• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Foreword
 Acknowledgement
 Table of Contents
 What are the purposes of music...
 What constitutes the music education...
 Who is responsible for the music...
 What resources and aids are...
 Appendix
 Back Cover














Group Title: Florida. State Dept. of Education. Bulletin
Title: Music for Florida children
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00080934/00001
 Material Information
Title: Music for Florida children a guide for elementary school music
Series Title: Florida. State Dept. of Education. Bulletin
Alternate Title: Florida program for improvement of schools
Physical Description: 129 p. : illus., music. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Housewright, Wiley L., 1913- ( ed )
Publisher: State Dept. of Education,
State Dept. of Education
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 1954
Copyright Date: 1954
 Subjects
Subject: School music -- Instruction and study -- Florida   ( lcsh )
School music -- Discography   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography of recordings: p. 88-107.
Bibliography: "A classified list of the RCA Victor set of recordings"; p. 108-127.
Statement of Responsibility: Florida program for improvement of schools.
General Note: "Graded series of general music textbooks": p. 76-87.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00080934
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - AHD7767
oclc - 09319778
alephbibnum - 001524505
lccn - 54062797

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Foreword
        Page iii
    Acknowledgement
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
    What are the purposes of music education?
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    What constitutes the music education program?
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
    Who is responsible for the music education program?
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Pages 66-67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
    What resources and aids are needed?
        Page 71
        Page 72
    Appendix
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Pages 82-83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
    Back Cover
        Page 131
        Page 132
Full Text











































rAb.QQ'sTh






























UNIVERSITY

OF FLORIDA

LIBRARIES


r
3













(Dusic for Florida Children

A Guide for Elementary School Music


FLORIDA PROGRAM FOR IMPROVEMENT OF SCHOOLS
BULLETIN N40
Prepared under the direction of
WILEY L. HOUSEWRIGHT
1954








STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
THOMAS D. BAILEY, Superintendent
Tallahassee, Florida





Db (i


r3 7 '

F3


2 lq


Copyright 1954
FLORIDA STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA















FOREWORD


BULLETIN N40, Music FOR FLORIDA CHIL-
DREN, has been produced by the coopera-
tive effort of Florida teachers, students and
administrators. This stimulating material is
not intended as a treatise on music methods
S and procedures, or in any sense of the word
a compendium of best practice in the field
of music education. It does chart in broad
compass, however, the purposes of music
education, the basic constituents of a good
music program, the relationships and re-
sponsibilities of those who participate, and
it defines the extra-human resources and
', aids which are needed to implement the
program.
Those of us who appreciate good music
and who want the finest cultural oppor-
tunities for Florida school children are
grateful to the group who participated in
the bulletin production workshop and to
Dr. Wiley L. Housewright, who served as
Director. These, together with consultants
and others who assisted with the workshop
(named in full under Acknowledgments in
another page of this bulletin) deserve ap-
plause for a job well done.
We acknowledge with thanks the con-
tribution of Dr. Doak S. Campbell who
made the study possible through his gra-
S cious extension of staff and facilities. Our


thanks also should be extended to Dr. Karl
O. Kuersteiner, Dean, School of Music,
Florida State University, not only for his
personal participation throughout the work-
shop period, but also, for the fine cooper-
ation which was uniformly accorded the
study by the School of Music.
Acknowledgment also should be made
to Dr. T. Q. Srygley, Director, Division of
Instruction, State Department of Educa-
tion, for work with the committee on pro-
duction during and after the workshop; to
T. George Walker, Director, Division of
Publications and Textbook Services, State
Department of Education, for editorial
work on the manuscript; and to J. K.
Chapman, Deputy Superintendent, State
Department of Education, who provided
technical direction for publishing bulletin.
This publication which has been pro-
duced by the Music Workshop Group,
under the direction of Dr. Housewright,
will bring new prestige to Florida educa-
tion as well as richer, more developmental
music opportunities for Florida children.



THOMAS D. BAILEY
State Superintendent of Public Instruction














ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


Dr. Wiley L. Housewright, Professor of
Music Education, Florida State University,
Tallahassee, DIRECTOR.

PARTICIPANTS:
BULLETIN PRODUCTION WORKSHOP
Jacquelyn Alexander, Miami; Mrs. Verna
Barnett, Miami; Mrs. Ina B. Brown, Jack-
sonville; Mrs. Marguerite Burgess, Ocala;
Mrs. Betty Campbell, Plant City; Mrs.
Aileen Chapman, St. Petersburg; Mrs.
Eunice L. Cosselman, Clearwater; Thomas
Foley, Miami; Mrs. Mabel H. Hamilton,
Tallahassee; Mrs. Phyllis Hart, Tallahassee;
Mrs. Miriam B. Thomas, Orlando; Mrs.
Clyta L. Heaps, Miami; Mrs. Bernice B.
Johnson, Tallahassee; Mrs. Josephine H.
Johnson, Miami; Mrs. Dorothy Land,
Apopka; Mrs. Frank Morgan, Sebring;
Carolyn Oxford, Tallahassee; Virginia
Sewell, Ft. Lauderdale; Maxine Smith, Ft.
Lauderdale; Barbara Stimmel, St. Augus-
tine; Mrs. Almira L. Strohl, Pensacola;
Mrs. Cecile Strong, Tavares; Thirza M.
Sutherby, Miami; Mrs. Maud Van Hook,
Miami; David L. Wilmont, Tallahassee;
Mrs. Norma Wyss, Warrington.


SPECIAL ASSISTANCE
From Florida State University:
Dr. Doak S. Campbell, President; Dr. Karl
O. Kuersteiner, Dean, School of Music; Dr.
Ivan Johnson, Professor of Education; Lee
Rigsby, Associate Professor of Music; Lois
Schnoor, Assistant Professor of Music Edu-
cation; Sara Krentzman Srygley, Assistant
Professor of Library Science; Rebecca
Rodenberg, Instructor in Piano; William
F. Cramer, Instructor in Music; Virginia
Jackson, John Aspinall, and Henry Fast-
hoff, Graduate Students.
From Florida State Department
of Education:
Dr. Sam H. Moorer, Director, Division of
Instructional Field Services; Dr. T. Q.
Srygley, Director, Division of Instruction;
Miss Charlotte Steinhans, Consultant, Ele-
mentary Education.
From Other Agencies:
Dr. Dorothy Dodd, Director, State Library;
Howard A. Doolin, Music Supervisor, Dade
County; Mrs. Lamar Bledsoe, Assistant
Director, Florida Advertising Commission;
The County Superintendents of the State;
Miss Emily Pearson, Pinellas County.












CONTENTS

FOREWORD . .
FOREWORD ...........................................

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .................. ........... iv

CHAPTER I. WHAT ARE THE PURPOSES OF
MUSIC EDUCATION?
A. Social ........................................... 1
B. Emotional ....................................... 2
C. Physical ........................................ 3
D. Intellectual ...................................... 4
E. Aesthetic ........................................ 4
F. Democratic Living ............................... 5

CHAPTER II. WHAT CONSTITUTES THE MUSIC
EDUCATION PROGRAM?
A. Rhythmic Experiences ............................ 7
B. Listening Experiences ............................. 13
C. Singing Experiences ............................. 16
D. Instrumental Experiences ......................... 26
E. Creative Experiences ............................. 31
F. Integration .................................... 37
G. Music for Exceptional Children .................... 55
H. Programs for Special Occasions .................... 57

CHAPTER III. WHO IS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE
MUSIC EDUCATION PROGRAM?
A. Relationships ...................... ............. 60
1. County Superintendent ........................ 60
2. Principal .................................... 60
3. General Supervisor ............................ 60
4. M usic Supervisor ................... .......... 61
5. Special Service Music Teacher .................. 61
6. Classroom Teacher ........................... 61
7. Com m unity .................................. 62
V










B R responsibilities ..................................
1. A dm inistrators ................... .............
2. Supervisors ...................................

C. Inquiries to Counties Without Specialized Music Services

D. Questions Often Asked by Administrators ..........
Plan for Initiating and Developing a Music Program for
a School or County ............................

E. Trends and Changing Concepts ....................

CHAPTER IV. WHAT RESOURCES AND AIDS
ARE NEEDED?


A. Human Resources ......................

B. M materials Centers ......................

APPENDIX I

A. Specifications and Care of Equipment ....

B. Graded Series of General Music Textbooks

C. Instrumental Materials ..................

D. Community Song Books .................

E. Books for Children ...................
Administration and Supervision Chart .....

F. Professional Books ....................

G Periodicals .......................... .

APPENDIX II. Bibliography of Recordings .....


....... 71

....... 71


APPENDIX III. Classified List of RCA Basic Record Library
for Elementary School .................... 108

APPENDIX IV. Recordings to accompany "Music for Young
Listeners" ............................. 128


. I

.


.. .. .. . .

.... ... ..

. .. ......

. .. . . .. .


... .. ... .

. ...... ..

.. .......











CHAPTER' I


WHAT ARE THE PURPOSES OF MUSIC EDUCATION?


Because of its wide range of appeal,
music education is particularly well adapted
to meeting the needs of children. It pro-
vides opportunity for social, intellectual,
emotional, aesthetic and physical growth in
a manner consistent with democratic living
and learning.
Children are sensitive to surroundings
which will call out the aesthetic responses
within them. Aesthetic response is capable
of development through appropriate em-
phasis on the child's ability to understand,
respond to, and enjoy music.
This ability to understand and enjoy
music involves an interplay between the
emotions and the mind. The emotional
element is constituted of sensitive response
to mood, or to the sensory content of the
music material. An emotional response is
evidence that music has reached the inner
self of the child, without which full appre-
ciation is not attained. Thus emotional
experience is an integral part of appreci-
ation of any art.
Intellectual responses to music are
brought about mainly from an understand-
ing of structure and design. However,
there is ample opportunity for general
mental growth through participation in
musical activities which involve planning,
recognizing problems, weighing ideas and
making decisions.
The elementary music education program
should lead the child to a fuller realization
of the ideals of democracy in his school and
community life. It should teach him that
through his cooperation he will understand


his fellow man and live with him to their
mutual benefit. By combining his creative
imagination with intelligence he may de-
velop fine qualities of citizenship.

SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT
Primarily, music is a social art. The
variety of experiences possible in a balanced
music education program gives each child
unlimited opportunities to develop within
himself social consciousness and compe-
tence. Certain activities in music are by
their very nature rich in opportunities for
group experience. For example, a sense of
belonging is achieved by each contributing
member during group singing, folk dancing,
or instrumental music. Frequently, in group
experiences each child finds it necessary to
share a book with his neighbor, or during
rhythmic activities he discovers the desira-
bility of sharing floor space. Deep personal
satisfaction often results from sharing his
talent with others his family, his class-
mates, and other school groups. When he
brings his recordings for his classmates to
enjoy, he is sharing himself in a very real
sense. In the devotional period or club
meeting he learns to impose limitations of
time upon himself when several pupils are
participating on the same program.
SSympathetic understanding of the people
bf the world may be fostered by knowing
their ways of life, their music, their folk
dances, their literature, and their art.
Through music the child may gain new
insight and respect for the age in which
he lives as he identifies himself with the
heritage of.his own and other peoples.








MUSIC FOR FLORIDA CHILDREN


. 7!


,. .t, '.
' '




First graders enjoy singing with a recording during free activity period.


EMOTIONAL GROWTH
"Man is a bundle of sentiments of hopes
and dreams which are most potent in the
ordering of our lives. Sentiment, wise or
foolish, constitutes the stuff of our human
experience. Take away from man his fond
hopes, dreams and illusions and he has
ceased to live." (LIN YUTANG)

All too often school work has provided for
intellectual growth but has failed to provide
a commensurate emotional development.
Since music is one way of expressing emo-
tion, it must be considered a vital contribu-
tion to the life of the child. Sensitizing of
the human mind is now recognized as one
of the highly important tasks of education.
Although we may forget facts and dates
may slip from our minds, the experiences
we have had in being subjected to the


thoughts of great men through the creative
arts remain with us forever. The fact that
music causes an emotional reaction on the
human organism is one of the reasons that
it can reach the unsophisticated and the
untrained. The most satisfying achieve-
ment in all music is that of self-expression,
even in the very young. Emotional experi-
ences may or may not result in outward
manifestations. Some of them may become
part of the child's soul, and, therefore,
belong to him alone. We do not always
have to ask the child to tell us what he
feels about music. The joyful expression
on his face as he takes part in singing,
rhythmic activities, playing of musical in-
struments, or listening is outward evidence
of his inner feelings or moods. Just as his
background of skills increases and just as


TI


.K"








WHAT ARE THE PURPOSES OF MUSIC EDUCATION?


there is intellectual growth, so will his ca-
pacity for emotional response be enhanced.
The music education program, through
its creative element, offers many ways for
the child to grow emotionally. Creative-
ness is an integral part of all learning. Some
people have the feeling that precious time
given to creative enterprises lowers the
standard of theoretical musical learning
which they as adults have set up and which
they consider to be of major importance.
In answer to those individuals who stand
for so-called results, it may be pointed out
that there should be no quarrel between
creative music and achievement of stand-
ards. When we interpret creative music to
mean a learning process through which
child development takes place, the result


is mental, physical, social and emotional
growth.
PHYSICAL GROWTH
In music education, as in other subject
areas, provision is made for a variety of
experiences which influence the physical
growth and well-being of the child. Possi-
bly the most important contribution is in
the opportunity for gaining muscular co-
ordination and control through rhythmic
activities, and in the playing of instruments.
At the same time the role played by
music in the release of physical tension of
pupils cannot be overestimated. Frequently
the child develops physical tension induced
by frustration or fatigue. The school day
should present an occasional situation that


Satisfying, informal music experiences enhance the quality of living in a classroom or on the playground.


SEW*








MUSIC FOR FLORIDA CHILDREN


will serve to counteract these tensions,
which otherwise might result in any one
of several anti-social behavior patterns.
The resourceful teacher will utilize music
for this purpose.

INTELLECTUAL GROWTH
Because music has always been so closely
tied to the emotions, many people have
failed to recognize its rather obvious in-
tellectual involvements. Indeed, it may be
said that efforts of most nineteenth century
American music educators were devoted to
the task of making music 'academically re-
spectable. They assumed that only the
theoretical phases of music made great
use of the intellectual processes. Twentieth
century music educators have extended the
range of activities and demonstrated that
,information, understanding, investigation,
and the drawing of conclusions are ele-
ments in making music. They contend, for
instance, that physical activity forms a
natural base upon which understandings
of the abstract symbols of written music
may be built.
Understanding of structural design in
music calls into play comparisons and the
recognition of parallels in other areas of
creative endeavor a type of learning for
which psychologists have a high regard.
Most learning situations have as their
purpose the preparation for making choices.
Music learning in the elementary school
begins with general awareness and recog-
nition, then proceeds to the development
of critical attitudes and the eventual goal
of discrimination. A sensitive appreciation
calls into play not only emotions but ra-
tional explanations.
Opportunities for problem solving in the
music class are numerous. As in other


areas of the child's school experience, de-
cisions and choices are made which are
preceded by critical thinking based upon
the weighing and appraisal of facts or
ideas.
AESTHETIC RESPONSIVENESS
The child has an inherent desire for
beauty and an immediate response to it.
This desire is another fundamental need
which the elementary music program can
do much to satisfy. Aesthetic responsive-
ness is a part of total behavior, not a mys-
terious aura which shines on only the
chosen few. Thus, it becomes one of the
responsibilities of music education to de-
tect, nourish, and develop the natural aes-
thetic responsiveness in every child.
The basic channels of aesthetic respon-
siveness are appreciation, self expression,
and experimentation. Through such experi-
ences the child comes to appreciate and
respond to changes of mood, variations of
contours of phrases, and beauty of har-
mony. The further development of these
elements into the simpler forms of music
composition stimulates interest.
It must be emphasized that an under-
standing of music is more fully realized
through the child's power to express emo-
tions and ideas in musical terms. Children
will develop greater appreciation because
their responses are more sensitive and in-
telligent. It follows that we will have di-
minishing numbers of them abandoning
music because of their frustrations or fail-
ures in dealing with technical aspects of
the score. Some of the great failures of
education in the past have stemmed from
the assumption that man lives by his in-
tellect alone. More and more educators are
recognizing that the life one lives is a
projection of his innermost feelings that








WHAT ARE THE PURPOSES OF MUSIC EDUCATION


man will reflect much of the beauty of
which he has been a part.

DEMOCRATIC LIVING
The development of the potentialities of
the individual and the promotion of the
welfare of our society are among the major
purposes of education. The elementary
school should strive toward these goals
during the span of time when it has the
child in its care.
Music can have an important part in at-
taining these goals by helping to develop
the child into a well-integrated socialized
personality by giving to him a sympathetic
understanding of the society of which he is
a part, and of the national, racial and re-
ligious groups that surround him. It should
also point toward, and be consistent with,
the concept of living in a democratic
society.
Democratic living within the school is
essential to the understanding and prac-
tice of living in a democratic society. The
school environment conditions the quality
of social relationships, and growth takes


place where children live and play to-
gether with teachers in satisfying group
activities. Every child, no matter how
gifted or how limited, has something to
contribute in group living. Respect that
something! He has a right to develop his
own aptitudes and capacities, but he also
has a definite social responsibility to the
group of which he is a member.
There is a definite place for learning to
read, and for reading; for having vicarious
as well as real experiences; for developing
the skills of the three R's, and for acquiring
a broad general knowledge that citizens of
this modern world need. This concept of
education gives a very real challenge and
a wide opportunity for music to be used
to great advantage in the realization of
these goals. Pleasure and satisfaction
through participation; a deeper love for,
and understanding of, music through ac-
quisition of skills; appreciation of demo-
cratic ideals through group activities;
growth of respect for the individual
through working together; and an awaken-
ing to the beauty and value of our cultural
heritage these are democratic living.










MUSIC FOR FLORIDA CHILDREN










CHAPTER II


WHAT CONSTITUTES THE MUSIC EDUCATION PROGRAM?


A. RHYTHMIC EXPERIENCES
Modem education has come a long way
from the days when only those children
who had had formal dancing instruction
were capable of expressing ideas through
bodily response to music. It is hoped, too,
that we have left behind us the concept
that in the name of "free expression" every
child must respond to a given musical com-
position with identical movements.
The new school believes it is possible
for all boys and girls to achieve a high
degree of self realization through truly
creative rhythmic experiences. Through
stimulating activities in listening and
rhythmic movement, concepts of fast and
slow, long and short, heavy and light are
formed. These concepts usually make it
possible for children to feel and read
rhythmic notation before they can fully
respond to the more complex aspects of
music.
Fundamental Movements
By observing the natural movements of
small children during free play, the teacher
may see many implications for rhythmic
development. It will be obvious that play
activities are essentially based upon such
fundamental movements as walking, run-
ning, hopping, skipping, jumping and gal-
loping. Since nearly all physical motion
may be related to the rhythmic content of
music, the teacher is able to guide children
toward movement with a purpose, rather
than activity for the sake of action. It is
important that such participation be spon-
taneous and have an element of self-
discovery.


The selection of music for fundamental
movements, and the rate of speed or tempo
at which it is played, is of vital importance.
Tempo must be determined by the degree
of muscular coordination and control
achieved by the majority of the children
in any grade group. A pianist may vary
the tempo slightly in order to accommo-
date the children. The teacher who can
improvise piano accompaniments is fortu-
nate, since he can adapt many selections
to various rhythmic patterns, or even cre-
ate music for rhythm dramas. However, a
piano is not essential, since many interest-
ing accompaniments are possible with
drums and other rhythm instruments, or
through the use of recordings.
Even in classrooms where space is lim-
ited, children may be given these oppor-
tunities. Some children can respond with
large movements, while others participate
from their usual places by small move-
ments, or by playing instruments or
singing.
Impersonation
Impersonation gives each child an ex-
cellent beginning in the field of creative
rhythmic activity. He frequently forgets
himself through identification with familiar
or imaginary beings, animals, or objects
while listening to music. An outlet is thus
provided for the child who is emotionally
or physically inhibited.
Dramatization
It is but a step from impersonation to
dramatization, or from an individual's iso-
lated action to actions involving two or
more children in an interplay of rhythmic













-hip~~-- i7E .; .. 5( 4>~
g 11~ i..ii

;f I* flflnnanna / ib~





4..


3:
In







z
.t~ r~~ral~l

r.
rr
vs~ r


'4M,
,, :
P Q -, -:..f. "47
v r I $ ;:i 1 % .- .;

A "' .. ",'
A.a"o" ame


Beginning children "accompany" a recording of "0 We Can Play on the Big Bass Drum." Additional stanzas were made up for other instruments.








WHAT CONSTITUTES THE MUSIC EDUCATION PROGRAM?


ideas. In their early years, children derive
little dramas from songs, stories, poems,
and music. Later, dramatization becomes
less "make-believe" and is more concerned
with situations in real life, community ac-
tivities, customs of many lands, or the
lives of interesting people. Imaginative in-
terpretations will enhance both social and
musical values.
As the child grows and develops, his
increasing sensitivity to music motivates
new ways in which to express his indi-
vidual responses. He discovers the possi-
bilities for limitless variations of each of
the fundamental movements. Instead of
walking, running or hopping, he may give
to any one of them a specific "style" -
light, heavy, graceful, stiff-legged. For ex-
ample, the walk may become a military
march, a circus march, a stately walk, or
tip-toe.
Singing Games
Singing games also give purpose to the
use of fundamental movements and at the
same time identify specific actions with
certain definite phrases of each song. This
kind of experience aids the child in phrase
recognition like and unlike. He may ob-
serve that like or similar phrases call for
identical or similar bodily responses. Un-
like or contrasting phrases quite logically
suggest a different movement, direction, or
style.
Many simple action songs and games of
childhood in the United States are called
by other names around the world. For
example, "Ride a Cock Horse" is "Trip-a-
Trop to Tronjes" to the Dutch; and "Rock-
a-by Baby in the Tree-top" is "Wium,
Wium" to the Indian baby.1 These folk
expressions, handed down through gener-
ations, should be a part of every child's


heritage.
With increasing opportunities the child
steadily acquires a vocabulary of move-
ment. Just as his expanding vocabulary of
words gives impetus to his ability to ex-
press himself through the communication
skills, so his vocabulary of movement frees
him for an unending variety of creative
responses to music.
Folk and Social Dancing
Both folk and social dancing are sources
of great satisfaction and pleasure to the
child who has had many experiences in
creative rhythms. It is the more enjoyable
because he brings to these activities a
readiness for the terminology, the ability
to hear phrase beginnings and endings,
and good muscular coordination and con-
trol. "Steps" are identified by names which
may be translated into combinations of the
fundamental movements already familiar.
The polka is closely akin to his earlier gal-
loping experience (e.g. "Fun at the Zoo,"
New Music Horizons IV, p. 97); the
schottische step is a combination of the
step and hop-step, step, step, hop (e. g.
"From Lucerne to Weggis Fair" Ibid., V,
p. 38); the waltz step is simply a graceful
walk in a prescribed three directional pat-
tern (e.g. "Waltzing," Ibid., IV, p. 38).
Because of previous experience in phrase
recognition, the pupil is able to anticipate
with pleasure the change of movement,
or direction, as presented in sequence
throughout the music.
The greater physical and mental ma-
turity of pre-adolescent boys and girls in-
creases the necessity for motivating phys-
ical expression within the range of their
1. Lilla Belle Pitts, "The General Music Program in the
Elementary School," Music in the Elementary School.
(Chicago: Music Educators National Conference),
1952, p. 8.










4PI


These fifth graders find the Virginia Reel an interesting part of social studies and music correlation.








WHAT CONSTITUTES THE MUSIC EDUCATION PROGRAM?


natural interests. Folk dancing can be an
invaluable socializing influence among chil-
dren. It is an activity which can be enjoyed
throughout life in home and community.
The child who does not always participate
in other musical activities will often find
pleasure and satisfaction in folk dancing.
Instruments
Playing simple rhythm instruments is
one of the child's most enjoyable experi-
ences, whether accompanying, singing, or
functioning as a toy band. Children should
be given opportunities to experiment with
sounds and textures to discover those most
appropriate for certain effects. If some chil-
dren are unable to participate effectively in
other phases of the program, their rhythmic
sense may be awakened through the play-
ing of instruments.
Two illustrations are given here for
developing acompaniments. Children may
suggest new and original ideas for accom-
paniments to other songs.



Illustration 1: "Are You Sleeping?"'
Blank
Rhythm Patterns Notation


Woodblock (tick-
tock) (Clock
strikes eight)
Chimes
(Ding, Dong)
Voices sing: "Are
you sleeping?" -
Introduction: (triangle)
"Alarm clock"
Wakes Brother John


or4 J

or


or
so .w


Tick-tock keeps going through the song.


Illustration 2: "Stodola Pumpa"
(Czech Dance-S6ng)2


IJ)J P J'm


h J J J


StO-do-AaL, stoho-lo, sto-dLotoi pm- e.-,



Sto-do-o, P uL-pa., sto-do-\A.c pu m- pa.,


Sto
.1,! J J J
to --n -Ai Ow-Po..,


J mJ J



pU\, PUY, mvnl.


