'Brief Accounts of Plans and Experiences
Bulletin No. 23
STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
COLIN ENGLISH, State Superintendent
'Brief Accounts of Plans and Experience
Bulletin No. 23
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STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
COLIN ENGLISH, State Superintendent
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The Florida Program for Improvement of Instruction recognizes two
basic needs of teachers and faculty groups interested in improving the work
which they are now doing, the need for each school faculty to plan coopera-
tively a total school program and the need for each teacher to plan his work
in relationship to the general planning done by the entire staff. Prior to
January 1, 1941, twenty-eight faculties from all sections of Florida par-
ticipated in the intensive phase of the Florida program, a phase which
has often been referred to as the "Cooperating School Movement."
In order to participate as a "cooperating school" it is necessary for the
entire teaching staff or at least seventy-five per cent of the staff to agree
to attend a workshop at one of the state institutions of higher learning for
a period of not less than six weeks during which time they think and plan
cooperatively concerning individual and group problems. Through coopera-
tion of the state institutions of higher learning and the State Department,
A- certain services are provided to assist faculty groups in making adequate
preparation for the workshop experience and in carrying out definite follow-
up activities during the succeeding school year. Both elementary and sec-
ondary schools have participated, and the accounts which are contained in
this bulletin are representative of the general nature of the work which is
It will be obvious to the reader that no pressure has been exerted on
v the various faculty groups to get them to adopt any particular form of cur-
< ricular organization, although all of the faculties have made certain changes
in the direction of a more integrated and more functional program based
upon individual and local need. It is the opinion of many of those par-
ticipating that the most fundamental change has been evidenced in the
A\ thinking of the teachers and in their general approach to solving the con-
crete problems which face them from day to day. It has been necessary
'- to insist that a large majority of the faculty be present at the workshop in
order to achieve more fully the major objective, that of growth in the ability
to solve local problems cooperatively as a total faculty group. The move-
S ment has also served as a challenge to other schools that have been unable
- to attend workshop but which have continued to make gradual changes in
their curricula while the staff is actually engaged in the teaching situation.
It is to inform these and other interested groups that the present material
has been brought together.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Forew ord .......- ..--.. .... ....... ...-. ... ......
Introduction ........- ..-.... --..--- .....- .....-....-
Arcadia West Side School .- -..........-.. .-...
Bay County High School, Panama City .......
..... ..... ....... iii
..... .......... vii
- .. .......... 1
Central Elementary School,
DeSoto County High School,
Fort Walton School .............
Fort White School ..-.........-
Frostproof School ................
Gainesville High School .....
Geneva School ................-
Havana High School .............
Jay School ........... ..-....-. .-
Lee School ................ ..-
Monticello School ..-.............-
Fort Lauderdale .....
.--- -...-- ..---.-........ 9
-..-... ...- ........... 12
.......... --.. ......... 17
- ---.-. ...- ..- ...-.- ...-...- .....-.... ................ 19
. -. -..............-- -...- ... -- ............ ...- 24
.-- ...--- .. . .. ..-- ........- -..........-- ....... 30
.---...- ......-- -- -- ....- .....- ...- .....--............ 33
-................. .......................................... 36
......... ... .. ......- ........-...... ..--- .- .... ........ 3 8
....- ..-....- ----............. ..................- 41
-.- ...- - .-.. 4 4
Morningside Elementary School, Miami .. .......................
N aples School ..............-. ....----- ..-- ..-- ... ----...... ... ..--- .....
Palatka Elementary School ............ --. ....--. ..- ........---...- ....
Port Saint Joe School ............ ---...-....-- ....-- ....-...-........ .--.- .... ...
Putnam County High School, Palatka ...............- .............-- ..........
Reddick, McIntosh, and Fairfield Schools ...........-... ..-- .....--.-
Sealey Memorial Elementary School, Tallahassee .............-........-
Trenton School ........................... .. --. -...-
Union Elementary School, Graceville, R. F. D ........-...---- ..
Washington County High School, Chipley .. .............
W ildw ood School --...............-.. ..- ........ .... --.. ....... ... ..--- ...... ..
..... ......... 87
W illiston School .....................
.......................... ......... 92
One phase of the Florida Program for the Improvement of Schools has
been the cooperative work of the State Department of Education, the College
of Education and the P. K. Yonge Laboratory School of the University of
Florida, the School of Education and the Demonstration School of the
Florida State College for Women, and the entire faculties of twenty-eight
Florida elementary and secondary schools. Known as Cooperating Schools
of the Florida Program, these schools have attempted to identify their prob-
lems and needs and to work toward solutions of these problems and to make
suggestions for meeting these needs. In line with these objectives during
the past two years arrangements have been made for a series of planning
meetings to be held during the school year in the Cooperating Schools, and
facilities have been provided for an intensive study of the problems of the
schools at the teacher training institutions during the first terms of the
summer sessions. This work originally began during the school year of
1938-1939. A small number of secondary schools volunteered to cooperate
and the first Workshop for Florida Cooperating Schools was held at the
University of Florida during the summer of 1939. During the school year of
1939-1940 a much larger number of schools volunteered, and Workshops were
held for Cooperating Schools at both Florida State College for Women and
the University of Florida.
The members of the faculties of the schools present at the Workshops
worked on problems significant to them and made suggestions for meeting
these problems. In doing this they made proposals for certain changes in
the learning experiences of their schools. From these changes implications
may be made concerning the type of experiences that some Florida teachers
think best for the boys and girls whom they are guiding. In order that
the school people of the State may know what types of problems have been
investigated and what solutions have been suggested, the State Department
of Education is glad to present brief accounts of some of the plans and
experiences of some of the Cooperating Schools as a result of the three
Florida Workshops that have been held during the past two summers.
In the first place, it must be understood that, due to lack of space, the
accounts of the experiences and plans of each school are necessarily limited.
However, if these accounts prove indicative of value, more information may
be obtained from the schools themselves or from the Curriculum Labora-
tories of the University of Florida and of the Florida State College for Women.
In all oases these accounts were condensed from longer interpretative
statements of the plans and experiences of the schools written by members
of the faculties. It became necessary to choose certain items or problems
from all the materials prepared by the faculties of the schools that seem to
be both interesting and indicative of the most significant changes that have
resulted. It must be understood that these accounts do not represent a com-
plete picture of either the total school program of any Cooperating School
or of the Florida Program for the Improvement of Schools.
For the preparation of these accounts the State Department of Educa-
tion is greatly indebted to the faculty members of each of the Cooperating
Schools who have presented materials interpreting their school programs.
ARCADIA WEST SIDE SCHOOL
PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION FOR THE ARCADIA WEST SIDE SCHOOL
We believe that the entire school should have unity of purpose. In
order to maintain this unity and establish a foundation on which we may
build our school program, we are attempting to write our philosophy of
education. This philosophy will contain statements concerning the inter-
relationships among the society, the school, and the nature and needs of
the child in the learning processes.
Our democratic society and our total environment are ever changing.
Therefore, it is important that the school make provision for continuous
adjustment of our educational program, for only by so doing can it discharge
its fundamental social responsibility.
The function of the school is to serve this democratic society by teaching
appreciation of the various phases of our way of living and by imbuing the
child with the democratic ideals so that he will contribute to society as well
as to his own happy living. It is important to guide the child in the prac-
tice of desirable types of conduct and to, train him for a democratic life.
In organizing and administering the instructional program, we should
realize that desirable growth is a continuous process which is accomplished
only through purposeful activities based on actual experiences of the learner.
These activities should provide opportunities for the child to develop to the
greatest possible extent his capacities and aptitudes for happy, useful, and
successful living. The school should provide pupil experiences in at-
tempting to solve their own problems of living in relation to the larger
social picture. The method of unit teaching tends to, provide for such
experiences, which, to be really educative, should result in dynamic changes
on the part of the individual.
The school is an integral part of society and should not be set apart
from the adult community. It should cooperate with other educational and
social agencies in working toward the building of a better community life.
Also, the school should utilize to the fullest extent the resources of the
In order to try to eliminate those causes which force boys and girls to
drop out of school, we should present a variety of educational opportunities
which meet the widely differing needs of individuals.
OBJECTIVES OF WEST SIDE SCHOOL
1. To develop in boys and girls those skills, habits, and understandings
necessary for continuous participation in a democratic society.
2. To develop in boys and girls initiative, creativeness, and a desire to
improve and to expand the ideals of the democratic way of living.
3. To provide opportunities for boys and girls to, experience democratic
living in the school.
4. To enable boys and girls to contribute to themselves and society
through useful service.
5. To develop in boys and girls those mental, moral, emotional, and
physical qualities necessary for wholesome and happy living.
6. To develop in boys and girls the ability to use reflective thinking
and to apply the scientific method in social areas of life.
THE GUIDING FRAMEWORK
A guiding framework was formulated by the faculty of the West Side
School for the purpose of establishing a more unified curriculum throughout
the school. To attain unity it is necessary for each teacher to understand
the scope of the entire school program.
The aim is not to limit but to furnish an outline of broad underlying
principles as a constant reminder to teachers in guiding the growth of the
child toward richer and happier living. Areas of living will be taught, each
in light of the center of interest for the group level. Divisions-primary,
intermediate, and junior high-were made as a result of the belief that
centers of interest cannot be narrowed to specific grades.
The schedule for the elementary department is designed to allow the
teacher as much freedom as possible in adapting her program to the needs
of her group. Teachers are encouraged to vary the schedule from day to
day when such needs arise. They are only required to conform with the
time designated for opening school each morning, for recreation period, for
lunch period, and for closing school in the afternoon. Such a policy con-
forms with the philosophy of broad unit teaching which necessitates a wide
variety of activities covering varying periods of time. To be real and mean-
ingful to the child, these activities must be selected through democratic
procedures in the classroom and not through plans dictated by the ad-
In the primary department it is believed that all subject matter under-
standings and skills can be taken care of through unit activities. No period
is set aside for skill purposes. However, teachers are expected to inter-
sperse short purposeful drills into their activities at any time a need for
such a procedure arises.
In the intermediate department the major portion of arithmetic skills
and understandings will be taught in a separate mathematics period desig-
nated by the teacher. All other types of skills are included in the unit
work. The wise teacher will take advantage of every opportunity to develop
many mathematical concepts and understandings through her unit situa-
tions. However, she will, in all probability, be unable to cover all of them
thoroughly within the unit without dampening the effectiveness of her entire
With a departmentalized program in the junior high department, it
becomes necessary to designate specific times for the different fields of
activity. Besides having a special period for mathematics as in the inter-
mediate department, another period is set aside for developing skills of other
types. These include handwriting, spelling, functional grammar, art, remedial
reading, parliamentary procedures, etc. Through close cooperation with
the core teacher of each group, the skills teacher endeavors to make her
program a major contribution to the broad unit or core program. The
core teacher meets with the skills teacher as often as is necessary to draw
up plans for the skills program in her group. The major portion of the
responsibility for setting up general skills plans falls upon the core teacher
who is familiar with the needs of her group and knows what types of activi-
ties will contribute most to her program.
Below is the time allotted to each activity of the child in the junior high
department. The activities period is used for homeroom program two days
of the week, club meetings two days, and general assembly one day.
Core or Broad Unit Work ....-..........---------.........-.......-----.....90 minutes
Study Hall and Library Period ...............--................ 90 minutes
M mathematics ................................ .. ..........----..--..---- 45 minutes
Skills ........... ......... .... ....... ............................ -- 45 m minutes
A activities ....................................................................... 30 m minutes
Recreation .........................-- --............. ........-------..--... ..... 25 minutes
UNIT TITLES FOR SOME OF THE GRADES (1940-1941)
Grade Two: "Living in Our School," "Living Safely in Arcadia," "An-
ticipating Hallowe'en," "Helping Our Helpers," "Learning About Our Indian
Friends," "Observing Nature in Our Community," "Making a Library,"
"Studying Our Feathered Friends."
Grade Four: "Beautifying Our School Grounds," "Getting Acquainted
With Our Animal Life," "Practicing Safety in Our Everyday Living," "Cele-
brating Christmas in Many Lands," "Practicing Healthful Living in the
Community," "Getting Acquainted with Our Insect Life," "Enjoying the
Benefits of Some of Our Social Institutions."
Grade Six: "How Can We Best Enjoy Life?" "How Did the People of
the Past Develop Communication and Transportation?" "How Have Early
Inventions Affected Our Lives?" "How Has the Social Life of Other People
Affected Us?" "Keeping Up with the Changing Political World," "Why Should
We Be 'Good Neighbors' to Latin-American Countries?" "How Do Birds Con-
tribute to Our Life?" "How Has Christmas in Other Lands Affected Us?"
Grade Eight: "How Do We Make Use of Our Natural Resources for
Better Living?" "How Do We Make the Forces of Air and Water Work for Us?"
"How Has the Improvement of Lighting Affected Our Physical and Social
Well-Being?" How Have Inventions and Discoveries Affected Man's Health?"
"How Does the Community Protect the Health of the Individual?" "How
Has Democracy Grown Through the Influence of Great Leaders?" "What
Social and Physical Changes Have Taken Place in American Homes?" "How
the Present Map of North America Has Developed," "Modern Means of
Communication," "How Does Science Help Us Conquer Superstition?" "How
Is the Public Protected from Crime?" "How Can I Make the Best Use of
My Leisure Time?"
SPECIAL SCHOOL PROBLEMS
Among the numerous whole-school problems mentioned in our report
to the Workshop staff, ten were selected by the faculty as needing im-
mediate attention in the Workshop this summer. Committees were ap-
pointed to study these problems and recommend a general plan for attacking
them next year. These same members will serve on the committees during
the school year and work out more detailed procedures for making their
program function properly while in operation. Other teachers who did not
attend the Workshop this summer will be added to the committees at the
beginning of the school year. The committees are as follows: Promotion,
Evaluation, Playground and Health, Guidance, Library, Homeroom and
Activities, Handwriting and Spelling, Community Resources, Community
THE REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON COMMUNITY RELATIONS,
It is our aim to develop a happy, friendly relationship among parents,
school, and the community in general, so that the child feels himself a fused
part of the community. This problem cannot be separated from the whole
school program. Teachers must be constantly aware of this in all school
activities and avail themselves of every opportunity to improve this rela-
tionship. Some of the greater channels through which we may work are:
Personal Contact.-Experience teaches us that we enjoy persons when
we have more than a surface acquaintance with them. A better understand-
ing is accomplished through personal contacts with parents, either by ap-
pointments or by chance. During these conferences teacher and parent
may become acquainted, discuss school problems, reasons for attitudes, and
work together toward the happy adjustment and development of the pupil.
By taking advantage of every opportunity in her social life, the teacher
may acquire a better understanding of the background of pupils she is
trying to guide.
P.T.A.-In the Parent-Teacher Association, we can work toward this
goal by planning programs through which the pupils help inform parents
of the school program, which show cultural and social growth, and by having
an attractive social hour afterward. The program for the year will be out-
lined to inform the parents of the aims and plans of the school. P.T.A.
meetings will be held in different departments, such as the library, the
lunch room, the recreation hall, or the assembly room. Exhibits of the
pupils' projects and handicraft will be arranged before these meetings.
Newspaper Project.-A news project offers the opportunity for creative
activities. Staff members and reporters are elected, and committees are
formed which represent all groups of the school. Pupils learn by actual
experience that in order to get any item into the paper it must be orderly,
on time, concise, well written, and of interest to the community. These
items are proof-read by the appointed persons. The news is published by
the county newspaper which is read by most of the citizens of the com-
Assembly Programs.-Assembly programs give children opportunity for
expressing themselves. They gain confidence and develop poise by being
responsible for and participating in these programs, which reflect recent
activities of the group. The program will be written up in advance and will
be sent to parents and friends either through bulletins or the newspaper.
Hosts or hostesses will greet and seat all visitors, and thank them for
Entertainment.-During the year, we offer several major entertain-
ments in the form of plays, operettas, minstrels, etc. These activities neces-
sitate school and community cooperation, in that all the materials, plan-
ning, and talent cannot be furnished entirely by the school. These enter-
tainments serve to bring about closer relationships.
BAY COUNTY HIGH SCHOOL
MEETING PUPIL NEEDS
After each area tentatively set up as a basis of living had been broken
into eight or ten points and each point had been evaluated as carefully as
possible, we found that in many instances we had failed to meet pupil
needs. In order to get a more complete picture, we have stated below what
we have done in each of these areas and have made recommendations for
the coming year.
WHAT WE HAVE DONE
WHAT WE RECOMMEND
In Maintaining Health
We gave individual, but incidental, guid- More pupi l-t teacher and
ance through registration and personal teacher-parent conferences.
conferences with those who asked advice The visiting of every home
or who were problem pupils, at some time during the year
Information was provided by the library by a selected teacher.
which was used when there was special More opportunity for the
stimulation. teaching of health to be pro-
There was no organized physical edu- vided in the school program.
cation program because of lack of room A complete physical educa-
and facilities, but health was taught in tion program for boys and girls
science, home economics, and in the clubs, to be worked out as soon as
We had health talks from the head of possible.
the County Health Unit and examinations Improved sanitation in the
for tuberculosis, school building.
The lunch room diet was balanced, and A school health unit.
hot foods were provided. A follow-up program after
Visual aid for the understanding of health clinics.
health problems was given by use of mo-
tion pictures in the school.
WHAT WE HAVE DONE WHAT WE RECOMMEND
In Choosing a Vocation
There was no organized school effort in Conference periods with
vocational guidance, but it was given in faculty advisers and others for
home economics, junior business training, more definite vocational guid-
economics, commercial subjects, and in ance.
clubs, home rooms, and the office.
WHAT WE HAVE DONE
We were definitely able to help students
find jobs in the community.
We offered opportunity for vocational
experience in work in the office, the li-
brary, and the commercial department,
and through the library and through NYA
Information and instruction were also
provided through the library and through
the use of films.
WHAT WE RECOMMEND
Class study of occupational
Class study of consumer edu-
A placement bureau to aid
students who need to work
while in school.
More vocational experiences.
Vocational aptitude tests.
In Promoting Personal-Social and Social-Civic Relationships
Because the community is a playground
for tourists, the school has had very little
to offer to some except in creating a sense
of values in regard to time given to play.
Social contacts were encouraged through
dances, parties, clubs, athletics, and annual
Living in the classroom, library, home
room, and assembly contributed to social
and civic education.
There was frequent participation by out-
standing pupils in programs, in school
plays, in clubs, in glee club and band con-
certs, and in work on the school paper, the
annual, and the carnival.
The glee club and band cooperated in
Football 'and basketball provided social
activity for the community.
Students participated in activities of the
President's Ball, the National Guard, the
Red Cross, the Garden Club, and in tag
Additional social functions in
Greater cooperation with the
work of the Boy Scouts and the
A list of responsibilities
which students may assume.
A student council to work
with the faculty.
More opportunities for par-
ticipation in group activities by
those who are not leaders.
Study of current problems.
The encouraging of thrift
through various class and
WHAT WE HAVE DONE WHAT WE RECOMMEND
In Enjoying the Contribution of the Fine Arts
We have endeavored to develop apprecia-
tion of the aesthetic through classroom
activities, music, assembly programs, school
clubs, school plays, and exhibits.
Students participated in the local flower
show, and in the music activities of the
We have initiated an art course in the
school for next year.
"The Taming of the Shrew" was pre-
sented in the high school auditorium by
the Avon players.
Class work in the apprecia-
tion of screen, stage, and radio.
Creative participation by
Encouraging the want of fur-
ther cooperation of the local
Music Club, Garden Club, and
Woman's Club with school
WHAT WE HAVE DONE WHAT WE RECOMMEND
In Formulating a Philosophy of Living
We had a morning devotional period. A guidance program which
Incidental character training was given will provide opportunities for
in the classrooms, development.
Direct emphasis in the class-
room on development of per-
sonality and character.
A reading program suited to
ORGANIZATION OF THE CURRICULUM
Although the program has been set up on a basis in which subjects
contributing to general education and those relating to special interests are
definitely listed for each grade, the use of the subject material will be func-
tional. In order to test this functional value, the teacher will consider
carefully the objectives of the school. He will propose to himself the fol-
lowing questions concerning the subject material:
1. Will it aid the pupil in choosing a vocation and in preparing for it?
2. Will it aid in making him an acceptable and happy member of his
3. Will it aid him in adapting himself to his home life and help him in
solving its problems?
4. Will it help him in planning for his own home in the future?
5. Will it give joy and satisfaction through developing special interests
and abilities ?
6. Will it aid in developing special abilities that will contribute to the
improvement of society?
7. Will it aid in developing a respect for his own worth and that of
8. Will it reveal to him some of the beauty in everyday living?
9. Will it relieve some of the tensions of life by helping him lay hold
of some of "life's intangible," or spiritual values?
10. Will it aid him in understanding problems of other nations and in
working for world peace?
To give a positive answer to any one of these questions, the teacher
must know the pupil in every way possible and be able to guide him in
activities suited to his abilities, interests, and needs.
Since the changed behavior of the individual is the primary concern of
the school and since behavior is changed only through experience, oppor-
tunity for a wide range of experiences should be given to each child. We
believe that for the optimum development of the child as a member of a
democratic society the experiences selected should include: (1) those di-
rectly related to everyday living, and (2) those which have a deferred value
significant to the pupil.
ORGANIZATION OF SUBJECT MATTER
The organization presented here suggests possible fusions or correlations
for each grade. Each teacher will select problems relative to the theme
and will plan her units around these problems. Music, art, home economics,
and other subject fields will contribute to experiences as opportunity permits.
SUBJECTS UNIFYING THEME
Grade 9 English and General Science Exploring the World About Us
English and Social Studies
English and Spanish I
Grade 10 English and Social Studies Relating Old World Culture to
Grade 11 English and Social Studies Founding and Maintaining a
Grade 12 English and Social Studies Investigating Social, Political,
and Econoimc Problems of
Program of Studies
In grade nine the required subjects are English I, physical education,
socialized mathematics or algebra, and home economics; electives are general
science, junior business training, Spanish, Latin, glee club, and band.
In grade ten the required subjects are English II and physical educa-
tion; electives are biology, world history, manual training, art, Latin, Spanish,
algebra I or II, business arithmetic, home economics, glee club, and band.
In grade eleven the required subject is English III; electives are chem-
istry, American history, commercial subjects, home economics, English,
journalism, art, manual training, Spanish, Latin, plane geometry, business
arithmetic, glee club, and band.
In grade twelve the required subjects are English IV and American
History; electives are physics, chemistry, commercial subjects, oral English,
journalism, solid geometry, trigonometry, art, manual training, Spanish,
Latin, glee club, and band.
Health and physical education will be offered to freshmen and sopho-
mores. It is possible that juniors and seniors may elect physical education.
Two physical education directors will, for the first time, give a full time pro-
gram for boys and for girls.
The school day in Bay County High School will begin at 8:30 and end
at 3:35. The daily time schedule provides for four one-hour periods and
three 45-minute periods. Provision is also made for a 30-minute homeroom
period and two 20-minute lunch periods so scheduled that one-half the
students are at lunch each period. Provision is made for two assemblies
each week, to be held during the regular activity period. Assembly for the
ninth and tenth grades is scheduled for Thursday and for eleventh and
twelfth grades for Friday. Pupils are grouped heterogeneously. There are
nine sections in the ninth grade, six in the tenth, five in the eleventh, and
four in the twelfth. Needed remedial work will be given in the regular
classes and, in some cases, in small groups meeting for a period of a few
weeks. A functioning guidance program and a physical education program
are to become an integral part of the activities of the school day.
