STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
1 i TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA
t- 0 COLIN ENGLISH, Superintendent
Homemaking Education for
Adults and Out-of-School Youth
A Handbook for Teachers of a Continuing
Education Pi, .ram
Bulletin No. 43
/ STATE DEPARTMENT.OF EDUCATION
COLIN ENGLISH, Superintendent
This Bulletin was prepared by
HOME ECONOMICS SERVICE
STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
BOLETHA FROJEN, State Supervisor
REX TODD WITHERS, State Itinerant Teacher Trainer
EDITH M. DAVIS, County Coordinator Home Economics Education
SADIE M. BUTTS and MARGARET B. BUTTERFIELD,
County Supervisors Vocational Programs Home Economics Education
Table of Contents
FOREWORD ...... ................................................. 5
INTRODUCTION .................................................... 6
HOMEMAKING EDUCATION IN THE ADULT EDUCATION MOVEMENT ....... 9
Some Basic Assumptions............ ...................... 9
Major Purposes of Homemaking Education for Adults and Out-of-
School Youths .................. ...................... 9
FACTORS APPLICABLE TO ALL PROGRAMS ............................. 10
ORGANIZING CLASSES ................................................ 12
Outline of Procedures Used in Organizing Adult Classes........... 12
A SUMMARY OF HOMEMAKING COURSES IN FLORIDA. ................. 17
SUGGESTIVE PROCEDURES FOR PARTICULAR SITUATIONS ................ 22
P publicity ............ .. ............ ...... .......... 22
Illustrations of Devices Used for Particular Situations............. 23
Suggestions for the First Meeting ............................... 30
Suggestions for Maintaining Class Interest During the Course...... 32
M ethods of Instruction .. . ............ ....................... 33
Suggestions for the Last Meeting... . . .. .. . ...... . 34
EVALUATING RESULTS OF AN ADULT HOMEMAKING PROGRAM ......... 35
Teacher's Self-Evaluation Questions ...... . ................. 35
Evaluation of Results of Instruction .......... . ........ . .. 35
Some Standards for Judging the Efficiency of the Adult Home-
making Program ............................................. 36
Outcomes Showing Effectiveness of Courses ...................... 38
Florida Case Reports................................. ........... 38
THE ADULT EDUCATION MOVEMENT ................................ 40
Contribution Made by Vocational Education..................... 42
Trends.............. ....................... .......... 44
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS CONCERNING ADULT PROGRAM ............. 44
FORMS USED IN ADULT EDUCATION PROGRAM ....................... 48
ILLUSTRATION OF A LUNCHROOM SCORE CARD .......................... 55
ILLUSTRATION OF A COURSE IN REMODELING, RESTORING, AND
UPHOLSTERING FURNITURE ...................................... 58
Educators throughout the Aation are realizing that our programs of
public education have been too limited in scope. One of the most significant
trends in education at this time is that of extending our educational services
to include those below the age of six and those above the ages ordinarily
served by our regular high schools. There is no valid reason for denying
educational opportunities to large numbers of our citizens because they have
not been able to take advantage of regular school offerings at the usual age
level. As a matter of fact, even those who have progressed normally through
the public school program find continual need for additional education as
circumstances change and as new problems are encountered. An adequate
adult education program is one of the most urgent needs of Florida's edu-
It is logical that home-making education should assume large propor-
tions in a good program of adult education. Students of all ages have some
home responsibilities, but it is natural that these responsibilities take on
added importance for men and women who have the major responsibility
for maintaining happy, efficient, and attractive homes. War conditions have
increased the need for adult education in home making. It is more difficult
than formerly to secure efficient domestic help. There are shortages in home
equipment, materials, and food. Emergency problems in home decoration,
home repair, nutrition, buying, and budgeting increase the need for such an
educational program and should cause the men and women of our commu-
nities to be eager for this assistance.
Florida should undoubtedly provide additional funds in the near future
for an expanded program of adult education. Up to the present time it has
not seemed feasible to most communities to stretch our meager financial
resources for schools to include this additional area. Fortunately, it is pos-
sible to secure some assistance from the United States government for the
home-making phases of adult education. This fact, plus the importance of
home-making education, should cause our home economics teachers to be
pioneers in adult education.
This bulletin has been prepared under the supervision of the Home
Economics Section of the Division of Instruction of the Florida State De-
partment of Education. It is published and distributed in the hope that it
will encourage county boards of public instruction, school administrators,
and home economics teachers to expand the program of home-making
education in their communities. It is also intended as an aid to home eco-
nomics teachers in making such classes more effective.
State Superintendent of Public Instruction
FAMILY LIFE EDUCATION FOR ADULTS
AND OUT-OF-SCHOOL YOUTH
One of the major responsibilities of education is that of helping indi-
viduals of all ages to be more effective members of homes and of families.
That education should be continuous is an accepted part of the educational
thought of to-day. There should be no "ceiling" to one's educational
opportunity because of age. Education for adults and out-of-school youth
is now recognized as a fundamental part of the entire educational program.
At the present time there is a back-to-school movement throughout
the United States. In many communities the Home Economics trained per-
son is asked to participate in this educational program. This offers an un-
usual challenge as well as an excellent opportunity for extending family
life education into the homes and the community.
This bulletin containing information on the promotion, organization
and teaching of classes in homemaking for adults and out-of-school youth
is offered as a suggestion to administrators, supervisors, and teachers inter-
ested in such a program.
No attempt has been made to supply teaching content for courses or to
cover the entire field of adult education. It is the individual teacher's privi-
lege and obligation to adapt the instruction she offers to fit the needs of the
group she has in the course or for consultant services. The success of any
course will depend upon the teacher's knowledge of general and local con-
ditions and her ability to lead the group to recognize their problems and to
attempt to solve them.
Living-Room Areas in Homemaking Departments Provide for Home Recreation
'Courtesy of N. Y.A Homemaking Center, Camp Roosevelt, Ocala, Florida
!1 i ,
/^ l .t
'Cournter of Miu;i Beach High School, Miami, Floridaa
Courtesy of N.Y.A. Hrmemaking Center, Camp Roreo velt, Ocala, Flo/raa
Homemaking Education in the Adult
SOME BASIC ASSUMPTIONS
In developing a homemaking program for adults it is well to keep in
mind that this is only one type of program offering help with problems of
family living. The total homemaking program in the community is compre-
hensive and all efforts should be coordinated.
Some assumptions for the total unified program can be made. These are
equally applicable to the classes for adults and out-of-school youth as for
the in-school group. These assumptions, few but important, are built on the
use of individual needs as a basis for program building. They are:
i. Education for family living should be co-educational. Men and
boys are home members and also make contributions to the home.
2. In a good family life education program, family life itself provides
the situations and materials for study.
3. To be successful, a family life education program must be a cooper-
ative undertaking in which homes and schools together plan, carry
out plans, and evaluate results.
4. Education for home and family living means continuous learning
for which opportunity must be continuously provided.
i. Individual differences in personality development, in home back-
grounds, and in social experience, condition learning in a family
life program at every age level.
6. A good family life education program should be a community
MAJOR PURPOSES OF HOMEMAKING EDUCATION FOR
ADULTS AND OUT-OF-SCHOOL YOUTHS
The Major purposes of homemaking education for adults and out-of-
school youths are:
To help them develop a consciousness of their opportunities and re-
sponsibilities for home and family life and its improvement.
To help them meet intelligently everyday and the emergency prob-
lems of personal and community living which affect home and
family life in the present complex and changing social order.
To help them solve with increasing satisfaction new problems of home
and family life as they arise.
These major purposes may be accomplished by:
Stimulating a desire to provide a home environment in which all mem-
bers of the family will have opportunity for optimum development
and wholesome family relationships.
1 Adopted from The Joint Committee on Curriculum Aspects of Education for Home and
Family Living, Family Living and Our Schools. (New York: D. Appleton-Century Company, 1941),
Stimulating a desire to adjust modes of living in homes to changing
economic and social conditions and to improve these conditions as
they affect the home.
Stimulating adults as individuals to formulate for themselves a work-
able philosophy of personal and family life.
Stimulating adults to develop increased respect for and pride in home-
making as a profession.
Stimulating a desire to secure and use new information as it becomes
available in all phases of homemaking.
Planning solutions to problems confronting individuals in their per-
sonal, family, and community living through direct experiences
and by the weighing of values.
Developing ability in such manipulative and creative skills of home-
making as are in keeping with needs of individuals.
Developing appreciation of the spiritual and the aesthetic as well as
the practical values that are inherent in homemaking.1
Factors Applicable to all Programs
TEACHER OF ADULT CLASSES
The teacher of classes for adults and out-of-school youths should have
a rich background of practical experiences in homemaking activities and
in the actual management of a home; education on a college level of the
subject matter she is to teach; and a knowledge of adult psychology and a
sympathetic understanding of people.
SUGGESTED FACTORS TO ASSIST IN DETERMINING
HOME ECONOMICS PROGRAM
The type of program offered in a community will be determined by many
factors. Among these are:
Interests of those expecting to enroll.
Needs of homemakers.
Availability of assistance from other services offering aid to home-
Preparation, age, and qualifications of teacher and time she can devote
to this work.
Period of time to be covered by present program.
Instruction offered in the past.
1 Homemaking Education Program for Adults. Vocational Education Bulletin No. 2z, Office of
Education, United States Department of the Interior. 1938. Chapter I.
(Courtesy of Largo High School, argo, Florida)
The social, economic, and educational status of the groups.
Standards of home life in the community.
The type of information which the teacher of adult homemaking classes
would find helpful in planning her program is indicated by the Community
Survey developed by a group of Florida teachers in the summer of 1939 at
the Florida State College for Women, cooperatively with the State Depart-
ment of Education. This survey form can be obtained from the State Depart-
ment of Education, Tallahassee.
The information relating to the community can be secured by:
Visiting homes in the community.
Contacting and cooperating with agencies and organizations at work in
community, such as Farm Security Administration, Extension workers,
Parent-Teachers Associations, Women's Clubs, Service Clubs, Public Health
Officials, American Association of University Women, Church Organiza-
tions, and Chambers of Commerce.
Ascertaining occupations of majority of people in community.
Conversing with merchants, clerks, business men, and key persons in
Reading records and reports of successful and popular homemaking
classes that have functioned in the community, or other communities.
In interpreting the findings of the community survey, one should en-
deavor to determine: Why the situation exists; whether or not a better
practice is desirable or possible; if desirable and possible, how can the
changes be effected.
OUTLINE OF PROCEDURES USED IN ORGANIZING
The following outline of procedures may be used in the organization
of adult homemaking programs. It was developed in response to many re-
quests from teachers on how to begin an adult education program.
I. STUDY OF ADULT HOMEMAKING NEEDS IN THE COMMUNITY
A. Valuable information can be gained as the teacher visits the home
while she is supervising home projects. Some of the points to be observed
during home visitations are:
i. Size of family
z. Age range of family members
3. Housing of family
4. Economic status of the group
5. Health conditions
6. Nutritional state of the family
7. Clothing needs
8. Food preparation practices
9. Management of the daily work
io0. Relationship of various members of the family to one another
B. Use information about home conditions as gained from check sheets
or project records by high school girls in Home Economics classes
C. Get information about home conditions in the community from the
visiting nurse, truant officer, county superintendent, principal and other
teachers, or any other persons who may have reliable information.
D. Observe the practices of homemakers in the community
i. How they buy groceries
2z. Whether they make or buy ready-made clothes
3. Type and quality of clothes they buy
4. How they take advantage of community opportunities such as:
a. Public reading centers and libraries
b. Study groups, social clubs, Sunday school, missionary meet-
ings, et cetera
c. Provisions for recreational life
II. PROMOTIONAL WORK
A. Gain the superintendent's interest and cooperation.
i. Be sure that the day-school program is well organized and function-
ing before attempting classes for out-of-school groups.
z. Review the adult homemaking needs with the school adminis-
3. Outline desirable promotional work for the community and sug-
gest possible courses to be taught.
4. Ask for the cooperation of the school administrators and members
of the Board of Education.
5. Contact and get the cooperation of other key persons in the com-
B. Obtain the approval of the State Supervisor of Home Economics
Education to organize classes.
i. Summarize the adult homemaking needs of the community and sub-
mit a copy to the State Supervisor of Home Economics Education
through the office of the County Superintendent; acquaint the State
Department of the needs and assist in determining the budget for
vocational funds to supplement local funds for the proposed pro-
gram. This must be done the fiscal year prior to the year classes
are to be offered.
2.. Submit outline or outlines of proposed courses to the State Super-
visor of Home Economics Education for approval or revision, or
comments. This must be done far enough in advance of organizing
the classes to permit time of exchange of correspondence by mail
and time for supervisor's review of course.
3. Revise plans in light of supervisor's comments.
4. When course outlines are approved or revised in light of the com-
ments, consider this as a signal to "Go.'
