• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Front Cover
 Introduction
 Main














Group Title: Its Florida program for improvement of schools. Bulletin no. 3 October, 1939
Title: A preliminary guide to a study of the elementary school curriculum in Florida
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Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00080936/00001
 Material Information
Title: A preliminary guide to a study of the elementary school curriculum in Florida
Series Title: Its Florida program for improvement of schools. Bulletin no. 3 October, 1939
Physical Description: 24 p. : incl. forms. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- State Dept. of Education
Publisher: State Dept. of Education
State dept. of education
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 1939
Copyright Date: 1939
 Subjects
Subject: Education -- Curricula -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Education -- Aims and objectives   ( lcsh )
Education, Elementary -- Curricula   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: "Suggested bibliography": p. 14.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00080936
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - AHQ4805
oclc - 21271327
alephbibnum - 001630038
lccn - e 40000143

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Introduction
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Main
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
Full Text









A Preliminary Guide
To a Study of the

ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CURRICULUM

IN FLORIDA






FLORIDA PROGRAM
For Improvement of Schools

BULLETIN No. 3
October, 1939
















STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA

COLIN ENGLISH, Superintendent


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Introduction
Since publication of the Course of Study for Florida Elementary
Schools in 1933, marked advancement has been made in educational thought
and practice. At that time, a broad social philosophy in keeping with the
democratic ideal had not been extensively developed; organismic psychol-
ogy had not reached the point of articulate expression. The implications of
the broad social philosophy and the new psychology for education were not
yet widely recognized and understood. The philosophy of the present
course of study for elementary schools contains elements of authoritarianism
and experimentalism; the psychology is in one place mechanistic and in
another organismic.
According to the authoritarian point of view, the primary aims of edu-
cation are the perpetuation of the social heritage and the preparation of
boys and girls for adult life. Educational objectives are determined for
youth by adults through a study of best practice, through scientific research,
or through other quantitative methods. The curriculum consists primarily
of pre-selected subject matter, with much emphasis on unrelated facts and
skills as found in textbooks and courses of study. The teacher is the center
of the learning situation. Education and the school are synonymous. Ac-
cording to the experimentalist point of view, the primary aims of educa-
tion are the development and improvement of the social heritage and the
attainment of a well-integrated and satisfying life for each individual. Edu-
cational objectives are determined cooperatively by the learner and the
teacher. The curriculum consists of all the experiences of life found in
one's environment. The learner is the center of the learning situation.
Education and life are synonymous.
According to mechanistic psychology, the individual is conceived to be
a mechanical assemblage of parts. Behavior is more or less a complex
series 'of mechanical S-R responses. Behavior is based on habits properly
built into the learner's reaction system by adults. Learning takes place
through response conditioning or shifting of associations. Learning situa-
tions are set for the individual. Mastery of skills and knowledge precedes
understanding. According to organismic psychology, the individual is con-
ceived as a complete unitary organism. Behavior consists of the inter-action
of the organism with the environment. Learning is based on intelligent
thinking and acting. Learning takes place through creating new responses
to novel situations and incorporating these in the organism. The individual

'This contrast of philosophies and psychologies is based on the outline of essential
points found in the Handbook on Curriculum Study, State of Oregon, Department of
Education, 1937, p. 83. 1 3
1118 3







must set or accept the learning situation for himself. Understanding pre-
cedes mastery of detailed skills and. knowledge.
Since these philosophies and psychologies represent opposing systems
of thought, it seems expedient, at this time, first to study Bulletin No. Two,
and then to re-examine the Elementary Course of Study in order to deter-
mine the relation of one to the other. This will lead to a realization of the
need for revision of many concepts relating to curriculum content, teaching
practices, methods of evaluation, and techniques of curriculum development.
This bulletin is designed to assist teachers in this study, and to provide the
means for wider participation in the development and preparation of future
bulletins. Such procedure is in keeping with the suggestion made in the
present course of study for elementary schools; namely, that "the incorpora-
tion of better practice as it is discovered" should be encouraged.2


'The Course of Study for Florida Elementary Schools (1933), p. 9.








CHANGING POINT OF VIEW IN ELEMENTARY EDUCATION
In the paragraphs which follow a digest is given of the guiding prin-
ciples underlying the present course of study for elementary schools with
their implications, and of the basic assumptions contained in Bulletin Num-
ber Two with their implications for elementary education. This is done in
order (1) to assist those teachers who do not have access to the elementary
course of study, (2) to aid teachers in the review of the significant princi-
ples basic to the two points of view, and (3) to provide concise statements
to which easy reference may be made.

Following the digests of guiding principles and implications is a set
of suggestions and questions for faculty study which will bring out simi-
larities and differences in the two points of view. By careful study, the
teacher will discover trends which have developed in elementary education
since publication of the present course of study in 1933. In some instances
the trend has been toward fuller development of principles already accepted;
in other instances the trend has been toward a conflicting point of view.