CENTRAL ELEMENTARY SCHOOL
In the Workshop, as in other fields of endeavor, a period of orientation
is necessary to the group as well as to the individual in order to achieve
the desired results. This period of orientation was a necessary portion of
the whole program. Even though we felt at times that we were rather slow
in some of our ventures, we found that much planning, time, and thought
are essentials in any worthwhile undertaking. Learning how to plan is one
of the most worthwhile things derived from our Workshop experience.
In our first conference we decided upon the approximate amount of time
that we would work daily. At this meeting we also listed the problems
we desired to solve.
1. To make a survey of arithmetic as taught in other parts of the
United States and to determine whether or not our curriculum
should be revised in relation to arithmetic.
2. To determine whether manuscript or cursive writing is prefer-
able in the primary grades and why.
3. To determine the place of the textbook in the present program
4. To revise our present reading program to meet more adequately
the needs of the individual.
5. To attempt to set up a more satisfactory report card and per-
manent record card.
6. To investigate standards of promotion and to establish more
practical criteria for our use.
7. In our integrated program how may we best meet the needs of
tourist children from all types of schools?
8. To work out a more adequate health program including physical
9. To continue to work toward a more practical program of visual
10. To enrich our present program of music in a more satisfactory
11. To re-organize our library and plan for its more efficient use.
12. To determine what type of country-wide professional faculty
meetings would be most beneficial.
13. To improve our guidance program.
In order to establish a workable program, a tentative plan was devised
which we changed from time to time to meet arising situations. The gen-
eral chairmanship rotated from day to day. Chairmen were appointed
for the purpose of assimilating and filing material. Data were secured by
the group as a whole, each member working on some particular phase of
the problem at hand. Our daily procedure as determined by the group
was to meet in regular session at 8:00 A. M., for the purpose of checking
attendance and conducting necessary conferences. Until noon each member
usually worked at individual tasks. The group worked together from two
to four in regular sessions. The group was subject to call in the evenings
and on Saturdays for special meetings. We found most of our evenings
and Saturdays, were taken by the beginning of the third week. This, how-
ever, was due to the interest that arose among the group. We were so
anxious to accomplish everything possible during our stay that we were
not satisfied with regular scheduled hours.
The procedures used in solving our problems consisted of whole group,
small group, and individual activity. The types of assistance received in-
cluded information from Staff Members, Special Consultants, other par-
ticipants in the Workshop, observation in other groups, in the college, and
reference work in the Library.
Since our problems were whole group problems, the procedures in each
case consisted of group discussion, library reference, consultation with Staff
Members and Consultants. This was followed by continued group discussion,
consultation, and evaluation. To facilitate individual and group activity,
we devised a weekly schedule based on daily activities for each member of
the group. This proved very successful in furthering our efforts.
By July third, we had accomplished the following:
1. Completed school arts program.
2. Set up skeleton outline of physical education program.
3. Set up arithmetic program through third grade.
4. Continued work of reading program.
5. Participated in arts and crafts program.
6. Made investigations in the field of writing.
7. Continued to compile bibliographies and to do research work in
various areas of the school curriculum.
8. Made investigations in social studies field.
9. Investigated seventh grade procedures in the Demonstration School
as related to the new type program and also as conducted in other
Total school plans in several areas were worked out by the group. These
plans are in the fields of art, arithmetic, physical education, and reading.
On July 10, we gave the final report of our arithmetic program. Twenty-
five persons representing staff members, consultants, and school groups
listened to this report. We appreciated the complimentary remarks and
constructive criticisms offered by those present. A complete record of this
report was filed in the library with previous data.
We then worked on the completion of our physical education and read-
In order to make more complete our various reports on different areas
of the school program, which we filed from time to time, it was considered
necessary to file a statement of our philosophy.
Inasmuch as we are attempting to develop a more definite activities
program than we have had in the past, our work last summer is only the
beginning of this development. We have learned better how to attack our
problems and how to proceed in their solution and evaluation.
It is our purpose to make every possible effort to provide situations
conducive to a democratic way of living. The learning situations should
provide opportunities for the child to give intelligent consideration to prob-
lems which arise, to participate actively in solving these problems and to
work for the common good. We believe the school will best prepare the
pupil to meet the changing needs encountered in adult life by providing
a fuller, happier life in childhood.
If we are to accomplish successfully our aims there must be certain
guiding principles of practice within our schools. These principles are:
(1) Our program should provide for pupil-teacher planning, executing, and
evaluating the learning situations. (2) Our school should provide a challenge
to intelligent action. A program built around activities based upon child
interests and experiences and providing for individual differences will best
accomplish this. (3) The child must not be left alone to make his own
adjustments to the environment through experience but must be helped
and guided to find the right adjustments. (4) An attractive, happy and
well-organized classroom, as well as the entire school environment, will
make for the best physical, mental, social, emotional, and aesthetic develop-
ment of the child. (5) Everything the child contacts influences his develop-
ment. We must analyze and use his past and present experiences in order
to plan adequately for this development. Textbooks and subject-matter
material are a means to further this development but should not be taught
as an end within themselves. The natural surroundings provide much
material and many opportunities which may be drawn upon to aid the
child to understand and appreciate better his environment. This source
provides life-like situations for adapting the curriculum to the individual's
needs, thus aiding in the development of desirable habits and skills. (6)
The child's development is a continuous, on-going process. In order to
guide this process, provision must be made for constant evaluation and
readjustment of the program for each child. (7) In order to avoid con-
flicting influences in the child's development, it is essential to have a
sympathetic understanding, co-operative relationship among pupils, teachers
and between the school, home, and community.
Because we believe these things we plan to do the following: (1) The
program will be organized around large problems, based upon the child's
needs, interests, and experiences, that will result in outcomes compatible
with our beliefs, and guiding principles. (2) In order not to leave gaps in
the child's learning the various tool subjects have been analyzed into con-
cepts and skills expected of children at certain levels for the purpose of
guiding the teacher in directing the children's growth. (3) We will con-
tinue to be more interested in teaching the child than subject-matter. There-
fore, textbooks will be used by both teacher and pupils as references only.
However, provision will be made for the development of appropriate skills.
(4) We realize our responsibility in orienting tourist and transient children
into our school program. Consequently, we shall make as few changes as
possible in their methods of work and shall carefully consider the needs
of the individual child.
It has been the custom of the school in the past for the faculty as a
group to determine a number of school policies such as: home-work assign-
ments, report cards, permanent records, etc. These policies are constantly
modified to meet the changing needs. We plan to continue the improve-
ment and expansion of our educational program during the coming year
in the following ways: (1) continuation of group participation in planning
our school program; (2) more emphasis on inter-teacher planning; (3) con-
tinued opportunities for examining our school program for redirection; (4)
continued opportunities for appraisal of progress toward our school objec-
tives; (5) to continue to. consider ways to interpret the school program to
the parents and community; (6) to continue to provide opportunities for
parents to participate in planning and carrying out the school program;
(7) to continue to work with the State Department in the development
of the State program. (8) Plans for the coming year will be continuously
formulated in light of progress made during the present school year. (9)
We feel that our school policies are constantly modified in light of our work.
Since it would be inconsistent with this belief to prepare a fixed set of
school policies, we plan to compile a handbook of tentative procedures and
policies as a guide or reference to our growth. This handbook will be con-
stantly revised as changes are made in our policies.
We are continuing our workshop procedure in our faculty group at
present. As we continue our planning within our school it is our desire to
file with the Workshop, from time to time, a complete record of our pro-
gress. We welcome and encourage the visits and communications with the
Workshop staff in furthering the progress of our school.
DE SOTO COUNTY HIGH SCHOOL
The purpose of a guidance program in the secondary schools is to help
the pupil to understand himself, to understand others, and to become a
contributing member of a dynamic democratic society. The program seeks
to aid the pupil in finding his own potentialities and in making wise de-
cisions, and should seek constantly to develop a point of view which will
prepare the pupil to face his problems squarely and to solve them intelligent-
ly. Guidance does not seek to dictate to the pupil but to encourage him
to make his own decisions by suggesting sources of information and by
leading him to consider with a critical mind all phases inherent in his mak-
ing a decision.
The need for a guidance program for the high school pupil grows out
of the demands which modern life with its complex and highly organized
society places upon its members. Diversification of industry and specializa-
tion in all lines of human endeavor have increased the amount of general
education required. One of the most significant aspects to the school of
our changing economic world is the longer period of dependency of boys and
girls. The time has passed when any pupil dissatisfied with school could
stop and get a job.
Social changes are equally striking. Increased hours of leisure, the
decrease in the influence of the home and the church, the extent to which
the automobile has replaced the home in social life, and changed standards
of living have brought serious problems to youth and have made necessary
an organized guidance program in the school.
Civic responsibilities are becoming increasingly important. Attitudes
toward law, toward government, and toward responsibilities of citizenship
are major concerns of society, and, therefore, of guidance.
The changed personnel, the increased school enrollment, the constant
shifting, retardation, and withdrawals are present significant problems.
High schools are no longer selective; they belong to all youth. A large part
of the increased enrollment has come from homes of the lower occupational
groups. Consequently, there has been a broadening and enrichment of the
curriculum in order to. meet the various needs of pupils. But in spite of
this fact there are still many failures and many withdrawals. An adequate
guidance program should help reduce the number of maladjustments which
are caused by the high percentages of failures and withdrawals.
On graduation from high school a pupil's actions are determined by his
interests rather than by his knowledge. Thus are determined his choice of
friends, of reading matter, of recreation, and of vocation. The school must,
therefore, be especially concerned with developing attitudes which will en-
able him to choose wisely and to meet satisfactorily any situation. These
attitudes are of far greater importance to his making proper decisions than
is the factual knowledge which he has acquired.
Of all the social institutions, except the home, the school is in the best
position to furnish this guidance. It has a definite organization, a long
and close contact with the pupil, an intimate knowledge of his interests,
abilities, aptitudes, and ideals, and it has an impartial attitude toward him.
While the home, the church, and the community have their part in guidance,
the ultimate responsibility lies with the school.
The 1939-1940 program of formal guidance proved to be ineffective as
the teacher load was too heavy. In view of this fact the program for 1940-
1941 is to be carried on primarily in the core classes; however, every teacher
will be aware constantly that the teacher is there for the child's welfare.
The teacher must at all times remember that the finest living is the best
guidance, and as she lives for the good of the child, she is indirectly giving
An evaluation of the guidance program revealed: (1) fewer pupils
dropping out, (2) an increase in the standard of scholarship, (3) ian increase
in pupil success, (4) better morale in the student body, (5) reduction of
retardation, (6) fewer misfits in classes, (7) better all round school life, (8)
fewer personality and social maladjustments, and (9) pupils better able to
The changing curriculum necessitates a change in the library system
of our school. Subject matter is no longer the center of emphasis in our
curriculum, but the development of children is our chief aim as educators.
Not only must the child's intellectual capacities be stimulated and developed,
but his social, physical, moral, and aesthetic growth must also be developed.
We hope to make the library the central unit of the entire school, out of
which stimulating materials will reach to every boy and girl. The library
is not an end in itself, but a means to an end-that end being to guide and
direct the reading of boys and girls through a program of curriculum
It is the chief function of the library to select, organize, and distribute
materials to the pupils and teachers as needed. These materials include not
only books, but also magazines, pictures, clippings, maps, charts, etc., that
will challenge their imaginations, clarify their problems, and make facts
significant to them.
It is our aim to give service to every boy and girl, to make them actively
conscious of the library as a source for solving problems, and to develop an
appreciation and joy in its use.
With limited resources it was necessary to plan carefully the use of
materials in order to serve to the best advantage the largest number of teach-
ers and pupils. The teachers and the librarian decided to check out ma-
terials for any one unit to the classroom teacher. Where two teachers are
teaching the same unit, the books are to be checked out to one teacher
and loaned by her to the other teacher.
The value of authoritative lists of books will be explained to the children
and one or more of these lists will be available to them, for example, the list
prepared by the National Council of Teachers of English. More non-fiction
reading will be encouraged in the junior and senior high schools.
It is recommended that all sources of free and inexpensive materials be
utilized in increasing our library facilities. Newspaper and magazine clip-
pings, pictures, and maps will be filed for use in the various units of study.
Current magazines and periodicals will be indexed and bound to serve as
reference materials. It is also recommended that teachers work out their
book orders together to avoid duplication of titles.
SOCIAL LIFE OF DESOTO COUNTY HIGH SCHOOL
In accordance with the school objective to develop the child into a
wholesome, happy individual, capable of taking his place in a democratic
society, the aim is to make the social life of the school a broader and more
inclusive part of its activities. Realizing the value of individual happiness
and the approval of the group in the development of personality, the faculty
aims to help each child become more cooperative and more thoughtful of
the use of his leisure time. By varied activities, it is intended to develop
the proper boy and girl relationships and to make social activity a vital part
of every child's education. This year the recreation hall will be used for more
activities, so that every student may have a greater opportunity to participate
in the social life of the school. The faculty will encourage and direct the
participation of all in some social activity.
1. That provisions be made for equipping the recreation hall to meet
the needs of all pupils.
2. That clubs be continued regularly throughout the year, one day a
3. That every pupil participating in any athletic event be given a
thorough physical examination.
4. That recreation might be planned definitely to include all pupils.
5. That administrative units of students conduct social events to be-
Evaluation is a continuous, revolutionary process and an integral part
of the school program. It should include all valid means of securing evi-
dence of progress toward the school objectives.
To get evidence of progress toward objectives, attempts must be made
to measure not only the growth of the pupil in functional information and
skills, but also the work habits, social sensitivity and ability to solve prob-
lems. Measurement of the above may come from pupil and parents' judg-
ments, questionnaires, anecdotal records, observations of behavior in class
and out, personal conferences, intelligence tests, achievement tests, and the
usual teacher-made tests. A satisfactory program of evaluation will be com-
prehensive but not too time-consuming.
The results of such a program should be useful to the pupil in his efforts
to improve himself, to the parent in cooperating with and supplementing
the services of the school, to the individual counselor in acquainting the
pupil with his strengths and enlisting his aggressiveness in attacking those
phases of his education which he needs to improve. The evaluation pro-
gram should also serve as a medium for continuous scrutiny of the cur-
riculum methods and objectives, and information so obtained should guide
the revision of the educational program in better meeting the needs of the
pupil and the community.
On tlie basis of the past year's experience, we recommend the following
changes in grading:
1. One grade is to be given for core on both report card and permanent
2. If a pupil fails in one part of core he will receive a failing grade
3. The teacher should inform the pupil of his weakness and make
specific suggestions for overcoming difficulties.
CHART OF UNITS IN THE CORE FOR THE YEAR 1940-1941
DE SOTO COUNTY HIGH SCHOOL
GRADE 9 GRADE 10
e art of ex- Promoting ai
dressing opin- controller
Soto County The story of o
the making language
South of the
How to get along
in a democracy
How to become
a good citizen
Making life real-
How to enjoy
How to make
our homes safe,
How to ap-
problem of a
tion and inter-
m e n t in a
Giving the home
its proper place
cracy in action
American life as
The influence of
Age on the de-
Becoming fa- The story of the Improving re- How are taxes
SIXTH miliar with in- origin of our lations in the raised and
MONTH telligent buy- country Americas spent?
ing practices -- --
What can I do human and na-
now toward tural resources
preparing for a
De Soto County International se- Regions of the Making a home
SEVENTH in the making curity U.S. today
How can we get How to get our Caring for the
what we pay money's worth dependents
for? and detectives
in our society
How to promote How can some
EIGHTH a reasonable specific city or
MONTH standard of liv- Economic con- rural prob-
ing editions in the lems be solved?
influence What oppor-
standards of tunities are
living there for con-
How are indivi-
dual and pub-
The influence of
The Federal sys-
The relations of
the U. S. with
Using our buy-
ing power wisely
The quest for
What we in-
of our personal
How science has
FORT WALTON SCHOOL
The faculty and interested citizens of the community were very much
pleased when they were tendered an invitation to become one of the Co-
operating Schools in the Summer Workshop. The entire faculty agreed to
attend summer school, participating in the Summer Workshop. In the spring
eight faculty meetings were held, four of those with the State Department
officials present. A survey of the school situation was made; this in-
cluded a student questionnaire, a health survey, a reading comprehension
test for all children in all grades from four through eleven; two grades
traced for the past six years, showing a tenure of service in one school. The
survey also included community needs. All of this material was typed and
sent to the State Department; the material was assembled and ready for
the use of the faculty on arrival at summer school. Each teacher went to
summer school with the feeling that much could be done to improve the
work of the school.
At the first meetings of the Summer Workshop, the faculty as a whole
set up the following major problems to be solved:
1. The relationship between the school, home, and community.
2. Social and vocational guidance.
3. Recreational and social needs.
4. The health program.
5. Language arts.
For each of these major problems a member of the faculty was chosen
as chairman. The entire faculty, as individuals, worked on the problems
consulting specialists in the field and reading many books. Then we had
group meetings for discussion of each problem with staff members present.
After which the material was compiled and tentative plans made by the
chairman for future work. A copy was given to each faculty member. If
it was necessary for future discussion another group meeting was held.
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE SCHOOL, HOME AND COMMUNITY
The effectiveness of a school program is determined by its working
relationships with the students in the school, the parents of the children,
and the men and women in the community.
In order to determine the effectiveness of a Parent-Teacher Association
program, one must have in mind certain objectives, and strive to attain
these objectives. The following objectives of the Ft. Walton Parent-Teacher
Association are three-fold: first, to help teachers to understand the prob-
lems of the families; second, to help parents and other adults in the com-
munity to understand children and youth and the kind of guidance they
need; third, to help children and young people to feel that the teachers
and parents are working together for the good of all. Certain problems have
come up in the Parent-Teacher Associations for a number of years, namely,
poor attendance, inadequate programs, and failure of responsible persons
to accept responsibility.
While at the Workshop this summer, the Ft. Walton faculty adopted
some policies and procedures for promoting more effective relationships
between the school and the home and community. The faculty assumed the
responsibility for working effectively with the people in the community
and developing interest in a total school-community educational program.
This program is to be carried out through the activities of the Parent-Teacher
Association, home visits to all the parents by the teachers, and adult classes
which will be held in cooperation of the Parent-Teachers Association, Wom-
en's Club, etc.
SOCIAL AND VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE
Social and Vocational Guidance is a program as broad as the universe.
Our particular part of the problem seemed to, be the aspect of the problems
dealing with the relationship of the boys and girls.
We tried to work out a type of guidance based on the real-life problems
of the young people. We decided that it was a definite part of each teach-
er's work; of each subject and each class period; it also included outside
school activities and extended to the life in the community. We felt the
greatest educational need of the school was that of citizenship which in-
cluded all our objectives. The special subjects in which we find special help
are: home economics, physical education, general business, language arts,
Some of the ways in which we decided to help our program were: (1)
help in choosing a career for the young people in our school by having sub-
jects which stressed this point, (2) to have a more functional social program
which included clubs, dances and other parties, (3) by trying to find a
stronger relationship between the community life and school.
RECREATIONAL AND SOCIAL NEEDS
In attempting to solve the recreation and social problems of our school
and community, we included the adults as well as the children. From our
survey in the spring we chose our point of view and made tentative plans
accordingly. Since ours is a resort town, we have many unusual situations.
We plan to meet these conditions in the following ways:
In the school:
1. Activity periods directed by teachers.
2. Active social functions.
4. Assembly programs.
In the community:
1. Cooperative with the community clubs and activities.
2. Work for social and recreational center.
3. Promote handicraft and special-interest groups among adults
The health program deals particularly with the improvement of the per-
sonal health of each individual. The aim and objective of the health program
is to continue to study local health situations and to make practical recom-
mendations and adjustments for improvement in the school, home, and
LANGUAGE ARTS PROGRAM
The general point of view regarding the language arts program was
that it should be concerned with the real needs of the young people in the
community. The following policies were set up by the faculty as general
principles to be carried out during the year.
1. Guide daily experiences so they grow out of children needs,
interests and experiences.
2. Continue to work for securing better reading materials.
3. Each teacher should assume the responsibility for the pupils
in her home room.
Each teacher made individual plans for her grades and subjects. Also
as a faculty we did some work on assembly programs, records and reports
and enlargement of the plant.
The material assembled at the summer workshop has been very valuable
,and each teacher is endeavoring to carry through the principles gained there.
The school faculty is anticipating visits from the State Department officials
who are to visit us as a part of the Curriculum Workshop program.
FORT WHITE SCHOOL
In keeping with the modern trends in education, the Fort White School
faculty has attempted to reorganize the curriculum of the school on the
basis of life-like situations, pupil interests, and individual abilities and needs.
Plans were made for strengthening the relations with the community
by selecting fourteen different "probable agencies," such as: school paper,
P.T.A., exhibits, clubs, community library, survey, home visits, conferences,
visiting days at school.
In plans for the year attention was given to the development of techni-
ques and to the guidance of boys and girls in utilizing the library effectively.
The music and art programs will continue to be closely correlated with the
social studies program.
HEALTH AND PHYSICAL EDUCATION
In planning the development of the total personality, health and physical
education are essential. The fundamentals of health will be either inte-
grated with other programs or taught as separate units. In some instances
the importance of the materials seems to demand separate units. The needs
of the individual child will be the guiding philosophy for the entire program.
The success of the program will be determined by the actual practices of the
In order to develop the physical body and at the same time create a
love for wholesome recreation, a forty-five minute period in the elementary
grades will be devoted to directed play each morning. In addition to the
above period grades, one, two, and three will have a directed play period
in the afternoon.
All children who are sick will be segregated immediately. Those who
have communicable diseases will be excluded from school until all danger
of spreading the disease has passed. Each family will be given a chart
showing the means by which such diseases are transmitted, the period of
incubation, and the period of isolation necessary as the result of exposure
or actual infection. There will be a daily health inspection in all of the
The County School Board will be requested to secure the services of a
competent physician to conduct a thorough physical examination of all
children in the school. A record of the physical defects of each child will
be kept. If possible, these defects will be corrected through cooperation with
the home. Immunization will be encouraged.
Several children are known to have defective vision. The P.T.A. will be
asked to provide the necessary funds in order that these children may con-
tinue in school without doing permanent injury to their eyes.
Personal care will be emphasized throughout the school. Teachers will
use every opportunity to stress this phase of the health program. Small
mirrors will be hung in the toilet rooms in order to encourage boys and
girls in the development of those habits which lead to an attractive personal
appearance. Individual conferences may be necessary in some cases; how-
ever, such conferences should not be held until the problem has been given
much careful study.
The High School Physical Education Program
One class in health fundamentals will be held each week and four periods
of directed playground activity (45-minute periods) will be held. All pupils
will be required to participate, except in cases of physical disability. Grades
will be given each month and will become a part of the child's permanent
school record. In the high school grades nine through twelve, one-fourth
unit of credit will be given for each year's participation. Graduation from
high school will require one unit in physical education in addition to the
sixteen now required. This requirement will be on a graduated basis for
those students above the ninth grade level at the beginning of the school
year 1940-41. The graduated requirements will be as follows: grade ten,
3/4 unit; grade eleven, 1/2 unit; grade twelve, 1/4 unit.