C. Seek the interest of the adults of the community. A committee can
be appointed for promotional work. Every member should be well informed
regarding the proposed adult education program. It is important that all
promotional work be well planned. Information disseminated must be defi-
nite and appealing to people. Means of informing individuals in the com-
munity regarding homemaking include:
i. Articles for the local press
z. Spot announcements on the radio
3. Talks before community organizations
4. Announcements through school activities
5. "Flyers" sent to the homes of all school pupils
6. Contacts by key persons in the community with their personal or
7. Announcements placed on public bulletin boards at the library,
churches, clubs, and grocery stores
III. FIRST MEETING FOR THE PURPOSE OF ORGANIZATION
Select a date and a time of day for the first meeting that is convenient
for the majority of the prospective members. This information should be
well publicized far enough in advance of the meeting for prospective en-
rollees and interested persons to plan their work so they can attend.
A. Desirable procedure for the first meeting:
i. The teacher and the promotional committee should be ready to
greet people, to learn their names, and to see that individuals feel
2. It is necessary that the individuals in charge make this first organ-
ization meeting interesting and informational. Suggestive proce-
a. Provide means for stimulating interest in homemaking
courses. One of the best means is the arrangement of exhibits or
giving of demonstrations. These tend to stimulate homemakers
to think in terms of their needs and home problems and to decide
on what they want to study during the course. The exhibit should
represent more than one phase of the homemaking program. The
exhibit material should be attractively arranged and grouped
according to the phases of homemaking in which one wishes to
stimulate an interest. Questions and statements to arouse interest
should be printed on cardboard and attached to articles displayed
or preferably to have someone explain each exhibit.
b. A discussion may be given by the teacher on the importance
of and the need for new learning and/or for relearning to keep
abreast of newer developments and of factors that affect home-
making. Acquaint the group with the scope of the program for,
and the opportunity it affords homemakers and the courses avail-
c. When the teacher has succeeded in interesting prospective
members to enroll for the course, she should secure an expression
1I: g llli
(Courtesy of Pinellas County Adult Homemaking Program)
from the group as to courses they desire, the problems they may
especially wish discussed and some methods they like to follow.
They should be given time and opportunity to think this through.
(i) Registration sheets should be distributed to each interested
person. The form may be a brief registration blank. (One
teacher found it helpful to know the following facts: the
name, address, telephone number, occupation, number of
children, unit to be studied, phase of homemaking liked best,
previous attendance in adult classes and list of units studied.
Others believe that these may be secured better later. Too
much information at first meetings may discourage good
(z) A schedule of the time (day and hour) and place for each class
meeting should be made.
3. First Lesson of Any Unit-The teacher and students set up objec-
tives for the unit of work selected by the majority of the class. As
the objectives are set up by the class members they should be writ-
ten on the board in order that everyone has an opportunity to
study and revise the list as it is made. Objectives should be spe-
cific and attainable within the number of lessons taught.
Last Lesson in Red Cross Canteen Cookery Course
(Coarte ry of Pinel//la County Adult Homlmaking Program
a. The exhibit of illustrative material, which helped home-
makers to decide on their unit for study, is valuable for stimulating
individuals to formulate their objectives. It is necessary that suffi-
cient time be allowed for people to "browse around" and see and
discuss the material displayed. Opportunity should be given for
everyone to ask questions.
b. Information essential to the course such as supplies, source
materials, note pads and pencil, equipment (if clothing construc-
tion or handicraft or other), amount of fees, if any, certification
requirements, standards to be attained and maintained, should be
given before the close of the first lesson.
A Summary of Homemaking Courses in Florida
DESCRIPTION AND PROMOTIONAL MATERIALS
The following courses, together with their descriptions, have been taken
from promotional materials on programs for adults and out-of-school youth
in Florida centers.
FOODS, NUTRITION, AND SPECIAL OCCASIONS
Nutrition. -Includes essentials of an adequate diet, the food needs of
persons of different ages with special regard to the relation of such knowl-
edge to health, growth, and activity.
Home Cookery.-The purpose of this course is to give opportunity for the
preparation of foods commonly used in the family diet. It will include se-
lecting the foods for, and cooking and serving of breakfasts, luncheons,
dinners and suppers.
Menu Planning and Marketing. -Planning nutritious family meals with
special emphasis on how to buy foods to suit the individual needs of the
family group within the family income.
Cooking for Profit.-For those interested in learning to plan meals, cook,
and serve meals to the public; such as tearoom service, catering for parties,
(Courtesy of Largo High School, Largo, Florida)
Cookery for Simple Entertaining.-The purpose of this course is to give
opportunity for the preparation of simple refreshments suitable for informal
entertaining. The course will include preparing beverages, appetizers,
entrees, salads, sandwiches, desserts.
Table Service and Table Appointments.-The course presents the various
kinds and customs in table service and table appointments and the service
problems which arise in various kinds of service.
Special Occasions.-Includes party plans, games, decorations and making
favors. Planning and preparing food for parties and special occasions. A
practical course for those who like to have parties and refreshments that
RED CROSS COURSES
Nutrition.-The American Red Cross course as prescribed in the bulletin,
Food and Nutrition, ARC 72.5, January 1942., must be used unless a later re-
vision is made. This course is a prerequisite for the Canteen Course.
Canteen Course.-Available to those who are certificated in the Red Cross
Nutrition course and desire to prepare themselves for group feeding. The
bulletin, Suggestions on Feeding in a Disaster, ARC 994, February 1943, must
be used to qualify for Red Cross certification unless a later revision is made.
First Aid.-The course following the manual ARC First Aid Text Book-
Reprinted 1940, for Red Cross certification unless a later revision is made.
HOUSING AND THE HOME
Housing.-An analysis of type houses in order to help prospective home
owners with the problems faced in designing and equipping the price home
permissible. The following problems will be discussed: Causes and effects
of prevailing conditions; the selection of a favorable location; relation of
cost of plot to cost of home; relation of cost and carrying charges to income;
the minimum requirements for planning an efficient small house; the func-
tions, size, and orientation of rooms; a study of work areas.
Home Furnishing Problems.-A study of house planning, furnishing, and
equipment and care from the standpoint of modern materials and methods.
Lectures, laboratory work, and field trips will be included.
Furniture Reconditioning-Upholstering and Slip Covering.-A practical lab-
oratory course in "doing over" one's furniture according to its needs and
one's resources and ingenuity. This course is given in full detail on page oo.o
Home Landscaping.-The course will consist of planning the landscaping
of the home; the use of various types of plants around the home; the use
of architectural and garden features-rockeries, pools, trellises, et cetera.
Home Gardens.-A practical course in vegetable and flower gardening
based on family needs and use. It will include location; preparation of soil;
fertilization; the family vegetable food budget for the year; care and culti-
vation of gardens; canning, processing, and storage of garden products.
Consumer Education or Better Buying.-This course will include factors im-
portant to the homemaker as the family purchasing agent. A knowledge of
best "buys" for their purpose is gained through personal tests and experi-
ences which are provided in the class room. Consumers' standards for the
over-the-counter buyer are also considered and government rationing as it
Family Finance Planning.-In this course attention is given to financing
everyday needs: short-term credit; real estate or mortgage credit; sources
of both short and long-term credit and the special features of each; and cash
buying. Short-term credit includes charge accounts; installment contracts;
cash loans from banks, insurance companies, personal loan companies, and
production credit associations. Long-term or real estate credit includes loans
from individuals, commercial banks, insurance companies, and Federal
Household Engineering.-This course will include problems in care of the
house and its equipment. The operation, care and repair, and cost of various
mechanical devices in the household; selection and use and care of electrical
household equipment; ways of estimating annual cost, simple electrical and
plumbing repairs, are problems that will be discussed.
Household Employment.-This course is designed to help the general house-
hold workers-housekeepers, household assistants and companions em-
ployed in others' homes, to help them gain knowledge and skill in house-
hold tasks and pertinent responsibilities in order that they may be better
equipped for their wage earning occupation. To gain some experience in
successfully carrying through the routine of the job typical of the average
home in which they may be employed.
Bride's Class.-Suggested for those planning to marry or recently mar-
ried and expecting to make a business of homemaking. The objectives of
this course will be set up by the group after it is organized and will include
any homemaking problems of interest to enrollees.
Christmas Projects. -Preceding Christmas a series of lessons and individual
help will be given in making Christmas gifts, making Christmas wreaths
or sprays and other home decorations, planning entertainment, making fruit
cakes, marmalades, wrapping packages and making Christmas cards. It is
fun to make these with the group. Whether enrolled in the homemaking
classes or not, one may join the Christmas project class. An exhibit of in-
expensive and easy to make Christmas decorations, cards, et cetera, is ar-
ranged in advance of the course offering and people are invited to see them.
PERSONAL AND SOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS
Family Relationships.-The course offers a study of modern family life
giving special emphasis to the activities of the home as they relate to the
development of the family and its individual members.
Personality Development.-This course is designed for persons who are
interested in acquiring poise, ease, and naturalness in the presence of others.
A study of posture, voice, audience psychology, gestures, pantomime,
speech, correct English, and group conversation, contribute to developing
personality. A study of children's literature helps the mother in its choice
for developing her child's personality. Social and business etiquette will
Being a Hostess.-A course including special problems involved in enter-
taining and planning for special occasions. An understanding of human
relationships will be included in this course.
Etiquette and Hospitality.-The course is planned to include a study of
the fundamental character of hospitality and the responsibility of the host,
hostess, and guest. Such problems as planning social affairs, invitations,
acknowledgments, table arrangement, seating of guests, dress for various
occasions, and other questions with correct social forms will be included.
Personal or Group Counseling on Homemaking Problems.-Appointments can
be made with the instructors for assistance in any phase of homemaking.
For example: individual help will be given in planning family meals, on
sewing problems, on buying various commodities, on home decoration
problems, et cetera.
Child Care.-A study of what a prospective mother should know; bio-
logical development of the newborn; the physical care of the child such as
development of special organs and senses, feeding, sleeping, bathing, toilet-
ing, and other daily routine for the best development of the child. Public
and private channels of applied child health activities; protection of the
handicapped child. Courses with special emphasis in care of children in
emergency times will be offered.
Home Care of the Sick.-This course will include simple procedures in
home nursing of the sick, first aid, home remedies, prevention of illness and
a good daily routine of living.
Selection of Clothing and Household Textiles--To gain an understanding of
textile fabrics and their selection and uses; to select clothing and textiles
on the basis of the use and values; to make the wisest purchases.
Clothing Selection and Construction.-This course is designed to help women
make the best of their own appearance by developing good taste in dress.
Individual analysis of color and figure types is followed by specific sugges-
tions for becoming colors and designs for each type. The interpretation and
adjustment of commercial patterns will be included. Construction of new
garments or remodeling of outmoded or outgrown garments are problems
for application of instruction.
Tailoring.-Offers detailed study of selection of fabrics and pattern, con-
struction and fitting of tailored garments.
Clothing Reclamation, Including Redesigning, Redecorating, and Construction.-
This course furnishes the opportunity for individual study of the problems
connected with the restoration of unsatisfactory, outmoded, outgrown, or
discarded clothing to useful and artistic articles.
ART RELATED TO THE HOME
Personal Grooming and Costume Design.-This course will include a study
of personality, creative effects, and adaptive designing. Care of hair, skin,
nails, and feet will be studied and demonstrated.
Art in Daily Living.-This course offers art experience in home and dress;
through assembling and arranging the furniture and furnishings in a room;
selecting and discussing dresses and fabrics; developing appreciation of dec-
orative arts; as architecture, pictures, paintings, and music. Developing
enjoyment of leisure through modeling, carving, block printing, and dif-
Home Handicrafts-A course planned to meet the needs of those who are
interested in a simple study of the fundamental technique of home handi-
crafts. Problems in metal work, leather work, block printing, et cetera, will be
executed with inexpensive equipment. Particular emphasis is placed on the
use of native materials.
Various Learning Experiences in Home Economics
(Courtesy of Orl/ando Senior High School, Orlaido, Florida,
OUTLINES OF COURSES AVAILABLE UPON REQUEST
Nutrition.-This course of twenty hours was prepared by the course out-
line sub-committee of the State Advisory Committee on Nutrition of the
State Defense Council of Florida. Upon satisfactory completion of this
course certificates are issued by the State Advisory Committee. Requests
for the course outline are addressed to: Dr. Margaret R. Sandels, Chairman,
State Advisory Committee on Nutrition, Florida State College for Women,
An Elementary Course in Nutrition.-This course of four to six hours was
prepared by a committee at the Summer Workshop in Community Nutri-
tion, University of Chicago, 1942 (four members of the committee, "Grass
Roots Group,''" were from Florida). This course is designed for homemakers
who may not be interested or cannot spend much time in learning the simple
facts in nutrition. Pages of different color for each food stuff (by topics and
lessons) are used for the purpose of attracting the attention and the inter-
est of the homemaker. Copies of this course are available from the State
Department of Education, Home Economics Office, Tallahassee, Florida.