A Digest of Guiding Principles and Implications of the Present
Course of Study For Elementary Schools
GUIDING PRINCIPLES
Guiding principles accepted by the Steering Committee for the present
course of study may be stated as follows:3
1. "Education is the process of continuous adjustment and growth through worth-
while experiences which fit the individual both to live abundantly and to serve
society to the maximum."
2. "Learning is the process of assimilation of the experiences necessary to edu-
cational growth."
3. "The school is a social institution the function of which is to provide situations
which may result in worthwhile experiences through which" the individual may
be fitted "both to live abundantly and to serve society to the maximum."
4. "The curriculum of the school is a succession of experiences directed by the
teacher to the end that" the individual may be fitted "both to live abundantly
and to serve society to the maximum."
5. "Subject-matter is that part of the group culture which is employed in" fitting
the "individual both to live abundantly and to serve society to the maximum."
6. "General transfer is neither automatic nor inevitable. Transfer is most prob-
ably from life-like situations in which exist elements identical with many other
situations."
7. "There is no desirable discipline from that which is merely difficult or dis-
tasteful."
8. "Adaptations to individual differences should be made as far as social wel-
fare permits."
9. "Social education is of increasing importance."
IMPLICATIONS
General Aims of Education.-The general aim of education is stated
to be the promotion and direction of "the adjustment and growth of the in-
dividual so that he may live worthily in an ever-changing society." This

"Ibid., p. 5 and 6.







general aim is interpreted in terms of the cardinal principles recommended
by the National Committee on the Reorganization of Secondary Education
in the United States in its report made in 1918, Bulletin 35, United States
Bureau of Education, Washington, D. C. These cardinal principles are
accepted as a suitable classification of human activities from which to de-
rive specific objectives in the subject fields. The classification is as follows:
health, command 'of fundamental processes, vocational efficiency, citizenship,
worthy home membership, worthy use of leisure, and ethical character.'
Organization of Course of Study.-In keeping with the guiding
principles, the course of study is organized by grades. "The child develops
as a unit. His growth is a continuous process, advancing through successive
stages and involving all his abilities. Each grade should represent a series
of unified experiences for the child." All subject matter "presented in
each grade should be so inter-related as to promote the unified development
of all the abilities of the child . Close relationship of the work of all
grades is necessary for the harmonious and continuous growth of the child."'
Content of Course of Study.-Content of the course of study is se-
lected and arranged so as to encourage and assist teachers to organize in-
struction around the child experiences, help teachers give effective direction
in the development and fixation of skills and information that promise to be
of somewhat permanent value, encourage modifications and revisions of
materials to meet locall needs, and encourage incorporation of better practice
as it is discovered.'
Organization of Instruction for Rich Meaningful Experiences.
-Instruction is organized in units in order that the teacher may direct
"children in rich meaningful experiences." Units should be characterized
by "a dominating purpose" on the part of the child, that is "compatible with
the aims of education;" a series of mental and physical activities selected,
planned, and executed by pupils and teacher to realize their purpose and
the opportunity for pupils and teacher to "evaluate the extent to which their
various activities have contributed to the realization of their purposes," It is
assumed that purpose results from interest, therefore units should be organ-
ized around "centers of interest." The teacher should not be confined to an
outline but be able to readjust himself, take a different line of thought, or
even change objectives if interests of the children take another angle.
Through suggestions, arranging situations and materials, and through
thought provoking questions teachers may skillfully guide activities.7
Organization of Instruction for Mastery of Skills and Informa-
tion.-Instruction must also be organized for "mastery of skills and infor-

*Ibid., pp. 6-8.
"Ibid., pp. 8, 9.
"Ibid., p. 9.
'Ibid., pp. 10-19, 47.







nation that promise to be of somewhat permanent value." Race experience
has "accumulated a number of skills and a body of information applicable
to many situations in life." For the sake of economy these should be made
automatic. "Repetition is the dominant feature of learning when fixing
skills is the aim . Skills and information to be mastered should be con-
ditioned by (1) the immediate need of the learner, (2) the probability that
the skill or information will be of value in other situations, and (3) the
ability of the learner to master the skill or information economically."8

Use of the Course of Study.-"In no case is it intended that the
course of study should limit the freedom and initiative of teachers in making
desirable adjustments. Only one requirement is recognized; which is, that
all teachers should direct their instruction toward achieving the aim of edu-
cation accepted for the State and should organize their instruction so as
to observe the principles of education accepted by the Steering Committee.
Beyond this, activities, materials, subject matter and procedures which are
most appropriate for particular situations should be employed. It follows
that materials presented in the grade outlines are only suggestive."'
Organization of a Program of Work.-Flexible programs of work
are necessary for the organization of instruction units. "Long periods are
required for developing units . Shorter periods are required for teaching
and drilling on skills and items of information and for diagnostic and
remedial work." Reasonable time allotments for various subjects should
be made but there is no mandatory time allotment for the State. A proper
balance should be "maintained between work, play, relaxation, and the
taking of nourishment."'0
Specific Objectives.-"The general aim of education . indicates
the general direction in which education in Florida should proceed. How-
ever, teachers must have more specific objectives if they are to direct their
instruction from day to day toward goals compatible with the general aim
of education. Such assistance is provided for teachers in elementary schools
by a list of abilities, understandings, attitudes, and fixed associations which
the elementary school should develop." The list is not inclusive but merely
suggestive and for purposes of checking." "All teachers, irrespective of the
grades they teach, should take their pupils where they find them and lead
them as far as possible toward the realization of the Objectives for the
Elementary School. The extent to which these objectives may be achieved
grade by grade depends upon the abilities of the children, their interests, the
adequacy of books and supplies, and the skill of the teacher. Thus, objec-
tives are not set up for each grade, but objectives which will probably re-
ceive major attention in each grade are given.""