The social studies program has been planned for grades one through
twelve. In all instances an attempt has been made to begin with the child's
present and past living experiences and thereby lead him into the remote
past and into the probable future.
Areas for Emphasis
Grade one: "Home and School"
Grade two: "The Community"
Grade three: "Life in Our Community and Its Interrelationship with
Grade four: "Other Lands-World Geographic Regions"
Grade five: "The United States and Its Neighbors" (Geography and
history have been combined into a general social studies course.)
Grade six: "The Eastern Hemisphere"
Grade seven: "The Occupational and Industrial Study of World Geog-
raphy with Special Emphasis on the Two Americas" (This study begins with
Fort White and expands through the Western Hemisphere.)
Grade eight: "A Socialized Study of Problems in American History"
(Migration, Government, Agriculture, etc.)
There will be a general business course for grades nine and ten. The
course will be offered for the tenth grade primarily, with possible a few
ninth graders entering. No textbook will be followed strictly, but several
will be used for reference. In addition to books, free materials such as
booklets, pamphlets, and advertising matter will be used.
Grade ten: "World History" (Units on "Man's Basic Needs-Food,
Clothing, Shelter and Recreation," "Agriculture," "Industry," etc.)
Grade eleven: "Problems in American History" (Pupils will be per-
mitted to study those problems which engage their interest; therefore, no
fixed sequence will be followed.)
Grade twelve: "Problems of Present-Day Living" (Units on "The In-
dividual and His Problems," "Economic Problems," "Social Problems,"
"Political Problems," etc.)
The language arts program in the Fort White Elementary School is to
be correlated with social studies and other subjects. This situation was con-
sidered in making teaching suggestions for an enriched language arts pro-
gram. The suggestions offered are for the entire elementary school. They
are to be adapted to the grade levels by the grade teachers. The activities
should be evaluated in terms of their contributions in actual life situations.
The primary function of language is oral communication; therefore, this
activity should be emphasized. Correctness in speaking and writing will
be acquired through experiences in actual, normal communication rather
than through drills. Situations will arise which will cause the pupils to
realize the need, and only then will they benefit from drills. A special effort
has been made to provide practical material by keeping in mind the present
and future interests, needs, abilities, and capacities of the children to be
taught together with the limitations of the school situation in Fort White.
Some of the Objectives of the Language Arts Program
1. To create within children a feeling that language is important as
a means of communication.
2. To make children more critical of their written and spoken language
in order that they may learn to communicate ideas courteously and effec-
tively in a social and business environment.
3. To give children a knowledge of both oral and written composition,
and to master enough mechanics so that when children enter high school,
they can write letters, good compositions, make good talks from personal
experiences and on topics from other subjects, and speak correctly and
effectively at any time ....
8. To prepare the pupil for a valuable and enjoyable use of leisure
time by broadening his interests and experiences in good literature.
Each objective has been analyzed in detail as a guide for all the teachers.
An explanation for the literature (reading) program is included below:
1. The literature program should consist of experiences with and
through many types of stories, poems, plays, and books of information.
2. The pupil should be given experiences which are of interest to him
3. They should read both for pleasure and for information about the
unit being developed.
4. Since all pupils of the same class are not equal, the program should
be flexible to provide for individual differences.
5. In considering literature which is valuable to, the pupil now, those
selections whose worth the pupils realize after reading them should not be
6. The child should have some choice in the literature he is to read.
7. The child should have experience with many types: action, suspense,
adventure, humor, appeal to the senses, the social world, and fantasy.
In general, the science program of the elementary grades has been cor-
related with the social studies program.
In the high school the science program attempts to achieve the fol-
1. To appreciate the principles and laws of nature on which human
2. To explore science as a field of service for those desiring a useful life.
3. To offer a bird's eye view of the whole field of science.
4. To show man's dependence on plant and animal kingdoms.
5. To aid in solving home science problems.
6. To improve power of observation.
The following areas for emphasis in the junior high school have been
selected: Grade seven, "Relationship of Science to the World About Us";
Grade eight, "Man and His Environment"; Grade nine, "Making the Best
of Our Natural Resources."
General Objectives of the Elementary Mathematics Program
1. To bring children to proper appreciation of the cultural value and
social significance of mathematics.
2. To help children acquire the ability to perform with accuracy
and understanding the mathematical computations required by life.
3. To create an opportunity for social enrichment, the development
of mathematical insight, and the appreciation of mathematics as a reality
in the living world.
Minimum essentials have been considered for the elementary grades.
The superior child should exceed these standards. In some instances it
may be impossible for the pupil to master the indicated facts. These mini-
mum essentials have been set up as a guide for teachers only.
Mathematics in the Junior and Senior High School
In general, the mathematics program for the Fort White Junior and
Senior High School is planned so that every student will gain an apprecia-
tion of the part that mathematics plays in our everyday life. The program
is planned also to promote an understanding of certain mathematical con-
cepts and principles that are needed in solving the students' problems. It
is hoped that an increasing mastery of the ability to approach, define and
analyze a problem, to consider the information given and to. reach a solu-
tion from this information and from the concepts is obtained by every
In grade seven the course is begun with a general review of the funda-
mentals, the students working out problems of addition, subtraction, multi-
plication and division of integers, decimals, and fractions. The second unit
is planned to develop skill in making and interpreting simple graphs. Bar
graphs, line graphs, and pictographs are made from such known facts as
temperatures, heights, weights, grades, ages, etc. Already planned are three
additional units on: "Buying and Selling," "Thrift," and "Elementary
Eighth grade units included one of an introductory nature, and others
on: "Measurement," "Banking," "Taxation," and "Insurance."
In grade nine the selected topics are: "Practical Geometry," "Graphs,"
"Formulas and Equations," "Home Life Mathematics," and "Construction."
There will be two first year typing classes for juniors and seniors.
Emphasis will be placed at first on learning the keyboard with drill only
for accuracy. Emphasis the latter part of the course will be placed on speed
and letter writing, both personal and business.
General Record Keeping for grades eleven and twelve will take the
place of bookkeeping because we feel that it will be of more practical value
to students in a rural community. In general the purpose of the course
is to make the students aware of the necessity of keeping complete and ac-
curate records of both their personal and business affairs, to teach students
control over their expenditures, to prepare students to do necessary clerical
work in a business office, and finally, to give them the principles of debit
and credit used in bookkeeping. The course includes such units as informal
records, personal cash records, common business papers, books and accounts
used in recording business transactions. There will be practice in keeping
records for a trucking business, a cafeteria, and a service station. There
will also be practice in keeping the financial records of all the classes in
The attitudes to be measured will come from three sources: the class-
room, the school as a whole, and the community. There are to be two
evaluation sheets-one for the teacher, and one for the pupil. The evalua-
tion sheet consists of twenty questions relating to the pupil's attitudes. The
pupil will be given an evaluation sheet at the end of the first month, and
will be asked to rate himself on the basis of five graduated steps. The
teachers who come in contact with the pupil will be given a sheet, and will
rate the pupil as they see him. If it is felt that the teacher's rating and
that of the pupil differ, a personal conference with the child will be ar-
ranged. This same process will be repeated at the end of the fourth and
seventh months. We feel that this will enable us to measure growth in
attitudes of the individual pupil, of the class, and of the entire school.
Evaluation of growth in skills, knowledge and use of skills will be
determined through tests and observation of daily class work and actual
Realizing that the program of the Frostproof Schools was not serving
the needs of the community as effectively as it should, we began to seek
ways to improve this program. We watched with interest the progress of
the six high schools that participated in the Florida Workshop during the
summer of 1939. After conferring with pupils, teachers, and principals of
those schools, we decided to accept the invitation of the State Department
of Education to attend the Florida Workshop as a Cooperating School dur-
ing the summer of 1940.
In order that we might attack more effectively the problem of improv-
ing our curriculum, we attempted to analyze and evaluate our present
program in the light of the needs of the pupils and of the community. We
have worked out a tentative philosophy of education, stated the tentative
objectives of our school program, and reorganized our curriculum so that
it more nearly harmonizes with our philosophy, and will, we hope, lead to
a more effective realization of our objectives than would have been possible
with the old program. We know that our work will not be permanent but
that we will find it desirable to reorganize our curriculum, from time to
time, as social changes bring about new needs, or experience points the
way to better techniques.
BASIC POINT OF VIEW
Upon every school and every faculty rests the responsibility for giving
serious thought to the aims of education. These aims should grow out of
an understanding of the nature of society, the nature of the individual,
and the nature of the various agencies which contribute to the develop-
ment of the individual. We, the members of the faculty of the Frostproof
School, believe that if we are to meet more adequately the needs of the
boys and girls of the Frostproof community, it is necessary for us to state
clearly the philosophy on which the improved program is based. We rec-
ognize the fact that any philosophy of education represents merely the
beliefs held-for the time being, at least-by the individual, or group, stating
it. The following brief philosophy was worked out in a democratic man-
ner by the members of the faculty of Frostproof Schools and represents our
PHILOSOPHY OF THE FACULTY OF FROSTPROOF SCHOOL
The aims of any educational system are rooted deeply in the social
order which supports it, and have as their primary purpose the improve-
ment and perpetuation of our democratic way of life. Two of the chief
characteristics of our democracy are: first, the great emphasis it places
on the individual as an intelligent, contributing member of the social group;
second, the democratic way of life is not static but is an ever-changing,
ever-evolving process. If this way of life is to be improved and perpetuated,
an increasing number of individuals must be trained in the application of
democratic ideals to an ever-changing economic, social, and political order,
and in the solution of the varied and complex problems which grow out of
these changes. Many agencies-such as home, church, club, radio, etc.-
contribute to this training, but the school is the institution which society
has established to assume chief responsibility.
We believe that the public school should seek definitely to foster that
way of living which harmonizes the welfare of the iroup with the welfare
of the individual. We believe that the school should provide those ex-
periences for pupils which will: first, help them to deal intelligently with
the social, economic, and political changes of the present; second, prepare
them to plan wisely in dealing with changes in the future; third, encourage
them to examine with profit the experiences of the past as one step toward
the realization of one and two, above. Finally, we believe that the school
should provide for each pupil, opportunity for the maximum physical, social,
emotional, and intellectual development of which he is capable in order
that he may enjoy personal success and happiness and be a socially useful
member of every group in which he finds himself.
We believe that learning is a process of growth which takes place as the
organism reacts and adjusts itself to its environment. In this sense the
lower forms of animals are able to learn. We believe, however, that the
human organism is creative, and that it uses insight and is capable, there-
fore, of learning of a more complex nature. Learning begins at birth and
continues throughout life. It may be defined in terms of change in the
organism. In our opinion, learning is not a process whereby each act is
learned as a separate unit and then the whole combined to constitute a
thoroughly learned process, but the most effective learning takes place when
the process is learned in relationship to the whole. Two conditions which
we believe essential to, effective learning are: first, a desire to learn on
the part of the learner; sepondt' dn opportunityy for the learner to see the
-' "' -"'", 925 ""
relationship of the part to the whole. We believe that the desire to learn
is strongest when learning experiences are life experiences, or are related
as closely as possible to life.
Teachers and communities do not wish themselves, but rather work
themselves, into new and improved ways of doing things. We wish to observe
new ways of proceeding before accepting them, but once the superiority
of a new way has been demonstrated we are eager to adopt it. For more
than a decade we have observed schools making highly satisfactory progress
through the use of a correlated activity program. We believe that this type
of program is a highly desirable method of organizing those experiences
which all boys and girls should have in order to participate effectively in
The individual will be more willing and more able to make a worth-
while contribution to the solution of problems of the group if his personal
needs are first met in an adequate manner. Our correlated program is
based on a consideration of the personal immediate needs as well as the
social and future needs of the individual. We think of the general aims
of education in Frostproof Schools in the terms of purposeful activity based
on the present interests and needs of the pupils. We believe that the best
preparation for the future is found in adequately and wisely meeting the
needs of the present.
In planning a correlated program it is not our purpose to neglect the
skill or "tool" subjects,"but rather to present, so far as practical, the essential
skills in life situations so that pupils, seeing the need for them, will more
thoroughly and more readily master them.
TENTATIVE AREAS OF LIVING FOR EMPHASIS IN THE SCHOOL
In analyzing the total environment of the boys and girls of the Frost-
proof community we find that these boys and girls have certain needs
which, we believe, may be classified under the following so-called areas of
1. Living and Working Together in Family and Community Groups.
2. Protecting and Conserving Personal and Public Health and Property.
3. Exchanging Ideas, Goods, and Services.
4. Producing and Consuming Goods and Services.
5. Securing the Optimum Development of Aesthetic and Moral Impulses.
6. Controlling Ourselves in Organized Groups.
7. Understanding the World of Today, Both Social and Physical, and
the Contributions of the Past in the Making of This World.
8. Using Leisure Time in a Worthy Manner.
.. "26 " .'- '.':6
AN ANALYSIS OF THE PROGRAM OF THE ELEMENTARY
SCHOOL FOR 1940-1941
EXAMPLES: GRADES THREE AND FOUR
Work Related to
Unit Titles Broad Topics Scope: Individual Needs
How We Cele-
with other na-
How We Get
Days in Feb-
How Do Boys
How Do Our
Play Life in
Our Food in
What Shall I
Wear in Flor-
How Shall I
Live in Flor-
Why Am I
Playing Safe Safety
The theme for
this grade is "Liv-
ing and Working
Together in the
munity". This will
be an expansion of
the themes devel-
oped in grades one
and two and will
The theme for
this grade is "Liv-
ing and Working
Together in Flor-
ida." In develop-
ing the units list-
ed for this grade
pupils will find it
necessary to use,
in addition to ma-
terials drawn from
the school and
terials from' the
fields of social
arts, music, health,
and art, and to
some extent, from
all other subject
Arithmetic: 45 ad-
dition and sub-
ures: pt, ft, yd, qt;
book and drill on
words in units
Essentials of us-
age with verbs,
ital letters and
al reading period
provided for each
and long division
form with one
book used with
new words from
ORGANIZATION OF THE CURRICULUM OF THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL
The general theme around which the work of the Frostproof Elementary
School for the term of 1940-1941 is being planned is "Living and Working
Together." The correlated work of each grade is being planned to develop
and expand this theme. The theme for two of the grades and the centers
of interest, or unit topics, to be used in developing the themes, will be found
in the table which follows. Since the units listed will develop from life
situations, the resources of the school and community will be used to the
greatest extent possible. Pupils will find it necessary and desirable, of course,
to draw materials from subject matter fields also.
We have made special provision for a period each day devoted to work
designed to fit individual needs. Stimulation for the activities of this period
for practice and drill on needed skills will come, as far as possible, from
the development of the units and from other actual experiences in the daily
life of the child.
ORGANIZATION OF THE JUNIOR AND SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
After discussing the arguments for and against the various types of
curriculum organization, the members of the faculty of Frostproof High
School agreed unanimously that a correlated, or core, program would pro-
vide best for the needs of the children of the Frostproof community. How-
ever, it was decided to limit this type of organization to grades seven, eight,
and nine during the school term of 1940-41. We hope to extend it to in-
clude the senior high school grades in the near future. This procedure
was selected because we believe that the activities in school should be
organized in a way which will carry over with greatest ease to life situa-
tions. We believe also that the curriculum should be organized in such a
way as to enable pupils to secure an understanding of the issues and prob-
lems encountered outside of school, and to aid pupils in developing effective
techniques in problem solving.
The correlated work in our junior high school will include those ex-
periences which we believe all boys and girls should have. In developing
the activities of our integrated program materials will be drawn, so far as
possible, from school and community sources. In developing these activi-
ties we will draw materials also from the subject-matter fields of social
science, language arts, music, art, science, and physical education.
While we are not attempting to organize the work of grades ten, eleven,
and twelves on a unified basis, all teachers will make a definite effort to
relate subject matter to the needs, ability, experience, and interests of the
pupil. Plans have already been made for some large unit teaching in almost
every subject-matter field, and an effort will be made to adapt subject-
matter to personal, as well as social needs.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE PROGRAM OF THE JUNIOR HIGH
SCHOOL FOR 1940-1941
EXAMPLES: GRADES SEVEN AND EIGHT
Unit l itles
What Do We Owe Our Great
Leaders-the Meaning of
How Our Homes Have Changed
Since Pioneer Times
How Inventions and Discoveries
Have Influenced Our Lives
Maintaining Personal and Com-
How Florida's Minerals and
Wild Life May be Conserved
How Man Has Carried on Com-
munication and Transporta-
How the Forces of Air and Wa-
ter Effect People
Facts versus Superstition
How to Organize Our Seventh
Grade for Effective Citizenship
How to Use the Library and
Get the Most Out of Books
Conservation of Forests in Flor-
ida and the U.S.
Health Conditions in Our Com-
How Men Communicated with
Homes Around the World
Interdependence of Nations or
Peoples. How Our Growth and
Development Have Made Us
Dependent upon Others and
They on Us
A Story of Religion
Tentative Areas of Living
Living and Working Together
in Family and Community
Controlling Ourselves in Or-
Using Leisure Time in a Wor-
Protecting and Conserving Per-
sonal and Public Health and
Protecting and Conserving Per-
sonal and Public Health and
Producing, Consuming Goods
Exchanging Ideas, Goods, and
Understanding the World of
Exchanging Ideas, Goods, and
Securing the Optimum Devel-
opment of Moral and Aes-
Understanding the World of
Controlling Ourselves in Organ-
Living and Working Together in
Family and Community
Exchanging Ideas, Goods, and
Producing and Consuming
Goods and Services
Protecting and Conserving Per-
sonal and Public Health and
Protecting and Conserving Per-
sonal and Public Health and
Exchanging Ideas, Goods, and
Understanding the World To-
Understanding the World To-
GAINESVILLE HIGH SCHOOL
The instructional program in the classroom will continue to conform
to the type of subject matter areas or departments. It is proposed to pro-
vide an increase of continuity both vertical and horizontal through well-
planned and cooperative correlation; application through tying what is
learned to every possible aspect of actual experience; life contacts by means
of all material and agencies in which and by which the pupil lives and learns.
Democratic participation, in the classroom and elsewhere, will be fostered
and achieved by the whole spirit and atmosphere of the school-that is, the
democratic way of life will be lived and not merely talked about.
The lower 30 per cent of the group must continue to be provided with
work suited to their needs and capacities. However, the upper 30 per cent,
from which come most of the leaders, must receive more attention through
enrichment of their studies and activities.
It is fully realized that there is no such thing as a completely homo-
geneous group, that a wide range of individual capacities and interests
exists within any group. It is proposed to take full account of this fact
and so far as possible to minister to the needs and interests of each pupil
as an individual.
Improved speech service for every child is imperative. This may be
accomplished through cooperative planning on the part of the Speech and
An enlarged and improved social program may be achieved through
the cooperation of a social committee with the homerooms.
AREAS OF LIVING
The areas considered in preparing units of instruction are the seven
major divisions in the list of objectives: physical and mental health, social
responsibility, economic competence, use of leisure time, home relationship,
civic responsibility, and life philosophy.
BROAD TOPICS: THE BASES FOR CORRELATION
Recognizing the natural correlations between certain subjects on the
various grade levels, we have chosen the following broad topics as conceptual
bases for such predictable correlations:
Grade 7 English, Social Studies,
Grade 8 English,
Grade 9 English,
Grade 10 English,
Grade 11 English,
Grade 12 English,
Getting acquainted with and con-
trolling our environment.
Improving the environment through
invention and discovery.
How man adjusts himself to an ex-
How modern civilization and culture
How man developed a nation on a
How man meets the problems of a
Elective subjects may contribute to the correlations indicated above, as
opportunity permits. Correlations are also planned between science and
physical education and between mathematics and science.
PROGRAM OF STUDIES
In the seventh grade the following subjects are required: English,
arithmetic, geography, civics and science, and physical education. Music
is an elective.
English, arithmetic, history, and physical education are required in
the eighth grade. Electives are Latin, science, junior business training,
In the ninth grade English, mathematics, physical education, and home
economics (for girls) are required. Civics, science, Latin, agriculture, speech,
and music are electives.
English and world history are required in the tenth grade. Electives
are Latin, science, French, music, speech, algebra, home economics, agri-
culture, and manual arts.
In the eleventh grade English and United States history are required.
Plane geometry, chemistry, speech, physiography, French, Latin, psychology,
commercial courses, and music are electives.
English and social problems are required subjects in the twelfth grade.
Electives are physics, trigonometry, solid geometry, French, Latin, com-
mercial courses, music, speech, English history, review mathematics, and
In addition to the academic areas heretofore included in the program,
formal instruction and practice in music and health and physical education
will be added, the latter at least throughout the junior high school. If
conditions do not permit the addition of formal instruction in art, efforts
will be made to achieve appreciation of the beautiful, and practical educa-
tion in the field, through the medium of English, home economics, and social
science courses, making application by means of illustrative materials, pro-
jects, beautification and care of classrooms, buildings and grounds.
SPECIFIC SUBJECT INTERESTS
Business Administration.-The general objective of the commercial de-
partment is to equip students with skills, attitudes, and desirable patterns
of behavior essential to success in the business world.
English.-The English course is designed to develop and to improve the
pupil's habits of reading, speaking, writing, listening, reasoning, and imagin-
ing. Its further purpose is so to contribute to the enlarged life of the child
that he may better approach that ideal of character which is the chief
objective of the school.
French.-The main objective in the teaching of French is that the pupil
may acquire ability to read French. Minor objectives are to engender an
interest in France and things French, and to broaden the pupil's enjoyment
of travel whether it be actual or vicarious.
Home Economics.-Courses in this department are conducted with the
aim of presenting basic information and experience in the functions and
activities of the home, developing some degree of skill in the major duties
of the home with the desire of awakening in the pupils an appreciation
of and an interest in the art of homemaking. Required of all girls, the
home economics course provides training in personal health, including
hygiene, physiology, and sex education.
Latin.-Objectives for the study are: the discovery and appreciation
of Latin as an interesting and important element of our environment; the
reading of Latin; an improvement in writing and reading English; the ac-
quirement of a better perspective upon our problems through a study of the
likenesses and differences between the ancient and modern world; and the
development of appreciation for Roman contributions to history, art, and
Mathematics.-In seventh, eighth, and ninth grades, where mathematics
is a required subject, the purpose is to develop in the individual child a
habit of persistence, skill and accuracy in the use of mathematics as a tool,
and a critical attitude toward the situation and the results.
In algebra, plane and solid geometry, and trigonometry, which are elec-
tives in the senior high school, the purpose is, in addition to the objectives
above, to acquaint the student. with certain technical skills and subject
matter, to foster the habit of logical and creative thought, and to cultivate
an increasing interest in the subject.
In the course in practical mathematics, required in twelfth grade of
those students who have taken no mathematics in the senior high school,
the aim is to refresh and increase the student's skill in the fundamental
processes, develop consumer intelligence, and acquaint the child with some
of the many points at which mathematics touches daily life.
Physical and Natural Sciences.-The science department has as its gen-
eral aims to create and encourage scientific attitudes and procedures; to
present broader concepts, generalizations, and outlooks; to open new fields of
interest and satisfaction; to enable the individual to meet problems of living
with the available scientific knowledge and requisite skills; to build up social
attitudes and appreciations. The several courses offered and their objec-
Junior High Science (7th, 8th, 9th grades)-to develop in the
pupil an understanding of, appreciation for, and an interest in the
use and control of his environment.