Care of Children in Wartime.-A course for adults and a course for adoles-
cents was developed by a committee of Florida home economics teachers in
a graduate course, "Care and Protection of Children in Combat Areas,"
offered during the Summer Session 1942 at Florida State College for Women
cooperatively with the State Department of Education. These courses are
available in mimeographed form from the State Department of Education,
Home Economics Office, Tallahassee, Florida.
Suggestive Procedures for Particular Situations
In planning effective publicity for organizing classes for adults and out-
of-school youth it is wise to consider the groups likely to be interested.
These groups include:
Persons sixteen years of age or over, including both men and women
who do not attend day-school. Fourteen years and over for out-of-
school youth in the part-time program.
Brides and brides-to-be
Prospective mothers and fathers, and young mothers and fathers
Mothers' clubs or other school group organization, as mothers of
nursery school children
Business women and men
Wives of men enrolled in agriculture or other classes for adults
Wives of men in industrial training
Local units of Parent-Teacher Associations
Wives of service men and ex-service men
Members of church organizations
Preliminary announcements for classes should be made far enough in
advance to permit individuals to make their plans to attend classes. These
announcements should be repeated later to remind people of opening dates.
Many different types of publicity have been used with varying degrees of
success. The method most successful in one community is not always possible
in another. The following list is a compilation of methods used in different
Formation of advisory committee of key persons interested in classes
for adult and out-of-school youth, and enlisting their aid in pub-
licizing classes and recruiting members.
Contacting community agencies and civic clubs and enlisting their
interest, cooperation, and support.
Contacting church organizations and enlisting their interest, coopera-
tion, and support. (This needs to be done carefully so as not to be
involved in local feuds.)
Talks outlining purposes and suggestive courses to be offered
Personal contacts by visits or telephone
Writing letters or cards to prospective members
Notices sent to parents by school children
Notices on school bulletin boards
Displaying attractive exhibits in local stores
Mailing a post card to prospective enrollees informing them of a class
Newspaper articles and/or notices in the local newspaper. First contact
the local paper through the school administrator's office or with
his or her approval to solicit their cooperation. Comply with their
special request for ways of preparing the publicity material and for
using the space they allow. They may wish to have you write the
publicity or they may prefer that you just give main facts and
they will style it to catch Mr. Public Reader. Include in the article
the five "W's"-'Who, What, Where, When, and Why." The first
paragraph must catch the interest of the reader if the remainder
of the article is expected to be read. Every article should be "a
story tersely told."
ILLUSTRATIONS OF DEVICES USED FOR
SUGGESTIVE NEWSPAPER PUBLICITY USED TO SECURE ENROLLMENT
No. i Caption.: "Civilians Mobilize for Nutrition on the Home Front"
Intelligent homemaking is as important to the defense of a nation as
intelligent workers in industry. The nation's slogan is: "Nutrition is the
first line of defense on the home front." Each individual is confronted daily
with a nutrition problem. He can meet it intelligently only as he knows
what is good nutrition and why.
Short unit courses of eight to twelve to twenty lessons of two hours
each in nutrition will be offered two to three times per week at the time and
place agreeable to the majority of prospective enrollees. A certificate may
be earned on completing the course. Come to the first meeting Tuesday,
January 5, to be held in the George Deen Vocational School, to enroll or
to get information about the courses to take to your friend, neighbor, and
These courses are sponsored by the county and state boards for vocational
Other important courses such as Wise Buying in Wartime, Family Ad-
justments in Wartime, Preparing and Packing Lunches for War Workers,
Use of Food Alternates, and others may help you. Mr. and Mrs. Homemaker,
to meet better your budget plans and yet satisfy the family members. In-
telligent homemaking does not just come to one by intuition, nor is it native
ability. It comes through training, experience, and an interest in and the will
to do. It is patriotic and good citizenship to be an intelligent, skillful, and
'Courtesy of N.Y.A. Homemaking Center, Camp Roosevelt, Ocala, Florida
No. 2 Caption: "Keep Well or Be Your Own Home Nurse"
The stress and strain of the demands made upon us due to war, makes it
more imperative that civilians maintain physical fitness. The shortage of
nurses and doctors make it even more imperative that family members care
for at home those chronically ill or those members not critically ill.
A course in Home Care of the Sick will be offered to those who wish to
enroll at a meeting called for Monday evening, January 4, at the Vocational
School at seven-thirty o'clock.
The course will be taught cooperatively by the county school nurse and
the home economics teacher. A vocational certificate will be granted on
successful completion of the course. This certificate does not entitle one to
a Red Cross certificate in this field, though it is possible to obtain the Red
Cross certificate as well if all Red Cross certification requirements are met.
COMBINATION LETTER AND QUESTIONNAIRE USED TO DISCOVER INDIVIDUAL
INTERESTS SENT TO HOMEMAKERS BY PUPILS IN SCHOOLS
From: County Board of Public Instruction Vocational Education
To: Mr. and Mrs. Homemaker
Subject: Adult Classes in Family Life Education
There is a great "Back-to-School Movement" throughout the United
States. Both women and men are enrolling in classes to study the problems
of family living together satisfactorily and to increase their personal effi-
ciency. Adult classes will be organized in your community through the
cooperation of the State Department of Education and the County Board
of Public Instruction. The classes may meet once or twice a week for a two-
hour period in the local school or in some place convenient and available
to the group. In order that the program may be planned to meet the interests
of the majority, you are asked to check the following statements as directed:
If you wish to attend a class in one or more of the phases of homemaking
listed below, indicate your first choice by placing a "i" on the line at the
left of the subject, indicate your second choice by placing a "2-" on the line
at the left of the subject and, so on for as many as interest you.
Planning nutritious, low-cost, family meals.
Selecting becoming clothing and constructing clothing, alter-
ing or remodeling garments.
Problems of child care and guidance.
Problems of adolescent children and their parents.
Correct social usage and techniques of entertaining.
Christmas activities: Gifts, decorations for the home, gift
wrapping, holiday cookery.
Problems of household management, making wise use of time,
energy, money, and other resources.
Suggest any others in which you would be interested.
Home Care of the Sick
(Courtesy of N.Y.A. Homemaking Center, Camp Roosevelt, Ocala, Florida)
Name Name other persons you think
would be interested in these
LETTER USED TO SECURE ENROLLMENT IN HOMEMAKING
Dear Mrs. Homemaker:
Do you begin the day with the worry of preparing a school lunch for
John or his father working in War Industry? Do you want to learn how to
"pack a lunch that has a punch" and that has variety? The County Board
of Public Instruction has the privilege of securing a well-qualified teacher
for homemaking classes for adults and out-of-school youth to help you
with this and other perplexing problems. She would like to plan the course
to fit your needs.
Kindly check the attached list so she may know the subjects which
interest you most. [Attach a list of courses which will be offered.]
Come to the organization class to be held Monday at three o'clock at
George Deen Vocational School.
Experimental Nutrition Studies Using Chickens)
(Courtesy of St. Petersburg Senior High School, St. Petersburg, Florida,
(mCourtey of N.Y.A. Homemaking Centir, Camp Roosreve/t, Ocala, Florida-
COMBINATION QUESTIONNAIRE AND LETTER SENT BY PUPILS TO PARENTS
Dear Mrs. Homemaker:
Everybody is going to school these days-even mothers and grand-
mothers. There are so many new and better ways of doing things now; and
we all want to keep up with the times.
Would you like to join our class in discussing some of the many, many
problems of the home for which we can share experiences and/or learn better
ways of attaining them? Your experience would be a valuable contribution
to the group.
Please check the subjects you are most interested in and return the cir-
cular by Mary when she comes to school tomorrow. [List the homemaking
courses to be offered.]
BETTY WHITE, Teacher of Homemaking
EXAMPLE OF LETTER PERTAINING TO PLANNED SPENDING
Dear Mrs. Homemaker:
Are opportunities for family development in any way connected with
the kind of money management used by the family?
Do your yearnings ever exceed your earnings?
Have you ever said, "I don't see where the money goes"?
When you are taking a vacation trip in your car, you secure a road map
to determine how you wish to go. Do you think a "map" telling how you
want to go with your income would help you to get more of the opportu-
nities in life?
If you do, you will be interested in attending a class in Planned Spend-
ing which will meet at George Deen Vocational School, beginning Janu-
ary 5, at four o'clock.
This class will meet once or twice a week according to the wishes of the
majority. There is no admission charge. The only cost is what you may
spend for materials or supplies if you choose to use supplies in the learn-
Home Economics Teacher
LETTER USED FOR HOME FURNISHING COURSE
Dear Patrons of George Deen Vocational School:
We are starting some homemakers' classes at the school next Tuesday,
January 5, at 4:00 P.M.
We are going to study about our homes and the things we can do to make
them even more attractive and comfortable. We shall study color combina-
tions and designs for the various home furnishing needs of class members.
There will be samples of homemade rugs and curtains which are easy to
make; there will be demonstrations on repairing springs and making slip
covers for chairs. There is no registration fee. The classes will meet once
or twice a week according to the wishes of the members of the group. You
and your friends are invited to attend the first meeting then decide whether
or not you wish to continue.
Instructor in Home Economics
LETTER ANNOUNCING NUTRITION CLASS
Dear Parents and Friends of George Deen Vocational School:
Is it true that some people get better food for their money than others?
Are you selecting the foods which will maintain best the health of
Do you know that different types of people require different amounts
of food? Do you know how to buy food?
These and similar problems will be discussed in a Nutrition and Market-
ing class at the home economics department of the school beginning Tues-
day, January 5, at four o'clock.
There is no registration fee. The class will meet once or twice a week.
You and your friends are invited to attend the first meeting. If desired, we
can have a responsible person there to care for the small children you can-
not leave at home while attending the class.
Home Economics Teacher
(Courte.iy of N.Y.A. Homem/aking Center, Camlp Roosevelt, Ocala, Florida-
LETTERS USED FOR ORGANIZING CHILD DEVELOPMENT CLASS
Dear Patrons of George Deen Vocational School:
Are you ever "stumped" by the questions your children ask-about
religion, about sex-in fact, about life? Or even such everyday questions as:
Should a child have an allowance? If so, what should he be expected
to do with it?
How far can he choose his own clothes, movies, companions?
How much orderliness can we reasonably expect of children?
Is any method of control better than a "good old-fashioned spanking"?
Such questions as these will be considered in a series of discussions at
the school on Tuesday evening, January 5, at the Home Economics Depart-
ment of the School, beginning seven-thirty o'clock.
Wouldn't you like to join the group?
Feel free to bring a friend or neighbor. They need not have children in
the school to belong to the class. Any interested adult is welcome. If de-
sired, a responsible person will be there to care for small children you can-
not leave at home.
Most sincerely yours,
Home Economics Teacher
ANNOUNCEMENT OF SERIES OF LESSONS ON SLIP COVERS
AND RECOVERING OF CHAIRS
Have you been wishing that one of your chairs had a slip cover? Do
you have a chair that needs recovering?
Have you a chair with sagging springs or cushions with broken springs?
A series of lessons in the Making of Slip Covers and Recovering of Chairs
will begin at the Community Hall, Tuesday afternoon, January 5, at two
There is no registration fee. You and your friends are invited to attend.
A responsible person will be there to take care of small children.
LETTERS USED TO AROUSE INTEREST IN ADULT CLASSES
This is about the time of the year we get that feeling of wanting to turn
our homes, ourselves, and everything else upside down and really "do"
something. Maybe you're tired of eating cold roast for the fourth time
left over from Sunday and would like to have somebody help you decide
on another way to serve it. Perhaps you're secretly planning your new
spring outfit, but can't decide whether you'll break loose and go patriotic
with a navy and red outfit or stick to the old stand-by-black, or make
over last year's, and you would like someone to help you make up your
Who knows, you may have ambitions about new slip covers or cur-
tains or a dressing table, but not enough nerve!
Maybe it's you, yourself, you want to "do over." You could improve
the confidence you have in yourself if you were quite sure of the best and
easiest way of doing things.
No doubt there is something you'd like to learn more about that might
be considered as a topic for discussion in the Short Course to be held in the
Home Economics Department of the George Deen Vocational School. The
School is planning a class for homemakers. Pick up your troubles and meet
with us Tuesday at 3:30 P.M., January 5, in the Home Economics room. The
subject matter will be determined by your problems. This is one of those
vocational classes you've heard about so there'll be no fees.
If you can't come Tuesday but would like to enroll later, don't fail to
come to the second meeting. You may contact someone who attended the
first meeting or if you see me I shall be glad to talk it over with you.
SUGGESTIONS FOR THE FIRST MEETING
The first meeting may be an organization meeting in the form of an
open house. At this meeting the teacher gives information about the courses
available and ascertains the interest of the group. State, County and/or
local school officials are usually asked to participate. Exhibits may be dis-
played and refreshments may be served. No lesson is taught but certain in-
formation has been obtained to use as a foundation for planning future
Some teachers report that they are more successful if something is taught
at the very first meeting. A topic of wide appeal is chosen so that the first
meeting will be interesting and helpful to all. This is especially worth
considering in wartime when time is an important factor in everyone's life.