'Ibid., pp. 19-21.
"Ibid., pp. 21, 22.
"'Ibid., p. 23-27. "Ibid., p. 36-43. "Ibid., p. 46.
7







Measurement of Outcomes.-It is desirable to measure outcomes in
order that necessary remedial instruction may be given "and so that future
instruction may be related to present achievement." Measurement of out-
comes will help the teacher to evaluate instructional procedures and to im-
prove them. Abilities may be measured by standardized tests; understand-
ing by essay, new type, and standardized tests; and, attitudes and habits by
observational tests." "More can be told about the complete development
of the child by observing him from day to day than in any other way.""

A Digest of Basic Assumptions and Implications
of Bulletin Number Two
BASIC ASSUMPTIONS
1. The individual organism is unique, dynamic, and creative.
2. The environment is dynamic.
3. Learning is continuous and is a result of the interaction of the
dynamic organism with the dynamic environment.
4. The growth of the individual is accomplished through his own
activity; from birth, and in every situation, he reacts as a whole to
his total environmental influences.
5. Growth proceeds at a varying rate and intensity for different in-
dividuals. Likewise, rate and intensity of growth vary from time
time in each individual in accordance with the dynamic interaction
of his capacities and environmental influences.
6. A democratic culture furnishes the most favorable conditions for
optimum growth and satisfaction of the individual and of the group.
IMPLICATIONS
These basic assumptions have implications for the entire educational
program which includes the pre-school education of the child, the kinder-
garten, elementary and secondary education, higher education, professional
training of teachers, and adult education.
Pre-school Education.-Since education is a continuous process start-
ing with birth, the educational program must be concerned with the pre-
school child. He must be assured proper physical care. Proper diet, body
care, and medical attention are requisites to good health. Emotional sta-
bility may be impaired before school age if parents are unwise in their
treatment of the child. Temper tantrums, extreme bashfulness, crying spells,
selfishness, sullenness, and unusual cruelty to pets or classmates may be re-
lated to improper guidance or lack of guidance at home. Often, children
come to school with a resentful attitude because parents have presented the
teacher and the school in an unfavorable light. Before beginning first

"Ibid., p. 766-7.
"Ibid., p. 769.






grade, the child should have had experience in the manipulation of many
objects and toys whereby he learned to use his hands more effectively. Op-
portunities to use picture books and to hear stories read or told are broad-
ening experiences. The child should have become accustomed to larger
and less familiar groups than the family. The educational program should
make provisions for dissemination of advice to parents regarding child train-
ing and children's literature. Pre-school clinics and nursery schools should
be maintained. Advice regarding preventive and correctional medical care
should be made available to all.
Kindergarten Education.-Teachers have long recognized the need
for kindergartens maintained at public expense where all children may have
access to the guidance of the competent teacher. The social experiences of
the kindergarten are particularly helpful to children in making the transition
from a relatively small social group to the larger numbers of the average
classroom. Through the activities of the kindergarten the child will have
further opportunity to develop respect for the rights of others and a cour-
teous attitude. Tools, apparatus, and materials may be provided for all
children in this manner. Otherwise the more fortunate reach first grade
age with much broader experiences than the less fortunate.

Elementary and Secondary Education.-At the present time the
formal educational program of the common school comprises the twelve
grades designated as elementary and secondary. In most cases the ele-
mentary school consists of the first six grades and the secondary school of
the latter six. In many instances the elementary school program is organ-
ized in such a manner that the work of one grade is inadequately related to
the work of preceding or succeeding grades. In such cases a unified school
program is hardly attainable. The break between the elementary and sec-
ondary grades is particularly sharp as regards the teacher's point of view
and organization 'of program. The departmentalization of subjects in the
secondary school with little or no provision for correlation of activities leads
to confusion, duplications, and piecemeal instruction. The important and
difficult job of integrating different phases of education is left to the pupil
who is too immature for the task. The implications to be drawn from the
basic assumption stated above are applicable to education at all school levels.
Seeming differences in the implications at different educational levels are
really variations in emphasis which result from due regard for the matura-
tion levels 'of individuals. The common school program must be seen and
treated as a unified process of continuous experiencing, progressing in the
direction in which the individual and society should be guided.

The implications of the basic assumptions for the school-elementary
and secondary-are stated herewith:
1. The school should provide stimulating environment that fosters
many varied interests and purposes on the part of pupils.







2. The school should give special attention to the physical well-being
of its pupils. Health should be related to the program of the entire day.
3. The school should guide the experiences of the child in such a way
that he preserves his emotional balance and at the same time grows in ability
to cope with situations at increasingly more mature levels.
4. The school should provide experiences through which the child
will become increasingly aware of, concerned about, and active with refer-
ence to the welfare and happiness of his fellows. Care must be taken not
to present social problems which are beyond the maturation level of the
pupil.
5. Teachers should utilize school activities as a means of giving chil-
dren direct experiences in the processes of democratic, cooperative living.
6. Since the individual and the environment are dynamic, the school
should utilize problem-situations in such a way as to promote ever increasing
ability of pupils to think at the level of their maturation and intelligence.
7. The school should provide for the acquisition of knowledge, tech-
niques and skills which have functional value in a life where new problems
must continually be met and solved. Since the individual's purposes are
many, one cannot delimit the knowledge that any child or even all human
beings will be likely to need.
8. It seems desirable that instructional activities in the classroom be
organized in large units. In this way, there is adequate time for resolving
the problems with which pupils are concerned. Opportunities for partici-
pation on the part of each member of the group are greater. A problem
may be concerned with some major conflict in man's thinking, a desire to
understand or appreciate, an intent to master some skill, or the will to build
something.
9. In planning experiences with pupils, the teacher has a responsibility
for stimulating children to judge the importance of their undertaking in
terms of their own needs and in terms of group needs-that is, society's
needs.
10. The framework of the curriculum should be built around needs of
pupils which arise in their interaction with the culture. Experiences with
the immediate natural and man-made environment should be the point of
departure and should be expended in keeping with the growing abilities
and interest of the pupils.
11. The teacher should be encouraged to plan with pupils those ex-
periences most essential to the individual and society within this general
framework and in accordance with pupils needs.
12. The entire school program should be planned with.reference to a
continuous educational process beginning with birth and progressing through
life.