Senior High Science-Biology, Zoology, and Botany-to give the
pupil an understanding and appreciation of the beauties of nature;
to show the civic and economic relationships of plants and animals
to the human race.
Chemistry-to provide knowledge of the principles of chemistry
that will give a better understanding of natural laws; to give pupils
who will go to college a knowledge of the vocational fields in chem-
istry; to familiarize students with achievements in chemistry.
Physiography-to provide a more complete knowledge of the
abode of man-its place in the universe, its physical features, its
formation, its mineral resources.
Physics-to give an understanding of the fundamental laws and
principles of physics in a simple, brief, useful, and interesting way.
Speech.-The speech students learn by doing. The work is planned
to give the pupil training in successful living through acquiring effective
speech habits. This is brought about through improvement in posture, dic-
tion, pronunciation, enunciation, conversation, and power of thought.
Social Studies.-The purpose, or objective, of the program of social stu-
dies, is to guide pupils in acquiring knowledge, skills, understandings,
attitudes, ideals, and habits of participation that enable them to take their
places as efficient citizens in a democracy. This objective recognizes two
needs that can be approached through this department: responsible par-
ticipation in social significant activities, and the need for social recognition.
The invitation extended to our faculty group to attend the Cooperating
Schools' Workshop seemed to be a challenge to the school to do something
to meet the needs of the boys and girls as well as those of the community.
We were glad to have the opportunity to plan such a program with the
help of staff members, consultants and others who were specialists in their
To meet the particular situation of our community we worked out the
following program for our small school of sixty-three pupils and three
teachers. A chapter of Future Farmers of America was organized for the
boys in grades four through eight. We expect to obtain a charter soon.
These boys go by bus every Monday and Friday afternoon to a large muck
farm where each boy has as much land as he can cultivate for his indi-
vidual plot. In addition to. this, a large school garden is cultivated by all
the school boys. Turnip-greens and radishes are now ready to eat. Other
vegetables are growing rapidly. Some parents have brought fertilizer and
otherwise assisted their boys with the individual plots.
A school nursery in which the boys will grow flowers, shrubs and orna-
mental plants as well as citrus and other fruit trees has been started. The
flowers, shrubs, etc., will be used to beautify the homes and yards of the
community, the churches, community house and school. The fruit trees will
be given to those who wish to begin a home orchard. The school children,
cooperating with the Garden Club and others, are making the grounds of
the public buildings more attractive.
The girls of grades four through eight have a well organized 4-H Club
under the supervision of the Home Demonstration Agent assisted by the local
teachers. The two afternoons that the boys go to the farm the girls have
classes in clothing, foods, canning, home-improvement, poultry and garden-
ing. In the clothing classes the girls do some of the family sewing, darn-
ing and mending. A well equipped lunchroom is at the disposal of the girls
for their cooking, meal planning and canning.
The first year home-improvement girls were taken to a nearby home
where the family had been requested to leave the table just as they had
finished the noon meal. The second year girls demonstrated to them the
correct way to put away the food, clear the table and wash the dishes.
The next week this class was taken to another home where they were taught
the correct way to make the bed and set the table. These classes are also
starting a thrift bedroom project. A complete set of furniture will be made
from crates, packing cases and other materials.
Each Wednesday all of the children go home at one o'clock to work
on their home projects of gardening, home-improvement, poultry, etc.
Every child does something to improve home conditions. The teachers spend
this afternoon in visiting the homes of the children, offering suggestions,
consulting with parents and actually lending a hand with the work. Each
home is visited at least once every two weeks. These visits are bringing
the school and home closer together.
These activities furnish a great deal of materials for arithmetic, read-
ing, oral and written English, social and natural science. Monday, Wednes-
day and Friday mornings a period is provided for the classes to write plans
for the work they expect to do those afternoons. The next morning each
pupil writes what he actually did. This provides a goal and a check-up
system. Tuesday and Thursday afternoons we have long periods for skills
and drills found necessary during our regular activities.
While at the Workshop a list of books was selected from those on
display that would best fit the needs of our school and program. We added
more than two hundred new books to our library. Bulletins, posters and
other materials from the State and National Government as well as other
sources have been received. A magazine exchange is now in operation with
the help of the Missionary Societies and others.
We have a twenty-five piece school band under the direction of the
principal. This band includes children from the third grade through the
eighth and the teachers. About thirty-five per cent of the entire school
membership plays in it. We have a special music teacher who devotes one
day each week to the school. Every pupil enjoys singing. She is training
the younger children in a rhythm band. A faculty member teaches art to
the entire school. Some excellent creative work has been done by the
pupils. They are now working on project posters.
Health is of prime importance in our program. The school nurse has
had every pupil tested for hookworms. Treatment has been ordered for
all who were found to be infested. Each child has had a physical examina-
tion and those with defects are to receive special care and treatment. A
number will be taken to a physician for examination of tonsils and blood
tests. The P.T.A. with the cooperation of the parents, school nurse and
doctors plan to have all bad tonsils removed.
We have a regular physical education and recreational program for the
school. We also have a program for the community with a play night once
each week with all types of recreation.
Our school lunchroom operated through the W.P.A. serves about sixty
per cent of our children. Well-balanced lunches consisting of a plate lunch,
glass of milk and dessert are served for ten cents. Those who are unable
to pay for their lunches donate something in produce or services. Vegetables
from the school garden will soon be available and it is hoped that the price
can be reduced.
When we returned from the Workshop we talked over our plans with
the County Superintendent who pledged us his entire cooperation. We
then contacted the P.T.A. president; she promised her support. On the
opening day of school we took the pupils into our confidence and told them
just what we wanted to do. They were very enthusiastic. The first Wednes-
day afternoon the teachers visited the homes of the patrons and explained
to them the program and why the children were home early. At the first
meeting of the P.T.A. for this year the program was again explained and
suggestions for making it better were called for. We are now receiving the
cooperation of practically every adult in the community. Several have help-
ed and others are planning to aid us in different phases of our work.
The first three grades are leading up to this program by working on a
"home project." They are building a playhouse in the schoolroom, making
the furniture of boxes. This will be followed by a farm project. They are
reading easy books on "farm" and "home." They are working on a small
garden at school. They also do what they can to help at home on Wednes-
This type of program means much more work for the teachers but we
do not mind if it will help to make good citizens of our boys and girls and
produce better and more wholesome living conditions in our community.
We feel very indebted to the Workshop and those who assisted us for the
inspiration and advice we received while there. At its close each school
presented a poem. This one expressed our sentiments. (Apologies to Mr.
Tell us not, in mournful numbers,
The Workshop was an empty dream;
For we talked it in our slumbers,
All day long it would seem.
Our work was real. We worked in earnest,
For a better program was our goal;
And ever in our mind returnest,
That the child has a soul.
Their enjoyment, and not sorrow,
Guided us through all the way;
That our teaching of tomorrow
May be better than today.
Let us, now, go home rejoicing,
Thanking staff and consultants, too;
For their patience and guidance,
And make our Workshop dreams come true.
HAVANA HIGH SCHOOL
To a man-yea, even to a woman-the Havana High School faculty
enjoyed the Workshop during the past summer.
The first few days were spent in organization. From the beginning, it
was understood that each member of the group was to enjoy the same
privilege of freedom of expression; that, at the Workshop, each teacher-
even the principal-was merely a student. Throughout the whole session,
this spirit of democracy, cooperativeness, and congeniality in general was
especially evident within the Havana group. By the end of the first week,
a list of problems had been set up for the summer's work and a general
method of attack had been agreed upon.
The problems set up were:
2. Playground Activities.
3. Arts and Crafts and Music.
5. Assembly and Homeroom Programs.
6. Student Activities.
8. Grading and Placement.
9. Relationship Between School and Community.
11. Physical Plant.
12. Administrative Problems.
14. Methods of Instruction.
The method used to set up these problems was the same method used
in making any decision concerning the whole group: the matter at hand
was opened for discussion, arguments were presented, and then a vote was
taken. The group abided cheerfully by the decision reached in this manner.
After the general problems had been agreed upon, the group made de-
cisions concerning hours of working, presiding officer, representatives to
meetings held outside the group, etc. The Havana group met each day from
8:00-12-30 and from 2:00-4:00. The group elected a permanent secretary
but decided upon a revolving chairmanship. Sometime during the session,
everybody in the group had an opportunity to represent the group at several
of the numerous meetings held in connection with the Workshop.
At first, the group as a whole worked on the problem selected by the
group, but it was necessary near the end of the session, for the group to work
on as many as three problems simultaneously. However, the method of
attack was the same regardless of the size of the group of attackers: all
possible aspects of the problem were listed, questions asked to classify am-
biguous phases of the problem, definition of terms used and discussion
whenever necessary. An outline was made from all this. Finally assign-
ments were made to committees or to single members of the group. The
group responsible for any problem or part of a problem decided among them-
selves what part each could perform and proceeded to utilize as many
sources of information as possible. After ample time for investigation the
whole group came back for a meeting together, at which meeting the in-
formation gleaned during the time allotted for investigation was presented
to the group, discussed throughly, and evaluated. The final report was in
the form of recommendations intended to relieve or remedy the circum-
stances surrounding the problem.
An accumulative list of recommendations decided upon after investiga-
tion of the various problems would be too long to give in full. However, it
is possible, and probably more enlightening, to give la list of the recom-
mendations put into effect during the first weeks of this school year:
1. Complete new schedule working well (from standpoint of time,
length of periods, and arrangement of periods.)
2. Provision for an activity period to include two days each week
for clubs, two for library, and one for homeroom activities in
addition to a physical education period four days each week
and chapel on the fifth day.
3. A chapel program scheduled definitely during the summer has
worked out exactly as planned, so far.
4. Removal, redecoration, and general improvement of sick room.
5. Additional Home Economics equipment.
6. New report cards (printed and here.)
7. Installation and strict adherence to an excuse system for
absences and tardies.
8. Rearrangement and reallocation of homerooms.
9. Medical examinations.
10. Playground equipment has been ordered.
11. New system of grading is being used.
12. Faculty members already working on committee assignments
made at the end of Workshop.
13. Filing equipment has been ordered.
14. Social worker has been asked to be on next P.T.A. program.
Probably one of the most important benefits of the Workshop was the
genuine pleasure received by the teachers during the time spent in the
Workshop for in addition to learning how to help themselves, their schools,
communities, students, and the whole situation in general, they learned
many new games, dances, and recreational measures-to say nothing of
many new people from among the members of the Workshop staff members
and consultants. Best of all, in some cases, members of the faculty learned
to know and hence to understand each other better.
Furthermore, the spirit of interest in the school, willingness to work
hard, desire to be fair, and good fellowship developed among the faculty
during the summer has spread into the school and there is a noticeable
change in the attitude of the pupils who, although they have always been
above average, had room for improvement.
The situation as a whole looks good and the prospects for the future
seem brighter than ever before.
When the Jay faculty arrived at the Workshop they had in their pos-
session a group of survey reports which gave them a general outline of
their situation. They were fully conscious that their school was located
in an agricultural district of Northwest Florida, and that it is large. Ap-
proximately 1000 children are enrolled each year, of whom about 300 are
in the high school, with the remaining 700 in the elementary school. They
are transported by busses, and may come from distances of 10 or more
miles, some of them leaving their homes before daylight in the winter
months and returning after dark at night. There are also in the district
an undesirably large number of children of school age who do not attend
school at all, and many more who attend regularly only in the winter months
when their help is not needed with the crops.
The faculty itself numbered 26, of whom 21 were women. The ma-
jority of the teachers had been born and brought up in the community,
and now had established homes in it, so that their knowledge of the local
culture was intimate, and their love for the community and desire for its
From the first day at the Workshop, the Jay faculty adopted a critical,
at times almost a defiant attitude, toward all suggestions. "How much will
it cost?" was the query that invariably arose even before consideration of
the merits of a question. And if the answer was anything above zero, no
interest could be aroused, be the proposition what it might. For in every
mind was the knowledge that the county school system was in dire financial
need, that the community had suffered two poor seasons, and that the
teachers themselves had not been paid in full for their services and were
attending summer school on a loan.
However, by the end of a busy six weeks, the Jay faculty had found a
number of ways in which their school might be improved without the outlay
of an extra penny. These suggestions are embodied in the minutes of their
meetings and reports on health, reading, pupil activities, and community-
As did many of the other Workshop groups, the Jay group considered
the health of the school child their first problem, believing that "Our health
affects everything we do and everything we do affects our health." Their
survey reports had shown them that malaria, Brills fever, hookworm, and
pneumonia were outstanding diseases in the community, and their observa-
tion in the classroom had revealed that many of the children suffered from
faulty vision and hearing, bad adenoids, and bad tonsils, and were poorly
nourished. It was clear to the committee working on health that each
child in the school should have a physical examination, although no health
unit, public health physicians, or nurse is available in the county. In
securing these examinations, the committee suggested that neighboring
doctors and dentists would probably be willing to give heart and teeth
examinations, while individual teachers would be able to check on ear and
eye conditions. Permanent record cards would, of course, have to be kept,
and these, presumably, can be obtained free of charge. The younger children
should be weighed monthly and older pupils might assist in this project.
With the evidence of the physical examination available, it was felt
that the interest of the parents could be aroused to the physical needs of
their children; and where the parents themselves were unable to pay for
treatment, the local clubs might be induced to sponsor it. It was hoped
that eventually an active School-Community Club might be formed which
would have this work as its main object.
Individual plans for physical training and health education were worked
out by each of the teachers in the elementary grades, and it was agreed
that safety was to be stressed throughout the entire school program, in-
stituting also a form of student patrol.
The reading program constituted another grave problem which called
for the attention of the group and each individual teacher. The reading
test (Unit Scale of Attainment) given last spring showed 54% of pupils
below normal (64% of the children in grade 7 to 12 were below normal;
46% in grades 3 to 7). Remedial reading classes were decidedly a need;
however, scheduling them with the present teaching force appeared an im-
possibility. This work must consequently fall to the individual teacher.
Each elementary grade teacher studied her own grade and drew up plans
for reading in it.
With the beginners, it was decided to give a reading readiness test, and
on the basis of this test divide the first grade into two sections-a high and
a low-from which they might be promoted to the second grade, rather
than all remaining two years in the first grade, as is the present practice.
With the elementary school in general, it was agreed to schedule reading
classes at the same hour in all classes, and send the better readers of one
group to a class above, and the poorer to a lower class for reading. In the
Junior High, it was felt more could be accomplished if one teacher kept the
same group throughout the day, and so departmentalism was to be abandoned.
For the Senior High, the recommendation was that special stress be
placed on reading throughout every class, whether English, history, or
Allied to the reading problem, is the library situation. When the Jay
school was burned a few years ago, the libraries were, of course, also de-
stroyed, and neither the elementary nor high school library have yet been
built up to standard. The practice of charging a library fee is to be con-
tinued, and money from faculty plays is also to be used for this purpose.
Very important in any modern school are the student activities outside
of the class room. And in these activities the school wished to stress the
principles of democracy, and develop leadership among the pupils. Jay
school has only limited play equipment, and the distances its pupils live
from school put a handicap on all its evening and night entertainments.
However, some very definite plans were drawn up for increasing the activi-
ties of the student government and instituting a program of clubs in the
school. Another recommendation of especial interest was that a close record
be kept of all finances of student activities, and a report be publicly posted
at the end of the school year.
Some of the most interesting work of the group was done on the school-
community relationship. In the first place, there is at present no Parent-
Teacher Association, and it is felt that the usual type would not be a suc-
cess here; yet, there is a real need for bringing to the patrons of the school
a closer understanding of the school problems. The committee working on
this problem suggested that teachers do more visiting in the home of the
children, and parents be more urgently invited to visit the school. A plan
for developing community interest in the school was to hold a playnight
one Friday of every month-a playnight when the pupils and their parents
and the young people not in school can -come to the school and enjoy a
varied program of games and contests. And as the patrons grow to know
the school program, and are less shy of it, the formation of a School-Com-
munity Club would be a natural development.
The closing days before the great Friday for disbanding the Workshop,
the Jay faculty met to summarize its program, and consider how they could
carry it out when they returned to the busy school environment. The guid-
ing principles of the school were drawn up:
1. To relate school life as closely as possible to the community.
2. To stress democratic procedures in all school activities.
3. To make all time spent on the school ground a planned learning
4. To understand individual students.
5. To plan with students.
6. To have wholesome faculty, student, and community rela-
7. To build, evaluate, and readjust programs in the light of
And in close relationship to these guiding principles, things to be done this
fall were listed:
1. Introduce a better reading program-use plans formulated in
2. Introduce a functional health program.
3. Introduce a school-community relationship program.
4. Work on developing arts and crafts program.
5. Develop and administer guidance program.
6. Stress democracy throughout school program.
7. Develop pride in farming-love of soil.
8. Enrich student activity program.
9. Build a better report card during first six weeks.
10. Organize materials on hand for better use.
11. Develop music appreciation through phonograph records.
12. Give reading readiness tests to beginners.
13. Improve beauty of rooms and grounds.
14. Introduce broad unit plan throughout the school.
15. Build high school program.
16. Hold faculty meeting once a week-Monday nights.
17. Build a loudspeaker for the Auditorium.
18. Build up library.
19. Draw up a school calendar.
20. Put on a drive for 4-H Club Membership.
21. Evaluate continuously.
22. Make new plans in the light of the evaluation.
And that not all these ideas be forgotten before school began, and no one
feel responsible for developing them in practice, committees were appointed,
which included even an Evaluation Committee, and made use of every mem-
ber of the faculty and, at times, pupils and parents as well. The faculty,
it will be noted, were to meet after supper on Mondays, and part of their
meeting was to be social, to which friends might be invited. It was hoped
thus to form a faculty club which might be the nucleus of the School-
It would be very much in error to suppose that the Jay group left the
Workshop satisfied with the work that had been done. They were far
from satisfied. They had caught, sometime, some place, during their weeks
there, a glimpse of what the ideal school might be and their own, with the
best they could do for it, seemed poor in comparison. They wanted a school
that would be living and real, close to the community, built on the needs of
the children, helping each one to realize his best physically and socially,
prepared for the society of the future and not the past. But such a school,
they felt, would be far more vocational than anything they would have to
offer for a long time to come, and indeed than they themselves were pre-
pared to teach in.
Lee, a small rural town of hardly 300 inhabitants, is conveniently lo-
cated on U. S. Highway 90, eight miles east of Madison. Individuals en-
gaged in activities typical of the average farmer populate the village and
surrounding community. Slightly over 300 individuals, largely transported,
attend the consolidated community school.
All the faculty members from the school in this town came-to become
one of the Cooperating Schools in the Workshop-during the first session
of summer school. The dominant purpose behind this united move was
improvement of instruction.
Four joint faculty and staff member meetings in the spring paved the
way for effective work at the beginning of the summer session. The teach-
ers knew definitely what they wanted before they went to the Workshop,
for they had conducted surveys that helped them to define their purpose in
going to the Workshop.
The Lee faculty expressed its conviction that the Workshop was a demo-
cratic institution in which principals, teachers, staff members, and consultants
worked in unision to resolve the problems confronting its members and that
it was this prevailing democratic atmosphere that enabled and stimulated
good will and good work from the beginning.
Among the things listed as outcomes of the summer's activities by mem-
bers of the Lee faculty are: (1) a better system of faculty organization for
effective work, (2) a better understanding among faculty members, (3) a
broader conception of the relation of the school to the community, (4) a
physical education program planned in detail for a year's work, (5) a social
studies program planned for grades one through twelve, (6) an arithmetic
grade placement program for all grades, (7) plans for a remedial reading
program, (8) association that is priceless, (9) pleasure and relaxation, (10)
inspiration and satisfaction, and (11) individual help.
As a result of the summer's experience the faculty group is convinced
that it is drawn close together. High school, grammar school, and primary
teachers assembled in a group to discuss problems. They saw their rela-
tionship in learning as a continuous process as they had never seen it.
Their planning and studying together to a common goal threw them in
contact with each other to the extent that they view their actions in terms
of ten others.
The faculty also expressed itself as having a much broader view of the
relationship of the school to the community than it previously had. The
pre-Workshop surveys revealed the community needs; research and con-
sultation led to resolving approaches to meeting these needs. These broad-
ened the view of the school's debt to society. It feels more aware of the
fact that the community of tomorrow will reflect the influence of the schools
of today and that the child should so live in the schoolroom that it will
be able to fill its place more efficiently in society.
Through research and advice from state officials, staff members, and
consultants, the Lee faculty left the Workshop with a well-rounded nine-
months' physical education program. This program is under the super-
vision of the principal, but each teacher is responsible for her respective
group. Each teacher of the first four grades has charge of her grade. The
fifth grade teacher has charge of the fifth and sixth grade girls; the sixth
grade teacher has charge of the fifth and sixth grade boys. The boys and
girls in grades 7-12 are classified as to interests. Boys and girls of lead-
ership qualities assist the teachers in various groups. The elementary
activity period is for 30 minutes, beginning at 10:00; the high school,
for 45 minutes, beginning at 2:30. Each teacher has a flexible and varied
program of activities for the year. In keeping with democratic participation,
a physical education council composed of two members (a boy and a girl)
from each grade (7-12) meets with the high school teachers to plan the
activities week by week. The activities are varied. Social aspects of group
participation are taken care of in social group games, rainy day games, and
rhythmical activities. Monthly meetings are held to evaluate and to re-
direct the program. Files are kept on the entire program. The work is
evaluated in terms of satisfactory or unsatisfactory, a statement of special
merit accompany extraordinary work. Much of the evaluation is a matter
of teacher opinion. Observation will play an important part. The reaction
of the physical education council is a good source of evaluation. Add to
these possibilities a new form filled out by each pupil at the close of the
first month. In evaluating each point, the individual scored 5 if he felt
that he rated high on the point, and 3 if he had an average rating. Any
rating below the average was 1. An average of 3 is necessary for a grade
of satisfactory. The teacher checks a slip containing the same points.
The results are compared and grades determined. Excellent opportunity
for conferences result.
Another total school problem resolved was that of a social studies
program providing for continuity from grades 1-12. Geography, history, and
civics were combined. According to the plan the grades attack the program
as follows: First grade, The School and the Home; Second grade, The School
and the Neighborhood; Third grade, The School and the Community; Fourth
grade, Other Peoples in Other Lands; Fifth grade, The United States and
Its North American Settings; Sixth grade, The American People and Their
Old World Ancestors; Seventh grade, European Expansion; Eighth grade,
The United States and Its World Relations; Ninth grade, Social Studies with
Civics Emphasis; Tenth grade, Social Studies with Current History emphasis;
Eleventh and Twelfth grades, Social Studies, a problems course, emphasizing
the problems facing America today.
Careful study and research and consultation culminated in a grade
placement program in mathematics for 'all grades. A definite policy as to
what should be taught in each grade was outlined. In all cases staff mem-
bers, consultants, and national authorities were bases for final decisions.
Space will not permit detailed outline.
Reading is one of the major problems of the school. Much time was
devoted to the study of determining the cause of reading difficulties and
to remedial procedures. Each teacher resolved to stress remedial reading
in her field whether it be first grade or biology. For example, the science
teachers in high school are doing much remedial work by utilizing the ele-
mentary science readers. The county board has added supplementary ma-
terial which has greatly enriched the remedial program. The county super-
visor is assisting in the program.