All teachers agree that it is better to:
Choose a meeting place convenient to all. Not all adults feel at
home in schools so it may be desirable to select some other meeting
place. The meeting place should be attractive and practical for the
work planned. Posters, exhibits, pictures and books can be used to
make it a more interesting place. They serve a dual purpose by also
indicating the scope of the homemaking program.
Use interest starters in the form of good illustrative materials
(posters, cartoons, timely, and seasonal displays).
Be friendly and cordial and interested. Try to introduce members
to each other. Encourage informal discussion to find out what the
prospective members are doing and interested in doing. A combina-
tion enrollment-questionnaire at the first meeting will give the teacher
some cue as to the needs and interest of the group. Have prospective
class members check the questionnaire indicating needs and interest.
Plan to teach only that which you know. Lack of confidence is
as contagious as self-confidence.
Give prospective class members a list of courses available.
Decide on course, time, and place of meeting to suit the majority
of the group interested in enrolling.
Make class members feel that the meeting has been worth-while
by presenting an idea which they can apply at once in their home
life. Give at least one concrete suggestion or perhaps a mimeographed
page with some definite information.
FORM USED TO ENROLL CLASS MEMBERS AT FIRST MEETING
Name of person registering for course
Address of registrant
List several points you hope to receive help on in this course:
In the following list please check those in which you feel you have been
most successful. Do you have some suggestions which you think our class
would like? Example: Set of low cost dishes.
Buying Food Preparation
SUGGESTIONS FOR MAINTAINING CLASS INTEREST
DURING THE COURSE
Begin and close meetings on time.
Plan short units of work to meet the needs and interests of the group.
Be so well prepared for each meeting that the group will be challenged
to put into practice the information gained.
Try to exemplify what you teach.
Arrange a bulletin board for members of the class to post clippings, pic-
tures, and articles. Have something interesting written on the blackboard,
or if no board then provide some other interest center.
You may wish to have a question period at the beginning of each class.
The question might be written and handed in or dropped in a "question box"
at the end of the preceding meeting.
Report worthwhile publicity to newspaper. A definite publicity program
should be planned. Pictures of interesting activities portray the work in
an appealing manner.
Make home visits on invitation subtly suggested by you.
Have social affairs occasionally to add pep to the program.
Enlist the cooperation of the Public Library to provide, display, and
suggest books, bulletins, and magazines of interest to homemakers.
Participate in local fairs by contributing worthwhile exhibits of class
Have "Visitors' Meeting" at which time other interested persons may
visit the class and see the group actually at work.
Have a "Visitors' Meeting" when each member of the class brings a
friend who might be a prospective member for another class. Interest might
be keen if a chart is kept showing who has brought the most visitors. Recog-
nition might be given to one who brings visitors who become new members
of a class.
Build up and make available for use of class members, files of up-to-date
illustrative materials for class use. Members can add to and assist in main-
tenance of these.
Promote, and if possible maintain, a lending library of up-to-date books
and magazines interesting to homemakers.
Give personal consultation to class members on individual problems.
Display, where possible, finished work of class members to stimulate and
Take advantage of seasonal celebrations to add impetus to class interest.
(Example: Christmas cards, decorations, gifts, toys, wrappings, foods, enter-
tainments, place cards, and favors all offer unlimited opportunities for
strengthening class interest and add zest to whatever course is being offered.)
Conduct animal experiments to show the effect of diet on health and
Plan timely and pertinent activities. Whenever possible let the adult
participate in some form of activity. As, for example, assisting you in
demonstrations or actually to demonstrate something herself which she
knows how to do well. Have members of the class prepare posters or leaflets
on a single idea. Use these in teaching. One teacher reports a most inter-
esting marketing lesson taught by a series of posters.
The clothing class may give a fashion show if this is desired.
Call, telephone, or send postals to absent members. Write something
like this: "We missed you at the class meeting last week but hope it will
be possible for you to attend the meeting Thursday night at 8:oo P.M. The
lesson this week will be on stain removal." Be careful not to convey the
idea of "checking up" but rather build the feeling of personal interest in
a class member who was absent.
Culminate the end of the year with some social function of the type
enjoyed by members enrolled. Let this become a tradition of the class so
that they can look forward to it and plan for it each year. Some centers plan
an annual picnic at the beach, other centers report parties, dinners, or
luncheons of various sorts.
Cards signed by the teacher and other school officials given at the clos-
ing function to those successfully completing a course or courses add inter-
est. Special recognition should be given to those who get a state certificate.
METHODS OF INSTRUCTION
Those enrolled in homemaking classes for adults and out-of-school
youth come because they are interested. They are anxious to learn about
some specific phase of homemaking. If this interest lags or class members
feel that their time is ill spent the attendance falls off. Therefore, teachers
need to choose the methods of instruction which will attain best the ob-
jectives set up for and with the group enrolled. No one method can be
used exclusively. A variety of methods suited to the lesson and for variety
produces better results.
Successful teachers report that most adults do not enjoy just being
"talked at," but prefer to learn by doing, and by making a personal contri-
bution to the group. Adults like to help carry out class activities and to
Good illustrative material is needed by the teacher and is welcomed by
the class members. Many of these can be obtained in quantity for class dis-
tribution. Teachers report adults enjoy receiving materials to take home.
Teachers in day-school programs report successful adult classes taught
cooperatively with other teachers such as agricultural teachers.
The Individual Problem Method.-Here each class member may work on
something of particular interest and help to him or her. This calls for a
teacher with a rich background of knowledge and a wide variety of ex-
The Discussion Method.-This when based on problems in family living,
on movies, on reading materials from books and magazines, on book re-
views, on radio programs, on current happenings, gives the students a chance
to express themselves. Variations of reading and reports followed by class
discussion; observation and reports followed by class discussion; and ques-
tion and discussion methods stimulate participation of all class members.
The Laboratory Method.-Practical activities carried on by class members
individually or in groups are used by many teachers when groups want to
"learn by doing."
The Demonstration Method.-This may be given by the teacher, a single
class member, a group of class members, or an outstanding person in that
field. It should be accompanied by full explanation of each thing done
during the demonstration.
Field Trips.-These need to be planned for carefully in advance and evalu-
ated afterwards if they are to make a real contribution.
Lecture.-This is successful only with certain groups but can be used for
variation. Interesting outside speakers should be specialists in some field
to talk to the group about the particular subject under discussion as the need
arises in the course.
Moving Pictures.-These are excellent if they are well chosen.
Radio Listening.-Such a program followed by discussion can be used.
A Panel.-This is interesting if it is well done.
Skits and Dramatications.-These may be the original work of the class or
some member and often lend interest and enthusiasm to classes.
Home Projects.-These are more successful if they come about naturally,
arising from a real need, and the teacher is invited to come for a visit to assist
with plans and project.
Individual Conferences.-These provide the teacher an opportunity to give
personal help on some problem.
Committee Work.-When properly supervised this develops leadership in
Reports of Homework.-These stimulate interest if the reports are concise
and well given. Members are usually interested in others' experiences.
Forums.-This is one of the newer developments in adult education.
Representative of the topics presented in the order of their popularity
are: effect of movies and radios on our children; problems of adolescence;
why some marriages fail; how safe is the food you buy; making better par-
ents; infectious diseases of pre-school children; science exposes the quack;
and better housing for better citizenship.
SUGGESTIONS FOR THE LAST MEETING
This is the meeting that furnishes the final carry-over to the next unit
of work. The last meeting should be inspiring and should lead the group
to look forward to a continuation of meetings. It should be intensely inter-
It may be built around principles developed in other lessons, or it may
be a summary of the entire course with suggestions and comments on prac-
tical application in the home.
The class members should be encouraged to suggest problems that they
would like to consider following the course now being completed.
Plans should be made at this meeting for the time of meeting for the
next course. The class may wish to appoint a committee to publicize the
Teachers report that last meetings are made more inspirational by an
evalu ation of the course by the members and suggestions by them for its
improvement. Evaluation of students might be done by means of a written
test if the teacher thinks this is wise; or a more practical type of evaluation is
perhaps the planning and preparation of a meal; oral or written reports.
Students might suggest the type of evaluation they would prefer. They
might do the evaluating. Be sure to give some form of summarization or eval-
uation so that members leave the class with the feeling that they have ac-
complished something definite and worthwhile. Exhibit finished work where
possible. Presentation in a dignified way of the certificates for the course
completed will make the certificate carry more significance. Presentation of
"Credit of Achievement" (carrying with it one high school credit) should
be by county superintendent or some other school official.
Evaluating Results of an Adult Homemaking
TEACHER'S SELF-EVALUATION QUESTIONS
i. Did the comments of the women indicate that they obtained what
they wanted from the course?
2.. Have the comments of outsiders indicated that the course was suc-
3. Did the members continue to come and bring some new recruits as
the course progressed?
4. Did the women really use at home the material discussed in class?
What is the evidence?
5. Has there been any desirable change in attitude of the members due
to this course?
6. Did the course reach the people who needed it?
7. Did the course serve an educational purpose rather than just furnish
8. Did the women express a desire for further work either in this or
other problems or subjects?
9. Were the goals selected for the course accomplished?
io. Was there a community follow-up, or did interest stop with self and
ii. Was there a good effect on the day-school program?
12.. Were there favorable comments from other members of their families?
EVALUATION OF RESULTS OF INSTRUCTION
Satisfactory evaluation methods for adult programs are yet in their
infancy. Much needs to be done. Although no adequate methods of evalua-
tion of results have been developed, some localities are making a start by
keeping similar records to the following as some basis for judging results:
Increase in membership as class continues
Number who drop out
Regularity of attendance
Percent with perfect attendance
Personal requests of class members for conferences with director
Amount and kind of class participation
Testimony of class members, or members of their families
Requests for additional courses
Definite changes in attitudes, behaviors, and practices on part of class
Increased interest in welfare of others shown by activities in the com-
Increased community and school administrators' support of the program
SOME STANDARDS FOR JUDGING THE EFFICIENCY OF
THE ADULT HOMEMAKING PROGRAM
By a balanced program is meant one which offers a sufficient variety of
unit courses in homemaking subjects and will give to the women enrolled
immediate help on the problems of homemaking with which they are fre-
quently confronted. These courses should be of such nature as to permit
ADEQUATE HOUSING FACILITIES
A place of meeting so located as to accommodate the greatest number
of students for whose need the course is organized.
A well-lighted, well-heated, and well-ventilated room for each class
with sufficient equipment to permit satisfactory work.
Adequate janitorial service.
A local person, one trained in Home Economics, who supervises the
Organization Methods of teaching
Equipment and supplies Results
Content of courses Standards
Qualified teacher, one who-
Has had professional or trade training in the subject she is employed
Has had practical experience.
Has taken, or is willing to take, a course in special methods for
teaching classes for adults.
Efficient teaching, consisting in-
Keeping pupils busy on worthwhile problems with every member
of class working at optimum speed; giving necessary instruction at a time
when it can be put into practice best.
Making intelligent use of illustrative material and other teaching
Providing adequate supply of materials to make subject matter more
easily understood; to show various applications of a principle or practice;
to save time and to make an appeal to student interest.
Employing class, group, and individual instruction wisely.
Creating and maintaining interest.
Having teacher guide and direct students to assume full responsi-
bility for their own work, and aid them in developing initiative in both
thinking and doing.
Checking on standards of work and achievement.
REGULARITY OF ATTENDANCE
An average attendance of above seventy-five percent should be main-
tained throughout the course.
INTEREST OF MEMBERS OF CLASS
Questions or problems brought to class for solution
Desire to enroll in other courses
As indicated by:
Attitude of community
Improvement of standards of workmanship and accomplishment
Evidence of carry-over of subject matter into the home
Evidence that members of class make practical application in every-
day home life of the things learned in class
COURSE OF SUITABLE LENGTH
To satisfy local conditions by:
The interest of the class
Amount of previous experience of group
Weather conditions (for example, condition of roads in rural com-
Available funds, etc.
COOPERATION WITH OTHER AGENCIES
Real cooperation recognizes and takes advantage of the fact that other
organizations can make contributions which are of benefit to classes for
STIMULATIVES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF WORK
Regular class work
Exhibits of finished work
Classes open to visitors
Making appeal through one or more special features
Letters, cards, news items, posters
Opportunities for teachers to visit other classes
AN EFFICIENT SYSTEM OF RECORDS
Intelligent records concerning:
Equipment and supplies
Work accomplished and problems anticipated
Progress and evaluation
Suggestions and plans for future use
FAVORABLE ATTITUDE OF COMMUNITY TOWARD WORK
This is shown by reaction of newspapers, by cooperation of organizations
for promotion of the program, attitude of community leaders toward further
development of work, and the interest of class members manifested by
attendance and increased enrollment.
OUTCOMES SHOWING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF SOME
OF THE COURSES HELD
Members of classes have asked for other classes to be organized.
Community clubs, welfare organizations, and individuals have asked
Study groups have been formed so that they might continue studying.
"Cooking Clubs" have been organized.