13. "Character development" should permeate the entire school pro-
gram. Since the organism is learning all the time, special lessons devoted
to character education do little good.
14. The curriculum includes all those experiences of children for
which the school assumes responsibility. This includes special responsibility
for out-of-scho'ol experiences.
15. The success of the school program should be judged in terms of
changes in pupil behavior with reference to values implied in the demo-
cratic way of life. Skills are only a part of the attributes necessary for
successful democratic living and should not receive disproportionate em-
phasis.
16. In order to improve the total living of pupils, the school must
engage and participate in activities for improvement of community life.
17. The daily program should be flexible enough to allow modifica-
tions in daily planning, but not so flexible as to be disintegrating.

The school should provide experience related to common problems of
society. As stated in Curriculum Bulletin No. 1,' "these problems cluster
around certain major functions of society . ." The following problems
were selected tentatively to compose the scope of the curriculum for Florida
Schools:
1. Conserving Human and Natural Resources-Caring for Our Minds and Bodies
and for Natural Resources.
2. Making a Home-Securing and Enjoying a Place to Live.
3. Participating in Government-Organizing and Controlling all the Elements of
Our Lives.
4. Engaging in a Vocation-Securing and Earning a Living.
5. Expressing Religious Feelings-Finding an Outlet for Our Spiritual and Aes-
thetic Feelings.
6. Providing for Recreation-Enjoying Our Free Time Profitably.
7. Producing, Distributing and Consuming Goods and Services. Satisfaction of
Material Wants-Trying to Produce and Distribute the Things People Need
and Want.
8. Traveling, Transporting and Communicating-Transmitting Ideas to One An-
other, and Transporting Goods and People from Place to Place.

Higher Education.-A lengthy discussion of higher education does
not come within the scope of this bulletin. However, it may be pointed out
and emphasized that the basic assumptions accepted for this bulletin are
pregnant with implications for education at this level too. Some colleges
and common schools are conducting programs for revision and improve-
ment of their curriculum but with too little reference to a sound point of
view. College teachers must also be awakened to the fundamental problems
involved and to a realization of the need for revision of many traditional
concepts.

"Source Materials for the Improvement of Instruction, A Guide for Exploratory
Work in the Florida Program for the Improvement of Schools, Curriculum Bulletin No.
1 (April, 1939), State Department of Public Instruction, Tallahassee, Florida, p. 18, 19.






Professional Training of Teachers.-The basic assumptions per-
meating this bulletin are filled with implications as to the professional train-
ing of teachers-that is, pre-service and in-service training and growth. The
present-day and the future teacher's responsibility extends much further
than following in routine manner a course of study or a textbook which
prescribes a body of information and skills to be mastered. It is the teacher's
task to guide pupils in enriched school living in such a manner as to assist
them in the resolution of problems which are personally and socially signifi-
cant. If such guidance is to be effective, teachers must develop ever widen-
ing and deepening interest and insight into the nature of the dynamic indi-
vidual and the nature of the dynamic society. First of all, the teacher must
possess a broad general knowledge of the natural world, the man-made
world, the relationship 'of one to the other, the direction in which the man-
made world should move, and the problems and issues lying across the path
of such direction. In the second place, the teacher must continually seek
improvement of school procedures and teaching techniques. Specialization
in this respect begins in college but must be aggressively pursued in every
classroom. There is no pattern which all teachers may follow or which
the same teacher may follow again and again. Ever changing classroom
situations, ever different needs and interests of pupils, rapidly changing
needs of society, and advancement in psychology compel continuous evalua-
tion and re-evaluation of curriculum content, teaching procedures, and meth-
'ods of child guidance. Teacher training institutions must recognize that
longer time is necessary for acquiring sufficient knowledge of the natural
and social environment, and of developing adequate social and professional
insight, if teachers are to cope successfully with present-day demands. Like-
wise, the teacher must accept and meet the challenge for dynamic and ag-
gressive professional growth while in service.