Outcomes were not wholly in plans. The Lee group lists the splendid
associations as an outstanding outcome of the summer's work. They thor-
oughly enjoyed the association in their group as evidenced in the room, at
the dining table, on campus and elsewhere. They class this minor when
compared to the pleasant associations with other Workshop members, staff
members, consultants, specialists, and others on the campus.
The group received enough pleasure and relaxation to make work free
from drudgery. The morning break was a very important feature of the
Workshop program. It gave relaxation and netted pleasure because of the
fine spirit and interesting activities promoted during this period. It was of
further value in that it gave many ideas for physical education programs.
All teachers received much individual help. Among the most outstand-
ing fields in which they secured help that is functioning are: high school
and grade school daily schedules, chapel programs, room beautification,
wood study, various devices, health, etc.
The group, as a whole, participated in various extracurricular activities.
The entire group regularly participated in the morning break and play night
activities. Play night attendance extended to the campus play night. Not
one picnic did the Madison County instructors miss. The principal of the
group participated in such campus activities as tennis, swimming, and Quiz
Night. The members attended their various interest group meetings.
The faculty is now actually putting into practice the results of their
research and advice. They report it is working-that it is practical. Fre-
quent faculty meetings give opportunity for evaluation and redirection.
We assembled at round table in order to plan our work, play, organiza-
tion, and time of meeting. We had been guided through the mazes of sur-
veys of community resources, health, school relationships, reading achieve-
ment test, home background of the children, and that ever-elusive educational
philosophy of the faculty. Some members of the Staff were familiar with
our strong points, our weaknesses, our personalities, and our school set up.
Mentally reconnoitering, the group shot forth problems with great
rapidity: Reading deficiencies! Hookworm and malaria! Skin and scalp
diseases! A tuneless "Star-Spangled Banner!" Bookshelves cluttered with
Zane Grey and Milne's Algebra! Snaggled-tooth curriculum! Uninterested
misfits sleeping through classes! Street corner graduated! Moss-covered
reports and obsolete records! A community uninformed about school af-
fairs! These problems in such enormity overwhelmed us! We probed for
some drafting system in order to include the problems most vital to our
school's financial status and the limitations of the personnel-problems for
which we could most successfully use the materials, facilities, and guidance
provided for us, by our staff and advisers.
How should we regiment our forces to attack these problems? The en-
suing chaos and confusion proved that only democratic procedure could
transport us into order and system. Through the influence of our under-
standing and unselfish principal, the teaching faculty was allowed, and
urged, to take the full responsibility of organization and planning. This
made it possible for each teacher to work to her full capacity and gain the
greatest possible benefit. After we had settled down as 'a group to work in
round table session, we put our school in the gold fish bowl. This is what we
found: Our reading program had been nearly a 50 per cent non de guerre.
Our teaching of reading had been a nonentity. We had 42 per cent reading
below grade level, and only 25 per cent reading on grade level. If our ef-
ficiency was so low as 25 per cent, some drastic change must be made.
(Privately, we conferred in hushed tones with a few other schools and dis-
covered their efficiency ranked along with and below ours.) We decided,
after much discussion, to make plans for a complete reading program to
cover our entire school system from grades one through twelve. Our on-
coming pupils should have the benefit of the best methods of teaching
obtainable in reading; our formerly neglected ones, better instruction; our
junior and senior high school students, a last chance before escaping our
remodeling fingers. Not only would we offer reading instruction in every
class throughout the system, but we would also take care of the "problems"
by giving them special diagnoses and the needed treatment which would
bring them back to a normal classroom level. With the reading mania in-
sidiously spreading to every member of the faculty, regardless of teaching
position, we quickly divided our problem into "problemettes" and started
on energetic heels to the library for some voracious reading.
The problems we pondered in sub-committees were: Can a teacher be
freed in each department for remedial work? If so, how much time can she
give? After a quick survey of our personnel, we discovered that three of our
number had been doing work along that line. It was decided that the time
missed in class would be more than compensated by the gain made in ability
to read, pronounce, and gain meaning from the printed page.
We also planned to make a diagnosis of cases of reading deficiency.
These cases are singled out by the classroom teacher and are sent to the
remedial reading room. The remedial measures begin with diagnoses which
include tests for speed and comprehension, tests for determining length of
eye span, fixations, regressions, memory span, vocalizations, extraneous
reading habits, and intelligence tests. The reading diagnostic sheet also
gives a detailed record of home background, temperament, and previous
school record as well as reading deficiencies.
In the Workshop we decided to compile materials to aid in the remedial
program. Samples of the best devices were sought out and copied to bring
back to Monticello. The work done was excellent, featuring many interest-
ing exercises for the correction of faulty return sweep, vocalization, stretch-
ing eye span, teaching use of glossaries, dictionaries, scanning and quick
perception, increasing vocabulary, speed and comprehension. These tests
and other similar tests are to be used for diagnosing and correction of read-
ing faults in junior and senior high school remedial classes.
Another problem was: What can each teacher do in teaching reading
as a subject, and in each subject? Reading was scheduled by the coordinat-
ing committee for the primary grades: grade one, two hours a day; grade
two, one 35-minute period; grade three, two 40-minute periods; grade
four, two 30-minute periods; grade five, one 40-minute period; grade six,
one 40-minute period; grade seven, one period three times a week; grade
eight, one period two times a week. This program is being followed. As
for the 15-minute period in high school, scheduled for homeroom instruc-
tion-it has been abandoned because of schedule difficulties.
The reading report prepared by the faculty, together with a course of
study for reading was put in permanent form. Each teacher on our faculty
was given a copy. There was such a demand from other schools for copies
of our report that extra copies were made.
What did we do to remedy the health situation?-and physical educa-
tion? Courses of study were worked out for improved health and physical
education programs. Physical education in the elementary school now
means a supervised play period. Gone is the old recess-lunch period in
which children lolled in the shade or played tag football! Now an orderly
succession of games and skills are learned and enjoyed. Ten additional
acres have been cleared for use as playgrounds. Junior and senior high
school have ,adopted a supervised intra-mural program with required partici-
pation three days a week.
As Jefferson County has no health unit, no county nurse, a physician
visits our school to examine for skin and communicable diseases. Health
programs have been received enthusiastically in assemblies. New cots and
supplies have been provided for the clinic room. Special emphasis is being
placed on weights and diets.
In a community such as ours, it seems that steps for improving school-
community relationship might be made first by the school. The installation
of modern educational methods must be handled delicately to avoid the
trouble-making which comes from misunderstanding or lack of information.
To prevent or rout any misunderstanding concerning the new program
which we were about to inaugurate, we wished to inform the public fully
(and they were entitled to our best efforts). The pupils, being the greatest
intermediaries between our school and the community, were given enthusi-
astic and enlightening side-lights and high-lights of all new features, such
as the new report cards, grading system, remedial reading program, and
Knowing that a pupil's interpretation is not always pound sterling
where teacher and school routine are concerned, every teacher has detailed
herself to visit the home of each pupil under surveillance.
Publicity through the newspapers, through contests, entertainments,
programs before non-school organizations, and county fairs is planned as
a means of furthering school-community cooperation.
Prowling in our record and report files, we found that from this same
building over a hundred years ago our great-grandmothers in pig-tails
carried home the same card. The old three R's were listed and graded in
a square to the right of each subject. A, B, C,-ran down the card, with a
legend at the bottom explaining that A means 95-100; B, 85-95; C, 75-85;
D, 70-passing; E, failing. In more progressive years a space was added for
checking from month to month facts about attitudes, recitations, and con-
duct. Willie and his mother were further enlightened at the end of the
month by the information that Willie whispers too much, added to the fact
that he received a C, which means from 75-85, in arithmetic.
The evaluation of a child's work has always been reached by pitting
one child against another. In a modern school record the child is compared
with himself as well as with others and the first is considered more im-
portant than the second for child growth. The tendency is away from
number concepts in grading, and even away from grading, as such, at all.
This year we have adopted a report on which all phases of each subject
are marked: such as, courtesy, work habits, control, cooperation, attitude,
and social development. A plus sign is given for very satisfactory progress,
a check sign for satisfactory progress, and a minus sign for unsatisfactory
work. Mimeographed letters will be sent to parents to prepare them for
this "new-fangled fol-de-rol."
In order that our records for the future be individual, continuous, and
cumulative, we are keeping for each child in his classroom a manila folder
containing sample work, tests, significant notes from parents, data from
autobiographies, data from parent questionnaires, personal interviews, and
remarks. This folder will be passed on to the child's new teacher and can
be of great help to her.
In the Workshop we had made plans for a more complete guidance
program in the Monticello School, hoping that, in as much as future adjust-
ment is concerned, we may look for fewer misfits in higher institutions of
learning and occupations, less waste in getting and keeping a permanent
job, and better citizenship in the community.
The next step in our guidance set-up included an inventory which is to
take the form of cumulative folders containing the following information:
health and physical examination records; records of achievement, intel-
ligence, and interest and personality tests; records by semester of the pre-
ceding years; other information such as narrative accounts of observed be-
havior; records of interviews with and notes from parents.
Goaded on by a lack of physical activity on the part of our high school
youth, we set aside in the daily schedule a forty-five minute activity period.
Our hearts are now warmed by the merry shouts over horse shoes rung, a
"hommer" on the diamond ball field, and from the tennis courts a love set.
These activities include three periods a week; in the other two, clubs meet
and classes have homeroom programs. Students who do not have a free
period may use this time in a study hall. The clubs include dramatic, Junior
Red Cross, sportsman, science, garden, 4-H, pep squad, music, and glee clubs.
Young heads are constantly together planning new features and programs for
The schedule was like the house that Jack built! With a renovated
program we would have to make changes to fit it snugly into our stream-
lined curriculum. Instead of the lazy hour of nine A. M., we decided to
start the day at eight forty-five. An earlier beginning hour could not be
arranged because fifty-three per cent of our children are brought to school
on buses, some of which begin to ride before day on winter mornings and
ride until after night.
A five-minute homeroom period follows the assembling bell. Two one-
hour class periods are followed by a ten-minute break. (This break is a
concession to the students for we would gradually lead them away from the
fifteen-minute "morning-recess.") One period of an hour follows before
they are dismissed at twelve o'clock for lunch. There are a single one-hour
period and two forty-five minute periods in the afternoon session. The
Thursday activity period is used for "Chapel" or assembly, movies, and
parades. The day closes happily at three twenty-five, after the activity
MORNINGSIDE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL
Enthusiasm and a feeling of competence plus a growing desire to utilize
every moment in happy participation and enrichment led us to this written
statement of our problems as a logical starting point for the development
and recording of our plans:
PROBLEMS OF MORNINGSIDE SCHOOL
We wished to develop a plan of procedure which could be followed with
confidence and assurance. We thought it advisable to build up the course
of study and our own present program rather than to cast away experience
found useful in the past. Our first problem had to do with adjusting our
teachers to the idea. The second involved the adaptation of our program
to produce the desired degree of integration.
1. Reading Problem:-We wished to improve our entire reading pro-
gram with special attention to diagnostic procedures and the formation of
a remedial program. We wished to determine the place of phonics and to
develop a workable plan of presentation. We wished to plan to provide for
children, continuing for a longer period on much the same level of achieve-
ment, large quantities of interesting and stimulating material.
2. Arithmetic Problem:-We wished to established more meaningful
experiences and levels of attainment.
3. Writing Problem:-We wished to plan a more uniform system in
4. We wish to discover means of vitalizing social studies.
5. Playground Problem:-We wished to solve the playground dust and
space problem and to plan a hard surface court construction program. We
also wished to re-plan our physical education program.
6. Visual Education Program:-We wished to investigate methods and
improved practices in visual education. We also had a pressing need to
investigate and plan for adequate ventilation and cooling of our visual edu-
7. We had a need for a carefully planned fine arts program.
8. We wished to have a planned assembly program throughout the
PROCEDURES USED IN SOLVING PROBLEMS
A. Whole group
1. Approximate time spent in whole group meetings.
a. During regular hours
At least three and one half hours each day.
About four hours each week.
No group meetings, much small committee activity, with
Sunday used frequently.
2. How time was used
a. About one-fourth of time was given to routine matters.
b. About three-fourths of time to research, combination and
organization of materials.
3. Different members of group took charge, as chairman, of
different topics, as Reading, Arithmetic, Remedial Reading,
4. Problems were handled in the following manner:
a. Problem defined.
b. Teachers did individual reading and research relative to
c. Problem was discussed in the group.
d. Committees were appointed for special phases of the
e. Committees reported back to the general group.
f. One final committee was appointed to work out a solution
for presentation and acceptance by the general group.
These solutions usually represented the group opinion
and were therefore acceptable.
5. Solutions to problems were usually organized into typed
units, for discussion, modification, or approval by the entire
B. Small Groups
1. These groups met irregularly, when desirable and when con-
sultants were available.
2. The time for these meetings was used for discussion and
a. Reading by individuals was presented and discussed at
b. The material was organized at another meeting.
3. The small groups selected their own chairmen.
4. Problems were usually defined in the larger group and given
to smaller groups for attack.
5. The small group attacked problems by individual reading,
interviews, observations, then discussing and working to-
ward an outline of the problem and its solution.
6. Solutions were usually organized in committee conferences.
7. These solutions were not always presented to the whole group
due to time limitations. Chairmen were then authorized
to proceed with plans.
Types of Assistance Used
C. Other participants.
D. Observations in the Demonstration School.
E. Demonstrations by specialists.
Materials to be Taken Home
A. Total school plans.
1. Arithmetic plan.
2. Reading plan.
3. Teacher's handbook.
4. Physical education program.
5. Improved schedule.
B. Individual teacher plans.
1. Library source materials.
2. Stunt program material.
3. Remedial reading
4. Testing material.
5. Arts and crafts program.
6. Music plans.
7. Plan for assembly programs.
8. Visual education plan.
9. Definite plans and drawings for hard surface courts.
10. List of books and source materials which we plan to acquire
OUR STAGE OF PROGRESS AT THE CLOSE OF THE WORKSHOP
Arithmetic Problem:-We have evolved a flexible outline of objectives
and skills which we hope to find workable in our own situation. This ma-
terial was evaluated, reorganized, typed, and ready for mimeographing.
Playground Problem:-We have outlined a definite plan for financing
and constructing concrete surface courts on our playground. We have
planned to eliminate dust by the use of calcium chloride in other areas.
We have listed equipment thought necessary for a well rounded physical
education program. We have changed our schedule permitting all physical
education classes to fall in the closing hours of the day.
A committee worked on an integrated program of arts and crafts with
the purpose of connecting this program with the larger centers of interest
throughout the school. A plan was made for the construction of two work
benches suitable for the elementary grades. Equipment needed for manual
arts and crafts training was listed and plans were made for financing the
purchase of it.
We went extensively into our reading program and we evolved a tenta-
tive plan for cooperation among teachers in a general and directive reading
program which will particularly emphasize diagnostic and remedial pro-
cedures. We have also. revised and enriched our testing program. We at-
tacked our schedule with the idea of devising a more workable plan to
include large interest areas and to provide for special work in diagnostic and
remedial procedures in the field of reading and to eliminate unnecessary
confusion and conflicts.
We gathered information in preparation for working on our writing
program. In connection with this we shared with other school groups our
own outline for teaching manuscript writing.
We have developed a tentative plan for interpreting to our community
our reporting system in the primary grades. We have surveyed other plans
of reporting and recording and have made a summary of our findings with
a view to further analysis and development of our own system.
A teacher's handbook has been organized ready to be put in form for
use by Morningside teachers. This handbook consists of three divisions:
1. Quotations from state laws pertinent to the local situation.
2. Dade County ruling and informational data.
3. Definite information and plans for the total school program in
We outlined plans for improving our program in safety education. We
plan to continue with both boy and girl patrols-under separate sponsorship.
We have prepared a general plan for weekly presentation of two as-
sembly programs, one for the primary grades and one for the intermediate
and upper grades, with a definite place in the weekly schedule and with
an outline prepared for the year.
We have studied means of adequately ventilating the visual education
room, and have devised a plan for financing it.
We have planned for participation in and further development of a
Dade County Cooperative Film Library. We built a list of source materials
which will be helpful in our continuation program. We have evolved a plan
and a technique for faculty study. We have a continuing list of books
desirable for our own professional library.
We are developing a unit of activity among our group which will include:
1. Our work in arts and crafts.
2. Our recreational activities.
3. Our definite work in gathering physical education and music ma-
terials. This is being culminated and incorporated in our own Memory
Book of experiences in the Workshop.
We have realized definite, if somewhat intangible, values from our
participation with other Workshop groups.
Finally, as a group, we find that we are developing many changing con-
cepts; and that a philosophy is emerging which will make for much closer
unity and greater understanding.
NEED FOR REVISING THE PROGRAM
A survey of the Naples School and community revealed many interest-
ing facts. Any provision for the real needs of the children in the school was
somewhat incidental. The primary function of the elementary school was
to prepare the child for high school; the primary function of the high school
was to prepare the pupil for college. The survey revealed that only a small
percentage of those children entering the first grade finished school and
that only a small percentage of those children finishing high school attended
college. This is an unimpeachable indication that the school is attempting
to prepare pupils for something that will never be of use of them. The
survey revealed that the center of activity was subject matter. Courses were
taught in the traditional manner, covering the content of the text without
regard for its use to the pupil. In reality the center of activity should be
pupil interests and pupil needs. The survey also revealed that the program
provided little for helping the pupil choose a life work, in promoting satis-
factory home life, in relating school experiences to his life outside the
school, in achieving an intelligent understanding about the economic situa-
tion, and in developing a wholesome philosophy of living. The survey re-
vealed a need for a guidance program for the school; a need for vocational
guidance in the high school; a need for an improved health program for
both elementary and high school; a need for providing for social and eco-
nomic growth and understanding among high school children; and a very
important need for training in the qualities of citizenship. The program
was examined to determined what could be done to provide for these needs.
It soon became apparent that to provide for such needs, a practical and
workable philosophy consistent with the principles of democracy must be
drafted and accepted by the faculty; that the program of the school must
be changed in the light of the changed philosophy; that compulsion and
militarism be replaced by cooperation and democratic living; that knowledge
and skills be taught only as they contribute to the growth and development
of the child, and that more thought be given to possibilities for pupil growth
and development in the community.
The chief value arising from preparing this program lies in the oppor-
tunity for the faculty to plan, discuss, and disagree; to think through and
determine the philosophy for the school; to .analyze the school and community
in ascertaining specific needs of pupils that should be met by the school;
to organize an instructional program in accordance with the accepted
philosophy; to make plans for continuous evaluation and revision; and to
cooperate in affecting the most worthwhile and effective program for the
Naples High School. If the teacher is led to see clearly her relationship to
the total program of the school and to plan her work accordingly, the time
and effort required in preparing this program have been well spent.
OBJECTIVES OF THE NAPLES SCHOOL
The aim of the Naples School is to promote and lead to the growth and
development of the individual by experiencing practical situations in school
so that he may participate and live successfully in his ever-changing en-
1. To develop an understanding and an appreciation of democracy
as a way of living through participation in democratic activities.
2. To develop initiative, creativeness, and the desire to exercise them
in expanding the democratic ideal.
3. To give rise to issues which should be considered in the light of
democracy and thus provide experiences in democratic living in the school.
4. Tq develop proper attitudes concerning the relationship between the
pupil and society; thereby, giving rise to the desire to serve society and self.
5. To provide experiences in which those qualities necessary for whole-
some and happy living may be developed.
6. To develop the ability for reflective thinking and for applying the
scientific method in the solution of problems.
7. To develop those skills, habits, understandings, knowledge, and
appreciations necessary for the most wholesome participation in democratic
HOW THE NEEDS OF BOYS AND GIRLS ARE TO BE PROVIDED FOR
1. Each student will be studied as an individual different from all
2. The functions of this school are to be organized in terms of life itself.
3. Particular abilities, weaknesses, interests, and problems of each stu-
dent will be taken into account in preparing activities with and for him.
4. Many varieties of activities are to be provided for learning situa-
tions, such as reading, listening, and performing.
5. Situations requiring critical, creative thinking are to be provided.
6. Pupils will be guided in developing their own purposes and in plan-
ning for the achievement of these purposes.
7. Students are to be led to evaluate their own activities in terms of
their original objectives.
8. The vital relationship of out-of-school experiences to in-school ex-
periences and to maximum pupil development will be emphasized.
9. Teachers will take an active interest in helping pupils select a life
10. An intelligent study of social conditions will be made, and children
will be aided in adapting themselves to the changing conditions.
11. Students will be given responsibilities and will be led to meet them
through individual and group activities.
12. Activities are to be provided for developing a well-rounded per-
13. A program will be provided for the development of good health,
mentally and physically.
14. Every effort will be made to develop the ability of pupils to work
and play together.
15. Subject-matter is to be used as a means to an end, not as an end
THE SCHOOL PROGRAM FOR 1940-1941
To provide for the many needs of the children of the Naples School, it
was decided to organize the new program around a core of experience.
The title given to this new program is "Living Together" and is the theme
of the whole school program. The implications of this title may be readily
recognized in the development of the core program.
The term "core" is not new in educational circles but it is used to mean
something different in the large variety of schools using the core program.
In the Naples School the term "core curriculum" may be closely identified
with the "experience curriculum." The "core" is not a substitute for some
subject-matter field, nor is it a combination of several subject-matter areas.
In the Naples School, the informational areas will continue to serve the
purposes they have served in the past. The "core" is an addition to that
which we already have. It possesses a purpose apart from that of the in-
The core curriculum deals with education as a continuous life process, as
growth of the individual in accordance with his environment, and it aims
toward intelligent participation in the growth and development of the
environment. Since the environment is continually changing, the experience
curriculum must change accordingly. The "core" is a desirable means of
organizing the experiences of boys and girls that they may participate most
CORE OF EXPERIENCE CURRICULUM
THEME: LIVING TOGETHER
Core of Experience: Home, School, and Community
Subject Taught Former Subjects Now
Grade Outside Core Core of Experiences Handled in the Core
1 Drill for skills and Living together at All former subjects
knowledge, reading home and at school
2 Drill for numbers, Living together in the Language,
reading spelling, and community music, wholly
3 Drill in reading, arith- Living together in a Language,
metic, spelling, and wider social environ- music, wholly
writing ment art,
Core of Experience: State, Nation, and World Communities
4 Drills for knowledge Living together in a Language,
and skills in reading, wider social and eco- music,
writing, spelling, and nomic environment art, wholly
arithmetic (The State) geography,
5 Drills for knowledge Living together in a History,
and skills in reading, wider social and eco- geography,
writing spelling and nomic environment health, wholly
arithmetic (The Americas) music,
6 Drills for knowledge Living together in a History,
and skills in reading, wider social and eco- geography,
writing, spelling, lan- nomic environment health,
guage and arithmetic (The World) music, wholly
The following incidental learning are provided for in the core of experience: PRI-
MARY GRADES-safety, history, geography, and science; INTERMEDIATE GRADES-
safety and science.
successfully in democratic living. The "core" should offer wide opportuni-
ties for students to work cooperatively in achieving their own objectives
and providing for their own needs.
The core curriculum will be related to the more personal needs of the
boys and girls of the school. Each student is capable of cooperating with
and contributing to the needs of a group if his personal needs are met.
The "core" is set up to enable pupils to become self-directing and intelligent
members of society by learning to solve problems which have significance
to their lives, and to see knowledge as most effectively acquired when it is
used in the process of solving these problems.
As is indicated by the schedule for the elementary grades, all knowl-
edges, skills, and understandings necessary for normal advancement may
not always be acquired through core experiences. Therefore, regular periods
will provide for the mastery of those skills not provided in the core.
ORGANIZATION OF THE HIGH SCHOOL PROGRAM
The time schedule of the high school program consists of five one-hour
periods, two fifteen-minute periods, and one thirty-minute period. For
convenience in describing the program, it shall be considered as consisting
of five one-hour periods. Only the hour periods are numbered; other periods
The first period of each day will be devoted to the core of experience
curriculum. In this period the needs of students not provided for in the
informational areas will be considered. The core period will last for sixty
minutes per day, or three hundred minutes per week. During this period,
all students in the high school will devote their time to "core experiencing."
The next four periods will be devoted to the informational areas. Pro-
vision has been made for the teaching of those tool subjects in all four
major areas: social sciences, science, mathematics, and language. These
periods will continue for sixty minutes per day for four days per week, or
two hundred forty minutes per week.
The high school program will provide for a one-hour activity period
for four days per week or two hundred forty minutes. This will be a rotating
period beginning the second period each Tuesday, the third period each
Wednesday, the fourth period each Thursday, and the fifth period each
Students may have considerable freedom in the use of the activity period.
During this period they may participate in class functions, student govern-
ment meetings or activities, club activities, work on projects of their own
which have been approved by some member of the faculty, assembly pro-
grams, glee club, and in the use of library facilities. The period is to be
well planned and each student is to be accounted for during the period.
What the pupil does during this period is not so important if what he is
doing is worthwhile and is contributing to his personal growth and develop-
ment. All students will attend the general assembly meetings and must at
other times be engaged in some worthwhile activity.
PALATKA ELEMENTARY SCHOOL
We, the elementary teachers of the Palatka School believe that there
should be continuity in the school program from the time the child enters
school until he leaves-that teaching should be organized to practice in
thinking. We believe the child's state of development determines what he
does, and that the curriculum and school organization should fit the child's
expanding needs and abilities. We think that through wide experiences the
kind of learning will take place which will not be purely a matter of acquir-
ing information, but will bring about changes in the thinking and attitudes
of girls and boys.
Education is a continuous process, beginning at birth and extending
throughout life. When the child enters school he has had already ap-
proximately six years of realistic education, acquired by experience in his
home and neighborhood.
Learning takes place through experience. Therefore learning experiences
should be adjusted to the maturation level of the learner. Learning takes
place most effectively when the learner is engaged in activities in which he
is purposefully working toward self-determined goals related to his interests
and needs, and established through mutual evaluation.
The school succeeds only so far as it provides for wholesome exper-
lencing. Schools are established to supplement experience in the major
areas of living that the home and community fail to provide. It is the func-
tion of the school to provide life-like situations in which desirable learning
will take place, and the function of the teacher is to guide these experiences.
Purposeful, persistent, and properly directed practice is important for effec-
tive skill-learning. This practice should be conducted in harmony with the
following basic principles of learning:
1. Children learn best by their own self-sustained efforts.
2. Children work best when the work is significant to them. Most
efficient learning takes place when pupils engage in doing things that seem
worthwhile to them.
3. Children work more intelligently when they have set their own
goals and helped to plan the path for reaching the goal.
4. Children are disciplined by responsibility. Discipline which is im-
posed from without and in which the will of the individual does not occur
has no educational value. When a child accepts the responsibility for
,carrying through some activity to completion and finishes it successfully,
he has discipline.
Since the school curriculum includes all the school experiences and
attitudes of the child, it should be centered around basic areas of human
activity. The activities within these areas should be outgrowths of the
needs and interests of the participants. The major obligation of the school
is to produce individuals who can and will participate effectively in a demo-
.cratic society; therefore, we propose that the problems and needs of con-
temporary life should form the basis of the curriculum.
We know that there are needs that are common to all children. We are
beginning to feel that these needs can best be met by breaking down sub-
ject-matter lines into a unified course based on the interests of the children
at the various maturation levels.
In the past, the scope of the curriculum in our school has been based
primarily upon textbooks and too much emphasis has been placed upon
unrelated facts that often bore little or no relation to the children's ex-
In order to meet the common needs of the children, we have examined
the different fields of human activity and have tried to segregate those
experiences which may be considered necessary to wholesome living and to
adjustment to one's environment.
We have chosen as our sequence theme, "The Guiding of Our Children
in Effecting Desirable Interaction with Their Environment," and we have
established certain areas of experience in each grade. A tentative list of
broad units centered in the immediate environment of the children has been
suggested for guiding pupil experiences in all the grades.
The scope and sequence set up major limitations for the several grades.
It serves as a basic guide for selecting experiences and for organizing ma-
terials needed for instruction.
The sequence theme, "Guiding Children in Effecting Desirable Inter-
action with Their Environment," provides a unifying element for on-going,
cumulative experiences for child development. The area of experience for
each grade is designed to provide for continuity and the stream of ex-
periences. This element of continuity in the stream of experiences is very
important if growth is to proceed with regularity and economy.
The areas of experiences are organized on the basis of the major human
activities. The scope of each area covers all of the important phases of
human activities in which man has persisted in his efforts to maintain an
equilibrium in his environment. Consequently, children may be guided into
a working understanding of the way these human activities are carried on
in normal life situations.
The scope provides for experiences which will bring about growth in
the development of personal power, in desirable behavior toward associates,
in ability to maintain economic efficiency, and in the development of civic
The scope and sequence provide ample suggestions for guiding pupils
in participating in the activities of their community. The scope suggests
numerous experiences within the area that are of interest to the children.
In view of the nature of the scope it is very important that it shall be
used as a checklist in the selection of experiences on various levels. It is
also very important that the selection of experiences through the year be
comprehensive enough to include all the phases chosen for emphasis with
the area. As the children engage in the experiences they should grow in
personal power as members of their social group, in their ability to manipu-
late the materials with which they interact, and in proper adjustment to
PROGRAM OF STUDIES
Although our program is based on scope and sequence we have certain
limitations. Because of these limitations we have adopted a dual type of
program which is set up in the following schedule:
Grades One and Two Grades Three, Four, Five, and Six
8:50 Language arts 8:50 Social studies
Recess (10:15-10:30) Language arts
Music 12:00 Lunch
Mathematics 12:50 Mathematics
12:00 Lunch Health, science, art
12:50 Social studies Recess (2:45-3:00)
Health, science, art Remedial Program (3:00-3:20)
We suggest that each grade in the school have an assembly program
once a month. This program might be a culminating activity of a unit.
We also suggest that the parents be invited.
The following assembly schedule is suggested, to begin with the second
month of school:
First Tuesday- 2:10-2:30 ...................................... First Grade
First Wednesday-2:10-2:30....-...----..---...............-.....-----Second Grade
First Thursday-2:00-2:30.-..................---------------............... Third Grade
Third Tuesday-2:30-3:00-------........-...............------..-Fourth Grade
Third Wednesday-2:30-3:00.. -----.. .....----... Fifth Grade
Third Thursday-2:30-3:00.......------.---------.............. ......-..Sixth Grade
We propose that our costume wardrobe be enlarged by asking for dona-
tions from parents of used costumes.
We recommend that mass assemblies be held on all patriotic occasions
to instill patriotism. At these assemblies the flag salute should be given.
Since we have a definite responsibility in character training, we feel
that the organization of citizenship clubs throughout our school would be
a step toward the development of better citizens.
We suggest organizing a citizenship club in each room with an execu-
tive council composed of one representative from each room to meet with
the principal as adviser.
*Lack of space prevents the inclusion of the Scope and Sequence Chart.
1. That the by-laws of the Executive Council be drawn up by the
members of said council and adviser.
2. That the council meet at least once a month with call meetings
3. That the president of the Executive Council be elected from the
4. That the vice-president be elected from the fifth grade.
5. That the secretary be elected from the sixth grade.
6. That all officers of the Citizenship Clubs and the Executive Council
serve for a term of three school months.
7. That no officer succeed himself.
We also recommend that citizenship talks be given by the principal or
by any qualified citizen. We believe that these talks will impress more
effectively ideas the teachers have tried to instill.
Evaluation of Proposed School Program
We feel that the proposed program for the improvement of instruction
in the Palatka Elementary School has provided: (1) for the development of
social understanding and understanding of the physical environment; (Its
essential function is the development of individuals who can participate
effectively in the various aspects of life and contribute to general social
improvement); (2) for special opportunities for developing individual in-
terests and aptitudes as rapidly as such interests and aptitudes become
clearly differentiated as the child matures; (3) for special opportunities for
children to engage in creative, aesthetic, and recreational activities; (4) for
opportunities for the mastery of basic skills and techniques; (5) for the
continuity of the school program, thus avoiding overlapping of subject-
matter throughout the grades.
Evaluation of Units
Evaluation of the outcomes of a unit is usually made by means of in-
tuitive as well as by so-called scientific criteria. We plan to judge our units
by certain intuitive criteria established, such as:
1. They were selected from real-life situations and should satisfy pupil
2. They afford many opportunities for real projects.
3. They stimulate many kinds of activities, thus providing for individual
differences in the children.
4. They make individual and continuous growth possible.
5. They will lead into related units and widened interest.
6. They clarify social demands and meanings.
7. They use tool subjects which contribute to the unit.
8. They develop desirable habits and attitudes.
Evaluation of Child Growth
The needs of the child have been our first consideration in planning
this program. We plan to evaluate growth in terms of the child's own rate
of development rather than in terms of adult standards which require
certain specified degrees of mastery. There are mixed groups of children
with a wide diversity in social background, in mental and physical develop-
ment, and in personality, so we feel that the teacher must make her own
adjustment and must recognize that the social development of each child
is vastly more significant than the mastery of any body of subject-matter.
PORT SAINT JOE SCHOOL
Fifteen members of the Port Saint Joe faculty met on June 10, 1940, to
take their place as a cooperating group in a six-week Workshop. No one
was certain what the experience would be like. All were asking whether
this new departure for professional growth of teachers in service would be
profitable and worthwhile. A recapitulation of some of the summer's ex-
periences is the best answer to the many doubts, fears, and misgivings with
which we began.
We found that our group was assigned to a large, comfortable, attrac-
tive room equipped with desks, tables, chairs, cabinets, and bookshelves.
This was to be our working headquarters for the six weeks. Immediately
we began to discuss again the purpose of our being there, the problems
which we sensed and wished to work on, and the manner in which we could
best pool our efforts as a group and as individuals to realize the optimum
results. We listed many items to indicate big and little "bothers" which we
might do something about. Next we isolated a large problem and related
as many smaller ones as we could. This happened to be a health and
physical education program for the entire school. As time passed we at-
tacked other problems too, such as how to develop a reading program, clubs,
assembly programs, and how to improve the appearance of classrooms, but
the important thing to us in the long run was the way in which we worked.
In addition to the customary materials found in college libraries, the
Curriculum Laboratory, which was our special library, contained courses of
study, a multitude of school textbooks, pamphlets, bulletins, workbooks,
pictures, charts, maps, and periodicals designed particularly for school use.
Available to us were duplicating equipment, typewriters, arts and crafts
materials, and numerous recreational facilities. The Workshop staff had
been selected to provide us with ample and competent assistance in the
search for materials, and proper guidance as we worked on individual and
group problems. In addition to the regular staff, many persons, specialized
in various phases of educational work, were available to us for consultation.
We were encouraged to voice specific interests and problems which had
arisen out of our experiences as teachers and were given an opportunity
to make intensive study of these interests and problems. We shared in
planning a program of individual and group activities designed to meet our
needs and those of other participants. As has been indicated above, we
had easy access to the services of various staff members and consultants
representing a variety of kinds of assistance. Formal and informal asso-
ciation with other participants of varied background contributed to our
thinking on specific problems, broadened our general professional horizon,
and provided opportunity for experiences in cooperative activities. An
effort was made to interest us in the whole child, the whole school, and the
whole community. Our total experience as we studied specific interests and
problems tended to prepare us for the solution of other professional problems.
Since the staff was concerned not only with our professional lives but with
our lives as individuals as well, a balanced program of living was insisted
Our usual daily schedule was as follows:
W ork ............. .. ...... .........--.....---- 8:30-10:30
Group recreation ................----- ...........---.---..-------- ..10:30-11:00
Work .......-.....------ --- ----.... -....--...... ..-.. 11:00-12:30
Noon recess ...... ......... ... ....-............. 12:30- 2:00
W ork ..............................--........-- --- .........-- ......--------- 2:00- 4:00
Group recreation (if desired) ........-.....------------..........----.. 4:00- 6:00
Evenings and Saturdays (as desired)
Working time was distributed so as to provide for whole group meetings,
small group meetings, such as committees, special interest, and planning,
conferences with staff members; and, individual work.
As participants we evaluated our work periodically by means of reports
based on such questions as: (1) What did you do during the week toward
the solution of your problems? (2) What specific difficulties did you en-
counter? (3) How did you overcome these difficulties? (4) What do you
plan to do next week? and (5) What suggestions do you have for improving
the Workshop program?
After attending the Workshop, the Port Saint Joe faculty considered
the following experiences as having been worthwhile: the faculty: (1) de-
veloped greater unity of feeling, (2) learned better how to work together
on a common problem, (3) gained in confidence to express ideas, to. challenge
others, and to attack problems, (4) learned to take constructive criticism
and to turn it to good advantage, (5) learned how to plan an overview for
a year's work, how to plan a unit and find materials, (6) learned better how
to cooperate to reach desired ends, (7) developed respect for the opinion
of others and a willingness to modify opinions, (8) developed a better under-
standing of the democratic process, largely because a democratic situation
was actually lived in, and (9) through cooperative work, acquired a sense
of personal satisfaction that came with creative effort.
The Workshop belonged to the participants-it changed as their pur-
poses changed. A satisfying sense of personal growth was made possible
by the manner in which the group worked. The staff's concern for the growth
of each individual participant helped make the Workshop dynamic.
PUTNAM COUNTY HIGH SCHOOL
In organizing our secondary school curriculum in such a way as to
meet the needs of adolescents living in the Palatka area we have found it
necessary to plan the program with reference to (1) those common experi-
ences which most adolescents will need if they are to become oriented to
the basic problems of living in a democracy, (2) those special subject ex-
periences which are necessary for further participation in certain special
subject areas, and (3) those individual experiences (often in the form of
personal conferences) which certain individuals need to satisfy certain prob-
lems and tensions of a personal nature. We look upon these three phases
of our organization as being highly inter-related. Phases two and three are
to be regarded only as outgrowths of the common core of experiences which
we shall refer to as "general education." We recognize the fact that our
present program has attempted to set up separate curricula to meet the
special interests of our pupils without taking into account the dangers in-
volved in specialization which is not related to general education. Mastery
over skills necessary to successful participation in particular areas is very
necessary; however, these should not be acquired at the expense of failure
to assist the pupil to relate activity in this area to democratic living.
For the school year 1939-40, Putnam High School decided to place
more emphasis upon general education in grades seven, eight, and nine.
In the seventh and eighth grades, the teacher of social studies, the teacher
of language arts, and the teacher of science will cooperate in the treatment
of several topics so that the offerings in these fields will be related to
problems of real significance to the pupils and to society. In the ninth grade,
it is planned that a double period which-was formerly handled by separate
teachers who offered courses in civics and English will now be devoted to
general education and will be handled by a single teacher for each section.
Teachers in grades ten, eleven, and twelve will attempt to relate their offer-
ings to some of the broad topics outlined under the various aspects of
living which have been listed in the opening paragraphs of this section
on organization of the curriculum.
Listed below are the broad topics which are to be used in grades seven,
eight, and nine during the coming year. The areas of living from which
these were taken are also given. If the teacher in social studies, language
arts, or science should feel that his area had little or nothing to contribute
to the central problem, it is agreed that this teacher may spend time on
some significant unit within her own field. So far as the broad topics which
have been selected for cooperative attack in these grades are concerned,
there should be little difficulty. They were selected by mutual agreement
on the part of the three teachers concerned. In the opinion of these persons,
material within the subject fields indicated should and could be used to
advantage in the solution of the problems proposed.
SELECTION OF BROAD TOPICS
I Maintenance of Personal Health.
II Local and Federal Provisions for
III Conservation of Wild Life.
IV Our Responsibilities to the Family
and Community Group.
V Changes in Vocation Resulting from
the Industrial Revolution.
VI Building Common Concern in Com-
VII Producing Goods and Services in the
VIII Development of Natural Resources
for the Improvement of Transpor-
IX Changing Schools to Meet the Needs
of a Changing World.
X Getting Beauty from the Common-
place Things of Life.
I Problems of Healthful Living in the
II Wise Choice of Recreational Facili-
III Developing Local and State Re-
IV Science and the Improvement of
V Vocational Opportunities (Loca 1,
VI Social Background and Group Par-
VII Consumer Education.
VIII The Effect of Invention upon Trans-
portation and Communication Facili-
IX Out-of-School Opportunities for
Gaining Educational Values.
X The Effect of National and Racial
Culture upon Moral Living.
Protecting Life and Health.
Providing for Recreation.
Protecting, Conserving, and De-
veloping Natural Resources.
Participating Efficiently in
Home Making and Home Liv-
Making a Living.
Participating in Organized
Producing, Distributing, and
Transporting and Communicat-
Securing and Using an Edu-
Providing for Aesthetic and
Protecting Life and Health.
Providing for Recreation and
for the Use of Leisure.
Protecting, Conserving, and De-
veloping Natural Resources.
Participating Efficiently in
Home Making and Home Liv-
Making a Living.
Participating in Organized
Producing, Distributing and
Transporting and Communicat-
Securing and Using an Edu-
Providing for Aesthetic and
I Safety as a Personal and Community
II Selecting and Utilizing Commercial
III Utilization of Natural Resources in
Our Daily Life.
IV Growth and Improvement of Ameri-
can Home Life.
V How Different People Earn a Living.
VI What Part Our Government Should
Take in International Affairs.
VII Marketing Problems and the Cost of
VIII How Airways Have More Closely
United Our People.
IX How Does Changing Culture Make
Necessary Changes in Education?
X How Do the
Grades 7 and 8
Standards of Others
Protecting Life and Health.
Providing for Recreation and
Use of Leisure.
Protecting, Conserving, and De-
veloping Natural Resources.
Participating Efficiently in
Home Making and Home Liv-
Making a Living.
Participating in Organized
Producing, Distributing, and
Consuming Goods and Services.
Securing and Using an Edu-
Providing for and Experiencing
Moral, Religious, and Aesthetic
PROGRAM OF STUDIES
Three-fifth of the day: General education (This
is to consist of an integration of the language
arts, social studies, and science. The work is to
be handled through cooperative planning on the
part of three teachers.)
One-fifth of the day: Mathematics.
One-fifth of the day: Special activities and work
in skills (This is to include work in directed
reading, art, and music.)
Two-fifths of the day: General education (This
is to include a double period devoted to an in-
tegration of the material formerly handled in
civics and English. The work is to be handled
by placing one person in charge of both periods
for each section.)
Three-fifths of the day: Special subjects and
reading in the library (Special subjects include
algebra for all pupils of this grade, general science
for boys and home economics for girls.)
No special provision for general education.
One library period for each student.
Four of the following special subjects are to be
taken by each pupil: Algebra, world history, Eng-
lish, biology, Latin, commercial arithmetic, home
economics (girls), typing, and agriculture.
Grade 11 Same as for grade 10 with reference to general
education and library periods.
Special subjects include: English, American his-
tory, physics, typing, Spanish, Latin, commercial
arithmetic, economics, commercial geography, com-
mercial English, geometry, and agriculture.
Grade 12 Same as for grade 10 with reference to general
education and library periods.
Special subjects include: English, American his-
tory, chemistry, bookkeeping, shorthand, Latin,
Spanish, economics, commercial geography, com-
mercial English, commercial arithmetic, typing,
REDDICK, McINTOSH AND FAIRFIELD SCHOOLS
WHAT WE BELIEVE
We, the faculties of the Reddick, McIntosh, and Fairfield Schools, be-
lieve that education is a never-ending process beginning at birth and ex-
tending throughout life; and, that its purpose is to develop healthy, happy,
intelligent citizens of good morals and with a belief in God; and citizens
who will be socially useful in our democracy.
The three primary agencies deeply concerned in this vital process of
guiding the youth of our land into such a channel of right and efficient
living are the home, the church, and the school. These should work in
unison at all times in order to achieve this purpose of education.
When the child enters school he has already approximately six years
of realistic education acquired by experience in his home and neighborhood
in which the church may or may not have exerted an influence. From this
time on the school becomes a great factor, but by no means the only one,
which aids and supplements the home and the church in the task that
is set before us. It is the obligation of the school to assist the pupils in
adapting themselves to their life situations and in improving them.
It is an accepted fact that we learn by doing. Therefore, since learning
takes place through experience, and the quality of learning depends upon
the nature of the experience, the school succeeds only so far as it provides
for wholesome experiencing. Schools are established to give experience in
the major areas of living. It is the duty of the school to provide life-like
situations in which desirable learning will take place, and the duty of the
teacher is to guide these experiences. If desired understandings, attitudes,
and abilities to meet life-like situations are to be developed, the experiences
provided by the school must be cumulative and suited to the understanding
and problem-solving ability of the pupils.
We do not believe that each activity is experienced or each subject is
learned as a separate unit, and then all units are combined to constitute
the education of an individual; but, rather, we believe, that each activity
experienced or each subject learned adds to previous learning and prepares
the way for future learning. Therefore, efficient learning takes place only
when there is a close relationship between the activities experienced and
the subjects learned.
Hence, we believe that the school program should be centered around
the basic areas of human activity in order that the child may participate
in the wholesome activities of life, thus preparing him to. live happily now
and preparing him for the position he must fill as a citizen of our nation.
The basic areas recognized around which our program is built are:
1. Communicating and Transporting.
2. Conserving Human and Natural Resources.
3. Using Leisure Time.
4. Expressing Religious and Aesthetic Impulses.
5. Producing and Consuming.
6. Participating in Social and Civic Activities.
(The areas of Making a Home and Making a Living are given separate
interests in grades seven through twelve, while in grades one through six
they are included in areas 5 and 6.)
With our program grouped about the above areas of living, and at all
times bearing in mind the belief that education is a never-ending process
and that we learn by doing, we hope that the pupil experiences in this
year's work will help the boys and girls develop, in a measure, those under-
standings, attitudes, and appreciations which will characterize them as
healthy, happy, intelligent citizens of good morals and a belief in the better
WHAT WE ARE TRYING TO DO
In light of the preceding beliefs, we are trying to help the child, together
with the aid of the home and the church, to develop the following:
1. Understandings:-To understand that the school is a place of op-
portunity to develop the mind, the body, and character; to understand that
development is possible only through continued honest effort.
2. Citizenship:-To develop a stronger moral character in the following
respects: attitudes of respect for those in authority; respect for the rights
of others; respect for self; respect for public property; cooperation with
members of the group, the family, and the faculty; good will and kindly
interest in each other and in all mankind. To assume responsibilities
willingly in the home, school, busses, church, social affairs, civic affairs;
to develop a sense of pride in self, school, and community; to develop
3. Appreciations:-To appreciate good literature; to appreciate good
music; to appreciate dramatic presentation; to appreciate the value of a
sound and healthy body; to appreciate the efforts made by the family,
faculty, and school officials for their welfare.