Canteen Course graduates prepare Sunday night suppers for soldiers.
Nutrition study groups are being held by a neighborhood group.
The grocerymen, so that they can assist with food selection, are asking
for posters showing adequate foods.
There has been a definite increase of sales of the protective foods.
Members of classes have put into practice what they have learned in
these classes. There is a change in the family's food habits.
Men have begun asking if they might attend classes.
Reporters from newspapers often call for reports of activities of classes.
Graduates of classes cooperate in any community project related to class
work; as, Nutrition Conferences, exhibits, et cetera.
The younger members of class take over the management of the house-
hold for a certain length of time.
FLORIDA CASE REPORTS INDICATING SOME
OUTCOMES OF ADULT CLASSES
(Taken from Reports of Teachers)
"I had not realized how eager adults are to receive instruction that
children have to be persuaded to take. There is certainly unlimited gratifi-
cation when husbands thank you for helping their wives; when the class
members themselves say to you that heretofore they thought that balanc-
ing a day's meals belonged to another class of people, but now they see
where they also can do it. One class member is making out weekly market
lists and menus to fit her family's needs. A middle-aged woman who lives
alone said of herself, 'I didn't realize how easy it is for a person who eats
alone to leave out essential foods.' "
"Maybe you also will enjoy knowing that one of my young wives has
organized a cooking club for the wives of the floor workers of Kress' Store.
They meet every Saturday night, plan a balanced day's diet, and cook the
main dish. This they take home with them to make Sunday's work lighter.
You see, their husbands work Saturday night and so they are free at that
"Mrs. Smith's children want to keep a chart to see if they eat the essen-
tial foods each day. They also help count calories. One child made a sand-
(Courtesy of N.Y.A. Homemaking Center, Camp Roosevelt, Ocala, Florida)
which of original composition the other day. He met his daddy with this
remark, 'Daddy, you have a 700 calorie sandwich for lunch.' So you see,
the circle grows. One community club has asked if I could come to them
"One mother who said she had always been an out-of-door person, who
did not like the job of feeding a family was having fun buying for the first
time in her life.'
"After having worked with the chicken experiment and seeing the re-
sults of the value of milk in the diet many of the mothers say that they
had been convinced that milk was a MUST in the diet, and they planned to
see to it that the children in the family get their quart of milk."
"Our three cages of chickens have made such an impression that they
have been invited to spend the day in the library, science department, front
hall, and in some English classes in our school. This exhibit really got the
student body and the faculty discussing the value of an adequate diet. One
member of the faculty said that she could have read numbers of books and
listened to many persons talk but nothing could have convinced her so
thoroughly that food made a difference as did this experiment."
"Many of our faculty members have asked for 'the Yardstick of Good
Nutrition.' I found later that they were spending several home room periods
discussing adequate foods with their pupils."
(Courtesy of N.Y.A. Homemaking Center, Camp Roosevelt, Ocala, Florida)
"I wish that you might have been with me last night. I attended an
'open house' at one of the Grammar Schools. I was impressed with the
'signs of results' of Nutrition classes for teachers held in the community.
The teachers who had had the course had done an excellent job of teaching
these boys and girls the simple facts of Nutrition. In one room the chicken
experiment was set up; in another, picnic plates had colored foods cut from
a magazine and pasted on them to represent a day's balanced diet. It was
most gratifying to see such evident results of our labor!"
The Adult Education Movement
Interest in adults and their education is shared by many agencies of
which the school is but one. When the American Association for Adult
Education was organized in 192.6 there were more than four hundred organiz-
ations of national scope and national importance dealing with the instruc-
tional and recreational problems of adults. 1
1 Handbook of Adult Education in the United States. New York, American Association for
Adult Education, 1934.
Homemaking is an example of a field needing the coordination of efforts
of these various agencies. Opportunities for direct instruction of adults in
various phases of homemaking are offered by schools, home extension ser-
vices, parent-teacher associations, some corporations, and certain govern-
mental organizations. Many other agencies contribute to education for
homemaking and efforts should be continued to coordinate these offerings
so that the greatest value to the adult will result.
As a means of clarifying the scope of the adult education programs the
field may be divided into five areas corresponding roughly to the areas of
everyday concern. These are:
Civic education, dealing with responsibilities and problems of citi-
Occupational education, assisting participants to choose occupations,
and secure further training.
Family and parental education.
Cultural education, dealing with avocational and aesthetic interests.
Remedial education, providing information usually learned during
Homemaking education cuts across these areas in varying degrees.
With the extension of education into adulthood, public school systems
should assume responsibility for leadership in this newer field, which in-
cludes homemaking education.
In order that this responsibility may be adequately carried out it is im-
A survey or study be made of the homes and community and their
needs and facilities. This will assist in seeing the total situation. Then
ascertain the needs of small groups and individuals.
A tentative educational program be set up to meet the needs in-
dicated by the findings from the surveys.
Only teachers who are adequately prepared to guide adults be
Appropriate publicity be carried on to arouse interest in the adult
program, and that adequate housing for classes and necessary funds
for administering the program be secured.
Programs for adults be carefully supervised and evaluated to in-
sure constant adjustment and revision of courses to meet most effec-
tively the needs of individuals and groups. Homemaking education
for adults dare not be static!
Teachers be supplied with necessary references, illustrative mate-
rial and equipment.
The efforts of numerous agencies offering education for adults in
the field of homemaking be integrated and coordinated. It has been
said: "A Council, or some similar agency, is the only apparent means
of giving local direction to rapidly expanding programs of adult edu-
2 Homnemaking Education Program for Adults. Vocational Education Bulletin, No. 2., Office
of Education, U. S. Department of Interior, 1938.
cation in terms of community needs rather than in terms of organiza-
The program be evaluated in terms of evidences of progress ob-
served in class members or in community.
CONTRIBUTION MADE BY VOCATIONAL EDUCATION
TO ADULT EDUCATION
The vocational education program in home economics is making a val-
uable contribution to the total adult program through its homemaking
classes for adults and out-of-school youth.
The National Acts for Vocational Education definitely recognized home-
making as a vocation for which, as for other vocations, instruction and
training might be systematically developed in the public schools.
The Smith-Hughes Bill, which became an act in 1917, and the George-
Reed Bill which became an act in I92-9, made available Federal funds to
promote and extend Vocational Education in Home Economics.
Successive acts have been passed by Congress for the further develop-
ment of vocational education. The last of these was the George-Deen Act,
replacing the George-Reed and then the George-Ellzey Acts, in 1937, author-
izing an appropriation of $4,000,000 for Home Economics Education in the
nation, an amount equal to that for Agriculture and for Trade and Indus-
The Federal money appropriated for this work is provided upon condi-
tion that it be matched by an equal amount expended for the same purpose
by the State, the local community, or both.
As in other fields of vocational education certain conditions are stipu-
lated for Home Economics Education. Vocational schools, departments,
and classes in home economics must: (i) be under public supervision or
control; (2) have as their controlling purpose to fit for useful employment;
(3) be of less than college grade; (4) be organized to meet the homemaking
needs of persons over fourteen years of age for day and part-time programs,
or sixteen years for classes for adults.
In order to accomplish the purpose for the Federal act, different types
of schools and classes in vocational education in home economics have
been set up.
Day-School Classes.-This type of education is designed to reach
the girls still in school. Since this education is to be adapted to girls
over fourteen years of age, these classes are generally organized in the
upper grades of the Junior High School or in the first year of Senior
High School. Vocational courses in home economics in high school
are examples of this type. Boys may be enrolled also.
Part-time Schools or Classes.-These are intended to reach girls and
women either in the wage-earning field or at home, who cannot attend
school five days of the week.
3 Handbook of Adult Education. New York: American Association for Adult Education. 1936.
There are three kinds of part-time classes in home economics that may
be organized under the provisions of the Federal acts:
In the first of these, the entire time is given to home economics
subjects and the Course of Study is usually outlined in a series of
short units or lessons or individual instruction. Such a course is
adapted best to girls from sixteen to eighteen years of age or above.
In the second type of home economics part-time programs, fifty
per cent or more, but not all of the time, is given to home economics
subjects, the remainder of the time being devoted to such subjects as
will promote the civic and vocational intelligence of members of the
The third type of part-time program is that often found in the
general continuation school for young trade and industrial workers.
In the general continuation school, home economics becomes a service
subject to the wage-earning interests of the girls, dealing with their
immediate food, clothing, housing, spending, and recreation needs as
Evening Schools and Classes.-The "evening" school or class is de-
signed to reach the adult homemaker sixteen years of age or over, to
enable her to enlarge her efficiency in that vocation. These classes,
although known as "evening" classes, may be held in the daytime
or evening, according to the convenience of the members of the classes.
A national program in parent education has developed in recent years.
The vocational education program in home economics is contributing to
this program through adult classes for homemakers.
Table I indicates the total enrollment throughout these United States in
Federally aided programs of home economics education by type of school
or class for 1939-40.
Table I.-Enrollment in Federally Aided Programs of Home Economics by Type of School
or Class, 1938-39 and 1939-40.4
Type of School or Class 1939-40 1938-39 Increase
All types . . . . . . . . .... 818,766 741,503 77,263
Adults . . . . . . . . . 2.45,850 236,034 9,816
Part-time . . . . . . . . 72-,790 65,592. 7,198
Day ........... . . . . .. oo0,I26 439,877 60,2.49
Table II.-Number of Centers Having a Home Economics Education Program for Adults,
by Regions, and Enrollment in These Centers, Year Ended June 30, 1940.
Region Number of Centers Enrollment
North Atlantic ... . . . . . . 367 33,938
Southern .. . . . . . . . . . ... 1,857 88,8o6
Central . . . . . . . . . . . 999 80,052.
Pacific . . . . . . . . . . .. 373 38,550
District of Columbia, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico . 101 4,504
Digest of Annual Reports of State Boards for Vocational Education to the U. S. Office of Education,
Vocational Division, Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1940. Page 44.
HOMEMAKING EDUCATION FOR ADULTS MAY BE PROVIDED
Ways in which homemaking education for adults may be provided are:
Through an arrangement whereby the regular high school home
economics teacher assumes responsibility for teaching one or more
classes in home economics for adults for which she may receive special
compensation per hours of teaching or employed on a ten, eleven, or
twelve month's basis.
Through special teachers employed in given communities to teach
homemaking education for adults only. A special teacher may be
employed on a part-time or full-time basis; she may work under the
direction of the local home economics supervisor or other arrange-
ments agreed upon by the State Supervisor of Home Economics Edu-
cation and the County Superintendent of Public Instruction.
Through a combination teacher-supervisor who is employed on a
state, county, or local basis to help initiate and develop homemaking
education for adults, relating this program to the high school program
and to educational programs of other agencies and organizations in
the state, county, or local district.
Adult education is becoming increasingly a part of the whole school
program. Homemakers in rural areas are having more opportunity for or-
ganized class instruction through the community programs in family life
education which are sponsored by vocational education.
The motivation of the work for adult women usually found in the even-
ing classes is being intensified greatly as they come with definite and specific
problems pressing for solution.
Skills are seen as a means of attaining goals of homemaking, not making
them the center of a program. Part-time instruction in homemaking is
being considered an asset to girls in their wage-earning pursuits, as it con-
tributes to health, personal appearance, wise expenditure of income, and
guidance into pursuits growing out of household activities.
There is an increased recognition of men and boys as important family
members. Classes for and including them are growing in number and fre-
quency especially courses in nutrition, consumer buying, and furniture
Public forums are growing in popularity. Many are forerunners of com-
Questions and Answers Concerning Adult Program
Question i.-Who in Florida may teach classes in home economics for
adult and out-of-school youth?
Answer.-Persons meeting the qualifications set up in the Florida State
Plan for Vocational Education, pages 48 and 49, as follows:
"Hold a four-year degree in home economics from an institution
approved by the State Board for Vocational Education for the train-
ing of teachers in vocational home economics.
Education, including professional and technical training.
The teacher of adult classes shall have sufficient professional and
technical training to organize and present subject matter which will
meet the needs of the members of the class. She shall have a minimum
of two years of college work in the field of home economics to teach
courses in home economics subject matter fields.
She shall, at the discretion of the State Supervisor of Home Eco-
nomics Education, receive professional and technical training in short
teacher training courses approved by the State Supervisor of Home
Economics Education and/or receive such training in summer school.
A teacher who is selected to teach evening school classes for
adults in some related field as home nursing and art related to the
home, or other approved courses, shall have had at least two years
of technical and professional training in that field and in addition to
that she shall have completed satisfactorily not less than thirty-six
clock hours of approved teacher-training work under a qualified and
She shall be approved by the State Supervisor of Home Economics
Education on recommendation of local administrators and shall be
certificated by the State Supervisor of Home Economics Education.
Approved teacher-trainer work may be accumulative and lead to high
certification in each of the subject matter fields.
Experience, including homemaking and teaching.
She shall have had at least two years' experience in homemaking
in the areas in which she is to teach and/or household service to recog-
nize their important problems and know how to deal with them. She
shall have had at least one year of successful teaching experience.