Adult Education.-During recent years more and more attention has
been given to adult education, for which the school will need to assume an
increasingly greater share of responsibility. Adult education is not restricted
to obliteration of illiteracy. Literacy as an end in itself is not a valid ob-
jective, but literacy for the purpose of enlightenment, which will aid in
achieving a better life, is a desirable aim. Adult education includes the dis-
semination of useful information as regards the problems of daily living.
The school can assist with instruction pertaining to health, child training,
care of the sick, use and preservation of foods, and consumer's problems. A
program for adult education should provide for vocational training and
retraining and information as to occupational opportunities. Improved
methods of scientific farming and stockraising can be demonstrated. Forums
and lectures can be organized to discuss problems of marketing, capital and
labor, transportation, government, and international relations. It is increas-
ingly important that the people learn to evaluate propaganda. Opportuni-
ties for worthy use of leisure can be increased through the services of the







public school. The school can help in a program of adult education by
making its facilities and personnel available to the adult public.
SUGGESTIONS AND QUESTIONS FOR FACULTY STUDY
Reference should be made to the digest of guiding principles and impli-
cations of the Elementary Course 'of Study and to the digest of basic assump-
tions and implications of Bulletin Number Two given above when consider-
ing each point included in the following suggestions and questions. Facul-
ties are urged to consult books included in the appended bibliography for
further clarification of the changing point of view.
1. Compare the points of view developed with regard to:
a. the nature of the individual
b. the nature of the environment
c. the nature of learning
d. the culture most favorable to optimum growth of the individual
and society
e. the general aim of education
f. specific aims in education
2. What is the relationship 'of the elementary school to other phases
of the entire educational program? Consider this question with reference
to the pre-school child, the kindergarten, the secondary school, professional
training of teachers, and adult education.
3. What relationship exists between the elementary school and other
agencies and forces in the community?
4. How are health education, physical education, character education,
and guidance related to the program for elementary education?
5. What relative importance is given to:
a. experiences in cooperative, democratic living?
b. the development of social sensitivity?
c. the preservation of emotional balance?
d. mastery of subject matter and skills?
e. opportunities for creative expression and initiation 'of social
action?
f. development of habits?
g. developing the ability to think?
6. What stand is taken regarding:
a. transfer of training?
b. mental discipline?
c. identical situations?
d. identical elements in different situations?
7. What are the dominant factors conditioning learning?
8. What are the reasons for organizing instruction in large units?
9. What differences, if any, are there in point of view regarding
"activities"? In answering this question consider such points as choosing,






planning, executing, and evaluating activities. What is the relation of activi-
ties to individual differences and maturation levels of pupils? What is the
point of view regarding pupil-teacher participation and relationship?
10. How is curriculum defined? Wherein do the two definitions
differ? Around what should the framework of the curriculum be built?
What is the place of the teacher in curriculum construction? the pupil? the
layman?
11. What grounds are there for organization of the school program by
grades? against organization by grades?
12. In what terms should the success of the school program be evalu-
ated? In what terms should pupil progress be evaluated? What relative
importance is given to the acquisition of skills in evaluating pupil progress?
Suggested Bibliography
1. BODE, BOYD H., Democracy As a Way of Life, New York, The Mac-
millan Co., 1937 ($1.25).
2. Course of Study for Florida Elementary Schools, Tallahassee, Florida,
State Department of Public Instruction, 1933 ($1.18).
3. HARAP, HENRY, Editor, The Changing Curriculum, New York, D. Ap-
pleton-Century Co., 1937 ($2.00).
4. HARTMAN, GERTRUDE, Finding Wisdom, New York, John Day Company,
1939 ($3.00).
5 HOCKETT, JOHN A., and JACOBSEN, E. W., Modern Practices in the Ele-
mentary School, New York, Ginn and Co., 1938 ($2.60).
6 McGAUGHY, J. R., An Evaluation of the Elementary School, New York,
The Bobbs-Merrill Co., 1937 ($2.67).
7. MOSSMAN, Lois COFFEY, The Activity Concept, New York, The Mac-
millan Co., 1938 ($1.50).
8. Source Materials for the Improvement of Instruction, Curriculum Bul-
letin No. 1, Tallahassee, Florida, State Department of Education, 1939
(65 cents; limited supply furnished free to study groups upon proper
application of principal or superintendent).
9. Ways to Better Instruction in Florida Schools, Curriculum Bulletin No.
2, Tallahassee, Florida, State Department of Education, 1939 (75 cents;
limited supply furnished free to study groups upon proper application
of principal or superintendent).
10. STRANG, RUTH, An Introduction to Child Study, revised edition, New
York, The Macmillan Co., 1938 ($3.00).
11. ZIRBES, LAURA, Curriculum Trends (Pamphlet), Association for Child-
hood Education, Washington, D. C., 1935 (35 cents).

Teacher Belief Concerning Basic Issues In Elementary Education
The purpose of this section of the bulletin is to challenge each teacher
of the elementary grades in Florida to aid in the improvement of instruction.







Each teacher is invited to participate in the following way. (It is expected
that the teacher will have made a careful study of the Florida Curriculum
Bulletin No. 2, before carrying out the activities suggested in this section.)
Below are stated twelve basic problems in educating boys and girls. These
problems include: the nature of the curriculum, organization 'of the curricu-
.lum, sequence of the curriculum, adapting the curriculum to pupil needs.
grouping for instructional purposes, promotion, pupil-activity, the kinds of
objectives, the development of skills, and evaluation. Following the state-
ment of each problem is a list of four possible positions a teacher may take.
The teacher is asked to indicate his position by writing on Form I (see final
page of this bulletin) the number of the statement coming nearest to his
own belief. If his position is not well-stated, he will write it in the space
provided for writing a different position found on Form II. When this is
done, half of the job will be completed.

After all of these problems are stated, there follows a list of basic
assumptions and guiding principles concerning education which give rise to
and possible justification for a teacher's position 'on each problem. This
list of assumptions and guiding principles is to be used in this way: after
the teacher indicates his position on each question, he is to study very care-
fully the list of assumptions and guiding principles in order to select the
one or ones which he believes justifies his position. The number of the
basic assumption or guiding principle should then be recorded on Form I.
If none of the assumptions or guiding principles stated here seem to fit, the
teacher will please write in, on Form II, the assumption or guiding prin-
ciple he holds which seems to justify the position he has taken. This will
require careful, critical thinking.

PROBLEMS
(After choosing one of the four positions indicated under each prob-
lem use the number preceding the statement 'of position in filling out the
first horizontal column of Form I.)

Problem One. Who should determine what the school's curriculum
shall be?
1. I believe the entire curriculum should be defined and stated by some expert agency
outside of the classroom, such as the State Department of Education, the textbook,
or the course of study.
2. I believe most of the curriculum should come from some expert source outside of
the classroom, but that the teacher and the pupils should be permitted to supple-
ment it as needs appear.
3. I believe that some of the curriculum should be determined by expert agencies out-
side of the classroom, but that most of the curriculum should be determined by the
teacher and the pupils as needs appear.
4. I believe that none of the curriculum should be prescribed and that it should be
determined entirely by the teacher and pupils as needs appear.
5. (Write in your position, if different from the four above, on Form II of the check
sheet.)







Problem Two. When shall the teaching of any particular knowledge or
skill or the development of any particular concept, attitude, or understand-
ing be undertaken?
1. I believe we should teach these things as called for by the course of study or the
textbooks.
2. I believe these things should be taught when the child feels a need for them.
3. I believe these things should be taught according to a sequence determined by a
consideration of expert opinion, child interests, needs, and maturation levels.
4. I believe we should teach according to the sequence indicated by the course of study
or the texts, but should allow a little opportunity to vary the procedure according to
special interests and needs as they arise.
5. (Write in on Form II of the check sheet, if necessary.)
Problem Three. What should be the criterion for promotion?
1. I believe the student's knowledge of subject-matter and skills should be criterion.
2. I believe the chronological and social age of the child should determine promotion.
3. I believe the student's knowledge of subject-matter and skills is of primary im-
portance, but that the factors of chronological and social age must be taken into
some account.
4. I believe that the chronological and social age of the child is of primary importance,
but that knowledge of subject-matter and skills must be taken into some account.
5. (Write in on Form II of the check sheet, if necessary.)
Problem Four. To what extent should a teacher group his pupils within
the room for instructional purposes?
1. I believe the best work can be done by considering the class as one group, and by
teaching the same materials with the same methods to all.
2. I believe the best work can be done by completely individualizing instruction within
the room.
3. I believe the best work can be done by grouping according to I. Q. and achievement
ratings, and that these groups should be kept relatively constant.
4. I believe that best work can be done by grouping according to specific achievement,
disabilities, and special interests, but that the grouping should be quite flexible.
5. (Write in on Form II of the check sheet, if necessary.)
Problem Five. To what extent should the content of the curriculum be
adapted to pupil-felt needs?
1. I believe the content as set forth in the course of study or the textbooks is of worth
in itself and the children should adapt themselves to it.
2. I believe the content may be adapted sometimes in accordance with pupil-felt needs
but that in most instances it is the pupil who must be adapted.
3. I believe the content should be adapted to the pupil-needs in the main, but that it
is undesirable to do this all of the time.
4. I believe the entire content can and should be adapted to pupil-felt needs.
5. (Write in on Form II of the check sheet, if necessary.)
Problem Six. Upon what basis shall pupils be grouped into the several
sections within a given grade?
1. I believe the sections should be as homogeneous as possible according to general
intelligence and achievement.
2. I believe in taking into account, to some extent, other factors in grouping, such as
social interests, individual personality, but that I. Q. scores and achievement ratings
still would be the dominant factors.
3. I believe that as many factors as are known should be taken into account so as to
make each section as nearly as possible a random sample of the school population
at any given level.
4. I believe the social and personal factors alone should be the basis for grouping.
5. (Write in on Form II of check sheet, if necessary.)








Problem Seven. To what extent should the elementary school curriculum
be composed of independent subjects?
1. I believe that the entire curriculum should be organized with independent subjects
and that a definite time should be set for learning each subject.
2. I believe that it is desirable to combine or correlate certain subjects sometimes, such
as health and science, geography and history, music and art, but that in the main,
"subjects" should be kept separate.
3. I believe that it is desirable to organize the curriculum so that most subject matter
lines are eliminated, but that some fields of study lend themselves better to sep-
arate instruction.
4. I believe that it is desirable to erase all subject matter lines, having no "subjects"
as such, and that all the needs of the child can be met by integrated instruction.
5. (Write in on Form II of check sheet, if necessary.)
Problem Eight. Who should determine what activities are to be carried
on in classroom?
1. I believe the teacher or some other agency beside the pupil should determine the
activities.
2. I believe the teacher should determine most of the activities, but the pupils should
suggest some.
3. I believe the pupils should determine most of the activities, but the teacher should
determine some.
4. I believe only activities which are suggested by pupils should be used.
5. (Write in on Form II of check sheet, if necessary.)
Problem Nine. Of what value are manipulative activities such as model-
ing, painting, and constructing things?
1. I believe that manipulative activities are valuable in and of themselves.
2. I believe that there is relatively little value in manipulative activities except for stim-
ulating interest.
3. I believe that there is much value in manipulative activities only where they are
used to promote purposes of education similar to those outlined in Bulletin Two.
4. I believe there is no value in manipulative activities.
5. (Write in on Form II of check sheet, if necessary.)
Problem Ten. Should the teacher work for one objective at a time
until all objectives have been realized, or should he keep in mind all of the
objectives all of the time?
1. I believe the teacher can do a better job if he takes one objective at a time and
helps pupils attain it.
2. I believe the teacher should concentrate on one objective but bring in related
objectives where possible.
3. I believe the teacher at any given time may develop several objectives or one objec-
tive in accordance with the demands of the situation, but that these should be related
to the other objectives and to the general aim of education.
4. I believe the teacher must give equal attention to all of the objectives all of the time.
5. (Write in on Form II of check sheet, if necessary.)
Problem Eleven. In what terms shall we evaluate the results of our edu-
cative process?
1. I believe we should evaluate only in terms of acquisition of subject matter and skills.
2. I believe we should evaluate in terms of subject matter and skills mainly, with some
attention to personality development.
3. I believe we should evaluate in terms of personality development, and also subject
matter and skills, but give emphasis to the former.
4. I believe we should evaluate only in terms of personality development.
5. (Write in on Form II of check sheet, if necessary.)








Problem Twelve. What should be the relative emphasis of meaning and
repetition in developing skills?
1. I believe repetition is by far the most important factor.
2. I believe both are important, but that repetition is the more important.
3. I believe that both are important, but that meaning is the more important.
4. I believe that meaning is by far the more important factor.
5. (Write in on Form II of check sheet, if necessary.)

A MISCELLANY OF ASSUMPTIONS AND GUIDING PRINCIPLES
Several basic assumptions and guiding principles which may justify
one's position with regard to the issues stated above have been listed at this
point. Some of these assumptions and guiding principles are in keeping
with the authoritarian point of view; others are based upon experimentalism.
Some are related to the mechanistic theory of leaning, while others are in
accordance with principles of organismic psychology. The teacher may also
wish to add assumptions and guiding principles of his own. (It is the
number preceding these statements that the teacher is to use in filling out
the last horizontal line in Form I.)
1. The environment is dynamic, emerging, and everchanging.
2. Repetition is the most important factor in developing skills.
3. Growth proceeds at a varying rate and intensity for different individuals.
4. Education is the process of continuous adjustment and growth through worthwhile
experiences which fit the individual both to live abundantly and to serve society
to the maximum.
5. The individual organism is unique, dynamic, and creative.
6. Learning is the process of assimilation of the experiences necessary to educa-
tional growth.
7. The growth of the individual is accomplished through his own activity; from birth
and in every situation, he reacts as a whole to his total environmental influences.
8. The school is a social institution, the function of which is to provide situations
which may result in worthwhile experiences through which the individual may be
fitted both to live abundantly and to serve society to the maximum.
9. Learning is continuous, and is the result of the interaction of the dynamic organ-
ism with the dynamic environment.
10. A democratic culture furnishes the most favorable conditions for the optinum
growth and satisfaction of the individual and of the group.
11. General transfer is neither automatic nor inevitable. Transfer is most probably from
life-like situations in which exist elements identical with many other situations.
12. Adaptations to individual differences should be made as far as social welfare per-
mits.
13. Subject matter is that part of the group culture which is employed in fitting the
individual both to live abundantly and to serve society to the maximum.
14. The basic unit of learning is the S-R bond.
15. The basic unit of learning is the unit of experience.
16. Education takes place best when there exists a real purpose meaningful to the
learner.
17. The best learning takes place best when the learner is passive and in this passivity
is receptive to receiving stimulations from his environment.
18. "The individual is an organism integrated from the beginning. Any behavior, no
matter how detailed, involves the organism as a whole."
19. The organism reacts to stimuli with its specific parts independently.
20. Necessary skills and knowledge can be acquired through purposeful activities.
21. It is impossible for pupils to acquire the necessary skills and knowledge if they
depend upon activities which they themselves purpose.
22. An experience is really educative when it results in dynamic changes in the in-
dividual undergoing the experience.







23. An experience is educative and results in desirable growth when it adds to the sum
total of the pupil's store of knowledge, skills, habits, attitudes, and ideals.
24. The curriculum consists of all of the actual experiences of the children for which
the school assumes responsibility.
25. The curriculum is a body of logically organized material available for pupils to learn.

Planning For Future Bulletins Florida Elementary Schools
Teachers frequently make such statements as this, "I should like to
find a book that helps solve my problems." In order that the next bulletin
for elementary schools in Florida might provide such a service, it would be
extremely helpful to know the importance of the problems that exist. Think
of those in your 'own school or in your particular classroom. Below is
given a suggestive list of problems. Check each according to your opinion
of its importance and fill in the blank on the last page of this bulletin. If
your special problem is not included, write it in the space provided.
1. I should like a discussion of manuscript writing.
2. I should like suggestions for developing reading readiness.
3. I should like a discussion of assembly programs.
4. I should like a suggestive list of units appropriate for early ele-
mentary and later elementary levels.
5. I should like a discussion of report forms such as daily plans,
reports to parents, etc., that would be in keeping with an improved instruc-
tional program.
6. I should like to know how to determine when activities are pur-
poseful.
7. I should like a discussion of programs where grade lines have been
eliminated and children are grouped roughly according to ages.
8. I should like to know how to secure social values through arith-
metic and other "skill" subjects.
9. I should like ways of telling whether a learning experience is sig-
nificant or not.
10. I should like to see actual accounts of larg eunit teaching.
11. I should like to have help in relating skills to large unit teaching.
12. I should like a discussion of the library-purchases of books and
their use.
13. I should like a discussion of playground apparatus and procedures.
14. I should like to know how to conduct many facilities at the same
time and relate all of them to one unit.
15. I should like to know how the new point of view in psychology
affects the teaching of special areas-reading, arithmetic, etc.

PLANS FOR RECORDING AND SUBMITTING UNITS
Large unit teaching is not new to many Florida elementary teachers.
Some schools have already adopted the plan of large unit teaching and are
using it effectively. Other schools are interested in making the transition.







In Chapter Nine of Curriculum Bulletin Two there is a discussion concern-
ing the basis of large unit teaching as related to the nature of learning and
the demands of the changing environment. The advantages or values of large
unit teaching are clearly presented and are summarized briefly under the
heading Characteristics of Units. These characteristics are:
1. A unit grows out of the needs and interests of the group.
2. Children have opportunity to plan in a social situation and with
the guidance of the teacher, activities necessary for achieving their goals.
3. They provide situations for cooperative living and working to-
gether.
4. Units of work provide problems that are challenging to the learner.
yet not too difficult for successful solution.
5. The unit is broad enough to provide group and individual activities.
6. Freedom of movement is permitted for experimental activities.
7. The unit makes use of all phases of related subject-matter that are
meaningful to the learner.
8. The unit provides opportunities for using the unique talents of
each individual in the group, in order that he may contribute to his per-
sonal growth and to the welfare of the group.
9. Children have opportunity for evaluating their work.
The following criteria for the selection of a unit are offered in the
same chapter:
1. A unit should be a socially significant aspect of present day living.
2. The unit should relate to past experiences of the children and lead
to an extension and enrichment of their experience.
3. The unit should be one for which suitable materials are available
so that it may be developed successfully.
4. The unit should be suitable to interests and level 'of maturity of
children.
5 The unit should supply a sufficient number of activities to meet the
varied individual needs and interests of members of the group.

Three types of units are discussed. These are the subject matter unit,
the subject matter and experience unit (combination), and the experience
unit. The development of the unit is presented in a rather detailed manner.
Elementary teachers of Florida are invited to study carefully and
thoughtfully the presentation of large unit teaching in Bulletin II. In 'order
that the next elementary bulletin may be illustrated with actual instances of
teaching under varying conditions in Florida, teachers are urged to keep
a careful record of the units that contribute successfully to child growth and
development. These units may be any one of the three types mentioned.
They should show clearly how the unit originated, how it was developed







through pupil and teacher planning, what materials were used, what culmi-
nating activity resulted, how it was evaluated, and to what other interests
it led.
At the conclusion of the unit write a brief narrative account of it,
emphasizing the points just mentioned, and mail this account to the Director
of Curriculum, State Department of Education, Tallahassee, Florida.
In this manner every elementary teacher has an opportunity to render
a service to his profession and at the same time may benefit through sharing
the experiences of other teachers. No teacher need feel that his efforts are
not worth recording and submitting. It is not expected that every teacher
will have the ability to relate a unit in the finest literary style but if the
unit was an expression of living in the school made possible through large
unit teaching, then it is worth sharing so that other teachers may profit by it.
Report forms I, II, and III should be filled in by the individual teacher,
detached, and sent in by him or by a member of the faculty elected to that
responsibility. It need not be signed. It should be sent to the Director of
Curriculum, State Department of Education, at Tallahassee, Florida, not
later than May 1, 1940.










OTE: Forms I, II and III are to be sent to the Director of Curriculum, Tallahassee, C.
Florida, by May 1, 1940.
FORM I
Check Sheet for What I Believe About the Basic Problems and Why
(Please read again the directions beginning on page 14 before attempting to
fill out these forms.)

PROBLEM 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13


lMY
I'OSITION



ASSUMPTIONS
OR PRINCIPLES
WHICH JUSTIFY
MY POSITION


FORM II
Positions and Assumptions Which Vary From Those Stated
(Give number of questions, then state your position and the assumption which justifies it.
If the teacher accepts one of the four positions suggested it will not be necessary to
fill out this form.)

Problem POSITION ASSUMPTION
Number







FORM III
Planning for Future Bulletins for Florida Elementary Schools

County..................... .......... ........................................

Num ber years training....... ......................... .............. ..............

D ate of last degree .......................... ......

K ind of degree............................. ........ ............. ............. .....

W here 'obtained................. ............. ....... ..

Num ber years experience................................................................ ..

G rade taught............................. .... ......... ...... ..................... ......

How many hours or how many meetings did your faculty devote to the study
Bulletin Two................................................ ; to the Elem entary Bulletin.................................
Rank the suggestive problems in the form given here according to your consider
tion of their importance:


| 1I I I
Very
Important I
Important

Of Minor
Importance I __
List any additional problems not mentioned:



..................................- ..........-........ .... ... .............................................




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