Sing the song; then play the "stodola"
on the tambourine, the "pum" with one
drum, and the "pa" with another. Dance
the same patterns by clapping hands on
"stodola" and stamping feet on the
pumpas.
For additional ideas on the use of in-
struments, refer to "Instrumental Experi-
ences," p. 26 of this bulletin.
Resources
Suggestions for developing a rhythmic
program can be found in Manuals and
Accompaniment and Interpretation Books
of the New Music Horizon Series and in
Learning Music Through Rhythm by Hood
and Schultz, Ginn & Co.
Summary
Intelligent listening and rhythmic re-
sponse go hand in hand. Only as the
child becomes keenly aware of the rhyth-
1. Beatrice P. and Max Krone, Music Participation in the
Elementary School. (Chicago: Neil A. Kjos Music Co.,
1952), p. 36.
2. Ibid., p. 50.





































rn






z








i r %- h and h ear it pl %d befor t th e% at nd co ic0t by th













frand it pI-d beor t atd corlctt by their community orchestra.








WHAT CONSTITUTES THE MUSIC EDUCATION PROGRAM?


mic content and overall design of a musi-
cal composition is he able to achieve the
satisfaction of interpreting it through bodily
movement. Conversely, his experience with
physical expression of rhythmic patterns
make him keenly aware of rhythm in all
the music he hears. A child's ability to
master the skills involved in reading music
is greatly influenced by experiences he may
have had with bodily response to phrase
and rhythmic patterns. His interpretations
of songs or instrumental pieces will be en-
riched by opportunities to interpret music
through bodily movement. Such opportu-
nities are not for a few of the children -
those who seem to possess "good rhythm,"
those who can neither sing nor play with
any degree of proficiency, those who can-
not sit still for listening- but for every
child so that he may find for himself still
another way to enjoy some phase of music.

B. LISTENING EXPERIENCES
The Nature of Listening
Learning to listen attentively and
thoughtfully is the springboard to every
phase of the child's musical growth. It in-
volves not only hearing but a somewhat
complex interaction of emotion and intelli-
gence. Children react to music in terms of
what they feel and know. In a classroom,
they may listen together but each child
participates at his own level of sensitivity
and understanding.
Ways of Listening
There are many uses of music and many
ways of listening to it. Each serves its own
purpose but should not be exclusive. At
times we listen during a "quiet period" to
induce rest or relaxation. The therapeutic
uses of music are and should be exploited
when appropriate. However, they should


I--


/
NY






MUSIC FOR FLORIDA CHILDREN


i








WHAT CONSTITUTES THE MUSIC EDUCATION PROGRAM?


be applied judiciously in the classroom lest
the children conclude that the sole pur-
pose of listening is to induce either apathy
or action.
Music is also used to accompany other
activities such as finger painting, games,
rhythmic play or dancing. Alert listening
will suggest designs for these activities
which make them take on greater mean-
ing. Inasmuch as small children react freely
to what they hear care should be taken
to avoid inhibiting their responses. Self-
consciousness restricts natural expression
of the message which music has communi-
cated to them. Evidence of how much the
child has heard and and what it means to
him is usually present in his response. For
example, similar melodic lines may sug-
gest similar line contours in art, or changes
in harmonic textures may be reflected by
color variations.
When children listen to music for its
own sake, the teacher finds his greatest
opportunity for sensitizing response. What
he does will very likely determine how
students will feel about listening to music
throughout their lives.
Initial responses of young children are
usually emotional. They like a composi-
tion, or they don't care for it for reasons
of their own.imple suggestions or leading
questions about the nature of the music are
means of directing attention to its content.
The teacher himself must be an active lis-
tener and take the initiative by being quite
familiar with listening materials and their
content: the music itself, how it may be
used most effectively and the body of in-
formation about it. He may then lead chil-
dren to a more valid, lasting response.
A high plane of listening has been
reached when the child combines his emo-


tional response with musical understand-
ings. It is attained only when ample op-
portunities exist for listening and when
children are led to discover the content
of music.
These opportunities go far beyond
merely listening to recorded music, or
attending concerts or tuning in a radio.
They lie within every other activity of the
music program. Hearing oneself and others
sing, playing an instrument, creating a
melody, improvising a dance these have
great potential for discriminative listening.
No exact measures of response to music
exist. Each child reacts in his own way,
depending upon what he brings to the ex-
perience and the conditions of the moment.
For a teacher to know how close children
are to music, he has only to watch their
response as they listen to it. They have an
immediate awareness to sounds, to beauty
of melody, to rhythmic vitality, to varia-
tions in tone colors. It is through these
concepts that powers of discrimination are
developed, emotional responses released,
physical actions initiated, intellectual un-
derstandings strengthened, and aesthetic
meanings deepened.
The Role of the Teacher
The role of the teacher is all important
in guiding listening experiences. He will be
sensitive as to the moment when listening
is appropriate and the use to make of it.
When a change of pace in classroom ac-
tivities is indicated, the teacher may find
that recreational listening meets the need.
When listening can enrich other activities
he sees its functional value. If the class is
ready for certain musical learning, the
teacher may find that listening is the es-
sential element. In any case, he will always
know why he is undertaking a listening








MUSIC FOR FLORIDA CHILDREN


activity and what he expects to come out
of it. Listening during a "quiet period"
usually requires little preparation beyond
the judicious selection of materials. Listen-
ing for musical understandings, however,
requires careful planning and a wholesome
classroom atmosphere. It is most effective
when children are alert and their minds
are actively involved in the attempt to see
relationships and penetrate meanings. Even
the skillful teacher will find it necessary to
read the manuals which accompany basic
music series and the stories about music
and composers. Helpful suggestions in
planning may be found in Music for Young
Listeners, a series of three books by Lillian
Baldwin; in The Pilot (Making Friends with
Music) by Hartshorn and Leavitt; in the
music readers by Hazel G. Kinscella or by
Opal Wheler listed in the Resource section
of this bulletin. An exciting classroom ex-
perience in informal listening is described
by Katherine Scott Taylor in her article
"Sharing Music Appreciation with Chil-
dren" in the NEA Journal, March 1949,
p. 197.
Selection of Materials
Refinement of taste is often the result of
one's surroundings. When the child is sur-
rounded with a wealth of beautiful music
which he hears under favorable conditions,
his preferences will be established on an
informed basis rather than mere caprice.
Listening programs are no longer built
around a limited list of time-honored com-
positions without regard to the child's in-
terest or attention span. These "standard
repertoire" selections are still included be-
cause they are satisfying and they estab-
lish a basis for the child to make his dis-
coveries and set his own standards. Be-
yond them, however, lie many enjoyable


compositions contemporaneous with our
times and mores. Use of a highly restricted
list of "music appreciation" materials us-
ually results in a highly biased child.
Whether his bias is favorable or unfavor-
able to the music he has heard is not as
important as whether he has had a breadth
of experiences and has come to his own
conclusions.
Captivating interest in listening depends
largely on choice of materials. If so-called
popular music, or hill-billy music are of
great interest momentarily, they may serve
as starting points. The teacher, however,
will need to guide students toward more
lasting, more satisfying experiences.
Summary
"Listening to the music composed and
brought into being by others is the means
"by which most people gain an insight into
the realm of music."' The effectiveness of
the listening program as it is carried over
into adult life is manifested in many ways:
the selection and collection of recordings,
discriminative listening to radio and tele-
vision programs, support and attendance
of concerts, and participation in other
musical activities in the community.
It is within the power of every teacher
hto enrich the life of a child by building a
sense of aesthetic values which cannot be
measured or destroyed. An appreciation of
beauty intensifies the child's potential per-
sonal relationship with nature, fellow man,
and God.
C. SINGING EXPERIENCES
Why Sing
Singing makes use of the one musical
instrument which every child possesses-
1. Louise Kifer Myers; Teaching Children Music in the
Elementary School (Philadelphia: Prentice-Hall, Inc.,
1950), p. 127.




















FL


*J;(
i,
!4* >.


2-~


se1si


A class sings, accompanied by autoharps.


Ali t.


-kJA


It


-I
z









z
-I








O
'A -I

- -4
S m
-4
I

3
c





-I
a
z
5
0f


I~~i



"..s s ee d C


't


N'


0- I


~&S~X~L


-so.


rc-...
:~Pt~at~ii







MUSIC FOR FLORIDA CHILDREN


his voice. Singing creates an opportunity
for communication and for expression of
feelings about many interesting things in
the child's environment. Young children
easily identify themselves with song. They
are a part of everything about which they
sing, and the classroom becomes anything
from the seashore to their own backyard.
They assume the importance of the traffic
cop, the violence of a hurricane or the de-
votion of a mystic. In songs that are sin-
cere expressions of universal emotions, the
child can feel his own close relationship to
the world in which he lives. Through sing-
ing folk songs, he acquires a sensitive un-
derstanding for many characteristics of
other peoples.
Singing can contribute immeasurably to
the unfolding of the child's personality. It
may relieve tensions, revive drooping
spirits, deepen spiritual concepts, or cre-
ate an emotional climate conducive to
learning in all areas. It is a common me-
dium for extending the music education
program beyond the classroom. The child
who has had a wealth of satisfying singing
experiences in school will have a desire to
share them through singing with his fam-
ily, his church choir, his club, or his
community.
Expressive Singing
Well defined rhythm, clear enunciation,
recognition of the musical phrase, and the
realization of dynamic climax contribute
to a deep and satisfying musical moment.
These are desirable elements of expressive
singing and are the results of valid musical
experiences and self evaluations. But more
than these, the projection of the poetic
content, the spirit, and the mood of the
song are determining factors in expressive
singing. A beautiful singing voice in child-


hood is not always the result of extensive
training in vocal techniques; instead, it de-
pends upon the vitality and depth of the
child's response to the message of the
song.
Setting the Stage
Wanting to sing is more important than
how to sing. The classroom atmosphere is
the greatest determining factor to success-
ful singing activities. If the atmosphere is
free of tension with strong group rapport,
it is relatively easy for a child to identify
and project himself into the mood of the
music; he senses that his classmates will
respect his feelings and reactions.
No longer do music educators insist on
a formal classroom atmosphere. An alert
but relaxed attitude and posture promote
better singing than the rigid requirements
of yester-year. The teacher can add to the
child's interpretive potential by making
suggestions for improved breathing, phras-
ing or enunciation as he sings.
There is a psychological moment for
presentation of some songs as an out-
growth of classroom experiences, while
for others the stage will need to be set,
and an approach for arousing interest
must be planned. The resourceful teacher
will capitalize on reactions or incidents in
the classroom when correlating new or
familiar material. The following points of
departure may aid in the selection of mu-
sic materials for integration into the total
program:
1. Songs for their own appeal.
2. Subject matter: social studies, lan-
guage arts.
3. Community resources: field trips,
concerts.
4. Interesting people.
5. Special occasions.








WHAT CONSTITUTES THE MUSIC EDUCATION PROGRAM?


6. Audio-visual experiences: with re-
cordings, stories, poems, pictures.
7. Current events: from radio, televi-
sion, newspapers, and magazines.
Singing seldom becomes an important
part of the daily living of children if it is
used only as a stopgap. Having a child lead
the class "in any song" while the teacher
does other work destroys the pleasure the
child has in singing. Songs and musical
experiences in general become quickly
"shopworn" through apathetic guidance.
Care in preserving spontaneity and mood
throughout many repetitions will sustain
interest. Some songs need only to be sung
expressively to be a satisfying experience,
while many familiar songs can be enriched
by the addition of descants or effective
instrumental accompaniments.
Development of the Singing Voice
Individual differences. The singing voice
is so intimately connected with the child's
innermost feelings that great care should
be taken to preserve his desire to sing. In-
dividual differences should be expected
and accepted in singing. Perfunctory ef-
forts are no more satisfying in music than
in other areas. Even though many singing
experiences are great fun, each child is
constantly encouraged to participate at his
highest level of ability.
Within the same primary classroom a
teacher will find a large group of children
who sing a melody accurately and a small
group, sometimes called uncertain singers,
who sing inaccurately. While the majority
of children find pleasure in singing, some-
times a few of them are reluctant to par-
ticipate for such reasons as musical or
social immaturity, shyness, lack of musi-
cal experience, or inability to carry a tune.
Indifference due to unpleasant experiences,


or to a feeling of musical superiority, may
be overcome by encouragement and by
extending the range of musical activities.
Reticence to participate rarely is caused
by physical defects. The teacher should
refer the physically handicapped to par-
ents or proper school authorities.
Children mature physically at individ-
ual rates of speed. Chronological age and
learning stages do not necessarily parallel.
Likewise, vocal development follows cer-
tain patterns. Some children sing naturally
at a very early age. Others pass through a
stage of being uncertain singers who are
becoming aware of melodic differences
and are learning to use the speaking voice
as a singing instrument.
Uncertain singers. If the child is un-
able to carry a tune at the time he starts
to kindergarten or first grade, parents and
teachers should not be unduly disturbed.
These children are a small proportion of
the class, but they should not be neglected.
With patience and encouragement from
the teacher, they can continue to partici-
pate enthusiastically and enjoy many sat-
isfying musical experiences. The teacher
should continue to help each child make
a contribution to group singing.
Here are some suggestions to the teacher
for helping the uncertain singer:
1. Preserve a classroom atmosphere
which encourages spontaneity and
creativity.
2. Believe that every child can sing.
3. Be convinced that developing
within the child an enthusiastic
desire to sing is more important
than "correct" singing, especially
in the early stages of musical
growth.








MUSIC FOR FLORIDA CHILDREN


4. Pitch the song in a key that is
comfortable for the child.
5. Find songs that fit his limited vocal
range, or create a simple descant
or chant with his one or two sing-
ing tones.'
6. Recognize and provide for release
of emotional blocks.
7. Place the uncertain singer near a
strong, independent singer.
8. Encourage children to identify
themselves vocally with things in
the world about them.
Example: One teacher capital-
ized upon a child's projecton of
himself into his airplane. It was
discovered that a six-year-old,
flying his jet airplane, zoomed
vocally upward. He sustained
his flight on one pitch and hum-
med himself down to a three-
point landing. The next time, as
the jet soared into the air and
leveled off on a pitch, the teacher
asked him if the plane could
zoom "America." It did and
singing the song was the next
step.
9. Allow the child to experiment
with bells, piano, and other pitch-
producing instruments, matching
tones as he plays. This experience
can serve as another avenue for
recognizing and responding to
pitch difference.
10. Let him hum or try humming
through a comb covered with
waxed paper. Such a transition
from informal to more controlled
experiences is usually helpful.

1. Refer to the section on harmonic singing, p. 21.


11. Provide a wide variety of musical
activities. Children who have diffi-
culty with singing can discover
themselves musically through other
types of experiences:
a. instrumental
b. rhythmic bodily responses
c. listening
d. creating
The talented child. The sophisticate
needs to be challenged constantly by pro-
viding opportunities for him to share with
the class his wide range of experiences and
abilities. Often he can enrich classroom
music by providing piano accompani-
ments, producing more intricate rhythmic
patterns, or leading the descant group.
While his talent can be useful to the group,
care should be taken not to exploit the
gifted child.2
The changing voice. Only a very small
percentage of voices change during the
elementary school, but teachers in inter-
mediate grades occasionally work with a
few boys whose voices have begun to
change. Adolescence brings with it un-
stable emotions, fear of ridicule, a fast
growing body, and a maturing voice. The
boy will need to explore the possibilities
of using the new qualities of his voice,
singing in unison, or carrying the melody
while other voices harmonize. Often the
third part of the three-part songs in the
basic texts is within his vocal range.
He and the class can be fascinated by
discovering that his new voice adds depth
and color to classroom singing as he sings
the sustained tone in chordal accompani-
ments, adds a descant below the melody,
or sings the root tone in a I-IV-V-I progres-

2. Refer to section on Exceptional Children, p. 55.








WHAT CONSTITUTES THE MUSIC EDUCATION PROGRAM?


sion.3 Later, this experience leads easily
into bass clef notation.
Knowing that the boy with a changing
voice can sing, the greatest contribution
the teacher can make is her provision of
usable materials which keep him interested
and challenged. There is a place for every
child in the singing program; these experi-
ences fulfill his present needs and enrich
his entire adult life.
Musical Understandings
Melodic and rhythmic concepts. No
child is satisfied with the continuance of
the practice of learning every song by
rote. Musical illiteracy is a tremendous
handicap and a limitation upon the use
and enjoyment of music. A vocabulary of
tonal and rhythmic concepts must be de-
veloped. Basic texts adequately organize
these skill sequences. The material in this
chapter is intended only to supplement the
continued use of teachers' manuals, accom-
paniment books, and county bulletins.
Although the expressive power in music
is augmented by the acquisition of skills,
at no time can singing be considered a
mere accumulation of techniques. Former-
ly, the ultimate goal of the music program
was to teach each child to read at first
sight. The new concept recognizes that in-
terest and positive attitudes encourage
skills to grow out of meaningful experi-
mentation in the classroom. Music horizons
broaden for the child as he experiences the
personal satisfaction and sense of achieve-
ment that comes from interpreting the
symbols of music. His growing vocabulary
of understandings intensifies his personal
relationship with music.
The ancient adage, "All roads lead to
3. Refer to sections on harmony and instrumental activi-
ties, pp. 26, 27.


Rome," can be applied to the generaliza-
tion that all positive musical experiences
lead to the development of understandings
which make the music score more mean-
ingful. It is absurd to believe that all chil-
dren will develop the same facility to read
music, but it is reasonable to believe that
many can learn to translate the symbols of
music into a living, artistic expression.
Harmonic concepts. The development
of part singing is not determined by the
time-honored rule that because a child has
reached the fourth grade, he must embark
on a vigorous program of round singing.
Rather, as in the development of all musi-
cal concepts, as extended period of varied
singing, listening, and instrumental activi-
ties, accumulative in nature, lead to har-
monic readiness. No mystery shrouds the
development of harmonic singing. It in-
volves the carrying-on of an independent
part, while being conscious of hearing
something else going on at the same time.
In his early years, a child is primarily
concerned with singing a tune and re-
sponding to rhythm. Emphasis during this
period is centered around the development
of a strong sense of tonality and secure,
independent singing. As he matures, har-
monic activities become increasingly im-
portant to his achievement of musical sat-
isfaction.
The broadening of classroom music from
the "singing lesson" to the inclusion of
melodic and harmonic instruments has
made it possible to move into the use of
harmony in early years with greater ease
and vitality.' Several ways of focusing at-
tention on harmonic usage are described
below.
A sustained tone may be sung like the
1. Refer to the section on instrumental activities, p. 27.







MUSIC FOR FLORIDA CHILDREN


drone of a bagpipe. The first tone used in
this manner probably will be the key note
(1 or "do") sung on any vowel sound, or
a word suggested by the text of the song.
Rhythmic variations of the sound will en-
liven the experience.
Illustration 1: One class was singing
the familiar song "Hot Cross Buns" when
the teacher began to chant the words on
1 or do throughout. Soon a few children
joined her on the sustained note. A little
later the 5 or sol was added and children
alternated in singing the tune and one of


the harmonizing notes. Their notation is
shown below:


Group 1 Buns -..-
5-----
Group 2 Hot cross buns
3 2 1
Group 8 Buns..--------- --


Buns..------
5-------
Hot cross buns
3 2 1


Buns-.
1--


Illustration 2: A simple harmonizing
part may be used as introductory mate-
rial to a tune, then continued throughout.
Beatrice Krone uses this device with "The
Farmer in the Dell":1


t\o VH He 13 HVo 14 1 H "

e -__e e ltne
__ ~ k -


Simple chord progressions may be sensed
by children whether they are improvised
or read from notation. "Skip to My Lou"
and many other songs require only two
chords for harmonization throughout. From
such a simple material children discover
that songs sung in school may become as
interesting and rich as those heard on the
radio or on recordings.

Descants. Another way of stimulating
interest in song material is the use of des-
cants, or counter-melodies. Experiences
with descants usually begin by adding
them to familiar tunes such as hymns or
folk-songs. Sometimes they are sung on


neutral syllables but more often they use
words of the text, with or without modi-
fication. The descant is usually more in-
teresting if its rhythm contrasts with that
of the basic tune. Children may wish to
begin by selecting one or two words and
repeating them on harmonizing tones. A
few examples of descants are shown below:
Illustration 3: "Church Bells": N.M.H.,
Book 111, p. 123.
Words selected: Listen ..... Ding,
Dong.
Melody created:
1. Beatrice and Max Krone, Music Participation in the
Elementary School, Chicago: Neil A. Kjos Music Co.,
1952), pp. 6-7.









WHAT CONSTITUTES THE MUSIC EDUCATION PROGRAM?


LIs-t n, Ls-ten, Lis-tun, Ls-teM, LIs-ten)

I I I I II


D<\ Doong Oig3 Donq
Note: "Ding, Dong" may be played by the resonator bells throughout the song.

Illustration 4: "Down in Mexico," A fifth grade class composed a counter-
N.M.H., Book V, p. 43. melody on the words "Way down in Mex-
ico, Days are so sunny":

1 hne DC. AMtfte




JOy >v % \ Me- -XI- co Iys a.re so s$4-- hy.

Then they added a four-measure harmonizing part below the melody:



S.n\t n re I I IITt


Irt Mle-xd


Sources for descants to other songs are
listed below:
American Singer, Book IV, American Book Com-
pany. Silent Night, p. 82; All Through the
Night, p. 108; Wise Ben Franklin, p. 126.
American Singer, Book VI. The Slumbering Ca-
thedral, p. 72; Loch Lomond, p. 84; Huckle-
berry Finn, p. 206.
From Descants to Trios, Max and Beatrice Krone,
Neil A. Kjos.
Music Everywhere, A Singing School, Book VI.
C. C. Birchard Co., Fiesta, p. 146; Joy to the
World, p. 180.
New Music Horizons, Book IV. Brothers Row,
p. 168.
New Music Horizons, Book V. The Ash Grove,
p. 188.


New Music Horizons, Book VI. The First Nowell,
p. 71.
Our First Songs to Sing with Descants, Max and
Beatrice Krone.
Our Land of Song, A Singing School, Book V.
C. C. Birchard Co. Carol of the Creatures,
p. 161; Felipe and Dolores Dance, p. 82.
Our Third Book of Descants, Max and Beatrice
Krone. Neil A. Kjos. (easy to medium)
Singing America, Zanzig. C. C. Birchard Co.
America the Beautiful, p. 126; Christmas
Spring, p. 113; Dixie, p. 123; At the Gate of
Heaven, p. 21; Old Folks at Home, p. 33.
Sing It Again, Cooperative Recreation Service,
Delaware, Ohio.
Songs to Sing With Descants, Max and Beatrice
Krone. Neil A. Kjos.


I"'
t'ArOVA5OL SOgj


IV% tle- X1 C








MUSIC FOR FLORIDA CHILDREN


Very Easy Descants, Max
Neil A. Kjos.


and Beatrice Krone.


Harmony at cadences or phrase endings.


Children may begin their earliest harmo-
nizing by singing an "Amen" at the end of
a favorite hymn, thus:


A- e. wen. en.

Or, they may improvise simple harmonic The class may improvise or create their
parts above or below the closing phrases own song endings.
of songs sung in the class. Examples of this
type of activity may be found in New Illustration 5: "Prayer Before Battle,"
Music Horizons, Book IV, p. 121, "Boat N.M.H., Book IV, p. 85. Harmony at a
Song," and "How the Corn Grows," p. 122. third below the melody:


I A r i j i \ i I at i I
I I
--I- W % waord. Avnd grsle-JuL of-f'rnjs brma.

Illustration 6: "Good Night, Ladies" harmony at a third above the melody:


I U U" I AR\ \ -
r'err-t- \'-j we toll o,-ioM, toil a.- .o q, toll Ci- loh
I | rL 1 0 ." '1 I 0 1 0 i


V' M-I-\j uwe roll a..-\o


"The Frog and the Crow," N.M.H., Book
V, p. 106, gives an example of harmonizing
in thirds with the harmony part below the
melody. Another example of thirds (with
slight variations) is "A Thwarted Ro-
mance," N.M.H., Book V, p. 170. "Dear
Evelina," N.M.H., Book V, p. 87 and
"Silent Night," p. 53 offer harmony in
varying thirds and sixths.


o'ev the keep b\We sea..

After children have had many success-
ful experiences singing "by ear," let them
see the harmony that has been created.
The picture of the harmonic patterns may
be placed on the blackboard in dash, num-
ber, or staff notation. This step is impor-
tant in developing a visual concept of the
harmony.








WHAT CONSTITUTES THE MUSIC EDUCATION PROGRAM?


Illustration 7: "Leron, Leron," N.M.H.,
Book V, p. 72:


Le ron, Le ron, my boy,

Phrase No. 1, Number notation:


Phrase No. 1, Dash notations:


Be care ful


what you


Le,- ori) Le-ron, My boy, Bt -cm-fu.l wI t tyo., o.


Phrase No. 1, Staff notation:


Im -eL A y ^ t i i 1 -1 1, A. A d I 1 1 1,

Le vrov\, Le- tot\, my 60, Be caire -Swil w Voi Lyout 10.O


Children gain security with staff nota-
tions as they begin to see the exact "pic-
ture" on the printed page and learn the
song by means of it. It should be empha-
sized that the child hear the harmony in-
formally before he can be expected to re-
produce what he sees in the score.