General, including personal fitness.
She shall be mature enough in judgment to gain the confidence of
those who may be interested in courses for adults.
She shall be understanding and sympathetic in her relationships
with members of the class, and resourceful in adapting herself to
situations which may arise in the class."
Question 2.-How are classes organized?
Answer.-An application for program is made to the County Board of
Public Instruction. The County Superintendent acts on the application in
the usual routine procedure in inaugurating an educational program. If re-
imbursement on the salary of the teacher is anticipated, application for
the program, with a description of its need, nature, and scope is sent to the
State Board for Vocational Education. The State Department and the county
board cooperatively arrange for the program.
Question 3.-What is the procedure in inaugurating classes for adults and
Answer.-Through the office of the county superintendent write to the
State Supervisor of Home Economics Education and:
A. Request that courses may be organized.
B. Send an outline or outlines of the proposed course or courses
for the Supervisor's approval or revision.
C. After the courses have been finally approved the work of pro-
motion and organization may begin.
Question 4.-Who provides plant and equipment?
Answer.-The local community. It is recommended that maintenance be
provided by the County Board of Public Instruction. If not provided by the
county, it shall be provided by the group that sponsors the program.
Question 5.-Who may enroll?
Answer.-For part-time program, youth of fourteen to eighteen years of
age not enrolled in the regular day-school program. For "evening school"
program anyone sixteen years old or over-no upper age limit.
Question 6.-How many are needed for a class?
Answer.-An average attendance of fifteen is necessary for a class in home
economics to be reimbursed by State and Federal Funds for Vocational
Question 7.-On what basis is an adult program most successfully or-
Answer.-The short unit courses have proven the most successful. The
"units" may be independent or organized on a progressive plan. Single
meetings or "lectures" are not reimburseable.
Question 8.-How many lessons are required for a course?
Answer.-From six to eighteen are recommended, depending on the
length of time the classes meet and the phase of home economics studied.
Question 9.-How long should the meetings or class periods be?
Answer.-From one to two hours, depending on the wishes of the group,
the teacher, and type of unit presented.
Question zo.-How often should classes meet?
Answer.-Once or more times a week. According to agreement reached
by teacher and students.
Question u.-How is reimbursement made?
Answer.-Reimbursement on a percentage basis, scaled according to the
agreement between the State Department of Education and the County
Superintendent of Public Instruction, is made to the county for the salary
of the teacher from State and Federal funds for vocational education through
the office of the county superintendent. Compensation to the teacher is on
the basis of hours of instruction. From one to two dollars per hour is the
prevailing rate in Florida depending on qualification, training, and experi-
ence of the teacher.
Question 12.-What are the necessary reports and records to send to the
Answer.- i. FORM H.E. 3-Registration Report of Vocational Programs
for Out-of-School Groups. These reports are made out in triplicate at the
end of the second meeting. One copy is mailed immediately to the State
Supervisor of Home Economics Education, State Department of Education,
one to the County Superintendent, and one copy is retained by the teacher.
2. FORM H.E. 4-Class Report of Vocational Program for Out-of-School
Groups. This report is to be made out for the entire time of the course
which may be a month or more depending on the organization of the classes.
One copy is mailed to the State Supervisor of Home Economics Education
and one sent to the County Superintendent at the end of the month or course
and one copy is retained for the local files-teacher or local director.
3. FORM H.E. 2--Salary Vouchers for Teachers in Vocational Program.
These are completed and signed by the teacher on payment and sent to the
County Superintendent in triplicate at the end of each quarter. The County
Superintendent attaches them to the Requisition for Reimbursement, FORM
H.E. No. io.
4. Certificates of Achievement.
a. H.E. FORM 5-A "unit" credit card is given each class member
enrolled who has completed the unit course and satisfactorily met the
standards for certification.
b. FORM H.E. 6-A "Certificate of Achievement" is given each
class member who has met the requirements of six unit courses in
homemaking education. When the enrollee has satisfactorily met the
minimum requirement of one hundred and twenty clock hours in
courses of instruction in the various areas of homemaking, the
holder is entitled to one high school credit in home economics.
These areas and courses should be equivalent to the home economics
course required of girls in Florida for graduation from high school.
...*" COUNTY BOARD OF PUBLIC EDUCATION
Home Economics Education.
CERTIFICATE FOR A UNIT COURSE IN
VOCATIONAL EDUCATION FOR ADULTS AND OUT OF SCHOOL
This is to certify that................ ................. ............. ...........................
has met the requirements of a ..................... hour course in ...................
............................................................ sponsored by the County, State, and U. S.
Offices of Education.
Date .......... ..... ... .............................. Teacher.
County Supt., Local Director, or Supervisor
Issued by State Department of Education.
NOTE: NOT Valid for Teaching.
H. E. Form 5.
STANDARDS FOR CERTIFICATION:
1. Completed Prescribed Course
2. Attended at least 2/3 meetings making up lessons missed
3. Quality of work met satisfaction of teacher
4. Student evidenced improved ability in phase of homemaking repre-
sented on face of certificate
5. Groomed appropriately
6. Student exemplified characteristics:
Note: Six course certificates entitles bearer to a State Certificate of
UNIT COURSE CERTIFICATE
gftwifeflii'!aV 1"VAJ~I V-"Vl Ii V
STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
HOME ECONOMICS EDUCATION
CERTIFICATE OF ACHIEVEMENT IN VOCATIONAL PROGRAMS FOR ADULTS
AND OUT OF SCHOOL YOUTH
This is to Certify that_
has met the requirements of Six Unit Courses in Homemaking Education sponsored by the County,
State, and United States Offices of Education.
State Superintendent of Public Instruction and Executive
Officer of the State Board for Vocational Education.
State Supervisor Home Economics Education.
County Superintendent of Public Instruction.
Local Director or Supervisor Home Economics Education
"As is the home so are community and the nation."
This Certificate Does Not Entitle Holder to Teach in Public School
CERTIFICATE OF ACHIEVEMENT
Form H. E. 6
Form H. E. 3. STATE OF FLORIDA Date Ree'd in Sup'v. Off.
Department of Public Instruction
HOME ECONOMICS EDUCATION
REGISTRATION REPORT OF VOCATIONAL PROGRAMS FOR
OUT OF SCHOOL GROUPS
County ............................... ... .. City ......................... W white ..... .. ... Colored ...
Subject of Course ... ...... --------. ..- - -- .....
Number of meetings contemplated .. Number of meetings per week ............ Days.................
Date of first meeting. ..... ... --.... -..... Time Initial Registration ...........
Place where class will meet ..... ------- -.- ... ........... Time --------
Teacher's Signature ........ ---- -- --.- ..- Approved by .---.--.. ------------ .
A address ....... ......... ............. T itle ....... ......................... ....................
1.. ... --. ...... - -- --- ............. 16. ... ..... .. ...........................
3. ...................... ..... 1 .......
4. ... .......... ..... .. ... ... ......... 19. ..... .. ................ .. . .
5. ... . ................... .... ... .. ... ..... 20. ..... ........ ...... ... .....
7 ..---.--... ------------- 22.. .. .. ---- .......-
S. . 24 ....... ........... ... ... ..
10. --------- ----................25.................... ....... .................... ..... .. .
11. . -- ------...... .... ........... .. 26.
12. -----........... 27.
13. 28 .........
14. .. ........ ................... 29.. ....... ............ .................... ..... ..
15. ...----- .. .......... ...... ... 30 ......................... .................
NOTE TO TEACHER: Make this report in triplicate at the end of the second meeting. Send original with persor i the
State Supervisor of Home Economics Education, Tallahassee, Florida, one copy to the County Superintendent of or
local director of the vocation program in Home Economics, and keep one copy for your files.
An Outline of Proposed Course Approved by the State Supervisor of Home
Economics Education or Local Director of Vocational
Program in Home Economics
STATE OF FLORIDA
Date Re'id in Sup'v. Off.
DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
HOME ECONOMICS EDUCATION
CLASS REPORT OF VOCATIONAL PROGRAM OF OUT OF SCHOOL GROUPS*
County ... . C
Subject of Course .....
Period covered by report: From
Meetings per Course
orm Retrat3n. Blnk
It. L. Form 3.
Evening Class ( ) Part-time Class ( )
Place of Meeting
HIours per Course
I i I "
I I U
* l F
I I I I . .
F I I
IF I I
F I !
Days H. .. Hours ....
I t t I I I I
F F l l i I
F I [ .F I I I
I F I I I
r F F
F F F
F I I
I I I I F I I
I I I I
I I I I
F FI I I I
S I I r I I I I
To niind ii in ,.~ to, i c i i
Form H. E. 4.
A Descriptive Report of the Course in Terms of Accomplishments
for the Period Covered by This Report
H.E. 2-OM-62 STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
HOME ECONOMICS EDUCATION
SALARY VOUCHERS FOR TEACHERS IN VOCATIONAL PROGRAMS
............................................... ........................... ... Florida
I hereby certify that I have received from the Board of Public Instruction of. ..........................................................................
County the sum of *$....................... ........................... for services rendered as teacher during the month or months of
.................................................................................... 194......, and that the total amount received and services rendered, as
indicated below, is correct.
Signed : .......... ..............................................................................
TEACHER'S SCHEDULE FOR THE PERIOD VOUCHER COVERS
SAME or SCHOOL OR CENTER DAY0 VTG. OR 1cOuRs OR S ECTS TU0-GHT P0 .O P."R 0 Nr0IT
To -E TEAchE: These vouchers are to be out in Quadruplicate at the close of each quarter (September 30, December 31, March 31, and
June 30, for the months taught during each quarter) and Bent to the County Superintendent of Public Instruction.
To -RA CouOTr SeEcarEs-AosrES or PMBLIC ItNraUeorN: Forward three vouchers for each teacher with your quarterly reimbursement blanks,
retaining the fourth one for your file. Do not require teachers to make out salary vouchers except at the clo of each quarter.
This figure must be the exact salary receved for the period represented by the voucher. No erasure or change n figure is .accepted.
t If atery coven Only part O one month give exact date Included in that month.
I Give s-T schedule for entire day if reporting a day school program.
a This meary voucher is 'used for ll type proraml. 'Unit" refers to cleanm for out of school groups which may be of shorter or longer duration than
ILLUSTRATION OF A LUNCHROOM SCORE CARD
PREPARED BY MRS. CHRISTINE TULL, Consultant
SCHOOL LUNCH PROGRAM
Board of Education, Pinellas County, Florida
University of Chicago, Community Nutrition Workshop
Room Screened ........... . . . . . .. 100oo
General condition of room:
a. Room well ventilated . . . . . . . . 50 ..........
b. Tables, walls, windows, and floor clean . . . . 50 ...... .......
a. Washed in hot suds and scalded . . . . . . 60 .......
b. Kept in enclosed cupboard . . . . . . . 40 ..................
Clean tea tow els daily . . . . . . . . 60 .....................
Employees' physical examinations annually . . . 50 ..................
M ilk . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . ..100 -
Pasteurized . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5
Hot Dish (other than meat)-Soup, cocoa, or vegetable other than
potato . . . . . . . ... . .. .... ...... ...o
M eat- M eat servings optional . . . . . . . . 50 ....................
(This includes meat sandwiches.)
Raw fruit or salad made of fruit or vegetables . . . . 100
Sandwiches-Using a variety of fillings, such as vegetable, egg,
cheese, peanut butter, nuts, fruit, and combinations of meat
and vegetables or fish and vegetables . . . . . .. 75
Simple Dessert-Custard, gelatin, simple puddings, ice cream, plain
cake, cookies, canned or cooked fruit . . . . . 2.5 ........................
W hole-wheat or rye bread daily . . . . . . . . 40 ..............
N o candy . . . . . . . . . . . . . 00...........
No chili, wieners, pickles, doughnuts, frosted rolls, or soft drinks,
no packaged foods such as potato chips and pretzels . . 150
ATTRACTIVENESS OF ROOM
Walls and ceiling attractively painted .. . . . 5 ........
Tables attractively painted or covered . . . . . . 5
Floors in good condition . . . . . . . . . 2
W windows curtained . . . . . . . . . 2.0
Additional features (growing plants, cut flowers, etc.) . . . 15
Attractive arrangement of lunch counter ... . . . 2.-5 ...
Travs clean, in good condition and suitable to their purpose. . ......
Napkins used by all . . . . . . . . . . 15
Food prepared and served in an appetizing form .. . . 40 ........
Variety and good combinations in menu . . . . 100 ........
Orderly appearance of kitchen and lunchroom . . . 2.5
HEALTH PRACTICES IN LUNCH ROOM
Hands washed . . . . . . . . 35
Time allowed for eating (at least twenty minutes) . . . 40 ..
Children seated at table or desk while eating until finished . 25
Supervision of food selection . . . . . . . . o50
At least fifty percent of children drinking milk . . . .. 65
On part of children and lunchroom managers . . . 75 ...........
A bulletin, Home Economics Books and Other Source Materials, can be ob-
tained upon request from the State Department of Education, Home Eco-
nomics Section, Tallahassee, Florida. Part IV of this bulletin suggests books
and materials useful for adult classes.
Each adult course requires different materials so no attempt has been
made to list an extensive bibliography.
A list of the publications of the Bureau of Home Economics can be ob-
tained from the U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C.
An annotated list of "Recent Publications on Vocational Education in
Wartime" can be obtained from the Federal Security Agency, U. S. Office
of Education, Vocational Division, Washington, D.C.
A bibliography for adult nutrition classes can be obtained upon request
to the Federal Security Administration, Office of Defense Health and Wel-
fare Services, The Nutrition Division, Washington, D.C.
Illustration of a Course
REMODELING, RESTORING, AND UPHOLSTERING FURNITURE
FIFTEEN TWO-HOUR LESSONS
By HESTER G. PARKER, Instructor
ADULT HOMEMAKING EDUCATION PROGRAM
DADE COUNTY BOARD OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION
(Photography courtesy of Technical High School, Miami, Florida)
Due to all efforts being turned toward war production it is now neces-
sary that people save and not discard their outmoded and worn furniture.
It is our aim:
i. To teach and create a better understanding of home improvement
by studying the selection of furniture.
2.. To recognize how old pieces of furniture may be renewed.
3. To provide an opportunity for the amateur to be able to remodel
and restore outmoded and outworn furniture.
4. To provide an opportunity for the amateur to learn all methods
5. To develop skills in renewing, remodeling, and upholstering fur-
6. To provide an opportunity for the amateur to perfect the job of
upholstery so as to lead to possible employment.
Each student must actually restore, remodel, and upholster three pieces
of furniture, or two pieces of furniture and one large cushion during the
2. Outline of course
3. Discussion of individual problems
4. Demonstration of tools and equipment and their uses
TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT
3 pairs Trestles-Length of top, 30 inches; width of top 6 to 8 inches;
height, 2.8 inches; saw horse type except that the tops are wider
For successful work in upholstery, the first requisite is familiarity with the necessary tools
and equipment. Following is a list of desirable tools and equipment.
HICKORY WOODEN MALLET PLIERS
WISS SHEARS, BENT TRIMMERS CLAW FMOR
Tools for Upholstering
and are provided with a stuffed roll around the outer edges to pre-
vent work from slipping and protect the polished surfaces.
i Machine-heavy duty
i Tread and welt foot attachment
i Button machine with attachments
i Cutting table that will accommodate 50o-inch materials. (A large cut-
ting space can be provided by improvising table using saw horses
and long boards.)
2o Webbing stretchers, Ys-inch stock. Finished size should be 4 x 7 inches
with six heavy brads spaced into one end and heads clipped off and
other end padded so as not to mar furniture.
60 Needles-2.0 curved needles iy, inch to 10 inch in size; zo straight
needles pointed at both ends, 6 inch, 8-inch, and 12. inch.
0.o Regulators io inches in size
3 dozen Skewer pins 3 inches long
6 pairs Heavy Duty Shears for cutting twine'and coarse fabrics
6 Utility knives
2o Ripping or wrecker tools
zo Tape measures
i box Soft chalk
i box Glazed chalk
How to select, how to buy, and where to buy-
Muslin-white or unbleached, 36 to 40 inches wide
Cambric-black preferred. Standard width 24 to 26 inches
Tapestries-All modern weaves with firm background are
Webbing-31/ inches to 4 inches wide
Burlap-io0 oz. for common use
Stuffings-curled hair, moss, tow, down, cotton felt, wadding
Sewing Twines-Heavy spring twine, jute, flax twine
Utility use for tacking fabrics, 2--, 3-, 4-, 5-, io-, and i2--oz.
Webbing tacks-i2.-, 14-oz.
Gimp tacks-2-zY, 3-oz.
Ornamental tacks-assorted colors and sizes-just as job would
Trestle with padded roll to protect all
finished wood onl furniture to be up-
Class bring piece of furniture for upholstering, and necessary tools,
materials, and equipment for re-upholstering. Pad seat on wood base.
A. SELECTION OF FURNITURE
3. Beauty and character
4. Textile coverings
i. Utility.-Families being so very practical nowadays and in order to
meet their needs, convert furniture into its proper use. Space, scale, and
strong construction are the important factors.
2. Comfort.-The first thought should be given to the individual needs.
Choice of standard measurements is the safest policy in selection.
3. Beauty and Character.-Distinction comes through the ability of the
individual to be able to select the proper design, colors, and materials
which really express the personality of the owner.
4. Textile Coverings.-Covering materials should suit the scheme in char-
acter, color, and texture. Durability is very important, and texture is one
of the first considerations.
B. PAD SEAT ON A WOOD BASE
Suitable Pieces of Furniture:
i. Dining room chairs
Tools and Equipment:
3. Trimming knife
i. Muslin 4. Stuffing
2. Cotton 5. Muslin gimp
3. Cover 6. Gimp tacks
i. Remove all lumps by picking stuffing.
2_. Place stuffing on seat and tack in place.
3. Center musling to center of seat and tack from front to back and
proceed to each side. Work the muslin a little at a time to the
I. Place a thin layer of wadding over muslin.
2.. Center covering and proceed as in muslin cover.
3. Stretch tight and tack-trim close to tacked edge.
2 This is termed simple upholstery and teaches the process of handling materials.
Use muslin cover for temporary covering so that stuffing may be drawn firm, and when
attaching outer cover there will be no strain.
i. Always match gimp to cover color, start at back and tack with
gimp tacks or ornamental tacks; miter corners.
2.. Join gimp at the corner where a tack will cover beginning and
end of work.
Assignment.-Pupils bring to class chair for repair and upholstery.
Details of Making a Pad Seat Details of Making a Stool on a
on a Wood Base Wood Base with Roll Edge
Completed Antique Chair Under Construction, Wood Box Base
Pad Seat Construction with Roll Edge and Springs Tied
RE-UPHOLSTERING LOOSE CUSHION CHAIR4
I. Need of only minor repairs, as re-webbing.
z. Work consists of just new cover.
3. Stripped to frame and built over.
Minor Repairs: Re-webbing. Tools and Materials: Hammer, ripping tool, stretcher, curved
needle, sewing twine, tacks, webbing, and cambric.
I. Use ripping tool and hammer, remove old bottom from frame,
be sure the frame is firm, if not, renail to strengthen foundation.
2.. Remove old broken twine on old springs, and replace with new
twine, examine the slip tie that is used, and duplicate this simple pro-
cedure in needed places.
3. Place center strand of webbing, tack front first and use webbing
stretcher, puch nails through webbing and pull down to desired taut-
ness and tack. Proceed in this manner in straight rows until all webbing
4. Weave center piece in and out, push down springs and bring to
proper position, and tack. Proceed in same manner for replacement of
5. Line up all spring bottom coils. Use curved needle, sewing about
four stitches for each coil. Knot last stitch and proceed until repair job
6. Cut a piece of black cambric proper size to cover the frame and slip
tacks in place. Allow material to completely cover ends of webbing.
Assignment.--Class bring pieces of furniture, a chair, davenport, neces-
sary tools, materials, varnish remover, wax, stain, and sand paper.
RECOVERING CUSHION CHAIR5
Recovering.-Tools, ripping tool, hammer.
Materials.-Outside covering, wadding, cambric, welt cord, or braid
trim, sewing twine.
I. Strip old cover from frame.
2. Use ripping tool and run tool along the rows of tacks. Grasp
ripping tool firmly.
3. Be careful not to destroy or damage old pieces of material or scar
polished wood surfaces.
4 General type of work has three classes:
5 When a new cover is to be put on, choice of material or change of style in trimmings re-
sults in a gratifying improvement.
Outside Covering Removed from
Finished Chair Where Stlec
Has Been Changed
Completed Chairs and Modern Corner Couch. New Covers, Styling, Buttons, and
Retinished Legs of Furniture
k P---, .,
4. Refinishing legs of furniture: Remove old finish with varnish re-
mover. Apply several coats, let it stand, and then remove with old
burlap. Wipe off thoroughly with turpentine.
Re-stain, using Dupont Penetrating Stain: i coat. Let stain dry and
use fine sandpaper to rub down. Wax with Johnson's Liquid Wax and
LOOSE CUSHION CHAIR-LAYOUT PLAN
Cutting Materials.-Use pieces from dismantling and place all pieces to
the best advantage on material and cut the right way of fabric.
Bill of Material
Size in Inches
Pieces Parts I idths Lengths
I Seat . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2. 2.4
2. Cushion Tops . . . . . . . . . .. 2.0 2.2
Inside Back . . . . . . . . . 40 30
1 O outside Back . . . . . . . . 32. 2.8
2. Inside Arms . . . . . . . . : 30 2.6
2. Outside Arms. . . . . . . . . 30 15
2. A rm Panels . . . . . . . . . . 8 18
Front Border . . . . . . . . 2.0 8
Cushion Border. . . . . . . . . 84 4
I Skirt (if needed) . . . . . . . . 2.40 8
5o-inch material requires 176 inches, or 4 yards, 32. inches.
36-inch material requires 2.52. inches, or 7 yards.
Measure each required piece at widest and longest dimension and cut at an advantage
on materials. (Use of graph paper for demonstration is very good.)
Assignment.-Class to bring in materials for outside covering.
Making Outside Covering.-(Machine sewing of covering) Demonstration
of the machine and attachments.
a. All seams must be 12 inch from edge of goods and use a medium
b. Hold materials firm so as not to gather under machine while being
z. Tools and Equipment
a. Sewing machine and attachments
b. Materials: Cover, thread, welt cord
3. Sewing Plain Material
a. Use thread to match cover
b. Stitch straight and even seams-very important
Suggestion for Graph Lay-Out Plan on 36- and 5o-Inch Material Using Form Lesson Plan V.
36-Inch Material 5o-Inch Material
Seat (4) Seat (4)
Band (6) Band (6)
Welt (5) Welt (5)
Back (i) Back (i)-Inside
Back (2)-Lining Back (i)-Outside
Arms (7)-Inside Arms (7)-Inside
Arms (7)-Outside Arms (7)-Outside
4. Sewing Pattern Material
Always match pattern material absolutely for good workmanship.
5. Welt Cord Covering
a. Cut material proper width and on the bias if possible.
b. Double bias piece of material and insert welt cord and stitch with
welt foot attachment very close to cord.
6. French Seams
b. Turn top side out and sew over seam previously stitched, 1Y inch
average width from edge.
I I 2 3 4 56 7 7
I I 3 4
7 7 2
2 3 4
Detail of Cutting and Sewing Overstuffed Chairs and How to Sew
i. Scat with construction cf loose cushion
3. Scat where construction is without cushion
4. Arm of chair
MATERIAL CUT BIAS
Material turned double and stitched with welt cord and applied to another piece cf material
i. Wrong side of material sewed together.
2.. Turn material and stitch on the right side. Finished French seam.
Adjusting Material on Chair Seat
S, *( W 2
i. Material sewed to chair seat fitting for post cut.
z. Material turned back showing where to cut.
3. Extra little cuts to fit post.
I, i, 3. Fitting cover around corner posts. 4, 5, 6. Detail for fitting around side posts.
PUTTING ON COVER6
Always have cover straight and perfectly centered.
Tools and Equipment.-Hammer, shears, needles, twine, and knife.
Materials.-Cover, stitching twine, tacks, curved needle, and wadding.
a. Sew front border to inside seat 12 inch seam and stitch twice.
6 Always put a thin layer of wadding over old clean stuffing to make a new build-up.
b. Adjust to seat and sew with a curved needle this side of the seam
firmly across front stitched roll.
c. Place seat cover and tack in back (slip tack) for adjustment, and
then in front to corner.
d. Tack sides in the same manner to corner, cut corners, miter, and
pull down and tack.
a. Adjust material straight.
b. Pull down at bottom and tack to frame.
c. Pull material up and over inside back, tacking to outside frame.
Slip tack across to corners. Pull material around corners in little down-
ward pleats to fit the shape.
d. Cut miter corner at bottom and pull through and tack.
e. Where back fits inside arms, cut straight across lower edge of
frame and pull through and tack to outside back.
f. Cut small places along in material to fit around arm and pull
tight. Tack to outside back very firmly.
Upper cut a and lower cut a are folded under.
Upper cut b and lower cut b, little tabs are pulled through and tacked to back of chair.
a. Place material straight and tack to bottom of frame.
b. Pull material over arm very tightly and tack on outside of arm,
over the roll.
c. Cut front miter, pull through, and tack to outside arm frame.
d. Cut back miter, pull through, and tack to outside back of frame.
e. Around inside arm cut little at a time until adjusted to fit shape
of arm, pull very tight, and tack to outer side back.
Cardboard Strip Tacked under Top
Edge of Arm
It Io I' II
Material Pulled Down and Tacked
Material Turned Under and Tacked Ready for Method of Slip Stitch Used in All Out-
side Upholstery. For Hand Sewing always Use a Curved Needle and Stitching Twine.
a. Sew front cord to welt border.
h. Adjust-be sure material is straight-and tack to frame.
c. Sew with a curved needle, or tack if construction is wood.
a. Place border with material right side to right side of chair.
b. Tack along to hold in place.
c. Cut a piece of cardboard 14 inch wide and tack along to hold
border very straight and tight.
d. Turn over, adjust with a little wadding.
e. Pull down material and tack to bottom of the front.
2. Cushion material, welt cord.
2. Cut cushion of proper size. Allow 1M to Y inch for seams.
3. Sew welt cord around entire top and bottom of cushion.
4. Join welt cord neatly at back.
5. Boxing. Match pattern on front of cushion.
6. Hold boxing on top and stitch around. Join boxing.
7. Turn and place both pieces of cushion inside together. Pick up cor-
ners so as to make it straight. Pin corners and stitch around, leaving back
open to put inside filler, which is a unit of inner springs covered with bur-
lap and padded with cotton, and is slipped into the finished cushion. Repad
corners of cushion. Slip stitch together across back.
Assignment. -Class to bring frame chair for rebuilding.
SLIPPING ALL OLD MATERIALS OFF AND BUILDING
I ROM FOUNDATION CONSTRUCTION WORK
Materials.-Hammer, ripping tool, webbing, springs, burlap, tacks, mus-
lin, cambric, welt cord, stuffing, and outside cover.
1. Remove old outside cover. Refer to Procedure, Lesson Ill.
2.. Remove old webbing.
3. Remove old springs and cut off old twine.
Putting on the Outside Cover -Occasional Chair.
Purring the Cover on a Large Ovcrstullcd Chair.
Materials and Tools: Webbing, webbing stretcher, tacks, hammer,
a. Unroll webbing and tack to front bottom frame about i1 inches
and tack in three places. Turn over webbing and tack again in between
tacks. Stagger tacks so as not to split frame.
h. Place padded end of the webbing stretcher against outside frame
with nails hooked into the webbing and pull down tight.
c. Tack in above manner and proceed across the opening having odd
number of strips.
a. Interlace webbing and tack.
h. Stretch again with webbing stretcher and tack properly until
opening is filled with desired number of strips.
Front Arm Panel
1. Cut a pattern to fit the design on chair.
2.. Then cut material, allowing 1J inch for seams.
3. Sew welt around the panel.
4. Adjust arm panel, pin, and sew upholster slip stitch.
Chair and Davenport as They Came to Our Classes.
Place furniture in proper position for webbing. By locating the strips of webbinig you can
determine the number of strips to be used. Measure size of the opening from front to back and
add about three inches to each strip for turning over i ', inches at each end. Multiply length
in inches of one strip by number of strips used; use same method for crosswise strips.
i. Adjust material straight.
2. Turn material inside out so the tacking under arm can be done
with 1/ inch cardboard the length of outside arm.
3. Turn outside cover arm, adjust, pull down, and tack to bottom
4. Pull material at front side, slip and tack front. Tack side to ouT-
SIDE of back.
How to Stretch and Tack Webbing
Using Webbing Stretcher.
How the Space is Divided and Webbing
Placed and Tacked with the Interlacing
i. Burlap arm-roll foundation.
2.. Pleated back arm-roll outside cover construction.
3. Arm pleated and tacked under covered button.
4. Plain facing with welt trim.
5. Loose Panel welt trim.
A Large Overstuffed Chair with Webbing Stretched.
Another Old Antique Platform Rocker Partly Finished.
i. Tack welt cord to front outside arms.
2.. Tack welt cord to outside back.
i. Adjust material straight and tight.
z. Turn in material so it will fit under welt cord. (Slip tack.)
3. Pull down tight and tack to both arms of chair. 00
4. Sew by hand, slip stitch with curved needles on flat surfaces.
i. Made cushion filled with inner springs leaving the back open.
i. Inner springs covered with burlap.
3. Inner springs covered with cotton.
4. Inner springs unit being held in place with cushion pins.
5. Cushion pan holding inner unit and other cover is slipped on so that all
cotton padding will be smooth.
i. Material: cambric.
2.. Cut proper size.
3. Adjust and cover entire webbing foundation to keep dust and dirt
from inner construction.
Assignment.-Select proper size and number of springs.
Materials.-Stitching twine, springs, and tacks.
s One tip of spring is bent toward center and this should be placed at top so as not to wear
through burlap covering.
i. Locate position of spring by number to be used.
2-. Sew spring to webbing, using four stitches so that the last stitch
will be nearest point to the next spring.
3. Sew each spring in place, straight and firm.
Materials: Springs, twine, tacks.
Measuring Spring Twine
i. Measure length over first row of springs and allow about 2- inches
of twine for each spring for knots.
2.. Cut twine enough for all spring tying.
i. Slip a tack in a single knot and place in first row of springs.
2. Drive tack down desired height of spring.
3. Loop twine around top coil, slip knot and tie, pressing spring
down about height of finished seat frame, and proceed to tie each spring
from back to front, allowing enough in front for return tie to hold in
i. Measure twine.
2. Slip tack in a single knot and drive tack down and proceed tying
over top spring to second spring and continue in the same manner across
and tack on other side.
2.. Place a slip tack at each corner and between each row of springs.
3. Proceed with tying and tack method.9
Assignment.-Class to bring spring wire, pliers, shears, hammer, and
WIRE SPRING EDGE 10
Materials.-Spring wire No. 9 gauge, spring twine, tacks.
i. Bend wire on a wood block and hammer into a curved corner; or
put through a pipe and bend square for square corners. (Good idea.)
Care must be taken not to draw twine so tight that it will loosen the twine tied in an-
10 Spring Edge properly constructed adds to comfort of seat and makes a more desirable
piece of furniture.
Each spring sewed four times to webbing
The Two-Way Tie
First cords are looped and cross twines are
knotted around the top coil.
All twines knot at all crossings.
2. Place several inches of spring wire back of first spring and tie
3. Loop twine over inside coil of spring and make several ties or
4. Tie each spring to spring wire which forms wire edge foundation.
i. Cut burlap large enough to cover opening and allow about 3
inches for overlapping all edges.
z. Center frame and burlap, have burlap foundations to keep stuffing
placed, and sewed to springs in loop stitches so as to hold-about 3
stitches for each spring.
Materials: Burlap, tacks, stuffing.
i. Blind tack a strip of burlap, width depends on size of roll wanted.
2.. Fill with amount stuffing needed.
3. Twist into a roll upward and tack to wood frame foundation.
I I I I I
iA. Cord roll burlap tacked into place.
2.A. Roll formed and tacked.
4. Spring Tie-Knot steps.
5. Bent Wire Edge and Hinge tied with
6. Making a Stitched Edge. First row of
stitching in place.
i. The Return Tie. First twine is brought
down to rail and tacked.
2. The return twine carried up and over
top of spring.
Materials: Stuffing, stitching twine, tacks.
I. Sew a strip of burlap about 4 inches from front edge on top o
burlap foundation and springs.
2.. Fill with stuffing, amount needed for size.
3. Sew burlap down and stitch with straight needle back and forth,
long stitches forming a firm edge. Continue across.
4. Stitch second row same manner and third row of stitching. This
forms a slant-stitched front edge for chairs, davenports, etc.
Assignment.--Class to bring stuffing, cotton, hair, excelsior, patterns,
chalk, rulers, muslin, shears.
STUFFINGS AND HOW TO PLACE THEM
Materials.-Cotton, hair, excelsior.
i. Place picked hair or selective excelsior on seat of chair for a nice
3. Method of Double Stuffing and Stitch-
ing. Outer row defines the edge. Stitch in rows
and continue to center bind the work on a
firm burlap base.
4. Tufting. Beginning marks and steps.
5. Button Marking.
Muslin Cover Slip tacked for Final
iA. Cut away surplus material, fold into
pleat, and tack.
2A. Finished corner.
6. Burlap tacked to wooden base.
7. Loop Tie with Button. Reversible trim-
rming. Slip knot used to tic button.
For Flounce Effects on Chairs, Davcenports
and Chaise Lounge.
i. Two-inch pleats and two-inch space.
Welt trim at top.
z. Use two-inch pleats and no space.
Welt trim at top.
z2. Cover with one good layer of cotton.
3. Cut unbleached muslin pieces that fit each area to be upholstered.
4. Place square of muslin over and tack front to back. Cut miter
corner and stretch tight and tack.
i. Place furniture in proper position and place picked hair or excel-
sior enough for filling the back, and cover with about two layers of
z. Cut muslin proper size, place straight and tack from bottom to
top, adjusting stuffing to form the shape desired.
3. Top of chair or davenport corners-put muslin around in down-
ward pleats and tack. Cut miter corners at arms and back posts and tack.
i. Adjust stuffing, same manner, proper shape.
_. Cover with cotton and muslin cut to fit space.
3. Tack at bottom and under arm roll outside; cut miter corners in
front and back posts. Tack.
4. Cut around arms and tack. Put muslin to outside back and tack'"
Assignment.-Outside cover-welt or twine.
Materials: Outside covering, shears, chalk, thread, welt cord.
i. Cut all materials. Use method of layout in Lesson IV.
2. Sewing (use Lesson V, adapted to whatever the job may be).
1. Use Lesson V for putting on cover.
2.. Cushion, making use of Lesson VII.
TUFTING 1 2
Materials.-Stuffing, covering, stitching twine, tacks, buttons, or tack
3. Mark on burlap foundation position of buttons, which is deter-
mined by the size of tufted surface and number of tufts.
2.. Place the marks in same position as the ones on burlap. Always
allow extra material for the covering for each tuft.
3. Fullness will depend on depth of tuft.
1 You will have the proper foundation for outside covering and always keep the stuffing
in place for future changes with a muslin cover.
12 Advance work for period furniture, headboards of beds, and breakfast nook backs and
various other chair designs.
Tufting foundation is done in the process of stuffing, with muslin cover.
Covering and Stuffing
i. Fasten first row on cover by stitching through covering burlap
and webbing foundation and fasten button on front side.
2-. Fill the first row of tufts with stuffing and all slack material will
be taken up each time.
3. Fasten second row of buttons.
4. Fasten third row the same as second and first rows until all rows
are completed with buttons.
Chair Frame with Strap Springs in Position to be Screwed to Frame (Modern Springs)
Large Arm Chair with Arm Spring Construction
Chair Being Covered with Muslin Completed Chair in Muslin
All pleats in tufted work are placed in seat work so that they will
lie to the front for arms and back pleats turned down, pleats that are
over the top and bottom, downward. This arrangement keeps pleats in
place and helps to prevent dust and is easy to clean by any cleaning
MAKING UPHOLSTERY BUTTONS
Tools and equipment.-Button machine and attachments. 14
Materials.-Use materials which are remnants or contrast materials for
I. Cut material.
2.. Put a piece of wood (cutting block) on the base and use cutter
attachment (cuts 6 thicknesses at a time).
3. Place cutter in the center, under plunger, and pull down handle.
Filling Lower Die
i. Put cloth face down in die.
2.. Place little shell outside up and hold in position with wooden
BUTTON MACHINE AND ATTACHMENTS
Button i. Button back. 2.. Shell. 3. Wooden peg. 4. Cutting block.
Machine 5. Cutter. 6. Lower die. 7. Upper die.
13 Use tack buttons where foundation is wood and proceed with tufting methli above,
adjusting stuffing to proper thickness.
14 Button machine device to make covered buttons; and attachments for fasteners, eyelets,
grommets, ventilators, and washers.
This machine may be purchased from Excelsior Mills Corporation, 118 E. Fourteenth
Street, P.O. Box 32.36, Jacksonville, Florida.
Button Machine, hand power . . . . . . . .. . $7.00
A ttachm ents . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.oo
Button Moulds with Tufts (5 gross to the box) . . . . ... 1.50
If other upholstery supplies are needed, the above firm will issue you a general supply catalog
which will help a great deal.
Making the Buttons 15
i. Place die containing cloth on top of lower die which is placed
in the hole on block base.
z. Bring down the handle firmly, completing button.
The American Home ......................................
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H house B beautiful .. .......................................
House and Garden .................................... . .
Boston Post Board, Greenwich, Conn.
Better H om es and Gardens .................................
5906 Meredith Building, Des Moines, Iowa.
The D ecorative Furnisher. .................................
T. A. Cawthna Co., 381 4th Ave., New York, N.Y.
Interior ....................... ... .......................
Whitney Publishing Co., 34 N. Crystal St.,
East Shoudsburg, Pa.
Fabrics. Grace Denny. J. B. Lippincott Co., Chicago, Ill.
Furniture, Its Selection and Use ......................... .
U.S. Department or Commerce, Washington, D.C.
15 cents copy
35 cents copy
35 cents copy
15 cents copy
50 cents copy
50 cents copy
to cents copy
15 You can make tack buttons by using a No. 12 tack. Drive it through the shank of tuft
and insert in lower die and proceed with upper die and shell. (Used in tufting a great deal
where wood foundations are used for the job.)