4. Skills:-To speak correctly, understandingly, clearly, and forcefully;
to listen attentively, openmindedly, and courteously; to read understandingly,
rapidly, and extensively; to write legibly, correctly, understandingly, con-
vincingly, and pleasingly; to use the library effectively (card catalog, books
for reference and for pleasure, magazines, newspapers); to be able to in-
terpret, organize, and apply information.
PLANS FOR LEARNING EXPERIENCES IN THE REDDICK
EXAMPLE: GRADE ONE
Home and School
The area for grade one comprehends the home and school experiences.
It provides opportunity for teacher guidance in child development as the
pupils engage in normal life situations. Some of these situations may be
home duties such as running errands, minding the baby, and caring for
one's personal appearance. It is through engaging in these activities that
attitudes, understandings, and skills are developed. It is the teacher's privi-
lege and responsibility to provide guidance.
Some suggested units for grade one are: "Learning to Live at School,"
"Games," "Caring for Pets," "Making a Train," "Christmas."
The schedule for grade one follows:
8:45- 9:00 Devotional and Health ..............................15 minutes
9:00-10:00 Group Meeting, Work Period ............----...........60 minutes
10:00-10:30 Physical Education------- ............ ..................30 minutes
10:30-10:40 Rest .....................-- ----- .. ........- 10 minutes
10:40-11:30 Reading Activities --............... .... ...... .......50 minutes
11:30-11:40 Preparation for lunch ................-----...............-----..10 minutes
11:50-12:30 Lunch Period .................- ------------- --- 50 minutes
12:30-12:40 Rest -- --- --............. ....... ................-------10 minutes
12:40- 1:00 Stories .. ---........ --....... -----........--------.......20 minutes
1:00- 1:20 Music .............. ------- .........-- 20 minutes
1:20- 1:40 Number Activities ....................---........--- --.............--20 minutes
1:40- 2:00 Language .............-----....-.. -- .................- 20 minutes
2:00- 2:30 Reading .......--------- --......... .............--...................... 30 minutes
2:30- 2:50 Special Work ..........--------.-..---.... -.......... ---20 minutes
2:50- 3:15 Playground ................-------- ..................25 minutes
EXAMPLE: GRADE THREE
The area for the third grade comprehends the entire school area. This
provides opportunity for guidance in child development as the pupils engage
in normal life situations. Some of these situations may be: experiences
which help them to understand the dependence of one group upon another
for certain goods and services, experiences which help them compare their
own community with others for likenesses and differences, experiences which
show more concretely the conditions under which supplies are produced and
brought to them, experiences which help them feel a more sympathetic and
neighborly relationship to the people in other communities. It is through
these activities that they develop attitudes, understandings, and skills. It
is the teacher's privilege and responsibility to provide guidance.
Some suggested units for grade three are: "Learning to Live at School,"
"Helping Our Helpers," "Protecting Ourselves," "Touring Our Community
with Friends," "Making a Living in Our Community."
The schedule for grade three follows:
8:45- 9:00 Devotional and Health ..--........------...-------..........-............15
9:00-10:00 Group Meetings, Core .............---...-..........60
10:00-10:30 Physical Education ................------...--........--------------............30
10:30-10:40 Rest ........-....- --.......-----.....-------............. 10
10:40-11:30 Reading Activities ................----- ----------..................50
11:30-11:40 Preparation for lunch --..-----.....................-----------.............-.10
11:40-12:30 Lunch Period ..--.................---------.............----...------.............. 50
12:30-12:40 Rest --....------................-------- --.-- ..------................ ------ 10
12:40- 1:00 Stories .................------------------------... ......................... 20
1:00- 1:30 Number Activities .................. --------.............--............... 30
1:30- 2:00 Language ...............-- .------- --------...................30
2:00- 2:20 Music ...............--------- ----------.......----..20
2:20- 2:35 Recess .........----............--------------------------.......................15
2:35- 3:00 Reading Activities .---...................----------.................--------...25
3:00- 3:15 Special Work --..........-----.--- .-----15
EXAMPLE: GRADE FIVE
Adjusting to the Changing Environment in the Western Hemisphere
In grade five the pupils are exploring the inventions and discoveries
which make possible a civilization in which man controls and directs natural
forces more effectively than in any previous period. The teacher should
emphasize the fact that the child is living in a unique civilization.
The study of inventions and discoveries will be limited to their effect
on man's adjustment to his own environment in the Western Hemisphere.
Suggested unit titles for grade five are: "Our Libraries," "The People
of North America," "How Ancient and Modern People Communicate,"
"The Effects of Inventions Upon Transportation," "Florida, My Home State,"
" 'Good Old Days' Versus Modern Ways (Effects of Inventions and Dis-
coveries upon the Home)," "The Health and Safety of American Boys and
Girls Depend Upon Inventions and Discoveries," "Touring the United States."
A tentative schedule for grade five follows:
8:45- 9:15 Opening Exercises --...---......... ....-----...............30
9:15-10:30 Core (Social Studies) .................. ..................75
10:30-11:00 Physical Education .........-----.............-----............ 30
11:00-11:15 Music (M-W), Free Period (T-Th-F) --..... 15
11:15-11:45 Reading and Supervised Study ........------........... 30
11:45-12:30 Lunch Period ...------......... ....................------.......-...45
12:35- 1:10 Reading (Story) Period (by Teacher) --...... 35
1:10- 1:25 Language ----- -------................. ....---............15
1:25- 1:40 Spelling ....--..--------.......................--------................-------......15
1:40- 2:00 Health, Writing, Art, Club -----.....---............---.....--20
2:00- 2:30 Recess -------------------------------30
2:30- 3:10 Arithmetic ........------ ----------- ------- 40
3:10- 3:15 Clean-Up Period ....................--------------..................------------... 5
PLANS FOR LEARNING EXPERIENCES IN THE FAIRFIELD SCHOOL
Suggested units for grades one, two and three are: "Living Together
in Our School," "Protecting Ourselves," "Helping in the Home," "Special
Days-Hallowe'en, Thanksgiving, Christmas," "Getting Acquainted With Our
Community," "Learning About the Farm," "Fun Out of Doors," "May Day
A tentative schedule for grades one, two and three follows:
8:45- 9:00 Opening Exercise .-..--....--.....--------------......-.....-..-........15 minutes
9:00-10:00 Activity Period ...--. ................ .............-------..--...60 minutes
10:00-10:30 Physical Education ....--------------.....-- 30 minutes
10:30-10:45 Rest ....-.............--------.........----.....------------ .............-------.--15 minutes
10:45-11:45 Number Experiences ..........................................- 60 minutes
11:45-12:00 Preparation for Lunch ............. .......---............15 minutes
12:00- 1:00 Lunch Period ...---.....------..--..-...... ....-------................60 minutes
1:00- 1:30 Story Period ..................--- .........................30 minutes
1:30- 2:30 Reading Activities ---------........---------............---.............---.......--...60 minutes
2:30- 2:45 Free Play ......................-------------.---.........--.............----15 minutes
2:45- 3:15 Self-Directed Activities --------........-....-..-----....................--30 minutes
Suggested units for grades four, five, and six are: "Making My School-
room a Pleasant Place in Which to Work," "Remaking the Map of Europe,"
"What Are the Economic, Geographic, and Political Causes of International
Unrest?" "Our New Reconstruction Period," "How I Can Use My Leisure
lime More Beneficially," "How Is My Life Protected?" "Planning and Pre-
senting a Christmas Program," "May Festival."
A tentative schedule for grades four, five, and six follows:
8:45- 9:00 Opening Exercise ........--------.............-------------.....................15 minutes
9:00-10:00 Core Period ............---- --- ---........-..............--------60 minutes
10:00-10:30 Physical Education -------------------.....--..............30 minutes
10:30-12:00 Language Arts ......-------------....--- -----..............90 minutes
12:00- 1:00 Lunch and Rest Period .........---------......-----.........-......60 minutes
1:00- 1:30 Story Hour ....-------------- .......................------------- 30 minutes
1:30- 2:30 Arithmetic ....-----....... ---- ---- --..............60 minutes
2:30- 2:45 Free Play .....---.........................----------------------.............--.................---15 minutes
2:45- 3:10 Music (M-W), Art (T-Th), Recreation (F) 25 minutes
3:10- 3:15 Clean-Up Period ..........-- ---- ------.................. 5 minutes
PLANS FOR LEARNING EXPERIENCES IN THE McINTOSH SCHOOL
GRADES ONE, TWO, AND THREE
1. Living Together in Our School.
2. Protecting Ourselves.
3. Helping in the Home.
4. Special Days-Hallowe'en, Thanksgiving, Christmas.
5. Getting Acquainted with Our Community.
6. Learning About the Farm.
7. Fun Out of Doors.
8. May Day Festival.
GRADES FOUR, FIVE, AND SIX
1. Making Our Room More Livable.
2. Remaking the Map of Europe.
3. What Are the Economic, Geographic, and Political Causes of the
4. Our New Reconstruction Period.
5. Keeping House in Lands Different From Ours.
6. Using My Leisure Time More Beneficially.
7. Protecting My Life.
8. Christmas Activity.
9. School Garden.
REDDICK HIGH SCHOOL PROGRAM OF STUDIES
EXAMPLE: GRADE SEVEN
Time Period Subject Teacher Room
8:45- 9:32 1 Mathematics 7 Shockley 11
9:35-10:22 2 Science 7 Lastinger 11
10:25-11:12 3 Activity 7 and 8
girls Ott Playground
11:15-11-57 4 *C-7 Walker 9
12:00-12:30 5 Homeroom (M)
Skills in Activi-
Assembly (F) Auditorium
12:30- 1:20 6 Lunch
1:23- 2:22 7 *C-7 Walker 9
2:25- 3:15 8 Library Walker 10
*C-7: Community Living.
Broad Topic Area Problem
1 Government Participating in Social and Organizing the Homeroom for
Civic Activities effective Citizenship
2 Recreation Edu- Exchanging Ideas, Goods, and How to Derive the Most Good
cation Services from the Library Books and
3 Recreation Edu- Expressing Aesthetic and Re- What Part Does Art Play in
cation ligious Impulses Our Daily Lives?
Making a Home
4 Vocations Making a Living Vocations in our Community
5 Recreation Using Leisure Time Family Fun
6 Conservation Conserving Human and Na- Conservation of Plant and
tural Resources Animal Life in Florida
EXAMPLE: GRADE NINE
Home Economics I
*C-9: Living in a Democracy
Broad Topic Area Problem
5 Social Welfare
8 Nature Study as a
Basis for Litera-
Participating in Social and
Participating in Social and
Participating in Social and
Expressing Religious and Aes-
Conserving Human and Na-
Communicating and Trans-
Producing and Consuming
Expressing Religious and Aes-
Making A Living
How Can We Organize the
Ninth Grade to Get the
Most Out of This Year's
How Can I Establish Better
Personal Relations in School
How Can I Become a Citizen?
What Can I Contribute to
How Are Dependents Cared
for in My Country, State,
Do I Know the Value of the
Do I Understand and Appre-
ciate the Americas?
Do I Enjoy and Appreciate
the World About Me?
What Vocation is Best for
The elementary and high school faculty of the Reddick School ap-
preciate the confidence which the school boards and community have placed
in us as guides and instructors of your boys and girls. It is sincerely hoped
that each of us will prove worthy of that trust and exert the utmost effort
to help guide the youth placed in our care so that their high school days
will be remembered as most happy ones and as helpful toward making their
lives useful to themselves and their community.
Each teacher earnestly desires wholesome relationships with this com-
munity which we serve. We who have taught here before shall endeavor
to strengthen those ties which we have already formed, and those teachers
who are new will attempt to establish friendly relations as soon as possible.
We teachers especially enjoyed the visits in your homes last year, and we
trust that we may be invited to call on you again and become better ac-
In establishing desirable community relations, we teachers realize that
the first and most important consideration is the school itself. We need
to be conscientious in planning and in executing our daily work and in
accomplishing the best results for each boy and girl. It is our purpose
to understand each individual pupil and lead him to his maximum achieve-
ment in personality and character development as well as in instructional
We teachers realize that we are interpreters of the school. We shall
endeavor to conduct ourselves in an approved manner at all times and to
be the type of citizen that will be helpful to the community. If we are
selected to do service in the local organizations as the church, community,
club, and Parent-Teacher Association, we shall cheerfully perform our duties
to the best of our ability.
We plan four definite projects as part of our school program that we
hope will continue to foster a feeling of friendly interest in our community:
1. A fish fry to be given for parents and interested friends of the school
in the fall, at which time Visiting Day in our school will be observed, and
parents and friends will be the guests of the faculty and bus drivers at
2. A Christmas program which we shall cooperate in preparing with a
committee from the Community Club and churches.
3. An Easter egg hunt for the smaller children in the spring; this
being planned with the community.
4. A commencement program participated in by our graduates, as was
carried out this past year .
Other activities during the year, such as athletic contests, assembly and
Parent-Teacher programs, our annual school carnival, band concerts, and
senior play will present various opportunities for parents to visit our school.
Also our school news will continue to establish contact with parents and
SEALEY MEMORIAL ELEMENTARY SCHOOL
In February, 1940, a plan was presented to our faculty whereby we
might evaluate our past and present practices and philosophies; and from
which we might organize our curriculum to meet our present needs-this
plan to be the basic foundation for the school faculty to continually revise
its curriculum in order to meet changing conditions. As a basis for be-
ginning this revision, a tentative plan was set up by the State Department
of Education which called for the following surveys to be made:
Present School Program.
Our Philosophy of Education.
Locating of Former Pupils.
The faculty voted to accept the plan and to organize according to these
Our organization consisted of a permanent chairman and a permanent
secretary for the entire group, and a steering committee composed of the
chairmen of the various committees. It was decided that the faculty could
more efficiently work out the suggested surveys by dividing into three com-
mittees to carry on these investigations.
During this orientation we found the following phases of our investiga-
tion of special value:
Of greatest importance was the realization by each teacher of
the need for a unified school program, since, heretofore, each teacher
was allowed almost unlimited freedom in determining the scope of
the curriculum for her group. This often caused overlapping of
subject matter and use of community resources.
The investigation of pupil needs led to a realization of a need
for closer pupil-teacher relationship.
The community investigation made us conscious of a need for
revision of our entire health and recreational programs which would
bring us into closer contact with our local health and recreational
authorities and foster a better understanding and closer working
unity with all health agencies.
We began our summer's work by reviewing the surveys made during
the school year. From these surveys the following problems were evolved:
How can we plan our program to meet our pupil needs?
How can we set up our maximum standards of instruction for
How can we overcome the lack of continuity in our program
How can we enrich and schedule the music program?
How may we improve our health program?
What shall be the standards for Health Certification?-or-Shall
we discontinue issuing Health Certificates?
How may we best acquaint parents with our health program?
How may we help in stabilizing the County Health Unit?
How may we best care for bus children who have to wait for
their busses on cold and rainy days?
What additional health books and materials do we need in our
Shall May Day continue to be Child Health Day?
How can we schedule and plan ahead to make our social activities
program function more effectively? Are there any revisions or addi-
How can we better provide for the housing and administration of
our library unit?
How may we distribute books to take care of individual read-
How may we obtain more books and magazines for the grade
How may be we best make a reclassification of the books as to
How can we obtain a full-time librarian?
How can we best make the following recommendations for improve-
ment in our present school plant?
How may we call to the attention of the School Board the
Remedying the smoke hazard (due to poor construction
of the chimney for the central heating plant)
Need for new door checks.
Need for more chairs.
Need for a new piano for the music room.
Need for training for more efficient janitorial service.
Need for a change in the method of caring for and cleaning
How may we work out a method for checking janitorial service
in the building?
How may we work out a more efficient plan for the supervision
of the clinic room, as to administration of first aid and supplies?
How may we work out a plan for the organization and use of the
workroom (a room equipped for carpentry and other crafts)?
How may we plan for a conference and committee room in our
How may we plan for providing more storage space in the class
rooms and cloak rooms?
How may we improve our report cards?
How may we systematize our testing program as to time given,
type of test to use, and reliance to place on results?
How may we fill the need for a well organized recreational program?
How may we work out a program for a democratic way of living
in the total school program?
Shall we organize a Student Council?
Shall the Boy Patrol Court be a part of this Council?
How may Sealey Memorial School utilize all community resources
in its program?
During the summer the committees shifted so that each member of
our faculty worked on the problems of particular interest to her.
Our plan for work was very flexible. Each working day included gen-
eral sessions for planning, reports, discussions, committee meetings, in-
vestigations, meetings with consultants and staff members; and a recreation
period. This recreation period was used occasionally to demonstrate the
proposed play program for our school. Afternoons and many evenings were
devoted to committee meetings, special interest groups, demonstrations, and
investigations of community resources through trips.
Although we have not been able to solve all the problems we set for
ourselves, due to lack of time and to other conditions out of our control,
we have arrived at the following solutions. The scope of the curriculum
was defined, and continuity of subject matter was worked out to eliminate
overlapping from grade to grade. The entire health program and philosophy
of health teaching was revised. A well planned social program was scheduled
for the entire school year. A room has been provided for the library by
partitioning the end of a hall. The county school board was contacted
on a great many problems concerning the improvement of the school plant.
Training for janitorial service was recommended and has been partially
put into effect. A new and entirely different type of report was worked out
and adopted. A plan for giving standardized tests at the beginning of each
school year was accepted. A yearly recreational program on grade level
was worked out and given in printed form to each teacher to be used as
a guide. A complete list of community resources was prepared and grouped
according to suggested grade level and grade interests.
As a group we have found great satisfaction in the experience of analyz-
ing the work of our school, in working out plans for the improvement of the
total program, and as the school year progresses, in working together to
put our plans into execution. Not only is our program for the entire school
more meaningful to each of us because of our part in planning it, but in-
dividual enrichment has come through the many fine contacts made with
those associated in the workshop as well as through the many opportuni-
ties to work with others in our own group.
PHILOSOPHY OF THE TRENTON SCHOOL
That all children should have the same opportunity to obtain an educa-
tion and share the responsibilities and enjoy the privileges of our demo-
cratic way of life is the guiding principle underlying our entire school
We acknowledge that education is a continuous process, and we are
trying to adjust our program to meet the needs of our children, to enable
them to contribute some part to the well-rounded life of the community.
At the same time, we expect the well-being of the community to serve as
a pattern and to contribute in an educational way to the adjustment of
children at proper levels into whole life of the community.
It is accepted that every legal and moral agency should be enlisted and
expected to make contributions to the education of the children. Contribu-
tions here do not mean financial aid.
We believe that a minimum amount of training should produce a feeling
of social and economic responsibility. Children should be given opportunity
to acquaint themselves with the duties and responsibilities of establishing
and maintaining a home, participating in governmental affairs, and con-
tributing their share to the social institutions of any community in which
they might live.
OBJECTIVES OF THE TOTAL SCHOOL PROGRAM
1. To provide a situation conducive to the best physical, mental, moral,
spiritual, and social development of the individual.
2. To promote better vocational opportunities.
3. To promote better relationship between the community and the
4. To develop knowledge and skills in order to help the pupil to make
5. To acquaint the child with our political and economic institutions.
6. To establish the value and wise use of leisure time.
7. To promote health.
8. To establish a definite conception of individual responsibilities and
9. To prepare the individual to participate in group activities.
10. To provide opportunities for creative expression and scientific
11. To develop respect and appreciation for one's own family and to give
instruction relative to the improvement of home conditions.
12. To promote critical and scientific thinking of the child.
FOUR POINT OBJECTIVES OF THE TRENTON SCHOOL
1. To establish an active community health service the following means
will be employed: use of county health nurse, annual examination by
dentist and doctor, exclusion of teachers and pupils with infectious diseases,
inspection at frequent intervals of school cafeteria, classes in first aid, class-
room talks and personal conferences, P. T. A. talks, letters and conferences
to notify parents of their children's defects and advise them to consult the
family physician, cooperation with existing community health agencies,
taking pupils home when they become sick, and supervision of hookworm
2. To enlist parents' cooperation in health measures interest will be
aroused through P. T. A. meetings, personal visits to the homes, newspaper
articles, booklets, and mimeographed materials.
3. To improve community sanitation a city clean-up campaign will
be sponsored through cooperation with local civic service clubs. Movies,
talks, newspaper articles and personal visits will be employed in a clean-up
campaign in rural homes.
4. To establish school health measures provision will be made for:
proper heating, lighting, and ventilation of school building; organization of
fire drills; adequate and well arranged seating facilities; proper care of
lavatories; and effective use of the lunchroom.
5. To enlist the physician's and the dentist's cooperation in health
measures we will invite them to P. T. A. and faculty meetings. Personal
interviews will be made by faculty members.
6. To develop health knowledge, attitudes toward health, and health
habits in the student emphasis will be placed on the following topics:
A. Structure and Function of the Body.
B. Causes of Diseases.
C. Causes, Symptoms, Prevention, and Treatment of Malaria,
Hookworm, Colds, and Malnutrition.
D. Sewer motivation to Improve Health.
E. Cleanliness at School.
F. Knowledge of Quacks, Fakes, False Cures, and Useless
Abilities: To work either independently or cooperatively, as a leader
or as a follower; to control one's temper; to suggest worthwhile undertakings
for the group; to use all available resources; to see when one needs help
and to know where to find it; to converse with ease in a social group; to
make proper introductions; to feel at ease and to make others feel at ease
in social groups; to plan and conduct entertainment for social groups; to
judge intelligently the information derived from such sources as the news-
paper, the radio, public addresses, the movies, and magazines; to make
political judgments; to see the sequence of events; to distinguish between
things yielding temporary or permanent satisfaction; to direct one's be-
havior intelligently; to interpret data; and to solve problems scientifically.
Habits and Skills: Being truthful in word and deed; speaking and
working accurately; playing fair in all activities; never misrepresenting
others; accepting the blame for one's own acts; taking proper care of one's
own possessions and public property; being clean-physically and mentally;
being punctual; keeping one's word; never shirking or forgetting; meeting
hardships with courage; doing one's work without complaining; accepting
one's share of group responsibility; modulating one's voice; obeying rules;
controlling one's bodily movements so as not to annoy others; taking one's
turn in expressing one's ideas or in using materials; practicing safety meas-
ures; being neat and orderly in all types of situations; completing under-
Attitudes and Appreciations: Desire to cooperate in the care of public
property; desire to be self sustaining; desire to be helpful to one's fellows;
inclination to use materials wisely and save for future needs; willingness to
use all available resources; respect for the opinions of others; respect for
the personalities and rights of others; respect for duly constituted au-
thority; cheerful acceptance of circumstances over which one has no con-
trol; desire to help solve social and economic problems; willingness to give
of one's services to humanity in keeping with one's abilities; an apprecia-
tion of the value of time; receiving and giving group criticism in a friendly
and helpful manner; pride in personal cleanliness; cleanliness of the room,
building, and grounds; courtesy to others, sense of responsibility in pre-
venting spread of communicable diseases; sense of responsibility to society
for maximum self-development; appreciation of opportunity for participa-
tion in democratic living in the school and in the community; sense of
responsibility for contributing to group activities.
Understandings: The individual's place in the interdependent social,
political, and economic society; American institutions such as the home,
school, church, community, state, and nation; and international institutions
such as governments, religion, customs, and modes of living.
The objectives of the program include: participation of every pupil;
development of a well-rounded personality; development of proper relation-
ships making social activity a vital part of the pupil's education; building
of character; establishment of a better relationship between the school and
the community; development of appreciations.
Objectives also include: prevention of waste, teaching of practical busi-
ness methods of spending, making available a fund which all departments
may use for better facilities, promoting unity among all organizations, and
elimination of the practice of spending public money at will.
Each pupil will be assessed a ten-cent activity fee. This, together with
the incomes of all other school organizations, will be consigned to a General
Fund Committee, consisting of faculty members representative of each de-
partment (not to exceed seven), the principal, and the treasurer. The duties
of this committee are: to deposit in general fund all receipts; to submit an
annual budget to committee; and to keep a record of receipts and expendi-
tures. Requisitions for money must be signed by organization treasurers.
Duties of the personnel of the General Fund Committee are: to meet at
regular intervals; to make final decisions governing all expenditures; to
make a budget for the school; to approve budgets of each organization; to
submit a monthly and annual treasurer's report; to keep systematic record
of all deposits and expenditures.
The recreational program of the school will include social activities
(banquets, teas, picnics, auditorium features, fairs and carnivals, and club
organizations) and athletics (intra-mural and inter-scholastic). Social
gatherings for the whole community and town athletic teams will also be
Vocational Guidance Objectives
The objectives of the vocational guidance program are: to help students
learn and appreciate their present educational opportunities; to help stu-
dents find themselves and make adjustments necessary for their greatest
development under the present situation; to aid them in learning of possible
future educational and vocational opportunities; to aid them in planning
wisely, both for the present and for the future; to aid in the placement of
students after they leave school; and to follow-up pupils after they leave
The following means will be employed in attempting to meet the fore-
going objectives: personal interviews; private and group conferences; ques-
tionnaire to secure needed information; enrichment of courses with ma-
terial needed for other courses; reading varied programs (lectures, debates,
film strips, panel discussions); interviews with professional people; ap-
prenticeships; annual inventory to determine interests and abilities of stu-
dents; parent-teacher-pupil planning; and occupational records.
VIEWS-AFTER THE WORKSHOP
The results of this summer's Workshop will bring about changes in our
system to provide machinery for carrying out plans in our four major areas
(health, citizenship, recreation, and vocational guidance).
The administration will make changes in files and records. In establish-
ing community relations committees will be set up to do definite things. We
are to receive more financial aid than usual. The health program of the
school will be augmented by the newly created health unit. We expect
to increase the number of free lunches. The board has promised to furnish
materials for the construction of a new farm and general shop building by
NYA labor. It is planned to reconstruct all fencing and set crepe myrtle
around the border of the campus on the north, west, and south sides. Build-
ing use will be rearranged to add comfort and space.
The gymnasium will be completed by January. The old basketball court
will be converted into a hard surfaced tennis court, and one shuffle board
court will be constructed.
The social life of the school will be governed by a calendar of events
now under construction. More recognition will be given clubs and other
social functions in the school. A formal tea is planned for the entire school.
Plans have been made to utilize school and community assets in learning
experiences. Professional people will be used to aid in the vocational guid-
ance program. By use of a questionnaire, pupil needs and attitudes will
be more definitely apprehended.
Situations will be arranged to give children opportunities to participate
in and enjoy a democratic society. Loyalty, patriotism, and respect for our
country will be brought out as never before.
Mastery of skills will become the concern of every teacher under whom
the child works. Units of work draw largely on materials that will lead
to development of skills at different levels. For the first time every teacher
will openly express cognizance of what other teachers are doing. More
integration will be evidenced than ever before. More planning will be done
by the faculty.
UNION ELEMENTARY SCHOOL
After accepting the invitation to the Workshop, we had to make prepara-
tions for attending. The nature of this work was very interesting. We had
three committees at work during January. The first committee's work was
to describe the present school program which included a daily schedule of
each teacher, and one typed page describing the activities of the teacher
and pupils relative to each of the following: Guidance, Health, Social Activi-
ties and Relationships in the School, Use of the School Library, Evaluating
the Learning Experiences, and the School Plant. We then had to write why
this program was the program of the school. The second committee's work
was to describe the following types of needs of the pupils: Health Needs,
Vocational Needs, Educational Needs, Social Needs, Leisure Time Needs, and
Spiritual Needs. Several faculty meetings were held during this month to
discuss these topics.
In February we had faculty meetings to find out each teacher's philosophy
of education and to formulate one for our school. From grades four through
eight Pupil Questionnaires were filled out so the teacher might be more
familiar with each child's home environment. A survey was made to locate
the present status of the first grade of 1933-34. This included reasons for
retardation, and causes for leaving school for those who were not found in
the seventh grade.
In March, reading tests were given to grades three through eight, and
results were recorded. From these results we decided that reading would
be our major problem for the coming year. We hoped to get a great deal
of help on this problem in the Workshop. On June 10th, the entire faculty
went to the Workshop to continue our work.
Having in mind our school and its relationship to the community, the
purposes of Union School were worked out as follows:
1. To prepare each child for healthful living by:
a. Increasing health knowledge.
b. Developing good health habits.
c. Providing a healthful school environment.
2. To help pupils acquire the fundamental skills, knowledge, and
habits in reading, writing, and arithmetic.
3. To develop in each child an understanding and appreciation of his
physical and social world.
4. To educate each child for effective citizenship in a democracy.
5. To have each child become increasingly capable of intelligent self
6. To improve school and community relationships.
a. To have the school be of increasing service to the community.
b. To have better understanding between school and community.
c. To utilize all possible resources in the school and community.
7. To provide experiences that will bring about appreciation of litera-
ture, music, and art.
8. To help pupils find a desirable place for themselves in the higher
educational work in adult life, and to provide a type of education
which would aid students who are forced to leave school.
9. To make pupils happy in their school life.
10. To develop a feeling of responsibility for the welfare of others and
skills in living together.
While we were attempting to solve some of our school problems specialists
in different fields assisted and guided the work. The problems were divided
into the following:
1. How can we take care of pupils who are accelerated or retarded
in reading skills and reading?
2. How can we teach reading in connection with subject matter?
3. How can we best direct leisure time reading?
4. What kind of diagnostic reading program shall we use?
After these problems were discussed in a group with staff members, in-
dividual teachers worked out a tentative course of study for her respective
grade. These included (a) the place of reading in the curriculum, (b) scope
and nature of the program, (c) objectives, (d) organization, (e) materials,
(f) suggested procedures, and (g) a plan for evaluating the work.
These required much thought, study, criticism, and suggestions from
other teachers and staff members before completion.
1. How to revise our program to meet better the needs of the pupils.
The changes that we believe desirable are (a) to lighten the load in all
grades by deferring learning in certain areas to a later grade, (b) to provide
more life-like experiences, (c) in planning our program to make more pro-
vision for individual differences.
1. How can we determine what material is needed for classroom
2. How can we organize our course of study in health information
and health habits?
3. How can we educate parents to appreciate and cooperate with
free health instruction?
4. How can we correct community health problems?
5. What steps to take to improve hookworm instruction other than
The faculty was divided into committees to work on different parts of
the health program. After the teachers had an understanding of the gen-
eral aims in health for the year, individual teachers planned specific objec-
tives, some activities that could be done, and material for her grade.
1. How to improve individual schedules and organize a better school
We met in a faculty group and planned the organization of the school
day in relation to opening hour, physical education periods, lunch hours,
recess and closing. Teachers planned their individual schedules with sug-
gestions of consultants and staff members.
1. How can we make our building and grounds more attractive?
We listed all the unattractive things in the building and on the grounds
and teachers took certain responsibilities to improve these conditions.
1. What constitutes a good physical education program?
2. How can we organize a school so as to make this program function?
Though we knew our time was too short to devote to an extensive pro-
gram, we went to work and planned a minimum program of activities for
We attended meetings of another faculty group and heard them explain
their program in physical education. We thought that some of the things
they had planned could be used by us and some things could not be carried
out successfully in our situation.
We obtained information from the Workshop Library, staff members
and other teachers. A list of objectives was then set up for the whole pro-
gram. The object of the program was to provide physical activities which
would develop the child mentally, physically, socially and morally.
Each teacher selected games and activities for her particular grade
level and also listed the equipment and materials needed to carry out the
program. For convenience, it was decided to use three by five inch cards on
which the directions of the various activities were written. Codes could be
used on the cards for evaluation to show how well pupils liked to play a
particular game and how many participated.
1. What kind of social activities does our community need?
2. How shall we plan a year's program of social activities?
In our survey of community needs previous to going to summer school,
we found a need for planned social activities for the people. While a definite
written program was not provided for, much planning and talking regarding
the matter was carried on. We wish that a community house could be con-
structed in the community and furnished with recreational equipment.
(This dream might be possible some time).
It was decided, however, to have community gatherings several times
during the year. At these times special planned programs of entertainment
were to be provided-programs that would appeal to the parents as well
as to the young people.
From our association with teachers in the Workshop from other schools
we found that their problems were very similar to some of ours. Finding
that we were not alone with problems to solve gave us more courage to try
to solve ours. With further associations with other teachers and aid from
the staff members we learned how to attack our problems.
Our faculty working as a group saw our school program more as a whole
than ever before, and each member saw his or her part in the program
in relationship to the whole.
We have made some progress toward carrying out our plans and feel
that our experience this past summer will aid us in attacking other problems
that might arise.
WASHINGTON COUNTY HIGH SCHOOL
POINT OF VIEW
In the Washington County High School the curriculum is thought of as
comprising all of the actual experiences that pupils have under the direc-
tion of the school. These experiences include out-of-class activities such
as clubs, athletics, assemblies, informal contacts with fellow students, con-
ferences with teachers, etc., as well as instruction in the classroom. They
also include many out-of-school activities.
To provide and direct experiences which meet the needs of children
is the task, then, that the school must assume. These needs are both social
and individual. That is, some demand experiences which develop participat-
ing members of society; while others call for activities and experiences which
develop special abilities in individuals. It is the purpose of the Washington
County High School to provide first for these common needs and then to
go as far as possible toward providing for individual interests. To this end,
the curriculum is set up in three divisions: core curriculum, common or re-
quired experiences; special interest subjects or electives; and other activi-
ties such as clubs, athletics, pupil-teacher conferences, etc., through which
the school attempts to meet individual needs and interests. The successful
operation of such a curriculum presupposes the inclusion of a broad and
worthwhile guidance program.
Because of certain limiting factors, it is not considered wise to initiate
too many changes at once. Provision for guidance and for various inter-
school activities such as clubs, athletics, etc., will be introduced at once
throughout the junior and senior high school; but, at present, the core
curriculum will be introduced in grades seven and eight only. The major
changes in grades nine through twelve will consist of introducing large unit
teaching in all subjects, correlating of English and social studies (possibly
English and other studies), and providing guidance in selecting subjects.
PROGRAM FOR GRADES SEVEN AND EIGHT
Five 52-minute periods will be devoted to core each day. Life adjust-
ment problems will comprise the experiences in three of these, the problems
running through one of the three having a definite mathematics slant. The
fourth period will be used for directed reading. Music and physical educa-
tion will be alternated in the fifth period throughout the year. Individual
needs and interests will be met through guidance, a 52-minute free reading
period, a 30-minute activity period, and various other school activities.
Core curriculum includes those experiences which are considered neces-
sary in developing socialized individuals; i.e., the minimum of experiences
necessary to personal and social adjustments in life and those experiences
which tend to enable the individual to participate satisfactorily in his so-
ciety. It may be differentiated from the rest of the school's program by
thinking of it as comprising those experiences which, in a large measure,
satisfy the common needs of children in contrast to the specialized ex-
periences which individual differences require. Group needs and common
interests dictate experiences in the core; special tastes and individual dif-
ferences determine the specialized courses of the school. Latin and geometry
meet few of the common needs of individuals; they definitely belong in the
field of specialized interests. Health and expression and social behavior-
these are some of the common problems of all persons.
Just what activities and experiences should be included in the core?
What are the common needs of children and adults? To answer this ques-
tion it is necessary to examine the different fields of human activity and
try to segregate those experiences which are considered necessary to whole-
some living and adjustment to one's environment. For this and the fur-
ther purpose of a later check on the experiences provided, "Areas of Living"
and "Major Aspects" under them have been set up. A tentative list of
"Broad Topics" centered in the immediate environment of the children is
suggested for guiding pupil experiences in grades seven and eight during
the 1939-1940 school term. English, mathematics, and science will not be
taught as subjects; but they will be constantly used as they contribute to
the solution of significant problems.
Areas of Living Major Aspects of the Areas of Living
Getting the proper diet.
Keeping up health habits.
Engaging in wholesome recreation.
I. Protecting Guarding against communicable diseases.
Life and Health Caring for the sick.
Meeting first aid emergencies.
Providing for health and accident insurance.
Making use of sex information.
Areas of Living
Selecting a mate.
Caring for children.
Making personal adjustments in the home.
Sharing responsibilities in the home.
Practicing correct social usage in the home.
Providing for moral and religious influences in
Providing for the educational advancement of the
Planning family recreational possibilities.
Providing for health in the home.
Providing for the family diet.
Applying a family budget.
Providing for family savings and insurance.
Selecting and buying a home.
Making the home beautiful and comfortable.
Utilizing available resources to improve the home.
Making use of vocational information.
Securing necessary training.
Adjusting to different situations,
Finding, obtaining, and keeping a job.
Keeping abreast of the time.
Saving and investing savings.
Utilizing banking and other business facilities.
Marketing goods and services.
Providing for old age security.
Major Aspects of the Areas of Living
Giving expression to spiritual impulses.
Expressing ideas through a variety of media.
Utilizing the various agencies of communication.
Creating and enjoying the aesthetic.
Understanding the progress of civilization.
Keeping abreast of the times.
Engaging in recreational activities.
Appreciating the immediate and extended environ-
Developing a wholesome personality.
Working for peace.
Improving race relations.
Improving standards of living.
Providing education for all.
Conserving and utilizing natural resources.
Cooperating and assuming responsibility in social
and civic action.
Supporting and improving government.
Respecting the personalities of other people.
Supporting cultural and welfare organizations.
Providing for social and economic security.
Protecting society from unfair practices.
Providing justice and opportunity for all.
SUGGESTED BROAD TOPICS
Suggested Broad Topics for Seventh Grade
Living together in the home and school
Making the classroom beautiful
Selecting and enjoying hobbies
Enjoying good literature
Appreciating great paintings and sculpture
Planning recreation for the home
Adjusting to weather and climate
Developing proper health habits
Having health through recreation
Providing for safety
Eating the proper foods
Buying for the family
Using electrical and mechanical devices in the home
Keeping a personal budget
Understanding the community
Contributing to better community government
Conserving and developing community resources
Using agencies of travel
Using mechanical devices of communication
Suggested Broad Topics for Seventh Grade
Paying for the services of government
Understanding our State
Conserving and developing community resources
Contributing to better state government
Making the community safe
Improving health through better foods
Avoiding the effects of stimulants and narcotics
Improving health through adjusting to environment
Using first aid
Improving community health
Organizing the family budget
Saving and investing savings
Using banks and other business facilities
Providing protection through insurance
Knowing about community occupations and vocations
Making the home beautiful
Appreciating painting and sculpture
Appreciating newspapers and magazines
Using commercial amusements
Knowing the proper conduct for various occasions
Areas of Living
Areas of Living
PROGRAM FOR GRADES NINE THROUGH TWELVE
As already stated, little change will be made in the program for grades
nine through twelve. The day will consist of six 52-minute class periods
and a 30-minute activity period.
Present plans call for setting up the core curriculum in grades nine
through twelve a year later. However, it is felt that a greatly improved
program may be achieved in these grades this year through organizing in-
struction in large units, providing a variety of materials and experiences,
correlating English and other subjects, and providing effective pupil guidance.
OBJECTIVES OF THE WILDWOOD SCHOOL
1. To foster effective living which harmonizes the welfare of the group
with the welfare of the individual.
2. To develop the child's ability to adapt himself to his environment
and to adapt that environment to his reasonable needs.
3. To foster intelligent adaptation to the social changes of the present
and prepare thinking people to plan wisely for the social changes of the
4. To develop a sound body, normal mental attitudes, and controlled
5. To understand social relationships and participate in them in ways
conducive to the progress of society.
6. To develop individuality as completely as possible.
7. To cultivate habits of critical thinking.
8. To foster the appreciation and desire to participate in worthwhile
9. To acquire the command of common knowledge and skills essential
to effective living.
THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL
GENERAL OBJECTIVES IN LANGUAGE ARTS FOR THE FIRST
1. To provide reading experiences that will stimulate the child's think-
ing power; 2. To develop a love for and a permanent interest in the language
arts; 3. To arouse an interest in and inculcate a desire for creative ex-
pression; 4. To enrich the curriculum so as to create an appreciation for
and participation in many forms of cultural and worthwhile living; 5. To
increase the ability to share literary experiences; 6. To secure a mastery
of the technicalities as needed in the grades.
After several years of close observation of the arithmetic program fol-
lowed in the elementary schools, the faculty became convinced that it was
necessary to reverse this program to fit better the needs of the children. In
the past the arithmetic program has been much too difficult in each suc-
ceeding grade from the first through the sixth grades. Through the co-
operation of the faculty, the arithmetic load has been shifted upward in
an effort to coincide learning with the proper maturation of the child so
that that learning will be a permanent thing acquired through understanding
rather than by rote. This adjustment in the load will bring about teaching
of processes at a time in the mental development of the child when instruc-
tion will produce maximum results.
PROPOSED AREAS OF EMPHASIS FOR LEARNING EXPERIENCES
IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL
Grade One: "The Child and His Immediate Environment"; Grade Two:
"The Child and His Immediate Environment"; Grade Three: "Larger Com-
munity-Wildwood and Vicinity"; Grade Four: "Our Expanding Community
-County and State"; Grade Five: "Adaptation of Life to Our Changing
Frontiers"; Grade Six: "The World and Our Place in It."
LANGUAGE ARTS IN THE JUNIOR AND SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
Literature and Reading:-To improve reading ability; to learn to use
books in libraries for information and recreational material; to use the
spiritual and social heritage of literature; to develop an appreciation of
good literature that is constantly being produced by contemporary writers;
to develop growth of character and consciousness of social responsibility
through acquaintance with the ideas and experiences of others.
Oral and Written Expression:-To discover and acquire ideas to express
through an appreciation of one's own experiences, environment, and in-
terests; to develop and increase the ability to do clear, logical thinking
through the ability to observe with alertness and accuracy, arrange ideas
in reasonable sequence, and draw sound conclusions from carefully examined
information; to develop the ability to express one's self effectively in clear,
correct, courteous, interesting, and forceful speech and writing.
Suggested Titles for Units
Grade Seven: "My Neighbor and I," "Freedom and Democracy as
Revealed in Literature and Speech," "Living In Our Country," "Photoplay
Grade Eight: "To Know and Appreciate the State in Which We Live,"
"Glorious Adventures," "In Step with the Scientist," "Enjoying Humor and
Grade Nine: "Choosing a Career and Hobbies," "Human Nature Through
Literature," "Preparation for the Wise Use of Leisure Time," "Loyalty to
Friends, School, Country, and Ideals."
MATHEMATICS IN THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL
1. To strengthen arithmetic fundamentals; 2. To develop an ap-
preciation of mathematics as a logical process of thought; 3. To develop
the ability to apply the principles of mathematics in the fields of special
interest; 4. To develop skills of appreciation of these principles of mathe-
matics in the special fields; 5. To get the pupils to have a knowledge of
how mathematics is the natural outgrowth of the needs of man.
Areas of Experiencing
Grade Seven: "The Relationship Between the Student and the Com-
munity," "Graphs," "Thrift," "Buying and Selling," "Communication," and
Grade Eight: "Redecorating Our School Room," "Measurement," "Sup-
porting Our Government," "Banking," "Insurance," "Business Training."
Grade Nine: "Building a Home," "Making a Living," "The Part Mathe-
matics Has Played in Civilization," "Mathematical Designs," "Community
Life," and "Leisure Time."
THE SCIENCE PROGRAM
The general objectives of the science program are: 1. To teach science
as a vital thing in our lives; 2. To place emphasis on the future needs of
the pupil; 3. To correlate science with the other subjects of the school;
4. To lay much stress on pupil activities; 5. To develop as far as possible
in the child a scientific attitude of questioning, testing out, and thinking
out things for himself.
The general theme of the eighth grade science program is "Using the
Things Scientists Have Discovered." The following topics will be explored:
"Being Sanitary," "Our Unseen Enemies," "The Things We Grow," "The
Universe," "Simple Machines," "The Air and Sound," "Light and Color,"
"Heat," "Magnetism and Electricity."
The general themes for the ninth grade general science program are
"Using Our Environment" and "Understanding Ourselves and Our Environ-
ment." Topics to be explored are: "Our Environment-What Composes it,"
"The Forces that Work for Man," "How These Forces Are Combined in In-
dustry," "The Human Body," "Plants and Their Importance to Man," "Liv-
ing Things Made Better," "The Universe."
Biology:-The general theme is "Living Things and How They Affect
Our Health and Happiness." Topics: "How Plants and Animals Are Group-
ed and Named with Special Reference to Those in Our Area," "Where Plants
and Animals Live," "The Structures and Processes of Living Things with
Special Reference to the Human Body," "How Living Things Change," "How
Plants and Animals Live Together and the Effects They Have on Each
Other," "Behavior of Plants and Animals," "History of Biology and a Glance
at the Future."
Physics:-The general theme is "How Things in Our Environment
Actually Work." Topics: "Mechanics," "Heat," "Magnetism and Electricity,"
"Sound," "Light," "Modern Physics."
The vocational agriculture program in the Wildwood high school is
designed primarily to meet the needs of the students, and, secondly, to meet
the needs of all the inhabitants of the community, especially the rural peo-
ple. It has been found that there are certain problems existing which can
be classified under the following headings: Economic, Health, Leadership
and Citizenship, Social and Recreational, Cooperative, Moral.
The objective of the vocational agriculture program is to meet this
need. Specifically the objectives of the program are to train the students
in better and improved methods of farming, so that they will become sat-
isfactorily placed in successful farming or in other allied professions and
be good citizens.
Ways and means of accomplishing these objectives are set down in a
"Program of Work," "Five Year Community Program," "Teaching Program,"
and "Teaching Calendar."
Program of Work, 1940-41
Plans for Instruction:-The instruction in all classes will be designed
to give each student a practical and improved knowledge in agriculture, to
train him in citizenship, leadership and cooperation. The instruction in all
classes will be applicable to local farming conditions. The instruction for
in-school classes will center around the supervised farming program. The
farm shop work will be designed to fit the needs of local conditions and to
develop as many skills as possible. Lesson plans will be made for each job
taught. Visual aids will be used whenever necessary and possible. Reference
material will be used in teaching all jobs.
Course Content:-- Adequate preparation, including lesson plans will
be made. A daily diary of class activities will be kept. A three year course
of study will be made and followed.
All teachers should be conscious of the wide differences in the abilities,
needs, interests, and life prospects of students, both in the activities of the
school and its cooperating agencies. Therefore, it is the teacher's primary
function to meet the needs of the youth of the community.
This guidance program may be divided into three general areas: Edu-
cation, Personal, and Vocational.
The steps to be followed in this program are: A faculty committee on
guidance will have the general responsibility. The interests, abilities, energy,
and special training of each member of the staff will be enlisted. A home-
room organization will serve as the basis of group and individual guidance.
Data will be collected concerning pupils to be put in cumulative folders: