily diminishing since1862,when the last wild general outbreak ofittook place. A recent law, too, has madeitillegaltohold meetings likely to become a nuisance after eleven o'clockatnight,andifthis law were more rigidly enforced the power of the revival ists, such asitis,would be broken still further. The'ninthnights,' as we have seen, have now become little morethana social gathering of the working classes. There is no particu lar evil in them. Obeah is sternly prohibitedandpunished, forthatmeans fraudandterrorism.Butitis difficulttosee \vhat the Government could do toputa stop to revivalism, though no defence could be advanced foritas a'nativereligion.' Native religions arenotrecognised in Jamaica, the mass of the people would be insultedbythe very sugges tion of such a thing. Revivalism will disappear steadily as the people learntolaughatthe gyrationsandhowlings of 1TheJamaicarevivalists claimthattheywearwhitetosignifypurityofheart.

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144TWENTIETHCENTURY JAMAICA the revivalists, who represent one of those 'survivals in culture'sointerestingtothe student of social customs and religious ideas.1Great is the power of respectability,andI have alluded abovetothe circumstancethat,while our revivalists "'ere holding their open-air meeting in the street, hundredsandhundreds of people passed them withoutsomuch as. a second look. These people were hurrying to some one of the many churches of the city;andif,onthatsame Sunday night on which the revival dance I have described took place, Ihadpeeped inatanyofthe churches, I should have found them. crowded.Ifsix hundred persons went to danceandsym pathise with the revivalists, over sixteen thousand must have attended the regular places of worship. One need say no more. Sundayisa greatdayin Jamaica;itisa day of restandof religious observance for the mostpart;here there are no musical promenadings in the afternoon as in Havana, no attendanceatplaces of amusement.Nomore complete change has taken place inanyaspect of the life of Jamaicathanin the observance of Sunday. Eighty years agoitwas the popular market day, church-going wasoutof the question as a general rule. A hundred years ago a Governor's wife couldwrite:'Received the sacramentatour own desire, asitis only administered here three times a year,' and'Atthe Communion, there was only one old white man and woman,andone brown lady, besides ourselves, for the clergyman's two daughters, who came with us, left the church with the rest of the congregation; and yet they were certainly of an agetojoininthe service, being nearertothirtythantotwenty years old.Butaltogetheritwas a most extraordinary scene, for, just before the service began,andwhen I thought the doors weretobe closed, in walked a strange gentleman and1Twonightsafterwritingtheabove I saw a band of revivalists laughedoutof countenancebyanordinarystreetcrowd.

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JAMAICA RELIGION145took his seat in our pew,andbegan makingfinespeeches about our going to his house to-morrow. ... \Vhenwewentupto the altar, the clergyman beganhis civilities-firstasking whetherwe would prefer having the breadandwine brought to our pew,thenhoping the heat wasnottoo great,andin the midst of the service, stopping to inquire whether I would like a ,,,indow openedthatwas over thealtar....All this time, the young ladies were laughingandtalking, loud enough to be heard, as theysatin the carriageatthe church door; and, in short,itwas altogether shocking.' One more quotation:'After dinner,hada conversation upon religion. Some of the opinions of the gentlemen were shocking. Not one pro fessedtohave the least religion,andsome saiditwas all a farce.'1 When Lady Nugent could write thus about the conduct of the ladiesandgentlemen of the islandata com munion service,itmay easily be supposedthatreverence for Sundayandfor services of a religious nature wasnotdemanded from the slaves. To-day the communion services in the several churches of the island are as solemnly conducted astheyare in England, the United States,andCanada. Sunday dawns upon a quiet country,andmany of those who donotattendreligious service will sitathomeandsing hymns. As for those who do go to church, you will see them in the early morning, dressed for the mostpartin simple white, on the '.... ayto their respective places of worship.Inthe towns youwillnotice how the mannerofdressing amongthehigher classes has been made their ownbythe poorer sections of the people. No gaudy colours now, no blues swearingatreds, no violent contrastsandstartling contradictions. White is the wear of the morning,andthough,atthe eleven o'clock service, there will be more variety in the way of dress, though the women will wear pinksandlaces, though silkandsatin will be brought out, there is nothing barbarous about the1Lady Nugent's Journal,1801-6.J.K

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146TWENTIETHCENTURY JAMAICA clothes now worn. A person loudly dressed, nomatter whether she be white, black, or brown, will be singledoutfor staresandcomments. The tendency is steadily towards neatness, especially inthetowns,andthesplendid figures of the women are admirably setoffbythe dressestheywear. The men dress for the mostpartin tweed suits.Inthe afternoonthechildren are senttoSunday School, allcladcleanly, all wearing boots.Ifyou have no boots, youstayathome, pride preventing one from sending one's child bare footed to Sunday School.Butit isatevening servicethatyou see the to\\Tnspeople attheir finest. They arebestdressed then, the colourstheywear are more variegated. though stillnotinharmonious, thechurches-theAnglican churchesespecially-arefilledtooverflowing. There is no difference between the form oftheservice in a 'Vest Indian colonyandinanEnglish town. Everything is done in precisely the same manner.Insome ofthesmaller churches, for example,theclergymanmaybe a black or verydarkman, the organist of the same complexion, the choristers like them both.Butthe service variesnotatall;theparson will wear the prescribed robes, the female choristers will dress in simple white with sailor hats, the male choristers will wearthewhite surplice. Anattemptata 'native Christian Church' has been makebyone or two men, 'ministers' presumably.Ithas been a failure. The people donotapprove of it. They are notandcouldnotbe driventoit. The churches in Jamaica are churches for all the natives, irrespective of class or colour, hereatanyrateitistruethat'whosoever willmaycome.'Intimes of general depression,thefinances of the Churches sufferandthe congregation fallsoff.In1910a pessimistic wail wentupfrom morethanone religious denomination; so far as statistics could prove, the Churches were not progress ing. And, indeed, the figures published did show astationary

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JAMAICARELIGION147ifnota retrogressive condition of affairs religious, did seem to showthatthe people were becoming somewhat indifferent; in proportiontothe increase of population, the Churcheshadnotincreased in membership,ratherthe contrary.Butthere is another sidetothe picture. TheProtestantreligious bodies in Central America have grown in numbers considerably during the last six years. This hasbeenthe direct result of the emigra tion of twenty thousand Jamaicans to Central America duringthatperiod. The upsanddowns of fortune which the island has suffered since the beginning of the new century, too, must have affectedtheChurches considerably,justas they affected the school attendance.Itis too early yettosaythatthe Churches are beginningtolose their influence, though perhaps a stage has been reached when further progress will be slow,andwhen effortsmustbe madetohold the ground already won. Thirty years ago James Anthony Froude lamentedthatwith the decay of religious belief in the civilised world, one of the surest means of moralising the people of the West Indies and of softening and improving their character was being takenoutof the hands of their teachersandguides.Butthe Churches have grown stronger since Froude wrote, and, in Jamaicaatanyrate, the people of to-day are a distinct improvement upon the people ofthirtyyears ago. I knowthatthose who can see no good in the Present will disagree with me,butthe opinion of some oftheoldestandablest men in the colony is onmyside. Indeed, there are men who have been in Jamaicabutfifteen years who take the view I take here. AndfrlUchof this improvement must be attributed to the influence, directandindirect, of the Churches. I donotwishtobe understood as sayingthatreligion only, or the Churches only, could have effected the progress observable in Jamaica to-day. Ithinknothing of the sort. Other influences have beenatwork which have aided the religious organisations as much as the religious organisations have aided them; andwhen these influences lessen, or cannot

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148TWENTIETH CENTURY JAMAICAbe brought to bear upon large sections of the people, the Churches find themselves marking timeandeven (astheyimagine) in danger of slipping backward.YetJamaica would have been a very different sort of country haditnotbeen for the Churches. Itwould havehadrevivalism rampant, for one thing;thesacredness ofhumanlife wouldnothave becomesohighly respected, the manners of the people wouldnothave softened, there wouldnothave been onetenthsomuch respectabilityandgeneral good feeling. I cannot believe eitherthat,as a social factor, the influence of the Churches is waning. Ithinkthatinfluence is certain to increase.

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149CHAPTERVIIIREALPOLITICS ANDTIN-POTPOLITICS 'tIN a country like Jamaica, where lifeflowsplacidly on, where there are no great enthusiasms, violent partisanships, fierce hatreds, or 'burning questions of the hour,' you willnotexpecttofind politics pursued either as a permanent profession or as the expression of abitterclass war. Your average peasant isnotbynaturea politician; he isnotof the stuffoutof which fighters or fanatics are made; his personal freedomisabso lutely assured,andif the rains donotfallandthe crops wither, he is too logical to blame the Government for that. Politically, the people of Jamaica are contented enough,butitwould be a mistake to imaginethatthey are inclinedtoaccept as unchangeable the present system of government. This system will be fully described in this chapter;itis, briefly, governmentbythe Crown through a Colonial Governor, who is supposed to be checkedandadvisedbythose members oftheLegislative Council who are electedbythe people. This Legislature consists of fourteen members electedbypopular suffrage,andfifteen members appointedbytheCrown on the understandingthatthey are to support the Government generally,andspecifically to dosowhen instructed tothateffectbythe Colonial Secretary. The Governor him self is the President of the Legislature, which meets regularly once a year,andsometimes twice:t Itisthehighest deliber ative body in the island, the Parochial Boards (one for each ofthefourteen parishes) having veryattenuatedpowers,andthe other public bodies, such as school boardsandboards administering public trusts, having only very limited functions.

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150TWENTIETHCENTURY JAMAICA Of the Legislature more must be said, for its future is largely the political future of the colony.Itsdeliberationsanddevelopment are real politics: the tin-pot variety of politics concerns those gentlemen who are mild agitators, election organisers, and would-be redressers of imaginary grievances. They aretothe foreatevery election,andtheyhelptomake life in the colony interesting. The type is no doubt to be found in every country.Itistobe hopedandbelievedthatitwill never disappear from Jamaica. The political agitator has sometimes been described as a man withoutanyvisible means of livelihood, but, after all, the same thing may be said of a goodmanyother persons in Jamaica. Besides, the political agitator isnotbyanymeans an idler; he does workatsome ordinary calling when politics arenotremunerative,andhe worksprettyhardatpolitics when he has an opportunity.Heloves agitation. He delights in tryingtopersuade his fellow-citizensthata certain dateor a certain policy will infallibly save Jamaica from the destruction which he sees to be rapidly approaching. Under him he usually has a body of men who are canvassers merely; men whom, I regrettosay, have no thought what ever for politics,butare always thinking of pay. They will embraceanycausesolong as the rewards for service are adequate. All partiesandall party-cries aretothem the same. They desert with unblushing frequency to the enemy,butare invariably passionately loyal when there is no prospect of being tempted to play the traitor.Butyour real agitator does endeavour to be faithfultoprinciples.Heis a Radical, of course;every.manwho appealstothe people for their support is a Radical: the Conservatives are those who defend the Government,andthese donotventuretooffer them selves to the voters for election, fortheyknowitwould be useless. The Government, as the voters know,isthepartyin possession.Itis a permanentanda powerful quantity.Ithas honours to bestow; more, hasitnotmoney with which

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REAL POLITICSANDTIN-POT POLITICS151to rewardthefaithful?Itis no use trying to inducetheaverage elector to believethattheGovernment cannot do something. handsome for those who are its men, for belief in the absolute incorruptibility of the Government isbyno meansanarticle of his creed. To be knowntobe kindly dis posed towardstheauthorities, then, opens youtobeing sus pected of wishingtodeceivethepeople for personal motives. You are a 'Governmentman'-athing alleged against youbythose who feel sOlTowfullythattheyhave no chance of becom ingthesame. Now, your professional agitator deliberately includes all those who are opposed to him, or to whom he is opposed, in the category of Government men,andin the name of true and fervid patriotism he goes forth into theelection arena attacking, defending, arguing, always hinting darklyatsome conspiracy being plotted against the liberties of the people, always protesting his unalterable determination to defeatthatconspiracy.Fortyyears ago he was probably connected with a news paper office.Atthattime the capital needed to establish a WestIndianjournal was small,andmuch could be done in the way of credit. The journalist took himself seriously, though nobody quite shared his opinion of himself;he was ill-paid, wordy, a violent critic of every one who received a bigger wagethanhe, a firm believer in parliamentary institutions. His existencehadsomething mysteriousaboutit, since his visible means of support were scanty. The little sheet he published inflicted punishment on the eyes of those whoattemptedto read it,anddidnotas a rule appear regularly. He always demanded reforms, without taking care to specify preciselywhatreforms he wanted; he was invariably in debt, he usuallyhadpatrons whose virtues he praised in public and whose vices (and especially the vice of meanness) he scathingly commented upon in private to those whom he thought (erroneously)thathe could trust. Times having changed,andnewspaper enterprise beingout

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152TWENTIETHCENTURY JAMAICA of the question to-day except to those with large sums of money, your professional politicianisobliged to confine his energies to the platformandto personal talks. Fifty years hence hemayhave developed another means of influencing his fellow men, for he is a man of resources.Butwhatever else changes or disappears, his type will persist. for the Legislative Council are held every five years,andfor several months before the writs are issued the professional organisers of election contests are busy endeav ouring to promote a contest in each of the Gentle men anxious to be known in the local political world also begin to write letters to the newspapers imploring other gentlemen to come forwardandbe elected, the writers promising the return of these with all the certainty of prophets. There is something like excitement in the several taverns, rum-shops, barber shops,andother favourite rendezvous of those who loveanelection,anddeputations are formed to wait upon reputedly unwilling gentlemen whom the whole community (asweare informed) desire to see in the Council.Itsometimes transpiresthatthese deputations have been organisedbysome of the unwilling gentlemen themselves.Butnobody paysanyparticular attention to such reports, foritis expectedthatduringanelection campaign a politician will do things which would be considered improperonother occasions. When the persons approached have all consented to come forward as candidates, there followsanissuing of manifestoes. These are, frequently, as vague as they well can be,andare strikingly lacking in originality. The problems which a small "Vest Indian island has to face are necessarilyfew,nor are thosefewsuch as can be immediately solvedbylegislation.Ifcertain forms of disease are prevalent,ifeducation has been neglectedinthepast,ifthe wages paid to labourers are low, the remedy for these things is scarcely to be found in the mere assertionthatdisease must be prevented, education promoted, wages raised. The candidates understand this perfectly;

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REAL POLITICS AND TIN-POT POLITICS I53 yet they must say something.Sothey all more or less say the same thing, promisetodo the same things, appealtothe high sense ofdutyandthe intelligence of the elector (who is per fectly awarethatitisonlyatelectionsthathis intelligenceisatall perceived), and then proceedtodeal with their oppo nents onstrictlypersonal lines.Invain does the Press beseech the rival politicians not to be personal. They have tobe:if they were not, there could benoelection addresses. Absolute vulgarity, of course, isnotoften indulged in; inaeed, the personalities employedatelection time arenotusually of such a nature as to warrant an appeal to a courtoflaw. Yet they are frequently unpleasant enough, each speaker seeing in an opponent a person whose sole aimisto'feather his own nest,' 'grind his own axe,' 'serve the interests of some great corporation,' or'getjobs for his familyandhis friends.' Some of these assertions are believed, too, however absurd they may be. Forthatthe politician is dominat bysome personal motive,thathe is seekingtogain something,isanotuncommon opinion. Yet there have been scores of candidates for the Legislature who have contested an election for no other reasonthana desire to serve their respective parishes;andeventually this has come to be perceived.Butwhen the excitement ofanelection is upon the oratorsandpoliticians, the airisfull of rumoursandinsinuations. You would thinkthatthe fate of the country depended upon this particular election. Nevertheless the average voter knows perfectly wellthatthe destinies of the country are controlled by a power which doesnotdepend upon elections for its authority, a power often representedbya simple policeman who leisurely strolls about the fringes of a political crowd, interfering with no one,butalso taking good carethatno one interferes withanyoneelse.Nomatterwhoiselected, the Government remains unchanged. Knowing this, the Jamaica electorwillnever allow his zeal foranycandidate or foranycausetolead him to disturb the peace,

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154TWENTIETHCENTURY JAMAICAYet.the election organiser will.notallow the seriousness of the approaching contesttobe forgotten,andifhe is amanof energy he will infuse some of his ownardentspirit intoabouttwentyvoters who,soto speak, form the body-guard of their candidate. Someofthese, during three or four weeks preceding election day, are usually to be seen in the vicinity of the would-be legislator:theyattendupon him wherever he goes: they make his life a burden to him.Buttheyare useful. All over the city or town they will distribute them selvesata word of command (but chiefly in the vicinity ofrumshops), andtheywill makeittheir business to proclaimthewonderful virtues of their candidate. They wear huge rosettes of his colours,theyeach carry a stick,andtheir argu ments in favour of their candidate are emphasised with a wildyetdexterous flourishing of the stick,andwith declarations of their readiness togoto prison forsonoble a man astheone who has nowputhis servicesatthe disposal of the people.Forthis service they, as well as the professional canvassers previously mentioned, are paid a weekly wage, anditis usuallythecandidate's henchman (the organiser of elections already mentioned) who employs them. They, of course, wouldratherhave dealings directly with the candidate himself. Althoughtheydeclarethattheir zeal in his behalf is supremely disinterested, the question of adequate remuneration for services performed or to be rendered is one whichtheythink meritstheclosest personal attention from the great man; for, first,theyholdthathe would be more generousthanhis agent;andnext,humannaturebeing pronetosuspicion,theyfimlly believethattheyare being robbedbythatagent. This is probably true;yetthe latter, after all, savesthecandidate a great deal of worry, and without his assistance the cost of an election would probably be greaterthanitis. The regular canvassers go from house to house with Voters' Rolls in their hands and canvass for votes. They

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REALPOLITICS AND TIN-POT POLITICS 155 promisesinthe name of their candidate. Are the guttersbad?They shall be looked after when Mr So-and-So becomes a member of the Legislative Council. Are people sick in the district? The hospital grant will be made twice as much asitis as soon as Mr So-and-So represents the constituency. Work is scarce?Itshall be theduty ofMr So-and-Sotoseethatthe Government embarks upon a system of relief works the moment Mr So-and-So takes his seat in the Legislature. Sometimes enthusiasm carries these canvassers too far, especiallyifthey arenotquite experienced in the work. Thus one man, addressing a small crowd of peopleinone of the poorer suburbs of Kingston, was once heard to declare fer ventlythatthatsuburb should shortly have a police station, which, he asseverated,itwas a shamethatitshould lack. Immediately he lost the sympathy of his audience,anda more wilyandrival canvasser made much capitaloutofthe mistakebyasserting with passionate indignationthatanattemptwastobe madeby Mr So-and-Sotoputeverybody who wasnotof his own class in prison. Afterthat, Mr So-and-So \vas never given a hearing inthatdistrict, the crowd shouting, 'Take himaway!'whenever heattemptedtoaddress them. When this election excitement isatits height, the local Press is naturally obligedtocomment on the speeches made and on the merits of the several candidates. Thislatterthing is neither easy nor pleasant.Ina small community where there are nopartypolitics,andwhere the platforms of all the candidates are distinguished morebytheir samenessthanbytheir difference, support has often to be given on purely per sonal grounds .. Butitis exceedingly hazardous to dosoopenly, seeingthatnone of the newspapers carestomake enemies when (astheyall very frequently believe)itwill not make much difference which candidate succeeds.Atthis time, therefore, the political articles are couchedinterms of sweet reasonableness, and,ifdefinite. support is giventoone man,

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156TWENTIETHCENTURY JAMAICA care is takentopointoutthatthe other men are only a trifle less excellentthanthe candidate supported. Indeed, during a certain celebrated election contest, one newspaperdayafterdayannounced its fervent desirethatthebest man might win.Butasittook care nevertomention who, in its opinion, was the best man, it couldnotbe saidthatitacted.asaneffective guidetopublic opinion.Ifa newspaper does comeoutstrongly in favour of a particular candidate, as is some times the case, its editorispersonally attackedbythe man whom he opposes,andis held uptopublic contempt as a time-server, as a writer without conscientious convictions, as an enemy of the people, as one who will have an ignoble end. The ignoble end here prophesied for the offending journalist is the loss of his job, amatterwhich is of very serious importance in the eyes of the crowd. Strong resolutions condemning himmayalso be passedatthese election meet ings, and you',,"ouldimagine from the language usedthat he would be afraidtowalk the streets without police protection.Butthe local journalist knows better. JamaicaisnotCuba, where editors are frequently shot.ItisnotHayti, where they are frequently deported.Hesimply continues to write, often with the convictionthathis lengthy willnothave the slightest effect upon the issue. And when he ismetbythe partisans of the man he is opposing, heisnotinfrequently pointedoutby them with apparent angerbutsecret admira tion. And when the day of electionatlast arrives, the excite ment reaches its culminating point. Fromanearly hour of the morning wagonettes andcabs, gaily decorated with flags and with the colours of the respective candidates, begintoparade the streets. A'band,'consisting usually of two cornets, a flute, a fiddle,andan enormous drum, heads the procession, which is invariably madeupof the un\vashed. A popular air is 'Britannia, the Pride of the Ocean.' Another still more popular airisknown as 'Sweetie Charley';itissung with

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REALPOLITICS AND TIN-POT POLITICS 157 much gusto to words which I shallnottranscribe here, the laws of all British communities making obscenity a serious offence. Another air much in vogue on election daysiscalled 'Marse Charley,'andthe words accompanyingitare: 'Marse Charley sey him wouldn't kiss Mattie, Not for at'ousand pounds,'theidea beingthatMattie's mouth is altogether of an abnormal size. Theseandother patriotic airs are played by the band, the excellence of the music being in exact proportion to its loudness. While these bands parade the town, the candidates, their lieutenants,andtheir assistants are busy moving about in cabsandcarriages bringing the voterstothe polling station. The candidates themselves, however,gooutbutrarely. They prefertoremainat ,.the polling station with some of their staunchestandmost robust adherents, for the purpose of button-holingandconverting voters who have notyetmadeuptheir minds whomtheyshould vote for. This process of persuasion is the cause of many fierce encounters between the rival candidatesandtheir followers, the latter, of course, being inthatfitandproperstateof intoxication without which no political contest could decently be carried on.Itmay bethata hesitating voter is seized on the right sidebya member of the redandblue party,andon the leftbya member ofthepinkandgray. Both agents ask himatthesame time if he doesnotremember them,andhe assures them boththathe does, though very probably he has never seen them On the strength of his admission of a long-standing acquaint anceship, each agent tries to drag the unfortunate voter to the voting booth, and each asks the other one,'Whythe some thing or other he doesnotlet theman go, seeingthathe has already clearly stated whom heisgoingtovote for?' This brings a crowdtothe spot, an excited crowd, which shoutsandwaves hands fiercely in the air,andproclaimsthat'itwill havetobe war,'butnever proceeds beyondthedeclara. tion. Then somebody runs for the respective candidates,

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IS8TWENTIETHCENTURY JAMAICA who hastily arrive on the sceneandbegin to harangue the voteratoneandthe same time, only stopping now and thentoask each other'ifhecannotbehave like a gentleman?'Atlast the voter decides,andis ledoffamidst the triumphant jeeringandshouting of those with whom he has cast his lot, and the same scene is repeated againandagain. Many voters willnotcome to the poll unless sent for. Nowthatmotor-cars have become well known in Jamaica, some freeandindependent electors insist on being taken to the poll in a motor-car. So, either in cabs, carriages, or in motor-carsthe.votersgoproudlytothe poll, registering their votes with the air of men who knowthatthey have savedan impor!ant situationandserved their country, then returning to work or home in high spirits (but on foot), having enjoyed their ride through the streets. When five o'clock approaches the uproar in the polling station becomes terrific. Every voteissnatched at, languageofan .impolite nature is freely usedbygentlemen who assure you with tears in their eyes,andwith much calling upon of Providence to witnesstotheirtruth,thattheir candidate shall win, must win,andhas indeed won already. Bold mem bers of a candidate'spartyeven venturetorushupto him occasionally to ask 'how heisnmning:two lengths in front or neckandneck?' racing terms being regarded as most appropriate toanelection, whichisintrutha very diverting sport.Everyoneis the equal ofeveryoneelse to-day. Every one is preparedtodrink freelyatevery one else's expense. Five o'clock comes: the voice of the returning officer is heard peremptorily ordering the closing of the polling station. Then cheers arise from the votersandthe canvassers onbothsides, and the bandsofthe candidates (who are usually only two) simultaneously strikeupa triumphant march signifying victory. Immediately after each one strikes up the'DeadMarch in Saul,'tointimatethatthe otherpartyhas been

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REALPOLITICS AND TIN-POT POLITICS 159 hopelessly beaten. The crowd outside the polling station cheers, then the station itselfisclosed for a couple of hours. At about seven o'clock the counting of the votes in a hot, ill-lighted, stuffy room begins. The placeiscrowded with tired, vociferous, excited, enthusiastic politicians.As-boxbybox the votes are counted, cheers are raisedbythe party of the candidate who has the largest number of votes to his name,andechoedbythe crowdoutside, who all night parade the street in front of the polling station.Inthe small hours of the morning the counting continues.Asthe end draws near the fever grows. At lastitis over. Thenameofthewinner is made known, and a great cheer goesup-goesupfrom everybody in the room, for, the fight now finished, friendly relations are established once more. Some speech making follows. Listeningtothese addresses, the stranger would concludethateverybody assembled inthatroomthatmorning was a person of heroic virtueandpatriotism, with whomithas been a pleasure for everybody elsetohave been associated. The candidates usually shake hands with one another, unless the election abuse has been of a particularly virulent character. Each professes the greatest respectandadmiration for the other. Theneveryonegoes home,andon thenextdaythe newspapers publish accounts of the election, which is sometimes described as the most enthusiastic ever witnessed in' Jamaica,andalso long leading articles on the responsibility which now rests upon the successful candidate, who is immediately spoken of as the Hon. So-and-So,andcomplimented on his victory. Everybody now is anxioustocongratulate the victor. Many of those who voted against him now inform the world howtheychanged their mindsatthe last momentandvoted in his favour, perceiving (by inspira tion asitwere)thathe was thebetterman of the two.Asfortheprofessional organisers of elections,andthe canvassers,andthe men who played the band,theyretire thoughtfully

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160TWENTIETHCENTURY JAMAICA frem the political arena. They have fought the good fight.But--hastheir reward been adequate? Let us leave them in a discontentedstateof mind, their permanent condition. The candidatestheyimaginetheyhave helped to elect are of quite a different type, being as a mle lawyers, planters,andsometimes one or two merchants. They are mostly men who have succeeded in life;theyarenotimpecunious; the majority of them are above forty years of age. They have the powertoinitiate legislation of a non financial character,andtheymaysuggest,byresolution, the undertaking of schemes directly involving the expenditure of money. The power of spending money, or of introducing Money Bills, rests with the Government;butthe elected mem bers may,bythe united vote of nine of their number, veto a Government Money Bill. Thusthe electives act as a financial check upon the Government. Again, although there are fifteen Government members as against fourteen elected members in the Legislative Council, which places the Govern ment in a position of numerical superiority,itis provided in the Constitutionthatifthe fourteen elected members vote together, onanymatterwhatever, the fifteen votes of the Government members cannot be taken. Thusitwould appearthatallthatthe elected members had to do would betovote solidly (nine on financial questionsandfourteen on all ques tions of ordinary legislation) and they would practically rule the country.Butwehavenotyetdone with checksandbalances.Forthe Jamaica Constitution also gives the Governor the power to overrule the united votes of the elected membersbydeclaring amatterputbyhim before the House to be of paramount importance to the welfare of the colony. When a Bill oranymeasure whatever is declaredtobe of paramount importance, the votes of the Government members are taken,andthematterisdecided. The Governor,itis true, has thentojustify his actiontothe Secretary of State for the Colonies;butEnglish Colonial Secretaries makeit

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KING'SHOUSE, 'fHR GOVERNOR'SRESIDENCETI1CHFlELDHOTEL,PORTA'TO10MYRTLEBA KHOTEL,KINGSTON

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REALPOLITICS AND TIN-POT POLITICS 161 amatterof policytosupport their chief officials in the tropical colonies.Ofcourse,ifa Governor deliberatelyflewin the face of a unanimous local public opinion,andsetboththe spiritandthe letter of the Constitutionatdefiance, there might be trouble.ButGovernors donotgosofar asthat;or, iftheydo, they managetoexplain away their action with arguments which are accepted only because nobody carestobring aboutanopen fight in these days betweentheExecutiveandthecountry. The situation isnota stable one. The same thingmaybe said, no doubt, about every politicalsituation:'anunstable equilibrium' is the best word for it.Butin Jamaicaitis more unstablethanalmost anywhere else, for, since 1884, the Government has been steadily encroaching upon the powers of the elected members, while the people of the colony are becoming lessandless disposed to be ruled entirelybyofficials.Buttounderstandandappreciatethepresent political situa tion of Jamaicawemustgobacktothe past.Ashas been said in our second chapter, the early colonists consisted mainly of plantersandtheir white em ployees, of a few merchants,anda handful of professional men. Thus eighty years aftertheEnglish conquest of the colony there were only eight thousand white people in the island,andabout eighty thousand slaves. The population grew as time went on,butthe whites never numbered morethanthirtythousandatanytime, and in the hands of a small section of these was vested the extraordinary powers possessedbytheold Jamaica House of Assembly. The number of voters during the two hundred years of Representative Government was either,atone time or the other, a little less or a little morethantwo thousand. These electedaHouse of Assembly of forty-five members: the popular branch of the local Parliament, which was supposed to be the Colonial counterpartof the British House Of Commons,andin whichanyprivate member had the righttointroduce a Money Bill.J.L

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162TWENTIETHCENTURY JAMAICA Then there v,'as a Council of twelve members appointedbytheGovernorandconstituting the Colony's Upper House. This claimedtherighttoamend as well astoreject Money Bills sentuptoitbythe House of Assembly, and this claim was one among themanycausesofconflict betweenthetwo Legislative Chambers.Forthe Assembly always contendedthatthe House of Lords couldnotamend a Money Bill sentuptoitbythe House of Commons;andwasitnot(sothe argument ran) in a position similar tothatof the House of Commons?AstheCouncil was presided over by the Governor in person when he was in the island,itfollowsthathe was often dragged into the quarrels betweenthetwo Houses, each of which was .bitterly jealous of the other. Then, besides,theGovernor was the representative of the Imperial Govern ment,andthe Imperial Government always claimed the right to interfere intheadministration of the island. This right was never admittedbytheHouse of Assembly, which stoutly contendedthatitanditalone could legislate for the island anditspeople. Having the powertorefuse supplies for the carrying on oftheGovernment (which power they frequently exercised),andalways having something about whichtoquarrel with the Governor, the Council, or with one another, the members oftheAssembly took their politics very SEriously indeed. They didnothesitate to accuse Sir William Beeston of having misappropriated public money. When aMrJohnAyscough administered the Government, he happened to speak of His Majesty's 'commands.' The Assembly promptly reminded himthatthe King'srecommendationsshould not be spoken of inthatwaytoa freeandindependent legislature, When he relinquished the Government a few months afterwards (during which interval the Assembly had refused to transact business with him) he was promptly impeachedbythe Assembly for having perverted justice while President oftheCouncil and Chancellor of the island! To such lengths 'didthe

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REALPOLITICS AND TIN-POT POLITICS 163 old legislatorsgowhen dealing with stubborn Gover nors. The House of Assembly was always insisting on its right to adjourn wheneveritliked, and the several Governors of the colony were frequently obliged to adjourn it peremptorily when, instead of proceeding with business,itwould devote its timeandattentiontopassing long strings of resolutions denouncing the Government or setting forth its rights and privileges.Itis statedthatduring one period of nine years there were eight general electionsandfifteen sessions of the House. And while these contentions between the Assemblyandother parties were going on, the members of the Assembly didnotforgettoquarrel amongst themselves. Somewhat similar scenes continueduptothe very eve of the final dissolu tion of the House of Assembly and the surrender of the old Jamaica Constitution. After the slaves had become freemen(1837)others besides plantersandgreat merchants begantoforce anentryintotheHouse of Assembly. This,bythe old, proud Conservative element, was regarded as the. beginning of the end of all things. Thenitwasthatsomething like two political parties appeared in the island, one striving to maintain the old planter supremacy, the other endeavour ingtobreakitdown. Personal attacks were the order of thedayin the Press,andduels sometimes took place. Com mercial depression prevailed, there was no sanitation, the roads of the island were neglected; and in the existing temper of the times reform was almost impossible. The Government could do little without the co-operation of the Assembly,andthatbody did not wishtodo anythingtoimprove the condi tion of the people. English and American writers visiting the island aboutthattime(1860-65)saw clearlythatthe situation couldnotpossibly long endure.Itdid not. A peasant revolt brokeoutin one of the parishes in1865,anda handful of white people were murdered. The rising was suppressed without difficulty,. the alleged

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164TWENTIETHCENTURYJAMAICA.ringleader ofit-acoloured member of the House of Assembly-wastriedbycourt-martialandhanged,andthe Assembly itself, panic-struckatthe thought of a general servile rebellionandmassacre, determined to surrender its powers into the hands of the Crown.Itdidsowith much rhetoric,andthe Governor complimentediton having 'immolated its privileges on thealtarof patriotism.' Then followed sixteen years of administrationbya Governor, assistedbya small nominated Legislative Council whose vote, however, couldnotoverride the decision of the Executive. One Governor, indeed, during this period, when one ofthemembers of the new Legislature mentioned'thelaw,' informed his hearersthathe was the la\v. Butthe colony becoming dissatisfied with this system of Crown Government, which undoubtedly was extravagant,itwas modified in 1884,andthe existing system of semi-Representative Government was introduced in its stead.Itis a compromise system.Itis a systemthatcan only be worked with infinitetactanddiplomacy,andnotall Governors or all bodies of elected members possess these qualities. The Governor,itmust be borne in mind, is essentially the Govern ment. The Constitution of the colony provides for a Privy Council, five members of which are officials, three of which are selected from amongst the most influential planters in the island,andthe president of which istheGovernor himself. The Governorissupposedtoconsult this Cabinet on all important matters of public policy,butheisunder no obliga tiontofollow its advice,andisnotsupposedtodosoifsuch advice runs contrarytohis deliberate opinion. Foritisnothis Privy Council nor hisofficers,noreven the Legislative Council,thatthe ColonialOfficeholds responsible for the good government of the colony.Itis the Governor, who,tobe successful, mustnotonly have tact,butalso ability, energy, sound judgment, good fortune,anda considerable knowledge of menandaffairs. Considering the requirements, there

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REALPOLITICS AND TIN-POT POLITICS 165 has never been such a thing as an ideal Governor. Every Administrator has made mistakes,andthe people and their elected representatives havenotbeen slowtoperceiveandcomment on those mistakes, thoughnotwith anything like virulence. Criticism, in fact, is conducted very soberly in Jamaica; violent denunciations of the Governmentisonly indulged inbyextremists who have no following amongst the intelligent people. Nevertheless, no Governor escapes criticism,andveryfewhave been the Governors who have left Jamaica without diminished popularity. The Governor istheGovernment, and the Government can, on the plea of paramount importance, or even on the groundthatthe public service will sufferifcertain things are not done immediately, overrule the decision of.theelected members. This doesnotleave thelatterwithout a certain amount of power; they can still, within limits, act as a check upon the Government,andtheir united vote isnota thingtobe easily ignored. Yet, like all elected bodies, HIe popular element of the LegiSlature feelsthatits decision should be final; \vhile the Government is of opinionthatwhatitcon siders best for the country is absolutely best and should. be acceptedbythe elected members. Constant agreement beingoutof the question, to saynothing of its being monotonous,wehave friction sometimes,andnowandthen there occurs what is called in Jamaica'apolitical crisis.' These crises have invariablyuptonow left the Government as victor;solong as the Governor is supportedbythe Secretary ofStatefor the Colonies he has nothingtofear.Butthere is a growing dissatisfaction with this system, a dissatisfactionthatwill make itself apparent within another decadeiffrequent clashes between Governmentandelected members should take place. Some form of control over their own affairs the people of Jamaica will insist upon having,andanycontinued advance towards practically unlimited powerandauthority on thepartof the Government will alienate the sympathy of the

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r66TWENTIETHCENTURY JAMAICA intelligent and educated classes from the Government, which,wemust remember, largely represents the British connection.Ifwhen the veto power of the elected members is employed,itisoverruledbythe Governor, the people willfeelandsay that either the Governor should have no powertooverrule the united votes of the elected members, orthatthelattershould leave the Legislatureandhave nothing to do withthepublic affairs of the colony.Ifitshould cometothis-andthere are indicationsthatitmay oneday-thetask of govern ing Jamaica will be made harder.Forwhile no violent demonstrations are to be thought of even, there will certainly be much less contentment with the Governmentthanthere is to-day,anditwill be asked whether Jamaica wouldnotbebetteroffpolitically, as well as economically and industrially,ifconnected with the United States.Atthe worst,itwill be said, the colony couldnotbe worseofffrom the political point of view,andthis feeling will be another factor in favour of the connection of the islandwith'the United States instead of with the British Empire. Do I mean to imply, then,thatthe Government is solely for the misunderstandingsthatoccur between. the Governmentandtheelected members of the Legislative Council? I do not. Often the Government has been rightandthe elected members wrong,butthe contrary also holds.Insuch circumstances, what istobe done? Considering the respc;>nsibility of the Gover:not, is he to allow the elected mem berstohave their own way,andthus, perhaps, to inflict some damage on the country? Well, there is nodoubtin the writer's mindthatifthe elected membershadtheir own way all the timetheywould inflict damage on the country,butsowould the Government;sowouldanybody of men whose power was practically unlimited.Asamatterof fact, however,itis rarethatthe elected members act together as one man, while the personal influence of a wise Governor is always great,andcan be usedtoguide the country,ifnot

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REALPOLITICS AND TIN-POT POLITICS 167 the elected members. And public opinionisbyno means disposedtotolerate abuses on thepartof the elected repre sentatives of the country. Thelatterare unsparingly con demned in the Pressandon the platform iftheyactas though they were irresponsible. The Pressmaynotalways take sidesatan election,butitwillnotallow the person electedtodo what he pleases; public opinion, in fact, may safely be trusted toactas a check on the elected members; besides, thereisalways the numerical strength of the Government in the Legislative Council. Thereisanother consideration.Itisnotwisdom to expect perfection ofanypolitical or public body,anditisnotlikelythatthe moral support of the people will be on the side of the Government ifitcan always reduce the elected members to a nonentitybythe use of its extraordinary powers.Everytime the decision of the elected members is overruled, the community feelsthata blow has been deliveredatits self respect;ithas been told plainlythatits representatives are only to be allowedtodo what the Governor is prepared to allow them to do. Thusthe elected members may gain a sympathy whichtheydonotdeserve,andthe Governmentmayfind itself regarded as alienandas antagonistictothe people, which is whatitrarely if ever is. The standard of education rises steadily in Jamaica yearbyyear,andwithitthe standard of intelligence. With this improvement in knowledge and intelligence there must go an increasing measure of political pm,Yer. Ithastobe expectedthatthere will be some abuse ofthatpower-itissoeverywhereandin everyage-butfar more seriousthanthatwould be the feelingthatthe peopleofJamaica were one thingandthe Government of Jamaica another.Itisnotwithin the province of these pages to outline new schemes and systems of Government for tropical depend encies. One may, however, suggestthatthe association of the elected members with the framing of the yearly financial

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I68 TWENTIETH' CENTURY JAMA}CA proposals of the Government, as is the case in Barbados, would obviate much of the troublethatnowandthen arises between the elected membersandthe Jamaica Government. A committee of the elected members and the Government might prepare estimatesthatwouldnotbe quibbled over.Intime, too, the elected members of the Legislature will be paid,andthis payment of members will undoubtedly be coupled with an insistence on the possession of a good property qualification (properly attested to) on thepartof every man seeking electiontothe Legislature. This shoula do muchbothto encourage a suitable class of men to seek electiontotheLegislatureandto prevent impecunious adventurers from endeavouring to gain pay, position,andpoweratthe expense of the colony.

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169CHAPTERIXINDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL JAMAICATHEclassification ofthepeople accordingtooccupations, which is adopted in the census of19II,cannot be said to be very illuminating. We are toldthat271,000are engaged in agricultural pursuits,and72,000in industrial.Butwhat these industries are is nowhere stated,andI must confessthatthe figures given in this connection are somewhat astonishing. Perhaps clerks, shopkeepers,andstore assistants are counted as persons engaged in industry;but,ifso, who makeupthe nearly twenty thousand souls whose occupation is said to be commercial? Jamaica industries, as distinct from agriculture, are so few, and employ, relatively,sosmall a number of persons,thatitis difficult to see where these72,000aretobe placed,ifnotamong the agriculturists.Atleast sixty thousand of themmustbe agriculturists, the remainder may be makers ofthings-artisans,manufacturers' assistants, compositors, shoemakers,andthe like.Inwriting of industrial Jamaica, therefore, onemayaswellinclude the agriculturists, since agriculture isnotonly an industry,butthe most important industry in Jamaica. .-k. Whenever a writer to a Jamaica newspaper discusses the economic condition of the colony, he invariably remarks somewhere in the course of his letterthatJamaica is an agricultural country. He doesnotallow the facttobe assumed,andhe willnottakeitfor grantedthatitis generally well known. The obvious comment upon such a remarkis,of course,that,hernaturalresources considered,Jamaicacould not very well be anything else.Itis truethatthere has been

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170TWENTIETHCENTURY JAMAICAanage-long search made for minerals,andthatevery nowandthen during the last two hundredandfifty years or so, some one has come upon most promising signs of gold, coal,andother minerals,andhas been quite rich(inimagination) for some little time.Butnow most persons appear to have madeuptheir mindsthatthe only goldtobe found is in the golden banana, the banana of commerce which issohighly esteemed in the markets of the United StatesandEngland. Andthatis intrutha sourceofriches, the source upon which Jamaica mainly depends. I willnottell here the origin of theJamaicabanana industry. The story has been toldsooftenthatone is inclinedtodisbelieve it, oratanyratetowishitwerenottrue. There is nothingsowonderful about it, after all; what is much more interestingisthe development of the trade in the hands of a great American organisation, a development which illus trates how agriculture itself has been organised in theselaterdays on commercial lines, just as ifitwere a manufacture. The American's business instinct leads naturally towards organisation on a colossal scale; hemayknow nothing of agricultural matters himself, yet he will handle the agriculturalproducts of morethanone country; he knows nothing about steamships,yethe will own morethanone fleet. The UnitedFruitCompany consists of men who have invested money in the development of the banana trade between JamaicaandCentral America,andthe United StatesandEngland. These men form one of the biggestandmost power ful of American Trusts. They own a great deal of land in Jamaica; they have leased a great deal,andtheyhave entered into contracts with both smallandlarge planters to supply them regularly with fruit. They employ anarmyof super visors, sorters,andbuyers,andon these they depend. Besides owning some of the finest shipsthatrunbetween JamaicaandtheUnited States,theyare the largest shareholders, and_they are certainly the controlling power, in the Elders and

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INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL JAMAICA171Fyffes line, which supplies a regular fortnightly service between Jamaica: and the mother-country. They carry fruitandpassengers to EnglandandAmerica, andtheyhave steadily improved their steamers. To a considerable extent,thedevelopment of Jamaica for some twenty years is a develop ment due to one great commercial organisation controlledbyAmericans. And the growth ofthatCompany hasnotyet reached its culmination.Itisthis Company which has made the town ofPortAntonio. An insignificant fishing village somethirtyyears ago,itisnow the second in size in the island, and a favourite resort for tourists. There one of the finest hotels in Jamaica-theTichfieldHotel-istobe found;andthe idea of supply ing the town with a hotel came from men connected with the Company, whfch for some time owned the hotel.Itisstill interested in it,andis extending its activities in Jamaica in other directions. The Company is sometimes spoken of as an octopus,butits operations .have benefited Jamaica quite as much as they have benefited itself: Jamaica, rather, has beenthelarger beneficiary. The small peasant who once grew half a dozen different things onanacre or two of land, now, in hundredsandeven thousands of instances, devotes himself to bananas. These he sellstothe UnitedFruitCompany ortoits competing rivals, with the resultthatheismuchbetteroffthanif he had con tinued his old methods of cultivationandproduction.Hemakes more money, lives better,andis altogether more independent-moreofa man. The impetus, too, in the way of organising industry, which this Company has given, hashadan effect on other industries besides the one in whichitis specifically interested, and its example has been followedbyother firms and companies doing business in Jamaica. Thusweno longer find the sugar planter of Jamaica a direct exporter of his produce. At one timethemanwho grew cane grounditalso, which

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172TWENTIETHCENTURY JAMAICA is still often the case to-day.Yetitisnotwholly the case, the peasants in the sugar parishes now going in steadily for cane farming, being content to sell their cane to the mill owneratfixed rates, according to quality. The mill-owner or manufacturer grows cane himself,buthe no longer ships his sugarandtakes the chances of the markets abroad.Heis no longer directly troubled about rates of freight as once he was.Itis the samesofar as hisrumis concerned.Thatalsohehands over to the commission agentsandgreat produce buyers of the island,andthese take the risk. Such a firm as Messrs FredL.Myers&Son has done much within late years to extend the sale of Jamaica rum.Ithandles theoutputofseveral large distilleries, and through its agents abroaditplaces the rum wherever there is a demand, or wherever a demandmaybe created.Italso handles a great deal of the sugar produced in the island,anditissignificantthat,in spite of the withdrawal of Great Britain from the Brussels Convention, the members of this organisation have the utmost faith in Jamaica's future as a sugar-producing country. Another firm, Messrs Lascelles de Mercado&Co.(connected with E.A.de Pass&Company, of London) is part-owner of the Vere Sugar Estates, Limited,andthus are sugar producers as well as sellers.Coffeeandcocoa are also handledbythis firm, the peasants selling their product in small quantitiestoits agents, and the larger planters consigning their crops directtoit. The same sort of business is donebyMessrs Wessels&Company, a German firm. These three,andothers, handle Jamaica produce with the intent,notonlytosell again,buttoregulate the island's industries,tosortandtrademarkthe different qualities of produce shipped away, and, conse quently,tosecure a definiteandhigh reputation for Jamaica produce. Much has been doneinthis direction,butstill more remainstobe done.FortheJamaica peasant-planterisrathera happy-go-lucky individual, andifstones get mixed up with

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INDUSTRIALANDCOMMERCIALJAMAICA173his coffee, oranold shoe finds its way amongst his cocoa, hemayship them without sortingouteither stones or shoe; in fact, his commercialandagricultural education has been rather neglected in the past,andisonly now being attended to. The Government is seeingthathe learns something about scientific agriculture. School gardensandagricultural instruc tors,andagricultural lecturesanddemonstrations are teaching himthathis old methods of cultivation can be much improved. A few miles to the north of Kingston isaninstitution which has been establishedbutfor a few yearsnow-theHope Farm.Itis an agricultural college,andwhen reporting onitabout five years ago, its Director bemoaned the circum stancethatwhilesomany of the Jamaica youths of thebetterworking classandpeasant-proprietor class were very fond of sittingata desk with pens stuck prominently behind their ears, they showed no inclination whatever to profitbythe opportunities affordedbythe Governmenttoacquire a good education in scientific agricultureandstock-rearing. Only three yearslaterhe was writing. in quite a different strain. Hethenhad as many pupils as he could accommodate,andothers were applying for admission to the College Farm. The youths wereaptlearners, goodworkers-altogether,he was pleased with them.Hehad a little misjudged the class hehadwritten about, thoughbyno means wittingly;andthe writer has been toldbymembers of the firms mentioned abovethatthe younger generation ofthepeasant class arenotonly willing to be helped,butanxious to be helped to conducttheir business on orderly and economical lines . Let me give a simplebutsignificant illustration. Theyamindustry of the parish of Hanover isanimportant one,andis entirely in the hands of a group of well-to-do peasants who own small properties in the parish. Theyamis brought in AugustandSeptember principally to Kingston; thereitis sold,andthence shipped to Panama,andsometimestothe neighbouring island of Cuba.Itis carried from Hanoverto

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174TWENTIETHCENTURY JAMAICA Kingston in small one-masted sailing-boats calleddroghers,boats which can easily carry yamstothe value of,which may represent the product of three or even two peasants' properties.Uptorecently these boats would call anywhere along the western side of Kingston's foreshore, and land the yams without much regard for economy of time or conserva tion of temper. Togodowntothe seaside whenthedroghers came in was topaya visit to pandemonium; yams would be destroyed,andsometimes fights would occur; the language was forcible, perhaps picturesque, certainly unprintable. Then some of the principal persons connected with the trade ap proached the junior member of Messrs FredL.Myers&Son,andputitto himthatsomething should be done to help the yam industry. The suggestion was adopted, a special pierandwarehouse were provided for these people,andnowanyonevisiting the wharf of this firm would never dreamthatthere were yam merchants within a mile of it. Orderandmethod now reign where once there was something very much like chaos. Those who know how prone the West Indian peasantistonoiseandconfusion will understand the signifi cance of this change. Yet there is nothingsovery wonderful about it.Itwas demonstrated long agothatthe peasantandworking class people of Jamaica can be trained to do most things. Hitherto they have lacked the training, the organisation, the encourage ment,andthe result has been backward agricultural methodsand a low standard of handicrafts.Butwhen afewmen with abilityandfaithandpatienceputthemselves to the task of improving the commercial methods of the people the benefits are apparentatonce. The Government's agricultural instruc tors, too, do not hesitate to saythat,though progress is slow,andthoughtheyhadatfirst to fight hard against the suspicions of the peasants, nevertheless thelatterhave now shown them selves perfectly willingtolearn what the instructors havetoteach them,andare profitingbythatinstruction.

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INDUSTRIALAND COMMERCIAL JAMAICA175Not long ago the cry was raised in Jamaica:-'Whathas become of the cabinet-makers of oldtime?'N one is left,itwas said;theyhadall degenerated;itwas now impossible to produce good native furnitureatall, comparable with what was produced even fifty years ago. The word degeneration was played upon. The pessimisthaditall his own way.Butthe pessimist didnottake account of the factthatit was practically impossible forthenative hand-workertocompete with the cheap, stained, machine-made furniture imported in large quantities from the United States. The native workmanhadnotdegenerated through the willtodegenerate.Hehadbeen driven, willy-nilly, J)ut ofthemarket; there was no sense in his making anything likethesplendid articles produced in those days when the handicrafts-man could take abitof rareandlasting woodandfashion it into abitof furni ture which, lasting for a century and more, would grow more beautiful with age. Yet even thisarthasnotquite diedoutin Jamaica. One large Kingston firm, the Colosseum, still makes excellent furniture with native woodsandnative labour.Butitiscaviaretothegeneral. Neither a firm nor a workman can afford to starve intheinterests of good work which nobody wants. Such self-sacrifice wouldnotbe philan thropy;itwould be folly. One is gladthatthe old Jamaica industry of furniture making is still in existence, however,andone is also pleasedtoknowthatnew industries requiring skillandtraining have been started. Alltheworld has heard of thePanamahat,butitisnotsogenerally knownthatthishatwas never made in Panama,butprincipally in Ecuador. They are manufac turedbyhandoutofthestrawoftheTorquilla palm,aplantwhich grows in Jamaica,andwhich, seenbythe river banks, whereitis most luxuriant, is one of the prettiest ofthesmaller palms ofthecountry. Onlytheotherdayitoccurredtoone or two enterprising menthata profitable export trade in thesehatscould be built

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176tWENTIETH CENTURY JAMAICAup. The peasantshadalways made them for common wear;butwhen theC.C.Henriques Company, of Kingston, organised aPanamaHatManufactory,andbegantosend samples of the Jamaica-madehatall over the world,itwas seenthatin this article, as well as in sugar, rum, bananas, cocoa,andcoffee, Jamaica could easily hold its own; andevery year now the number ofhatsexported from Jamaica increases. Native workers only are employed in the Henriques Manufactory. There one sees the girls sittingandhears them singing for hour after hour as they plait thefmestraw-singinghymns, since the musical taste of the average working-class girl runs strongly in the direction of the 'long metre' when she isather daily tasks. There is nohurry-thatwould spoil the work. Indeed, a very fine Panamahatmaytake two or three months to make. No hurry,buta great deal of careisnecessary;andsuch care can presumably bebettertaken when a number of young women solemnly chantthat'Afewmore days shall roll, afewmore seasons pass,' as their fingers deftly weave the strawthatis eventually to be wornbysome gay young man'upnorth,' orbysome lady in Piccadilly or the Strand. Excepting the bulk of the banana trade, most of the export business of the islandisin the control of local people. And even in the case of the fruit companies, the men employedtolook after local interests are mainly Jamaicans and resident Englishmen. The bulk of the cigar export trade is in the hands of a branch of the American Tobacco Trust, known as the Jamaica Tobacco Company,butthe local president of this branch is a native. Much has been donebythe Jamaica Tobacco Companytoextend the sale of Jamaica cigars abroad during the lastfewyears. The Government's figures relating to this article of exportation show a steady rise; but, of course, the Jamaica cigar has to compete in England with the Havana cigar,andthatholds the field because of its long-acquired reputation. Thedutyon cigars going into Canada is simply prohibitive. Porto Rico has an open market in the United

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INDUSTRIALAND COMMERCIAL JAMAICA 177States,butJamaicaisshutout. All this handicapstheJamaicatobacco products immensely,anditsays much for the intrinsic excellence of theJamaicacigarthatthedemand foritincreases steadily; one has no hesitation in assertingthatbutfor prohibitive duties,theexportation ofJamaicacigars would rivalthatofPortoRico,andwould, in time, perhaps, be second onlytothatof Cuba. Jamaica has some excellent tobacco fields;ithaseven been saidthatthetobacco lands in the parishes ofStCatherineandClarendon are like those of the famous Vuelta Abajo, intheprovince of Havana,1anditmustbe borne in mindthatnotone-half of the cigars exported as'Havanacigars' are madeoutof tobacco grown in the Vuelta Abajo.Jamaicashould, therefore, be abletolook forward,andis looking forward, to a very much larger exporttradein cigars. I donotwish to weary the reader with figures, which, after all, tell no very intelligible story.Itisnotpossibletojudge of the prosperity of a country merelybyreading columns of statistics all purportingtodeal with its exportandimport trade. Yet, within limits, a few figuresmaybe helpful tothereader,andoften servethepurpose of saving a writerthetrouble of making his meaning clear in words.Theysuggest apatientstudyofone's subject;theyimply familiarity with official publications. Thisisone reason, I suppose,whyfigures are saidtobe misleading. Itakemine from documents which are easily accessible,butwhich, perhaps, very few personsthinkitworth their while to consult. I findthatthe total exportandimporttradeofJamaicafor the year ending March31, 1912,amounted in valueto,762,183,andthat1912isstatedto be one of the most prosperousthatthecolony has known for some time. Thisstatementistrueenough;itis provedbysomeother1'Surtoutdu cOte deSaint-CatherinectClarendon, ontrouvedesterrainsquiont a peu pres meme composition quelafameuse Vuelta Abal'o cubaine ...Entoutcas, lesprixdes cigares sont plus moderes que ceuxdeaHavane,etlaqualit6estexcellente:-LesGrandes Antilles,parDaniel BeIlet.J.M

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178TWENTIETHCENTURY JAMAICA figures besides those of exportsandimports.Itisprovedbythe factthatin1912the people of Jamaica spent,250more on carriages and motor-carsthantheyhaddoneintheprevious year.In1910and19IItheaverage amount spent on motor-carsandcarriages was,000a year. As thenaturalincrease of population in a year or two wouldnotaccount for theextratwelve thousand pounds, andweknow from experiencethatwhenever businessisgood the average resident indulges in luxuries,wemust concludethatbusiness was prospering in the colony. Bananas accounted for the largerpartof this revenue, sugar camenext(abadsecond),thenfollowed coffee, cocoa, rum, and the rest. 'When one statesthatmorethanfifty-eight per cent. of the colony's exports consist of fruit,andbutaboutnine per cent. of sugar, the reader will realise once again the extent to which thelatterindustry has decayed. Yet even this figure represents a revival.In1909sugar formedbut4.7 per cent. oftheisland's total exports.In1910,when the plantersatlasthadcome to believethatthe sugar bountieshadgone forgood-ithadtaken themmanyyearstoarriveatthis conviction-sugar stood for10.8per cent. oftheexports. A drought affected the sugar parishes,andin19II8.9per cent. \vas the proportion in whichtheexports of sugar stood tothetotalexport trade oftheisland. Then came the newsthatGreat Britainhaddecidedtowith draw from the Brussels Convention,andthatwill of a surety have affected the reviving industry adversely.Itis a greatpitythata colony capable of producing a variety of products should be compelled to give most of its attentiontobutone,andthatone a most perishable article of commerce.Solong as Jamaica produces bananas mainly,andso long as its present fiscal connection with the mother country remains unchanged,solong will the colony beatthe mercy of America. So long as bananas remain the chief staple of Jamaica, so long will the revenue,bothof the peopleand

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INDUSTRIALANDCOIVIMERCIALJAMAICA179the Government, beatthe mercy ofanycyclonethathappenstosweep over the land. This is a trite observation;butthen there is nothing new to be said upon this point. Bananaspaywell tocultivate-ofthatthere isnodoubt.Butgiven good markets, sugar, tobacco, cocoa,andcoffee v,:ould alsopayvery handsomely, and the colony would have three or four staplestofall back upon. Cuba gave up producingcoffeebecause its climateandsoil werebetteradaptedtosugar.ButJamaica has excellent soilandclimate for coffee; she has almost everywhere the altitudethatCuba has not, except in the province of Oriente. Nevertheless her export trade in coffee,sogreatatthe begin ning of the last century, has fallen away to an inconsiderable trifle. Jamaica oranges have been drivenoutof the American marketbythe high tariff on citrus fruit.Jamaicacocoa has abetterchance abroad, and the resultisthatthe production of cocoa is increasing apace, in spite of the great quantities of cocoa shipped from Ecuador, Trinidad,andother places. The great need of Jamaica are good markets. Thisisprovedbythe wonderful industrialandcommercial progress madebyPorto Rico during the last ten years. Porto Rico is not as large an island as Jamaica,andiscertainlynotmore fertile.Ithas been cultivated even morethanJamaica has been,soitcannot be contendedthatits prosperityisduetoits rich virgin soil.Ithas a somewhat larger population,itistrue;ithadthateven when its trade wasbutequal tothetradeofJamaica.Butit hasnota hardier population,andif its labouring classes are reputed to bebetterworkers to-daythanare the labourers of Jamaica,itwasnotsolong ago whentheywere described as working only a sufficient number of days to secure enoughto.eat,andlolling in their hammocks for hours on end.lTheir food was quite as coarseandas simple asthatof the Jamaica peasant. The illegitimacy rateandthe morals of the people generally were not better1 Cuba and Porto Rico,byR.T. Hill, 1898.

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180TWENTIETHCENTURY JAMAICAthanthoseofJamaica,andthe average rate of wages was aboutthesame. The illiteracy in Porto Rico was greaterthanitwas in Jamaica,anddisease claimed a large number of victims. The island was badly provided with roads,andthe prospectsofimmediate progress werenotvery promising.lTo-day Porto Rico is a new country, a country with several times the trade of Jamaica, with a populationthatis increasing by immigration as well as naturally, a country, too, where wages have doubledandeven quadrupled in twelve years,andwhere one no longer hears much saidaboutthe indolence of the peasant. Agreatchange has taken place in Porto Rico, and ten years hence the change will be even greater. Andwhatisthe magicthathas wrought this change? The reader knowsitalready:a good market.IfJamaicahadas good a market for its sugar, rum, cocoa, coffee,andtobacco products as it has for its bananasitwould soon bebetteroffthanPorto Rico. Instead of emigrating, the people wouldstayathome. Instead of idling, or working forbutthree days a week, the labourers would toilatleast as steadily as the labourers of Porto Rico; indeed, Jamaicans in Jamaica might even work ashardas do their fellow countrymen who are employed in Cuba, Costa Rica, and Panama. They wouldeatbetterfood, for one thing,andsowould have more stamina; would be able to endure for longer periods the demand made upon their strengthandenergybyan anremiating climate. Thentheywould develop the same ambition for abetterstyleandstandardof livingthatdistinguishestheworking classes of the cityandtown to-day. These work readily enough; so wouldthepeasan t iftheinducement offered were good enough. 1'Thebestlabourersdonotgetoverthirtytofortycentsgold....Insqualorandfilth,incrudityandignorance,thelargernumberoftheinhabitantsgothroughtheircomparativelyshortlives...Marriage isalmostunknownamongtheverypoor ... Chronic diseasesarecommon, engenderedbybaddiet,totallackofsanitarymeasures,andanalmostequalshortageinpersonalcleanliness.'-Porto Rico,by"Villiam Dinwiddie, 1899.

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INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL JAMAICA181Itis noteworthythatin those parishes where labour is best paid the people work best; where there isbutlittle regular employment, the labourers not only work indifferentlybutare unabletowork steadily; when they move to another more prosperous parish they have actually to be trainedtonew habits. At firstitmight seem asiflow wagesanda plentiful labour supply were a positive benefit,butexperience in the West Indiesandin Central America doesnotsupportthatview. The low-pricedmanlives uponnexttonothing, andisaccord ingly weak;andif only he hasanacre of land to fall back upon, he willnotwork for a small wage for adaylongerthanhe findsitabsolutely necessary to doso.Butif his standard of living improves,ifhe acquires new tastes, if he learns to like luxuriesandto spend money, he will give up moreandmore of his leisure in order to gain these new delights; he willputone enjoyment against another.Itisnotthe dignity of labourthathe will consider;itisnotthe dignity of labourthatanyoneconsiders when one goes out to work.Itis the benefits of labour, andifthe benefits arenotequaltothose of idleness, the average Jamaica peasant will prefer thelatter.Those who are inclined to blame him too loudly mighttryan hour orsoof walking (not working) on a Jamaica summer's dayatanytime between the hours. of tenandthree. A further argument might no doubt be foundbythese in referencestothe thickness of the labourer's skullandhis indifferencetoheat.Butitisa great mistake to think heisindifferenttoheat. As to the thickness of his skull, the peoplelhave met with the thickest skulls are pre cisely those who take things for grantedandimaginethattheir prejudices are scientific laws. The stimulusofbetterwagesandmore regular employ ment is needed to make the Jamaica peasant a better and steadierandaltogether more reliable workman, though this development on hispartwould nodoubttake some time.

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182TWENTIETHCENTURY JAMAICA The stimulus ofbettermarkets is neededtogiveanimpetus to the extension of otherJamaicaindustriesthanthebananatrade. Such a development would lead to more employment for the people,andhigher pay. And this intumwould react upon the general social, industrial, and perhaps even moral life of the colony. About the shipping of Jamaica afew words must be said.InIgor, r037ships(872,006 tons) entered the harbours; ten yearslater(19II) the figures were 1508 (2,158,647 tons), a considerable increase.Jamaica.is now connected with Englandandthe United States of Americabyseveral lines of excellent passenger boats. The UnitedFruitCompany's service has already been mentioned, the Royal Mail Company's service is onethathardly needs mentioning .. This great organisationismorethana c0Itlpany doing business withtheWest Indies and with CentralandSouth America;itisaninstitutionthathas been connected with thispartof the world for over seventy years;itis significantly English;itis taken as symbolical of English methodsandideas evenbycultured Americans. I cannot refrain from quotingwhatMrArthur Ruhl has said about the Royal Mail Company's boats in his intensely interesting book, The Other Americans, thoughithas nothingtodo with the subjectofthis writing. 'You step across abitof planking into the British Isles,' he tells us.'Itis no lessthanthat.Your luggage is broughtbya barefoot mestizo spluttering Spanish frantically,andlabouring frantically under the obsessionthatyou have robbed him, orthatthe steamer is going to sailwithoutyou,anditistakenbya sandy-haired Cockney steward, whosays; 'Ticket, sir, if you please, sir,"and"Thankyou, sir," whether one gives him half a sovereignortells himthathe ought to be hanged....Itwas incon ceivably British,thatship....One could imagineitsailing round the world for ever and peeping into all the ""orId's strangeandwonderful ports,andstill the steamer chairs

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INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL JAMAICA r83 would linethedeck on the opposite side of the ship from which things weretobe seen, still the heads would bebentcom placently over the Colonial novels.' Thereissometruthin this humorous description oftheEnglishman sailinginanEnglish ship; there is also something elsethatperhapsmaybe 'inconceivably British' too,butwhich is indubitably true.Thatis, the care with whichtheRoyal Mail Company selects its officers and agents. The ideaisthatthese should be English gentlemen, andtheideal is resolutely kept in mind. Thus oneday(in19II)when aNegro labourer on the Company's wharf in Kingston fell dead, after a night'swork-alabourer whohadlong been in the employment oftheCompany, whohadbeen faithful, and whohadbeen well treated inconsequence-theSuperintendent of the Company ordered the Company's flag to flyathalf-mast allthatday,andpaid the funeral expenses of the man. He was much surprisedtofindthathisactwas favourably commented on in one of the city papers; it waswhathe thought should be done for every old servant oftheComapny who diedathis post. Acts like this,andthe type of men sentouttomanage the Com pany's affairs, have done agreatdeal to endear the Royal Mail CompanytoWest Indians, who, in addition, feel proud oftheexcellence of its serviceandtheextentof its operations, becauseitis British.Inthe Jamaicastores-theyare called shops inEnglandthe goods sold are mainly of English make,andthisattractsthousands of American tourists to them. One canbuyin these places thingsatabout halftheprice paid forthemin New York oranygreat American city; very often one canbuyin Kingston goods of English makethatare never sold in American shops, thedutybeing so prohibitive .. The tourist trade having increased remarkably duringthelastfewyears, the King Street fancy stores and haberdashery establish mentslaythemselvesoutto cater for visitors, theirmanagers.going every yeartoEngland and Paris to select goods for

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184TWENTIETHCENTURY JAMAICA tourists;andifbyany chance thereisno large tourist trade inanyyear, the difference in revenue is felt immediately. The interiors of these shops are very prettily arranged,and their show-windows are tastefully decorated. They are heavilystocked,andalready Kingston hasbeguntobuild department stores. Such establishments as the Metropolitan Houseandthe Bee HiveStore-tomentionbuttwo ofmanywouldnotbeoutof place in New York or London; you can have suitsanddresses made on the spot andatshort order; your purchases will be delivered anywhere within the city's limits whenever you desire them; the attendance is promptandsatisfactory. Speaking of the attendance in the Kingston stores, I cannot help contrastingitwiththatof the stores in the cities of Canada. There the shop assistants are as court eous as they well can be,butthey do strike one as being slow. You will be served much more quickly inanyJamaica dry-goods establishmentthaninanysimilar place in Toronto or Montreal, even though theattendantmay be waiting on several customersatthe same time. The men and women employed in the Kingston stores need fear no comparison, certainly, with people who do similar work elsewhere. The colony's banking business is in the hands of three institutions: one is BritishandWest Indian, the Colonial Bank; the other two are branches of Canadian banks.Itis not three years since the RoyalBankof Canada established a branch in Jamaica,butalreadyithas extended its operations considerably,andis doing a large amount of business. The RoyalBankof Canada is one of the great money forces in Cuba; it isone of the biggest of Canadian banks, andisevidently determined to handle as much as possible of the West Indian banking. The ColonialBankisalso an institu tion which, like the Royal Mail Steam Packet Company,isparticularlyandclosely identified with the British West Indies.Ithas branches in all the British islands in thispartof the world;itlends money on' real estate;it.isan

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INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL JAMAICA 185 agricultural loan bank, as well as an ordinary banking institution of great stability.Itshome in Kingston is a spacious, hand somestructure-asfine a building as onewillsee in many acityten times the size of Kingston. Besides these, and a branch of the BankofNova Scotia, there is the Government Savings Bank. There are branches of all these banks in the principal towns of the island.Inconcluding thischapter,let me again quote somestatistics-statisticswhich will really, this time, illustrateanimportant fact. Jamaica buys a greatpartof the manu factured articles it constlmes from the United Kingdom; its purchases fromthatcountry amounted, in19II,to,291,000.From the United States the colony imported,200,000worth of goods; from Canada,,000worth; other countries neednotbe mentioned.Whatis the other side of the picture?This:in19IIthe United Kingdom bought from Jamaica productstothe value of,000,while Canada purchased sugarandother agricultural produce to the value of,000.The purchases of the United States amountedto,825,000;which meansthatthe United States took 6r.9 per cent. of Jamaica's exports, the United Kingdom 14.7 per cent., the Dominion of Canada 8.6 .. Does anybody wonder, after glancing over these figures,thatthe United Statesisregarded in Jamaica as being in a position to say something about the destinies of the island?

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186CHAPTER XEVOLUTION AND PROGRESSHEREand there in the course of the preceding pages I have been obliged to repeat observations made before, to refer to facts already stated.Inthismyconcluding chapter I must endeavour to gather the conclusionsatwhich I have sometimes hinted into a consistentandintelligible statement;andiftodososome repetition is needed Iamsure I shall be pardoned.Ithas been seenthatwehave in Jamaica a mixed population of lessthannine hundred thousand persons;butasthatpopulation is increasingatthe rate of morethanthirteen thousand a year,wemaysafely concludethatbythe close ofthesecond decadeofthiscentury-thatbythe year1920-thepeople of Jamaica will number nearlyifnotquite a million. And theywillcontinue to increase long afterthatdate, for the colony's birth-rate is one of the highest intheworld, while its death-rate is under twenty-two per thousand of the inhabitants.Itshealth conditions are steadily improv ing, yearbyyear some further step is taken in the way of sanitation, and the gospel of personal cleanliness is more persistently preached. The limitation of the size of the family, now one of the commonest social phenomenaofmost civilised countries, is, naturally,notunknown in Jamaica,andthe influence of this practice will be still more obvious in the future.Butitisamong thebetterclasses mainlythatsmaller families are now beginning to be the rule; and though a move ment of this kind can never be entirely confinedtoone or two sections of the population only, itwillaffect the lmver classes much lessthanthe higher,andwill begin to affect

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EVOLUTIONANDPROGRESSthemata later date. This meansthatthedarker people of Jamaica will increase, proportionately, more quicklythanthefairer people, whichhasbeen alwaysthecase as amatterof fact, though nottotheextentitwill be intheimmediate future. vVe have therefore to look forwardtoa growth of population,therate of increase being affected ultimatelybythe same causes which have lowered the birth-ratE:. else where. \Ve have alsotolook forward to a progressive diminu tion of the death-rate, duetoanimprovement inthehealth and the habits of the people and of the sanitary conditions of the country. Every step to\vards such improvement will directly benefit the ''''orking classes, who morethananyother are affectedbywhat isbador backward intheconditionsofthe present. And this, with their increasing knowledgeandintelligence, theirnaturalvirility, and the slower growth of the whiteandfairer sections of the people,willensure for the darker elements of the Jamaica people a socialandeconomic position in the island which would have been thought impossible a hundred years ago. This position, I have said, would have been thought im possible a century since,yetthere were some eventhenwho sawthatthe emergence of a coloured middle class must have far-reaching effects upon the future of the country. Long pointedoutsomeofthose effects as far back as r774,JamesStewart went further in r808.Butneither \\Titer could fore sre the revolutionthatwas to take place, a revolution which has come so quietlythatthesuccessive stages ofitcan only be perceivedbythose \vho carefullystudythehistory of Jamaica, and who can estimate the value of acts and events, the full significanceofwhich hasnotevenyetbecome apparent toeveryone.When the House of Assembly allowed persons with more thanthree-fourths of white blood in their veins to have the rightsandprivileges of white men; whenthewhite fathers of coloured children were permitted not only to leave property

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188TWENTIETHCENTURY JAMAICA worth{1200sterling to their coloured children,butto bequeathbymeans of special Acts more valuable property still; when such children were sent to England to be educated, and English men resident in the colony could be found writing in favour of still further rights for this element of the people,itis apparentthata great change was steadily taking place in the circum stances of Jamaica, and in theattitudeof the ruling classes towards those who werenotof their class. Every step which the coloured people made towards a better position was followedbyanother;andas they moved forwardsodid the great mass of the island's inhabitants, the slaves. The condition of these improved very slowly,butitimproved. As the manners of the masters softened, the slaves werebettertreated, as timE' went on the more brutal methods of punishment in vogue were prohibitedby law. Butno one thought the black man capable of rising very high in the scale of civilisation; those who speculated about the future dealt with the man mainly;andeven to-dayitdoes not seemtobe generally perceived in the 'Vest Indiesthatthe future of these British colonies is notsomuch the concern of the white man or the fairer' coloured man, as of the dark masses who are now rapidly winning to positions whichbuttwenty years ago they could not have aspired tofill.The considerable increaseofthe white population isnottobe hoped for;ifJamaica ever does count as many as twenty thousands person of pure European or Semitic extraction among her inhabitants,wemay rest assuredthata large number of them will have come to the country as directors of labour and exploiters,notas life-long settlers. To the West Indian tropics will come thousandsofwhite men yearly,butitwill only be for a week or for a month;it v... ill be as tourists flying from the rigours of a northern winter, as visitors seeking new scenesandnew sensations, as students curious to see for them selves the effect of the grafting of Western cultureandcivilisa tion on apparently unsuitable stock.Itwillnotbe as residents,

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EVOLUTION AND PROGRESS189as planters settled on the soil, as the owners of broad acres, finding delight in the daily round of dutiesandin the pleasure which a West Indian countryside affords. There has been no time in the history of Jamaica when the wealthier classes of the people did not prefer to pass most of their life in England. The same preference exists to-day, there are still Jamaica absentee proprietors,andmen who make money in Jamaica go periodically to spend some of it in England or the United States. Nowandthen a \vealthy Englishman or a wealthy Jamaican shows no inclination to desert the country for nine or ten months of the year,butitis significantthatsuch men are wondered at. The majority of their class would never dream of following their example.Inthe same way thatthe cities of EuropeandAmerica call with seductive, irresistible appeal to the folk of the rural districts, so dotheycall to the educated people of Jamaica; holidays are now spent abroad, evenbypeople in ordinary circumstances. Coupled with this attraction which England and America exercises, with this prevailing desire for life in the centres of the world's commercialandpolitical activity,isthe competition which the higher classes of the colony have to face, the competition of classes which every year becomebettereducatedandare demanding'theirplace in the sun.' The tendency of all competition is to keep down prices and wages,andthose who come from below recognisethatthe only way they can win to a good position isbyaccepting100verpay-tostartwith.Theydo this,andtheresult, as said in a former chapter, is the exodus annually of a certain number of whiteandpractically white men.Ifthisistrue of native white men,whatreason is there to supposethatthere will be an influx ofoutsiders-settlers-noworatanyother time?Forwhat wouldtheycome? Igrantthatthecolony will develop,thatits trade will grow; fifty years henceitmayeven bethatits prosperity will be greaterthananyonewould now venturetoimagine possible.

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190TWENTIETHCENTURY JAMAICA Nevertheless if the native population continues to increase, whichitis certain to do, andifeducation spreadsandintelli gence grows, whichwe have every reason to expect they will do, the strangerwillfindthathe hastocompete withthenative intheranksofskilled labour, in the ranks of the profes sions, in practically every walk and way of life.Itissonow;itwill be more so inthefuture. There is no indication either of the growth of a considerable farmer class in Jamaica, men owning from one to two hundred acres of land, living on their propertiesandcultivating them highly. Such a class might include white men who could employ native labour,butitwillnot existinJamaica,notduring this centuryatanyrate. Large propertiesandsmall are the order of the day,andthese large propertiestendmoreandmore"tobecome organised into sources of supply for corporations; the individual planter is merging into the member ofanassociation or company, and is consequently losing his close personal interest with the land. Now, the native overseer or manager can look after a property or group of properties very well. The owner or company director, whether English, or American, or Canadian, does not needtolive on the spot. He makes periodical trips totheisland,itissoeasy to comeand go, soconvenient and even economical; besides, Englishmen, Americans, and Canadians do not love tropical life, and Americans especially avoid it. There are seven thousand Americans in Porto Rico, about the same number in Cuba,andaboutthe same in Mexico.Inall three countries large quantities of American capital are invested. Yet only seven thousand persons from the States represent the number to be found in each of these three important Spanish-American places, one of which belongs totheUnited States. And oftheseven thousand in Cuba or Porto Rico,itwill be foundthata good many are always new arrivals;thepersonnel of the American colonyisalways changing.

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EVOLUTION AND PROGRESS191WhyshoulditbeotherwiseinJamaica? I have spoken of Americans especially, because they arethepeople who will always have most to do with the Great Antilles.Butthe name ofanyother European people might be substituted,andwhathas beensaid would still hold true.If,then, wemustdismiss the ideathattherewillbeatanytime during this century the influx of a large number of white settlers, if toowemustexpectthataseducation advancesandthe trainingandintelligenceofthe people improve, the whiteandfairer coloured people will find themselves elbowedoutof spheres of labour once sacred to them alone,itfollowsthatthe predominating complexion of the people of this country will be dark.Whathas happenedandishappening in Brazil cannot happen in Jamaica; what has happened in Cubaisoutof the question here. The emigration of white mentothe Brazilian Republic continues still, while thereisno augmentation of the Negro population from without. Thenaturalresult isthatthe coloured element of the people grows apaceandthatthe darker strains are steadily disappearing. The definite socialandpolitical policy of the Cubans wastobreedoutthe darker element; race amalgamation wasnotshunned there,it was considered a means wherebytheisland could be made to have a white or almost white population.1Thousands of Spaniards also settled permanently in Cubaandin Porto Rico,andtheconsequence to-day isthatthe white population outnumbers the coloured,andthatwhite emigrants still gotothose islands.InJamaica, ashasbeen said morethanonce, though there is no continued African immigration, there isanemigration ofthehigher classes, a falling birth rate among those classes,andvery little chance of the numbers of those classes being permanently augmented from without. The factors in the economic struggle are on the side of the majority in Jamaica, eventuallytheyare on the side ofthemajority everywhere. Themanwho tills the soilandwho1A HistoryofSlaveryinCuba,1511to1868,byH.H.S.Aimes.

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192TWENTIETHCENTURY JAMAICA lives onitwill eventually come to own it, orattheveryleast will control the disposition of it.Itis he who makesitof value, he cannot be turnedoffor crowded out, he is in posses sionandtermsmustbe made with him.Ifhe has brain as well as muscle hemustacquire some education, and must gradually increase in intelligence; when this happens he becomes a competitior of the superior classes,andeventually rises into a superior class himself.InJamaicaitwas the fairer section of the coloured populationthatfirst filled posi tions once reserved for men of European descent. Other sec tions succeeded,butthese were all, as a rule, among the higher classes of the coloured folk. Nowitistheturnofthedarker man, so long as he shows he has the character and the intelli gence required for positions oftrustand responsibility. And as the dark man takes, in many instances, the place once held exclusivelybywhiteandfair coloured,andas thelatterbecome proportionately fewer in number (as they inevitably must in the circumstances), the mass of the population willtendtoassimilate the minority. This is what happens in all mixed communities where social intercourse between the people of different racesisnotrigidly forbidden,andsometimes even the prohibitionmaybe of no effect. No minority intermixes with itself alone;anditcannot be forgottenthatthe black population standstoboth white and coloured in a: proportion of morethanthree to one.Itis truethatmanymembers of this black population have white blood in their veins,yetthe preponderance of the darkest element is too greattoallow onetothinkthatthe prevailing complexion in Jamaica will ever be anythingbutdark. The majority will assimilate the minority. The minority, in its turn, will lighten the hueandchange the features of the mass of the people. Yet, however much, during this and thenextcentury, the inhabitants of Jamaica approximate to something like a uni form type, there will always be white men and very fair men

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EVOLUTION AND PROGRESS193in Jamaica. I wanttoinsist upon this point.Bywhat I have written I havenotmeanttoimplythatthe white man will altogether leave the islandatanytime inthefuture;myargument isthat,in proportiontothe growth of popula tion,thefairer classes will become fewer. The number of themmayactually be greater twenty years hencethanitis to-day. The proportion of themtothe other classes ofthepeople will be smaller, and, in the opinion ofthewriter, will become still smaller, as time goes on. Thus the three elements of the population which have unitedduringthelast one hundred yearstoproducetheincreasing numberandproportion of the coloured people should continuetodo so;butasthedarkest element isinthe majority, the ultimate result of race intermixtureandthenew economic conditions should be a dark-complexionedtypeof people in themain-atype which might onedaybe considered a distinct, though a small, race.Foritis thusthatthe races of the world have been formed. Diverse ethnic elements have combined to forma new type, and climateandtime have done the rest. All this of course is speculation.Itis speculation based upon observable tendenciesanddemonstrable facts,buttendenciesmaychangeandnew factsmayemerge after a while.Letus face the situation. Only because of the low moralstandardwhich obtained in the colony for two hundred years,andwhich has been modified only in certain directions since, has the population cometobewhatitis.Ifthe socialandmoral ideasandpractices prevailingina Puritan communityweretobe introducedandaccepted in Jamaica,ifmarriage weretobe the ruleandillegitimacythetrifling exception,itcould only be amatterof time when the black .. population would vastly outnumber the coloured,andin a couple of cen turies thelattermight have become nearly as negligible asitis in Hayti. Legitimateintermarriage amongthecoloured population wouldnotcauseitto grow as quickly asithasJ.N

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194TWENTIETHCENTURY JAMAICA grown in the past, while legitimate intermarriage between the blackandthe coloured people wouldtendto assimilate the complexion of thelattermoreandmore tothatoftheformer: Even so, however, there would be a continued diffusion of SemiticandEuropean blood,anda uniform Jamaicantypewould eventually be produced.Butthere isnotmuch chance of Puritan morals becomingthestandard of conduct in Jamaica. The Churches insist upon such a standard,andmustof necessity continue to do so, the high illegitimacyratebeingina wayareflection upon their efforts.Butwemayhave a low illegitimacyrateanda much worse moral conditionthanis known throughout the West Indies. Wemayhave a limitation of births which would directly affect the growth of the coloured population.Ithas been said abovethata limitation of the family is certaintotake place,anddoes indeedtakeplace among thebetterclasses of the colony,andtoa certainextentamong the other classes also. More or less this is duetothesame economic causesthatare in operation in other countries.Ifin additiontothesewehave a sham morality which will decrease the birthrateof the island considerably,ifwe have a limitation of births which will affect the growth of the coloured element of the population,itcannot be doubtedthatthe progress ofthepeople towards a uniformtypewill be greatly hinderedandretardedifnotabsolutely prevented. This wouldnotbe a gain, morally or socially. From the point of view of the futureitwould be a distinct loss.Itmayhappen;itwill happen ifanyrash step is taken with a viewtohastenanimprovement in the habitsandmorals of the country. Not long ago there wasanagitation for legislation com pellingtheregistration of the fathers of illegitimate children. Nothing could be fairer in theoryorpractice,yetthe practical effect ofitwouldnotbe an improvement in conditions. I have thought much on the suggestion,butI cannot say

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EVOLUTION AND PROGRESS I think the carrying into effect ofitwould be productive ofanygood. The belief of many who advocated the compulsory registration Of fathers wasthatitwould prevent illicit relation ships, the fear of exposure being strongerthantemptation. We know nowthatthere would be no exposure, because there would be no births; there would be no moral improvement,butmerely a decrease of the birth-rate.Itis ahardthing to say,butthe simpletruthisthatitwill bebettertoleave the situation uninterfered withbycompulsory legislation ofanykind. The law provides forthesupport of illegitimate childrenbytheir fathers,andthe mothers can always make use of the machinery of the law.Ifthere were three hundred thousand married couples in the island, Jamaica would have one ofthehighest marriage rates in the world; only halfthatnumber are married,yetthisisanimmense improvement onthesituation which obtainedatthe beginning of the last century. Over eighteen per cent. of the people are married to-day. Probablynotfour per cent. were married a century ago. This is slow progress? Perhaps,buton this pointatleast. two opinions may be held. Itis progress made during eighty years or less,andithas proceeded stepbystep with the economicbettermentofthepeople, with their improvement in self-respect, with their rise in the social scale.Whatprevailednotsolong ago wasanabsolute unmoralityandpaganism. The conduct of thevastmajority ofthepeople matteredtono one,theygained nothing-certainlynotrespect-bywhatis called decency;theylost nothingbyliving as best pleased them. Of the working classes thelatterpartof this assertion still holds true,anditwill be some time beforeitloses its 'force.In these circumstances,tomention no other reasons, no -different condition could prevail. The missionaries expectedthatbypreachingtheycould change the mannersandcustoms of the country in a decade, oratJhe most a generation.Butthe 'experience of

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J96TWENTIETHCENTURY JAMAICA the ages was against them. 'Men didnotpursue tmth-teIling, monogamy, respect for human life,andfor the propertyofothers, for their inherent abstract virtues,butfor their own comfort and safety, materialandspiritual, in this world or in the next. Nor did women embrace chastity as a spiritual settingtotheir physical beauty, ortohelp themtoa life intheIdeal; on the contrary, as Renan says, tens of thousands of themhadtobe stonedtodeath before adultery couldbe.got recognisedbythem as a crime.'1,A newandhigher code of morality differing inanydegree fromthatto which men have been accustomed, is a pureburden laid upon the neck of the unregenerate spirit,andthemassesofmenwill no more embraceitfor its own sake, or for the sake of its effects on civilisation, or indeed foranystimulus less potentthansome personal hope or fear,thantheywill clear forests or drain morasses for their own sake.'2Ittakes centuries for a high code of moralitytoget itself established,andbutdecades forittobe overthrown.Injamaicaithas takenbuta few decadestowork a distinctandappreciable improvement among all classes of the people,andif something like ahaltseemstohave been called in one direction for the last twenty years, there is still reason for congratulationthata definite advance has been made even inthatdirection.Butwhatof the future? The future of marriage injamaicawill depend upon the future ofthatinstitution in more civilised countries.Itcouldnotbe otherwise. The progress of the West Indies willbe a progress conditioned from without,andalwaystheislands will keep in the closest possible touch with Western thoughtandWestern ideas.Notonly politicallyandcommer cially,butalso intellectuallyandmorally, are they boundtoEuropeandAmerica,andultimately the ideals of thelattercountries must becometheideals of the West Indies. There1HistoryofIntellectual Development,vol. 3,byJ.B. Crozier. 'History ofIntellectual Development,vol.I,byJ.B. Crozier.

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EVOLUTION AND PROGRESS197is no escape from this conclusion.Itmight seemthattheconjugal relationships of thousands of the people meantthattheChristian conception of monogamy was utterly despisedbythem.Itisnotso.Itis regarded as the right thing,thetheoretically perfect thing; no man who lives with a woman without marriage would defend himself onanyother ground savethatof convenience; he would plead his circumstances, he is too poortoget married. Whateveritmaybe in practice, in theory there is no confusion between the two standards of rightandwrong. Given then this mental assenttoa proposi tion of such great social value,andwehave good reasontoexpectthat,ifmaterial conditions steadily improved, there would be a gradual increase of the marriage rate; as the people gained in self-respectandthe status of the women became better, the number of marriages would grow untilatanyratethe percentage of marriages in Jamaica was as high asitis in Cuba. Iamspeaking, naturally, of Christian marriage, of life-long monogamy.Butisthatinstitution likelytoen dure?Itis boundupwith religion, with the Christian religion,anda thousand observers tell usthatthe sanctions oftheChristian religionandthe utility of Christian marriage are being questioned to-day in CatholicandProtestant countries,andamongst the masses as well as amongst the educated classes. Ideas travel from one country to another with in credible swiftness;whatis thought to-day in England will be thought to-morrow in Jamaica; the mental confusionandunrest of the United States will findanecho in this colony.Ifthe institution of marriage ceasestobe regarded as primarilyreligious-andthatis howitisregarded inJamaica-itwill in this colony be deprived of a serviceable sanction.Butmarriage of some kind there must be, evenifthe relations of the sexes be regarded from the economic point of view alone. Even ifitcame to mean nothing morethanthecompulsory support of the womenandchildren,itwould imply serious obligationsandcompel life-long attachments in themajority

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:1g8 TWENTIETHCENTURY JAMAICA of instances.Consequently I should saythateveniftheChristian idea of marriage undergoes a change, there will be in Jamaica a definite advanceinthe way of a higher system of relationships between menandwomen,anadvancethatwill keep pace withanimprovement in the condition of the women.Foritis the economic condition of the womenthathelpstokeep low the moral standards of the country. The people of the British West Indies arenotone whit less moral naturallythanthose of the Spanish West Indies; in many respectsthey are more moral. Yet the marriagerateis much higher in Cubathanitis in Jamaica. One important explanation of this I find inthefactthatthe Cuban women arenotcalled upontowork for the support of their offspring; they arenothewers of woodanddrawers of water like the men; they donottoil in the fields along with their fathersandbrothersandlovers;theywould refusetodo so,andthe men wouldnotexpect themtodo so.Itis this placing of the responsibility of the family upon the shoulders of the men in Cubathathas assistedtobring about the general recognition of the marriage bond. The Jamaica woman of the working classes hastodo a great deal too much in the way of supporting her children. The African woman has probablytowork quite as hard, maybe harder;butinAfrica she is definitelypartof a house hold; she hasherplaceinit,andthe man has some dutiestoperform.Butthe marriage systems of Africa are unknown in Jamaica,anditis on the Jamaica working womanthattheresponsibility for bringingupher family really rests when she is unmarried. I donotmeantosuggestthatthe men donotassist;theydo.Butsolong as the majority of the women work astheydoinJamaica, so long asitis a tacitly accepted factthattheywill toil forthesupport of their offspring, just so long will the assistance from the men be small. For, where you have menandwomen contributingbytheir wagestothe support of the family, there you will have a low rate of wages

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EVOLUTION AND PROGRESS199paid to the men. The women are really competitors,andbytheir competition with the men they ultimatelyhurtthem selves.Incountries like the United States, wherethewives as well as the husbands work out, there are no children, oratmostbutone. This is asbadas,ifnotworse,thantheJamaica system,andbothare the result of economic condi tions which are good neither for the women nor for the future of the race.Soitcomestothis:the continued socialandmoral improve ment of Jamaica depends in the last resort upon the economic improvement of Jamaica; the economic factor dominates all others. The women have no wishtobe beasts of burden,theyare daily becomingbettereducated, their wants increase,andwithanincrease of wants, with a rise in the standard of living,anda corresponding rise in thestandardof self respect, there will be less carelessness about consequencesandmore thought taken of the future. Religion will bring its influencetobear upon this development, for scepticism of the European variety willnoteasily undermine the strength of the Churches among a people to whom a belief in the supernaturalis as easy as belief in the tangible objects of everyday life. This doesnotcontradict what I said a little while ago in regardtothe effect of a change in the conception of marriage as a religiousdutyamong European peoples; for, in the first place, such a change can only be gradual,anda revolutioninpracticemaybe long in following a revolution in ideas;inthe second place the Churches of Jamaica willnothesitatetoavail themselves ofanymeanstoimprove the condition of the people, whether ornotthose means are as thorough astheywould like.Ifthe recognised form of marriage in Jamaica were a five-year contract betweenmanandwoman, with support of the children until they reachedtheage of fourteen, the Churches would make the best use possible of the innova tion. They ,,"ould acceptitas a legal marriage, whileatthe same time insisting upon the moralduty and the higherstatus

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200TWENTIETHCENTURY J,AMAICA of Christian marriage;theywould realisethatthe simplest recognised form of civil marriage madeatleast for respecta bility,andthe explicit recognition of responsibilities,andon such a foundationtheywould strivetobuild. Even nowtheywould welcome some effort on thepartof the Civil powertobind the men of the country more closelytothe women.Butthough something inthatdirection will certainly be done in time,itis the writer's opinion (already given)thatsuch inter ference now would be prOductive of far more illthangood.Itwould fail, in fact; all the necessary conditions arenotpresentthatwould render far-reaching social legislation effective. The first indispensable preliminary is a considerable improvement in the circumstances ofthepeople, which meansanimprovement in the industrialandeconomic conditions of the country. This in itsturnwill lead to diffused education, a better social position for thousands whose example will influence others,anda more pronounced disposition amont; the people to move along the lines ofahigher develop ment. The improvement in material conditions will come.IfJamaica hasnotthe extensive area or the wide level stretches of alluvial soil which Cuba possesses,ifithasnotthe virgin landsofSanto Domingo,ityet has excellent soil and a variety of climates;ithas a splendid system of roads, a settled peace ful population, good harbours,andthe habit of industry.Itsgeographical situation is in its favour. The capitalist knowsthatmoney invested in the colonyissafe insofar as freedom from revolutionsandfrom servile outbreaks can makeitso; whatitneeds arebettermarkets,andtheseitwill find in Canadaandthe United States.Inspite of every obstacle, in spite of all the misfortunesofthe past,ithas gone forward.Ithasnotbeen prosperous for a hundred years, nevertheless there has been no slipping backwards, every inch of ground gainedhasbeen held, every step in advance made has been maintained. The. story of progress told in

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EVOLUTION. AND PROGRESS201the annual Government publicationsisnotfictitious. The peasantry are building abetterclass of houseandbecoming thriftier; the number of literates grows, the speech of the people is moreandmore Englishandless of a dialect. Changemaybe slow accordingtoEuropean standards,butitiscertain,andwhenwecompareone.period with anotherwesee how greatithas been. Froude saw nothingbutdecay when he visited the West Indies,andperhaps there was muchtojustify his despair.Butthe situation to-day, insofar as Jamaica is concerned, is a warning against despair, isanincentivetoonetotrustthe future. During the twentieth century, the century of the Panama Canal, of Americancolonial expansion, of Canadian growthanddevelopment, the West Indies will move forward with a rapidity which will be all the more gratifying because there will be no danger ofanequallyrapidreversal of fortune such as they suffered in the earlierpartof the nineteenth century. The old prosperity of Jamaica was laid upon a most insecureandinsufficient foundation. Slave labour, monopoly,andwar were the main factors in its success; when war ceased and monopoly becameoutof the question, the cry of ruin begantobe heard; when men ceasedtobe propertyitwas saidthatthe colony must inevitably drift into savagery,thatits civilisation was doomed. These direful prophecies have proved falseandmisleading.Itis perfectly truethatif the colonyistoprosper,ifitistoprogress in civilisation,itmust keepinclose touch with the Western world;butthattoo is inevitable,andsothe talk, once much heard, of Jamaica becoming a second Hayti, may he regarded in these days asbutwildandwhirling words.Ratheritisprobablethatin time the Republic ofHaytiwillbecome something like Jamaica, for who can believethatitwill be much longer allowed to remain the scene of anarchyand Il\\ fratricidal strife?Ifthe Great Antilles have lost for ever the importance they hadinthe century,theystillmaylook forwardtoa future of promise. Andnotleast

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202TWENTIETH CENTURY JAMAICAamongst them will be Jamaica which, with its independent land-owning peasantry, its freedom from race hatred, its respect for lawandlove of order, its diminishing superstitionsanddeveloping intelligence, has morethanonce been heldupas apatterntotheUnited States, as a country where whiteandcoloured, CaucasianandNegro,maylive and work sidebyside, with no deliberate injustice on thepartof the formerandno insolent self-assertion on the latter's part, as a country which has progressed towards homogeneity of sentiment,andwhich is sufficiently unitedandself-conscious to feel proud of the achievements ofany of its people, whetherJewor Christian, black, white, or brown.

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DIRECTORY

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2DIRECTORYALEXANDER,M.M., 106HarbourStreet, Kingston.AgentforthePalatineInsuranceCompany. Soleagentforthe'BritishChallenge' Bicycles.Importerof household furniture, glass,tin,andenamelled ware, silverandplatedware, etc. [SeepagexxvL]ANTILLESRUMANDWINECOMPANY,29PortRoyalStreet,Kingston. H.E.DaCosta, proprietor. Manufacturers ofnativewinesandspirits; ex porterstoEngland,Canada,andtheUnitedStates.CableAddress:'Antilles.' [See page xxvii.] ARMY ANDNAVYSTORES,Henriques& Co., 136HarbourStreet, Kingston. Groceries, provisions, wines, spirits, teas, etc. ContractorstoArmy.andNavy. [Seepagexxxiv.] .BANKOFCANADA,THEROYAL,HarbourStreet, Kingston.TheRoyalBankofCanadahasbranchesinJamaica,Cuba,PortoRico,theDominican RepUblic, Trinidad, Barbados,andtheBahamas.[SeepagexiiL]BANK,THECOLONIAL,HarbourStreet, Kingston. AbranchoftheColonialBank,thehead-quartersofwhichareinLondon. One oftheinstitutionsoftheWestIndies.TheColonialBankhasbeen especially identifiedwiththeplantinginterest. BEEHIVESTORE,thecomerofKingandHarbourStreets, Kingston. Anup-to-dateestablishmentinfancy goods, haberdashery, silks, linens, etc.Caterslargely for tourists. Soda-water fountain forSundays.Tourists'requirementspromptlysupplied. [SeepageiL]CAMERA,THE, 16KingStreet, Kingston.H.E.Attewell, proprietor.Kodaksandfilmsandeverythingrequiredbythephotographeraretobehad.atthisestablishment. Developingpromptlyandsatisfactorily done. [See pageviii.]CHAMBERLIN,C.S.,comerof TowerandOrange Streets, Kingston. ManufacturerofJamaica'PanamaHats,'for ladiesandgentlemen. Shipmentstoanypartoftheworld. [See page viL]CHARLEY,EDWIN, 62-64 KingStreet, Kingston. "Vine andspiritmerchant.ManufacturerofJamaicarum.ImporterofFrenchandSpanish wines.ExportersofnativeliquorstoUnitedStates,England,Canada, America,andothercountries. [Seepagevi.]CHEMICALHALL,King Street, Kingston. L. Nunes, proprietor. One ofthecity'sleadingdrugandgrocery stores.Up-to-datesoda-water fountain. Ice creams,fruitdrinks, etc. SpecialbrandsofFrenchperfumery. [See page v.]CHINESEBAZAAR,56KingStreet, Kingston, Sang Chong & Company, pro prietors. Generalimportersof ChineseandJapanesefancy goods. [Seepagexxv.]COCKING,HAROLD,Newsagent,stationer,bookseller,andprinter. Fishing tackle. [See page xxviii.]

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206TWENTIETH CENTURY JAMAICADECORDOVA,LEONARD,130HarbourStreet,Kingston.Hardwareandlumbermerchant.Cableaddress:'Dranoel,'Jamaica.SoleagentsforHall'sdistemperpaint,anchorbrandPortlandcement, Major's disinfectant,andsolignum.Importersofgeneral ironmongeryandshipchandlery, agricultural implements, American building material, etc. [See page xxiii.] DESOUZA,ERNEST, 14 DukeStreet, Kingston,Jamaica.AgentoftheInternationalCorrespondence Schools of Scranton,Pa.Teachesshorthand,typewriting, book-keeping, Spanish, etc. [Seepagexiv.]FIELDING,EUSTACE, 20 ChurchStreet,Kingston.Contractorandbuilder,architectandsanitaryengineer.Preparesplans, specifications,andestimatesfor buildings, wharf work,sanitarywork, etc. [Seepagexvi.]FIRSTSTORE,THE, 87 KingStreet,Kingston. Clifford Saddler, proJ'rietor. 'TheFirstStore'is so called becauseitwasthefirst building of ItskindtobeerectedinKingStreetaftertheearthquake.Forsomelittletimeitstood alone.Itsells everythinginthewayof wearingapparelfor men, women,andchildren,exceptbootsandshoes,importssilksdirectfrom China,andsupplies suitsmadetomeasureina few hours. [Seepageix.]FISHER,CHARLES,79King Street, Kingston. Outfitter. [See page xviii.] HOTEL,MYRTLEBANK,HarbourStreet, Kingston.TheMyrtleBankHotelissituatedbytheseashore.ItisunderAmerican management,andis thoroughlyuptodate.Itis always crowdedduringthetouristseason. [Seepagexxix.] HOTEL,THETITCHFIELD,PortAntonio.TheTitchfieldHotelis one ofthebestknownintheWestIndies.Itisthecentre ofPortAntonio's social life. AmericantouristsflocktotheTitchfieldHotelduringthewintermonths. [Seepagexxix.]HOTEL,THESOUTH CAMP ROAD,Kingston.TheSouthCampRoadHotelis one ofthelatesthotelsbuiltfortheaccommodation of foreign visitorsandothers.Itisrunon entirelymodemlines,andisadmirablysituated.A favourite resort of tourists. [See page xvii.]HOTEL,THEIMPERIAL,SouthCamp Road, Kingston.TheImperialHotelstandsinfive acres oflandplantedoutasa tropical garden.Itsfine tennis-courtisbutone ofitsattractions.Averyhome-like hotel,andmuchpatronisedbyfaIuilies. [Seepagexix.]HOTEL,THEGROVE,Mandeville. Centrallysituatedandwell managed. [Seepagexxxiii.]HENDERSON,DAVID,&COMPANY,comerKingandHarbourStreets, Kings ton. Hardwareandlumbermerchants,importersofevery description of agricultural implement. [Seepagexxv.]HENRIQUESBROS., Orange Street, Kingston. Buildersandcontractors, architects, workersinironandmarble. [See page xxxv.] HENRIQUES,CYRILC.,COMPANY,16 Orange Street, Kingston. ManufacturerJamaica'PanamaHats: Sells wholesaleandretail.ExporterofJamaicaproduce., [Seepagexxxii.]ISAACS,C.T.,II7-II9HarbourStreet, Kingston. Generalhardwareandfurnituredealer.ManufacturerofJamaicasouvenir jewellery, walking sticks ofJamaicawood,postcardsofJamaicascenery. LargeimporterofJapanesecurios, silver ware, jewel boxes, oilandwater-colourpaintings, etc. [See page iv.]

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DIRECTORY2JAMAICATOBACCOCOMPANY,Kingston, Jamaica. Cableaddress:J amtoco;' ManufacturersandexportersofJamaicacigarsandcigarettes.Employshundredsof skilled workmen.Oneofthebiggest business organisationsintheBritishWestIndies. [See page2of cover.]KINGSTONDRUGDEPOT, 681 KingStreet, Kingston. Dealersindrugs, groceries, etc. [SeepagexviiL]KINKEAD,E.D.,20KingStreet, Kingston.Dealerinperfumery, confec tionery, -drugs,andgroceries. American icedsodadrinksandicecreama speciality. Dispensing chemist. One oftheoldest business houses inthecity. [Seepagexxiv.]LASCELLES,DEMERCADO&Co.,PortRoyal Street, Kingston. Commission Merchants.LondonHouse:E.A.DePass & Co. NewYorkHouse:A.S. Lascelles&Co.[Seepage 4 of cover.]LINENSTORE,THE, S.E.comerof KingandHarbourStreets, Kingston.Hurcomb&Sollas, proprietors. Specialimportersof all kinds of linen goods. All carspassTheLinen Store. [SeepagexxxL]LONDONSTORE,21King Street, Kingston.Touristrequirements a speciality. All incoming steamersaremetbya representative ofthisstore. [See page xxvii.]LOPEZ,DRP.C., 89KingStreet, Kingston. TelephoneIII.Optician. Member of American Association of Opticians.Thesight-testing room, fully equippedwiththemostmodernmstruments,is opened daily from 8 a.m.until5 p.m. arrangementsmadefor consultationonSundays. [See pagexVliL]MCCARTHY,JUSTIN,22KingStreet,Kingston.Stationerandbookseller,toyandfurniture dealer. [See page xviiL]METROPOLITANHOUSE,KingStreet, Kingston.Nathan&Co.,Ltd.,pro prietors.Departmentstore carrying immensestockofgoods.Thisestablishmentmaintainsonthepremises a staff of tailors, dressmakers,anddoes agreatwholesaleaswell as a retailtrade.Thebuildingshavehadtobeenlargedduringthelastfour years.ThereareseveralimportantbranchesinKingstonandthelarger towns. [See pages i, xxxvi,andxxxviL]MOTORCARANDSUPPLIES,LTD.,Kingston.Telephone 255. Cableaddress:'Cassidy,' Kingston. Passenger carsandmotorboatsonhire. Stocks automobile supplies. Stores cars. [Seepagexv.]MYERS,FRED.L.,&SON,Kingston, Jamaica.Exportersandimporters, commission agents,and wharf owners. Dealersinrum,sugar,andotherJamaicaproduce. One ofthelargest business housesinJamaica.Agents for W.&A.Gilbey's winesandspirits, Moet&Chandon'schampagne, Hennessy'sbrandy,J.&J.Colman'smustardandblue,etc.[Seepage3 of cover.]RYAN&COMPANY,theWoollen Store, Coronation Building, King Street, Kingston. ThisstorespecialisesinEnglish woollen goods. Suitsmadetoorderatshortestnotice. Millineryanddressmaking speciallyattendedto.Hasalwaysonhanda largestockof ready-to-weartourists'suitsofeverydescription. [Seepageiii.]

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208TWENTIETHCENTURY JAMAICASASSO&MILLER,BIBKingStreet,Kingston.Importersofhaberdashery,fancy goods, linens,andsilks.Thetailoringdepartmentofthisstoreisuptodate,andinadditiontomakingsuitsanddresses,itkeepsinstocka largevarietyof ladies' blouses, skirts, underclothing, etc.,andgentlemen'sready-to-wearsuits.Thisstoreis one ofthebestarrangedinKingston. [SeepagexL]SHERLOCK& SMITH, 81KingStreet,Kingston. A finestorecarryingheavystocks ofdrygoods. Specialisesintherequirementsoftourists.Readymadesandmade-to-measure suits. [Seepagexxx.]SINGERSEWING l\IACHINE COMPANY,lOSHarbourStreet,Kingston.ThisbranchoftheSingerCompanyhasdepotsallover Janlaica. ThesaleofSinger machineshasbeensteadilygrowing. [Seepagevii.]SPORTS,THE, 27 KingStreet, Kingston. Specialises inmen'swearingapparel,tropical suits,whitecanvasshoes, etc. [Seepagexxvi.]STIVEN'SCOLOSSEUM,13-17 OrangeStreet,Kingston.Furnitureandhardwareestablishment. Specialisesintheproductionof high-classJamaicafurnituremadefromthebeautifulwoods ofthecountry.InthisrespecttheColosseum is unique. [Seepagex.]TAYLOR,R.W.,&Co.,logHarbourStreet, Kingston.Drygoods,haberdashery, glassware,earthenware,andtinware. 'Wholesaleandretail. [Seepagexxxi.)THWAITES&COMPANY,'TheStores,'glKingStreet,Kingston.Irish em. broidered goodsandIrishlacesarestockedinlargequantitiesbythishouse. Gentlemen'swhitedrillsuitsfortropicalweararemadetomeasureina few hours.Theladies'departmentis completely furnished. [Seepagexii.] 'THETIMES'STORE, lo-n KingStreet,Kin.gston. Booksellers,stationers,printers,andpublishers. Splendid store, filledwithgoods ofinteresttoeverybody,andvisitorsinparticular.Head-quartersforpostcards, souvenirs, view books,andallkindsofliterature.[Seepagexxxiv.]TOURISTRESORT,TheEducationalSupplyCompany, 16KingStreet,Kingston. Touristsareheresuppliedwith inform:ltion tree. BooksonJamaica,souvenirs,andpostcardsonsale.In thi!s building issituated'TheCamera,'H.E.Attewell, proprietor, wherekodaksandfilmsaresoldatLondonandNewYorkprices,anddevelopingpromptlydone. [Seepageviii.]'. WESSELsBROS.&VONGONTARD,Kingston.Exportersof Jamaic" produce.BranchesalloverJamaica,andinTrinidadandColon. Commissionmerchants.[Seepagexxii.]WINKLER&COMPANY,KingStreet,Kingston. Music Warehouse. Organs, pianos,andallkindsof musicalinstruments.[Seepagexxxiii.]WRAY&NEPHEW, 24 PortRoyalStreet, Kingston.Wineandspirit pier .chants.Established1825.Manufacturersofrum,orange wine, ginger wine,pimentodram,andotherJamaicacordials.Largeexportersofrum.[SeepagexxL] PJllNnm BY COLLINS'ClEAR-TYPEPRESS, LONDON .urnGLASGOW.

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MetropolitanJ-(ouse NATHAN &. Co. LimitedKINGSTON, JAMAICA gent.'sCJutfitters Men's Suits-IN-DRILL. DUCK, ASSAM.POPLINETTE.&c.Ready-made or MadetoMeasure in a fe\\! hoursMen'sSummerUnderwear-----Comprising----India Gauze, Balbriggan,SummerMerino Aertex Cellular,andRamie VestsandPants JIPPlJAPPAHATSandPANAMA HATSSTRAWHATSandHELMETS ..TUSSORESILKSHIRTSSOFTCOLLARS HOSIERYFANCYNECKWEARFOOTWEAR FOR MENTheFamous BECTIVE,K.G.BRAND And REGALMakesamongstOthersI0

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Tropical. Outfits ForTouristsTHE wantsofStrangersvisitingthis Islandisour constant study. ::..Weare fully prepared to supply those wants, and add comfort to theirvisitHIGH-CLASSDRAPERSLACES,SILKS,LINENS,ANDTROPICALHATS B B number among someofour Specialties B B GENT.'S TAILORINGinallitsBranchesLOUNGE::SUITSat Short NoticeDRESSMAKING ina few hours BB OURGUARANTEE BB ofsatisfaction stands behind every article wesellMeetattheBee-Hive'sSodaFountainT.HEBEE-HIVEKINGSTON,JAMAICA(Corner King and Harbour Streets)WITHINEASYREACH OFALLTHEPIERSII

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RYAN&CO. CORONATION BUILDINGKINGSTREErr for Courists' A Iways onhanda largestock of EN<:;LISH INDIGO SERCiES,HOl\iE SPUNS, .. COA1'INGS, &c. Suitsof alldescriptionsII Tailoring, Dressmaking, MillinerySuitsmadetoOrderatShortestNoticeIII

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C.T.I AACS ... .... '.. Ger;eral Hardwa/oe :and: rllrniture Dealer:./alaneseCuriosCakePlatesBrassBowlsTeaandCo/leeSetsCarved Ivoryri:qures Oiland l1/ater ColourPaintingsCarved/1/oodTablesSatsuma Jewell',"Antimo)' JewelBoxes Trays CharmsEtc.JamaicaSouvenir Jewelry BroochesCharmsHatPinsBelt Buckles PendantsEtc. WalkingStickS or 1amaicaWoods-Ebony,maboe,etc. POSTCARDSOFJAMAICASCENERY He Bestoftheir Kind-SbeffieldCutlery,ElectroPlate,etc. c.T.I SAAC S 111 &119 HARBOUR ST.KINGSTONJAMAICAIV

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INTERIOROFCHEMICALHALLKingston's most up-to-date Drug and Grocery Storer=W=E=S=TO=C=K=ALLII. I,d"p,",,",d.i1yth,OurSoda bestandmostup-to-date HIGH -G RADEDrinks..AlsoI-GOODS AT] SOaasfountain PRICES L.NUNES:Proprietorv

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Themost appropriate thing you can purchaseinJama:caisa bottle ofCI-I R.LE'V'S "GOLDMEDAL"OL R.UM PUTUPINTHEFOLLOWINGGRADES: Rot". GOLDSEAL2/-e N= CLUB-2/6TWOCLUB-3/THREECLUB3/6 i-BoIs. 1/-1/31/61/9Bot ... SPECIAL 4/-SPECIALRESERVE5/EXTRASPECIALOLDRUM6/(Guarr11llced overI jYeor.'Old)!Rots. 2/-2/63/-EDWINCHARLEY,Wine&SpiritMerchat62and64King Street, KINGSTONVI

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ESlablished 1907GoldMedalsToronto1910and1912IllustratedPriceListssenlpestCreetoanyaddressDiscounts quoted10the tradeJAMAICAPANAMAHATS(so.ca ledjippi.jappaHats)ForLadiesorGentlemen.trimmedoruntrimmed.ShippedbyParcelsPostto anypartofIheWorldinspecial mailingboxes.ensuring arriva Iin good conditIOnc.s. CORNERTOWERANDORANGESTREETSKingstonJamaicaB.W.I.WhichistheBestewingMachine for You? JI LLthatcanbesaidoftheSINGERisas nothing comparedtotheway the SINGERspeaksforitself.SINGERresultstellthestoryofSINGERsuccessThebestwaytoprovetbesuperiorityoftheSINGERistotryIttryItin your home-testitbythemost difficult workyouknowButyoumaysay "A cheapmachinewilldoallthis."PerhapsitwiJJ howabouta yea['fromnow?TheSfGERlastsa lifetime. Thehalf.a-century'sreputationbehindtheSINGERprovesitssupremacy-whynotletthen1i11100sofSINGERSinthehomesallovertheworldprovewhichisthebestrnacbineforyou?You C1n't SINGERresultswidt anything butaSINGER.PleaseremelnberthisApplyfor tenns tosecuretheseJnachinesontheeasyinstalmentplantoSINGERSEWINGMACHINECO.105HARBOURSTREET.KINGSTONVII

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TOURST'SRESORT BBB ..SouvenirsinSterling Silver.. with -BooksonJamaica. Pictorial Post Cards16 KING STREET,KINGSTON-HELPFULIFORMATIONGLADLYGIVETOVISITORS BBB -''-40'" I :':..I I .JAMAICACOATOFARMSTHEEDUCATIOALSUPPLYCQMPAY16KINGSTREETKINGSTOJAMAICAFORKODKSandFILMSAtNew YorkorLondon Prices -And-EVERYTHING PHOTOGRAPHICYou are Respectfully ReferredtoH.E.ATTEWELL'TheCamera'16KINGSTREETKINGSTONDeveloping, &c.,Promptly andPrcperlydoneVJIl

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THE'FIRSTSTOREKINGSTON87KING STREETJAMAICAMAKESASPECIALITYOFHIGH-GRADE--FURNISHINGS--FORMEN,WOMEN.ANDCHILDREN:SELLINGEVERYTHING(EXCEPTBOOTSANDSHOES)THETRAVELLERORRESIDENTISLIKELYTO REQUiRE INTHECLOTHINGWAYANDALLOFACHARACTERTHATLONGINTIMACYWITHJAMAICANREQUIREMENTSHASPROVEDTHEMOSTSUITABLEFORLOCALCONDITIONSSUITSMADETOMEASUREIN AFEWHOURSJIPPI-JAPPAANDREAL PANAMA HATSMOTORBONNETS, VEILS,ANDVEILINGSSILKSDIRECT FROM, CHINALINENSANDLACESFROMIRELAND Jlmricann!on))giun and rquird ONEPRICEFORALL!THEPRICETHEASSISTANTASKSYOUISTHEPRICEMARKED THEGOODSINPLAIN FIGURES,ANDTHELOWESTANDONLYFIGUREATWHICHANYTHINGCANBESOLDCLIFFORD SADLERTHE FIRST STOREIXTHE FIRST STORE

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AREVOLUTIONINFURNITUREMADE FROMTHE:::: BEAUTIFULLY GRAINEDHARDWOODSOFJAMAICAMAHOGANY MAHOEYACCA ETC.FRENCH POLISHEDEQUAL.IN FINISHANDINWEARINGQUALITIESTOANYTHINGFROMABROADBEDROOMSUITESBEDSTEADS0DSIDEBOARDSDDTABLESDDDBOOKCASESDDESKSETC.ETC.MADETOCUSTOMER'SOWNDESIGNATSTIVEN'SCOLOSSEUM13, 15,and17OrangeSt. KINGSTON JAMAICAx

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WeextendaCordial Invitationtoall VisitorstoinspectOURTHOROUGHLYUP-TO-DATESTOCKOFLINENS, SILKS, LACESETC.OURSTOCKOFLINENSCOMPRISESTABLE CLOTHS, NAPKINS, PILLOW CASES, SHEETINGS, DRESS LINENS HANDKERCHIEFS .,.. ETC.SILKS-REALHAND-MADEPONGEESILKSWHITEAND COLD ::lAPSILKS TUSSORE SILKS .... ETC.OUR TAILORING DEPT.IsrepletewithaChoice SelectionofTWEEDS, SERGES, LINEN&COTTON DRILLS, SILK SUITINGS .. ETC.We will make youa Suit at shortnotice,and guarantee satisfactioninevery detail We always keep in stock theLatest StylesinEnglish and.J/mericanSHIRTS,COLLARS, TIES,ANDHOSIERYLADIES' ANDGENT.'SHATSOFALL KINDS, INCLUDINGPANAMAANDlIPPI-lAPPA.. .....J/Large VarietyofLadies' Blouses, Skirts, Underclothing, Etc. OurGoodsarefromtheverybestEnglish .J/merican and Continental Markets::..SASSOMILLER8/bKINGSTREETKINGSTONXIJAMAICA

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THESTOREWITHTHECLOCK"TheStores" 91 King St., Kingston 'l9ourists':Requirements'jor@.ltand gentlemen our loy CHINESE ANDJAPANESESILKS IRISH EMBROIDERED GOODS IRISH LACES READY-TOWEAR GARMENTS FOR LADIESANDGENTLEMENGENT.'SWHITEDRILLSUITSMadetoMeasurein afewhoursPRICE,fmm FIVEDOLLARSUPSOLEAGENTSFORWalk-OverBootsandShoesFORLADIESANDGENTLEMEN::::::ALSOTHE::::::Famous" Swijan" BrandofShoesFOR LADIESN.OTE ALLGOODSMARKEDINPLAINFIGURESANDONEPRICEFORALL :JlYisitwill be appreciated XII

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-THEROYALBANKOFCANADA Capitil Authorized Capital Paidup. Reserve and Undivided Profits $ 25,000,000 11.500,000 12,500,000 Aggregate Assets 175,000,000 Head Office, MONTREALWiley Smith Hon. D. MacKeen Ja,. Redmond G.R.CroweBoardofDirectors:H S.HOLT,President.E.L.PEASE,Vice-President E. F.B.JOHNSTON,K.C., 2nd Vice-President D. K. Elliot Wm. RobertsonW.H.ThorneA.J.Brown,K.c.Hugh PatonW.J. SheppardT.J. Drummond C. S. WilcoxA.E. Dyment Officers:E. L.PEASE,General Manager; W.B.TORRANCE.Supt.ofBranches; C. E.NEILLand F. J: SHERMAN,Assistant General ManagersSTUARTSTRATHY,SupervisorofOntarioBranchesC.A.CROSBIE,SupervisorofBritish Columbia BranchesA.D.McRAE,SupervisorofMaritime Province BranchesT.R.WHITLEY,SupervisorofCentral Western Branches F.J.SHERMAN.SupervisorofCuban BranchesBranchesinCanada:125.inOnlario and Quebec70inMaritime Province,55inCentral Western Province, 40inBriti,h Columbia2BranchesinNewfoundlandBranchesinWestIndies:23inCuba. Porto Rico andDominicanRepublic.alsoBahamas:Barbadoes:Jamaica:Nassau BridgetownKingstonTrinidad:PortofSpain and SanFernandoLONDON, Eng.: Princes Street. E.C.NEWYORK:68 William Street AGENERALBANKINGBUSINESSTRANSACTEDXIII

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Are You Satisfied with the JobYou Hold ?(j[ OrwiththeSalaryyoudraw? (j[ BeforeyouaskforanincreaseinSalary-Areyoureallyworthmoretoyouremployer? (j[ Ifnot,howcouldyouhavethenerveto ask forthat increase?(j[ Butwhynotbecomeworthmore? (j[ Becomemorevaluedby learning BOOKKEEPINGROUTINESHORTHANDTYPEWRITINGOFFICESPANISHERNEST DE SOUSA14DukeStreetCorrespondenceofScranton, Pa.TheInternational SchoolsWILLTEACHYOUBYMAIL-SalesmanshipConcreteConstructionStationary Engineer BookkeeperElectrical EngineerBuilding ContractorStenographerPower-StationSupt. ArchitectAdvertising ManHeavyElect.TractionArchitecturalDrafts.Show-Card Writlnll Electric Lighting StructuralEngineerWindow Trimming ElectricWireman BridgeEngineer CivilServiceExams.TelephoneExpertRailroadConstructionCommercialLawCommercialIllustrat'gLocomotiveFireman English BranchesMechanicalDraftsmanLocomotive Engineer Good English forEveryIndustrial DesigningMiningEngineer Civil Engineer [OneRefrigeration Engineer MineForemanSurveyorMechanical Engineer Gas Engineer Poultry Raislnll Machine DesignerNavll!tationAgriculturePlumbing andHeatingTextile Manufacturing Livestockand Dairying ChemistAutomobile Running WRITEFORPROSPECTUS,NAMINGTHESUBJECTYOUAREINTERESTEDIN::ERNESTDESOUZAJamaica Agent 14DukeSt.XIV

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CableAddress:CASSIDY, KingstonTelephone255Motor Car & Supplies Ltd.67and69HARBOURSTREET(Opposite Myrtle Bank Hotel)KINGSTONSTORINGOFCARSA SpecialityJAMAICAFORHIREHigh-class 5 and 7 Passenger Cars Twelve Seater Motor BOat WESTOCKAutomobile suppliesofallkinds Gasolene.Oil,Grease TiresofallsizesFrom28x3 to 37 x5REPAIRSDoneinup-to-date repair shopLargest Garage in the IslandCABLEORWRITETOMOTORCARANDSUPPLIES,LTD.W.C.CASSIDY, Managing Directorxv

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Office20CHURCH ST.KINGSTON.JAMAICAs.T .Eustace .firchitect :: :Builder andSanitary Gngineer Plans, Speczfications, and GstimatesFORHOUSES:: FACTORIES::WHARVES::SANITARYANDALLDESCRIPTIONSOFBUILDINGWORKPREPAREDATMODERATECHARGESFREEIFWORKBEGIVENTOME Work undertakeninany partoftheIslandCompletePile-drivingApparatusforDockWorkonhireSOLEAGENTIN C7'Wh l'tAPROTECTIVEPAINTJAMAICAFORlJ,ermaIeFORUSEONWOODIRON,CONCRETE.SHIPS'BOTTOMS,CORRUGATEDIRONSHEETS,ETC.ALSOSOLEAGENT FOR THECELEBRATEDORR'S..ZINCSULPHIDEWHITE,"..SILOX:'ANDOTHEROILPAINTSZINGESSOLANDOTHERCOLDWATERPAINTS .A STOCKOFSANITARY FITTINGSALWAYSONHANDXVI

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Sout6(gamp*oadJ-lotel KINGSTONJAMAICAB. W.I.Accommodation for Sixty GuestsTheMost PopularHomeFor Tourists .-andBusinessMen(American)..Plan.,Accommodation for Sixty Guests The Roomsarearranged Singly orEn Suite for Families, aridareall provided with Running.Water, andagood many with Private Baths,etc.ThereisaFineBILLIARD ROOM with bothEnglish and r===:::::Jit=:::::J American TablesI .J1 Firsl-clsssCAFE.f/ndan up-to-dateSHAVING SALOON The transientralesare from$4.00per Day, and upn:ardse25.oo per Week, andupwards, accordinglosize and location ofRoomsFor furthpr ParticularsandBooklet, wireorwriteHENRYA.EVELYN,CabteAddress:"HENRYEVE," Jamatca A.B.C. Code, 5th EditiollXVlI andProprietorp

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F. CHARLES' FISHER i9KINGSTREETKINGSTON t:bUI'4o..j)at Outfitting 6nt.'s, and Boys'Wh, GOFIRSTTOFISHER'SDr. PERCY C.LOPEZ&BRO., OPTICIANS The Sight Testing Room, fully equipped AND-withthemostModern Instruments,isEYESIGHTopened daily from8a.m. until5p.m. mmbrs}fssociation of Opticians SpecialArrangementsmadeforConsultationonSundays.TelephoneArtificial EyesSelectedandCarefullyFitted. : No. 11189KINGSTREETKINGSTONJUS TIN MeARTHYSTATIONER,BOOK-e ALSOENGLISHANDAMERICANMAGAZINESPOST CARD VIEWS,Etc.CRICKETANDLAWN,TENNIS'GOODS lIgtnt for Ward, rock(o:sPublications AGENTFORASHTON&--PARSON'SHOMlEOPATHIC MyMottoisReasonablePricesforUp-to-dateandReliable Goods 22KINGSTREETKINGSTON-Importersofand Wholesale and Retail Dealers in i)rUgs. Pattnt mtdiCints. GrOctrits (OnftCtiontry. PtrfUmtry. tOiltt JlrtiClts.tC. F.A.McKAY,,FRED.C.SCHLOSS,ProprietorAGENTSFOR Uzal'sFamily.RemediesIDr.Zambelli'sPreparations 681 KINGSTREETand18aWEST QUEEN STREET'KINGSTONXVlIJ

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SOUTH CAMP ROAD BUILDINGSlargeandairy,andsurrounded by five acres0/ Tro,'Jical GardensTENNISANDBILLIARDSCars10all paris0/ Ihe City every T wenly minulesSixminutes drive10 Ihe RailwaySlationRATES$JOO (Twelve Shillings) per Day.RoomswithBathExtraFor Bookings, writeorwire II.Kingston PROPRIETORXIX jamaicaP2

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FRED.L.MVERS&SON (ESTABI.ISH ED1879)FRED.L. IVhER' HORACEV. Mn:HS Importus ICOllllujssiOIt and Wbarf Ownus .,.'oJc.l\-'ftlh'Ijlh coolandC0I111110dious.ExcellentBerthingfor Shipping alongsideuuruniqueseawall,bywhichmeanswedoa large tradewiththecoastal IOl\-nS Anyonewhowishesto get anything into Jamaica Anyone who wishesto get anythingoutofJamaicaSHOt'LD J\;OT Writetous FAIL TO:::: OUR SPECIfILTIES FOR TOURISTSare: J\Ivers' GenuineJ;unaicaRuml\1ichelsen'sGenuineBayRum(St.Thomas,W.I.) VISITOR.S SEEKINGINFOR.MfITIONaboutany Jamaica productsarecordiallyinvitedtocon1e andsee us.We gladly answer all enquiriesWESPECIfILISEIN SUGfIR fiND RUM andsolicit enquirit,s fordirectshipmentto foreign parts;Buyfromthecountryof origin andcutoutintermediateprofits. \Ve can give youfirst-classvalueinthesecommodities,aswehandletheentireoutputofmany estates OllRAGENCIESINCLUDE :-W.&A.Gilbey'sWinesandSpirits;Moet&Chandon'sChampagne-"DryImperial"istheworld'sbest;Hennessy'sBrandy;J.&J.Colman's andBlue;Schweppe'sSodaWaterandDry Cinger AleOflie...Wharf. andBondedWarehouse,188HARBOURST.(extremeWestEnd)THESUGARWHARFKINGSTON,.JAMAICA xx

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J.WRAY&NEPHEWWineandSpiritMerchantsDistillersandBlendersoftheFinestJAMAICARUMSilfanufacturersofORANGEWINEGINGERWINEPIMENTODRAMANDOTHERJAMAICACORDIALSOurSpecialitesareBOTTLEDRUMSOFGREATAGEBLUECOFFEEMOUNTAINTHEWORLD'SBEST24Port Royal StreetKINGSTON JAMAICA XXI

PAGE 238

WhenColumbusfirstlanded,inJamaicahefoundthequietinhabitantsdistrustfulandunwillingatfirsttoapproachhispartyItwasnotlongafterwardsthatthe Arawaks weretobefoundonhisdecks engaged inbarterorexaminingtheshipA familiarityandconfidencehadarisenoutofthefairdealingandexchangeofProvisionsforStrangeArticles from afarcountryAndnowonderayoung Ann-vak waswillingtogoawaywithColumbus,trustinghimselftothegoodwillofthestrangersTHEPRINCIPLEOFFAIRDEALINGANDCONFIDENCEEXEMPLIFIEDINTHISEARLIESTSTORYOFJAMAICAHASBEENTHEPIVOTONWHICHHASTURNEDTHESUCCESSOFWessels Bros.& Von Gontard I COMMISSIONMERCHANTSAs AndSUGAR:S FOOD-STUFFSCOFFEES,COCOA,andMERCHANDISEAllAgricultural Etc.Produce Addresses-Kingston,St.Ann'sBay,andBrown'sTown,Ja. 1 PortofSpain,TrinidadNewYorkfirmColon,R.P.Wessels,Kulenkampff&Co. 'VV\J\o'\fV\lVVV\l\.'\IV\IV\IV'\IV'"",,,,,,-"",,,,,VVV\jV\IV\/VlolV'VV\J\,o4,. XXI!

PAGE 239

PostO(CJceBoxNo. 254 Address: U Dranoel,"Jamaica 0=====::===0 00oHARDWARE AND LUMBER MERCHANT t?c::=::::J c::=::::Jt==:Jc::=::::Jt?c::=::::Jc:::=::=Jc::=::::J c::=::::J HARDWAREnnLUMBERYARDS0DEPARTMENT L::lc:J 2TEMPLELANEAND130HARBOURSTREET1CHURCHSTREETn oTelephoneNo.12. [flC:U TelephoneNo.19U c::=::::J c::=::::J c::=::::Jc::=::::Jr:!Jc::=::::Jc:::=::=Jc::::::=Jc:::=lr:!JIMPORTER OFHardware,GeneralIronmongery, and'ShipChandleryAgricultural Implementsofalldescriptions Building and Furnishing Hardware American White Pine and Pitch Pine Lumber Shingles,DoorsandSashes,OrangeBoxShooks,andCooperageMaterialSOLEAGENTFORHALL'SDISTEMPERPAINT.ANCHORBRANDPORTLANDCEMENTMAJOR'SDISINFECTANTSOLIGNUM(WOODPRESERVATIVE)XXllI

PAGE 240

. I).Klnkad PRESCRIPTIONS CAREVULLY ANDACCURATELYDISPENSED 1)EALER IN...Dispensing Chemist AndDruggistPUREDRUGSPATENTMEDICINESPERFUMERYCONFECTIONERYFINEGROCERIESTEASETC.ETC.American Iced Soda Drinks ofFine Flavoured SyrupsAndICECREAM BBBBBB 20KingSt. KingstonJamaica OPPOSITEBANKNOVASCOTIAXXIV

PAGE 241

"CbSports" __________FURNISHERS27KINGSTREETKINGSTONANDTAILORSTouristswillfindittotheiradvantagetovisitourStoreduringtheirstayinKingstonSuitsmadeto MeasureatshortnoticeWealso keejJ ..PanalllaHats,LightWeightSuitsWhiteCanvasShoesM.M.ALEXANDER106 HARBOUR ST. KINGSTON JAMAICA IMPo.RTER OFHousehold Furniture,GlassandCrockery,Haberdashery, Fanc]) Goods,Enamel and CCin Ware Silver and Plated Ware ..._____SOLEAGENTFOR_ Britisb Jlgnt for -CbPalatinInsurancCOY.ttd. XXVI

PAGE 242

WHENINJAMAICA Visillhe LONDONSTOREKINGSTON'S POPULAR STORE for Courists' in CrOl'iCal Clotbing SilkCanors, and TROLLEYCARSLEAVEOURDOOREVERYFEWMINUTESFORALLPARTSLONDONSTOREALLSTEAMERSMETBYOURREPRESENTATIVE21KING STREETKINGSTONThe Antilles Rum and WineCo.JAMAICAOLDRUMAWARDED..GOLDMEDAL"and..AWARDMERIT" fi SpecialtySHIPPERSTOENGLAND,CANADA,ANDUNITEDSTATESALSOMANUFACTURERSOFNATIVEWINESANDCORDIALSAGENTSFORD, &J.McCALLUM-PERFECTION WHISKY Do. do.-OLDTOMANDDRY GIN DUNCANSTEWART-EXTRA SPECIAL SCOTCH WHISKY JAMES WATSON&CO.-..HILLSMORE" SCOTCH WHISKYH.E.DaCOSTA,ProprietorXXVII29PortRoyalStreet

PAGE 243

'l.9arponJamaiea
PAGE 244

lM1yrltllcelk KINGSTON JAMAICATheonlyFirst-classHotelinKingstonMyrile Bank HoielCo.Lid. JlIl1rlcan Plan [:=J[:=J[:=J[:=J [:=J [:=J [:=J oHOTANDCOLD0oWATERINEVERY0OROOM.......0........ [:=J [:=J ==== [:=J. DSUITEsDo....WITH....DDPRi'VATE BA:n:j D [:=J [:=J == [:=J[:=J = TlhceIHIltcellTnIt(Clhfncellcdl PORTANTONIOJAMAICAAmericanPlanTHEHotelTitchfieldissplendidly situatedatPortAntonio,andisunder the same manage ment as the Myrtle Bank. Accommodation for' over250guests, hotandcold water in every room, and many rooms have private baths.TheHotel has every modern conv.enience,and the service and cuisine will be found equal to any first-class hotel in AmericaorEurope.Everyfacilityisafforded for amusement, and thereistennis, bathing, .sailing, fishing, rafting, riding, driving,andmotoringXXIX

PAGE 245

& Smitb81KINGSTREET ........ 'Ghe House for::the 'G ourists:: c:==JCl 0 Clc:==JWE holdoneofthe.LargestStockofGoodsmostsuitableforTOURISTSintheIsland-nomatterwheretheyreside Notea jew Shades:READY-TO-WEARSUITS, inWhiteDrill,WhiteDuck,andCrash, from$2.62! upDo. do.inPoplin, from-$5.00"MADE-TO-MEASURE SUITS,inCotton, from$5.00"Do. do. in LinenandPoplin, from$8.00"= ClOClc:==J IHOUSEHOLDLINENSIANDPONGEESILKSASPECIALTYxxx

PAGE 246

THE O:-iLY RECOGNISED L1r\Er\ STOREOF THELINENSTOREKINGSTONJAMAICA,B.W.I.S.E. CornerofKingandHarbourStreetsASUPERBSELECTIONOFSheerandHandkerchiefLinens,oneLinenHemstitchedHandkerchlds-yardwide,from1s.6d. cts.)Ladles',withnarrowandb"oadperyardhems,inSheerandlinenCambric,LinenBatiste,EmbroideryLinensandfrom5s. ($1.25) perdozen;Gentle-CostumeLinens,from1s.6d. (371 men's,from9s. ($2.25) perdozencts.)peryardEmbroideredBed Epreads andaSpecialLotofLunch,Tea,andTrayClothsYamDyedFastColore,tCostumeTableCloths(DoubleDamask)withLinensNapkinstomatchALLATLowestPricesAlLCARSSTOPATTHELINENSTOREHURCOMB&SOLLAS,ProprietorsR.W. TAYLOR & COa general.Jmportersof 00 .. lJrygoods Jiaberdas6ery glassware eart6enware g.'l9inwarem IWHOLESALEANDRETAIL 00 109 HARBOURST.XXXIKINGSTON

PAGE 247

THE.C.C.HENRIQUESCOMPANY16ORANGEST.. KINGSTONJAMAICA. B.W.I.Largest ExportersandRetailers0/GOLDMEDAL1910and1912TORONTOEXHIBITIONJippi..Jappa Panama HatsInJamaicaHATSBYMAILTOANYPARTOFTHEWORLDFREEOFCARRIAGEPriceListFree onApplicationHATSMADETOMEASUREIN::ANYDIMENSIONWearespeciallyequippedtohandletheTourist tmde, andguaranteecourtesy,attention,and despatch XXXII

PAGE 248

PianosBRINSMEADOrgans ra. :CAROL TONI{SHENSTONEMASON&HAMLINCARPENTERWinsor &l1!atuials EverythingMusicaland Arh"stic ...SheetMusicandFoliosforall purposesgrove entralJ10telMANDEVILLEJAMAICAFIRST-CLASSHOTELSituatedfacingthe Greeninthe Centreofthe pretty Village of Mandeville :::: Temp.60to 750Elevation, 2,100ft.Running Water from Battersea Reservoir golf'lgennis Saddle j-(orses WINES AND LIQUORS RATES MODERATEXXXlllJAMESB.DICK,Proprietor

PAGE 249

BiggestStoreofitsKindinJamaica::::You will lindatour Store thefollowing ArticlesBOOKSANDSOUVENIRSFor TOURISTSnglisband Jlmuican and POSTCARDSBOOKSOnJAMAICAJIPPI-JAPPAHATSNATIVECURIOSSOUVENIRJEWELLERY Justtbetbingstbe"isitorwantstbePublisbersoftbisBOOk and of JamaIca HENRIQUES&CO.ARMY&NAVY STORES 136 HARBOUR ST.KINGSTON JAMAICAImportersofGroceries, Provisions, Wines, Spirits, Teas, Etc., Etc. ContractorstoH.M.NavalandMilitary Forces, Canteens & Messes Ships' Stores Supplied at Shortest Notice Correspondence SolicitedCableAddress, "NIKE."JAMAICAP.O.BOX65TELEPHONE 1'\0. 69Codes Used, A.B.C.andPrivateXXXIV

PAGE 250

... Architects EngineersandContractorsDESIGNSDETAILEDPLANS AND ESTIMATES PREPAREDHENRIQUESBROS.WEDesignedandErectedthemaiority0/ thePrincipal-Buildings ofthe .. Island,someofwhichare:THEWARDTHEATRETHEMASONICTEMPLE .CORONATIONBUILDINGJAMAICATOBACCOCOMPANY'SFACTORYANDOFFICEBUILDINGS t. CROSSWELL&COo'SSTOREPREMISESSIRJOHNPRINGLE'SRESIDENCECAPECLEARAndtheEntireBlockofBuildingsNorth-EastCorner King andHarbourStreets. Jrttg"ti01td'c1tcr"e 78&80Orange'St .. KINGSTON JAMAICATELEPHONE434CABLEADDRESS:"REA,JAMAICA"xxxv ...

PAGE 251

NATHAN'&Co.LimitedHEADQUARTERS '.Kingston BRANCHES THEBEEHIVETHEPEOPLE'SMART"THECAVENDISH HOUSE IN KINGSTONANDINTHECOUNTRYTOWNSBROWN'STOWNPORTMARIA HOUSE BEEHIVEST.ANN'SST.MARYSAV.LA-MARBEEHIVE WESTMORELANDSAV-LA-MARCAVENDISHHOUSE WESTMORELANDANDMONTECOBAY(ST.JAMES)All :well stocked with < for .J.. ReSIdents.and VIsItors'AND SITUATED INTHEPRINCIPALTOWNSOFTHEPARISHES' MOSTLY VISITED' BYTOURISTSXXXVI

PAGE 252

Nathan & Co., Limited :JIletropolitanJiouse KINGSTONJAMAICAHeadquarters for::Tourists'RequisitesWE EXTEND A HEARTY INVITATIONTOTOURISTSTOVISIT OUR WELL-APPOINTED ESTABLISHMENT THIS INVITATION PUTS NONE UNDERANYOBLIGATIONTOBUYWEARESPECIALISTSINCHINAandJAPANESESILKS ::REALIRISH LINENSHAND-EMBROIDEREDIRISH LINEN BED-SPREADSREALLACESandEMBROIDERIESLONDONandPARISIANMILLINERYLadies'Suits,Costumes,Skirts,Waists, etc. ormadetomeasure__atshortestnotice__ ootwearforLadiesandChildrenOFEVERYDESCRIPTIONEB330 100 2630 cI


STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00080938/00001
 Material Information
Title: Twentieth century Jamaica
Added title page title: 20th century Jamaica
Physical Description: 208, xxxvii p., 9 leaves of plates : ill., ports. ; 20 cm.
Language: English
Creator: De Lisser, H. G ( Herbert George ), 1878-1944
De Lisser, Herbert George, 1878-1944
Publisher: The Jamaica Times
Place of Publication: Kingston Jamaica
Publication Date: 1913
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Description and travel -- Jamaica   ( lcsh )
Social life and customs -- Jamaica   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Biographical: From Wikipedia for H. G. de Lisser, from 29 June 2013: Herbert George de Lisser CMG (9 December 1878 - 19 May 1944) was a Jamaican journalist and author. He has been called "one of the most conspicuous figures in the history of West Indian literature". De Lisser was born in Falmouth, Jamaica, and attended William Morrison's Collegiate School in Kingston. He started work at the Institute of Jamaica at the age of 14. Three years later he joined the Jamaica Daily Gleaner, of which his father was editor, as a proofreader, and two years later became a reporter on the Jamaica Times. In 1903, De Lisser became assistant editor of the Gleaner and was editor within the year. He wrote several articles for the paper every day. He also produced a novel or non-fiction book every year, beginning in 1913 with Jane: A Story of Jamaica, significant for being the first West Indian novel to have a central black character. Another famous novel of his, The White Witch of Rosehall (1929), is linked to a legend of a haunting in Jamaica. De Lisser also wrote several plays. In December 1920 he began publishing an annual magazine, Planters' Punch. De Lisser devoted much time and effort to the revival of the Jamaican sugar industry and represented Jamaica at a number of sugar conferences around the world. He was also general secretary of the Jamaica Imperial Association, honorary president of the Jamaica Press Association, and chairman of the West Indian section of the Empire Press Union. He was appointed Companion of the Order of St Michael and St George (CMG) in the 1920 New Year Honours.
Statement of Responsibility: by H.G. Lisser.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Latin American Collections
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000606561
oclc - 26290859
notis - ADD5659
System ID: UF00080938:00001


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Table of Contents
    Half Title
        Page 1
    Frontispiece
        Page 2
    Title Page
        Page 3
    Dedication
        Page 4
    Preface
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Table of Contents
        Page 7
        Page 8
    List of Illustrations
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Introductory--Jamaica's future
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 16a
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
    The people of Jamaica
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 48a
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
    The Englishman in Jamaica
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 64a
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
    City, towns, and country
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 80a
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
    The people's life
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 96a
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
    Some beliefs and customs
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 112a
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 128a
        Page 129
    Jamaica religion: The mud and the gold
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
    Real politics and tin-pot politics
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 160a
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
    Industrial and commercial Jamaica
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
    Evolution and progress
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
    Directory
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
    Advertising
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
        Page xi
        Page xii
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
        Page xv
        Page xvi
        Page xvii
        Page xviii
        Page xix
        Page xx
        Page xxi
        Page xxii
        Page xxiii
        Page xxiv
        Page xxv
        Page xxvi
        Page xxvii
        Page xxviii
        Page xxix
        Page xxx
        Page xxxi
        Page xxxii
        Page xxxiii
        Page xxxiv
        Page xxxv
        Page xxxvi
        Page xxxvii
Full Text















TWENTIETH CENTURY JAMAICA























































SIR SYDNEY OLIVIER





TWENTIETH CENTURY


JAMAICA



BY
H. G. DE LISSER
Author of In Cuba and Jamaica"






WITH ILLUSTRATIONS






PUBLISHED BY
THE JAMAICA TIMES LIMITED, KINGSTON, JAMAICA
1913
















To

J. F. MILHOLLAND,

CROWN SOLICITOR FOR JAMAICA,

AND

HENRY ISAAC CLOSE BROWN,

REGISTRAR OF THE SUPREME COURT,

I DEDICATE THIS BOOK,

NOT ONLY BECAUSE THEY ARE MEN OF WHOM

THEIR COUNTRY IS RIGHTLY PROUD,

BUT ALSO BECAUSE THEY ARE MEN WHOM

TO KNOW WELL

IS TO THINK WELL OF HUMAN NATURE.











PREFACE


No book on Jamaica, written with intimate knowledge of
the country and its people, has appeared for twenty years.
Sir Sydney Olivier's White Capital and Coloured Labour does
not pretend to treat of Jamaica only, and is in any case con-
cerned mainly with the economic and political aspects of
West Indian life. It is the best book of its kind on the subject,
though now and then I have found myself obliged to disagree
slightly with some of its conclusions.
Mr Archibald Colquhoun is another writer who (in Greater
America) has surveyed the West Indian question; but he has
done so from what may be called the international point of
view. No abler work on the future of America in the Caribbean
Sea has been issued since Greater America was published; but
though the author devotes a couple of chapters to Cuba, on
Jamaica he writes but a sentence or two.
Mr Algernon Aspinall's The West Indies holds the field as
the most reliable and best written compendium of information
on the British Caribbean Islands. These three books--Sir
Sydney Olivier's, Mr Colquhoun's, and Mr Aspinall's-are in-
valuable to the student of West Indian affairs; but it is not
so much the student as the general reader that I have had
in mind when writing the chapters contained in this little
work. I have aimed at giving a brief but accurate view of
life in Jamaica, and at expressing a few carefully thought out





6 PREFACE

opinions on the development and future of the Jamaica people.
I have not said everything that could with profit and instruc-
tion be said about Jamaica: the general reader is impatient
of length, and I confess that my sympathies are with him.
To Mr C. Thornley Stewart, of Kingston, Jamaica, who
designed the cover of this book, I wish to express my gratitude.
The average English artist has usually failed to transfer the
Jamaica light and colour to canvas: Mr Stewart has succeeded.
Years of residence in Jamaica, a study of its people, and a
love of its wonderful scenery have enabled him to produce
pictures that are true to life and nature.
H. G. DE LISSER.

KINGSTON, JAMAICA,
October,g912.















CONTENTS

CHAP. PAGE
I. INTRODUCTORY. JAMAICA'S FUTURE: WITH ENG-
LAND, CANADA, OR THE UNITED STATES II

II. THE PEOPLE OF JAMAICA 33

III. THE ENGLISHMAN IN JAMAICA 55

IV. CITY, TOWNS, AND COUNTRY 71

V. THE PEOPLE'S LIFE 93

VI. SOME BELIEFS AND CUSTOMS I07

VII. JAMAICA RELIGION: THE MUD AND THE GOLD 130

VIII. REAL POLITICS AND TIN-POT POLITICS 149

IX. INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL JAMAICA 169

X. EVOLUTION AND PROGRESS 186










LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS



SIR SYDNEY OLIVIER Frontispice

KING STREET .. Facing 16

A HOLIDAY CROWD AT WATER FRONT, KINGSTON
THE ROMAN CATHOLIC CATHEDRAL, KINGSTON "

BY THE RIO COBRE .
COMING FROM MARKET 64
A COOLIE VILLAGE. .

THE DRIVE, HOPE GARDENS
LOADING BANANAS 8
SOUTH CAMP ROAD HOTEL, KINGSTON

THE ARCHBISHOP OF THE WEST INDIES ,, 96

A JAMAICA TOWN .
A COCOANUT PLANTATION ,, 113
A JAMAICA VILLAGE .

A CORNER OF HENRIQUES' PANAMA HAT FACTORY
UNLOADING JAMAICA PRODUCE AT THE SEA-WALL ,, 128
OF MYERS AND SON J

MYRTLE BANK HOTEL, KINGSTON
KING'S HOUSE, THE GOVERNOR'S RESIDENCE ,, 16o
TITCHFIELD HOTEL, PORT ANTONIO I











Twentieth Century Jamaica


CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTORY-JAMAICA'S FUTURE : WITH ENGLAND, CANADA,
OR THE UNITED STATES

AFTER having been almost forgotten by the civilised world
for wellnigh upon a century, the West Indian Islands are
attracting attention once more; and it is probable that
within another decade the problem of their future will present
itself to the minds of the statesmen of at least three civilised
countries.
During the eighteenth century they were fought for as
prizes. They were esteemed for their products; the wealth
to be obtained from them was thought to be incalculable;
in those days they were regarded as 'the natural cockpit of
the European nations in the struggle for hegemony.' All
this seems strange to us now. When we speak of the Tropics,
we have in mind India, Africa, the islands of the Pacific, and
vast stretches of territory on the southern continent of
America. The West Indies hardly occur to the memory,
so insignificant they seem as compared with other lands of
vast extent and of varied resources, where the days are awful
with heat and the nights wonderful with the light of moon
and stars. Sometimes one hears of them, hears of them in
terms of poverty and distress. An earthquake, a hurricane,
a volcanic eruption occurs; the world is startled, moved to
pity and assistance--then forgets. What are a few islands
scattered upon the bosom of the Caribbean ? What are a couple


'





TWENTIETH CENTURY JAMAICA


of millions of people, chiefly coloured, in the affairs of the
nations of the world?
Very little perhaps ; nor is it possible that the West Indies
can ever again assume the importance they once had as prizes
to be fought for and possessions to be held. The reason has
become historical.
By the end of the eighteenth century the British were
masters of India. The beginning of the nineteenth century
saw Santo Domingo, the richest of the West Indian Islands at
that time, wrested by revolted slaves out of the hands of
France. In the future, the attention of England was to be
given more to East than to West Indian affairs, and what
remained to France of her West Indian possessions was of
but little account.
Spain still had Cuba and Porto Rico, and clung to them
all the more desperately because, after 18io, one after
another of her Spanish-American states threw off her yoke
and proclaimed their independence. But Spain herself
decayed as the years went on, and little was heard or thought
about her colonies in the Caribbean Sea. The abolition of the
slave trade, the emancipation of the slaves-these events
attracted some attention. But after freedom had been pro-
claimed in the British islands, to be followed by freedom in
all the other islands, the West Indies ceased to be thought of,
ceased to be considered; and, however the people of them might
rage and cry, the outside world would not be disturbed.
In the meantime, and not far from them, something had
happened which was destined to have a far-reaching and
determining influence upon their future. More was heard
about them than about the mainland of North America at
the beginning of the eighteenth century. But in the last
quarter of that century a new nation came into existence
on the North American continent, and in less than a hundred
and fifty years it has grown to such greatness that what it
thinks and says to-day must needs be considered in every





JAMAICA'S FUTURE


chancellory of Europe. It is the growth of the United States
of America, and its aims, its ambitions, and its manifest
position as paramount Power in the American Hemisphere,
that have brought about a change in the condition and out-
look of the West Indian Islands within late years, a change
which even at this moment continues to operate, and of which
the full significance and ultimate issue remain to be seen.
To Europe the West Indies may be of little importance. To
the United States, they are of the greatest value. A war for
the possession of Cuba and Porto Rico was fought with Spain
in 1898, just fifty years after President Polk had offered to
purchase Cuba, and still a longer interval after John Quincy
Adams had spoken of both the Spanish West Indian Islands
as 'the natural appendages of the North American continent.'
If one reads the opinions expressed by Jefferson, Madison,
Buchanan, and others, as to the inevitable future of the
Spanish dominions in the Caribbean, one cannot fail to see that
many American statesmen have regarded the United States
as the inevitable heir of Spain. In their opinion, it was but
a matter of time when the United States should be owner of
two of the four principal islands in the American Mediter-
ranean, and who shall say that they had but two in mind?
Indeed, it is plain enough that the ablest leaders of the
American people have foreseen the day when not one or two
alone, but perhaps all the West Indian Islands, shall own
allegiance to the Stars and Stripes. It is a matter of history
that negotiations for the transference of the Danish West
Indies have more than once taken place between the Govern-
ments of Denmark and America. It is a matter of certainty
that some day that transference will occur. The Dutch
Islands do not count for much, and in any case the Monroe
Doctrine secures to America the final ownership of them,
should they pass out of the hands of Holland. There is Santo
Domingo, the island divided into the republics of Hayti and
San Domingo, and perpetually a scene of anarchy and strife.




14 TWENTIETH CENTURY JAMAICA

No one can doubt what its end will be. General Grant
advised its annexation over forty years ago, and the only
reason probably why the island has not formally been taken
possession of is because the problem of dealing with hitherto
independent coloured populations-and especially the Hay-
tians, who fought for and won their independence-is one
which no American Government is desirous of attempting to
solve. It was one thing to go to war with Spain on behalf of
the oppressed Cubans, as the story ran then. It would be
another to take forcible possession of a country which was
itself oppressed by the tyranny of slavery, and which has for
a hundred years endeavoured to maintain the freedom it so
valiantly won. Yet the issue is not doubtful. American
capital will go to Santo Domingo1 in even greater quantities
than has hitherto been the case. It will demand protection,
as it has demanded protection in Nicaragua and in the
Spanish part of the island of Santo Domingo itself. Such pro-
tection can only be afforded adequately by the United States
exercising a dominant influence over the Government of the
Republic of Hayti; and from this to complete control the way
will not be long. Thus Porto Rico, Cuba, and Santo Domingo
will all be under the tutelage of the United States. They
constitute three of the four large islands known as the Great
Antilles. What is the fate of the fourth-Jamaica?
What is the fate of all the other islands? might well be
asked at the same time. There are the French colonies, and
the numerous British islands scattered about the Caribbean
Sea. Both Britain and France are Great Powers. Neither of
them is a Spain; in none of their Caribbean colonies is there
anything like tyranny, anything that would give the United
States a plausible excuse for intervention. A wanton attack
upon either, for the purpose of wresting away its possessions,
would bring at least two allied fleets into the Caribbean;
but, as a matter of fact, there is nothing to be gained by
1 This island is also known as Hayti and Hispaniola.





JAMAICA'S FUTURE


pursuing this line of argument. For if either the British or
the French West Indies are ever taken by force, it will be as
the result of a war which will have some other cause than a
mere desire on the part of the United States for the islands.
America would not engage in a war for such an object. The
case of Cuba and Porto Rico was different: the enemy was
weak, the prize was great. Now that the prize has been won,
now that Cuba and Porto Rico are in the hands of the United
States, and that Santo Domingo can at any moment be had
for the taking, the United States would never think of attempt
ing to acquire by force a few West Indian islands whose value
to her is so much less because she already has the finest of the
group. She will be content to wait until they themselves
ask to be transferred to her, or until their present owners are
willing to transfer them.
As will be seen a little further on, the United States has
many weapons to her hands in dealing with the West Indies:
weapons quite as effective as, though very different from, the
sort she used in her struggle with Spain. Her writers and
statesmen believe that she has time on her side, and some of
them openly prophesy that the day is coming when she will
be mistress entirely of the American Mediterranean, and of all
the islands in that sea. The only solution of the West Indian
problem which they perceive is for the islands to drift beneath
the protecting folds of the American flag. Thus Dr L. S.
Rowe, a writer who unquestionably commands respect, lays
it down that 'a combination of economic and political forces,
which seem almost irresistible, is driving the West Indies
into the arms of the United States.' 1 Mr Brooks Adams is
of the opinion that 'the Archipelago must be absorbed into
the United States, or lapse into barbarism.' 2 I could fill
a page with similar remarks by other writers, men whose views
cannot be dismissed with a shrug of the shoulders. But there
T The United States and Porto Rico.
2 American Commercial Supremacy.





TWENTIETH CENTURY JAMAICA


is no need to do that. What is of more immediate importance
from the British and the British West Indian point of view
is a consideration of the prospects of a closer and more profit-
able connection between the British West Indies and the
mother-country than has existed during the last few decades.
It need hardly be stated that the problem of the West
Indies is essentially an economic one. It was not so much for
political freedom that the Cubans fought, as for freedom to
find a market in the United States. The people of Porto Rico
welcomed the Americans, not because they had been ill-used
by the Spaniards, but because they believed that industrial
and economic progress, and the benefits which flow from
this, would be the result of their connection with the
United States. Experience has proved that they were right.
There can be no question that the development of Cuba
and Porto Rico during the last ten years has been astonishing.
The world now knows what America has done for her West
Indian possessions-for Cuba is practically an American
possession. We have now to ask if England can do as much for
her West Indian colonies.
So far as ability to do so on England's part is concerned,
there can only be one possible answer to such a question.
She could, by a differential tax on foreign fruit, foreign sugar,
and foreign coffee and cocoa, give such a tremendous impetus
to the West Indian trade that her colonies in the Caribbean
would soon be able to regard the American market, if not
as negligible, at any rate as secondary. And this is what some
Tariff Reformers assume that a Conservative Government
will do. Only recently (August, 1912) one read in the Conser-
vative papers that the next Government will be able to give a
preference to West Indian sugar which will ensure the rapid
revival of the West Indian sugar industry; and, of course, not
only sugar, but the other articles of consumption mentioned
just now will also come in for some assistance. Writing while
a Liberal Government is still in power, though diminishing
















































KING STREET





JAMAICA'S FUTURE


in popularity, it is impossible for the writer to say that the
next Government, if Conservative, will not do what a section
of the British Press so confidently promise that it will do.
But it is obvious that the triumph of the policy of Imperial
Preference depends on many factors, and that to transform
that policy into a practical programme will be the work of
some time. Leaving out of count the negotiations that must
take place between the mother-country and the self-governing
colonies-negotiations which may have no direct bearing
upon the West Indian share of the benefits of preference-
we have to remember that if there is a strong Radical, Free
Trade Opposition, the Government will not be able to give as
large a preference to the West Indian products as it may
wish to do. For instance, it has been estimated that by the
abolition of the bounties formerly given by the Continental
Powers on sugar exported to England, the latter country has
had to pay seven millions sterling a year more for the sugar
it has consumed. If we now suppose a preference given to
West Indian sugar, and sugar grown elsewhere in the British
dominions, we see at once that the British consumer will
have to pay for his sugar, for some time at any rate, as much
as or more than he pays to-day. Then if an appreciable tax
is put upon foreign bananas, oranges, sugar, cocoa, and coffee,
the food bill of the Britisher must rise still higher. This would
be of immense benefit to the British West Indies. But how
long would the average English and Scotch voter tolerate it?
It may be argued that a small tax on foreign products will
not be paid by the consumer but by the producer anxious to
retain the English market, even at some sacrifice of former
profit. It may be so. But if the foreign producers could afford
to lose part of their profit, and still keep the English market
supplied with great quantities of the things exported by the
West Indies, it is difficult to see where the considerable benefit
to the British Caribbean colonies would be. The foreign
producer would lose something. The British Treasury would
J. B





TWENTIETH CENTURY JAMAICA


benefit by the tax laid on foreign imported goods. But the
West Indies would be in much the same position as they are
to-day.
Suppose, however, that the tax imposed in favour of
West Indian products were paid wholly or in large part by
the British consumer. In that case, if one may argue of the
future in terms of the present political struggle in Great
Britain, the Tariff Reform Government would not endure
for long. The increased cost of living is felt in England as
elsewhere to-day, though there it is not so keenly felt because
there is no tax on food-stuffs-tea, coffee, cocoa, and sugar
excepted. But let a heavy tax be placed on such necessaries
as sugar, fruit, and cocoa, and let it be paid by the ordinary
working-class and middle-class man, and all the imperialistic
talk in the world, all the passionate reminders of the part
which the West Indies have played in the history of the
Empire, would not prevent him from demanding the abolition
of a system which seemed to make him pay for the enrichment
of the West Indian colonies.
This, anyhow, is what West Indians have been repeatedly
told by the London Spectator and other organs of British
public opinion, and they are coming to believe what they have
so often heard. So far as they can judge, the average English-
man may take pride in the Empire, but the immediate benefits
of Free Trade are of more consequence and importance to
him than the future of the British West Indies. It is true
that the importation of raw sugar from the West Indies,
though of late it has meant a larger expenditure on sugar on
the part of the British consumer, has also meant a larger
sale of British manufacturing machinery in the West Indies.
It is also true that the sugar-refining business of the mother-
country depends upon the importation of raw sugar. It is
clear that the British West Indies could produce great quan-
tities of cheap sugar if secured for some time against ruthless
competition and the fear of such competition, and that the





JAMAICA'S FUTURE 19
increased price of sugar to the British consumer would be
balanced by the benefits to the British manufacturing and
sugar-refining industries. But, in the past, the Free Trade
Englishman has displayed much satisfaction in buying sugar
cheap, and so-called Free Traders are even now anxious to
buy sugar made cheap by the reintroduction of the bounty
system. In these circumstances it is difficult to believe that
they will consent to a tax being put on certain articles of
common consumption for the sake of assisting, or even of
conserving, the British West Indies.
From the foregoing, it will be seen that the writer is some-
what sceptical in regard to the British West Indies being so
assisted by the mother-country as to become largely inde-
pendent of the United States. This remark applies especially
to Jamaica, which is more dependent upon the United States
than is any other British island. Now, what would happen
in Jamaica if the United States should offer the colony a good
reciprocity treaty?
There is nothing impossible in the suggestion. American
statesmen, wishing to maintain their hold on the islands,
or even on Jamaica alone, might offer something which would
be a temptation too great to be resisted. The capacity of
the United States for consuming the products of these
colonies is far greater than that of any other country; the
United States could offer to any or to all of them a degree of
prosperity, a promise of success, at present beyond their
hopes. They would prefer something less, so long as that meant
direct continued connection with England ; they would
deliberately set aside riches and the foreigner's domination
for comparative prosperity merely and an assured future with
England. But it is the uncertainty of the future which troubles
the West Indians; they can never feel sure that what is done
in England to-day in regard to them will not be undone to-
norrow. In these circumstances, would they reject the
American offer? Would Jamaica, particularly, reject it?





TWENTIETH CENTURY JAMAICA


Not for a moment. They might be prevented from accept-
ing it, and that would give rise to deep-seated and openly-
expressed discontent. But of themselves they would welcome
it as a solution, though not the best possible solution, of their
economic problem. Apart, too, from the material benefits
which the West Indians know they would derive from reci-
procity with America, there are other influences and beliefs
which would urge them to accept her offer. The proximity
of America to the islands, the extent of her markets, the
amount of American capital now devoted to West Indian
development, the prevailing opinion that it is America's
destiny to be mistress acknowledged, as well as mistress in
fact, of the Caribbean Sea, the growing belief that some day
she will own most of the islands in that sea-all this is even
now operating silently in the minds of the West Indians in
favour of any American offer which may be made one day.
If an offer of reciprocity were rejected by the order of
the mother-country, and the United States still desired to
keep the British West Indies economically dependent upon
her, economically at her mercy, she could simply throw her
markets open to the islands, asking for no special privileges
in return. Would not this make the British Caribbean posses-
sions but 'mere adjuncts' of the United States? Few persons
would hesitate to answer this question in the affirmative,
yet the answer really depends upon more than the economic
factor. If, for example, the West Indians, although trading
with the United States, knew that if the latter ever closed
her doors to them they still would find a sure place in the
markets of the mother-country, they would remain as
staunchly British in sentiment as they have ever been. I
repeat that they would prefer less with Great Britain than
more with the United States; they would take all that the
latter had to give them, but their love would be with England.
At a crisis, they would sacrifice the greater market of the
United States for the smaller one of the United Kingdom,





JAMAICA'S FUTURE


for loyalty to England and pride in the British Empire are
no mere words in the British West Indies. But there is,
unfortunately, nothing certain about Great Britain's attitude
towards the West Indies, and they are becoming tired of
stagnation.
Enough has now been said to show how completely, from
the economic point of view, the United States dominates the
West Indian situation. Is the fact perceived and admitted
in England? There can be little question that it is.
Some years ago an anonymous writer in the Fortnightly
Review (believed to be Mr Allwyn Ireland) suggested the
exchange of the British West Indies for the Phillipines. He
thought that America, and America alone, could help these
colonies to prosperity. More recently still (in the Morning
Post of 3rd April, 1911) we had Mr Archibald Colquhoun
saying that 'it is certain that Jamaica and other West Indian
islands, in view of local, geographical, and economic conditions
-and especially in view of the change which will be wrought
in those conditions by the opening of the Panama Canal-
must, sooner or later, decide between Canada and the United
States.' Now, both Mr Ireland and Mr Colquhoun are in
a position to write authoritatively on West Indian questions.
They know the situation perfectly. Still more emphatic was
the opinion expressed in an editorial in the South American
Supplement of the London Times. Speaking of the expansion
of the United States, this paper said (July, 1911) :-'Its
supremacy in the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea is
to-day practically undisputed; there can be little doubt,
therefore, that the islands of the West Indies and the out-
lying units of Spanish America will, upon the completion of
the Panama Canal, gravitate in due course to amalgamation
with the Great Republic of the North.'
When English writers express themselves thus plainly
in regard to the West Indian future, one may take it that they
do not stand alone. It is safe to say that thousands upon






TWENTIETH CENTURY JAMAICA


thousands of educated men in England hold a similar opinion,
while, of course, the mass of the people are indifferent as to
what may become of countries of whose existence they have
barely heard. But it will have been noticed that Mr Colquhoun
points out an alternative to American absorption of the West
Indies, and of Jamaica particularly. He mentions Canada.
And Canada to-day is looming very large on the West Indian
horizon. What will be her relations to the islands?
It is impossible to say definitely : nothing is so deceptive
as political prophecy, though nothing perhaps is so fascinating.
So far as the facts of the situation are concerned, they may
very briefly be summarised. Canadian statesmen, after
giving British West Indian sugar a preference of thirty-three
and two-thirds per cent. for a number of years, decided a
couple of years ago that some return should be made for this
concession. At the same time it was suggested, by the Colonial
Office apparently, that Canada might be able to do for the
British islands what the United States had done for Cuba.
With a view to bringing about closer trade relations between
the Dominion and the British West Indies, therefore, a Royal
Commission, with Lord Balfour of Burleigh as its chairman,
visited the islands and took the evidence of their representative
citizens, and shortly afterwards a reciprocity treaty was
arranged. This treaty is on the basis of a twenty per cent.
preference on both sides, and it has been signed by Canada
and the majority of the West Indian colonies. But Grenada
is not a party to it, nor the Bahamas. More important still,
Jamaica refused to have anything to do with it. The Bahamas
would be satisfied to be taken over entirely by Canada:
reciprocity merely, they feel, will not benefit them much.
Grenada prefers to run no risk of injuring her cocoa trade with
the United States. Jamaica has emphatically declared that
reciprocity would be of little use to her, unless the treaty
were between herself alone and the Dominion. The treaty
is to endure for ten years; at the end of the first three years






JAMAICA'S FUTURE 23

those colonies which have refused to become parties to it may
find that they have lost the Canadian preference entirely.
Jamaica may, towards the termination of the probation
period,1 fall in line with the other colonies; but only if quite
satisfied that the United States will not retaliate by putting
a tax on Jamaica bananas. This the United States is not likely
to do, both because it wants Jamaica fruit and because of the
large amount of American capital invested in that industry.
Other reasons which incline one to discountenance the fear
of American retaliation is the well-known desire of the United
States to cultivate friendly relations with the Dominion of
Canada, and the perception by American statesmen of the
fact that a ten-year reciprocity treaty between a group of
West Indian islands and Canada cannot materially affect
the condition of dependence which now subsists between
Jamaica and the United States. The mere treaty, in fact,
if accepted by Jamaica, will not alter her economic situation
considerably. If Canada wants to become the dominant
factor in the British West Indies she has adopted one of the
slowest means of achieving her aim.
One has no need to burden one's pages with statistics
to prove how small, comparatively, is the consumption of
West Indian products in Canada. It is safe to say that, even
allowing for the rapid growth of the Canadian population,
it would be some twenty years before Canada alone could
begin to do for the British Caribbean colonies what the United
States has done for Cuba. But twenty years is rather a long
time for a colony to wait in these days when development
is rapid, and when discontent with local conditions grows
apace in every island where the people are animated with an
ambition to progress. There is little real enthusiasm in the
colonies in regard to the Canadian reciprocity treaty. There
is none whatever in Jamaica. An alternative proposal, a
proposal to the effect that Canada should take over Jamaica
About the middle of 1915;





TWENTIETH CENTURY JAMAICA


alone, and develop that island, would meet with far more
appreciation among the Jamaicans; and it is obvious that
such a policy would have every promise of success. Canada
may not be able to do very much for a fairly large group of
islands; but she could do a great deal for Jamaica alone.
She could consume a great quantity of the sugar which the
island can produce; she could take a large quantity of Jamaica
cigars, fruit, cocoa, and coffee. The political connection of
Jamaica and Canada would, in a word, place the former in
a position such as it has not occupied since the opening years
of the nineteenth century. Its future would be assured.
It may be taken for granted that in Jamaica there would
be no serious objection to the transference on the part of the
majority, if it were seen that the banana industry would run
no serious risk. That industry is, indeed, as much American
as Jamaican. To ruin, or almost ruin, a huge American
Trust would not be a very wise way of hurting Jamaica;
besides, the loss of the American fruit market would be, in
the existing circumstances, more than compensated for by
the gain of the entire Canadian market. But is Canada pre-
pared to take over Jamaica and Jamaica alone? That is the
question she should decide within the next ten years. If she
still holds to her present policy of being loosely connected
with all the British West Indies, she may soon find that
Jamaica sentiment has turned still more strongly in the direc-
tion of the United States. If she determines to wait for
twenty years, she may have lost the prize.
We have still to face the question : would the United
States calmly allow Jamaica to become part of the Dominion
of Canada? The answer largely depends on what the United
States hopes will be the future relations existing between
Canada and herself.
I am one of those who do not believe that reciprocity
between the Dominion and the States is a dead issue; I think
it is a very live issue indeed. The growing Canadian West





JAMAICA'S FUTURE


wants reciprocity with America. A part of the East wants
it also. The demand for closer and better trade relationships
between the neighboring countries will wax louder every
year; and the United States will welcome this change in
Canadian sentiment, for the United States has need of
Canadian wheat. American statesmen, too, are convinced that
Canada and the United States must be friends. They show no
disposition at the present day to belittle Canada or place
obstacles in her way. They could hardly fear that Canada
would hold Jamaica against the United States at some distant
day, when the Dominion had grown so strong as to become
a menace to the Republic south of her. A country with ninety
millions of people, a country, too, which is still growing in
wealth and population, cannot possibly regard with dread
a neighbour with less than eight million people, even though
that neighbour may also be rapidly forging ahead. Canadians
may say they look forward to the day when the Dominion
will have some forty million of people; but the climatic condi-
tions of the country cause one to doubt much if that magnifi-
cent dream of greatness will ever be realized, or realized in
a hurry. But suppose it should be some day. How will the
United States stand then? Emigrants still flock to her shores.
She is still the land of greatest opportunity. One half of the
emigrants to Canada, too, are men and women from the
United States; and though they become perfectly loyal to
the Dominion, though they make excellent citizens, there is
no reason in the world why they should be in the least inimical
to the land of their birth. They are not, as a matter of fact;
and it is upon their influence that the United States depends
partly for the ultimate success of her reciprocity overtures.
The relations between Canada and the United States
inevitably tend to become closer and more friendly. American
influence is seen and felt everywhere in Canada. American
capital as well as American muscle is assisting to develop
and build up the great Dominion. Consequently there does





TWENTIETH CENTURY JAMAICA


not seem much strength in the supposition that the United
States would passionately fight against the acquisition of
Jamaica by Canada. Nevertheless it is a possibility that
should not be altogether ignored. But the fight, if embarked
upon, could not be with the carnal weapons of war. As said
before, a Great Power cannot be told that it must obey an
outsider. What the United States could do would be to close
her markets to Jamaica products, or go further and threaten
all the British West Indies with exclusion. As Canada could
not adequately provide for all of them, and as Jamaica would
certainly not find it to her interest to be taken into the
Canadian Confederation with the rest of the British West
Indies, such a policy would probably have the desired effect.
It would however, be a challenge thrown in the face of the
British Empire, and especially in the face of Canada. There
is nothing that would lead one to believe that the United
States would venture as far as that.
Great Britain might be willing enough to hand over
Jamaica and her other West Indian colonies to be adminis-
tered by Canada. The arrangement would be looked upon as
merely a readjustment of the relationships of one part of the
British Empire to another. It may be questioned, however,
if the West Indies as a whole would view with contentment
such an arrangement, unless they were persuaded that they
would gain by the change. They would not, for a considerable
time to come, even if they lost nothing in the meantime.
Knowing this, Jamaica would object to going with the others;
her inhabitants would almost to a man declare their preference
for annexation by the United States. So far as Jamaica is
concerned, it must be Jamaica and Canada alone, or Jamaica
and the United States.
But would the black and coloured inhabitants of the
colony hear of political connection with the United States?
They would, in preference to a connection with Canada,
which would bring them but little or no material benefit,





JAMAICA'S FUTURE


which would not place the island in a better position than it
occupies at present. Annexation by the United States is not
so much dreaded in Jamaica as it once was. The reason of this
change is to be found in the developments which have taken
place in the Caribbean during the last few years. It is known
that there is a large coloured and black population in Porto
Rico. It is also known that those elements of the Porto
Rican people are as free as the others, are equal with white
men before the law, are eligible for public positions, and are
prospering financially. Jamaicans, too, are now compelled
by circumstances to go to New York, Boston, and those parts
of Central America where Americans are the chief employers
of labour, and though they do not love the latter, they yet are
able to work with them. One even hears it said in Jamaica
that the conditions which exist in the Southern States between
the two races could not exist in Jamaica, and the available
evidence goes to show that this view is right. Intense friction
between white and black prevails only where they are nearly
equal numerically. In New York there are no serious race
troubles, and this because the Negro element of the popula-
tion is small; and where the Negro is very much in the
majority the white population recognizes the madness of
attempting to stir up active racial hostility. For one thing,
it could profit absolutely no one, and would occasion serious
loss to the dominant race. The factors making for ultimate
success would be on the side of the majority. A settled
tropical country, where the peasants own much of the land,
where the coloured section of the people are and must always
be the chief labourers of the country (the white man not being
able to do manual work in such a climate); a country, too,
where the newspaper readers, the patrons of shops and stores,
the patrons of street cars and railways, the police, and a great
number of the professional men and public functionaries are
members of the coloured section of the people, is a country
where attempts at degrading racial discrimination must






TWENTIETH CENTURY JAMAICA


fail. You could not have cars 'for white only' and 'coloured
only.' For the white cars would not pay to run: they would
travel empty most of the time. You could not have restaur-
rants 'for white men only.' For many white men, knowing
that their livelihood must in the circumstances depend upon
coloured patronage, would not care to affront their customers
by countenancing racial distinctions of this kind. You could
not even have cars divided into white and coloured com-
partments. For if the coloured people refused to ride in
a coloured compartment (as in Jamaica they would emphat-
ically do) the company, whether public or private, would soon
be in a bankrupt condition. The native whites of the West
Indies would not care to have anything like a race war stirred
up in the West Indies, and no one can seriously imagine that
Americans would ever become, in any appreciable number,
residents of the West Indian tropics.
But Canada is part of the British Empire, and patriotic
sentiment must inevitably lead West Indians to prefer to
remain within the Empire, other things being equal. Thus,
while it is true that in Jamaica the talk is of the United States
and not particularly of Canada, the Dominion would be pre-
ferred if the economic problem could be settled to the satis-
faction of both parties.
Assuming, however, that within the next decade, or even
within the next twenty years, the Dominion shows no great
inclination for political connection with Jamaica, with its
corollary of free trade between both countries, and premising
that the desire of the United States to become possessed of
an island which commands the Atlantic entrance to the
Panama Canal has grown apace; taking it for granted, too,
that Jamaica, impatient for progress and alarmed at pre-
carious economic condition, looks anxiously towards incorpor-
ation in the great Northern Republic, what is likely to be
Great Britain's attitude towards the severance of the ties
which bind this colony to the Empire? That attitude, it is






JAMAICA'S FUTURE


obvious, will largely depend upon the circumstances then
obtaining; it will depend upon the atmosphere of political
thought in the mother-country, upon the pressure which the
United States may be in a position to bring to bear upon
Jamaica, and also upon the practical value which this island
may have, in the opinion of British statesmen and people.
That value is at present small. But it is constantly stated
that it will be considerable when the Panama Canal is opened.
It is laid down in books and newspapers that the Canal will
afford an additional route to British warships going east,
that it will be a new way to Australia, New Zealand, to China,
and the islands of the Pacific. And as coaling stations are
required by fleets that travel far, it is contended that Jamaica
and Trinidad will be important naval stations, that they will
in the future be strongly fortified, that British battleships
and cruisers will be found in their harbours, and that some-
thing of the martial glory which attached to them during the
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries will return once more.
This is the current view. No eminent statesman, how-
ever, seems to have consecrated it with his explicit approval.
Speaking of the abandonment of St Lucia as a naval station,
Mr Balfour once said in the House of Commons (Inth May,
1904), that 'it is a distinct disadvantage for any harbour
required as a place of repair, refitting, and refreshment, that
it should be within easy reach of a hostile or potentially
hostile Power.' He added that 'there are strong reasons
for thinking that in so far as we required any place of coaling
and refitment in those seas, both Jamaica and Trinidad would
be better.' At first blush it might seem that the re-establish-
ment of Jamaica and Trinidad as naval stations were con-
templated by the late Prime Minister; but a careful study
of his words only reveals the fact that he thinks those islands
would be better than St Lucia for the purpose he mentions.
So they would be; but it is obvious enough that if the United
States became a hostile, or potentially hostile, Power, the






TWENTIETH CENTURY JAMAICA


objection which applies to St Lucia, which lies but eighty miles
from the French West Indian naval station, must apply with
even more force to the island of Jamaica. For America has
two naval stations in the neighboring island of Cuba. Not
a hundred miles away is Guantanamo. She will have another
station at the Mole St Nicholas (to the north of Hayti) when-
ever she decides that she should lease or take, and fortify,
that place. New York itself is not fifteen hundred miles from
Kingston, and Key West is not as far. The only way in which
Jamaica could be of service as a naval base is with America as a
friendly Power. Almost the first blow that would be struck
at Great Britain in the unfortunate event of hostilities between
herself and the United States would be the taking of Jamaica.
.But if the two Powers continued friendly, would not
Jamaica be of value to Britain? Yes, if the Canal route were
to be used as an alternative to the Suez Canal. But it would
only be used as an alternative in a case of necessity. For the
journey to the East, the Suez Canal is the easier and shorter
route for ships sailing from English ports; only New Zealand
is brought a few miles nearer to England by the Panama
route. And the necessity which should force England to choose
the longer route would mark a crisis which would probably
prevent her sending any ships from her shores. The day
the Suez Canal becomes closed to British ships, or the day
it becomes dangerous for British ships to endeavour to pass
through the Suez Canal, that day the world will know that
England is fighting for very life.
The Suez Canal is England's natural waterway to the
East. However much it may have been internationalised,
the fact still remains that in the last resort it is controlled by
England. As long as England remains powerful, so long will
her way to the East be through the Suez Canal.
The great strategic value of Jamaica to the mother-country
is not, therefore, very apparent. The Jamaica station
was abandoned long ago, and though a future Conservative






JAMAICA'S FUTURE 31

Government may do something to rehabilitate it, after the
opening of the Panama Canal, that effort is not likely to amount
to a very great deal, and may even be nullified shortly after.
The Earl of Selborne, in fact, has in a few words stated
plainly the new situation that has arisen in this part of the
world. 'The whole naval strategic situation,' he said, in a
speech delivered on 22nd March, 1904, 'has undergone a
complete revolution. That revolution is the birth of the
American Navy.' Never were words more true.
If, then, economically, Jamaica has not much to hope
for from the mother-country, and if her value from the
strategic point of view is not great, why should Great Britain
obstinately refuse to allow the island to become connected
with the United States of America, in the event of Canada not
being willing or able to make Jamaica a part of the Dominion?
There is the sentiment of Empire, some one may say. That
was the ground upon which Froude rested his passionate plea
for the preservation and development of the British West
Indies, and since then every writer has been telling us, in
a paraphrase of Froude's words, that it was in the West Indian
waters that the foundations of the British Navy were laid,
that the Caribbean has been the cradle of England's naval
greatness, that in the epic of Empire the West Indies must
hold an important place. Excellent rhetoric, no doubt;
but the policy of nations is not entirely swayed by rhetoric.
Practical circumstances have to be considered. And among
those circumstances the economic condition of a country is of
the very first importance.
To sum up the argument.
What may be called England's tropical interests lie chiefly
in African and in the East to-day. America needs tropical
colonies, and naturally prefers those that are at her very door.
Canada also needs tropical possessions, being herself wholly
within the temperate zone. America believes that, some
day, the West Indian islands will own allegiance to her flag,





TWENTIETH CENTURY JAMAICA


and she knows that already her influence over the major
part of them is almost supreme. Canada vaguely hopes
that some day she may be a West Indian Power; but at
present she is preoccupied with her own development, and has
not yet made up her mind to try to grasp the prize that may
be within her reach. That prize is, for the present, not all the
British West Indian islands, but one or two of them only;
and unless she can decide within the next few years to
take what she can properly manage, she may find that her
opportunity is gone.
The United States would probably not oppose the Canadian
ownership of Jamaica, even though that island lies directly
in the path to the Panama Canal. She would not oppose this,
because she believes that between Canada and herself there will
always exist the friendliest of relationships, based upon a com-
munity of interests and a treaty of reciprocity. But if Canada
fails her fortune, the wish of Jamaica to become absorbed by
the United States will grow, and its indifference towards the
Dominion of Canada will correspondingly increase. The trans-
ference of the island by England will in all probability be at the
desire of the inhabitants, a desire created by economic circum-
stances. It will be peacefully, amicably, honourably arranged.
'Events mock at human foresight.' Thus says Froude some-
where, and the present writer pretends to be no more than
a simple student of West Indian affairs. Events may prove
that he has seen the future wrongly. His own intimate wish
is that it should be so. A happy, prosperous West Indies-
a prosperous Jamaica directly owning allegiance to the mother-
country-that is the future which he would much prefer.
That is the future which all West Indians, and many English-
men, would prefer. Still, one has to take account of existing
tendencies and facts; one has to set down one's vision of the
future just as one sees it. Whatever one may hope, whatever
one may wish, must not be allowed to colour or distort one's
view of an important situation, whatever that view may be.














CHAPTER II

THE PEOPLE OF JAMAICA

OVER two hundred and fifty years have elapsed since Oliver
Cromwell's soldiers captured the island of Jamaica and drove
the Spaniards out of it. We know that the old race of
Jamaicans was exterminated, we know that for nearly a hun-
dred years before Jamaica passed into the hands of the English
there were no native Indians in it; their place had been taken
by imported negro slaves, and these with their Spanish masters
were the people of Jamaica at the time when the English
expedition cast anchor in what is now known as Kingston
Harbour. It is probable that some of the men and women
whom the English found here were born in the colony; if so,
they were as much natives of the country as any Jamaican of
the present day; and not every one of them was forced to
leave the colony. The Spaniards had to go, but it is stated
as an historical fact that a few Portuguese (mainly Jews),
who had lived in the island on ill terms with the Spaniards
petitioned for permission to remain and were allowed to do
so. Many of the Spanish slaves also escaped to the mountains,
and there they formed the nucleus of the roving predatory
bands of free negroes who soon came to be known as Maroons.
Thus at the very beginning of the English occupation we find
in the island the three elements out of which the present
population was to be formed. We find the Britisher, the Jew,
and the African.
Oscar Wilde observes in one of his works that American






TWENTIETH CENTURY JAMAICA


women are as skilful at concealing their parents as English
women are at concealing their past. The quip is clever whether
true or not; what is true, is that a new country would very often
like to forget its past, while the people of it would sometimes
be glad to obliterate the memory of their parents. It is not
so very long since a newly-arrived Governor-General of Aus-
tralia warmly congratulated the people of that colony on
having developed into so fine a nation in spite of the fact that
the first colonists had been convicts. He did not remain in
Australia long after that speech; the past was too recent to
be pleasant to recall. But two hundred and fifty years make
a considerable period; and already it is nearly eighty years
since the slaves were emancipated. Consequently the present
inhabitants of Jamaica should now be able to begin to look
back upon their origin without the unpleasant feeling that it
is not sufficiently remote to be discussed with freedom.
They should be, able to do this, just as a man might
boast without shame to-day that one of his ancestors of
the seventeenth century was the greatest murderer of his
time.
It has to be admitted that the claim to being murderers
could with perfect justice have been made by many of those
English who succeeded the Spanish masters of Jamaica; a
considerable number of them could have run through the
catalogue of known crimes, and could have confessed to most
of them, without any one venturing to believe that they had
maligned themselves. After the island had been captured,
Oliver proposed to send to it a thousand Irish girls and a
large contingent of 'Scotch rogues and vagabonds.' This
deportation of undesirables from 'home' served two purposes
at one time; it cleared England, Ireland, and Scotland of
persons whom the Protector thought had better be out of it,
and it helped to people Jamaica. There were also the soldiers
who had taken the island. As members of Cromwell's army,
and presumably Puritans, one would have expected them to






THE PEOPLE OF JAMAICA


behave with that degree of sobriety and sanctity which was
supposed to characterise the godly Roundheads. But either
the climate of Jamaica must have affected them detrimentally
-a favourite theory with writers on the Tropics nowadays-
or else they were of an ungodly disposition originally; what-
ever the explanation, we know that their commander, Sedge-
wicke, wrote that, 'I believe they are not to be paralleled in
the world a people so lazy and idle,' and he wondered greatly
that, 'such blood should run in the veins of any born in
England.' What, then, with 'rogues and vagabonds,' and
with a lazy and dissolute soldiery, it cannot be said the colony
had much to boast of in so far as its first British settlers were
concerned.
There were some others, however, who would sternly have
objected to being classed in such obnoxious categories as those
just mentioned. These were the people who came from the
West Indian island of Nevis, men, women, and children, who,
with the slaves they brought with them, numbered about
sixteen hundred. After these came men from Barbados and
a band of emigrants from New England, planters of substance
these last, and of the Puritan variety. But Puritanism was
not destined to flourish in Jamaica. The soil was not congenial
and never has been. Our New England settlers might come
in good numbers; but rogues and vagabonds, gentlemen known
as loose livers in England, buccaneers and adventurers, and
'others of that ilk,' were coming too, and the charming manners
and customs of these gave the ton6 to society. It is said that
General Sedgewicke died of a complication of mental and
bodily troubles, amongst them being want of 'godly society.'
The subsequent Governors of the island were probably selected
as men not likely to suffer through this sort of deprivation.
All the world has heard of Morgan, the pirate who governed
Jamaica. It is more than probable that he was highly appreci-
ated by the Jamaica colonists of his day. Sir Thomas Mody-
ford was also not above filibustering, yet he was both Governor





TWENTIETH CENTURY JAMAICA


and Chief Justice of Jamaica. A monument to his memory
in the Spanish Town Cathedral may be seen by the curious
to-day; the legend upon it declares that he was 'the soule and
life of all Jamaica.' It is true that some one who knew him
protested that he was 'the openest atheist and most profest
immoral liver in the world'; but that, clearly, was of no
importance. For whom amongst the people in the country at
that time could not the same thing with more or less truth
have been said?
Lord Vaughan, another Governor, is described as 'one of
the lewdest fellows of the age.' No doubt he was. Nearly
a hundred and fifty years afterwards the same thing was
suggested of Lord Balcarres, who does not even seem to have
been a gentleman. In fact, the less we inquire into the lives
and conduct of the Jamaica seventeenth and eighteenth cen-
tury Governors the better; at the worst they were no worse
than the people whom they governed. The only sort of excite-
ment life afforded in Jamaica in those days was buccaneering,
gambling, drinking, and licentiousness, and the early settlers
indulged in these recreations to the full.
They ruined themselves at dice. Men were known to have
gambled away their estates, then even their carriages and
horses that were waiting to carry them home. Duelling was
frequent; cruelty was a commonplace of existence. They
feared the African slaves, and at the slightest suggestion of
rebellion or gross insubordination on the part of the latter the
masters applied the most terrible torments to them. Unruly
slaves would be whipped until they were a mass of bloody
flesh. Then salt and pepper would be rubbed into the wounds,
and sometimes hot wax. Faggots would be tied to the limbs
of a slave, and fire applied to them. Thus he was burnt from
the extremities up to the head; burnt slowly, so that he should
suffer the uttermost torture. Men who could witness such
punishments, and could even inflict them with pleasure, were
of necessity demoralised; consequently it is nothing







THE PEOPLE OF JAMAICA


surprising to learn that many of them drank themselves to
death.
Some curious statements of the early Jamaica drinking
habit have been left us by Sir Hans Sloane, the Duke of Albe-
marle's physician, who was in the colony a little over forty
years after its capture from the Spaniards. He kept a list of
the people whom he attended, and of one of these he wrote :
'Dr Cooper, aged forty-five years, was a great drinker of rum
punch, and told me that he had had twenty-five several violent
fits of the belly-ache, with drinking that sort of liquor.' It
is interesting to learn that shortly after consulting our worthy
doctor, this gentleman 'fell into a strong convulsion fit, and
died.' Another gentleman 'used to drink two bottles of burnt
wine every night when well, in the night time, to support, as
he thought, his spirits.' Sir Hans Sloane adds that, 'he had
a great cough, and died.' Not many of the white men of the
seventeenth and even of the eighteenth century lived to a
good age; and when to drink and debauchery we add the
diseases of the country, the terrible mortality among the
European settlers is not to be wondered at. The gentlemen
were more or less all of a type, the white artisans followed
their example somewhat, but were on the whole more moderate.
These formed what we may call the middle class whites of the
colony, and many of them earned an excellent living. Skilled
workmen were so few that it paid to be a good artisan in those
days. It was these men, and those of their craft that came
after them, that trained the black and coloured artisans who
helped to build the splendid houses and who made the magnifi-
cent furniture, which win the admiration of most people at
the present day.
There was still another class of white men from the mother-
country; men who had indentured themselves to work in the
colonies. They were bound to serve their masters for periods
ranging from three to seven, and even ten, years; they were
little better than slaves, and sometimes were treated worse.






38 TWENTIETH CENTURY JAMAICA
They lived much as the slaves lived in the first fifty years of
colonisation. They slept on mats in a thatched hut, they were
flogged, they were forced to do menial labour. Hundreds
were worked to death. It was a hard age, human life was
held cheap, power was wantonly abused. These men were of
a pretty desperate character themselves, being described as
late as 1774 as 'the very dregs of the three kingdoms.' It was
an Englishman who wrote the following description of them:
'They have commonly more vices, and much fewer good
qualities, than the slaves over whom they are set in authority;
the better sort of which heartily despise them, perceiving
little or no difference from themselves, except in skin and
blacker depravity.' One would not have liked to meet
any of these gentry on a deserted Jamaica road in the year
1750 or thereabouts; but it is difficult to see what but
depravity and drunkenness could be expected from white
men treated as these indentured servants were, and in
such a country at such a time. For even the Puritans
either died from lack of 'godly society,' or else fell into
line with the profligates. And the indentured labourers
never made the slightest pretence to admiration for
Puritanism.
Of the white women who came to the island or were born
in it during the first hundred years of its history, little need
be said. There were not many of them, and they had very
little influence on the course of affairs. In 1673 it was com-
puted that there were 4050 white men in the colony, and 2006
women; that is, more than two men to every woman. In all
newly-colonised countries the same story of male preponder-
ance is told; it is also safe to say that of the 9504 slaves in
the island in 1673, the majority were men. For men were
more useful in the fields and plantations than women, and
the planters were thinking not of population but of labour.
As for the slave girls, many of them did not become so much
the wives of the men as the mistresses of the masters. The






THE PEOPLE OF JAMAICA


offspring of such unions became known as the 'coloured'
people of Jamaica.
Although there were not eight thousand white persons all
told in the island in 1671, and though it would seem as if
Jamaica needed as much population as it could get, the English
settlers desired to expel the handful of Jews who were then
resident in the colony. The Jews were traders mainly, and
were looked upon with appreciation by the Governors. They
were the only persons with business enterprise, and it was the
opinion of Sir Thomas Lynch that the king could have no
more 'profitable subjects than they and the Hollanders.'
But the local merchants were jealous. They insisted that the
Jews should go. There were, however, only sixteen Jews at
that time without letters of naturalisation, the majority
having become subjects of the English king and recognized
denizens of the colony. Naturally, therefore, the petition of
the merchants was treated with scant ceremony; even though
it was probably at this time that the English colonists fell
back most strongly upon religion as an excellent support in
their argument against the Jews. The Jews ought to go, they
said, for 'they are the descendants from the crucifiers of the
blessed Jesus !' Piety could go no further. Considering the
character of the petitioners, the Jews might with as much
unction have argued that their rivals were the heirs (morally
at any rate) of the crucified impenitent thief. No doubt the
king was of this opinion, for he must have known something
of the doings and disposition of his worthy subjects beyond
the seas. As for myself, I can never read those words about
the 'blessed Jesus' without being filled with admiration for
the influence of early training in the home and Sunday
School. It seems that a man may be a thief, murderer,
slave-holder, adulterer, and pirate, and yet consider
himself to have the right to appeal to the Christian
religion when his supposed interests are at stake.
Fancy our Jamaica gentlemen of the seventeenth century






TWENTIETH CENTURY JAMAICA


being filled with pious compassion for the blessed
Jesus !'
The Jews remained and prospered exceedingly, and steadily
the prejudice against them broke down. Englishmen, Scotch-
men, and Irishmen came over the water and settled in the
island; the majority died after a brief sojourn, a few made
fortunes and returned home, others lived all their lives in
Jamaica and left families behind them. Slaves were imported
in large numbers, for the natural increase was small. Many
of them were literally worked to death, and it can probably
be said with perfect truth that the present-day descendants
of the earlier inhabitants of English Jamaica are not very
many. For the first hundred years or so the population had
constantly to be recruited from the outside. The deaths
always exceeded, and greatly exceeded, the births. The Jews,
being far more temperate than the Christians, endured the
climate well, and steadily increased. The coloured or mixed-
blood population, too, grew steadily. But these latter only
began to form an appreciable element of the population after
a century had passed since the coming of the Englishman to
the island. In 1775 the free coloured people numbered
4093.
The cessation of the slave trade in 1808 may accurately be
said to mark the beginning of a new and most important
epoch in the history of Jamaica; it marked the dawn of an
era during which the population would increase according to
the fertility of the people,/'the'"capacity'of the country to
support them, and the general improvement of social and
sanitary conditions. It did more than that too. It heralded
the time when slavery would become as much a thing of the
past as the slave trade itself; every far-seeing man perceived
when the slave trade was denounced that emancipation was
certain to follow. Roughly speaking, from about 1770 to 1820
-a period of fifty years-Jamaica reached the height of her
prosperity. It was during that period that the greatest fortunes






THE PEOPLE OF JAMAICA


were made, the finest mansions erected, that the largest number
of white men came to the country, and the highest prices were
obtained for its products. In 1791, for example, we find that
the population numbered 291,400 souls of all classes and com-
plexions. Thirty thousand of these were white. At no pre-
vious or subsequent counting has the number of the white
inhabitants ever stood so high; yet it is clear enough from
the always comparatively small number of native and British
whites that the Englishman never intended to make Jamaica
a permanent home, differing in this from the Colonial Spaniard
who settled in the Tropics with no thought of returning to
Spain. Many of those thirty thousand whites must either have
gone back to England or have died without leaving pure-
blooded issue; both explanations, in fact, are true. Thus,
forty-three years after the figures just quoted were obtained,
it was found that there were but fifteen thousand whites in
the colony, while the free coloured (or mixed-blood people),
who had numbered less than ten thousand in 1791, had
increased to forty thousand by 1834.
At the time of the Emancipation there were, of course,
many persons in the island who were born in Africa, and many
among the white people who could claim the United Kingdom
as their birthplace. What was the number of the native
population, white, coloured, and black, we have no means of
knowing; but from 1834 onwards, the population rapidly
became almost purely native; the Africans have died out
since, and but few British immigrants have come to Jamaica.
Hence the Jamaica people of to-day are almost entirely natives,
the official census of 1911 showing that of the 831,ooo persons
in the island on the night of 2nd April, 1911, fully 812,500
were born in the country. Add to this number the fifty thou-
sand or so Jamaicans who are now to be found in Central and
South America (a large proportion of whom may return), and
you have a population of natives who, born in the island, and
brought up in it, constitute not only the people of the present,






42 TWENTIETH CENTURY JAMAICA

but will be almost entirely the parents of the Jamaicans to
come.
For the population of Jamaica will not to any appreciable
extent be augmented from without in the future. Asiatic
immigration has taken place, and to-day there are over seven-
teen thousand East Indians in Jamaica. But these represent
only half the number that have been introduced from India
since 1845, and ten thousand of them were born in Jamaica.
The rest have either died or returned to their native land.
The uses to which these coolies can be put are limited, and no
one can believe that they will ever become a considerable
element in the island's population. Over two thousand one
hundred Chinese were counted in April, 1911, and since then
some more have arrived. But they, too, will not bulk large in
the numbering of the people at any future time. For they are
entirely shopkeepers, and the field for them is limited; there
are nearly six men to one woman, too, with the result that,
however slowly, the Chinese will be absorbed by the
native population. To some extent this absorption has
already begun. Half Chinese people are not unknown in
Jamaica.
The Syrians and the odds and ends of foreign peoples whom
we find residing in the colony may be left out of consideration;
they are not sufficiently numerous to modify the development
which the people of Jamaica seem destined to undergo. What
is that development? I glance at the statistics of 1834 once
more, and I see from those figures that the population at that
time was divided as follows:-

Slaves .. .. .. 311,070
Free Blacks .. .. .. .. 5,000
Coloured .. .. .. .. 40,000
White .. .. .. .. 15,000

371,070






THE PEOPLE OF JAMAICA


I take it that there were some persons of mixed blood among
the slaves. How many, it is impossible to determine just now,
for the manumission of the coloured element of the people had
begun a hundred years before the Emancipation, the white
parents not only making their offspring free, but often leaving
them a considerable amount of property. For practical pur-
poses it may be said that in 1834 there were three hundred
thousand black, fifty-six thousand coloured, and fifteen
thousand white people in Jamaica. What are the relative
numbers to-day?
I take the figures from the census:-

White .. .. .. .. 15,605
Coloured .. .. .. .. 163,201
Black .. .. .. .. .. 630,181
East Indian .. .. .. .. 17,380
Chinese .. .. 2,11
Not Specified .. .. .. 2,905

831,383

Commenting on these figures the editor of the census
points out that 'the number of coloured people has increased
in a greater proportion, and the number of black people in
a slightly less proportion, than the total increase of the people.'
As a matter of fact, the number of 'coloured' people in the
country is far larger than the figures of the census indicate.
A 'coloured' man in the British West Indies is one who has
both white and black blood in his veins to any appreciable
degree. There are in these islands people who have a strain
of African blood but who write themselves down in the census
as white, and are considered such; there are any number of
black people who also have a strain of white blood but who
count themselves or are counted as black. But there is also
a considerable element of the Jamaica population which is







TWENTIETH CENTURY JAMAICA


known as 'sambo,' an element with about one-fourth or one-
fifth of white blood; this Caucasian or Semitic mixture shows
itself plainly in their colour or their features, and they should,
strictly speaking, be classified as 'coloured.' But very few
members of this section of the people have so classified them-
selves in the census. I instituted an inquiry which embraced
a very large number of persons, immediately after the census
was published. I found that almost every person I could reach,
who had at least one-fifth of white blood in his or her veins,
had been set down in the census as black, the term coloured
having by custom come to be applied to persons of a distinctly
brown or clear complexion.
The fact is interesting. For it shows that the number of
mixed-blood people in the colony is larger than the census
states, very much larger; it shows that race mixture has been
going on more extensively than many students have believed.
The probabilities are that a large proportion of the people
are still pure-blooded. But I should not hesitate to say that
at least three hundred thousand, or over one-third, of the
present population are of mixed blood, however slightly; and
if any one should now assert that the proportion is greater,
I should not be inclined to contradict him. The old theory
was that the coloured section of the West Indians could not
reproduce its kind except by mating with pure white or pure
back. That theory (never accepted by any scientist of repute)
has now gone by the board. But the coloured people of Jamaica
have not only increased by intermarriage among themselves,
but by intermarriage among the whites and the blacks, and
also by the intermarriage of the whites and the blacks. The
inevitable result has been their rapid multiplication; they are
increasing faster than any other element of the population.
Will they continue to do so? I expressed some doubts on this
point in a former publication;' I there wrote that it was to the
pure-blooded Negro and not to the mixed-blood people that
In Cuba and amaica, 1909.






THE PEOPLE OF JAMAICA


the future of the island belonged; I did not then realise
sufficiently that persons whom at first blush one might term
black might really be of mixed descent. That the vast
majority of the people will always be dark is indisputable;
there are economic as well as other reasons for this. But
that they will always be pure-blooded is an. assertion open
to some question. The time may even come when, in the
towns, there will be hardly one person of pure African
descent.
We turn now to the white population of the colony. Of the
15,605 persons classified as white, we may depend upon it
that a fair number were, strictly speaking, coloured. It is the
same in Cuba, Porto Rico, Mexico, and even in the United
States itself; wherever there are two races we may count upon
race mixture, and in the veins of members of the white popula-
tion will run the blood of the darker race. There were also
a number of persons who were merely here on a visit; at the
lowest computation these amounted to five hundred. The
men of the British Army and Navy totalled up to 1076 and
538 respectively; if we say that the white soldiers and officers
are residents, we are still obliged to count the navy men as
visitors. Without elaborately going into the figures, it can be
stated without fear of contradiction that, including the army
men, not more than fourteen thousand of the number classified
as the white population of the island were permanent residents.
At least sixteen hundred were transients. If, then, we compare
the resident white population of the present day with the
number it stood at in 1834, it will be seen that it has decreased.
If we compare it with what it was twenty years ago, it will
be found to have decreased. Emigration among this element
of the people has been steadily going on during the last two
decades. Intermarriage is also another explanation of this
decrease of the white population and the considerable increase
of the coloured.
Take the Jews of Jamaica, people who have been colonists






46 TWENTIETH CENTURY JAMAICA
for two hundred and fifty years, and who have been identified
with every phase of the island's fortunes. One reads with
surprise that in 1881 they numbered 2535, and that in 1911
their number stood at 1487 only. That a large number of
Jews have married Christians during the last twenty years is
indisputable, and the process of amalgamation continues still.
But in spite of that we should confidently have expected that
by 1911 the Jews would have numbered over 3000 souls,
whereas we find that they are less than half that number.
This means that many have gone to the United States of
America, and indeed it is to that country that many other
Jamaicans have emigrated in the last two decades, and es-
pecially since the beginning of the nineteenth century. There
are greater opportunities in any of the States than in Jamaica;
and, besides, the increasing competition of the darker people
is driving the fairer people of Jamaica to seek a livelihood in
other lands.
It was bound to be so. Over a hundred and thirty years
ago a Jamaica historian argued strongly in favour of the
training of coloured artisans, his point being that they would
force the white artisan to charge less for his labour. He did
not conceive it possible that the new men could drive the old
out of the field of employment altogether, for, of course, he
could not foresee the Jamaica of the twentieth century. But
this has not only happened; but, in his turn, the coloured or
brown man has been driven to a certain extent out of the
ranks of the artisan by the darker man, who has shown him-
self quite as capable of learning to use the tools of the skilled
worker as any other man.
The inevitable effect of education must be to give the poorer
or weaker classes of the population a chance to compete with
the wealthier or dominant section; the inevitable effect of the
spread of democratic ideas is an increasing unwillingness to
restrict any sphere of occupation to one class of the people only.
Then there is the economic factor to take into consideration.






THE PEOPLE OF JAMAICA


Whatever sentiment or prejudice may prompt, men will
strive to get their work done at the cheapest rates, and, in
a colony like Jamaica, will naturally come to think less and
less about race and colour as time goes on. Competence and
cost will affect the question of employment far more than
complexion and class; avenues to a decent livelihood once
closed to dark men and women are opening to-day, and the
effect of this will be seen in the population of to-morrow.
Now though, owing to a continued mixture of blood, the
time may arrive when very few of the people will not have a
white strain in their veins, I do not see how the majority of
the population can ever become fair, or even brown. For the
inhabitants of pure African descent have always outnumbered,
and vastly outnumbered, the colonists of pure British descent,
and the black population increases steadily. So does the
coloured, but the white does not. It may in the future. There
may some day be as many as twenty thousand white men and
women in the island. But by that time there will also be over
a million native Jamaicans, most of them dark and black; the
white men, too, will probably come as temporary exploiters
and not as permanent residents. What is possible is that race
admixture will continue until there is something like uniformity
of complexion in the Jamaica population; if that should ever
be the case, the future average Jamaican should be a dark
person showing distinct indications of a white strain. What
is known in the West Indies as clear 'sambo' should be the
average colour, and there would also be thousands of persons
of lighter hue.
Every conceivable shade and gradation of colour may be
found in Jamaica to-day, and the mixture of blood has taken
place in such varying degrees that the old classifications have
to some extent become obsolete. The Spaniards it was who,
in the West Indies and in Spanish America, first established
these categories of colour. The offspring of white and black
they called mulatto; of mulatto and white, quadroon; of





TWENTIETH CENTURY JAMAICA


quadroon and white, mustee; and so on. The offspring of
mulatto and black was termed sambo; and the children of
a sambo and a black were usually considered as black, and
are so to-day in Jamaica, the complexion not clearly showing
the result of race mixture. But the features almost invariably
do; and no experienced observer but must be struck in these
days by the difference between the features of thousands of
presumably pure-blooded Jamaica peasants and the features
of African Negroes. The prognathous face is gradually dis-
appearing in this West Indian colony; the features are be-
coming refined. This, of course, is not merely the effect of race
mixture. To some extent it is also the consequence of civilisa-
tion, and possibly of climatic influence. Educated men and
women of undiluted African blood differ much in appearance
and features from the common people; it can scarcely be
doubted, indeed, that physical and mental influences are play-
ing their part in modifying the old racial stocks and creating
new types in Jamaica.
Whether a uniform type of individual will eventually be
produced in this island or not cannot be dealt with in this
chapter. What can be maintained at this point is that the
Jamaican of any colour is not precisely like any other man;
he is a Jamaican, and has characteristics that are common
more or less to all his fellow countrymen. One is not born
and brought up in a country for nothing. One does not read
the same papers that all one's fellows read, hear much the
same sort of talk all the year round, come into close contact
with all other classes of the people, eat the same food, and enjoy
the same recreations, without one's mind becoming assimilated
to the minds of one's countrymen. The Jamaican whose
parents were English or French is Jamaican in his habits and
customs, in his speech and ideas. He is not an Englishman,
he is not a Frenchman,-he will be that only if he has been
entirely brought up out of the colony. His accent and manner
proclaim him at once for what he is, as well as his way of looking
















































,*-v*. f"


A H


`
Lin






THE PEOPLE OF JAMAICA


upon life. He is easy-going, drawls a little, is often vehe-
ment in expression, but a kindly man at heart. He takes life
as it comes, grumbling; but in his grumble one may detect
an undertone of contentment so long as fate is not unduly
unkind. To describe him as a brute or an oppressor would be
laughable; he is more given to condoning offences than to
punishing them. He may be condemned on the score of his
easy acceptance of the prevailing loose moral and social condi-
tions; but those conditions do not startle him in the least,
for he was born in the country and is used to them; not being
a hypocrite as a rule, he does not cry out against them.
If you take the Jews of Jamaica it will be found that they
too are distinctively Jamaican, thinking, acting, and living
precisely as do the other people of their respective classes.
Thus the Jewish planter is like any other planter of his stand-
ing in the community; he thinks as they do in terms of sugar,
bananas, and rum, is a great hater of Free Trade, is satisfied
that the island has been steadily going backwards, is like all
his class inclined to be extravagant, and is patriotic after his
planter fashion. For two hundred and fifty years, as said
before, have the Jews been in Jamaica. By the middle of the
eighteenth century they had won to wealth and importance;
a century ago they were entertaining the Governors of the
colony. For over a hundred years they have been amongst the
most public-spirited of Jamaicans, have filled the highest
political positions, have served the country in every capacity.
The consequence is that though the number of Jews in Jamaica
to-day is smaller than it was some thirty years ago, yet
Jewish influence is everywhere perceivable in the colony, and
Jamaicans of all classes are proud of every Jamaica Jew who
distinguishes himself either in the island or abroad. There is
no separate Jewish class in Jamaica; there are many classes
of Jews. These associate with Christians according to class
and not according to race; race indeed has less and less to do
with Jewish enterprise and social intercourse every day.
J. D






TWENTIETH CENTURY JAMAICA


Jews and Christians work side by side and compete side by
side against other combinations of Jews and Christians;
the truth is that an appeal to race would not meet with any
hearty response either amongst the Jews or the Christians of
Jamaica. There is not a Jew in Jamaica who is a native
who has not Christian relatives or connections. There is
nearly as much Semitic as European blood flowing in the
veins of the coloured population. Intermarriage may still
further lessen the numbers of the Jamaica Jew, as it is
already threatening to lessen the numbers of the English
Jew; yet the Jewish contribution to Jamaica civilisation is
permanent, and it is impossible to forget that some of the
ablest business men and politicians of the colony have been,
if not always pure Jews, at any rate men of Jewish descent.
The coloured or mixed-blood people of the country, ranging
from dark to fair, are also divided into classes; they take their
place with the other members of the population according to
their class. Thus some are simply peasants or domestics. And
as such, they are of an inferior status to people of purely
African parentage but of a superior class. Not that colour
discrimination are unknown in Jamaica, or that it is no advan-
tage to be clear-complexioned; unquestionably it is an advan-
tage, and must of necessity be so in a country like Jamaica at
the present stage of its evolution. But property, personal
worth, education,-these count for much also, and they will
often outweigh and do outweigh the mere advantage of colour.
As for the higher classes of the coloured people, they mix with
the higher classes of the white residents of the country on terms
of social equality; and what may be called the middle classes of
the Jamaica coloured population, mix with the white middle-
class people also according to their social status and financial
position.
As the coloured section of the people has grown with re-
markable rapidity during the last hundred years, and as it is
certain to become larger during the course of the present






THE PEOPLE OF JAMAICA


century; as some persons have even gone so far as to think
that the time may come when there will be few or no purely
black people in Jamaica, it may serve a useful purpose do hear
what a competent student of West Indian racial ant social
conditions has to say on this section of the Jamaica people.
I quote from Sir Sydney Olivier's White Capital and Coloured
Labour. 'I am convinced,' he writes, 'that this class as it at
present exists is a valuable and indispensable part of any
West Indian community, and that a colony of black, coloured,
and whites has far more organic efficiency and far more pro-
mise in it than a colony of white and black. A community of
white and black alone is in far greater danger of remaining,
in so far as the official classes are concerned, a community of
serfs, concessionaires, and tributaries, with, at best, a bureau-
cracy to keep the peace between them.' In other words, the
presence of a large number of coloured people, ranging from
dark to fair, helps to weld the community together into some-
thing like an organic whole, and even gives promise of a fair
degree of homogeneity in the future.
Now I have suggested above that there is such a thing as
a Jamaican as distinct from an African or Englishman, or even
from a Trinidadian. I have tried to show, however briefly,
that there is a way of living and thinking common to all
Jamaicans of the same class, without any particular distinc-
tion of religion or race. Here, then, we have a most important
social and intellectual factor in the development of organic
unity; and the coloured section of the population, forming as
it does both a ladder and a link between the white and the
black sections, constitutes a racial and political factor with-
out which anything approximating to effective solidarity
would be out of the question.
As for the mass of the island's population, those categories
as black, even though mixed-blooded in a certain degree,
form the bulk of the agricultural workers, the peasant-pro-
prietors, and the artisans. They are 'the people,' and they







TWENTIETH CENTURY JAMAICA


number three-fourths of the population. What is their atti-
tude towards the other sections of the Jamaica population ?
Their attitude is a friendly one for the most part; it is
an attitude of peace and goodwill. Between all the several
sections of the Jamaica people there is a certain amount of
jealousy, and this jealousy is often expressed in terms of
colour. There is also, as is inevitable in every country, a good
many individual dislikes and perhaps hatreds, and often these
are also expressed in terms of colour. A quarrel between a
black and a coloured man may sometimes take the form of
references to the colour of each; but this becomes rarer every
day, and the old saying that the black man had no love for
the brown, but heartily disliked him, is decidedly not true
to-day. The black man does not dislike the brown man as
such. He does not dislike the white man. White and brown
again, in spite of the occasionally harsh language indulged in
by individuals amongst them when alluding to the bulk of
the Jamaica people, do not really dislike the black man, and
are by no means desirous of seeing him kept down and oppressed.
Anything like ill-treatment of an individual black man by a
white or coloured man at once raises a storm of protest, not
merely from black men, but equally from white and coloured
men. Even the complaints of criminals in the Penitentiary
find a hearing among the white and coloured sections of the
community; conversely, the black voter, who is in the majority,
has no sort of hesitation in sending white and coloured men
to the Legislative Council and to the Parochial Boards to
represent him. An appeal for his support on the score of colour
would not move him much; such an appeal has been frequently
made by demagogues, but so often has it failed that it is not
now considered a good political card.
It is rather difficult to say in what proportion the peasantry
and working classes stand to the middle classes, and the latter
to the highest class. I have already pointed out that colour
alone does not determine class in Jamaica, though it may have






THE PEOPLE OF JAMAICA


much to do with it. Among the artisans, peasantry, and work-
ing classes we must count at least one hundred thousand of
those persons who are specified in the census as of mixed blood;
while a good many of the white inhabitants belong to the
middle class, and a few to the working class sections of the
people. Even the classification of the population according
to occupations is no absolute guide. There are 9211 profes-
sional persons in Jamaica. These would include the highest
officials, the elementary school teachers, as well as doctors,
lawyers, parsons, and many others who would be recognized
as professional men in other countries, as well as some who
would not be. One thing is certain, there is much difference
in the social status of the professional man who earns a thousand
pounds a year and the man who is passing poor upon fifty.
The people occupied with commerce, too, range from those
who are shop assistants to those who make between three and
four thousand pounds a year; and of the 19,754 persons en-
gaged in commercial pursuits and undertakings in Jamaica,
the number earning over three hundred a year is decidedly in
the minority. In agriculture, again, we find that the heads,
the bigger men, are few; so taking men, women, and children
together, if we put the highest classes of the country-the
classes with an income or salary of six hundred a year and up-
wards-at about ten thousand souls, our estimate may not be far
out. It should hardly be necessary to add that this money cate-
gory is a very imperfect one, since there are people with money
who are considered as not of the best class in the social hierarchy
of the colony, while there are others who, though comparatively
poor, are recognized as the social equals of the wealthiest.
The middle classes, split into a number of smaller classes,
might number about eighty thousand. This leaves us with
seven hundred and thirty-one thousand persons who are peasants,
peasant-proprietors, and working people; and of the total
population of Jamaica the vast majority live outside of the
towns. The chief towns of the island total up to fourteen, but






54 TWENTIETH CENTURY JAMAICA
these fourteen contain, in round figures, but 12o,ooo people,
which leaves the inhabitants of the country districts at 711,ooo.
The country gentlemen live on their plantations and estates,
visiting the city and the neighboring towns often, going on
frequent visits to England and the United States, but still
identifying themselves with parochical matters, being members
of boards, justices of the peace, and so forth. Their homes
and their influence stand for civilisation in many a backward
district. The peasantry recognize this in an instinctive sort
of way, for they show no desire to get away from the neigh-
bourhood of the big man. They prefer to be in his vicinity,
and he in his turn likes them near him, being thus sure of a
good supply of labour if his relations with them are at all
cordial, which more often than not they are.
Do I picture a sort of tropical paradise, in so far as the
relations between the different races and classes of the people
are concerned? That is not exactly my intention; at any
rate I would hasten to add that there is enough of the serpent
of snobbery to make life in Jamaica interesting; there are
sufficiently numerous class and personal distinctions to create
that amount of social unhappiness without which no British
community would be complete. Snobbery, says M. Andre
Seigfried, is a characteristic of British civilisation. So it is;
and the civilisation of Jamaica is British. There are innumer-
able classes in Jamaica; classes amongst the white, classes
amongst the coloured, classes amongst the black; there are there-
fore ever present in every Jamaica town those lines of social
demarcation which too often are a source of bitterness to those
for whom they form a bar. But the great mass of the people are
not affected by social considerations. The peasant in the village
does not anxiously think about what may be said of him should
he be seen associating with So-and-So. Hence it may truly be
said that there is as much social happiness and contentment in
Jamaica, take it for all in all, as there is in any country where
the population is of one race, or is practically homogeneous.











CHAPTER III

THE ENGLISHMAN IN JAMAICA

WHEN I mentioned to a Scotchman resident in Jamaica
that in my chapter on the Englishman in Jamaica I intended
to include the Scotch and Irish colonists, he demurred.
A Scotchman is not an Englishman, he contended, and the
contention is as old as the two peoples. It is perfectly true,
of course; but for my purpose the caption I have chosen
will do very well, though it may be necessary for me here
and there to refer specifically to Scotchmen and to Irishmen.
According to the census for 1911, there are settled in
Jamaica 1291 persons who were born in England, 13 who were
born in Wales, 239 from Scotland, and 123 from Ireland.
The number is respectable, though it is below two thousand.
These 1666 persons include the Governor as well as the army
private; and it is not too much to say that their influence
on the life and the affairs of the country is far greater than their
mere number would seem to indicate.
Yet at the very outset one is forced to remark the differ-
ence which exists between the Englishman of to-day and the
Englishman of a hundred years ago in Jamaica. A century
since he was not only in the colony in much larger numbers,
but was in reality the dominant Jamaican. He was the chief
landowner, he governed the island as a member of the House
of Assembly and of the Governor's Council: he was the
Jamaican, the real colonist, the other sections of the colony
did not count for much. The white man of pure British
extraction who was born in the country did not regard him-
self as anything but an Englishman. In the vast majority of
instances he would, if of the better classes, have been educated






TWENTIETH CENTURY JAMAICA


in England, and 'home' to him would always mean England.
When the boom in sugar declined and emancipation followed,
he returned to England if he could, as a matter of course;
but in Jamaica he was never a stranger: he was the owner or,
at least, the director. All that is changed to-day. In spite
of the fact that large tracks of land are held by British absentee
proprietors still; in spite, too, of the fact that men from the
United Kingdom are amongst the biggest planters at the
present time in Jamaica, the Englishman is often regarded,
and regards himself, as a stranger; he is distinct from the
Jamaican, and is but the largest of the groups which make
up the non-native population of the island.
This is the inevitable result of many circumstances. A
great deal of the land is now held by white men who were
born and have grown up in the country, by coloured men who
either acquired their possessions by purchase or inherited it
from white ancestors, by black men who form the peasant
proprietary of the country. Then, the vast majority of the
island's officials are natives. It is now rather the exception
than the rule for Englishmen to be appointed to the Jamaica
Civil Service; even amongst the heads of the most important
Government Departments we find a fair number of natives.
Thus the Governor is an Englishman; but the next most
important official, the Colonial Secretary, who frequently acts
as Governor, is a Jamaican. The Collector-General is a
Jamaican; the last Treasurer was a Jamaican-his place
has up to the time of writing not been filled; one of the three
judges of the Supreme Court is a West Indian from one of
the other colonies; another is a Jamaican. The late Attorney-
General was a Jamaican; the present-Attorney General is
a man from one of the smaller West Indian islands; the Crown
Solicitor and the Registrar of the Supreme Court are both
Jamaicans; the Director of Education is a Jamaican; the
Administrator-General and the Surveyor-General are
Jamaicans. So we see that the number of Englishmen, as






THE ENGLISHMAN IN JAMAICA


compared with the number of Jamaicans, in the public service
is very small; and the tendency is not towards increasing the
English personnel.
The same thing holds true of other departments of the life
of the colony. In the preceding chapter allusion was made to
the white workers in wood and stone and iron who were once
the artisans of Jamaica. There is hardly one left now. There
are English professional men (chiefly parsons and doctors),
English accountants, English clerks, shop-assistants, builders
and contractors, engineers, merchants, and magistrates;
but the number of natives in the same callings and professions
is far greater. The colony has grown and developed, and,
as its development has proceeded, what has taken place in
other colonies has taken place here. The native, the man
on the spot, fills most of the positions that the man from the
United Kingdom could fill; and the man from the United
Kingdom comes to Jamaica as a stranger.
Yet the manners and customs of the country, in so far as
they are civilised, approximate to English manners and
customs; the life of the country bears the indelible impress
of English influences ; the language is English, the literature
is English, the sentiments of the people are more English
than anything else, the religion is English, and Jamaicans
are proud of their connection with the British Empire. The
word 'home' to the educated Jamaican has two significations.
In the first place it signifies Jamaica. But it also signifies
England, and Englishman and Jamaican will talk of England
as 'home' without either man being conscious of any incon-
gruity in the expression as used by the native. It is the
commonest thing to hear an Englishman ask a Jamaican
if he is going 'home' this year, and the latter will reply 'yes'
or 'no' quite simply. Hence, though the Englishman coming
to Jamaica in these days comes as a stranger, he is less of
a stranger than the Englishman who goes to Canada, where,
as he has probably heard beforehand, he is not liked. The





TWENTIETH CENTURY JAMAICA


difference is that he goes to Canada in considerable numbers,
and more often than not develops into a good Canadian.
It is only the minority of Englishmen who become Jamaicans;
that is, settle in the country for good, without intention of
returning home. In a tropical colony, the place of the English-
man is of necessity small. Yet of its importance there cannot
be two opinions.
The Englishman who remains in Jamaica for but a few
years must be regarded as always a stranger. He rarely
has any deep interest in the country, and for the most part
hardly ever understands its people. There have, indeed, been
Englishmen who have lived for over twenty years in the
colony and have left it with almost as little knowledge of its
inhabitants as they had when first they came. They have been
entirely out of sympathy with their surroundings; they have
mixed as much as possible with other English only; they have
not liked Jamaica and the Jamaicans. The sentiments of
men of this type are very soon discovered. For the most part,
they make no attempt to disguise them. The natural conse-
quence is that a good many Jamaicans, and even educated
Jamaicans, get to believe that the Englishman as such is
contemptuous of all things Jamaican, even though they may
know Englishmen, Scots, and Irishmen who accept the local
conditions and the people for the best that there is in them,
and who identify themselves with most of the efforts made to
further the progress of the community.
Englishmen themselves are keenly alive to the faults of
their countrymen in Jamaica, and if they sometimes stand by
one another it is not because they dislike the people, but
because a very natural feeling of comradeship compels them
to support the Englishman who finds himself at odds in a
strange land. The Jamaican would do the same if he and
others of his country found themselves where they were for
the most part outsiders. It would, however, be a mistake
to imagine that the British element in Jamaica is always to






THE ENGLISHMAN IN JAMAICA


be found fighting as one body of men against the natives in
the interest of individuals from the mother-country; as
a matter of fact, the Britisher in Jamaica constitutes no class
apart, especially after he has been in the colony for some
time, and has become acquainted with the people and with
their point of view. The greatest critics of Englishmen are
very often Englishmen; and where we find an Englishman
being vigorously backed by his countrymen, we may be certain
that they are his personal friends, and we may be equally
certain that amongst his assailants are other Englishmen.
In such a case, clearly, it is not so much a matter of race and
country as it is a matter of class and personal friendship.
There is hardly a man from the United Kingdom residing in
Jamaica to-day who does not count Jamaicans among his
friends; there are Englishmen who are more friendly with
Jamaicans than with other Englishmen; and I have no
hesitation in saying that the Englishman who is generally
disliked by Jamaicans is equally disliked by Englishmen.
It is a matter of temperament. At first, it is probable,
every man from 'home' who comes to Jamaica feels himself
out of place, is bored or disgusted by the entirely different
conditions in which he finds himself, is filled with a longing for
the land he has left, and is, in consequence, disposed to run
down everything he sees, and to be contemptuous of the
country and its people. The untravelled Jamaican does not
understand this feeling, and resents it; the travelled Jamaican
knows that, to a considerable extent, it will wear away if the
new-comer be the right sort of man. And it does wear away.
The shock of change and difference, which is natural and
inevitable, loses its effect after a while, though it is apt to
return every time a man comes back from a holiday in the
United Kingdom. It wears away, and one begins to appreciate
what is good in tropical life in the Jamaica of this century.
For one thing, the Englishman can never complain of the
hospitality of the Jamaicans. Many Jamaicans may criticise





TWENTIETH CENTURY JAMAICA


Englishmen as a body, but for the individual Englishman
they will do a great deal; first, because they are by nature
hospitable; secondly, because he is an Englishman; thirdly,
because he is a stranger; and lastly, though by no means
least, because to be an Englishman in Jamaica carries a good
deal of prestige with it.
It could not be otherwise. Considering that the governing
classes have been mainly English, that the colony belongs to
England, and that every Jamaican is as firmly convinced as
any Englishman that Britain is the greatest country in the
world, it follows as a matter of course that the individual
Englishman starts in Jamaica with much in his favour. But
his success or his popularity will depend upon his own qualities
eventually; and there are few Englishmen, if any, of any
experience and of any position in the colony, who will prefer
any Englishman as such to a Jamaican who shows himself
capable.
That may have been the case once upon a time. The
glamour of prestige, the tradition of efficiency, the mere fact
that one was an Englishman may have helped one all through
life, just as they obtain for one a fair chance to-day. But
more than a fair chance the average man from England will
scarcely get to-day. A very proper feeling of national pride,
to say nothing of ordinary pity, will prevent Englishmen
in Jamaica from callously letting a countryman sink into the
gutter; but if he will not respond to the assistance they offer,
they will leave him to his fate. The beach-comber Englishman
has not been unknown in Jamaica, though happily rare.
And it is but honest to add that even the Jamaican of the
humblest class feels sad and sorry when an Englishman in
Jamaica goes to ruin and wreck.
The men who come from the United Kingdom to fill posi-
tions as clerks, accountants, inspectors of police, merchants,
etc., live quietly as ordinary members of the community.
Sometimes they marry Jamaicans, take very little interest






THE ENGLISHMAN IN JAMAICA


in politics, help to organise sports, and are popular in the circles
in which they move. But there are others whose influence is
extensive. The great English planters are mostly men who
have succeeded by dint of perseverance and -ability, and,
living in the country parishes, they are each of them a con-
siderable force. Amongst the fourteen elected members of
the existing Legislative Council, there are three Englishmen
and two Scotchmen; and one of the Englishmen, a large banana
planter, is certainly one of the most popular men in the island.
Nobody questions the sincerity of his interest, and the people
of his parish are proud to have him represent them. The
present Mayor of Kingston (September, 1912) is an English-
man. At the last election of the Mayor and Council he was
returned at the top of the poll, chiefly, of course, by the votes
of the working people. There is, I think, a certain jealousy
of Englishmen, but the individual Englishman has nothing
to fear from it. It is directed against a class and not against
a person, consequently it can harm no one. There is, on the
other hand, an unquestionable admiration of Englishmen,
an admiration grounded on their achievements in the world.
This admiration may not always extend to the individual
Englishman, but as the member of a class he benefits by it.
Englishmen are welcomed in the political as well as in the
social life of the colony. And in the social life of the colony
they are often the leaders. Some of the highest officials and
a few of the greatest planters being Englishmen, they set the
tone of society and form the exclusive 'set.' Their way of life
in the colony is much as it would be in England. Dinner
parties, lawn-tennis, afternoon calls, afternoon tea, with riding
and driving, and visits to the theatre and attendance at the races
form their recreations for the most part; and these too are the
recreations of all the other classes of the people who have any-
thing like social desires and ambitions. The difference is mainly
one of degree. This is a bit of English life transported to Jamaica;
and it testifies to the influence of the Englishman in Jamaica.






TWENTIETH CENTURY JAMAICA


The majority of the English residents, then, do identify
themselves with the* life of the colony-some of course to
a greater extent than others. There are two classes of them
which come frequently and directly in touch with the people-
the ministers and the officials; each class does so in a different
way, and it has been claimed by one Governor of the island
that in promoting the general welfare of the peasantry and
working people the Government (with its officers) come first
and the ministers next. I am not certain that this dictum
can be altogether accepted: there are many who would
reverse the positions and would put the ministers first. If,
indeed, we take the history of the island for the last fifty
years, there can be no question about the ministers of the
several denominations in the colony having done more for the
great mass of the people, in the way of uplifting and civilising
them, than the Government has done. If we merely take the
history of the last eleven or twelve years-the first years of the
present century-the Government does in truth stand forth
conspicuously as the leading influence in a dozen different
movements all making for the amelioration of conditions in
Jamaica, and for the betterment of the common people. It
is not that the Churches and their ministers are doing less.
It is that the Government and its officers are doing more. But
the pioneers in education, the teachers of morality, the sworn
friends of the friendless, the downtrodden, the unconsidered,
have for many decades been the missionaries and the ministers,
and a great deal of what| is of good report in Jamaica must be
attributed to their untiring zeal and to the personal efforts
they have put forth.
The ministers have come far more into personal contact
with the mass of the people than have any other class of
Englishmen, and your English or Scotch parson has been,
as it were, the head of a large and heterogeneous family,
the leader of a considerable section of the people; he has been
guide, philosopher, and friend; he has been politician also when






THE ENGLISHMAN IN JAMAICA


necessary, and has never hesitated to enter the political arena
to fight actively for the welfare of the masses. His home has
been a centre from which has radiated sympathy. His family
--his wife and himself more particularly-have known the
interior of hundreds of homes, some of them of the most
humble description; and this personal association, this kindly
inquiry into the trivial worries and details of the peasant's
life, has had an effect on the lives of the people greater than
most persons appear to have imagined. As a rule, the parson
from 'home' has come to Jamaica with lofty spiritual ideals
and with a determination to accomplish some noble work.
Disappointments awaited him; hardships had to be endured;
often he has thought he is building on shifting sands. I
remember one Scotch parson who confessed to me how heart-
weary he was, how sad at thinking that he and his fellow-
labourers had done so little. He was alluding to the large
percentage of illegitimate births which the Government
records showed year after year : he felt that he had no founda-
tion of character to build upon, and that the influence of
himself and of men like him counted for nothing in the colony.
I was not surprised at this lament: I had heard it before.
I had heard it from Catholic priest, as well as from Protestant
parson. But I knew something about Jamaica's past, and for
myself I could not but think that the missionary had builded
better than he knew, had accomplished considerable things-
had assisted greatly to civilise the country, to change its
manner of living, to improve it socially, morally, and religi-
ously in the short space of sixty years. They have trained
a native ministry which is no discredit to them. A hundred
years ago Jamaica was almost entirely heathen. To-day,
in spite of remaining superstitions and loose sexual connec-
tions, it is a Christian country. As I intend to deal with
Jamaica religion further on, I will say nothing more upon
this point just here; but I may remark that the personal
influence of the men who have taught and have preached






TWENTIETH CENTURY JAMAICA


to the people has had as much to do with the improvement
observed as the doctrines they have disseminated. The mere
preaching would have altered nothing. The sympathy, the
kindness, the interest which the British missionaries and
ministers give constant evidence of have borne and will bear
fruit of inestimable value.
The foremost Englishman in Jamaica to-day, all things
considered, is a man who came to the country over forty-five
years ago as a simple parson. To-day he is the Archbishop
of the West Indies, having won to that high position through
sheer force of character and ability. He is not merely the
head of his own Church. In a way he is the unofficial head
of all the Protestant Churches. An Englishman of English-
men, he is also a Jamaican of Jamaicans; so that while the
Englishmen in Jamaica are very proud of him as a fellow-
countryman, the Jamaicans under fifty years of age look upon
him as a Jamaican--there are actually some who believe he
is a Jamaican by birth He is supremely the type of English-
man who can uphold and cherish the finest ideals of his country
while entirely sympathising and identifying himself with the
people and the interests of the country which he has made
his by adoption. A man of his force of character could not have
failed to influence the young English clergyman in that way
of conduct which should make for success in ministering to
people and congregations in many respects different from
English people and congregations, and in surroundings very
different indeed from those of England. Thus we find that
the Anglican Church in Jamaica, once without influence
and not deserving it, once the Church of a few wealthy, con-
temptuous, dissolute persons, is to-day as much the Church
of the poor as the most democratic Nonconformist body;
a circumstance which I attribute mainly to the personality
of the man who has been its head for so many years, and
also to the personal character and influence of those who have
so zealously assisted him.





































conllhl ;~T~RN TIM
'RI-

















COMING
FROM
NIARKET *













-OOLIE
:1 ~ .VILLAGE






THE ENGLISHMAN IN JAMAICA 65

The English official has also been described by a Governor,
Sir Sydney Olivier, as a 'missionary,' but it must be admitted
that he is a very well-paid missionary, though in the majority
of instances it cannot be denied that he earns his money. His
contact with the people is that of a director, not of a friend.
He knows them from the outside for the most part; and
though in his dealings with them he is actuated by a sense
of justice, he is usually a man apart; though he may take
a pride in his work and may sincerely wish to improve the
colony, he cannot have that affection for it which the life-
long colonist and the native have; he has not the same kind of
stimulus which the missionary and the minister have. He has
to do with things far more than with men. Even as judge
and magistrate he is above the crowd, and not in it. Yet this
comparative aloofness is more the result of conditions than
of explicit determination. Men of the same class and position
in England do not mix more with the working people there
than do the English officials in Jamaica with the Jamaica
people of the lower orders. The difference between the two
sets of men is that, as an Englishman, the official more or
less understands his own people: whatever the difference in
class, they are of one blood; whereas, in Jamaica, it takes the
Englishman time and sympathy and close acquaintanceship
to understand the average Jamaican and the Jamaican point
of view. Yet, even in this connection also, there has in late
years been a wonderful improvement in the relationships
existing between the English official and the people; the time
has gone by when the official element formed an exclusive
caste; when it was regarded as a matter of course that they
should constitute one section of the community, and the
rest of the people another. The filling of some of the highest
official positions with natives and the general advance in
culture and civilisation on the part of the country as a whole
have served to bridge the chasm between the English official
and the native; the personal friendships, comradeships,






TWENTIETH CENTURY JAMAICA


the social intercourse, and constant interchange of ideas
between English official and Jamaica gentleman make of
these both one class; and, as a member of this class, the
English official learns more about Jamaica and Jamaicans
than he otherwise would.
It must also be added that the English heads of large
administrative departments have for capable native officers
a genuine appreciation. This is generally the outcome of time
and experience. At first the new chief is inclined to be over-
critical, to assume ignorance on the part of his subordinates,
to expect English methods in conditions which are not English.
But he learns after a while what he ought to expect and what
is impossible in the circumstances, and in his annual reports
to the Governor he very often-I might say he always-
refers in high terms of praise to the men under him, nine-
tenths, if not all, of whom may be Jamaicans. Nor is the
average English head of department desirous of filling vacan-
cies in the Civil Service with men born out of the country.
That is not, indeed, the policy of the Government; but indi-
vidual officials could hamper and hinder the Government if
minded to do so, and could strongly urge the importation of
young officers. As a matter of fact, they prefer to train men
found on the spot, and this policy naturally commends itself
to the community, the older members of which remember the
time (not twenty years since) when to be a Jamaican was
rather a serious bar to official preferment.
I have purposely left to the last the remarks I have to
make on the Governors of the colony, the men directly respon-
sible to the Colonial Office for the proper administration of
the island's affairs. Of the seven who have governed Jamaica
since 1866, one was a Scotchman, one an Irishman, one a
West Indian (from Antigua); the other four have been
English. Of only one of these can it be said that his adminis-
tration was marked by feebleness. He was a weak though
entirely well-meaning man: he was not equal to the task






THE ENGLISHMAN IN JAMAICA


laid upon him. The other men have been energetic: five of
them have been conspicuous for their ability. This is a good
percentage and an excellent record. Highly paid as is a
Jamaica Governor, there are not many competent Jamaicans
who would say that a good Governor was not worth the 500ooo
a year he receives; and there are few who have been in touch
with Jamaica Governors but know that they are amongst
the hardest worked men in the island.
In my present remarks I must deal with the Governor
as an Englishman, and not merely as the head of the Govern-
ment-as the chief part of an administrative machine. That
is to say, I wish to deal with his character, with what
he is or should be, and not particularly with his duties.
Naturally, it is not possible in practice, or even in discussion,
to differentiate between the man and the public functionary:
the influence the man derives largely from his position. Still
it is indisputable that position alone will help no man to gain
the respect of the West Indians: character and reputation
count for as much as place and power.
A reputation for impartiality is one of the best assets that
the English official, and especially the English Governor,
in the colonies could have, though not every Governor has pos-
sessed it. It is indeed very difficult in Jamaica to win the
reputation of being impartial; even if you are, you will often
be thought not to be. A Governor begins his administration
under difficulties therefore; he is the man upon whom the
searchlight of public opinion is always beating; he can never
feel sure that those who applaud him to-day will not censure
him to-morrow. Consequently, the career of a Governor can
only be calmly and adequately judged after he has been out
of the colony for some years. Now, what is the general opinion
of the Jamaica Governors since 1866? The general opinion
is that all of them have been deeply interested in the country,
and that most of them have worked their hardest for it.
The wish to succeed may and probably does have much






TWENTIETH CENTURY JAMAICA


to do with their exertions. Even a Governor thinks of promo-
tion and praise. But there has also been, as an animating
and inspiring principle, a high sense of duty, a feeling of
obligation towards the people and the Empire, and this has
helped more than one Governor through a hard and trying
time. No Jamaica Administrator has ever been suspected
of furthering his own financial interests. No Governor has
ever been considered an unimportant quantity. Even the
weakest of them has been credited with some ability, and all
of them have been credited with good intentions. Great
Britain, then, has on the whole been well served by the men
she has sent out to govern Jamaica: they have not been
incompetent place-seekers or impecunious younger sons.
Had they been, the first to,have uttered a loud protest would
have been the English residents in Jamaica. For a critical
attitude towards their Governors distinguishes them as much
as it distinguishes any one else.

One is rather surprised to learn from the figures of the
census that the American residents in Jamaica number as
many as 337. This shows how little they interfere with the
public life of the colony and how unobtrusive they are.
Considering that sixty-one per cent. of the island's export
trade is with the United States of America, and that millions
of dollars have been invested in the country by American
capitalists, it would not have been astonishing if the American
had been a little more evident in Jamaica than he is. He
is here, however, simply as a man of business, and he minds
his own business; he is a courteous man, pays well, recog-
nises ability, and does nothing to make himself objectionable.
The consequence is that the American is not disliked in
Jamaica. On the contrary, he is liked. He gives no evidence
of his innate colour prejudice, accepting the conditions of the
country as he finds them; while the average American tourist,
who now annually comes to Jamaica in his thousands, never






THE ENGLISHMAN IN JAMAICA 69

shows any disinclination to ride in the street cars with coloured
people. The American visitor who has once been to Jamaica,
indeed, is more often than not likely to return.
The Roman Catholic Church is represented by Americans
in Jamaica, the Bishop and priests being members of the
Society of Jesus. But it is of the genius of that Church, and
particularly of the Jesuit Order, that the attention of the
outsider is hardly ever drawn to the nationality of the men
who serve it; consequently few persons in Jamaica think of
the Catholic college as a part of the American community.
And here again one sees how little of separateness, of hard-
and-fast boundary lines, there is in regard to the social life
of Jamaica, using the word social in its widest significance.
The Roman Catholic Bishop takes his place in, the colony as
a bishop, as the local head of a Christian Church; his partici-
pation in movements of a philanthropic nature: is eagerly
sought; he is respected, is liked, is regarded as one of the
leaders of the country. In the controversies that take place
between Catholic and Protestant the personality of the Bishop
is never drawn in; the sort of criticisms levelled at Church
dignitaries even in Roman Catholic countries would not be
tolerated for one moment in Jamaica. The custom, in fact,
is to identify both priest and parson with the country; they
at any rate are never foreigners and strangers. Their work
being amongst the people, they become associated with the
people and the country in the minds of every one.
The Canadian residents number 77-a mere handful.
Writing in an English paper (The Daily Chronicle) in August,
1912, Sir Harry Johnston gave it as his opinion that the
American was more liked in Jamaica than the Canadian;
and as Sir Harry Johnston was in Jamaica for a short time only,
it is to be presumed that he was told this by some of the people
whom he met. On the whole, I think he is right. I have heard
the same thing myself. The Canadian is believed to be as
prejudiced as the American, and not as free with his money.






TWENTIETH CENTURY JAMAICA


'American' and 'open-handedness' almost seem to be inter-
changeable terms in the minds of thousands of Jamaicans.
The Canadian, then, is credited with the bad qualities of the
American minus the good ones, and thus the individual
Canadian is prejudged. But what does the Jamaican know of
the Canadian? Canadian visitors to the island have hitherto
been few; the number of the residents has already been given
as only 77. It is quite true that the Canadian does not spend
his money as freely as the American does; he has less to
spend for one thing. He is not extravagant in his own country,
and therefore is careful out of it. Yet, the question has to be
asked again, what does the Jamaican know of the Canadian?
Not very much, the truth being that he misjudges the
Canadian through ignorance.
No one who knows Canada and the Canadians, however
little, but must appreciate the fact that the Canadians have
excellent qualities, and are, take them for all in all, a fine
people. Perhaps this will be realized in Jamaica before long:
it ought to be realized if the two countries become more closely
connected. It is not, however, the Jamaican alone who is
somewhat prejudiced against the Canadian; the English
resident is quite as much so; and his feeling is probably the
result of what he has heard of the Canadian attitude towards
Englishmen. That attitude it is not within the scope and
purpose of this little work to discuss; one can only regret
that people of the same stock mainly, and under the same
flag, should sometimes show themselves unfriendly towards
one another. And one may hope that this antagonism (which
is, after all, not very deep-seated) will wear away under the
influence of a better understanding. No one can deny that
the Canadians in Jamaica offend nobody by their conduct;
and those who know them do not dislike them-just the
contrary. When there are more Canadians in the colony,
Canadians generally will be better understood. In time they
will be liked.











CHAPTER IV

CITY, TOWNS, AND COUNTRY

JAMAICANS are sometimes apologetic in speaking of their
capital and of the towns of their island; but they hardly
say anything about the country proper. They perceive that
Kingston is sadly lacking in many of the attributes of a
capital city; they know its defects, and are daily aware that
its appearance is not calculated to dazzle or impress the
stranger. But they will remind you that Kingston is not the
island, just as the Canadian in Toronto or Montreal will
solemnly protest that if you have seen only the eastern cities
of Canada you have not seen Canada. The Jamaican, having
done his duty to his country by reminding you that Kingston
does not stand for it, leaves it to you to form and pass your
own opinion on Jamaica as a whole, and complacently awaits
a favourable verdict. He has heard it so often that anything
else would be surprising. From the time of Columbus to
the present day every writer has been trying to find appro-
priate adjectives with which to ornament his words of praise.
It was left to an American tourist to give it as his opinion
that 'the island is very handsome!' 'Handsome' is here
used in a new association, but the sincerity of the sentiment
excuses the novelty of the expression.
This handsome island has not a handsome city; yet, to
me at any rate, the city has an eternal fascination. I never
weary of it. It may be variously described: for example,
the term 'tin-roofed town' would be appropriate if applied
to the lower section of it, the business section known as 'down
town.' After a great fire had burnt down most of the houses
in lower Kingston, thirty years ago, some means had to be






TWENTIETH CENTURY JAMAICA


found of making the buildings fireproof. Then it was that
some ingenious person suggested corrugated iron roofing, and
corrugated iron roofing it has been to this day. The dull gray
of the metal strikes a most inharmonious note in a country
of vivid greens and blues; and iron as a covering, with a thermo-
meter normally over eighty degrees in the shade, does not give
one the impression of being the coolest thing imaginable.
Or you may describe Kingston as 'the place where one
moves slowly'; slowly, that is, as compared with the move-
ment in the cities of England or the United States. I pointed
out the absence of hustle one day to an American visitor who
had landed only that morning.
'I don't wonder at it,' he thoughtfully replied, as he
mopped the perspiration off his face. 'I guess I would move
slow too if I lived here.' I think he would, and nothing more
amuses the resident than to hear the man newly arrived in
the country lay down the law on the necessity of the people
'getting a move on !' Of course, they can do this if they
want. But the move will come to a full stop after a while.
You cannot spend your energy and have it, and it is a wise
economy of energy that gives to the streets of the city an
atmosphere of comparative leisure. Perspiration may be
healthy, but too much of it is .a decided nuisance.
Or again, you may describe Kingston as 'a city with a
noble background of mountains and sloping gently towards
the sea.' This is the conventional description and borders
upon the poetic; it also has the merit of being true. But
every description packed in a sentence is at best but partial,
and not at all the equivalent of a good photograph: you
cannot compass a city with a phrase. Even 'tin-roofed town'
is not wholly true of lower Kingston. For the principal
business thoroughfare now has most of its buildings roofed
with cement, which alone makes it a street apart from every
other in the island. It is, too, the street that one sees most
of, the street where the Government offices are, and most of






CITY, TOWNS, AND COUNTRY


the leading stores and shops. It represents much of Kingston,
and to say of it that it is tin-roofed would move all the
inhabitants of Jamaica to protest.
Kingston has had the advantage of being destroyed by
fire two or three times, and of being shaken down by an earth-
quake in January, 1907. Except for that little matter of the
corrugated iron roofing, it has benefited much by these catas-
trophies, having improved itself on each occasion as far as
the means, tastes, and ambitions of its inhabitants would
allow it to do so. When a man erects a building in Kingston,
he does so with the feeling that he has accomplished some-
thing with the nature of the everlasting about it. He does
not foresee the day when his successors may wish to improve
upon what he has done, may wish to tear down the structure
created by him and put something finer in its place. He
does not foresee that day, for he calculates that those who
will come after him will not wish to do anything madly
extravagant. Kingston is so purely a commercial city, in
fact, that beauty is not much considered by those responsible
for its architecture; a man strives to get all he can out of
his property, and the public would never think of suggesting
that he ought to improve it for the sake of appearances merely.
Yet the wish for a fine city is in the hearts of Kingston's
inhabitants, and when fate or accident affords them an oppor-
tunity to improve their capital they make some attempt in
that direction. Kingston was rebuilt after a great fire in
1882, a fire which destroyed the business section of it. For
five-and-twenty years after its rebuilding no change took
place in the style of structure adopted, and very few new
places were built. Then came the earthquake of 1907, and
since that year the city has got at least one street of which
it has good reason to be proud, a street which as a business and
commercial centre is the finest in all the West Indies. It is
well paved, well served by electric cars, taxi-motors, and horse-
cabs; the buildings on either side are strong, earthquake






TWENTIETH CENTURY JAMAICA


proof, and sufficiently commodious for the purposes they are
intended to serve; in this thoroughfare, too, are the new
public gardens, and the colonnades in front of the stores
enable the pedestrian to walk nearly the whole length of
lower King Street without being roasted by the sun.
'Quite a modem street,' the reader may say, and the
observation will be just. Any one coming straight from a
country where buildings five or six stories high are the rule-
still more, any one coming from a city where any structure
of less than fourteen stories is not considered very high, may
now and then feel in walking about King Street that on either
side of him are dwarf buildings : that is the effect of custom.
Yet, so long as he is in the shade, he will appreciate the change.
He will observe that the people who pass, singly, in couples,
in groups, all look as if care-free, that there is a nonchalant
swing about their movements, a carelessness that attracts.
Here he will see every shade of complexion to be found in the
island. The buggies and motor cars drawn up by the side-
walks contain dames of fair or olive hue; on their heads the
hats of 'the latest fashion,' on their bodies simple white dresses
that look cool in the heat of the day. Girls of chocolate colour,
with dresses fitting them 'like gloves,' step briskly along,
almost as briskly as they would in a northern city. Swarthy
men, black men, brown men, fair men move up and down,
not rapidly, but with what, after a while, the visitor would
come to consider a good pace, the heat considered; and vehicles
continuously ply for hire, the cabmen calmly breaking the law
that forbids them to appeal to the pedestrian for patronage.
One of the attractions of Kingston is the facility with
which the law relating to minor matters can be broken.
Jamaica has the reputation of being a very law-abiding
country, and it deserves its good name; dangerous crimes
are few; compared with Porto Rico, say, Jamaica is almost
crimeless. But the laws relating to trifling misdemeanours
are many, and are often ignored. Now and then the police






CITY, TOWNS, AND COUNTRY


make an attack upon cabman or taxi-cab driver and hale him
before the courts, charge him with furious driving, or annoy-
ing passengers, or with some other offence of which he has
been guilty a hundred times; but the warning and fine are
unheeded, for one cannot be virtuous in small things as well
as virtuous in large.
There is a law against loitering in the streets. The police-
man can ask you to 'move on' if you break this law. But
everybody breaks it at his sweet will and pleasure; half the
joy of life in Kingston consists in loitering. You loiter to look
at some interesting object you have seen a thousand times
before, and could not forget if you tried; you loiter to greet
your friends; you loiter to gaze at the smartly dressed shop
windows; you loiter to pass criticisms on any motor-car or
other equipage that you think you are seeing for the first
time; you loiter because it is hot; you loiter to enjoy the
breeze as it sweeps up from the sea, the breeze that tempers
the heat of the hottest day and makes life bearable; you
loiter because loitering is in the atmosphere, in your blood,
in the blood of every one around you. Loitering is pleasant;
and, besides, you know that you will accomplish the day's
work, know too that in northern cities they do not work
much harder than you do. Loitering is one of your recrea-
tions; the rest of the time you give to work.
You will think the streets of Kingston deserted if you
are accustomed to crowded thoroughfares; you will think the
city strangely silent if you have become used to the roar of
a great metropolis. The people shun the sun by day, and
(presumably) the moon by night, except on Saturdays and
Sunday. But Sunday is a separate theme, a theme to be
dealt with as a thing apart; let us confine ourselves here to
week-days and week-a-day topics. While, then, you will
always find a few people in the streets of Jamaica's capital
city, there never, except on holidays, will be anything in the
least approaching a crowd in them. One seeks the shelter






TWENTIETH CENTURY JAMAICA


of yards and houses here; nor does population overflow into
the streets, as it does in cities which have passed the million mark.
Sixty thousand inhabitants may be congregated on a square mile
or so of land without their presence being obtrusively obvious.
Let us go back to lower King Street again-indeed, we
have never left it--and see how compact is our life; how very
near is one thing to another. Hardware stores, haberdashery,
grocery shops, drug shops, book shops, jewellers' shops, a
bank, the Government offices, a church-you will find them all
within a quarter of a mile. This is Jamaica's Broadway,
Oxford Street, Boulvard des Italiens, too, if you like; but
after the sun has gone down it is deserted, for street promenad-
ing is unknown in Jamaica. The citizens ride in the cars when
they wish to enjoy the open air. They do not, like those of
the neighboring Spanish-American countries, assemble on
regular nights of the week to walk about, meet their friends,
and listen to the music of the band. A public band does play
each Thursday; but it plays in the afternoon, in the Central
Park, which is the northern boundary of lower King Street;
chiefly girls and children go to listen to it. Not that Jamaicans are
not fond of music; they very much are. But the habit of prom-
enading has not yet been acquired, and so they keep at home.
The business section of the city is small compared with
that given over to the residences, to the one or two story
buildings in which the people live. No house in Kingston, or
in any other parish, is higher than two stories. Most of them
are built half of brick, half of wood, and sheer upon the street.
But the farther one gets away from the lower portion of the
town the finer do the residences become; here you find cot-
tages standing in their own grounds, with flower gardens
in front of them and a general air of quiet comfort; here you
find villadom with all its conventions; here abide the 'respect-
able' people. There are plenty of slums in Kingston too;
many of the lanes are slums; and there is a lane between every
two principal streets. What would you have? The people






CITY, TOWNS, AND COUNTRY


are poor, and must live where they can and as cheap as they
can. The fortunate thing for them is that there is no cold,
and consequently no intense suffering. They live mainly in
the open air; they but sleep in their tiny rooms, and prefer
it so. But there are also suburbs in Kingston where the
better working classes live; where there are pianos if you
please, and rose gardens. These may not be very many,
nevertheless that they do exist is interesting. And they are
steadily on the increase.
This West Indian city now has a theatre, which it obtained
after five years of argument and heated discussion. The
earthquake having overthrown the theatre which the munici-
pality had built, the question was, how was another play-
house to be obtained? The Press suggested that the Legis-
lative Council should give a grant to the city for this purpose,
and the Governor did not seem unwilling. But some of the
city parsons protested that public money should not be used
for such a purpose, and a few other folk joined them in that
protest. Then the Press, or, rather, one section of it, sug-
gested that the city itself should borrow the money required
and build the theatre; but here again the parsons protested,
and one or two of the newspapers threw their support on the
parsons' side. Then it was suggested that a tax of a shilling
per head should be levied on all tourists coming to the island,
as is the case in Costa Rica. But this brought the shipping
agents into the field of battle, and the parsons came to their
support, and one or two newspapers followed. The parsons,
it was plain, did not want a theatre. The opposing newspapers
wanted something to oppose. Nobody could agree as to what
should be done, and such fierce things were said in that five-
year discussion about the theatre that some persons must have
wished the controversy might continue for ever. The debate
was the thing; it often is the only thing in the island. Then
happened the unexpected, and a fruitful source of contention
was taken away. A prominent and wealthy Jamaican, Colonel






TWENTIETH CENTURY JAMAICA


Charles J. Ward, who is one of the biggest sugar planters and
manufacturers of native liquors in the colony, quietly an-
nounced that he would give the city the amount required
to provide the theatre, whereupon some of the parsons said
they withdrew their opposition to the theatre, or words to
that effect. The donation of Colonel Ward was 12,ooo (not
by any means his only gift to Jamaica); the building itself has
been constructed by a native firm of builders and contractors,
after a design furnished by one of the brothers connected
with the firm. The competition for the best design was an
open one, and the prize was won by a native, Mr Rudolph
Henriques, a very young man who acquired the knowledge
he possesses by dint of his own exertions. An impartial and
competent jury gave him the award, and his brothers obtained
the contract for erecting the building. It stands on the site
of the former theatre, and unquestionably is the best play-
house in all the West Indies, including Cuba. It is one of the
few handsome structures in Kingston, and one is pleased to
be able to point to it as an instance of native generosity and
public spirit, and of native ability and talent.
As the seat of the island's government, Kingston is natur-
ally the centre of the island's commercial, professional, and
official life. It is in Kingston and in the bordering parish of
St Andrew that you will find the chief officials and many of
the men who are the leaders of the country; out of the 1666
persons from England, Ireland, and Scotland, for instance,
1136 live in Kingston and St Andrew. It is the one city of
Jamaica. Its harbour, which has the reputation of ranking
among the largest and finest in the world, makes it the colony's
chief port; this harbour is like a great lagoon, with but a
narrow opening to the south-west, and is a magnificent sheet
of water fringed with mangrove plant and cocoa-nut palm.
The harbour, indeed, dwarfs into insignificance the little city
lying on the lip of the great plain that sweeps down from the
mountains' base for miles and miles; one looks at the






CITY, TOWNS, AND COUNTRY


shining lake-like water, the mighty wall, green-clothed and
cloud-capp'd, in the background, and at the mass of houses
apparently huddled up on a tiny patch of land, where for every
house there seem a dozen trees, and one perceives that what
man has done shows up poorly beside the work of nature. But
nature has been at this work for a hundred thousand years,
and man has just begun.
The city possesses hotels, of course, and these in the
months when tourists come to the island are filled to over-
flowing. The chief hotels in Kingston are the Myrtle Bank
and South Camp Road Hotels; the first is built by the sea,
the second is situated in the city's finest residential quarter,
and both have the benefit of the breeze that comes from the
sea in the day-time and of the delightful winds that steal down
from the mountains at night. It is these breezes that never
lull except during the month of September, that make the
heat of a tropical city like Kingston so different from what
one has to endure in New York, Boston, or the eastern cities
of Canada during the summer days. There one gasps and
suffocates; in Kingston, in Jamaica generally, so long as you
can find a bit of shade there will be some wind to keep you
from panting, while you need never fear sunstroke, with
ordinary care. I have never heard of a case of sunstroke in
Jamaica myself; but this is by the way. To return to the
hotels, it may be said that they serve a double function:
the first, naturally, is to cater for guests, and this they do in
a manner creditable to them; the other function is the organ-
ising of public dances, and in this they also succeed admir-
ably. Balls are frequently given by them, and at some of
these you will find hundreds of handsomely dressed people-
Jamaica's best--and will get some idea of what a social func-
tion in the West Indies is like. On the whole, there is nothing
quite so lively in the way of public entertainment as the
dances arranged by these hotels, and their foreign guests
seem to enjoy them thoroughly. They afford the average






TWENTIETH CENTURY JAMAICA


visitor the only chance he will have of meeting at close
quarters the better classes of Jamaicans.
But I think I have said enough of Kingston in this chapter,
though not all that I could wish to say. After all, there is
something about it, something about the life of it, which one
cannot tell of on paper, but which gives to it an individuality
of its own and constitutes its main source of interest. It is
not beautiful; except in the winter months it is not cool;
it is not in the slightest degree impressive; it is not charming,
like Havana; it is not even historic. And yet it is interesting,
and the more familiar you are with it the more interesting it
grows. One loves to watch its people walking, sauntering
along its streets, standing at the street corners, greeting one
another with audible cordiality, obviously taking life as it
comes, and not troubling much about the morrow. One sits
in the Central Park, and hears the orators there discoursing
to a seated audience of two or three-it is never more-on
the subjects that have been discussed for the last four or five
years with no appearance of finality. Life does not vary
much in this city; change, unless caused by accident or
catastrophe, comes imperceptibly; old age creeps upon one
unawares. The cables bring daily the news of the outer world,
of battles, murders, great speeches, epidemics, and epoch-
making discoveries, and the people take them all as a matter
of course. It is not ignorance, it is not lack of interest, this.
It is habit mainly, the habit of going through the day calmly,
through the long days of resplendent sunlight, only varied
now and then by the darkness which the thunder-clouds
cast, a darkness which resolves itself into a torrential shower
that washes the atmosphere to a crystaline purity, through
which one looks at the soft-shining snow-clouds drifting and
floating above in a concave ocean of azure and gold.
But it is not in Kingston even at its best, it is not in Kingston
with its surrounding ramparts of mountains and the blue sea
at its feet that you will see the island at its greatest beauty















rH" DRIVE
HOPF.
GARDENS


Lx.Nf,~






CITY, TOWNS, AND COUNTRY


and fascination. It is away amongst the hills, it is on its level
savanahs, and down by its long northern shore that you will
learn what it is that has caused Jamaica to be classed as one
of the three most beautiful islands in the world : with Ceylon
and Java, and not as inferior to these. Let us picture our-
selves as about to travel through some part of it for a day or
two; we will go by motor-car the whole way, for France and
Jamaica are the two countries that have the best roads. It
is morning when we start, and the city is quietly awaking to
the work of the day. We stir the dust up as we pass, little
shops open, and sleepy women peer out at us; groups of
artisans, clerks, labourers, and others are strolling down
to the lower part of the city, and though the sun is rapidly
mounting overhead, there is still something of freshness in the
morning air.
For two or three miles our route leads northward. Past
the market, which is already crowded with buyers and sellers,
past houses dilapidated and old, but still crowded with people,
past the northern boundary of the city, and into the con-
tiguous parish of St Andrew. The character and appearance
of the buildings have changed. This part of St Andrew's
parish is in reality but an extension of the residential area of
Kingston; every man who lives here works in Kingston;
but land is cheaper here and the rates are low; it is cooler too,
and hardly a house but has its own grounds, with fruit trees
and shade trees, and grass and flower beds. Some handsome
houses we pass, built of wood and brick, or of brick alone, in
the West Indian fashion; the homes these of officials and
prosperous merchants. We turn south-westward now, having
reached the village of Half-way Tree. South-westward we
run for a while, and now we are surrounded by wastes of
green, enveloped in silence and overarched by a mighty dome
of blue. How still it is No sound is heard, save that made
by our car; no human beings to be seen except ourselves.
Even animals are rare; it looks as though this part of the
J. F







TWENTIETH CENTURY JAMAICA


countryside were deserted. Yet we know that behind the
trees, buried amidst the tall grass, shielded by the thick
foliage, are cottages here and there, and people; and perhaps,
although we do not see them, some curious youths may be
peeping at us from behind that hedge or lolling within the
shadow of that thicket.
Soon we come to a shallow river running across the road;
we dash through it and speed onwards. We are now in the
region of cultivated land and of visible human habitations.
We are in the parish of St Catherine--aints seem to have been
popular with the Jamaicans of the past-and on either hand
of the hard white road, for miles and miles, are plantations of
the banana. From nine to ten feet high, and even twelve
feet, are the stems of these plants, the thickest part of the stem
being about two and a half feet in diameter. It is so soft that
you could run a knife through it, it is so weak that the single
bunch of fruit which hangs from its summit among the broad
spear-like, olive-green leaves causes the whole tree to heel over.
It is this fragility which makes a storm so serious a thing to the
Jamaica planter. It is not pleasant to look this evening upon
a banana plantation in full bearing, and to-morrow morning
to see nearly every tree broken and levelled to the ground.
The road here is dusty, so dusty that you cannot see far
in front of you. It is one of the great highways of the island,
and by night and day huge wagons filled with fruit, laden with
sugar, or piled high with merchandise pass, continually over
it. There they come, some of them slowly drawn by oxen,
which nothing in the world will induce to a reasonably active
pace, or by sturdy mules, which stand first amongst the local
beasts of burden. 'Whoop! Hoo-hoo !' Dashow! This
the call of the drivers and the sharp crash of the bull's hide
whip as it strikes the body of some recalcitrant cow or erring
mule. 'Cow, cow, cow, cow!' Crack! The whip cracks
this time in the air, but the animals know that it will fall
upon them shortly, for your driver in Jamaica is not an ardent







CITY, TOWNS, AND COUNTRY 83

member of the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to
Animals, the members of which, indeed, he regards with
unmitigated contempt. He talks to his horse, mule, or ox
as if it were a rational being. He believes it understands him
very well, and that when it does anything of an annoying
nature it does so out of sheer cussedness, or from a desire to
be personally provocative. Thus he resorts to warning, abuse,
and blows, in dealing with his animals, arguing that they should
be beaten because they have sense to understand, and also that
they should be beaten because they have no souls to be saved.
Thus through dust and carts and shouting men we come
to Spanish Town. Here is the oldest town in the island,
a place which was the head-quarters of the Spaniards when
an English buccaneer attacked Jamaica more than three
hundred years ago. It is on record that when Cromwell's
commanders captured Spanish Town (or St Jago de la Vega,
as it was and still is sometimes called) he found half of it
deserted. Half of it is deserted still. This town, indeed, seems
always to have lived up to its reputation of desertion; it has
always had more houses than people to occupy them; it has
always been a silent funereal sort of place. Yet it was for
a long time the English capital of Jamaica. The Legislature
met there, the Governor lived there, the Supreme Court sat
there, the Cathedral was there, and tradition and the historian
Leslie actually say that once upon a time a theatre was there.
The old Governor's House (King's House it was called, of
course), the old Assembly Rooms, the old Court House, and the
rest of the State buildings are still to be found in Spanish
Town to-day. They surround a square in the midst of which
is a little park filled with tropical shrubs and trees. They are
interesting reminiscences of a bygone day, and the town
itself is from this point of view interesting.
Its population is over seven thousand, but you would
never suspect it. You would drive through one of its long
streets and not meet more than a dozen human beings, a







TWENTIETH CENTURY JAMAICA


sad-looking goat, and a score or so of dogs who look as if they too
were historical chiefly. The problem has always been to find
out what the people of Spanish Town do for a living, for there
is very little commerce in the place, and but one industry.
It is the centre of a banana and sugar parish, however, and it
is to be presumed that many of those who are employed on
the plantations and estates live or keep their families in
Spanish Town. It has a handful of people of the professional,
planter, and official class, and these form the upper crust of
the society of the town. They are more or less like a large
family, and their social intercourse and amusements are all
after the English pattern. Living in a dull town, one becomes
used to mere dullness, and one learns to make the most of
friendships and social reunions. It is all provincial, yet I
should say that as much happiness comes to the people of
Spanish Town as to those of towns and cities of far greater
pretensions.
From Spanish Town we go north by west and through
the heart of the country. For some distance we have the
Rio Cobre on our left, and great mountains of limestone on
our right; the road is hard and level, and a cool wind makes
the journey delightful. The river is shallow here, and beautiful
exceedingly. The water is streaked with colour, emerald-
green near the banks where the wild cane grows, silver where
the white sands gleam through the hyaline medium, dark blue
where the forest trees cast their shadow over the water.
Placidly it flows along, lit up with the light of the sun. The
mountains to the right of us rise sheer into the sky, so high
we cannot see their summits as we look upwards. Here and
there the rock crops out bare and yellow-white or brown;
but for the most part the sides of these cliffs are covered with
vegetation, and it is through an avenue of green that we go.
For on the other side of the river the ground rises also, in
places, and where it is level and where it is not are trees and
trees, and yet more trees.






CITY, TOWNS, AND COUNTRY


Our way is now towards Moneague, a town where, in the
very midst of summer, it is always cool. The temperature
changes perceptibly as our car speeds upwards, a glorious
breeze blows incessantly, and travelling is a delight. We
reach the town, and now we are in the region of upland
savanahs; fenced pastures dotted with cattle are on either
hand; magnificent silk-cotton trees stand out singly, dead
or dying in the grip of the parasitic creepers that wind them
round and prey upon their sap. The sun is vertical, but its
rays occasion no inconvenience; we are too high up for the
heat to affect us much.
Before reaching Moneague, we crossed one of the highest
roads in the island and saw some of the most wonderful
scenery. We crossed Mount Diablo, the devil's mount, called
so, doubtless, because of the peril of it in days gone by. Time
was when even the strongest pair of horses would strain and
pant as they pulled a light buggy up the hill; and a slip was
dangerous, for on one hand was a towering wall of cliffs, and
on the other a succession of yawning precipices. To-day
a motor-car makes nothing of the steep incline, and parapets
have been built to prevent an accident. But the view remains
as of yore, a view which few writers can adequately describe;
which, indeed, is indescribable. Bits of the landscape frame
themselves into perfect pictures between breaks in the hills.
You look down upon sleeping villages aglow with sunlight,
upon range upon range of greenest hills rolling away to the
far-off horizon. The sky is of most delicate blue; every tint
of green is visible; cultivated spots appear; and, if lately it
has been raining heavily, you may catch a glimpse of a lake
shining like silver in the distance. Pass this way again a
month hence and you will look in vain for this lake. Only
now and then, at long intervals, does it appear-a thing of
beauty while it lasts. But Mount Diablo has been passed
and Moneague is reached, and now our journey lies directly
northward and downward. We are going towards the sea.






TWENTIETH CENTURY JAMAICA


Down, down, steadily downwards, and with every mile
the temperature grows slightly warmer. And here you
observe one of the commonest features of life in Jamaica;
in a day you can pass from the warm lowlands to the coolest
heights, to elevations which remind you of northern countries
in the verdant spring months, to a temperature that may be
likened to that of an Indian summer. And as you travel you
will be tempted at times to ask if Jamaica is very sparsely
populated, so few, comparatively, are the people you see. Yet
let your motor-car break down, and you will be surprised at
the number of curious folk that will appear, whence, you can
scarcely guess Still it is true that the country could support
a much larger number of inhabitants, and will, as time goes on.
The lowlands at last! We turn due west now, and in
a little while, unexpectedly, the sea of the northern coast
bursts upon our view. We have come to Ocho Rios, the place
of the eight rivers; we are in the parish that has been called
'the Garden of Jamaica'; we are in that portion of the
country which Columbus first saw and where he first landed,
and where he lived a whole year in sickness and distress.
In this parish was built the never-completed Spanish city
of Seville; and from one of its little coves the last Spanish
Governor of the island set out in his open boat for Cuba,
a fugitive.
Nowhere is the sea more beautiful than here. All the
colours of the rainbow are reflected from its surface, and in the
distance the waves dash themselves to foam against the line
of breakers that here and there run parallel to the shore.
This is cultivated country. Our journey is by the seashore;
but sometimes the sea is hidden from our sight by trees and
peasants' gardens, and for long distances we travel through
a lane of green steeped in the shadow thrown by overarching
trees. Hut after hut we pass, and large cattle pens, and
peasants trudging their way along stolidly, and giving you
politely 'the time of the day.' Buggies drawn by pairs of tough,






CITY, TOWNS, AND COUNTRY


wiry country ponies rattle past at a jog-trot pace, their occu-
pants chiefly farmers owning from fifty to a hundred acres of
land, making a good living and contented with their lot.
They know you at once for a stranger, and gaze curiously,
but never rudely, at you, and you know that you will be the
source of a few minutes' speculation to them, and may even
constitute the staple of that evening's conversation.
It is afternoon now, the sun is slanting westward, the
shadows are lengthening on the road. We have lunched
at Moneague, and know we shall arrive at St Ann's Bay in
time for dinner; we recline comfortably in our car, and feel
at peace with all the world. An hour passes; another. We
are in rocky regions again. What is that? The roar of falling
water has smitten our ears, and a glimpse of a great volume
of something white has been caught by our eyes as we hurried
along; we halt, and, alighting, walk back to look upon one of
the waterfalls for which the island of Jamaica is famous.
The noise is thunderous, as through a narrow gorge a huge
body of cream-coloured water leaps into a chasm below. The
rock here is yellowish-white and soft, the soil is of the same
composition and has coloured the water. This is a branch of
the Roaring River, and a little later on we shall see the real
Roaring River Falls, the immense cascade that tumbles over
a mass of rocks with an infinity of foam and flashes of pale green
-shall see it through a tangled medium of tossing trees, and shall
carry away an unforgettable memory of it : a joy for ever.
Night has fallen when we reach St Ann's Bay, supposed by
some to be the place where Columbus first landed. It is a town
built at the foot of a hill, a town of wooden houses chiefly,
and having 2592 inhabitants. Its streets run up and down,
and at night are shrouded in darkness. Save for the lanterns
with which the higglers light up their bowls and trays of fruit
and bread and fried fish and cakes, and for the gleam which
comes from the two or three shops that are open, there is no
lighting. Everybody moves about indistinctly, the sound of






TWENTIETH CENTURY JAMAICA


a piano makes itself distinctly heard a long way off; a primi-
tive town this, yet picturesque because of its very primitive-
ness and simplicity. Flowers grow profusely here, the crotons
are gigantic; and after it rains the sky at sunset is a riot of
colour, a tumultuous blaze of crimson and purple and gold.
It is one of those towns which, somehow, you never forget, with
its dark streets and here and there a little lantern gleaming.
We shall have accomplished our first day's travel through
Jamaica with the conviction that the hotel accommodation
is good. We have had good food wherever we have stopped,
the beds have been comfortable, and the attendance satis-
factory. This way of travelling is much more convenient
than spending a whole day in a train and taking our meals in
a dining-car; that sort of thing wearies one after a while, as
the writer has often found when sight-seeing in other countries.
Starting in the early morning from St Ann's Bay, we hug
the sea-coast once more, and the farther we go the more sugar
estates we begin to see. Sugar was once the chief product
of Jamaica, and is still one of the principal exports. The cane
is planted in squares, and the green spears and pale purple
plumes of it bend and wave as the wind passes over them.
From the chimney of the boiler-house, where the juice of the
cane is turned into sugar, a column of thick smoke ascends,
and a sweet odour pervades the road. Farther on, alas!
we come upon other sugar estates, but these are as quiet as
the grave, as deserted as a churchyard. They are abandoned
properties; the sugar-works have fallen into decay, the fields
are overgrown with weeds and wood, the 'Great House,'
where the planter or his overseer once lived, is now the habita-
tion of bats. This is one of the tragedies of the old Jamaica
industry. Once fortunes were made out of sugar, then a bare
living, then came the time when the competition of European
bounty-fed sugar told the Jamaica planter of his approaching
ruin. But Jamaica will always make sugar, for modern
machinery and modern science have come to the aid of the






CITY, TOWNS, AND COUNTRY


planter, and some of Jamaica's sugar soils are among the best
in the world.
But it is when one has passed through the parish of St
Ann and entered that of Trelawny that the full extent and
meaning of the decadence of the sugar industry become
apparent. For a large part of Trelawny is deserted to-day;
estate after estate is passed, all in a condition of ruin; it needs
no further knowledge to convince one that this parish at any
rate has never recovered from the blow which it received
during the nineteenth century. The effect of so many ruins,
of expensive sugar-works given over to absolute neglect, of
fine mansions dismantled and falling slowly to pieces, is sad-
dening in the extreme. We observe, too, that the people we
meet in this part of the country seem poorer than those we
have seen elsewhere, and that is indeed their condition. Still,
they appear cheerful and happy. They scream out a request
at us as we go by---'Beg you a tup !' a tup being equivalent
to three half-pence. It is only about here that you will hear
this word; it is, like some other terms, quite peculiar to the
district. In other parishes the peasant will beg you a shilling,
though not expecting to have his wishes attended to. He
has learnt that tourists are liberal, and raises his demand
accordingly. But in Trelawny, where probably few tourists
go, the simple peasant is content with asking for a tup, and is
apparently equally content if no attention is paid to his request.
It is while on our way to Falmouth, the chief town of
Trelawny, that we see some of the finest scenery that the
island has to show. Up a high hill we climb, then, as we
reach its summit, a steep precipice breaks away upon our
left. We look down, and below us lies a valley through which
a wide dark-gleaming river flows-the Rio Nuevo on its way
to the sea. Cocoa-nut trees and bananas are growing thickly
on its banks, and in the fertile fields on either side of it, and
the metallic polish of fronds and leaves flash back the rays of
the sun as they move and rustle in the wind. Gray-green






TWENTIETH CENTURY JAMAICA


mountains surround this valley, with here and there a house
visible on the sides of them, and in the valley itself a collec-
tion of huts marks the site of a village where the peasants
live. A stone bridge spans the river, and the road that passes
over it loses itself among the hills. The air is delightful, and a
scarcely broken silence seems to brood over this beautiful spot, a
silence pierced but not disturbed by the piping of little birds.
As we approach Falmouth, we once again have the sea in
view, a multi-coloured sea breaking on delicate, fine white
sand, and along the edge of the shore grow thousands of cocoa-
nut palms, tall and slender, laden with fruit, and wildly waving
their branches when struck by a puff of sea breeze. Seeing
them thus, with their yellow-green fronds glinting in the sun,
one begins to wonder if, after all, the famous Royal Palm is
more beautiful than they. The writer has seen forests of Royal
Palms in Cuba--hundreds of thousands of them covering the
ground for miles. And yet these shore-loving cocoa-nuts-
surely they have nothing to fear from any comparison with their
rivals of Cuba? So we think; but soon we are entering Fal-
mouth, and the first thought that comes to us is that this
must be Sunday. As a matter of fact it is Saturday, the
busiest day in all the island. But so still and deserted is this
town that one would never think it could be Saturday there.
Falmouth is the classical example of a deserted city in
Jamaica. Spanish Town is populous and a hive of activity
compared with it. Once it rivalled Kingston; it was the chief
sugar port of the island, the produce of two rich parishes was
shipped from its wharves. To-day nearly all its wharves
have rotted, and but a few planks remain in certain spots,
or a few stumps of piers, to remind one that there once were
wharves and warehouses along the sea-front of the town.
We remark that most of the houses are large. We notice that
most of the houses are closed, and that there is not one
amongst them that looks less than a hundred years old. Two-
thirds of the shops are closed-more than two-thirds, We






CITY, TOWNS, AND COUNTRY


count three persons in the principal street, one dray is standing
outside an empty warehouse; we spy a man looking out of
the window of the Government building which dominates the
town. The dust is inches thick upon the street, grass grows
everywhere; this surely is a town that has been dead for
sixty years; some would say dead beyond the hope of resur-
rection. Yet it is not necessarily so. The Parish of Trelawny
is slowly but surely developing as a banana-growing district,
and the better the trade relations between Jamaica and
Canada or Jamaica and the United States become, the more
hope there will be for the Jamaica sugar industry. It is
impossible for any one to doubt that all the Great Antilles
have a most promising industrial future. And in that future
every parish of Jamaica must share.
The one thing of interest to learn about present-day Fal-
mouth is that it has nearly three women to every man, and
that the majority of its 'men' are either minors or persons
long past the meridian of life. It may be of some interest to
learn also that this once-flourishing town, where the planters
used to congregate and money flowed like water, had 2517
inhabitants in 1891 (when it had already decayed) and but
2288 in 1911. Further decay seems impossible to us as we
ride between the silent, shuttered, dust-covered houses and
pass into the open country once more.
Our journey will end at Montego Bay, twenty-one miles
off. There are other towns which we could visit, magnificent
stretches of country we could pass through, beautiful water-
falls we could pause to gaze upon, and high mountains we could
cross. The journey is well worth taking, but this time we can-
not do it. The whole of the interior and the south side of the
country must be left unvisited; and this (if the truth must
be told) because other topics demand space and attention in
these pages. Our road is no longer level, but rolls up and down;
the gradients are still easy, and it is pleasant to see that in
this parish of St James, which we have now entered, there are






TWENTIETH CENTURY JAMAICA


sugar estates at work and but few signs of desertion and
poverty. When we come to Montego Bay, we find a town of
wooden houses mainly, but a town that looks prosperous
enough in its quiet, contented, tropical way. Six thousand
six hundred people live in it, it supports a weekly newspaper,
it has several large, well-built churches and good hotels;
and it calls itself the capital of the Northern parishes. It is
a busy town, as commercial and industrial activity goes in the
British West Indies; its wealthier classes live on 'the hill,'
the poorer people live on the levels, and every one seems to
accord very well with every one else, in a placid provincial
sort of way. One of the chiefest persons in the town is an
American vice-consul, whose vice-consular position cannot
be the reason why he resides in Jamaica, since he is reputed
to spend a large part of his official salary in helping forward
local efforts towards improvement. In him we have an
instance of an American identifying himself with the island
and being one of the leaders in everything in that part of the
country where he resides. He certainly does a great deal
for Montego Bay.
Our journey is at an end. It has been hurried; we have
only caught a brief glimpse of things from the interior of
a motor-car. We have stopped nowhere, except at night;
we have visited no ancient mansions, listened to no weird
legends, explored no caves, and hardly talked to any of the
people. Our impressions have been concerned with externals
only, and we have only partially seen a part of those. And,
when night finds us on 'the hill' of Montego Bay, and we watch
the town twinkling with lights below, with the dark sea rolling
out to the far horizon in front of it, we know that we have
passed through some of the most magnificent country in the
world, but feel that by no effort of ours can we convey to any
other mind a vivid and true impression of the things we have
seen.











CHAPTER V

THE PEOPLE'S LIFE

IT was in relation to the tropics, I believe, that some one wrote
a hymn about 'where every prospect pleases and only man is
vile.' The compliment to the physical features of the countries
thus characterized is all right, but the inhabitants of them
might justly murmur at being held up, so to speak, as blots
upon the landscape. However, consolation may be found in
the fact that it is beyond the power of a landscape to be vile;
that sort of thing is left to the lord of creation, and marks him
out as superior to the inanimate world. Besides, tropical man
is not all vile. He is like man in almost every part of the
world, a composition of good and bad, angelic and bestial,
false and true. He has his virtues as well as his shortcomings,
and we must take him as we find him and not expect perfec-
tion. And yet that is what most persons who are new to
countries such as the West Indies, or who remain extremely
foolish no matter where they have lived or how long they
have lived, will insist 'upon doing. They credit the West
Indian working classes with an unlimited amount of stupidity,
and demand from them the recognition of the highest moral
standards. They'are always ready to tell you what the Negro
is incapable of in the way of sustained mental effort, and they
seem to take a sort of pride in this. But this will not prevent
them from expecting him to show a degree of intelligence
equal to that of a college professor, and if he doesn't-and of
course he doesn't-they point to his failure as proof of their
contention. If your Jamaica peasant were to act as he is
popularly expected to act, he would have qualified for saint-
ship. If he lived as he is presumably expected to live, he would






TWENTIETH CENTURY JAMAICA


work about twelve hours a day, with brief pauses for meals,
would save nine-tenths of his wages, would be content with
whatever was paid him, would be absolutely honest, painfully
truthful, absurdly devoted to work, always cheerful, would
never answer back, and would show a dog-like fidelity to those
who would not think twice about him after he had ceased to
be of any service to them. Well, he does nothing of all this.
He goes sometimes, it must be admitted, to the very opposite
of what is expected from him, and does much less than he
reasonably could. Thus it is quite true that many of the
labourers do not work more than three days a week, and that
many of them love to take lengthy spells of rest when they
think they have toiled long enough. But it is also true that
often they cannot get work when they want it, and in some of
the parishes the planters cannot find employment for the people
surrounding them for more than two or three days a week.
Then there are the illegitimacy statistics. Briefly stated,
sixty-two per cent. of the children born annually in Jamaica
are illegitimate, and the rate does not tend to grow less. It
has been practically stationary for the last twenty years,
while the proportion of married people to the population is
just about half what it might be. 'This is very shocking,'
I hear some one say, but somehow it doesn't shock any one
very violently in the West Indies. You may attribute this to
the climate if you like, or to use and wont. It is not impossible
to regard with equanimity in the Tropics-things that would
send the temperate zone into hysteria, if only they were
published in the newspapers. Even Mr William Archer con-
fesses that the moral condition of Jamaica does not appeal to
him as immoral, and he does not want to change it.1 Such is
the effect of latitude upon one's ideas.
But, to be serious, you must remember that the people of
Jamaica have begun to learn about high standards of moral
conduct, according to European ideals, only in late years. In
1 Through Afro-America.






THE PEOPLE'S LIFE 95

the second chapter of this book I have said enough about the
old Jamaica manners and customs, and the class of colonists
who came here, to convince the intelligent reader that no one
was likely to learn morality from them. Nor did the slave
bring any exalted moral ideas with him from Africa; there
a wife was property, and if adultery was severely punished,
it was as an offence against property. Polygamy was and is
practised in West Africa, and the monogamist ideal-namely,
home, love, domesticity, one wife, and the due observance of
social duties-does not appeal to the West African savage.
The upper classes of the Jamaica people always defend the
peasant's way of life by saying that even if he does not marry
he is faithful to the woman he selects as his partner. In a
considerable number of instances this is no doubt true; I
should say that comparative faithfulness was the rule, the
absolute being difficult to achieve in normal life. The Jamaica
peasant does not marry, because he does not want to be tied for
life to one woman. Apart from the responsibility of marriage,
which he fully appreciates, he is aware that he may not
get on very well with the woman he is supposed to spend his
whole life with, and it does not appear to him to be reasonable
that he should marry for worse as well as for better. We
must bear in mind that Mr Bernard Shaw is also decidedly
of this opinion. No one should marry for worse, says Mr Shaw,
and in the average Jamaican peasant he has an enthusiastic
supporter. So our peasant marries rarely; so to speak, he
reverses St Paul's dictum and says, 'it is better to burn than
to marry.' And frankly, the results of some of the marriages
that take place-and they are not so few after all--are not
calculated to fill the heart of the people with admiration for
the institution of monogamous marriage. 'My wife having
left my care and protection, I am no longer responsible for
her,' is a legend which not infrequently one may read in the
newspapers. Sometimes the wife will retaliate by saying that
she has been forced to leave her husband's protection; and





96 TWENTIETH CENTURY JAMAICA

at every sitting of the Circuit Court the local papers have a
couple of columns of print entitled 'The Story of Some Un-
happy Marriages,' reading which you might be justified in
believing that the reporter found much happiness in recording
the proceedings of the divorce court.
The number of married couples in Jamaica is about 15o,ooo,
and it is at once obvious that this number does not represent
the better classes alone. All classes marry in the island,
peasants as well as professional men; still the bulk of the
lower or working classes are unmarried, and show at present
no tendency to change their mode of life. But it has also to
be taken into account that those persons who are above the
peasant class think it incumbent upon them to marry, and
this irrespective entirely of colour. Social position largely
determines what a man's marital relations shall be, and the
simple truth is that no disgrace attaches to members of the
labouring and peasant class who do not choose to get married.
In Kingston the working classes and domestic servants
live chiefly in the lanes of the city and in the poorer suburbs;
in the country parishes the peasants live in villages, forty,
fifty, or even a hundred together. They supply the neighbour-
ing plantations with labour, and a part of their time is spent
in cultivating their own patch of ground. When you learn
that the number of planters returned in the census of 1911 was
112,542, you will understand at once that there are a great
number of peasant planters in the colony, over a hundred
thousand as a matter of fact. Life in the village is very simple.
The duties one has to perform are not numerous, but digging
and planting are not so easy as one may think, especially when
the planter or labourer has to toil under a pitiless sun. The
houses the people live in are oblong structures of plaster and
wattle thatched with palm leaves or straw, plaster and wattle
houses roofed with shingles, and wooden houses shingled and
floored, the last description of building having gained in
popularity as the people's circumstances have improved. In




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