Vocal Chording. Developing chordal
harmony to a familiar song is another chal-
lenge in the chain of harmonic experiences
which can and should lead to the recogni-
tion and identification of chord structure.


Although the autoharp is the most helpful
means of developing this skill, the tech-
nique can be evolved in other ways. One
teacher used this process:
As the class had just finished singing
"Polly-wolly Doodle," the teacher sug-
gested they sing a drone note on G (do
or 1) while she sang the melody. There
were a number of facial and verbal ex-
pressions of dissatisfaction when the tune
clashed with the sustained tone. A bit of
vocal improvising led to the easy harmo-
nization below.








MUSIC FOR FLORIDA CHILDREN


Illustration 8:

9 I 4I I
I n0 0o- o -

0 e I went Ao\uv\ Sou-t\\ forto se- e- Sa- ljsnjIng Po Illy Wo1y bob.Ie IAlIt



bOL- 1Y ScI sAe is 0, s5PAVy ga.l \1, s\vq3 mlPok\l oW01ooAl W\tkDo.
A similar technique was used, starting with the full chord, G-B-D.
Illustration 9:
I I

Wlent Lown South Ah_ Ah Da,
Cor) Ah
0 1


Ah


SoA,
(or) Ah


D) ".


Rounds and Canons. The singing of
rounds and canons is another means for
developing part singing. Whether used to
strengthen a chordal sense or to develop
the concept of hearing harmony as inde-
pendent melodic lines, the composite ef-
fect is harmonic.
Rounds are tunes that chase themselves,
and their melodic lines are generally con-
structed on the tonic chord. The canon
and the round have much in common in
that the melodic line of the voices is the
same for all parts and the entrances are
staggered. But through refinement the
canon has become a distinct musical form
based on specific rules of development:
1. The staggered entrances are one
measure apart.
2. All voices end simultaneously.


The basic series of music books have many
rounds and canons for classroom use.
The above illustrations are not confined
to any one grade or to a specific age level.
Classes of combination grades will find
these activities most refreshing. Commu-
nity and assembly singing can be revital-
ized through many of these practices. Sat-
isfying three- or four-part harmony can
readily be produced by inexperienced
groups. Singing is fun!

D. INSTRUMENTAL EXPERIENCES
Many times instrumental exploration re-
veals much to guide parents and teachers
in helping the child to develop. Playing
instruments augments the whole music
program since it can be used with singing,
listening, rhythms, and creativity within


Ah







WHAT CONSTITUTES THE MUSIC EDUCATION PROGRAM?


Fourth grade boys and girls play a simple Haydn composition in their string class.


the classroom. Some children find more
enjoyment and satisfaction in this experi-
ence than in any other phase of music.
Development of the Instrumental Program
Simple Rhythm Instruments. Children
are sound-conscious, and because of their
interest in tone colors, instrumental music
has a strong appeal. There are many "easy-
to-play" musical instruments which give
the child opportunity to experiment with
sound. Among them are drums of various
kinds, cymbals, rhythm sticks, wood blocks,
sand blocks, triangles, tambourines, kingle
clogs and bells. These media may be used
in early experiences to help the child sense


fundamental pulsations and intensify rhyth-
mic patterns in simple music. Although
these instruments can be purchased, many
can be made by the children, affording
opportunities for cooperative planning and
action.
A second grade class created the follow-
ing patterns with instruments of this kind
to accompany their singing of "Playing
Indians," (New Music Horizons, Book II,
p.56).
The big drum said


BS CAM1S etc.


2
4~ C~








MUSIC FOR FLORIDA CHILDREN


Smaller drums joined in saying

42 pp 1 P P r
P(Lyqn9 al\oQs, P\.ying Inhoans etc.
D and A resonator bells played


Is such ;wn, Is su hjun, etc
(The same effect can be achieved at the
piano or xylophone.)
The song also provided a stimulus for
making instruments, creating a toe-heel
dance and dramatization of life in an In-
dian village.
Simple Tonal Instruments. Children
can begin to get a very clear understand-
ing of how the notes of a melody fit to-
gether by listening and playing tonal in-
struments such as resonator bells, xylo-
phone, psaltery, harmonica, tuned water
glasses, and simple wind instruments. One
of the most useful resources in adding in-
terest to accompaniments and awakening
a sense of harmonic relationship is the
autoharp. It is easily played and so con-
structed that by merely holding down a
button and strumming, complete chords
will result.
Simple orchestrations which combine a
variety of instruments may be made either
to accompany singing or as a special proj-
ect. Instrumentation may be decided upon
informally. The extensive possibilities of
these activities are being explored by chil-
dren of all ages. One recent collection of
combined instrumental and vocal materials
is Rhythm and Harmony for the Elemen-
tary Grades, Lloyd Slind, Mills Music Co.,
1953.
Musical Understandings. While at first
these activities are done by rote, as experi-


ences become more complicated children
feel a need for some form of notation. The
use of letter-names or numbers for the
tonal instruments and dash notation for
the rhythm instruments fills this need in
the beginning. However, through his desire
to play songs from a book, he soon dis-
covers for himself a purpose in being able
to interpret standard notation. Note names
and key signatures are found to be im-
portant because of different fingerings in-
volved. The value of notes and rests as-
sume equal importance and the relation-
ship of intervals becomes meaningful in a
practical way. Thus, through playing in-
struments the musical score becomes alive,
and the child by seeing, hearing, and play-
ing develops an awareness of:
1. Rhythmic flow
2. Pitch relationship (high, low or
same)
3. Harmonic relationship
4. Tonality
5. Like, unlike or similar phrases
6. Interpretation
7. Tempo (fast or slow)
8. Dynamics (loud or soft)
Exploratory Experiences with Orches-
tral Instruments. As the child grows mu-
sically, his interest will include orchestral
instruments. The school should have a
small violin, a comet, a clarinet, a drum,
as well as the piano available for experi-
mentation either by the group or by the
individual. The assistance of the music
specialist is usually necessary in approach-
ing this activity. Exploratory experiences
will aid the interested child in selecting an
instrument of his choice, and can be the
beginning of unlimited instrumental pleas-
ure. As a result, many will purchase their
own instruments. Before this step is taken,








WHAT CONSTITUTES THE MUSIC EDUCATION PROGRAM?


advice should be sought from a reliable
person who knows instruments and un-
derstands the physical possibilities of the
child.
Organization of Instrumental Classes.
As interest increases and more instruments
become available, a greater need arises for
skills and techniques. With the full coop-
eration of administrators, classroom teach-
ers, and parents, the music specialist may
arrange for instrumental classes. These
classes should be open to all children who
show a desire for instruction.
Heterogeneous groupings of woodwind,
brass, and percussion instruments are often
made when classes are formed. String
classes are usually organized separately
since they present unique problems.
School-owned instruments. Large in-
struments, such as the string bass, 'cello,
viola, xylophone, baritone horn, and drums
should be owned by the school since they
are seldom owned by younger children. It
is advisable for the school to own small-
sized stringed instruments to meet the
physical limitations of the child in the
elementary school. The minimum number
of school-owned instruments with which
the program is initiated may be augmented
by purchasing others from time to time.
It is also necessary for the school to pro-
vide music stands for children in instru-
mental classes. These stands should be of
standard make, but if funds are limited,
home-made ones can serve the purpose
temporarily.
Scheduling. Instrumental classes are
most successful when scheduled during
school hours for not less than two thirty-
minute periods per week. Some adminis-
trators find it convenient to use a stagger-
period plan while others prefer a set time.


It is recognized that instrumental classes
sometimes will be scheduled at the same
hour as other classroom activities. Before
the decision is made as to which of these
is most important, teachers and parents
should consider the value that each has in
meeting the child's needs. To some stu-
dents, instrumental music may be the
medium for developing their greatest lead-
ership. The spark of enthusiasm and the
feeling of accomplishment created by these
classes often carries over into other areas
of learning.
Ensemble Playing. The instrumental
program offers an excellent opportunity for
successfully combining different levels of
learning in a single group. There is en-
semble music now arranged for this spe-
cific purpose; however, the teacher may
write parts to fit the individual child's
ability.
It is also possible at a very early stage
for these classes to contribute to classroom
singing. When they do, it is an inspiration
to the class as well as to the children who
play instruments. The following song is so
arranged that, with any instrumental com-
bination, it can be used to enrich classroom
singing and dancing. Many other songs can
be treated in a similar manner.
Class Piano. Children should have the
same opportunity to explore the piano as
other instruments. Many schools are now
providing this opportunity by means of
piano classes. These classes are not offered
in competition to the private teachers of
the community. Rather they are enriching
experiences for the child already taking
piano and the beginner as well. They ex-
tend the classroom music experiences and
deepen meanings of private study by al-
lowing the child ample opportunities to









MUSIC FOR FLORIDA CHILDREN


ClAoNETS



0%.
FLUT E



VIOLIN


C ELLO
OPtSN S
CCOpi ij'


O. tC
A*.c


SOLO I

VIOLIA
FLUE


Lo'TTC
"0'1~
-1 LU -1U


STRIN6P P.









O i<^to



Soto
M. n


P,


I \


C


ci
A


2.

c-- .-
SI r0


F ne



F ne


1 !1 2.


D. S. LI F


D.S. oA Fine


OPa ST911


Si%% the we -as C ), N.M.H. Book Y, p.43


I

C--


-Jmd


- m


D. S (L\ ~ rne



L)I S. (L\ Fine


h0\NN \N Yx\CO"


D.S.-a. FtIn


w







WHAT CONSTITUTES THE MUSIC EDUCATION PROGRAM?


improvise, transpose, read at sight or play
in ensemble.
The class piano teacher should be well
qualified and approved by the board of
education. Training methods in class piano
instruction and an understanding of child
psychology are essential to her preparation.
The teacher may be a regular member of
the school personnel, or may be a piano
teacher from the community. In either
case, she should be aware of the fact that
piano classes are a part of the total edu-
cational program.
It is recommended that a child remain
in school piano classes for no longer than
two years. If he desires further training,
he should be advised to continue with a
private teacher.
Minimum equipment consists of at least
one piano, enough keyboards with raised
black keys so each member of the class
may have the use of one; chairs and tables
or desks for the keyboards; music racks to
rest on the desks or tables; blackboard
space, and teaching materials. The chil-
dren are usually expected to purchase their
own music books used in the course.
If a full instrumental program is not
possible at first, provision should be made
to utilize the abilities of the child who is
taking private lessons. He may make his
contribution by accompanying songs or
playing alone, or joining with others who
play instruments. Informal ensembles of
this type are often the beginning of an
instrumental program.
And what does all this do for the child?
It may be the only instrumental experi-
ence he will ever have, or it may be the
beginning of an experience that will carry
over into his adult life. Either way, it fur-
nishes him a deeper understanding and ap-


preciation of music that will always be a
part of him.

E. CREATIVE EXPERIENCES
Every valid music experience is creative
to some extent, and the capacity for cre-
ativity lies within each of us. Whether it
emerges, depends upon the depth of our
experience and the strength of the com-
pulsion to react or express our feelings.
It will be the purpose of this chapter to
describe the nature of creative activities
and suggest ways of engaging in them.
Creative self-expression comes naturally
and easily to most children. No great arti-
fices are needed to cause the child to ex-
press himself freely. It is true, however,
that sometimes his spontaneity is retarded
by new social situations with a multiplicity
of restrictions. A large class, strictly regi-
mented, will find little joy or satisfaction
in an artificial and laborious process of
"making up a song" which some teachers
erroneously believe constitutes creative
music.
The atmosphere surrounding a creative
experience is all important. It must be free,
flexible and conducive to uninhibited ex-
pression. Freedom, however, is only the
condition for beginnings. The teacher ob-
serves what children are doing, what they
are saying, how they interpret the events
of the day, and how they participate in the
activities of the group. He makes it known
that these natural responses are desirable
and welcome. He does not assume that
they will be kept alive by merely allowing
a few children to display their momentary,
impulsive reaction for the group. He stimu-
lates response and helps it mature by guid-
ing and organizing these reactions so that
they take on greater meaning.













r'!1 .. .. **

'"" -' -,'
_, ** # i
I. i "' ./
i' ? '* -r *, .

.^.* dJl '"'


These youngsters learn "fast" and "slow" to the music of "Let's Play Train."


IRMO -11111








WHAT CONSTITUTES THE MUSIC EDUCATION PROGRAM?


The earliest creative activities are organ-
ized around spontaneous musical expres-
sions of the child. These expressions are
the result of moods, responses to a class-
room experience or reflections of an event
at home. It is natural for children to pro-
ject themselves into the land of make-
believe. Thus, they imitate sounds, either
heard or suggested by pictures and objects,
and give them meanings both real and
imaginary. Imitation leads from free im-
personation to forms of expression requir-
ing more organization, such as dramatiza-
tion or composition of ballads.
Listening to music under favorable con-
ditions and in the best way is creative, in
that it involves an emotional reaction.
Children respond in terms of what they
feel, and in their sensory responses to
beauty lie the beginnings of creativity.
Illustration:
After attending an orchestra concert
a group of rural children discussed the
experience with their teacher. Each
child had so much to contribute that the
group decided to write their impressions
in a letter to the county music coordi-
nator. In the comments of the children
we sense their emotional reactions, and
we see how one child felt an inadequacy
to express his real enjoyment in words.
The essence of the letter is found in the
postscript, which is an indication of a
real creative experience.
"All of us liked the director. I think it
was because he made you feel mighty
welcome and explained everything that
was played.
"I liked the stringed instruments best.
The viola was larger than the violin. It
must be pretty big to put under your
chin. I learned that you can pluck the
strings,


"Each group of instruments played
pieces together, but I liked the little solo
parts to let you know how each one
sounded.
"I liked the new pieces, but I am glad
they played a few that I already knew.
Robert
"P.S. Most of all I just enjoyed my-
self."
The child does not always give written
or oral expression to his reaction. If he is
able to extract special meanings from
music, and see affinities or parallels be-
tween music and other art forms, the cre-
ative urge is at work. When he reaches
the point of discrimination, or develops
the skill of making fine distinctions in lis-
tening to music, creativity is at a high
level.
The same principle may be applied to
instrumental activities. Recognition of the
differences of the tone quality of various
instruments begins at an early stage and
is refined as experience broadens. Experi-
menting with instruments also often leads
to creating tunes which have value to the
child. Simple instruments such as resona-
tor bells, xylophones, psalteries, harmoni-
cas, tuned water glasses, or autoharps fill
this need at first. Later, clarinets, violins
or pianos may be combined with these to
form easy orchestrations of either well-
known or original melodies. Suggestions to
supplement these may be found in teach-
ers' manuals or accompaniment books of
basic series, and in the section on Instru-
mental activities of this bulletin.
Dramatization of songs, pantomimes
based on listening activities, and free play
often may be organized into satisfactory
games or dances. Children need time to
react, to understand, to feel. They cannot







MUSIC FOR FLORIDA CHILDREN


K


be forced into a creative situa
they are not rushed or overwh


ideas they are easily stimulated into cre-
ative expression. It is an easy step from
completely free rhythmic movement to
satisfying imaginative dances which grow
out of the music. The very simple swinging
or swaying movements lead to engaging
little games such as "This Old Man," "Skip
to My Lou," and "The Muffin Man." Form-
less interpretive dances assume greater
beauty and meaning when they grow out
of definite feelings or movements suggested
Sby the music.
The spontaneous sing-song of a child at
play is the beginning of creative song.
These short chanted phrases may be re-
iterated or varied until a complete musi-
cal expression emerges. Tone-calls or an-
swering songs also constitute good begin-
ning points for provoking original ideas or
words. (See Experiences in Music for First
Grade Children, N.M.H., pp. 5, 8, 9, 17.)
Children may wish to add a verse to a
familiar melody or to compose topical
words to a known tune.
It is not the nature of creative abilities
that they flow according to pattern. For
this reason neither small children nor pro-
fessional composers invariably approach
this activity according to set procedures.
Certain stimuli induce creative impulses
quite unexpectedly and the final result may
bear little resemblance to
the original idea. Some-
7 times children write a
poem which they believe
would be enhanced by
music. At other times they
write music and words si-
Smultaneously. If the proc-
ess or its product satisfies
a personal need and shows
tion, but if new relationships, it is
elmed with creative. Numerous suggestions for creat-






WHAT CONSTITUTES THE MUSIC EDUCATION PROGRAM?


1L_-








MUSIC FOR FLORIDA CHILDREN


ing songs or instrumental compositions are
given in basic series texts, teachers' man-
uals, and such books as the Krones' "Music
Participation in the Elementary Schools," or
Fox and Hopkins' "Creative School Music."
The creative urge needs to be fortified
by a depth of music experience. The be-
ginnings of creative action lie within any
area of the child's experience, but if the
result is a musical product, it springs from
rich musical understandings.
"No one can create in a poverty of ex-
perience, for creativity is the spilling over
of a full cup. A rich intake of experience
from the culture and from human contacts
will cause the child to give back in his
unique and typical way."'
Illustration 1:
A first grade child skipped into my
room one morning chanting "Hippity
hop to the candy-shop, to the candy-


shop, to the candy-shop."
Through the activities of the morning,
I noticed that Gary not only felt this
rhythmic pattern in his feet but also
tapped his pencil, tossed his head, and
moved his lips silently to the same pat-
tern as he worked.
During the music period I asked him
to share his experience with the class
and soon thirty first-graders were chant-
ing with Gary:
Hippity hop to the candy shop
To the candy shop, to the candy shop,
Hippity hop to the candy shop
To buy a lollipop.

Tunes began to evolve and as one
predominated I sketched it on the board
with dash notation. The music special-
ist later made the proper notation for
our song.


L N I. *"N II N

6p-pP-tt hop to-he (can l- shop, the cobn-iy shop t -e cpon-Aj, V 3op.

il hg 1. 1 f ^ 1 J aPgt 9V 1 1L

HIp-pt-tt 'O1? to theC C(La-dJ shop, to bkx 0. loV-Vi- pop, pop.


This step, though not essential, pre-
served the song for us and placed added
value upon Gary's experience.
To add further enrichment to their
song, the children suggested the use of
rhythm instruments while some children
skipped to the candy shop and others
sang.
Illustration 2:
Children also find joy and satisfaction
in creating new verses to familiar songs


or making original tunes for poems which
they like. Sometimes they may change
only a word or phrase which makes a
song more appropriate to their own en-
vironment or a particular interest.
After learning to sing "Story Hour,"
N.M.H., Book II, p. 130, one second
grade wished to sing about other nice
things which their mothers did for
them. From their suggestions three new
1. Music Guide for the Elementary Schools. State of Utah,
Department of Public Instruction, 1944.








WHAT CONSTITUTES THE MUSIC EDUCATION PROGRAM?


verses were added. Finding words which
rhymed and making their phrases fit
the rhythm of the song was an exciting
experience.

Original words:
Mother tells the nicest stories
When we're tucked away in bed;
Makes us feel so very happy
When our prayers are said.
Verses created by Children:
Mother buys the nicest toys
When we go down town to shop;
Makes me feel so very happy
When I spin my top.
Mother bakes the nicest pies
When we're playing hide and seek;
Makes me feel so very happy
When we're called to eat.
Mother bakes us cakes and cookies
When we're coming home from school;
Makes us feel so very hungry
When the cakes are cool.
Illustration 3:
The simplest song material frequently
presents many possibilities for creative
experiences. Such a song is Clocks and
Watches, N.M.H., Book II, p. 52.
After learning the song, one class ex-
perimented with different lengths and
sizes of sticks to distinguish between ap-
propriate sounds for a steeple clock,
mantel clock, and for watches. Various
other qualities of sounds from wood
were obtained by tapping wooden ob-
jects in the classroom.
Another day the children decided to
use different instruments: a big gong for
the steeple clock; small cymbal tapped
with soft mallet for the mantel clock;
and triangles for the watches.
The pendulums of the clocks sug-
gested rhythmic movements both small


and large while the tick-tocks suggested
walking, running and tip-toeing to the
children.
Since the song only uses notes from
the tonic chord, many ways of using the
resonator bells were suggested. Some-
times the class divided into three groups,
steeple clocks, mantel clocks, and
watches. As they heard the beginning
pitch for their part, they sang. After a
little experience of this kind they were
able to combine their parts singing all
the tick-tocks at once.
After these experiences the class
seemed to be ready for a more artistic
experience. One morning following the
usual routine when everyone was ready
for work a portion of the Clock Sym-
phony by Franz Joseph Haydn, op. 101
in D, second movement, was played
without comment. Probably no mature
audience has ever received a greater
delight in listening to this symphonic
music than these second grade children
who had a real readiness for such a cre-
ative experience in listening.

F. INTEGRATION
There must be a wholeness in the music
program whereby the music stimulates and
initiates on the part of the child, with
guidance of the teacher, those activities
which will make music more meaningful
to him and tend to interest him in further
participation and enjoyment of music.
Many pupils still drop out of school even
before they reach Junior High School.
Thus, the elementary school has a greater
responsibility than any other division of
the school system for it must help the
child before he leaves school to be able
to share in purposeful activities and actual








MUSIC FOR FLORIDA CHILDREN


planning and carrying out of decisions
made by his group.
In the new music program force is not
used to stimulate interest. Instead, the
child's work is centered as far as possible
around his interests, needs and desires.
Little attempt is made to have a child
learn something for which he has no back-
ground for understanding or which will
not fit into the needs of his own life.
A child is given an opportunity to ex-
press himself musically through singing,
playing an instrument, listening, some type
of physical response, or creating. He ex-
presses himself in a way different from any
previous experience.
By his individual choice, he has created
a new musical experience for himself. Not
only has he created his experience, but
there has been interaction of music, of self,
and of some stimulating force in his en-
vironment. It is then that music becomes
an important part of that child's living.
Unless this integration takes place within
the child himself, it will be no more sig-
nificant for growth than the same number
of separate experiences.
Music cuts across subject matter fields
to broaden and enrich their content. This
does not mean that a certain piece of music
is taught because it fits in with the social
studies or science lesson, or after deciding
what music fits best with the lesson, the
teacher hands it to his group. This is
merely bringing together certain facts
based on a common center of interest. It
does not have an integrating influence on
the child because of the fact that the
child has had no opportunity to express a
need or show an interest.
Music experiences serve to enrich and
vitalize the unit of work in which children


may be currently engaged. When children
become acquainted with music of a peo-
ple, their imagination is aroused. For in-
stance, a child may become extremely in-
terested in how the colonial frontier shifted
in the West. To understand the culture of
pioneers, one must understand all phases
of their social living. Such songs as "The
Erie Canal," and "Sweet Betsy from Pike"
are true musical pictures of the feelings
of these people in regard to work, love
and laughter.
Music is emotionally and intellectually
satisfying in the lives of both children and
adults, and through its power as a social-
izing influence, brings about an immeas-
urable increase in human happiness. Chil-
dren soon learn, as integrated studies pro-
gress, that music is not confined to the
music period alone, but that it makes a
contribution to other classroom activities;
in fact, permeates the entire curriculum.
"The 'climate' that is created by such a
curriculum is the most important of all in
releasing the impulse to do, to make, to live
creatively in the classroom. The working at-
mosphere stems from the teacher. It is her
enthusiasm, her encouragement, that inspires
even the least out-going child to make a try.
It is her respect for each individual's capaci-
ties, her accent on the positive, her construc-
tive use of criticism that helps children set
their own standards of accomplishment and
hold to them.
"In a 'climate' of warmth, friendly under-
standing, and intellectual challenge where
the child's best efforts are always accepted,
where the shoddy or insincere are gradually
discouraged, children will try, and try and
try again. We know that is how they learn."1
Everyone needs music. The very talented
need it as a satsifying self-expression. The
less endowed need it for the enriching and
1. Doris L. Bock, "Watching, Learning, and Teaching,"
Childhood Education, January, 1950, p. 196.








WHAT CONSTITUTES THE MUSIC EDUCATION PROGRAM?


humanizing quality it lends to life in gen-
eral. The teacher has an obligation toward
every individual in his classroom. He can-
not fail to challenge the talented child, and
yet he dare not deprive any child the joy
and release of spirit that music can bring.
Children differ in abilities and capacities
in music as in other school subjects. Most
children like to sing and express movement
rhythmically. As in teaching reading, spell-
ing, and arithmetic, the individual child
should be observed. A timid child needs
to be encouraged to sing and special at-
tention given to a non-singer. Timid chil-
dren gain confidence and improve tone
when given opportunities to sing in small
groups. All pupils are not expected to be
working on the same task at the same
time; the concept of individual differences
rules this out. The teacher respects the
dignity and worth of each individual by
the belief that each individual has a val-
uable contribution. The child is given
many opportunities to succeed in music.
As children are no longer expected to par-
ticipate at the same time in every music
experience, part of the time at least may
be spent in small group participation.
Many children may not be developed
socially to the place where they will feel
comfortable with more than four in a
group. The more opportunities special
children are given, the more they will
feel part of the class, be at ease, and con-
tribute their share. Handicapped children
offer an opportunity and a challenge. Music
may be an instrument in molding these
handicapped children into useful citizens.
A teacher will be rewarded with grateful
appreciation and see a "beam" of happi-
ness in such a child, if he is made to feel
he belongs and is part of the group.
It is this constant interchange of ideas


19
and development that make for vitality in
the tempo of school life. Integration is not
taught; it is achieved. In the end, it is the
children who make the integration.
In developing an integrated program we
must think of music as a means of child
growth. A teacher who has developed a
real interest in music will continue to be
a vital force for music in her room year
after year.
"Music to the teacher and child will be a
bridge to culture, a means of communication,
and a medium for developing a richer fuller
life."2

UNITS OF WORK RELATING TO FLORIDA
In many elementary schools, classes or-
ganize blocks of work around their interest
in the State of Florida. Abundant resource
materials for these units exist, but few
teachers have opportunities to do the re-
search necessary to make them usable. The
section which follows is based largely upon
fragmentary studies, most of which are as
yet unpublished. It consists of musical ex-
amples and germ material from which units
may grow. No directions are given for step
by step procedures but the material itself
is fresh and vital. Teachers will wish to
organize and develop it with their chil-
dren in ways that will be most interesting
and meaningful to them. Whether the unit
stems from a study of history, ethnic groups
or religion, these materials will be valuable.
Music OF THE HUGUENOTS
The Indians of Florida witnessed vari-
ous successions of white men coming as
conquerors, adventurers, or explorers, and
finally seeking to settle peacefully in this
new land.
2. Edith M. Keller (ed.), Ohio Elementary Music Guide
(Columbus, Ohio, Department of Education, 1949),
p. 116.







MUSIC FOR FLORIDA N


40

French Huguenots, oppressed and per-
secuted in European countries, sought ref-
uge in Florida where they might freely
practice their new religion. In the summer
of 1564, de Laudonniere landed at the
mouth of the St. Johns river to establish a
colony. The sound of the trumpet, fife, and
drum heralded his arrival.
Florida's shores rang with religious tunes
of foreign settlers twice within one year,
at least half a century before the Pilgrims
landed at Plymouth Rock. The Spanish,
singing their traditional tunes, and the
Huguenots singing the songs which labeled
them as heretics, established new homes
only a short distance apart.
After selecting the site for a colony (Fort
Caroline, near the present town of May-
port), de Laudonniere led his followers in
singing. In his diary he wrote "We sang a
psalm of Thanksgiving to the Lord, be-
seeching Him by his blessed grace to con-

P 5 a, CXX \X


tinue his accustomed goodness toward us
his poor servants."' "Old Hundred"
(N.M.H., Book IV, p. 45) is a hymn which
may have been used by the new settlers
in praising God.
The Indians recognizing the Huguenots
to be a friendly group returned their
friendliness with curiosity and kindness.
The French probably held daily devotion-
als including hymn singing, after the man-
ner of the Calvinists in Geneva. The simple
melodic line of the hymns impressed the
Indians, for it is reported that later Euro-
peans "... cruising along the coast, or land-
ing upon the shore, would be saluted with
some snatch of a French song uncouthly
rendered by Indian voices."2
The following musical example, taken
from the Psalter, was bought to Florida
by the Huguenots. It is likely that it was
heard by the Indians and may have been
sung by them.

C\ewe t 1Marot
+.*. M- aI. T tnmft-


Fvo i-tht dapt s of MY to U ~ht, Frov__the depths o wfml5-nss,



To Vibee-.-,(,d-drerssed M4 ou.t-c.ij cLo.y _Cn gi, ht

-:F-.


Lis-ten to -tn plai-%\M& yoicee Oh Lovd_ \n Vis tm(,

l^ f % k Ii a^^ ,. |- I


MMoay 'our ear be oat- te v t ve,

1. M. B. Thomas translation of Laudonniere's "L'Histoire 2
Notable de la Florida" A Paris: Cheg P. Jannet.


To- m pra yer.

. C. W. Baird, History of the Huguenot Emigration to
America. 2 vols. (N. Y.: Dodd Mead and Co., 1885),
as cited by M. B. Thomas, op. cit., p. 8.


\'~^ Vm B mW ...










The efforts of the French were soon to be
challenged by Menendez de Aviles. Aside
from being heretics, the Huguenots had
violated the boundaries of Spanish domain.
Being a conscientious governor, Menendez
dispatched troops from St. Augustine to
Fort Caroline. In 1565 all Huguenots ex-
cept the musicians, a drummer, fifer, and
fiddler, were massacred. These men were
taken to St. Augustine and forced to play
in the garrison band on penalty of death.
"Twenty years later, Sir Frances Drake


~~II~I ~VI~IIIIVILI II~ ~IVl


Mo.Vn of tre Powmt of OQvnoo


To f(,-k-te." lorv6 o-d In3 T. p\e pe Tloy-a tJ3.



I de-di-co te an 4-dy-cgq fowth to tliS mL IO.ind- A

Ip~ I I A


Of


or -ane ev-er


free,


Prince I av.E Xr__ ,Sau.nt-ed

THE SPANISH IN EARLY FLORIDA
After the discovery of Florida in 1513
by Ponce de Leon, many Spanish explorers
and adventurers came to our shores. Little
is known of the specific music that they
sang and played, but descriptions of their
experiences here contain several references
to music. In addition, we know the music
of their homeland and of their contem-
poraries who explored Mexico, the great
Southwest and the coast of California.
In 1565 Pedro Menendez de Aviles, hav-


ing been appointed governor and commis-
sioned to colonize "La Florida," founded
St. Augustine. Menendez, like Columbus,
was deeply religious. When he landed on
the East coast, he led his party in singing
a Te Deum Laudamus, a hymn of praise,
rejoicing and thanksgiving. Below is a
transcription of this chant and a transla-
tion of the text.

3. Florida A Guide to the Southernmost State, compiled
and edited by the Federal Writers Project of the WPA
for the State of Florida. American Guide Series. (N. Y.:
Oxford University Press, 1939), p. 149.


WHAT CONSTITUTES A


swMII rnvuinmr 41

sighted St. Augustine from the sea and
made ready to attack .. One of these...
musicians paddled out alone in a canoe to
meet the British, fluting the 'March of the
Prince of Orange' as loudly as he could.
Hearing the familiar tune (which identi-
fied the man as a Huguenot) Drake be-
friended the musician before beginning an
assault upon the town."3
Your class may wish to sing the song
that saved the life of the French musician
in St. Augustine.








MUSIC FOR FLORIDA CHILDREN


Te OetimN


from the Carec3ola.r Choot
Tontxs Sihpplex,tr. L. Ri1sby


'k L 1 1 i i I I -I I i I m*


I ie prmise thee- ob Giod-We piro.ise thee oh God, \A e u- liiouo- ledle
I~~- 0 N I I I I 1 1 1 1

Thee. tobe the Lotd. Pil the ewirth-doth uor-5hip thee, t~he SCL-thei-


e-\ieP-- t i To thee d, o- v\_-ces c- %j 0- ..oud, tA'tt. 1ea.- ven S (Xhd
I I - Ii I

CLULthe owexs kheye e.In To tAee CAP ut k No^ 0.,A Se Q-v.,



ivi c~\,es )ov~t 1_ do- cvy co 1,6 o- y, o



II j, k0. -, U \, d God oj Sc-\o o t.Hev ad



eQkri Lire j LU Of \e Yho.- jeS- ty of t~v\ go-- to .

Many religious groups today sing Te Deur in hymns in modern settings. Your
children may wish to learn the one below.

Te heam




"o \j Cod- we pra~ts-thy Ymvie Lot-d -k ic _j we con -fjess ttheee




W d I I ]a I A I I I W W








WHAT CONSTITUTES THE MUSIC EDUCATION PROGRAM?


At the insistence of the Pope, Menendez
brought Franciscan priests to christianize
the pagan population of Florida. Music
played an important part in this process.
Probably one of the first songs which the


?0Q.tt Noste


Indians learned was the Pater Noster. We
know that it was a favorite with the In-
dians of Texas, and it is likely that it was
taught in Florida as well.1



V, f'ovr -the
Gre go la. Cwant
tr. L. n. Spell


ow ed \



dow come TI b -- o o ----




















1. Lota M. Spell. Music in Texas (Austin, Texas: Author,
1936), p. 10.
I I | IAa II



.~lo w be AI I AI MME i I T 11
QIIi a l









MUSIC FOR FLORIDA CHILDREN


Menendez, representing the Spanish cul-
tural element in St. Augustine, was accom-
panied by six musicians whom he brought
from Spain to imitate in miniature the court
life of the old world.
Thus St. Augustine has a musical tradi-
tion which is kept alive today through the
yearly re-enactment of a custom brought
by settlers from the island of Minorca. It is
described by Dewhurst as follows:'
"On the night before Easter Sunday the
young men went about the city in parties
serenading. Approaching the dwelling of
some one whom they wish to favor with
their song, or from whom they expect the
favors asked in their rhyme, they knock
gently upon the window. If their visit is
welcome, they are answered by a knock
from within, and at once begin the fol-
lowing song said to be in the Mahonese
dialect:
Chorus:
Let us leave off mourning,
Let us sing with joy,
Let us go and give
Our salutation to Mary.
O Mary!
The Stanzas:
"Saint Gabriel
Brought the tidings
That the King of Heaven
Thou hadst conceived.
Thou wert humble.
Behold, here is the handmaid,
Daughter of God, content
To do what he will
"And at midnight
She gave birth to the child -
To the infinite God -
In a stable.
At mid-day
The angels go singing

1. William A. Dewhurst. The History of St. Augustine,
Florida (N. Y.: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1886), pp.
165-168.


Peace and abundance,
And glory to God alone.
"In Bethlehem,
In the Holy Land,
Was born the Saviour,
With great joy;
The little child
Who all the world would save,
Which no one could accomplish
But God alone.
"When in the East
Three kings the star did see,
God omnipotent
To adore they came,
A present they made him
Of myrrh and gold,
To the blessed Saviour,
Who knows every one.
"All burning with zeal
To accomplish the promises,
The Holy Spirit
From an angel was sent forth.
A great fire was kindled,
And courage inflamed him.
God give us language
To do Thy will.
"When we have passed
From this world, Our Lady,
To Heaven we are raised.
Your Son, at the same hour,
O Queen,
Who art of Heaven the choicest
Blooming rose!
More brilliant than the sun.
On the third day
Our Jesus arose,
The celestial God
Over death triumphant.
From hence he has gone
To overcome Satan
Throughout the whole world.
Our protector and guide.
After this hymn the following stanzas,
soliciting the customary gifts of cakes or
eggs, are sung:
"These seven stanzas sung,
Celestial Queen









WHAT CONSTITUTES THE MUSIC EDUCATION PROGRAM?


Give us peace and joy!
May you enjoy a good feast;
We wish a happy time,
Give us of your bounty.
We always have our hands ready
Thy bounty to receive.
Let us now the Easter feast
Together enjoy.
He died to save us;
Let us be joyful.
This house is walled around,
Blessed be he who walled it about.
The owner of this house
Ought to give us a token,
Either a cake or a tart.
We like anything,
So you say not no."

The shutters are then opened by the
people within, and a supply of cakes or
other pastry is dropped into a bag carried
by one of the party, who acknowledges the
gift in the following lines, and then depart:
"This house is walled around,
Walled round on four sides.
The owner of this house
Is a polite gentleman."
If nothing is given, the last line reads
thus:
"Is not a polite gentleman."

This song is repeated throughout the
city until midnight. To the listener it has
a peculiar fascination like some of the
tunes from popular operas, keeping one
awake to listen to its strains, even after
many repetitions have rendered the sing-
ing monotonous."
FROMAJADAS
Minorcan Folk Song
1
San Gabriel
Qui portaba la ambasciada,
Des nostro Rey del eel,
Estaran vos Prenada
Ya omiliada


Tu ovavais aqui serventa
Fra del Deo Contenta
Para fa lo que el vol.
Us Gois:
Dicirem la dol
Cantarem aub alagria
Y n'arem a da
Las Pascuas a Maria
O Maria.
2
Y a milla nit,
Pariguero vos regina
A un Deo infinite
Dentra una Establina
Y a milla dia
Que los angelesvan cantant
Pan y abondat
Le la gloria de Deo sol.
Dicirem la dol.
3
Y a Libalem
Alla la terra Santa
Us nat Jesus
Aub alegria tanta
Infant petit
Que tot lu mon salavaria
Y ningu y bastois
Na mes un Deo tot sol.
Dicirem la, dol, etc.
4
Cuant de urient lus
Tres Reyes la strella veran
Deo omnipotent
Adora la vingaran
Un present leferan
De mil cucens y or
A la bennit Seno
Que conesce cual se vei.
Dicirem la dol, etc.
Aquesta casa esta empedrada -
Empedrada de cuatra vents;
Sun amo de aquesta casa
Us amo de complement.

THE SEMINOLES IN FLORIDA
The Seminoles are comparatively recent
settlers in Florida. As the landings of Eu-









MUSIC FOR FLORIDA CHILDREN


FROMAJADAS


M


PiMi moderato
A I &m, --


inorcan Folk Song Transcribed by
HOWARD MANUCY
L. HOSMER
f*yt~ ~+ ,


. AtJ I
i I L h


\L~zA7zzi~LUil


VOICE


JL L" i g i I 1 0 I i F a\ \ I

San_ Ga-bri el Qui por ta-ba la am-bas cia da, Des nos-tro Rey del











el, Es ta ran vos Pre na da Ya o -mil i a da. Tu o -
ce, Es ta-ran os Pr- a da a oo i a d.Tuo-
3










va-vais a-qui ser-ven- ta Fra del Deo Con-ten ta Pa-ra fa lo que el vol.


Copyright MCMXIX by Dr. A. Anderson, St.Augutftlne, Fla.


(


_____ 4Z.4Lr :iL................tL~E


3 ja 3 3
411p4p"m IP


dp. L


'o -4t4L


m | #,


I II~C
r









WHAT CONSTITUTES THE MUSIC EDUCATION PROGRAM?


A I


CHORUS


Di cl-rem la dol__ Can-ta rem aub a la gria













Y n'a rem a da Las Pas cuas a Ma -













ri a. 0,_ Ma- rl- a! 0,_ Ma- ri a!










Allegro


A qes-ta ca-sa es- ta em-ped- ra- da Em-ped- ra-da de cua- ta
A it f *









MUSIC FOR FLORIDA CHILDREN


L I, t


A L


vents;_ Sun a-mo de a-ques-ta ca- sa Us a mo de com-ple-















ment.- A-ques-ta ca-sa es-ta em-ped-ra-da Em-ped-ra-da decua-tra

*9 :


vents;- Sun a -mo de a-ques-ta ca sa Us a mo de com-ple-








WHAT CONSTITUTES THE MUSIC EDUCATION PROGRAM?


ropeans here were numerous, so the settle-
ment by various tribes of Indians have
been even more numerous. However, Semi-
noles are the only group about which we
have detailed information and this has
only recently been made available. Books
that may be helpful in the study of the
Indians in Florida, and particularly the
Seminoles, are:
Florida, a Guide to the Southernmost
State, American Guide Series. Compiled
and written by the Federal Writers Project
of the Works Project Administration spon-
sored by the Department of Public Instruc-
tion of the State of Florida. (New York:
Oxford University Press, 1939).
Louis Capron. The Medicine Bundle of
the Seminoles and the Green Corn Dance.
Anthropological Paper, No. 35. (Washing-
ton, Government Printing Office, 1953) in


W L

O '5
F
0
.0


The wtsac. Issuxg 3by
t~e Vied utthe nen and
t~e dance, dioLctoi-


Bulletin No. 151 of the Bureau of Ameri-
can Ethnology containing Anthropological
Papers Nos. 33-42. (No. 35 may be ordered
separately).
Allen Morris, Ed. The Florida Hand-
book. Third Edition. (Tallahassee: Penin-
sula Publishing Co. 1951-52).

The Green Corn Dance is the most im-
portant ritualistic observance of the Semi-
noles and its performance is vital to the
health and well being of the members of
the tribe. This festival lasts for six days
following the new moon at the end of
June or the beginning of July.
The tribal ceremony consists mainly of
the dancing which is a part of each day's
activities. The following diagram shows the
usual arrangement of the camp site for the
festival.


XXAXXXXXX
SX X XXXKX


'Mei w*ASo IM^


xss

x-C
Sa
5=


S/ Logfor
op d` ancY'c e 4 %mcto r

Wood pile

Fir#t
*


_ _I








MUSIC FOR FLORIDA CHILDREN


Until the last night of the ceremony all
dances are performed for amusement.
These, similar to those of other tribes, are
symbolic of the natural surroundings of
the tribe and are imitative of things with
which they are most familiar. The steps
and bodily movements are expressive of the
object with which the dance is concerned.
Originally the rhythm was supplied by
shaking coconuts or gourds filled with
seeds. At present this rhythmic effect is


gained by tying cans, or other objects
filled with seeds, to the legs of the dancers.
' Some of the dances enjoyed by the Semi-
noles are the Alligator, Quail, Chicken,
Screech Owl, Catfish, Buffalo, Woodpecker,
Gun, and Hunting Dances. The music for
these is chanted or droned. The rhythmic
aspect of the song is more important than
the tonal aspect. Your class may wish to
improvise their own chants to the words
of the following examples.


CHICKEN DANCE
Sung by Willson Tiger




He. 1o HoT a, Le To L He Yo He T Ve IL- e T Le RHe o




Ho- o Ta, Le To, Le He No Ho o Ta, Le. Toa Le.

HUNTING DANCE
Sung by Willson Tiger
and Billy Stewart




TluwIa.- I No To., lie Ta, Y'o h No Ta, He. TrwL. 4o. No a. He.




Ah Twu E\ Le e .
Ah Tw E L This song is incomplete.

QUAIL DANCE
Sung by Willson Tiger
and Billy Stewart




M/\.. AN, W e '-o. Ah W, e.-e '/ M%\ N We'la 0 A~ W e








WHAT CONSTITUTES THE MUSIC EDUCATION PROGRAM?


ALL KIND HUNTING SONG





He.. 'S\a0-h Jo H(L "/Ir e Ha 0o '/Jah .c Nee




He. S h Jo Ha, a.h Le

Although the War Dance is no longer us ed, the following is a sample of its music:

WAR SONG

M T2 h A a A V # A ,i I A .


Yo Woa Le Ho. Yo Wa.c Le. 1a- '/"a Ae. HiMe-e "io
V ,,- d r" 3 _' kt I


Wbed Le Ha. 'o (Wad


"e


4.
Vc aM


Children as young as six years partici-
pate in the dances. In the early evening
one may hear the younger children being


lulled to sleep by this Seminole lullaby:
Noted by Clay Maccauley
1883-84 First Study of Seminoles


No Wu.tt Te c No 4Wu t Teoa


At sunrise each morning the medicine
man stands waist deep in a nearby lake
chanting the following prayer to God:
Sup hon sup h (repeated six times)
Ta lok ka lee
Staf a sta
Fil sa hon (repeated six times)
Ta lok a lee (repeated four times)
Translation:
Bless
Please give me something.


Bless
Please give me something.1
The Green Corn Dance is the highlight
of the festival. It is performed after mid-
night of the sixth day and may be danced
more than once. Sometimes it will be in-
terspersed with other initiative dances. The
leader of the chant sings each line which

1. Louis Capron. The Medicine Bundle of the Seminoles
and the Green Corn Dance. Anthropological Paper,
No. 35. (Washington, Government Printing Office.
1953).


~c I
\la,


H4l
He







MUSIC FOR FLORIDA CHILDREN


is then repeated by the group. The follow-
ing are words to the chant:
Yo eeyo o
He wao hui
Who he
We he -who -he
O he ya
Yo we ya
O he ya


Yo we ya
Wa he yo a
Yea he yeo
Yeo ho yeo
Wa he yeo a
He eeyo
Ha he ya2
Two other songs your class may enjoy
are Dance Song and Night Love Song.


DANCE SONG
Sung by Willson Tiger




\Ka ux Wa. Ndh KaU. L o a. Noh Ka. Y Wo- Nh A t4h' H1tah


NIGHT LOVE SONG
Sung by Willson Tiger




Toe. He Toe eo oe toe e Toe e Yoh He. Toe H e Toe He Toe.




He o.h He.


ETHNIC AND RELIGIOUS GROUPS
IN FLORIDA
The culture and patterns of living in
the Florida of today have been influenced
by the language, literature, and music of
many ethnic and religious groups that have
established their homes here. In many
communities throughout the state we find
these people continuing the songs, dances
and customs of their homelands.
In West Florida an Austro-Hungarian
colony holds weekly gatherings where they


perform the peasant folk dances of their
land; a Swedish settlement in Dade County
observes Martimas, or St. Martin's Feast
Day; at Korona, near Daytona Beach, Pol-
ish families hold a special Easter service;
the songs and dances of the area around
St. Augustine reflect the language and cus-
toms of settlers from the island of Minorca;
and the small community of Masaryktown
on the West Coast celebrates Czechosla-
vakian Independence Day on October 28


2. Ibid., p. 203.








WHAT CONSTITUTES THE MUSIC EDUCATION PROGRAM?


with a pageant and folk dances done to
the strains of Bohemian music.
Greek Influence
The men who own and sail the boats
for sponge fishing at Tarpon Springs are
Greek. These people brought to America
their customs, religions, traditions, and
music. Their music is centered around the
rigors of making a living at sponge diving,
the school, the social life, and the religious
customs of the Greek Orthodox Church.
Greek dancing is quite similar to the
Virginia Reel or the Quadrille. The entire
family takes part in the dance, but atten-
tion is centered upon a leader. Each dance
is similar in formation, though different in
step. One of the dances used in their festi-
vals of today is the Kalamatiano.

Greek Dance
"KALAMATIANO"
Basic Meter: g ; One step to each beat.
Formation: Single half circle, facing in;
dancers side by side.
Home Position: Right foot crossed in front
of left foot.
Action:
A. Right foot takes one step to the right.
B. Left foot is placed behind right foot.
C. Right foot placed to the right beside
left foot.
D. Left foot takes a step to the right and
crosses in front of right foot.
E. Right foot brought into position beside
left foot.
F. Left foot placed behind right foot.
G. Right foot takes one step to the right
beside left foot.
H. Left foot takes one step across in front of
right foot.
I. Left foot takes a step to the left beside
right foot.
J. Right foot crosses in front of left foot
to home position.
The above steps are repeated till the rec-
ord has ended.


The first person in the half circle to the
extreme right is the "leader."
The "leader" dances as long as he or she
desires to then he or she drops her hand
and continues dancing alone (using dance
steps, hands placed on hips) to the end of
the half circle to join hands with the person
at the end of the half circle.
Recording: I Manna Mou Me Derni, RCA
Victor 26-8231-A Greek.
The music of the church consists of the
choir singing responses to the priest; while
two specially trained singers are used dur-
ing long parts of the service. Until recently
no instruments were used in the services.
Addition of these seems to be an American
influence. The feast of the Epiphany, cele-
brated January 6, is an observance of the
Baptism of Christ. The gold cross is blessed
and tossed into the water, to be found by
young boys who dive for it. It is believed
that the one who finds the cross will have
a happy and prosperous life. Tarpon
Springs is the only place in America where
this celebration is observed.'
"Down in the Diving Bells" which can
be found in Folksongs of Florida, was sung
by the sponge fishermen who came to Key
West for the sponge market.2 Two other
folk songs translated from the Greek may
be found in the New Music Horizons Se-
ries: "Mr. Squirrel's Wedding," Book IV,
p. 88; and "The Captive," Book VI, p. 15.
Songs and material concerning Greece
may be found in Growing Up with Music,
Vol. 11, by Krone, How Man Made Music
by Buchanan, and Tales of Olden Days by
Kinscella. (See Resources)
Latin-American Influence
The influence of Spanish and Latin
1. Harold M. Mullineaus, Sponge Music. Florida State
University. Type Script, 1948.
2. Alton C. Morris, collector and editor, Folksongs of
Florida, Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1950,
p. 59.






-DlA l enDlDA CHILDREN


54 MUV It r r rn

American people is strong in parts of Flor-
ida today. Ybor City in Tampa is like a
Cuban or Spanish town. Many of these
people came during or after the Spanish
American War.
Miami, as a center of International cul-
tures, has many people from Cuba, Puerto
Rico, and other Latin American Countries.
Each year a festival is held for Pan Ameri-
can Day, April 14, in which the music and
dances of the Latin American people are
performed in typical costumes.
There are many songs and dances from
these countries which can be used to fur-
ther the understanding of the Spanish-
speaking people.

New Music Horizons
Sea Serpent, Book II, p. 76. A singing game.
One Star at Twilight, Book III, p. 114.
Cuba.
The Turkey Game, Book III, p. 41. Chili.
Singing, Book IV, p. 47.
Lullaby, Book IV, p. 43.
Bright Fire in Your Eyes, Book IV, p. 156.
Chile.
Thwarted Romance, Book V, p. 170.
Down in Mexico, Book V, p. 43.
What Kind of Flower, Book V, p. 145.
Mexican.
Queen of May, Book V, p. 28. Spanish.
The Old Mexican Woman, Book V, p. 71.
Pretty Pinchinita, Book V, p. 76. Peru.
Palomita, Book VI, p. 12. Mexican.
Fiesta, Book VI, p. 173. Mexican.
The Dove, Book VI, p. 204. Mexican.
The Ugly Duckling, Book VI, p. 14. Costa
Rica.

Singing America
At the Gate of Heaven, p. 21. Spanish.
Cielito Lindo, p. 49.
(Many others are to be found in this book.)


Music Everywhere, Book VI, The Singing
School Series.
La Raspe, p. 159. Mexican Dance.
American Singer, Book V.
Jarabe, p. 175. Hat Dance.
Jewish Influence
The Jewish people, who are a religious
rather than an ethnic group, have some
lovely folk songs that are a real addition
to the children's repertoire. Besides being
of musical value they are excellent ma-
terial for programs on religious freedom
and Brotherhood Week.
The Festival of Lights which is observed
in December is a particularly lovely cele-
bration. It lasts for eight days and com-
memorates the re-dedication of the Temple
after its restoration by Judah the Mac-
cabee and his army. There is a legend
which says a cruse of oil was found in
the Temple which should have lasted for
only one day but lasted for eight. In the
present celebration of Hanukkah eight
candles are lighted, one a day, hence the
name Feast of Lights. It is a joyous time
of giving parties and exchanging gifts
which parallels to some extent the Chris-
tians' celebration of Christmas.

The following songs are suggested as
examples of Jewish folk music:
Song of Hope, Music Everywhere, p. 80.
New Music Horizons, Book V, p. 221.
Sum Gali Gali, Our First Descants, p. 33.
Beatrice Krone.
Shalom Chaverin, Descants and Easy
Basses, p. 30. Beatrice Krone.
Let us Light the Candle, Songs to Grow
On, p. 56. Beatrice Landeck.
Song for Hanukah, Music for Early Child-
hood, p. 102.
The Negro in Florida
In contrast to the primitive songs and


~v~r~ r~~~-----








WHAT CONSTITUTES THE MUSIC EDUCATION PROGRAM?


dances of the Seminole is the music of
the Negro, expressed in both spiritual and
secular tunes. The wide appeal of this
music is reflected in compositions by well-
known composers, popular songs of today,
songs used in minstrels, and arrangements
for choral groups.
Negroes, in everyday life, find that
through music they can achieve relief from
the tedium of work and give expression to
their religious ideals. In giving vent to
their feelings in this manner they display
a marked ability to improvise words and
melody to vibrant rhythms and relate them
to their surroundings. Whether in church,
at home or at work, they either know a
song or make up a new one appropriate to
the activity in which they are engaged.
In the following list are included songs
representing the wide variations of moods,
rhythms and ideals that we find in Negro
music.
Spirituals
Swing Low, Sweet Chariot (Silver Book of
Songs, p. 172)
Steal Away (New Music Horizons, V, 90)
Go Tell It on the Mountain (New Music
Horizons, VI, 215)
All My Sins Been Taken Away (Florida
Folk Songs, 168)
Work
Workin' on de Railroad (Levee Song)
John Henry (Our Land of Song, 112)
Jump, Isabel, Slide Water (Florida Folk-
songs, 62) rowing
Play
When I was a Waterboy (New Music
Horizons, III, 146)
Shortnin' Bread (Songs We Sing, 23)
Li'l Liza Jane (Sing Along, 25)
Lullaby
Lost Lamb (New Music Horizons, IV, 18)
All the Pretty Little Horses (Our Land of
Song, 122)


Miscellaneous
Singing America, Nos. 23-29

G. Music FOR EXCEPTIONAL CHILDREN
The exceptional child is defined by
Florida state law as any educable child
or youth who deviates from the normal
child physically, intellectually, socially or
emotionally to such a degree that special-
ized or additional services are required to
achieve for him educational goals compar-
able to those desirable for all children.
Exceptional children usually found in
the public schools, either in the regular
classes or in special classes, are classified
as mentally gifted, mentally handicapped
or physically handicapped.
Musical instruction for exceptional chil-
dren may contribute to their social, emo-
tional and academic development. Through
successful musical participation the phys-
ically or mentally handicapped child may
be helped to gain a feeling of self-
confidence and well-being. The fact that
he often finds that he is able to excell in
some of the same activities in which nor-
mal children participate may contribute to
his feeling of adequacy.
By providing new avenues of expression
and much-needed opportunity for emo-
tional outlet, music may be considered to
have a definite therapeutic function in re-
lation to these handicapped youngsters.
Rhythmic and instrumental activities are
often beneficial in improving motor coordi-
nation, which may be retarded in phys-
ically and mentally handicapped children.
The correlation of music with other
subjects in the curriculum can serve, es-
pecially for the mentally handicapped, to
reinforce academic concepts being taught.
The best response of some mentally handi-


55






MUSIC FOR FLORIDA CHILDREN


capped children is obtained through musi-
cal activities.
The provision of leisure time activities
through musical instruction should also be
considered an important goal for the
handicapped child. Certainly, not to be
overlooked is the enjoyment of listening
to music.
In other words, music can serve the
same purposes for the handicapped child
as it does for the normal child. The prin-
cipal difference lies in the fact that the
handicapped child's need for the values
provided by musical instruction may be
greater because his handicaps often lead
to difficulty in his maintaining an ade-
quate academic, emotional, and social
adjustment.
The following principles should be con-
sidered by teachers planning a music pro-
gram which includes the physically handi-
capped child: When comparing him with
the normal child, the emphasis should be
placed on likeness rather than differences.
Whether he is enrolled in the regular class
or is in a special class, he should be in-
cluded in the regular music program
whenever possible.
The classroom teacher should help keep
the music teacher informed as to the spe-
cial abilities and disabilities of each child,
have some information about his social,
academic, and emotional adjustment, and
on this basis should work toward helping
these children to obtain a better all-round
adjustment. She should fit him into activi-
ties in which he can best succeed. At all
times he should be made to feel that he
is making a valuable contribution to the
group.
The child who has suffered from con-
ditions resulting in muscle paralysis or


other involvements of the bones or joints
may have been required to undergo pro-
longed periods of inactivity.
AHe often may be helped to strengthen
his muscles and improve his coordination
through playing musical instruments. Such
children should be encouraged to enter in-
strumental classes and learn to play the
instrument which may improve the af-
fected area. For example, playing a key-
board instrument exercises the hands,
wrists, fingers, thumbs, arms, and shoul-
ders. The violin may be used to help de-
velop flexion and extension of the right
elbow, wrist, and shoulder. Playing brass
and woodwind instruments may improve
breath control as well as being helpful in
the treatment of some malformations of
the mouth and palates. Rhythmic activi-
ties also may be adopted to physical
limitations.
The musical experiences for the men-
tally handicapped child must be concrete
and meaningful. Material should be se-
lected in which the level of difficulty is
suited to the mental age of the child
rather than the chronological age. For ex-
ample, a mentally handicapped child with
a chronological age of ten may have a
mental age of seven and should be given
musical activities on approximately the
second grade level of difficulty rather than
a fourth grade level. Interest is also an
important factor and should be given
equal consideration. Since mental age and
interest level are not identical in these
children the teacher often encounters a
problem in finding material of a suitable
level of difficulty which will hold their
attention and will not be regarded as
"baby stuff." For this reason, the music
teacher is often required to use his in-
genuity and modify the content of some


56








WHAT CONSTITUTES THE MUSIC EDUCATION PROGRAM?


material so that it will be appropriate in
both interest and difficulty for a particular
class.
Teaching by rote is usually most suc-
cessful with this group. It is sometimes
helpful to teach the words of a song first
and then combine it with the melody. No
teacher should underestimate the musical
capacity of these children. Musical ability
often exceeds academic ability and there
may be a wide variation of musical ability
among groups. Mentally retarded children
can usually participate successfully in as
wide a variety of musical activities as the
normal child, as long as the activities are
planned with their handicap in mind.
There is some indication that music may
be used to facilitate relaxation with men-
tally handicapped children. Recordings
played during rest periods have been re-
ported to be successful in this respect.
The music teacher should work with the
classroom teacher and select musical ac-
tivities which will serve to reinforce aca-
demic concepts.
The mentally gifted child is one who
learns the material for his grade much
more rapidly than the majority of the
children. The present trend in dealing
with the mentally gifted is to enrich his
program with additional activities. Music
may be used advantageously in the fol-
lowing ways: the composition of songs,
a study of musical form, participation in
instrumental classes, and possibly private
instruction. These activities should have
a real meaning in the life of the child
and should be planned to enrich the ex-
perience of the entire group; exploitation
of the child's skills should be avoided.
H. PROGRAMS FOR SPECIAL OCCASIONS
From time immemorial man has ex-


pressed his inner feelings of triumph, joy,
victory, and elation in song and story. In
this way his experiences have been lifted
above the commonplace and have con-
tributed to the social and cultural pattern
of his generation. This cultural heritage is
passed on to the child of the next genera-
tion and he enjoys the opportunity to share
with others what has become a part of
himself.
Programs for special occasions provide
one means of giving children a chance to
express these feelings. A special occasion
may be a national holiday, a religious holy
day, a ceremonial, a traditional celebra-
tion of the community, an outgrowth of
a classroom activity, or simply an event of
personal interest.
To be in a program gives status to an
individual. Inspiration to do well often
comes from hearing and seeing others per-
form. A child's contribution to a program
can have as much educational value as
many other learning experiences. In the
inter-action of group planning and pro-
duction, each child should be encouraged
to express himself creatively and to con-
tribute according to his interest and abil-
ity. Such participation often relieves self-
consciousness in social relationships; de-
velops poise and confidence; affords emo-
tional release for the shy child; provides
an outlet for excitement and tensions which
build up at certain times; and establishes
the condition of enjoyment which bring
about learning in a natural way.
These values are realized to as great or
even greater degree in small programs
shared between classrooms or with small
groups of parents as in large school pro-
grams. Children's performances given for
parents and friends contribute much to


57







MUSIC FOR FLORIDA CHILDREN


Second grade children sing and dance, "The Farmer's in the Dell," at a May Day Program.


community understanding and apprecia-
tion of the educational program.
Although programs are sometimes frown-
ed upon because they are given too much
emphasis, they may make a distinct con-


tribution to the life of a school, when de-
sirable practices are followed.

The suggestions on the opposite page
may be helpful in planning programs.


58








WHAT CONSTITUTES THE MUSIC EDUCATION PROGRAM?


Undesirable Practices


Desirable Practices


Program often has no real interest for the child, Program is planned around some central theme
but is imposed upon him by adults. closely related to area of child's interest and on
his level of maturity.

Child is exploited for the entertainment of the Child is stimulated to express himself according
public. to his interests, talents, and creative ability.

Music is often superficially correlated to a cen- Music is selected for its intrinsic value or
tral theme and chosen without regard to authen- merit, and appropriateness to child's interest
ticity, musical value or suitability to child's in- and ability.
terest and ability.

Staging and costuming is often unnecessarily Simplicity of production is encouraged.
elaborate.

Materials are learned for the sole purpose of Program is created from materials learned in
presenting a program. the course of normal classroom experiences or
activities.

Programs are presented chiefly for raising funds. Programs are emphasized which will contribute
to the culture and growth of the school and
community.

Performance is often considered a demonstra- Performance is appraised in terms of child
tion of technical skills judged by adult standards. growth, with care that the teacher's and chil-
dren's standard of performance coincide.

Programs are set up without due regard to the Maturity levels are considered in planning the
time element, length of program, as well as time and place of
presentation.

Programs are often monopolized by talented Each child is given opportunities to participate.
child and by best groups.

Competition of individuals and groups is em- Cooperation of individuals and groups is en-
phasized. courage.

Emphasis is placed on producing a highly pol- Emphasis is on maintaining spontaneity in per-
ished performance which calls for an excessive formance through a minimum of rehearsals.
number of rehearsals and disruption of the en-
tire school program.


59










CHAPTER III


WHO Is RESPONSIBLE FOR THE MUSIC EDUCATION PROGRAM?
(Administration, Supervision, and Organization)


A. RELATIONSHIPS
A plan of organization which is func-
tional for one school or county is not nec-
essarily appropriate to schools of other
sizes or in other locations. Every school
should develop a structure which fits its
own needs, assures maximum use of avail-
able resources, and plans for continuous
musical growth. In no event should the
administration lose sight of the fact that
the music program is built around the
child his interests, his needs, and his
abilities.
No program just happens. The musical
growth of our children is dependent upon
the services of many people the admin-
istrators, the supervisors, the teachers, and
the community. Responsibility for the suc-
cess of any plan will be shared by every-
one concerned with the total curriculum.
Each is influenced by and contributes to
the program in accordance with the spe-
cial point from which he views it.
County Superintendent
Any program which is educationally
sound is largely the result of good leader-
ship. The value of the county superin-
tendent's role in making a flexible music
education program possible cannot be
overestimated. He must have a clear con-
ception of the kinds of schools toward
which we are building and provide the
personnel, facilities, equipment, and lead-
ership which will make them a reality.
Principal
As a leader in his school, the principal


sets the tone for the kind of music pro-
gram which will take place. Because he is
concerned with conditions that surround
both supervision and instruction, he should
be a creative person who can see possi-
bilities in situations which seem unchal-
lenging to others. His chief functions will
be to help identify problems, to help build
a more effective program through enlist-
ing the cooperative efforts of individual
teachers, to fill the role of consultant, co-
ordinator, and in-service leader in his
school, and to provide the best conditions
and resources for good teaching. He as-
sumes the responsibility for developing a
functional program, and for encouraging
planning and evaluation by the staff.
General Supervisor
The general supervisor is in a position
to have a more comprehensive view of
the total program and assists the music
supervisor and music teachers to interpret
their fields of service in relation to the
common purposes of modern education. In
a county school system without a music
specialist, the general supervisor assumes
leadership for developing an understand-
ing of music in relation to the total cur-
riculum. He may wish to organize a music
committee to aid in initiating the program
and making recommendations for special-
ized help, materials and equipment. He is
also responsible for providing consultant
service and in-service training in music in
these counties. Pre-school and post-school
conference periods provide an excellent
opportunity for all the people concerned








WHO IS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE MUSIC EDUCATION PROGRAM?


with curriculum planning to work on the
problems attendant upon initiating or
broadening a music program.
Music Supervisor
Because of extensive training and broad
experience in music and in education, the
music supervisor, or coordinator, is sensi-
tive to the relationship of his area to those
of the administrators, the teachers, the
students, and the community. He is aware
of the problems encountered by each of
these groups and finds many opportunities
to foster understanding, give sympathetic
guidance, and interpret the program not
only to school personnel but to parents and
civic groups.
His is a dual role, sometimes function-
ing from school to community and at other
times from community to school. Through
the use of such facilities as the radio, the
press, and civic organizations, the com-
munity becomes a resource of great im-
portance to the school. In turn, music ap-
preciation and discrimination developed
through the school program carries over
into the homes and activities of the
community.
(Refer to chart, p. 82, for more detailed
responsibilities of music supervisor.
Special Service Music Teacher
The special service music teacher is in
much the same position in relation to a
faculty that the county-wide supervisor is
to the county administration. They are
both responsible for maintaining whole-
some human relations among the groups
with whom they work, for furnishing
specialized services, and for generating
leadership.
The most effective and economical use
of the special music teacher is as a con-


sultant or resource person. He will prob-
ably wish to work frequently with class-
room teachers and pupils who lack confi-
dence to engage in musical undertakings.
Many teachers however will require only
assistance in planning, in finding new ma-
terials, or in devising new approaches to
old problems.
In many situations the music teacher is
regularly scheduled for every classroom.
Frequently, a schedule of this type is so
rigid that maximum service to teachers
and students is not realized. Great care
should be taken to avoid such a limitation
and to make time available for on-call help
and use of the music teacher's time as a
consultant or resource person.
Regardless of the method of scheduling
used, the amount and kind of help from
the special teacher depends upon the needs
of the classroom teacher, his ability, ex-
perience, and attitude toward music.
Classroom Teacher
Classroom teachers know their children
as individuals and are able to recognize
opportunities for making music an integral
part of day to day living and learning.
The program described in this bulletin
cannot be achieved if we rely only on
regularly scheduled music periods a few
times each week. On the contrary, we
must rely heavily on the continuity of ex-
periences given to children each day
through their classroom teacher. He can
carry on many musical activities inde-
pendently, but in other activities he will
need the assistance of the special teacher.
"One of the most reassuring discoveries a
teacher can make for herself is that she need
not be an expert in music, need not have any
special talent. Some of the finest original ex-
pressions has come from children whose


61








MUSIC FOR FLORIDA CHILDREN


teachers were admittedly 'dubs,' in this area.
Why?
It may be that the teacher who has neither
the natural gift nor the specialized training
to be an expert sets up no adult standards.
It may be that somewhat inhibited in her
own self-expression, she is so genuinely im-
pressed by the achievement of the children
that a light shines in her eyes when she says,
'That's good!' It may be that her own creative
possibilities were so thoroughly mangled in
childhood that she vowed to give the young-
sters all the opportunity, enthusiasm, and ap-
preciation she was once denied."'

Community
The first responsibility of a community
and its school is to meet the needs of
growing boys and girls. The problem of
meeting these needs is concerned with
the total growth of each child in all his
physical, mental, and emotional aspects.
To stimulate this growth the school and
its program must possess beauty, simplicity
and security.
While music is not necessarily a funda-
mental tool of living for every person, it
can be highly important for providing
emotional stability and health. It can
awaken in the child his potentiality for
the aesthetic and give him a feeling of
success and satisfaction that will contrib-
ute to happy living both at home and at
school. It usually improves the quality of
living.
In addition to providing the kinds of
schools that meet children's needs, the
community has the obligation of becom-
ing more familiar with the various learn-
ing experiences that take place within the
school. By so doing the school and the
community can work cooperatively in help-
ing their children achieve the standards
which they expect.


B. RESPONSIBILITIES
Administration
State State Superintendent of Public
Instruction
1. Gives state leadership and helps
clarify role of music in schools.
2. Provides for publication and dis-
semination of professional guides
and information.
3. Assists counties in establishing a
well balanced special service pro-
gram through use of all ASIS units
available to them.
4. Assists counties which have no
music specialists.
5. Provides consultant services.
6. Encourages workshops for in-serv-
ice education.
County County Superintendent
1. Believes that music is an essential
part of the curriculum.
2. Makes an effort to provide a well
balanced special service program.
3. Clarifies the role of special area
supervisors.
4. Includes adequate budget for fa-
cilities and equipment and makes
provision for upkeep.
5. Encourages attendance at clinics
and professional meetings by grant-
ing professional leave to teachers.
Local Principal
1. Keeps himself well-informed con-
cerning state and county policies,
and in turn knows that his teach-
ers are well informed.
2. Plans with his faculty an over-all
program of music education to fit
the particular needs of his school.
3. Establishes the role of each per-
1. Doris L. Bock, "Watching, Learning and Teaching,"
Childhood Education, January, 1950, p. 196.


62








WHO IS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE MUSIC EDUCATION PROGRAM?


son concerned with the implemen-
tation of this program.
4. Makes instructional materials avail-
able.
5. Encourages and arranges in-service
activities for his faculty.
6. Plans for effective use of special-
ized help.
Supervision
General Supervisor
1. Assists county superintendent in
determining needs.
2. Aids special supervisors and teach-
ers in interpreting their fields of
service in terms of total educa-
tional program of county.
3. Includes music as a part of cur-
riculum planning.
4. Arranges opportunities for re-
sourceful teachers to share class-
room experiences with other
teachers.
5. Provides for assistance to class-
room teachers in counties with no
special service music teachers.
6. Plans for needs of music educa-
tion program during pre-school or
post-school conferences, with the
aid of music supervisor and music
committee.
7. Encourages use of consultant serv-
ice and other means of in-service
training.
8. Assists in organizing county-wide
music committee.
Music Supervisor
1. To Administrators:
a. Assists in securing teachers.
b. Participates in faculty meet-
ings and curriculum planning
groups.


c. Aids in formulating individual
school and county policies.
d. Increases understanding of re-
sponsibilities, services, and
needs of all personnel.
e. Offers advice concerning
budget.
f. Orients new principals in
understanding music program.
g. Assists principals in planning
most effective use of special
teacher's time.
2. To Teachers:
a. Provides conferences and dem-
onstrations for groups and in-
dividuals.
b. Acquaints new teachers with
program.
c. Stimulates preparation and use
of teaching materials.
d. Provides leadership for in-
service education, development
of instructional materials and
guides, and for professional in-
formation to be shared.
e. Gives encouragement often and
helps each teacher to discover
particular ways in which he
can make best contribution
f. Assists in maintaining a bal-
anced program.
g. Assists in determining the
amount and quality of equip-
ment and materials needed.
h. Plans with teacher for evalu-
ation of music program.
3. To Community:
a. Interprets program to commu-
nity.
b. Makes use of radio, the press
and television, as a resource to
school and community.


63








MUSIC FOR FLORIDA CHILDREN


c. Coordinates school and com-
munity activities.
d. Encourages creative experi-
ences for children.
Teachers
Special Service Music Teacher
1. Initiates new classroom activities
which may be continued by class-
room teachers.
2. Inspires, stimulates, advises, and
serves as a resource person to stu-
dents, teachers, and community.
3. Maintains wholesome human rela-
tions among groups with whom he
works.
4. Assists with development of a pro-
gram in which continuous musical
growth takes place.
5. Makes instructional materials avail-
able to teachers when needed.
6. Keeps inventory of school owned
music materials and equipment.
7. Aids in requisitioning materials
and equipment.
8. Assumes many of the same re-
sponsibilities with his faculty or
faculties which the music super-
visor does on a county-wide level.
Classroom Teacher
1. Shares responsibility for music ac-
tivities of his group.
2. Organizes experiences in terms of
needs and interests of group.
3. Preserves natural enthusiasm of
children and establishes favorable
attitudes toward future learning.
4. Shares pleasurable musical experi-
ences with his children.
5. Provides for children to benefit
from musical resources of the
community and encourages out-
of-school participation.


6. Attends and participates in work-
shops and clinics.
7. With the assistance of the special
music teacher, he:
a. Plans a long range music pro-
gram appropriate for his group.
b. Explores possibilities in human
resources and available teach-
ing aids.
c. Finds exceptional children and
provides for their needs.
d. Creates opportunities for the
total group to participate in
satisfying musical activities,
some of which may be shared
with other groups.
8. In order to make the most effec-
tive use of the special service
music teacher, the classroom
teacher:
a. Plans with the special music
teacher in advance concerning
classroom activities.
b. Informs special teacher of
classroom incidents which will
broaden his understanding of
individual and group needs.
c. Creates a readiness for the
music period.
d. Requests kind of help needed
and time of special service
music teacher if there is no
regularly scheduled period.
e. Participates in musical experi-
ences with children.
C. INQUIRIES TO COUNTIES WITHOUT
SPECIALIZED MUSIC SERVICES
1. Are your administrative and commu-
nity leaders aware of the place of
music in the total school program?
2. Have you thought of sharing a music
supervisor or consultant with a neigh-


64







WHO IS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE MUSIC EDUCATION PROGRAM?


boring county? (It is possible to share
a part of an ASIS unit.)
3. Does your general supervisor encour-
age musical experiences for each class
room?
a. By providing materials.
b. By using persons in community who
can contribute to program.
c. By arrangement for classroom teach-
ers who have special abilities in
music to share in some way with
teachers who are less successful.
4. Are music consultant services and in-
service training offered to teachers dur-
ing pre-school and post-school confer-
ences, or when needed during the year?
5. Have you thought of furthering music
education in your county through a
county-wide music committee, whose
function might be to study needs and
recommend ways of accomplishing de-
sired results? (Refer to chart, p. 66)
6. Do your classroom teachers:
a. Know of recordings which are avail-
able for teaching many of the songs
they wish to use? (These should be
among the first items to be pur-
chased. Consult list in this bulletin.)
b. Know of other teaching aids which
your county owns?
c. Use resources? (See Chapter IV for
suggestions.)
d. Integrate music in their program?
e. Have an opportunity to share pro-
fessionally, ways of carrying on a
music education program with lim-
ited facilities, materials, equipment,
and personnel?
E. QUESTIONS OFTEN ASKED BY
ADMINISTRATORS
1. Am I using all available ASIS units?
Is it possible to share a part of a unit?


The Minimum Foundation Program
provides one ASIS (Administrative, Su-
pervisory Instructional Services) unit
for each eight teacher-units within a
county. The distribution of these spe-
cial service units can have a definite
bearing on the building of an effective
instructional program in the school
system. Administrators should know
the number of units that are available
and should plan with the staff for their
use.
Consideration should be given to in-
creasing enrollments, expanding cur-
riculum, and addition of new schools.
In many instances, it will be desirable
to share special service personnel
among schools, and possibly between
counties, in order to extend the num-
ber and kinds of services to individual
schools.
2. Should professional leave be granted
to classroom teachers and special serv-
ice teachers to attend state or district
music clinics or professional meetings?
Many counties do. The value of at-
tending these meetings is usually much
greater than the cost would indicate.
The Florida Music Educators Asso-
ciation sponsors a clinic each year. One
division of the clinic is devoted to ele-
mentary music education. The needs
of classroom teachers as well as spe-
cial teachers are especially considered
in planning this clinic. A nationally
known consultant is provided and there
are many worthwhile demonstrations
and opportunities for teachers to ac-
tively participate in discussion and ac-
tivities. The inspiration, stimulation,
and actual learning which teachers
gain from this source of in-service
training is immeasurable, and can be







THREE YEAR PLAN FOR INITIATING AND DEVELOPING A MUSIC PROGRAM


PERSONNEL [ACTIVITIES MATERIALS u EQUIPMENT


4



I--
Lf





U)


LL


C.








0
U
Ld


COUNTY-WIDE MUs1C COtMITTE&
Cardw-cm to fLnnc2ora Nm
an advisory gmui- arAl
Makes recommend,006as
for stfeo-y srowCt of&a-
awett Lo 6aneact usto
educate& 2 7,.rcr9ma.


MUSIC COMMITTEE
A.Composed of:
1 orninwatay mpr6CJIalC*?e
z. a Lunefuroau. represent
.3 9nera' er scvvaois
B. YwnctioLJ
I.Caa~s alZmicom&, iAeLfPr
-mwo, m 3chcots ovid
,,Qcommends a4meoymyen



Zm cA c.c*ssros eac6ets
caan caa'sy oin. wt.~Aocg
bsec4~led, Lla.?
4 Moie 7Ccuih 07o 7,1~stG
sceoo( cot f'ence of the
sacom& veaw-
6O.Cn3ko w p 1mu
6 7nC2aQ3 u,.Q, Of Co~i,4u-
nilEV iesotwaes a oca -
sed.e. consutzwat 4eC a
R..o~omnmeLcL ta Ppro-
Uo i2 on 6t m a6 de T AI
gel for Secc hrmng 7Ac so
xc, m=a.eaols euia


ACTIVITID '.Awc. c-m 6e,
camr d an 6 ctmssroom &acd.-:
i.jnzzala C Xnimq prosmmm
Eroug h so of roPe sasngs
8. 7tOL3Lstn sonqs
6. tk 3onys
c. funaL pO 7.ecpe&Zwwdsonys
cl..Go' L*2C&J songs
e. reticOU songs
a.. /fqi 2cimre~~t noLy tnne,
cr. /uncQmemaa movenwn6
(d.4scri.edc omx. 7icL
6 si "972.9 9ames
NOTE: 1. JpordzAlns aee
wuojiz.te. L& a.scst
&elker o.& Leach-
'n9 4S O')29S an,&
rbyf~mic "cert'mwos
it. gU eimeat6L mer-
OLSO7c or 7pr7rl~i,=c
c icommmmend,
eajs 9 sAarwq
Wd~ees o 0tae
&&eAers eoW&tn.
fee., scAoot.


i. Desk copy 0/qstake
cWSoytedA e.4Cs or e4ah
learchar.
2. SV PtemeatOCL MaLer1aLs
for 'vs~t grade, Lacwchers.
3. ComM-ncL7j Son" coUAdc6nS
aPd=6recreaionvat sorqs.
(See resaw'ct for sugges-?LAns)
0, Oae set ef 6wScc iex.6,
Zook 4m fc- v m tqpe,?-
graodes
Sae=oidZia96 to accompany
6~ct,sZ4iexE.
6.One. adqcsga& Qi ee-
s ~ee4.record, 7a~cayeJ.
7. (M2.06 a6sa&dsety
essentfiL 644 desdeaC6e)


I I. I U


oUNTY-WIDE MUSIC COMMITr r MUSIC SUPERVISION


. ConUA 60s o SUevMas a&
adcic r$eop gaVocqz o 'a
a cd t h e mxI2tC- s-r esi
0680C to60 ensure Nni
growtA of mustfc edttoaZ

2.. goes ieaoA?4e o ortwiur 3
44Weng 71ost-sCA&7 confer.
ence to uaralue. tprogrwva
and f make r. conmenda.-
&;VS for e x)pai2ACn.
3. .ete.ines e- -need o-o 5
addLfona nmusAc. &acherms.
4. Considers adKv;swa6acs Of
6eqtnnua iruo sfeniat
aa~sses.


a. aetJ a da4sory capswdi
6 0 twsscr omrneiLee:
a. eCtOfl rndds mdeeriat
6. aids OL dan. QCO
couwbJy-wcfhd 7Io 4Les.
X. Yur6Acs~ee Ceadeam64n Af
W00Pk84271 dw. 7ng e rep4daot
con/Grence.
0 0448 S direcd~y wia c&ss-
room eacAc.seas i an rjtav13z
Che iro.gra? n and c,'s
La woic6. s72ect ser7VeZs
cane, wed, mrost effec-

4, Refe.- to cla.6 71. for
ol&er respowraaCglWs.


ACTIVITIES of fv@.st s'
cot;1Cumct.
I.. 'Lts. of Slatce r'L&Ytn
3. Use of ou.r an
6eaCs.
4 p. O rlperiufy fol s.nUl
'ch fiarrmany. ( Raly. t
ckA-e~e, ova. Apo am and,
&craut.. Cdctiulers)
5. Geaae&iine CA6etzirva.


Om se / t ad ardoed {e~C
for 71mary grades.
(A~ook .( ecoinmein.ed~j
z. One set 6 cydo a d ~ed t"
fbo ruper grades. f.80ao0
j o hemn purchased, addzi-o.e
3. RojessianaL 6 ocks for
&ahei', cud7i-. sLqsup-
ptemenaULL CeaLcA67a mae-j
Sa few &6vrary 6oohs aboaL


a s. Saact '& y4vA



6. &7 2eO&sora 66Cd&
c. mddid=L TGM7-d-'


rfzytayntc rimgpam sr CLSg
t ms fo r e ncnd.e2.9
3 "szytJ.7nt 7a.Vo9t'o? r eas
I eoe as fbr'sini


-iI_ _ _


M.9OM' eqtdq77eLar6A~'d,
MCElt7eP"t fkr CCWSJ-
Il

4. -aCsnrumerJs f)rf
c~reLoce Iatc


MUSIC SUPEPVISOR
Coji.e.s OA.k 6e9wa.


Cordinades r drk oj
svaecvraz ea&ckts.


;SPECIAL SERVICE MUSIC TAmR
g CzsStiles 7es7 oresuwt.&&ea
g as &stec hl1 Chaat p.


z. e3(Pa.0ede 72.70-
9'roav c. of ytflwtio,
crecdtve, ond= &sierzing
Md%,ities aald aruj-
,;Mg offsimmrL&

2. ~714~7nev 7pgvm
ouice-ct.


I Ir- I U


I
I.One set of i~e sta&e


*dopte~d m, sic eJc~
for ecach graztde &ue6
of ek.e ScI.oat.


2. o&;67rctry ol rwa qs
and, ofhe suL.,yte -
men4)pect.
4xp agndeal


.1uildla7et l for
zs~rumerdak Thto9?'an.
(Rej4,i 6, W&op1er !Z
04teviii'"', carj r Z)


4






d

U.
Lii


1 0 1 0 m


D II v






MUSIC FOR FLORIDA CHILDREN


shared later with those unable to at-
tend.
Each county should be represented
at the divisional and national meetings
of the Music Educators National Con-
ference. It is not uncommon for county
superintendents, principals, and class-
room teachers to attend these confer-
ences or to participate actively in parts
of the program.
3. Upon what basis should a music budget
be formulated?
Some schools use a percentage of the
total budget for instructional materials
and equipment; others allot a certain
amount of money per child for the
music budget. In addition to individ-
ually school owned materials and
equipment, there is usually a budget
for county owned materials which sup-
plement those of individual schools.
(Refer to Chapter IV, section on Ma-
terials Centers.)
Whatever the amount, it is wise to
determine cooperatively, the kinds of
teaching aids needed, in terms of the
program which is being developed,
and to prepare a long range plan for
acquiring them. Items of equipment
which are used for the total school
program should not be charged against
the music budget, for example, record
players, pianos, tape recorders.
For suggestions concerning purchase
of materials and equipment, refer to
pp. 72 and 73.
4. Is a special music room necessary for
a successful music program in the ele-
mentary school?
Children and teachers will anticipate
with pleasure the advantages offered
in an attractive music room equipped


with materials and instruments not
available in the classroom.
A room of this type should be used
by classroom teachers as well as spe-
cial teachers for those rhythmic activi-
ties requiring extra space, for singing
with piano accompaniments, for listen-
ing where better equipment is situated,
and any activity which might take on
added value due to the surroundings.
The special teacher should not over-
look the advantages of teaching music
in the classroom where the "special"
element is minimized, chairs or desks
fit the children and ideas and sugges-
tions from classroom developments can
be utilized.
5. Should music experiences be continued
through the summer program?
In a number of counties in Florida
the school administration has spon-
sored a summer recreation program
which provides a wide variety of ac-
tivities for the children of the com-
munity. Music in all its phases has a
prominent place in this program and
is directed by the regularly employed
music specialists of the county.
Band, folk games and dances, group
singing, instrumental and choral classes,
are some of the activities included.
Many children who have been in
groups of this kind during the reg-
ular school year enjoy continuing their
study over the summer period. Others
who have not had opportunities for
these experiences become interested
and derive much pleasure and benefit
from them.
Oftentimes this summer program is
concluded with a play day, or dem-
onstration to which the community is
invited. This gives the children a









WHO IS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE MUSIC EDUCATION PROGRAM?


chance to share with their parents and
friends some of the enjoyable experi-
ences they have had, and gives the
public an insight into the values and
benefits to be derived from such a
program.
6. What direction should the music pro-
gram take to be consistent with cur-
rent educational thinking?
Changes and improvement in edu-
cational philosophies and practices


F. TRENDS AND


within the past few years have been
numerous. The thinking of music edu-
cators and the way they work has kept
pace. The range of music activities has
been broadened, objectives restated
and revised, and the necessity of justi-
fying music in terms of academic tra-
dition is no longer necessary. Some of
the most recent trends in the field of
music teaching are shown below and
contrasted with older concepts.


CHANGING CONCEPTS


In the old method
General plan for all students was made by special
music teachers or supervisors. Outlines were
given to teachers to be strictly followed.


In the new concept
Cooperative planning takes place in terms of
child's needs and interests.


The musically talented child was exploited. Opportunity is given for every child to partici-
pate and feel a measure of success according
to his ability and interests.
Techniques were taught as an end within them- Skills are an outgrowth of satisfying musical
selves. experiences.
Instruction in musical instruments was a special- Musical instruments are used to enrich total
ized activity, music program as well as to provide for the
talented child.
All children were expected to acquire the same Each child learns fundamental skills through
skill and to the same degree. exploration into many musical experiences within
the range of his own ability and interest.
Formal methods of instruction repressed free- Creative experiences are encouraged by an in-
dom of expression. formal atmosphere and validity is established
by selection and discrimination.
Rigid adherence to a time schedule was impor- Music is used whenever needed and for an
tant. appropriate length of time.
The classroom teacher had a relief period when The classroom teacher actively participates in
the music teacher was present. music experiences.
Music was used only for recreational purposes Increased familiarity with music as an art en-
or left to chance to fill a seasonal need or just riches all areas of learning.
to "fill in" time.
Letter grades were required on report cards. Pupil progress is indicated in terms of individual
growth and acquisition of desirable attitudes and
skills.


_1


69







MUSIC FOR FLORIDA CHILDREN


In the old method


In the new concept


The music teacher or supervisor planned and The classroom teacher and her class coopera-
carried out a program of music skills. tively plan a variety of musical activities with
the music teacher or supervisor who serves as
a resource person.

Children were exploited in elaborate programs The best school performances are those which
to entertain the public, usually for fund raising are outgrowths of classroom activities. They
purposes. can be as functional a part of the curriculum
as other learning.

Weekly scheduled assembly programs were pre- The assembly program is a presentation by the
sented as an "extra", usually by a few talented class of a completed block of school work, not
students. always at a pre-determined time, but whenever
the group has something to offer.

One text was considered sufficient. Appropriate texts and supplementary materials
and equipment are available for a wide variety
of playing, singing, and listening activities.


Music was an end within itself, isolated from
real life situations.


Voluntary listening, concert attendance, and
other home and community musical activities are
a desired carry-over from the classroom.


70











CHAPTER IV


WHAT RESOURCES AND AIDS ARE NEEDED?


Human Resources
In order for a music program to func-
tion to the optimum, it should be the
concern of every school-teacher and ad-
ministrator, for one reason or another. The
music personnel will be chiefly concerned
with direct musical learning while other
members of the school staff will be con-
cerned with the contribution music can
make to other areas of learning.
Suggested ways in which these groups
may work together cooperatively are de-
scribed in Chapter III of this bulletin.
The effectiveness of a school music pro-
gram may be determined partially by the
extent to which children, growing into
adults, make it a part of community life.
It will be measured by the extent to which
the child carries into the community to
live with and enjoy.
Longfellow has written, "Show me the
home wherein music dwells, and I shall
show you a happy, peaceful and contented
home." Some of the most satisfying ex-
periences of family life are those in which
music is made or heard together. Music
in the church serves to draw people closer
together in a unity of spirit and mind.
Sharing in choir and congregational sing-
ing is one means of voicing those inner
spiritual feelings that cannot be expressed
in words.
Utilizing the private teachers of music
and dancing is another resource for pro-
viding opportunities beyond the classroom
activities. The inter-dependence of school
71


and studio music educators has long been
recognized by members of both professions.'
Participation in community choral and in-
strument organizations and children's serv-
ice clubs provide other outlets for a child's
musical expression.
Many Florida cities now support sym-
phony orchestras which give children's
concerts regularly. These and concert se-
ries by professional musicians constitute
valuable reinforcements to the school
music. Civic, service and church groups
bring touring musicians to many Florida
communities. University musical organiza-
tions or faculty members are available for
performances to schools of the state at
little or no cost.
Materials Centers
Many schools are confronted with the
problem of providing suitable materials of
instruction and an efficient method for
their organization, distribution, care, and
use. It is now generally recognized that a
good educational program can be main-
tained only if there are in the schools or
available to them materials of the right
kind and quality with which to work.
One of the newer concepts for meeting
this problem is the establishment of ma-
terials centers. In the past, these centers
have been thought of as sources of books
and materials infrequently used; as central
accounting and delivery points; and some-
times strictly as libraries of printed ma-
1. W. L. Housewright, "Professional Isolation or a Solid
Front," Music Eduoators Journal, Vol. XXXIV, No. 4,
February-March, 1948, p. 26.







MUSIC FOR FLORIDA CHILDREN


A wealth of materials keeps this fifth grade group interested in singing.


trials. The trend at present, however, is
toward making them clearing houses for
all instructional aids and equipment to
support the curriculum.
In Florida a number of school systems
have been experimenting in recent years
with this type of center at both the school
and the county level. They have included
in them such aids as printed materials,
audio-visual equipment and materials, spe-
cial art and music materials, environmental
collections, and recreational equipment.
The quality of the music program of
any county is dependent on the wise use
of materials and equipment provided in
these centers. Having materials used in
other fields available for use in teaching
music may also contribute to integrating
music into the total school program. Thus
the classroom teacher and the music spe-
cialist might find much help in such ma-
terials as films and film strips, books, pic-
ture collections, small scale models of in-
struments, recordings, record players, art
collections and many others to be found
in these centers.
For specific suggestions for planning a


materials center, see Bulletin 22C, The
Materials Center, available to schools from
the State Department of Education, Talla-
hassee, under policies established for dis-
tribution of department publications.

Equipment
A thorough study of the needs of a
school in terms of the music program be-
ing developed should precede the making
of a long-range plan for acquiring ma-
terials and equipment. Such a study makes
it possible to determine cooperatively the
kind, amount, and time of purchases as
well as the amount necessary for the music
budget. It may also assure a more practi-
cal distribution of available funds.
Cost is not always an index of quality,
but adequate music equipment rarely
comes at bargain prices. Boards of Edu-
cation and administrators should seek ad-
vice from reliable, competent music edu-
cators if costly errors are to be avoided.
Upkeep of inferior equipment often ex-
ceeds initial cost. Regular servicing is nec-
essary if the investment is to be protected.
(See Appendix I.)


72














APPENDIX I


SPECIFICATIONS AND CARE OF EQUIPMENT


The chart below may serve as a guide to speci-
fications and care of equipment. The first seven
items are used in the general educational pro-


gram. Items eight and nine are for special use
in music classes.


Equipment and Materials
Piano


Phonograph


Specifications
Specifications for a new piano
should require:
Direct action
Height 44 inches
88 note keyboard
Ball-bearing rubber casters or
frame with similar type
Legs attached to piano case by
supports
Sturdy pin block of hard wood
(maple or oak) set with blued
steel pins
Sounding board of close-grained
spruce (solid or plywood) with
even ring markings
Five or more hardwood supports
at back of sounding board
Cooper wound strings
Plastic covered keys
Tightly closed music rack and
top
Piano bench specified in pur-
chase order.
In purchasing a phonograph the
school should consider:
Fidelity of reproduction
Speed. Turntable must main-
tain uniform speed. Three-
speed phonographs are pre-
ferable. One turntable in each
school should accommodate


Care


Place in a position away from
radiators, exposure, and outside
walls.
Serviced regularly by a capable
person who:
Tunes piano to standard pitch,
each semester.
Moth-proofs felts.
Regulates and voices tone.
Repairs or replaces strings,
keys, felts, pedals or pins.


When not in use:


Anchor tone arm
Turn switch to "off" position.
Close case.
Keep player away from ex-
cessive dampness or heat.







74


Equipment and Materials


Recordings


MUSIC FOR FLORIDA CHILDREN

Specifications

16" transcriptions.
Simplicity of operation. All
switches and controls in clear
view and properly labeled.
Complicated machines require
frequent servicing.
Needle pressure. Too great
pressure results in excessive
wear on records.
Needles. Good needles are
essential to prolong life of
recordings. They should be
changed at first sign of wear.
Speaker. Not less than 8".

Vinylite and other plastic ma-
terials reduce danger of break-
age.


Care


Repair can be saved by turn-
ing record player on frequent-
ly during storage periods.


Handle only by edges.
Clean records with soft cloth
or record brush. Dust causes
scratches.
Place needle on ungrooved por-
tion of the disc and guide slow-
ly into groove.
Store in albums or envelopes
away from direct sunlight or
heat.


Flexible unit
Combination AM and FM
Speaker to give desired tone

Simple operation
Reversible tape
Equipped to record both fast
and slow.


Tape Recorder


Television

Projectors
Movie
Slide
Film strip
Opaque


Because of their fragile mecha-
nisms, radio, tape recorders,
phonographs, and other equip-
ment should be handled with
great care.


Consult audio-visual department for advice
concerning television and projectors.


Radio










APPENDIX I


Equipment and Materials
Simple instruments:
Melodic (wind)
Recorder
Symphonette
Tonette
Song Flute
Saxette
Melody Flute
Flutophone
Piper fife
Ocarina
Harmonica
Other melodic instruments:
Resonator bells
Xylophone
Chimes
Psaltery
Harmonic:
Autoharp
Ukelele
Harmonium
Harmolin
Rhythmic (percussion):
Rhythm sticks
Tambourines
Jingle clogs
Sleigh bells
Triangles
Hand drum
Snare drum
Claves
Castanets
Maracas
Woodblocks
Cymbals
Tom-toms

Miscellaneous teaching aids:
Chromatic pitch pipes
Staff liners
Staff paper
Instrument charts


Specifications
Low cost makes these instru-
ments easily accessible.

Music specialist should approve
type to be purchased.

Quality and durability should be
considered.


75


Care
Care of these instruments as real
musical equipment should be a
part of the training of children
using them.


Balance should be considered in
purchase of these instruments.











GRADED SERIES OF GENERAL MUSIC TEXTBOOKS


Baldwin, Lillian. MUSIC FOR YOUNG LISTEN-
ERS. New York: Silver Burdett Co., 1951. A
series of books on the lives of composers and
their compositions; music appreciation for ele-
mentary levels. The Green Book; The Crimson
Book; The Blue Book. Recordings are available
from the same company to accompany material
presented in the books.
Beattie, John W., et al. THE AMERICAN SINGER
(Series). New York: American Book Co., 1950.
Music textbooks for all grades 1-6. Guide and
Accompaniment books available for texts from
grades 2-6. Recordings available.
Dykema, Peter, et al. A SINGING SCHOOL (Se-
ries). Boston: C. C. Birchard and Co., 1939.
Texts for classroom and general use. Our First
Music; Our Songs; Merry Music; We Sing; Our
Land of Song; Music Everywhere. Accompani-
ments are available for all texts except Our
First Music. Recordings available.
Fullerton, Margaret and Wolfe, Irving. TO-
GETHER WE SING (Series). New York: Fol-
lett Publishing Co., 1952. Includes three vol-
umes for: Upper Grades, Lower Grades, En-
larged Edition.
Perham, Beatrice. GROWING UP WITH MUSIC
(Series). Chicago: Neil A. Kjos Music Co.,
Book I, for younger children. Jerry and Janet
on the Farm; Come Let Us Make a Garden;
Songs of Travel and Transport. Complete edi-
tion of Book I includes stories and songs with
piano accompaniments. Book II; for older chil-
dren. Music of the Troubadours; Minstrels and
Minnesingers; Music of Early Greece; Christ-
mas, Its Origins, Music and Traditions. Com-
plete edition of Book II includes songs and
stories with piano accompaniments.
----- A WORLD IN TUNE (Series). Chi-
cago: Neil A. Kjos Music Co. Includes: Songs
and Stories of American Indians; Spanish and
Latin American Songs; Great Songs of Faith;
Inter-Americana; Folksongs of Brazil; Mexican
Folk Songs.
McConathy, Osbourne, et al. NEW MUSIC HO-
RIZONS (Series). New York: Silver Burdett
Co., 1953 (revised). Includes: Experiences in


Music for First Grade Children; Music for
Early Childhood; books for grades 1-6; Ac-
companiments "and Interpretations for grades
2-6. Recordings available.
Pitts, Lilla Belle, et al. OUR SINGING WORLD
(Series). New York: Ginn and Company, 1949.
Includes texts for: The Kindergarten Book; The
First Book; Singing as We Play (Primer I);
Singing All Day (Primer II); Singing on Our
Way; Singing and Rhyming; Singing Every
Day; Singing Together; Singing in Harmony.
Teaching Suggestions for Primers I and II;
Teaching Suggestions and Piano Accompani-
ments for all except the Kindergarten Book.
Recordings available.

Strings, Woodwinds, Brass and Percussion
Fischel, Max and Wilson, Don. JUNIOR MAS-
TERWORKS FOR STRINGS. New York: Rem-
ick Music Corp. Easy supplementary material
for string classes.
Gordon, Phillip. FIDDLING FOR FUN. Chicago:
Educational Music Bureau. An instructional
folio intended for string players who are pre-
orchestral candidates. May be used for string
quartet or four-part string ensemble.
Herfurth, Paul. INSTRUMENTAL HORIZONS.
New York: Silver Burdett Co. For use with
New Music Horizons books.
----- ORCHESTRA IN FUN. New York:
Fourne, Inc. Twelve easy-to-play arrangements.
Piano-conductor part available. For full or-
chestra.
TIME OUT FOR ORCHESTRA.
New York: Fourne, Inc. Supplementary ma-
terial for beginning orchestra. 12 compositions.
------. TUNE A DAY. Boston: Boston Music
Co., A Series: Book I or Elementary; Book II
for Intermediate; Book III for Advanced. Teach-
ers Manual available.
Isaac, Merle. ISAAC STRING CLASS METHOD.
M. M. Cole Publishing Co. A popular method
with illustrations. Melody studies and ensemble
material. Books I and II.










APPENDIX I


Keller, Marjorie and Taylor, Maurice D. EASY
STEPS TO THE ORCHESTRA. Book I. New
York: Mills Music, Inc.; A string method course.
Kinyon, John. DOWN IN THE VALLEY, EARLY
AMERICAN TUNES. Rochester, N. Y.: Kuchen
Publications. Other titles available in this se-
ries. Contains suggestions for using instruments
in the classroom.
--- -. FOLK SONG BAND BOOK. Roches-
ter, N. Y.: Kuchen Publications. For instrumen-
tal classes.
Muller, J. Frederick and Elmquist, Betty. FUN
WITH STRINGS. New York: Bourne, Inc. For
string classes made up of young children. Piano-
conductor score available.
Smith, Claude, et al. ENSEMBLE BAND METH-
OD. Chicago: Neil A. Kjos Music Co.
Ruegger, Charlotte. FIDDLERS THREE. New
York: Remick Music Corp. Ten compositions,
supplementary material for string groups.
Watter, Lorraine E. OUR OWN ORCHESTRA
FOLIO. New York: Carl Fischer, Inc. Easy
arrangements of folk songs and serious com-
positions.

Piano
Burrows, Raymond and Ahern, Ella M. THE
YOUNG EXPLORER AT THE PIANO. Cin-
cinnati: Willis Music Co., 1941. For beginning
piano classes. Melodic approach.
Fischel, J. THE BERRY BASKET (Series). New
York: J. Fischer and Bro. Includes: A Very
First Book; A First Book, Part I; A First Book,
Part II; Berry Basket. Folk tunes with en-
semble material, F approach.
Fischer, Carl. MUSIC FOR LITTLE FOLKS.
New York: Carl Fischner, Inc., 1941. Books I
and II. Black Key approach.


&-%aa wa o


COMMUNITY SONG BOOKS


Curtis, Louis Woodson, et al. THE SILVER
BOOK OF SONGS. Chicago: Hall and Mc-
Creary Co., 1935. A varied collection of songs
good for assembly singing. Suitable for all
levels.
Maddy, Joseph, et al. ALL-AMERICAN SONG
BOOK. Chicago: Educational Music Bureau,
Inc. Includes popular copyrights.


Oberndorfer, Max E. and Anne. THE NEW
AMERICAN SONG BOOK. Chicago: Hall and
MaCreary Co. For community singing. A fine
selection with historical introductions. A new
Pan-American edition available in cloth binding.
----- (collected). NOELS. Chicago: H. T.
Fitzsimmons Co., 1932. A collection of carols
including familiar carols and carols of other


77

------. MUSIC LESSONS FOR BOYS AND
GIRLS. New York: Carl Fischner, Inc., 1941.
First, Second and Third Books. For groups in
the intermediate grades.
Frost, Bernice. BEGINNERS AT THE PIANO.
Boston: Boston Music Co., Book I; Book II;
Book III, Two Hands at the Piano. Melodies
within singing range. G approach.
Glenn, Mabelle, et al. PLAY A TUNE. (The
World of Music). Piano selections based on
a wide variety of bodily responses to rhythms.
Rodenberg, E. Rebecca. FROM SINGING TO
READING. Boston Music Co., 1953. For very
young children giving music reading readiness
experiences. G approach.
Rosemond, Gertrude. THE GERTRUDE ROSE-
MOND PIANO COURSE. Cincinnati: Willis
Music Co. Emphasizes correct reading habits.
Schelling, Ernest, et al. OXFORD PIANO
COURSE. New York: Oxford University Press,
Carl Fischer, Inc. For piano classes; teachers
manual available for beginning class teacher.
Weybright, June. COURSE FOR PIANISTS. New
York: American Academy of Music, Inc., 1949.
Books I and II. Follow-up book for each set
available. C approach.
Simple Instruments
Fox, Lillian Mohr. AUTOHARP ACCOMPANI-
MENTS TO OLD FAVORITE SONGS. Bos-
ton: C. C. Birchard and Co.
Krone, Beatrice and Max. HARMONY FUN
WITH THE AUTOHARP. Chicago: Neil A.
Kjos Music Co. Autoharp accompaniments for
well-known songs.
Van Pelt, Merrill B. and Ruddick, J. Leon. HOW
TO PLAY THE FLUTOPHONE. Cleveland:
Trophy Product Co. Classroom method.








78 MUSIC FOR F

lands, also some Negro songs.
Stevens, David and Dykema, Peter W. (compiled
and edited by). SING. Boston: C. C. Birchard
and Co., 1938. An all-purpose collection of
folk, college and well-known songs.


LORIDA CHILDREN


Zanzig, Augustus D. (compiled by). SINGING
AMERICA. Boston: C. C. Birchard and Co.,
1941. All songs can be sung in unison; many
have been arranged for part singing. This in-
cludes songs of other countries. Vol. V of RCA
Educational Record Series.


BOOKS FOR CHILDREN


Annis, Elsie K. and Matthews, Janet. RHYTH-
MIC ACTIVITIES FOR THE WORLD OF
MUSIC. Boston: Ginn and Co., 1944.
Baldwin, Lillian. A LISTENER'S ANTHOLOGY
OF MUSIC. New York: Silver Burdett Co.,
1948. In two volumes: Vol. I is concerned with
master builders of music; Vol. II with the
musician as a poet, painter, and dramatist.
For teacher-pupil use.
-. A MUSIC BOOK FOR VERY
YOUNG PERSONS. A. S. Gilman, 1949. For
primary music appreciation.
MUSIC TO REMEMBER. New
York: Silver Burdett Co., 1951. Music appre-
ciation for upper grades.
Balet, Jan. WHAT MAKES AN ORCHESTRA.
New York: Oxford University Press, 1951. Story
and pictures of orchestral instruments and per-
formers.
Bartlett, Ella H. and Agnolucci, Mario. STEPHEN
FOSTER SONGS FOR BOYS AND GIRLS.
New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1945. In-
terestingly presented singing material for inter-
mediate grades.
Bentley, Beatrice B. MUSIC IN PLAYTIME. Chi-
cago: Clayton F. Summy, 1949. Rhythms, games
and play material for nursery school and kinder-
gartens.
Bland, H. 0. THIRTY MINUTES ON THE
RANGE. New York: Belwin, Inc. A musical
dramalogue for boys. Seven leads and a chorus
of cowboys and dudes.
THIRTY MINUTES WITH LIN-
COLN. New York: Belwin, Inc. An operetta
for upper grades.
-. THIRTY MINUTES WITH MO-
ZART. New York: Belwin, Inc. An operetta
for upper grades.
-. THIRTY MINUTES WITH THE
PILGRIMS. New York: Belwin, Inc. An oper-


etta for upper grades. Six leads and chorus of
pilgrims, Indians, and children.
-- THIRTY MINUTES WITH STE-
PHEN FOSTER. New York: Belwin, Inc. Five
leads and chorus, for upper grades.
Boesel, Ann Sterling. SING AND SING AGAIN.
New York: Oxford University Press, 1938. Songs
with illustrations suitable for small children.
Boni, Margaret B. FIRESIDE BOOK OF FOLK
SONGS. New York: Simon and Schuster, Inc.,
1947. A collection of folk songs, spirituals,
shanties, and ballads with piano score and
historical notes. Illustrated.
Botkin, B. A. A TREASURY OF AMERICAN
FOLK LORE. New York: Crown Publishers,
1944. May be correlated with social studies.
Brown, C. A. THE STORY OF OUR NATIONAL
BALLADS. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell and
Co., 1919.
Bryant, Laura. SENTENCE SONGS FOR LIT-
TLE SINGERS. Cincinnati: Willis Music Co.,
1935. Easy songs for young singers.
Buchanan, Fannie L. HOW MAN MADE MUSIC.
Chicago: Follett Publishing Co., 1935. Easy his-
tory of music for intermediate grades.
Burchenal, Elizabeth. AMERICAN COUNTRY
DANCES. New York: G. Schirmer, Inc., 1938.
Illustrated instructions.
------. DANCES OF THE PEOPLE. New
York: G. Schirmer, Inc., 1942. Illustrated in-
structions.
-. FOLK DANCES AND SINGING
GAMES. New York: G. Schirmer, Inc., 1918.
Illustrated instructions.
-. FOLK DANCES FROM OLD
HOMELANDS. New York: G. Schirmer, Inc.,
1922. Illustrated instructions.
Byerly, Dorothea J. THE ADVENTURES OF
PETER THE PIANO. Bryan Maur, Pa.: Theo-









APPENDIX I


dore Presser Co., 1947. A illustrated story for
children.
Carmer, Carl. AMERICA SINGS: STORIES AND
SONGS OF OUR COUNTRY'S GROWING.
New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 1942. An
anthology of folk songs and stories reflecting
America's work and growth.
Churchill- Grindell. CHURCHILL GRINDELL
SONG BOOKS. Plattville, Wisc.: Churchill-
Grindell Publishing Co., 1938. A series of
eight books containing standard repertoire for
children. Inexpensive.
Coleman, Satis. THE NEW SINGING TIME.
New York: John Day Co., 1950. Illustrated
book of songs for young children.
------. SINGING TIME. New York: John
Day Co., 1940. A collection of songs for small
children.
----- ANOTHER SINGING TIME. New
York: John Day Co., 1937. A collection for
young singers.
Commins, Dorothy B. MAKING AN ORCHES-
TRA. New York: The Macmillan Co., 1931.
Presents the instruments of the orchestra and
their arrangements in concert performances.
Cross, Donzella. MUSIC STORIES FOR BOYS
AND GIRLS. Chicago: Ginn and Co., 1926.
Interesting stories of familiar compositions.
Crowninshield, Ethel. MOTHER GOOSE SONGS.
Boston: Boston Music Co.
-. NEW SONGS AND GAMES. Bos-
ton: Boston Music Co., 1941. Simple songs and
accompaniments for pre-school and primary
children.
---- THE SING AND PLAY BOOK. Bos-
ton: Boston Music Co., 1938. Effective songs
and accompaniments for young inexperienced
singers.
-. SONGS AND STORIES ABOUT
ANIMALS. Boston: Boston Music Co., 1947.
Illustrated by children. Rote songs.
-----. STORIES THAT SING. Boston: Bos-
ton Music Co., 1945. Illustrated songs that may
be played by the children on tuned bells.
Dalton, Alene. MY PICTURE BOOK OF SONGS.
Chicago: M. A. Donahue and Co., 1947. Easy
songs and piano accompaniments for children.
Illustrated.


Daniel, Oliver. ROUND AND ROUND THEY
GO. Boston: C. C. Birchard and Co., 1952. A
collection of rounds.
Densmore, Frances. INDIAN ACTION SONGS.
Boston: C. C. Birchard and Co. Dances and
tribal music.
Dike, Helen. STORIES FROM GREAT METRO-
POLITAN OPERAS. New York: Random
House, 1943. Stories of 25 operas with princi-
pal themes.
Disney, Walt. THE NUTCRACKER SUITE
(from Fantasia). Boston: Little, Brown and
Co., 1941. Story on which Tschaikowsky based
his music for the suite. Melodies simplified for
the young pianist.
Downes, Olin and Siegmeister, Elie. A TREAS-
URY OF AMERICAN SONGS. New York:
.Howell, Soking and Co., 1943. Early American
folk lore and songs.
Dungan, Olive, et al. TROPICAL TUNES. Bos-
ton: Boston Music Co., 1947. Songs about
Florida for children in primary grades.
Dykema, Peter, et al. (ed.) HAPPY SINGING.
Boston: C. C. Birchard and Co., 1948. Songs
for children in primary grades with piano
accompaniments.
-----. MUSIC IN THE AIR. Boston: C. C.
Birchard and Co., 1949. A book presented in
units with songs, piano accompaniments, and
guides for teaching.
-----. TWICE 55 GAMES WITH MUSIC.
Boston: C. C. Birchard and Co., 1942. A game
book for all ages.
Earhart, Will and Birge, Edward B. SONGS OF
STEPHEN FOSTER. Pittsburgh: University of
Pittsburgh Press, 1947. Free. 45 songs. May be
ordered in quantities.
Eisenberg, Helen and Larry. ... AND PROME-
NADE ALL. Nashville: Methodist Publishing
House, 1952. A collection of folk games and
dances with instructions and piano accompani-
ments. Recordings available.
Elson, L. C. THE NATIONAL MUSIC OF
AMERICA AND ITS SOURCES. Boston:
L. C. Page and Co., 1946 (revised).
Ewen, David and Slonimsky, Nicolas. FUN
WITH MUSICAL GAMES AND QUIZZES.
New York: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1952.


79







MUSIC FOR FLORIDA CHILDREN


Fielder, Grace. CHILD RHYTHMS. Muncie,
Indiana: Grace Fielder, Publisher. Original
music for rhythmic activities in primary grades.
Fisher, W. A. THE MUSIC THAT WASHING-
TON KNEW. Boston: Oliver Ditson Co., 1931.
Fletcher, Alice C. INDIAN GAMES AND
DANCES WITH NATIVE SONGS. Boston:
C. C. Birchard and Co., 1915. In three parts:
Dances and songs (with instructions for dances),
games, and Indian names.
Ford, Henry. GOOD MORNING. Boston: Bos-
ton Music Co. Music, calls and directions for
old-time dancing.
Gale, Leah. NURSERY SONGS. New York:
Simon and Schuster, 1942. Illustrated nursery
songs with simple piano accompaniments.
Gaynor, Jessie. HEALTH SONGS. Philadelphia:
John Church Co., 1947. For primary rote
singing.
SONGS OF MODERN CHILD
LIFE. Philadelphia: John Church Co., 1947.
For primary rote singing.
Glass, Dudley. THE SONGS OF PETER RAB-
BIT. New York: Frederick Warne and Co.,
1951. 14 songs.
Gordon, Dorothy. AROUND THE WORLD IN
SONG. New York: E. P. Dutton Co., Inc., 1938.
Illustrated folk songs with stories and origins
of the songs, also customs of the people.
-. SING IT YOURSELF. New York:
E. P. Dutton and Co., 1936. A collection of
folk songs for the teacher to use with the
children.
Gomez, Minnered L. MERRY MUSIC. Chicago:
Follett Publishing Co., 1949. An illustrated col-
lection of songs for primary children.
Graham, Mary Nancy. FIFTY SONGS FOR
BOYS AND GIRLS. Racine, Wisc.: Whitman
Publishing Co., 1935. Illustrated Mother Goose
Rhymes set to familiar tunes.
Hamlin, Alice P. and Guessford, Margaret. SING-
ING GAMES FOR CHILDREN. Cincinnati:
Willis Music Co., 1941. Illustrated singing
games with easy accompaniments. For primary
levels.
Hart, William J. STORIES OF OUR NATIONAL
SONGS. Boston: W. A. Wilde Co., 1942.
Heller, Ruth (compiled and arranged). CHRIST-


MAS, ITS CAROLS, CUSTOMS AND LEG-
ENDS. Chicago: Hall and McCreary, 1948.
Higgins, Helen Boyd. STEPHEN FOSTER: BOY
MINSTREL. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill Co.,
Inc., 1941. Illustrated, easily read by young
children.
House, L. Margueritte. O SAY CAN YOU HEAR?
New York: Mills Music, Inc., 1947. Stories of
standard music literature illustrated with prin-
cipal themes as they occur in the composition,
also a question and answer section.
Hughes, Dorothy. RHYTHMIC GAMES AND
DANCE. New York: American Book Co., 1942.
Hunt, Beatrice A. and Wilson, Harry R. SING
AND DANCE. Chicago: Hall-McCreary Co.,
1945. Folk songs and dances with piano ac-
companiments, directions, and diagrams.
Hunt, Evelyn H. MUSIC TIME, SONGS FOR
CHILDREN FROM TWO TO SEVEN. New
York: Viking Press, 1947.
Huntington, Harriet E. TUNE UP (THE IN-
STRUMENTS OF THE ORCHESTRA AND
THEIR PLAYERS). New York: Doubleday
and Co., 1942.
Karasz, Ilonka. THE TWELVE DAYS OF
CHRISTMAS. New York: Harper and Broth-
ers, 1949. An illustrated song.
Kinscella, Hazel Gertrude. MUSIC APPRECIA-
TION READERS. New York: University Pub-
lishing Co., 1951. (revised). Illustrated stories
of music: Storyland; Man in the Drum; Folk
Tales From Many Lands; Conrad's Magic
Flight; Tales of Olden Days; Around the
World in Story; History Sings.
Kirkell, Miriam and Schaffnit, Irma. PARTNER
ALL, PLACES ALL. New York: E. P. Dutton
and Co., 1949. Forty-four illustrated square and
folk dances with diagrams.
Krone, Beatrice and Max. DESCANTS FOR
CHRISTMAS. Chicago: Neil A. Kjos Music
Co., 1949.
OUR FIRST SONGS TO SING
WITH DESCANTS. Chicago: Neil A. Kjos
Music Co., 1941. May be used in primary
grades.
-. VERY EASY DESCANTS. Chicago:
Neil A. Kjos Music Co. May be used in pri-
mary or upper grades.


80









APPENDIX I


Kuamme, Torstein O. CHRISTMAS CAROLER'S
BOOK IN SONG AND STORY. Chicago: Hall-
McCreary Co., 1935. Carols and customs of
many countries.
Lacey, Marion. PICTURE BOOK OF MUSICAL
INSTRUMENTS. Chicago: Lothrop, Lee and
Shepherd Co., Inc., 1942. May be used on all
levels.
Landeck, Beatrice. SONGS TO GROW ON. New
York: Edward B. Marks Music Corporation,
1950. A collection of folk songs and stories
arranged with rhythm instrument accompani-
ments.
LaSalle, Dorothy. RHYTHMS AND DANCE
FOR ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS. New York:
Barnes and Noble, Inc., 1937. A comprehensive
collection of folk dance figures.
Lawrence, Robert. METROPOLITAN OPERA
GUILD STORIES FOR CHILDREN. New
York: Silver Burdett Co. An illustrated series.
Lyons, John Henry. STORIES OF OUR AMERI-
CAN PATRIOTIC SONGS. New York: The
Vanguard Press, 1942.
Manners, Zeke. AMERICAN SQUARE DANCES.
Boston: Boston Music Co., 1948. Easy dances
and alls with illustrations.
Martin, Florence, et al. RIME, RHYTHM, AND
SONG (FOR THE CHILD TODAY). Chicago:
Hall and McCreary, 1942. A collection of chil-
dren's songs.
Martin, Florence and White, Margaret Rose.
SONGS CHILDREN SING. Chicago: Hall and
McCreary Co., 1950. 150 songs including new
and old familiar melodies.
Matteson, Maurice. AMERICAN FOLK SONGS
FOR YOUNG SINGERS. New York: G.
Schirmer, 1948.
McCall, Adeline. TIMOTHY'S TUNES. Boston:
Boston Music Co., 1943. Number notation and
suggestions for use given in introduction.
McCloskey, Robert. LENTIL. New York: The
Viking Press, Inc., 1940. A story for boys.
Miessner, W. Otto and Beattie, John W. MEL-
ODIES TO PLAY AND SING. Chicago: Hall
and McCreary Co., 1935.
Nash, Ogden. MUSICAL ZOO. Boston: Little,
Brown and Co., 1947.


Nelson, Mary Jarman. FUN WITH MUSIC. Chi-
cago: Albert Whitman and Co., 1948. Children's
songs with notation for a simple melody instru-
ments.
Pepper and Son. INSTRUMENTS OF THE OR-
CHESTRA CHARTS AND HANDBOOK.
Philadelphia: J. W. Pepper and Son. To ac-
company RCA Victor Educational series, album
E 104.
PORTRAITS OF GREAT COMPOSERS. Chi-
cago: Hall and McCreary Co. In portfolio or
bound editions with biographical sketches.
Posell, Elsa. THIS IS AN ORCHESTRA. Boston:
Houghton Mifflin Co., 1950. Instruments of the
modern symphony and how to build a record
library.
Prokofiev, Serge. PETER AND THE WOLF.
New York: Leeds Music Corp., 1948. Symphonic
story for children.
Purdy, C. L. HE HEARD AMERICA SING
(THE STORY OF STEPHEN FOSTER). New
York: Julian Messner, Inc., 1940. Contains 27
tunes.
Ring, Justin. SPIRIT OF THE USA. New York:
Boosey and Hawkes, n.d. A patriotic pageant.
Rohrbough, Lynn. RECREATION KITS. Dela-
ward, Ohio: Co-operative Recreation Service,
n.d. Booklets of folk songs, dances, games.
Company supplies list from which selections
can be made.
Ryan, Grace L. DANCES OF OUR PIONEERS.
New York: A. S. Barnes and Co., Inc., 1939.
Mixers, group, circle, and square dances with
music, diagrams, and definitions.
Schlottman, Jeanette and Rutledge, Abbie. FOLK
SONGS OF SCANDINAVIA. New York: A. S.
Barnes and Co., Inc., 1938. Songs, costumes,
pictures and dances of Scandinavian countries.
Seatter, Elizabeth, et al. ROMP IN RHYTHM.
Boston: Boston Music Co., 1944. Illustrated
stories with rhythmic interpretations for young
children.
Seeger, Ruth C. AMERICAN FOLK SONGS
FOR CHILDREN (IN HOME, SCHOOL
AND NURSERY SCHOOL). New York:
Doubleday and Co., 1948. A book for children,
parents, and teachers.














717e c73es ce4'eco; Qra-4% 4,~u
3~ndG~- b"6;;02B"e CCSCOhsC
Q's cso? A04enh-; 1
itO~a, c~el;;L ~ PrrS~e'dZ e~ aci CC q-~ fL
ur cv 51, ce oce\
kyh;- lig LiDi 7r-fq0(ne,!-ceCb ~s~
co CO Cbf tv~
40 109 I~Y~~O~~



e, (, A 6 '? %~ t


If. t L-a ed 7
$3J~Ije'^Ip 0t Lc~~~k ,
erzences o'4ned f ctt%
p fh~e tr
,v z:E~:e:
P~95s; S~~~; pl~at & N Ni~ICic~-m~as~3)5O
;~p"~ IOn cc 0es 2
N;l~~t~~ I~~ te~6fQ4 FC~h ee ~
0, 0~:PPP6l6':o oteO~~ ?~ Q~,F
sd ~ bY~s~3T
44 -0- 14-n'~ 3 0~ ~ s
3rrJ'



y L! -s r~ -Ir

,, tr -9 p ,, / I P,
IS -oB P,
MNNfll? j- G, r)
I Ir -R R 16, eC



-Of COO. 0, LP; P ~Y

"%~ee a J...
'Uc~c~I~c~Zb~tsL~ppd(C401Xr'R
4C catt dYLr 616i




k ~~t -aj,/ r a~ cor


7r.:yr- W p 10'
0 sloati \ AaU
Cna~~:a~~_~~,b~,~sYY ~" uc~J/OAY7NI3jL~"



82 83.4~S~~'a/t a??~N~c1~d;, dip!4








MUSIC FOR FLORIDA CHILDREN


Shannon, Mattie B. NOEL BOOK FOR CHRIST-
MAS HYMN PANTOMIMES AND CHRIST-
MAS MONOLOGUES WITH LESSON
TALKS. Nashville: Abingdon-Cokesbury Press,
1936.
Shay, Frank. AMERICAN SEA SONGS AND
CHANTEYS. New York: W. W. Norton and
Co., Inc., 1948. Revised edition of "Iron Men
in Wooden Ships" published by Doubleday
in 1924.
Siegmeister, Elie. WORK AND SING. New York:
William R. Scott, 1944. Early American Work
songs.
Skolsky, Syd. THE MUSIC BOX BOOK. New
York: E. P. Dutton and Co., Inc., 1946. A story
book of musical literature for children with il-
lustrations. List of recordings.
Slind, Lloyd H. MELODY RHYTHM AND HAR-
MONY FOR THE ELEMENTARY GRADES.
New York: Mills Music, Inc., 1952. Familiar
tunes arranged for simple instrumental accom-
paniments.
Taylor, Mary C. ROUNDS AND ROUNDS. New
York: William Sloane Associates, Inc., 1946. A
comprehensive collection of rounds.
Thompson, Burnette. LET'S SING, SONGS FOR
LITTLE CHILDREN. Minneapolis: Augsburg
Publishing House, 1940.
Tinyanova, Helen. STRADIVARI, THE VIOLIN-
MAKER. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc.,
1946. Story of the family that perfected the
violin.
Tobitt, Janet E. THE DITTY BAG. New York:
Janet E. Tobitt. A collection of community and
fun songs.
-------. ON YOUR TOES. New York: Janet


E. Tobitt, 1941: 416 W. 33rd St. A compilation
of songs and dances.
Van Loon, Hendrick. THE SONGS WE SING.
New York: Simon and Schuster, 1936. Illus-
trated songs.
Vernon, Mary S., et al. DESCANTS ON CHRIST-
MAS CAROLS. Chicago: Hall and McCreary
Co.
Wessels, Katherine T. THE GOLDEN SONG
BOOK. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1945.
----- THE LITTLE GOLDEN BOOK
OF SINGING GAMES. New York: Simon
and Schuster, 1947.
Wheeler, Opal. SING FOR AMERICA. New
York: E. P. Dutton and Co., Inc., 1944. Illus-
trated, patriotic, folk songs and negro spirituals
with stories of their origin.
-------. SING FOR CHRISTMAS. New York:
E. P. Dutton and Co., Inc., 1946. Illustrated.
-------. SING IN PRAISE. New York: E. P.
Dutton and Co., Inc., 1946. Illustrated with
stories of familiar hymns.
------. SING MOTHER GOOSE. New
York: E. P. Dutton and Co., Inc., 1945. Illus-
trated.
Wheeler, Opal and Deucher, Sybil. WHEELER-
DEUCHER BIOGRAPHICAL SERIES. New
York: E. P. Dutton and Co., Inc. Stories on
the lives of composers for elementary children.
List of titles may be obtained from company.
Wilson, Harry. MUSIC AMERICA SINGS. New
York: Silver Burdett Co., 1948.
Ziegler, Carl. SINGING GAMES AND DANCES.
Cincinnati: The Willis Music Co., 1935. (re-
vised).


PROFESSIONAL BOOKS


AN INDEX TO FOLK DANCES AND SING-
ING GAMES. Chicago: American Library As-
sociation, 1936. A book for libraries. Listings
of folk dances, singing games, and books in
which they may be found.
ARCHIVES OF AMERICAN FOLK SONGS.
Washington: Recording Laboratory, Division
of Music, Library of Congress. Unusual ma-
terial for the music teacher interested in re-
cordings of folk songs.


Armstrong, Lucille. DANCES OF SPAIN. New
York: Chanticleer Press, Inc., 1950. Handbook
of authentic dances and music of Spain.
Ausubel, Nathan. A TREASURY OF JEWISH
FOLKLORE. New York: Crown Publishers,
1948.
Bager, Robert Biancolli, Louis. THE CONCERT
COMPANION. New York: McGraw-Hill Book
Co., Inc., 1947. A comprehensive guide to
symphonic music.










APPENDIX I


Barbour, Harriet and Freeman, Warren. THE
CHILDREN'S RECORD BOOK. New York:
Oliver Durrell, Inc., 1947. A guide to recorded
music for children from six months to sixteen
years of age.
-------. HOW TO TEACH CHILDREN TO
KNOW MUSIC. New York: Smith and Durrell,
Inc., 1942. A music appreciation book.
Bauer, Marion, et al. HOW MUSIC GREW. New
York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1939 (revised). A
story-history from prehistoric times to present
day. Sixty illustrations.
Brooks, Marion, et al. MUSIC EDUCATION IN
THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL. New York:
American Book Co., 1946. For teachers, princi-
pals, and music students. Includes an annotated
bibliography.
BUSINESS HANDBOOK OF MUSIC EDUCA-
TORS. Chicago: Music Educators National
Conference, 1950-51. A manual of business
practices and relations for music educators.
Includes a directory of publishers, manufac-
turers, distributors.
CATALOG OF RECORDINGS. Chicago: Music
Educators National Conference, 1951. All rec-
ords listed have been used successfully; eigh-
teen classifications.
Colcord, Joanna C. SONGS OF AMERICAN
SAILORMEN. New York: W. W. Norton &
Co., 1938.
Coleman, Satis. CREATIVE MUSIC IN THE
HOME. New York: The John Day Co., 1939.
Directions for making instruments and playing
them. Illustrated.
-----. THE DRUM BOOK. New York:
The John Day Co., 1931. Complete book of
drums, including directions for making them.
Illustrated.
Darrell, R. D. SCHIRMER'S GUIDE TO BOOKS
ON MUSIC AND MUSICIANS. New York:
G. Schirmer, Inc., 1951. A reference and guide
to music literature. For library use.
Densmore, Frances. AMERICAN INDIANS AND
THEIR MUSIC. New York: Women's Press,
1926.
ETHNIC FOLKWAYS LIBRARY. New York:
Folkways Records: and Service Corp. Descrip-
tion of film strips directly related to the albums


of records available. Each album accompanied
by a booklet describing the selection in detail.
FOLK MUSIC OF THE UNITED STATES
AND LATIN AMERICA. Washington: Re-
cording Laboratory, Division of Music, Li-
brary of Congress, 1948. A combined catalogue
of phonograph records.
Fox, Lillian and Hopkins, Thomas. CREATIVE
SCHOOL MUSIC. New York: Silver Burdett
Co., 1936. Ideas for creativity in the classroom.
Freeman, Warren S. ANNOTATED LIST OF
PHONOGRAPH RECORDS. New York: Chil-
dren's Reading Service. A periodic catalogue
giving prices, suggested grade levels and classi-
fication of recordings.
Gardner, Ella. HANDBOOK FOR RECREA-
TION LEADERS, BULLETIN NO. 231. Wash-
ington: Government Printing Office, Dept. of
Labor, Frances Perkins, Sec'y., 1936. Compiled
in response to requests for materials in rural
areas.
Glenn, Neal E. TEACHING MUSIC IN OUR
SCHOOLS. Dubuque, Iowa: William C. Brown,
Co., 1951.
Grant, Parks. MUSIC FOR ELEMENTARY
TEACHERS. New York: Appleton-Century
Crofts, Inc., 1951.
HANDBOOK FOR TEACHING PIANO CLASS-
ES. Chicago: Music Educators National Con-
ference, 1952. Principles, procedures, achieve-
ments, and standards in group piano instruc-
tion.
Hood, Marguerite and Schultz, E. J. LEARNING
MUSIC THROUGH RHYTHM. Boston: Ginn
& Co., 1949. A practical approach to teaching
rhythms. Includes annotated bibliography.
Howard, John Tasker. THE MUSIC OF WASH-
INGTON'S TIME. Washington: United States
Constitutional Sesquicentennial Commission,
1937.
Johnson, Eloise Lisle. THE LAND OF PRE-
TEND. Boston: C. C. Birchard, 1952. Simple
dramatizations and creative rhythms.
Kinscella, Hazel Gertrude and Tierney, Elizabeth
Margaret. THE CHILD AND HIS MUSIC.
New York: The University Publishing Co., 1953.
A handbook for studying the musical growth
of the child in all fields.








MUSIC FOR FLORIDA CHILDREN


Kevitt, William. MUSIC FOR YOUR CHILD.
New York: Dodd Mead & Co., Inc., 1946. A
practical handbook for parents, including lists
of recommended books and records.
Krone, Beatrice and Max. MUSIC PARTICIPA-
TION IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL.
Chicago: Neil A. Kjos Music Co., 1952. A text-
book incorporating the valuable techniques
and ideas that are of use to the classroom
teacher. Music examples.
Landeck, Beatrice. CHILDREN AND MUSIC.
New York: William Sloane Associates, Inc.,
1952. Designed with parents in mind but
equally valuable to the classroom teacher.
Leavitt, Helen Sewall, et al. ADVENTURES IN
SINGING. Boston: C. C. Birchard & Co., 1952.
A collection of songs of interest in the inter-
mediate grades.
Leavitt, Helen and Freeman, Warren S. RE-
CORDINGS FOR THE ELEMENTARY
SCHOOL. New York: Oliver Durrell, Inc.,
1948.
Leonhard, Charles. RECREATION THROUGH
MUSIC. New York: A. S. Barnes & Co., 1952.
Basic orientation for the recreational music pro-
gram with the layman in mind. Suggested song
list for community singing.
Lynch, Virginia, et al. MUSIC AND MUSICIANS.
New York: Allyn & Bacon, 1939. An apprecia-
tion book explaining dance forms, the song,
sonata, symphony. Chapters of music as a vo-
cation and an avocation. Sketches of composers'
lives.
Marcel-Dubois, Claude and Andral, et al.
DANCES OF FRANCE. (BRITTANY AND
BOURBONNAIS). New York: Crown Pub-
lishing Co., 1950. Handbook of authentic
dances, music and costumes.
MATERIAL FOR PROGRAMS. New York: Na-
tional Recreation Association, 315 4th Ave. Pro-
gram material; music tableau and pantomime.
McKinney, Lawrence. PEOPLE OF NOTE. New
York: E. P. Dutton & Co., Inc., 1949. (17th
printing). Human and humorous descriptions
of musicians and instruments in light verse and
cartoons. Written to amuse.
Morris, Alton C. FOLKSONGS OF FLORIDA.
Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1950.


A collection of Florida folk songs and dances.
Warm and human touches enliven the back-
grounds of the songs.
Mursell, James L. MUSIC AND THE CLASS-
ROOM TEACHER. New York: Silver Burdett
Co., 1951. Convincing evidence that success-
ful musical experiences can be directed by the
classroom teacher.
MUSIC CONTRIBUTING TO THE EDUCA-
TION OF THE CHILD: THE CREATIVE
DANCE. Passaic, N. J.: Passaic Public Schools,
1948.
MUSIC EDUCATORS SOURCE BOOK, (4th
printing). Chicago: Music Educators National
Conference, 1951. Texts and supplementary
material in music education courses and in
program and curriculum planning.
MUSIC FOR EVERYBODY. Chicago: Music
Educators National Conference, 1950. For use
in promoting and organizing school-community
relations.
MUSIC ROOMS AND EQUIPMENT. Chicago:
Music Educators National Conference, 1949.
Myers, Louise Kifer. TEACHING CHILDREN
MUSIC IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL.
New York: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1950. Guide for
classroom teacher and music specialist. Sug-
gested program and its implications with
source materials.
Perham, Beatrice. MUSIC IN THE NEW
SCHOOL. Chicago: Neil A. Kjos Music Co.,
1950. (revised). A lively and convincing dis-
cussion of the concepts of musical growth
through participation, experimentation, and
exploration.
PIANO INSTRUCTION IN THE SCHOOLS.
Chicago: Music Educators National Confer-
ence, 1949. A report and educational analysis
of nation wide survey of piano classes in the
schools. A good source for facts and figures.
Pitts, Lilla Belle. HANDBOOK ON 16 MM.
FILMS FOR MUSIC EDUCATION. Chicago:
Music Educators National Conference, 1952.
An annotated bibliography of film materials
with sources included. Classified.
---- THE MUSIC CURRICULUM IN
A CHANGING WORLD. New York: Silver
Burdett Co., 1944. Concepts of the new music









APPENDIX I


curriculum and its functions and contributions
in the total school program.
RADIO IN MUSIC EDUCATION. Chicago:
Music Educators National Conference, 1952.
An annotated bibliography.
RECORDED FOLK MUSIC IN EDUCATION.
New York: Folkways Records and Service
Corp. A list of Folkway recordings.
RECORDINGS CATALOG. Chicago: Commit-
tee on Recordings in Music Education, Divi-
sion of Music Educators National Conference
Committee on Audio-Visual Aids. Chicago:
Music Educators National Conference, 64 E.
Jackson Blvd.
RECORDING OUTLINE FOR CURRICULUM
PLANNING. New York: Greystone Corpora-
tion, Educational Activities Division, 1952.
Useful for recordings by the company.
Scholes, Percy A. THE PURITANS AND MUSIC
IN ENGLAND AND NEW ENGLAND. Lon-
don: Oxford University Press, 1934.
Schwartz, H. W. THE STORY OF MUSICAL
INSTRUMENTS. (From Shepherd's Pipes to
Symphony). Elkhart, Indiana: Pan-American
Band Instruments, 1938. An inexpensive source
book on the origin and method of playing
instruments.
SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY OF MUSIC ED-
UCATION MATERIALS. Chicago: Music Ed-
ucators National Conference, 1951.
Semb, Klara. DANCES OF NORWAY. New
York: Crown Publishers, 1951. Handbook of
authentic dances, costumes, and music of Nor-
way. This book is a part of a series of twenty
volumes, each of a different country.


Sheey, Emma D. THERE'S MUSIC IN CHIL-
DREN. New York: Henry Holt & Co., 1946.
A refreshing approach to music with small
children. Brisk style.
THE RESOURCEFUL TEACHER, Vol. VI., No.
1. New York: Silver Burdett Co., 1952. A bulle-
tin containing articles by authorities in the field
of music education.
Thompson, Carl and Nordholm, Harriet. KEYS
TO TEACHING ELEMENTARY SCHOOL
MUSIC. Minneapolis: Paul A. Schmitt Music
Co., 1949. A guide for classroom teachers, or-
ganized according to grade levels.
Thompson, Leila Fern. SELECTED LIST OF
LATIN AMERICAN SONG BOOKS AND
REFERENCES FOR GUIDANCE IN PLAN-
NING PROGRAMS OF MUSIC AND DANCE,
(6th edition). Washington: Music Division,
Pan-American Union, 1947.
TRAVELING THE CIRCUIT WITH PIANO
CLASSES. Chicago: Music Educators National
Conference, 1951.
USING AUDIO-VISUAL MATERIALS WITH
CHILDREN. (bulletin). Washington: Associa-
tion for Childhood Education for Help with
Selecting Visual-Audio Aids.
UTILIZATION OF TELEVISION IN MUSIC
EDUCATION. Chicago: Music Educators Na-
tional Conference, 1951.
Wright, Frances, et al. SONG SOURCE MA-
TERIAL FOR SOCIAL STUDIES UNITS.
New York: Bureau of Publications, Teacher's
College, Columbia University, 1946.


PERIODICALS


EDUCATIONAL MUSIC MAGAZINE. Chicago:
Educational Music Bureau, 30 East Adams St.
KEYBOARD, JR. and YOUNG KEYBOARD, JR.
New Haven, Conn.: Keyboard, Jr. Publishing
Co., 1346 Chapel St. For elementary pupils and
teachers.
JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN MUSIC. Chicago:
Music Educators National Conference, 64 East
Jackson Blvd. A quarterly publication chiefly


for the music specialist.
MUSIC EDUCATORS JOURNAL. Chicago:
Music Educators National Conference, 64 East
Jackson Blvd. Official publication of the na-
tion's largest and most influential professional
organization of music educators.
THE SCHOOL DIRECTOR. Tampa, Fla., P. O.
Box 5506. The official magazine of the Florida
Music Educators Association.















COMPANY, No.
& RPM


APPENDIX II
BIBLIOGRAPHY OF RECORDINGS
AUTHOR OR
NAME OF SERIES COMPOSER


RCA-Victor


78 RPM
E-71
E-72
E-73
E-74
E-75
E-76

E-77
E-78
E-79
E-80
E-81
E-82

E-83
E-84
E-85
E-86

E-87
E-88
E-89
E-90
E-91


45 RPM
WE-71
WE-72
WE-73
WE-74
WE-75
WE-76

WE-77
WE-78
WE-79
WE-80
WE-81
WE-82

WE-83
WE-84
WE-85
WE-86

WE-87
WE-88
WE-89
WE-90
WE-91


Boston: Ginn & Co.
78 RPM


Basic Record Library for
Elementary Schools (21 albums,
83 records, 370 compositions)
Rhythm Program

Primary grades-Vol. I
S-Vol. II
S-Vol. III
Upper grades -Vol. IV
-Vol. V
-Vol. VI
Listening Program
Primary grades-Vol. I
S-Vol. II
S-Vol. III
Upper grades -Vol. IV
-Vol. V
-Vol. VI
Singing Program
Primary grades-
Upper grades -Vol. IV
-Vol. V
-Vol. VI
Special Activities
Singing Games (Primary)
Christmas (Elementary)
Indian (Elementary)
Rhythm Band (Elementary)
Patriotic Songs of America
(Elementary)

Our Singing World Series
Album K (5 records)
for kdg. book
Album 1-A (4 records)
for first year book
Album 1-B (4 records)
for first year book
Album 2-A (4 records)
for singing On Our Way
Album 2-B (4 records)
for singing On Our Way


Pitts & Tipton


RCA Victor
Orchestra & soloist


Pitts, LillaBelle, et al.


ARTIST


_












COMPANY, No.
& RPM


NAME OF SERIES


Album 3-A (4 records)
for singing & rhyming
Album 3-B (4 records)
for singing & rhyming
Album 4 (5 records)
for singing Every Day
Album 5 (6 records)
for singing Together
Album 6 (6 records)
for singing in Harmony


C. C. Birchard &
Co. or RCA-Victor


78 RPM
E-94
E-95
E-96
E-97
E-98
E-99
E-100
E-101
E-102


45 RPM
WE-94
WE-95
WE-96
WE-97
WE-98
WE-99
WE-100
WE-101
WE-102


E-103 WE-103



Silver Burdett Co.


A Singing School Series


Our First Music
Our Songs (2nd Book)
Merry Music (3rd Book)
We Sing (4th Book)
Our Land of Song (5th Book)
Music Everywhere (6th Book)
Sing Out! (7th Book)
Let Music Ring (8th Book)
Happy Singing (Selections com-
piled from first six elementary
albums, Grades I-IV)
Music in the Air (compiled
from the elementary albums
-Grades I-VIII)
New Music Horizon Series


Dykema, Peter,
et al.


Members of Rob-
ert Shaw Chorale
with piano accom-
paniment


McConathy, Osburne
et al.


Album-Music for Early Child-
hood, Series I
MJV-76 Album 1 (For Experiences in
First Grade)
MJV-77 Album 2 (For Book 2)
MJV-78 Album 3 (For Book 3)
MJV-79 Album 4 (For Book 4)
MJV-80 Album 5 (For Book 5)
MJV-81 Album 6 (For Book 6)
Series II
MJV-132 Album 1 B (For Experiences in
First Grade)
MJV-133 Album 2 B (For Book 2)
MJV-134 Album 3 B (For Book 3)
MJV-135 Album 4 B (For Book 4)
MJV-136 Album 5 B (For Book 5)
MJV-137 Album 6 B (For Book 6)


APPENDIX II


AUTHOR OR
COMPOSER


ARTIST


78 RPM







MUSIC FOR FLORIDA CHILDREN


COMPANY, NO.
& RPM


NAME OF SERIES


AUTHOR OR
COMPOSER ARTIST


American Book Co.


78 RPM














(V)


American Singer Series


Bridgman, William
C. and Curtis,
Woodson


AS1 Album 1 (For Book 1)
6-10" recording
AS2 Album 2 (For Book 2)
4-10" recording
AS3 Album 3 (For Book 3)
4-10" recording
AS4 Album 4 (For Book 4)
5-10" recording
AS5 Album 5 (For Book 5)
5-10" recording
AS6 Album 6 (For Book 6)
6-10" recording
E-104 Instruments of the Orchestra
78 RPM (to be used with Instrument
Charts and Handbook, Phila-
delphia: J. W. Pepper & Son,
Inc., 1423 Vine St.)


Vox Productions,
Inc., 236 W. 55th
St., N. Y.
78 RPM
Vox 258
Vox 260
Vox 256
Vox 252
Vox 259
Vox 253
Vox 251
Sound Devices, Inc.
129 E. 124th St.
N. Y. 35
RPM 78 & 33%


American Book Co.
Decca Records,
Inc.
D-13044) 78 RPM
D-13046)


Vox Music Master Series
(Composer's lives and music)


Bach
Beethoven
Brahms
Chopin
Haydn
Mendelssohn
Mozart
Music Master Series
(one album for each composer's
life and music)
Chopin Mozart
Beethoven Mendelssohn
Tschaikowsky Schubert
Grieg Schumann
Bach
Brahms
Johann Strauss
Listen and Do Series


Vol. 1-Ginger & Josh
Vol. 2-The Handsome Scarecrow


4th, 5th and 6th
grade levels. Pro-
gram notes on re-
cordings.


Orchestra under
Sir Malcolm
Sargent


Soloists
and orchestra









APPENDIX II


COMPANY, NO.
& RPM


A-471
45 RPM

A-302
78 RPM
also 33%
DL 5083
A-113 78 RPM
also 33%
DL 5014
Silver Burdett Co.
78 RPM



Burns Record Co.
755 Chickadee
Lane


Stratford, Conn.

78 RPM

Non-breakable


Emory University
Valdosta, Ga.
P. O. Box 608
78 RPM


NAME OF SERIES


Songs of the South African Veld.

Vol. 1 (6-10" recordings)

Vol. II (4-10" recordings)
Vol. II


Vol. III (3-10" recordings)
Vol. III
Musical Sound Books For Young
Listeners. Series released 1953.



Folk and Square Dance Records


Directions included on
following:
Album A-8 Folk Dances
(4 records)
Album B-8 Folk Dances
(4 records)
Album C-6 Square Dances
(5 records)
Album D-5 Square Dances
(5 records)
Album E-8 Folk Dances
(4 records)
Album F-8 Folk Dances
(4 records)
No directions but properly
timed:
Album G-16 Folk Dances
(4 records)
Album H-16 Folk Dances
(4 records)
Album J-16 Folk Dances
(4 records)
Rainbow Rhythms


Series 1-18 rhythms
(3 recordings)
Series II-15 rhythms
(3 recordings)


AUTHOR OR
COMPOSER


J. Marais


ARTIST
--------
Marais & Bushveld
Band


Recorded material
to accompany
Music for Young
Listeners books.
Burns, Joseph &
Wheeler, Edith


~








MUSIC FOR FLORIDA CHILDREN


COMPANY, NO.
& RPM


NAME OF SERIES


Boston Music Co.
or
Children's Reading
Service
(Record Division)
1078 St. Johns PI.,
Brooklyn
78 RPM
Unbreakable

RCA Victor
78 RPM & 45 RPM


Childhood Rhythms (each se-
ries contains 3 recordings)
Series I-Primary
Series II-Primary
Series III-Elementary
Series IV-Elementary
Series V-Primary
Series VI-Elementary
(Singing Games)

Folk Dance Records
36 Single Recordings
Listed by titles in RCA Educa-
tional catalogue, p. 20-21


Ruth Evans










Michael Herman


Methodist Publish-
ing House,
810 Broadway,
Nashville, Tenn.
78 RPM


Follett Publishing
Company & Colum-
bia Records, Inc.
Unbreakable
78 RPM


World of Fun Series




cse bogar, Kaluclis, Hol-di-ri-di-a, and Seven Steps
Galway Pipers, Come Let Us Be Joyful, Danish Schollische & Ace of Diamonds
Captain Jinks & Irish Washerwoman
Pop Goes the Weasel, Camptown Races, Sicilian Circle & Red River Valley
Weaving, Troika, Spanish Circle, Chimes of Dunkirk
Trallen, LaRaspa, Green Sleeves, Trip to Helsinki
Little Brown Jug, Fireman's Dance, Put Your Little Foot
Seven Jumps, Crested Hen, Gustavs Skol, Korobuska
Black Nag, Circassian Circle (Good Humor)
Christ Church Bells & Cumberland Square Eight
New Castle, Spinning Waltz, Hopak, Road to the Isles
Ten Little Indians; Oats, Peas, Beans; Mulberry Bush & Rig-a-jig-jig
Alabama Gal, Sent My Brown Jug, Sandy Land, Turn the Glasses Over
Lili Marlene, Great Big House in New Orleans,
Waltz of the Bells, Ten Pretty Girls


Album I-(4 recordings, 30 songs) Albums I, II, III, & IV
Album II- 32 suitable for all
Album III- 26 elementary
Album IV- 30 grades
Album XI- 41 (1st and 2nd grades)
Album XII- 31 (3rd and 4th grades).
Album XIII- 24 (5th and 6th grades)
Album XIV- 24 (7th and 8th grades)
Album XX-Christmas Carols (5 recordings)


AUTHOR OR
COMPOSER


NAMEOOE ARRIST


ARTIST










APPENDIX II


COMPANY, No.
& RPM


AUTHOR O
NAME OF SERIES COMPOSE


93

R
R ARTIST


Album XXI-Patriotic Songs (5 recordings)
Album XXII-American Folksongs (5 recordings)
Album X-(4 recordings, 35 songs)-for kindergarten & primary
Album RA-1-In Joyous Song (Religious) (4 recordings, 24 songs)
Album XXIII-Rhythmic Activities


Early American Dances

101-A&B Plain Quadrille
102-A&B Standard Club Quadrille
103-A&B Hungarian Dance & Old South-
ern Schottische
107-A&B Heel & Toe Polka & Rye Waltz
110-A&B Bager Gavotte & Vasovienne
Waltz
111-A&B Tales from the Vienna Woods
& Blue Danube
112-A&B Black Cat Quadrille
113-A&B Hull's Victory & Lady Walpole's
Reel
114-A&B Portland's Fancy & Good Mixer
115-A&B Quadrille Melody & Hornpipe
116-A&B Newport Quadrille & Cub Bar-
ton Farrow
117-A&B Virginia Reel & Military
Schottische


Decca-78 RPM
A-90
A-91
A-92
A-93


Disc Recordings
(Folkways)78 RPM
601

33 -602

33 1-604
605
606

607


Revised by Mr. &
Mrs. Henry Ford

"


Symphony Series Decca Little
The String Family Symphony
The Woodwinds
The Brass
The Percussion


Songs to Grow On Sung by Peter
Seeger, Woodie,
Lullabies & Rounds Guthrie & others
(2-10" recordings)
Nursery at Work
(3-10" recordings)
School Days (3-10" recordings)
Nursery Day (3-10" recordings)
Funny Bone Alley
(3-10" recordings)
America's Favorite Songs
(3-10" recordings)
Cisco Huston Coubou Songs








MUSIC FOR FLORIDA CHILDREN


COMPANY, No.
& RPM


NAME OF SERIES


AUTHOR OR
COMPOSER ARTIST


Disc Recordings
78 RPM
131
132

142
161



New Records, Inc.


33% RPM-10"
NRLP-2001

NRLP-2002


NRLP-2004


NRLP-2005
NRLP-2006

NRLP-2007


NRLP-2013

NRLP-2014

NRLP-2015

Folkways Records
117 W. 46th St.
N. Y. 10, N. Y.


Ethnic Album-Folkways

Cuban Cult Music (3-10")
Folk Music of Central East-
USSR (3-10")
Folk Music of Haiti (4-10")
American Indian Songs &
Dances (6-10")
and others

Music in America Series


Catholic Mission Music in Cali-
fornia-1796
Gehot: String Quartet, D major,
op. 7, no. 6 and Moller: Quar-
tet in E flat
Leaumont: Duo concertante and
Taylor: Two Sonatas, cello &
Continue
Ballads in Colonial America
Reinagle: Sonata in E flat and
Franceschini: Trio Sonata
Early American Psalmody,
drawn in part from the Bay
Psalm Book, 1640
Peter: String Quintets, D and E
flat
Peter: String Quintets, A and B
flat
Peter: String Quintets, G and C

American Folk Music
(84 Selections in 3 albums)
Ballads
Social Music
Songs


Notes by Harold Courlander

Notes by Henry Couell
Notes by Harold Courlander

Notes by Charles Hefman


Edited by
Carleton
Sprague Smith,
et al.


Produced by Moses
Asch.
Notes by Harry
Smith


& RPM_




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs