Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 "10,000 words"
 Free and easy
 Zero parallel
 Brass hatting
 Etc., etc.

Group Title: audio-visual way.
Title: Audio-visual way
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00080923/00001
 Material Information
Title: Audio-visual way
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Florida Department of Education
Publisher: Florida Department of Education
Place of Publication: Tallahassee, Fla.
Publication Date: 1948
General Note: Florida Department of Education bulletin 22B
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00080923
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
    "10,000 words"
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Free and easy
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Zero parallel
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
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        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
    Brass hatting
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
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    Etc., etc.
        Page 95
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        Page 100
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Full Text


I .. '.' -. '
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The Audio-Visual Way

January, 1948

Prepared at the

CHARLES F. HOBAN, JR., Consultant


JOE HALL, Director


COLIN ENGLISH, Superintendent

F /

; / S


F orew ord .................................................................................................................................... II
A ck n ow led gm ents ............................................................................................................... IV
1. "10,000 W words ............................................................................................. I
2. F ree an d E asy ..................................... ........................ ..................................... 11
F field T rip s ........................................................... ............................... . 11
F lat P ictu res ........................................................................................................ 16
Blackboards and Display Space ............................................... 22
Exhibits and Manipulative Materials ....................................... 22
C a rto on s ..................................................................................................................... 2 3
Sources of Pictures ......................................... ............................... 24
3. Z ero P parallel .......................................... ........... .................................................... 25
Maps from Observation ..................................... ................................... 26
The Language of Map and Globe Symbols ........................... 28
Teaching Maps from Pictures .................................... .............. 29
Map Interpretation ........................................ .................................. 31
The Network of Globes and Maps ...................................................... 33
Characteristics of a True Map ........................................... .............. 36
Special Purpose Maps .................................................................................... 37
Criteria for Globes and Maps ................................... .............. 38
Sources of Maps and Globes .......................................... ............ .. 41
4. R elections ............................................................................................................ . 43
Supply of Materials .................................................................................... 44
H ints on G ood U se .......................................... ............................................ 46
Selection of Slides and Filmstrips ................................................ 48
Comparison of Slides and Film Strips .................................... 49
Selection of Motion Pictures ................................................... ....... 51
Projection Equipment .............................................................................. 52
Screens and Stands ............................................................................... 58
Sources of Motion Pictures .......................................................... 59
Sources of Filmstrips and Slides ...................................................... 6
Sources of Filmstrips and Slide Projectors ........................ 61
Sources of 16 mm Sound Projectors .......................................... 62
Sources of Screens ................................................................................. 62
5 A u d ition s ................................................................ .................................................. 63
R a d io ................................................. ........ ..... .......... ................................... 6 3

Phonograph Records and Transcriptions ................................. 67
R record P layers ...... ..... .... .. .. ...... ...... ...... .. 70
Recording Machines .............................. ....................................... 71
Public Address Systems ..................................................................... 73
Sources of Recordings ................................. .............................. 74
Sources of Recorders ....................................... ........................... 75
Sources of Playback Equipment ............................................. 75
Sources of Portable Radio Sets ......................................................... 76
6 B rass H a ttin g ............................................................................................................... 7 7
R ole of the P principal ........................................... .................................. 81
The School Committee on Instructioual Materials ...... 82
T he C coordinator ................................................ .............................. 83
T he T teacher ............................... .. ............... .............................. 87
Community Agencies .................................... .............................. 87
Building Toward a County Program .......................................... 88
The County Superintendent and School Board .................. 89
The County Advisory Committee ...................................................... 90
The County Supervisor or Director ................................................ 91
7 E tc ., E tc ........................................................................................................................... 9 5
Classification and Cataloging ................................................... 95
D istrib u tion ................................................................ ..... ......... ........................ 9 9
Room Darkening and Ventilation ...................................................100
Operation of Projectors .......................................... ............................103
Maintenance and Repairs .......................................... .................. 107
Free and Sponsored Movies ....................................... ............... 109
Storage and Housing .............................. ..... ............................. 1
P ay M ovies ............................................................................................. 114
S tu d y G u id es ..................................................... ...........................................115
B ib liog ra p h y ................................................................................ ................................ 1 1 6

THE DEVELOPMENT Of school libraries in Florida is an indica-
tion of the increasing awareness among Florida educators of
the value of instructional materials in an educational program.
With better understanding of the teaching-learning process has
come the realization that library materials should include
audio-visual as well as printed aids. Many teachers, librarians,
principals, and supervisors now in service did not have oppor-
tunities in their pre-service training to learn about audio-visual
materials. These people have asked repeatedly for assistance
in the selection, acquisition, care, and use of audio-visual ma-
To meet these requests, the Audio-Visual Way was prepared
by a committee of Florida educators at the School of Library
Training and Service, Florida State University, during the
summer of 1947. The membership of this committee included:
Miss Sue Paxton Alexander, Jacksonville Beach; Miss Sara
Louise Bell. Tallahassee; Miss Permelia E. Board, Tarpon
Springs: Miss Parah E. Clark, Kissimmee; Miss Kathryn L.
Carlin, Miami Beach; Miss Edna Chittenden, Sanford; Miss
Jennie A. Coleman, Punta Gorda; Mrs. Annice Davis Elkins,
Kissimmee; Miss Frances Hatfield, Ft. Lauderdale; Mr. J. E.
Harbin, Tallahassee; Mrs. Mabel Cherry Hilton, Ft. Myers;
Miss Aline Kelly, Gainesville; Mrs. Aurora Lloyd, Tampa; Mr.
W. F. Lloyd, Tampa; Miss Jeanie Bell Parker, Pensacola; Miss
Louise Pickle, Tallahassee; Miss Merle Souter, Perry; Mr.
William C. Hodges, Tallahassee. This bulletin gives evidence
of the fine quality of their efforts.
This work was coordinated by Miss Sara Malcolm Krentz-
man of Florida State University and the State Department of
Education. Serving as consultant was Dr. Charles F. Hoban,
Jr., formerly Special Assistant, Division of Visual Education,
Philadelphia Public Schools, and now Associate Professor of
Audio-Visual Materials at the School of Library Training and
Service, Florida State University. Especial thanks are due Mrs.
Dora Sikes Skipper and Mr. T. George Walker of the State

Department of Education, and to Dean Louis Shores of the
School of Library Training and Service, Florida State Univer-
sity, for their assistance in reviewing this material. The help
of the many commercial manufacturers and distributors who
provided materials and equipment for the committee's use is also
gratefully acknowledged.
We trust that the Audio-Visual Way will provide valuable
assistance to all personnel in Florida schools seeking to improve
the quality of their educational programs.

THE FOLLOWING commercial manufacturers or distributors
provided valuable materials for the use of the committee prepar-
ing this bulletin: Ampro Corporation; Ansco Corporation;
Bausch Lomb Optical Co.; Bell and Howell Company; Chas.
Bessler Company; Conroy and Company; Coronet Instructional
Films; Denoyer-Geppert; Distributors Group; Eastern Air
Lines; Eastman Kodak Company; Encyclopaedia Britannica
Films, Inc.; Florida School Book Depository; Keystone View
Company; Natco, Inc.; National Airline; Newton School Equip-
ment Company; A. J. Nystrom & Company; Optron, Inc.; Radio
Corporation of America; Radio Corporation of America, R.C.A.
Victor Division; Frank Rieber, Inc.; Society for Visual Educa-
tion; Stevens Pictures Company; Tallahassee City Airport; Vic-
tor Animatograph Corporation; Viewlex, Inc.; Weber-Costello
Company; Wilcox-Gay; Young America Films, Inc.; Cartoons
and Photos by William J. Hodges, Florida State Department
of Education; Photos and photo finishing by L'Avant Studios,
Tallahassee, Florida. Cover by Mr. Hodges. Drawings by Mr.

I. "10,000 WORDS"
EUCLID, THE TEACHER, wisely told Ptolemy I, his pupil, that
there is no royal road to learning.
Contrary to popular belief, nobody can teach anybody any-
thing. We must learn for ourselves. The best the teacher can
do is to arrange and manipulate the environment so that it
inspires and leads to learning, and to guide the development of
boys and girls within the environment.
To arrange the environment so as to stimulate learning, able
teachers frequently do two things: (1) they take boys and girls
out of the classroom into the community and on occasional
trips outside the community, and (2) they bring into the class-
room audio-visual representations of the environment that lies
outside the possibilities of more direct experience. Building on
these experiences teachers guide the efforts of their pupils so
that new knowledge, insights, skills, attitudes, and apprecia-
tions are developed.
In the course of this process, and in direct proportion to it,
boys and girls mature in intellectual, social, emotional, and moral
stature, and in their ability to make choices and decisions. As
they show evidence of this maturity, they are said to be "edu-
cated." To the extent that schools contribute to this develop-
ment, they fulfill their function as educational institutions. To
the extent that teachers stimulate and guide this process, they
succeed as teachers.
Peace of mind
Most of us know most of this intuitively, but we encounter
difficulty in applying our intuitive knowledge to practical teach-
ing situations involving large groups of boys and girls varying
widely in background and abilities.
We need peace of mind and leisure to think and plan our
teaching. With increased salaries for teachers, we can begin
to achieve some necessary peace of mind. However, salary in-
creases do not automatically improve instruction. They simply
relieve teachers from the economic, social, and psychological
pressures that depress personal status and limit professional


efficiency. To do a good job, teachers also need good teaching
materials and they need to know how to use them. Otherwise,
our peace of mind will be short shrift.
Materials and equipment cost money. Not only must they
be purchased, but they must be maintained, and they must be
distributed and administered in such a way that they are avail-
able to the classroom teacher-to all classroom teachers-when
and where needed. There is no royal road to learning.
It sometimes seems as though everyone were rich in the ma-
terials and procedures of instruction except the schools, as
though we as individuals and as a nation, were unstinting in
providing resources for everything except education.. For in-
stance, we are a nation of tourists. The tourist industry is
Florida's biggest business. We expend without stint and with
good results on travel movies, beautifully illustrated brochures
and illustrated maps to invite tourists to see our state and
enjoy the wonders of its climate and its recreational advan-
tages. We employ high-priced commercial artists to illustrate
the nutritional values of our citrus fruits and to convince the

S. a world of audio-visual stimulation .

"10,000 WORDS"

people of the nation that they will be healthier and happier if
they drink the juice of our Florida oranges and grapefruit.
We teach as if
But in teaching our children and in developing our human
resources, we neglect these same persuasive and effective teach-
ing materials and procedures. We teach school as if taking a
trip were merely a luxury for out-of-staters, as if movies were
a relatively harmless sedative or a safe place to park our chil-
dren on Saturday, as if attractive and interesting pictures
were merely something patented by the publishers of Life and
Look, or reserved for the advertising columns of magazines with
feminine appeal.
The world our children live in is a world of audio-visual
stimulation. They are surrounded by comics, movies, billboards,
pictures in newspapers and magazines, juke boxes, radios, and
automobiles, trains, buses and airplanes. To a near-danger point
our schools are in but not of this world.

. . instead of belittling . .


If we are to keep our "tryst with time" we must mend our
ways in education. Instead of neglecting or belittling the power-
ful media of mass communication employed in other endeavors.
it would seem more intelligently realistic to bring these media
into our endeavors and adapt them to our use.
One of our well-intentioned but serious mistakes is an over-
whelming dependence on the printed and spoken word as the
almost exclusive medium of education. Teachers confuse talking
with teaching, reading and listening with learning. Reading is
the most overemphasized and undertaught "subject" in the
curriculum. It is overemphasized to the extent that other kinds
of experiences and ways of learning have been neglected, and
it has been poorly taught for this very reason.
Direct experiences, field trips, pictures, movies, radio, and
the like, are essential to the development of meanings. We limit
the effectiveness of our reading instruction by neglecting the
experiences which develop the meanings of the printed page.
Similarly, when we neglect to provide experiences with printed
materials such as books, pamphlets, magazines, newspapers, etc.,
we limit the effectiveness of our audio-visual materials. Printed
materials and audio-visual materials are complementary, not
competitive. We must understand this relationship and make
adequate provision for it if we are to improve education.
One of the first practical steps to be taken in the improve-
ment of education on the classroom level is for teachers to stop
"teaching" (talking) and children to start learning from ex-
periences other than listening and reading. When these comple-
mentary materials and procedures are introduced, children will
not only learn more and better but their reading, speaking, and
thinking will improve. Many teachers and supervisors are con-
cluding that recent improvements in reading in the primary
grades are traceable to the increased use of direct experiences,
field trips, and pictures in these grades. Such experiences build
"reading readiness" by building meanings into words, sentences
and paragraphs. Rich meanings, developed out of rich experi-
ences, are essential to good reading. We must also teach our

"10,000 WORDS"

pupils to read materials other than books. They must learn to
read maps and globes, pictures and movies, if they are to live
intelligently and effectively.

Hocus-pocus and comimonsense
As professional teachers and school administrators we are
often so close to the details of our jobs that we find it hard to
diagnose our difficulties and prescribe remedies. We have de-
veloped folklore and folkways about professional education
which we tend to perpetuate uncritically in the daily practice
of our profession. We have grafted an amazing shop vocabu-
lary. We have filled our educational journals and meetings
with pedagogical abracadabras. Quite often this hocus-pocus
confuses the public as much as ourselves, and we find we have
withdrawn more and more from the people who support the
schools and whose children we teach. As a result, we lose the
trust and support of the public and that commonsense about
education which is the heritage of teachers and parents alike.
This bulletin about audio-visual materials of instruction is
an attempt to restate some commonsense about education, to put
down on paper some of the tricks of the educational trade that
we teachers talk about among ourselves but seldom write for
publication, and to supply some of the technical information
about audio-visual equipment, its operation and maintenance,
that teachers and administrators must know for wise purchase
and effective use.

A-V Canons
Throughout this bulletin a number of assumptions have been
made about audio-visual materials. These assumptions are basic
to our conception of a well organized program of instructional
materials and procedures. Let us take them up as follows:
1. In developing the use of audio-visual materials, we begin
where we are, make a better use of what we have, and add what
we need as soon as we can. We don't need movies and movie
projectors, radios and recorders to start. The use of community
resources, community study, field trips, mounted pictures,


posters, etc., lies within the reach of every teacher with little
or no expense to anyone except in teacher time. Our program
is incomplete without movies, film strips, and other projected
or recorded materials, but we are not without audio-visual re-
sources if we do not have them.
2. Audio visual materials are not something separate from
other materials of instruction, but a necessary part of our reper-
toire. They do not replace or dispace printed materials or
teachers. Their use may involve reconsideration of some of our
teaching methods, but no substitution or replacement. When the
full range of audio-visual materials is utilized in teaching, print-
ed materials may be used last instead of first, but it is likely
that more printed materials will be used, and that they will be
used with better understanding, enjoyment and appreciation.
We will make a great mistake in our planning for improved
instruction unless we plan for instructional materials broadly
enough to provide the range and variety essential to effective
education. The concept of materials of instruction embraces
audio-visual, printed, and manipulative materials, and direct
experiences with people and things. Planning for audio-visual
materials means planning within and as a part of this inclusive
concept, and our plans will be educationally effective only to
the degree that they involve range and variety.
3. Audio-visual materials must fit into the curriculum, but
not into the old, dull groove. Out of school, the things we refer
to as audio-visual materials are lively, bright, interesting, and
dramatic. An ingredient of the popular appeal of pictures,
movies, and radio is their dramatic and interesting qualities.
Our children are growing up amidst these qualities and natur-
ally expect them. If we try to fit these materials into an already
dull curriculum pattern, we are not making the dull pattern
brighter. We are making bright materials dull. It's like the
ten-year old in Hillsborough county. The supervisor asked
him how he liked his teacher. "I like my teacher fine, but I
know a boy who has an old-fashioned teacher." "What do you
mean by old-fashioned?" "You know, when you're having

"10,000 WORDS"

trouble with your school work, all the old fashioned teacher
used to do was hit you. I like the new kind of teacher. She
helps you." It's that way with audio-visual materials.
4. Audio-visual materials are basic to teaching on all levels
of education, not simply in the primary grades. Many of them
have been used traditionally in the first three grades, and this
is one reason why primary education is probably our most ef-
ficient and most effective performance. If we are to increase
the effectiveness of our teaching in all areas, we must use audio-
visual materials all along the line.
5. Audio-visual materials make teaching more effective, not
easier. Movies, pictures, or recordings will not teach for the
teacher. More planning, more skill in teaching, and more time
in preparation are required to make use of field trips, pictures,
movies, maps, recordings, etc., than to "teach" without them.
Without them, teaching lacks the effectiveness demanded by
today's complex world. But, of themselves, they are no panacea
for the tired, indifferent, or ineffectual teacher.
6. Audio-visual materials make education more expensive,
not cheaper. There is no money-saving involved in a well-round-
ed program of audio-visual materials. They cannot be bought
at the expense of other materials. Instead, additional expendi-
tures are required. In education, as in other fields, you get
what you pay for. An increase in the effectiveness of educa-
tion involves an increase in expenditures for education. The
idea that organized education consists of a student, a log, and
Mark Hopkins not only doesn't apply today; it never did.
7. In initiating or expanding the use of audio-visual ma-
terials we need not repeat the mistakes of poor teaching that
have sometimes accompanied such use in the past or in other
places. If, for instance, we start the use of educational movies
as classroom materials and gradually work toward other uses,
such as assembly programs, we will move much farther more
quickly than if we start running movie shows in the auditorium,
with the pious hope that someday we may get around to using
them in the classroom where they belong. If mistakes are not


made in the beginning they do not have to be corrected, some-
times painfully, at a later date.
8. Our immediate task as school teachers and school ad-
ministrators is not to justify the use of audio-visual materials
in school, but to catch up with the progress of other social insti-
tutions im the use of materials which have long since been justi-
fied by experiment and experience. Audio-visual materials, such
as movies, pictures, recordings, maps, radio, and field trips are
widely used in educational programs of industry, military
training, adult education, and religious education. They re-
quire no elaborate apologia to justify their wide use in school.
It is generally accepted that (a) travel is broadening, (b) chil-
dren and adults learn quickly from seeing. (e) interesting ex-
periences are better remembered than uninteresting ones, (d)
learning and liking are reciprocals.
On the basis of these assumptions, there is developed in
this bulletin what seems to be a simple and logical chapter pre-

. . more epcnsive, not cheaper ...

"10,000 WORDS"

sentation of the kinds and uses of audio-visual materials. In
each chapter principles of effective use, the selection of ma-
terials, and the equipment required are discussed in order. In
the second chapter, we deal with inexpensive and readily ac-
cessible materials: field trips, community study, pictures, their
collection and display. In the third chapter we discuss maps
and globes, their use, and the criteria for their selection. In
chapter four, we deal with projected pictures, still and motion,
and projectors. Then we take up recordings and radio. In the
last two chapters we discuss problems and principles of admin-
istration, and some of the successful patterns that have been
developed in meeting the many problems that arise in the use
of audio-visual materials in schools.

COMMUNITY RESOURCES are audio-visual resources, and field
trips into the community are a basic element of any well or-
ganized audio-visual program. Similarly, many excellent sets
of pictures are commercially available at low cost, and there
is an abundances of pictures in magazines and booklets that
can be clipped and filed, ready for display when needed. When
we think of "audio-visual education" today we often think only
of motion pictures and radio programs, overlooking many audio-
visual resources that are freely at hand or inexpensive to
The literature on community resources, community study,
and field trips is already voluminous. There is little point to
adding appreciably to its quantity here, although we have found

We buy our ticket


it necessary to interweave field trips into the discussion of
maps in the next chapter.
The field trip, in its essence, is a study of the resources of
the community, natural and human. As an example of a field
trip let us consider a study that was actually conducted at a
city water plant by a 7th grade general science class in one of
our Florida schools.
After an orientation in the basic subject matter of water
supply had been obtained through classroom study, the teacher
and pupils planned the trip together. Arrangements were made
with principal to have the pupils excused from another class,
as the trip required about two hours. Advance arrangements
were also made with the management and employees of the
water plant. The pupils planned the transportation, and en-
listed the cooperation of their parents in providing cars. A dis-
cussion was held on what to look for on the trip. At the plant

. check wind direction


the men took charge and conducted the group through, explain-
ing the system of city water supply and the applied chemistry
of water softening and purification.
The trip was followed the next day by discussion in which
the high points were reviewed with reference to previous and
further study. Photographs taken on the trip by two students
were displayed on the bulletin board. The class also wrote an
account of the trip, each pupil bringing out what impressed
him most. These impressions varied from a ride in a beautiful
new automobile to a scientific discussion of the chemical process-
es involved in water purification and softening and the funda-
mental principles involved.
What makes it tick
What were the values of the trip? It is difficult to name
and prove them all, but certainly to the pupils it meant deeper

S. inspect the engines with the pilot . .


understanding of the subject matter, added pleasure, further
knowledge of their own community, and sparked interest in
civic problems. As an example of continued interest, when the
city enlarged its water system later in the year, clippings were
brought in and class discussion continued.
It is evident from this example that the success of a field
trip depends on three things: (1) imagination of the teacher
and the pupils, (2) teacher-pupil planning for transportation,
guide service, interviews, and participation in activities on the
trip, (3) continued activities based on interests and experiences
of the trip. Many worthwhile educational activities develop
out of such experiences, particularly in oral and written ex-
pression. The interest aroused by the trip often leads to the
effective use of pictures, films, slides, and other materials.
There are places in every community for field trips: dairies,
food stores, bus stations, railroad stations, fire stations, post

. . board the plane ..


offices, parks, basic industries, docks, drawbridges, airports,
libraries, farms, groves, ranches, etc.
A camera record of the field trip is one of the most pleasant
experiences associated with it. Photography on a field trip is
exciting both for those taking and those having their picture
taken. It also leads the children to look more closely at what
they see on the trip, and to select the most interesting and im-
portant things to be photographed. Older children may use
their own cameras and plan the pictures to be taken. When
parents go along on the field trip, some take cameras.

S. ready to fly .


Pictures are available in abundance on any magazine stand.
Newspapers and magazines are literally full of them. Many
excellent picture sets have been produced commercially for
school use. This supply can be augmented from current maga-
zines, booklets, advertising materials, and the like.
Pictures, both in color and in black and white, are repro-
duced with the highest technical quality in The National Geo-
graphic Magazine, Life and Holiday. For many years the Na-
tional Geographic has been outstanding for its color produc-
tions. Life magazine includes many photographic essays of
more than ordinary educational importance. Holiday is a more
recent addition to the picture magazine field, and the quality of
its pictorial coverage has consistently improved. Reprints of pic-
torial maps from this magazine may be ordered for a nominal
sum. Two copies of a magazine are sometimes necessary for clip-
ping because good pictures are often on the reverse side of the
page being clipped.
Excellent pictures for school use can be found in profusion
in such magazines as The Saturday Evening Post, Ladies' Home
Journal, Good Housekeeping, and McCall's. These magazines
often include colorful pictures for children and for units dealing
with foods, home making, science, health, history, geography,
and physical education. Frequently, good pictures are to be
found in magazine advertisements. In line with contemporary
advertising, they have a strong flavor of exaggeration; never-
theless, they are colorful and useful, if carefully selected and
effectively displayed.
In the display of pictures extremes should be avoided. In
some classrooms pictures are not used at all, while in others, too
many pictures are used at one time. If the educational environ-
ment is either too barren or too lush, it is equally devoid of chal-
lenge, and challenge is necessary to learning and development.
File but don't forget
A collection of pictures clipped from magazines and news-
papers can become messy unless a system of classification and


filing is developed. Perhaps the most satisfactory system for
filing and classifying flat pictures is the vertical file with sub-
ject headings. Legal size filing cabinets are available from
supply houses, but in lieu of this expensive equipment an orange
crate may be used. There are alphabetical dividers and manila
folders to fit the more expensive cabinets; for the crates, letter

:. ,.? .t-l

. pictures can be found in profusion . .

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AM :r`Y9


size manila folders may be used. Although, under practical
conditions, the folders are not always placed in a file, and are
arranged horizontally as often as vertically, still this method
of classifying and storing pictures is known as the "vertical
file," and the term has become standard. Legal size manila
folders or large envelopes are recommended because a variety
of pictures sizes can be inserted. In filing, a distinction should
be made between temporary and permanent pictures. Tem-
porary pictures may be placed in a folder, sorted frequently,
and useless ones discarded. Permanent pictures, which are ex-
pensive or hard to replace, should be marked thus and filed

Most teachers will find that the simplest method of classify-
ing pictures is by teaching units. Pictures may also be assem-
bled for holidays, seasons, and other special events of the school
year. For a large collection of pictures, subject headings may
be found in the following sources: The Vertical File Service
Catalog, Standard Catalog for High School Libraries, Children's


Catalog, Sears' Subject Headings for Small Libraries, Smith's
Subject Headings for Children's Books, and Abridged Readers'
Guide to Periodical Literature.
Each teacher should have an individual classroom file of
pictures peculiar to the grade level, units, and subjects taught.
In general, there should be a centralized collection of pictures
in every school for the use of all teachers and pupils. Pictures
of permanent value and wide use should be included. Central-
ized files should also be available from county and state sources
to supplement local collections. County and state collections
should, as a rule, include the more expensive and more special-
ized materials. The General Extension Division, University of
Florida, Gainesville, has a collection of excellent pictures cover-
ing a wide range of teaching units which are made available
to schools all over the state at transportation cost. A catalog
of these materials will be sent to schools upon request.
It is not recommended as a general practice that pictures be
mounted for filing, but rather that they be clipped and filed
directly in the vertical file folder. However, pictures should
be mounted for use in the opaque projector. (Household ce-
ment has been found practical for this purpose because insects
do not eat it.)
A few at a time
Just prior to the initiation of a unit, the teacher may select
key pictures from the file and fasten them with pins or thumb
tacks on the mounting for display purposes. This helps develop
interest in the new unit prior to its initiation. Other displays
should be added later, but too many pictures must not be ex-
hibited at any time. It is better to change picture displays from
time to time than to exhibit all pictures dealing with a unit at
the same time.
Invaluable opportunity for the development of talents and
responsibilities is provided when pupils assist in the selection
and display of pictures. Guidance and training in cutting,
selecting, and mounting pictures should be provided by the


All pictures should be displayed in the classroom so that
the center of the picture is on the eye-level of the audience. If
pictures are too high on the classroom walls, they simply cannot
be seen to best advantage.
In selecting and using pictures, there are a few rules, easy
to remember and simple to apply, that make the difference be-
tween good and poor use of pictures in teaching:
1. Select your pictures carefully.
a. Be sure the picture shows what you want it to show, and
that it shows it prominently in the foreground, not hid-
den in the background.
b. Be sure the picture is simple, interesting, and convincing.
c. Watch for cues as to relative size and distance.
d. Remember, your pupils cannot do a good job of reading
poor pictures.



2. Display your pictures well.
a. The margins on both sides and top of the mounted pie-
ture should be equal, but the lower margin should be
slightly larger.
b. The color of the mounting should harmonize with the
picture and not be so brilliant as to detract from it.
c. When pictures are arranged in equal areas, the display
is formal and uninteresting.
d. Pictures of different size promote interest.
e. Variety and contrast of tone and color is attractive, but
be careful not to destroy the unity of your picture dis-
f. Arrange the display so that the center of interest is a
little above the actual center of the display.
3. Keep your lettering legible.
a. Make the letters simple and readable.
b. Keep the space between the letters small. Try making
the first and last letters first.
c. Avoid to many small letters.
d. When painting letters, outline your letters lightly in
pencil, paint the outline with color, then fill in the
edges. Letters cut from colored paper are attractive.
e. Never use more than ten words.
4. Do not tell your pupils what the pictures show; let them
tell you and each other.
a. Let them tell you the story in the pictures.
(1) What it is.
(2) Where it is.
(3) What the people are doing.
(4) How they are doing it.
(5) Why they are doing it.
b. Let them find and bring in other pictures, telling simi-
lar or contrasting stories, or adding to the story already
told in the pictures displayed.
c. Let them tell the story of the pictures they bring to class.
5. Change the picture display frequently.


Too much school room space is covered with blackboards that
are never used. These unused and unsightly blackboards absorb
light and take space that serves other purposes better. Under
modern concepts of classroom organization which make provi-
sion for individual differences, the teacher seldom sends all
pupils to the board to work at once; therefore, one board at
the front of the room is adequate. The remaining wall space
can then be converted into display space for pictures and bulle-
tin boards.
The main uses of the blackboard are: (1) group planning,
(2) temporary daily work plan, (3) drawing space to illustrate
discussions, (4) tests, (5) a means of presenting an idea to a
large or small group at once. Such demonstrations save time
and effort.
Blackboards do not have to be black. The green chalk board
has proved highly desirable and restful to the eye. The best
chalk is white because of its contrasting color. The effectiveness
of board work can be improved by using a large soft sight-saving
chalk which is more easily seen.
Waste blackboard space can be converted into display space
by covering the idle blackboard with cork, beaver board, celo-
tex or some light colored soft material in which pins or thumb
tacks may be inserted. In some instances light colored window
shades have been used to advantage over an unused blackboard.

Any school may have an exhibit of interesting materials or
a museum of materials that are of lasting value, such as shell
collections, rock collections, Indian relics, native wood, material
that shows development of lighting or of dress, types of grain,
leaves, flowers, old maps, old newspapers, airplane or ship
models. These materials should be carefully labeled and cata-
loged. Copies of a classified list should be given to each teacher
in the school so that she will know this material is available.
Here again, we realize the need for a central catalog of instruc-
tional materials.


It is wise to encourage child participation in collecting this
material to capture and create interest. Children are by nature
acquisitive and a "spark of interest" will lead them to gather
many interesting items.
The exhibits, whether large or small, should be where the
children can see and study them, and, preferably, use and handle
them. The hall, the library, an empty room, or classroom space
can be used for display of exhibits. These materials must not
be thought of as too valuable to touch. They should not be left
to gather dust. Things of temporary interest and value should
be discarded after they have served their purpose. For example,
a cardboard farmstead made after a trip to the farm should not
be kept too long. Discard it and make room for new material.
A loan exhibit is another form of temporary exhibit. It may
consist of family keepsakes, old muskets, spinning wheels, val-
uable stamps, old letters, and other materials of interest. Such
collections should be carefully housed, used and returned prompt-
ly after unit study is over.

People enjoy cartoons. They are widely used in newspapers
and magazines and not enough in schools. The best cartoons
need no caption because the cartoon itself tells the entire story.
A cartoon is of little value in school unless it provokes thought
and brings forth discussion. It treats a topic lightly, and car-
ries a single thought, but has instant appeal. Its value is in
its simplicity and appeal. It is an exaggeration of whatever
thought it is portraying. That thought can be happy or sad
or indifferent. The sheer exaggeration of the thing awakens
the child's interest. The danger is in its misinterpretation be-
cause ''The eye sees what it knows."
Many children like to make their own cartoons. They not
only learn by doing but also reveal hidden talent in this way.



Creative Educational Society
Mankato, Minn.
General Extension Division
University of Florida
Gainesville, Fla.
Information Classroom Pic-
ture Publishers
Grand Rapids, Mich.

Sets of flat pictures arranged
into teaching units
Write for catalogue of free

Sets of flat pictures arranged
into units

HARDLY ANYONE need argue that we should use maps and
globes in teaching, that we should use them well, or that we
should teach our younger generation the techniques of using
maps and globes if for no other reason than to read newspapers
and magazines, to plan a motor trip, or follow the news of the
world on the radio intelligently.
What we do not all accept as self-evident about teaching
with maps and globes is that (1) of themselves, they mean very
little to anybody and (2) learning to read maps and globes is
as complex and as dependent on direct and pictorial experiences
as learning to read the printed page.
Old fashioned geography and history teaching was often
little more than drill in map location, or memorization of paral-
lels and meridians without meaning. We drilled before mean-
ing was developed, and when that failed, as it always does, we
drilled some more. Frequently, this produced in our pupils a
strong and durable emotional distaste for geography and his-
tory-and for maps. Instead of teaching geographic and his-
torical understandings and developing intellectual skills, we
ended up by teaching emotional and intellectual aversions that
successfully blocked further learning.

High and low pitch
The aim of this chapter is not only to set up criteria which
will help teachers and administrators in selecting maps and
globes for school purchase, but also to help teachers to help
pupils use them more effectively.
We can identify five stages of development in learning to
use maps and globes:
1. Learning to read simple maps by observation.
2. Learning the language of map and globe symbols.
3. Learning to translate map and globe symbols into visual
concepts of the features symbolized.
4. Learning to interpret maps and globes.
5. Learning the network of maps and globes.


A great source of error in the use of maps and globes in
school lies in the overwhelming temptation to start our teach-
ing on the advanced rather than the elementary levels of de-
velopment. We pitch our teaching too high for our pupils,
whether they be in the first grade or the university. Regard-
less of the grade, the process of development of map-reading
abilities is the same, and the teacher must start teaching where
the pupils are, not where she wishes they were.

Teaching maps from observation gives children (or adults)
a foundation for using maps throughout their entire lives. Chil-
dren are not going to learn to interpret books, pictures, movies.
or maps unless and until they have learned to interpret the
visual environment in which they live.

Workshop map clinic


The study of the school yard and the school block may serve
as a beginning for teaching maps to younger children. The
child is interested in his home, his neighborhood, and his school.
Conversations and questions will lead to many avenues of in-
terest which can be used to organize his experiences.
The teacher may draw a block on the board showing the
school building in the center. This may be followed by talking
about the school yard. Later the class can plan and take a trip
over the school yard and around the school block. On the trip
the "what" and "why" questions from the children may be
used both to satisfy their curiosity and to stimulate interests
leading to further worthwhile activities.
Neighborhood maps
Interests in the community and surroundings may be built
up from conversation about the filling stations, post office,
railroads, parks, farms, fire station, etc. The children can tell
how far these different places are from school. Some of the
children may know, while others may have no idea or concep-
tion of the distance or direction. Therefore it is more interest-
ing and satisfying to learn by actually taking trips to the
various places. From his trip around the school block, the child
has a knowledge of the distance of one block and can begin to
read this distance into the map the teacher had drawn on the
blackboard. On the basis of new trips into the community, the
teacher can draw the map of the neighborhood.
The child on this level must learn the directions north, south,
east, west. The study of the sun is a simple method. Who has
seen the sun rise? Who has seen the sun set? Where does it
set? Where does it rise?
In the course of enlarging and relating these experiences in
direction, other trips can be planned by the children and the
teacher. The places to be visited depend upon the town or com-
munity in which the school is located. All these experiences
provide a foundation for the development of concepts of dis-
tance and direction closely associated in time and space familiar
to the child. After the children have an understanding of places


and things near them, their interests can be extended to other
places. They learn the locations of places they have visited.
Dots on the map begin to mean communities of houses, streets,
people, and familiar places and things.
Learning through experience
Children should be encouraged to bring pictures and post
cards of the towns and cities in Florida and other places. Those
in Florida may be located on the map. The child's strong urge
to manipulate and do things may be stimulated in many ways
by use of pictures with maps. Worthwhile and interesting games
may be worked into the study. The child may like to use a
paper plane in locating a landing strip on the map. A tour
by car may be taken with the picture of an automobile. A trip
by boat would be fascinating.
There is no substitute for first hand experiences and ex-
perimentation. It is only through this process that children have
the satisfaction of taking part in the solutions of the simple
problems which will allow growth of their curiosity about
things, and promote recognition of more complex problems of
larger relationships. And it is only through direct observation
and through manipulation of symbols of the places and things
observed, that children (or adults) can develop in their ability
to read rich meanings into and out of maps.
Land and water, mountains, plains, rivers, railroads, canals,
cities, and many other features are represented on maps by
colors, lines, and dots. We have already identified some of
these in our discussion of learning to read maps by observation.
Map symbols-colors, lines, and dots-mean nothing to teach-
er or pupil unless both teacher and pupil "see" through the
symbol to the thing symbolized-unless, for instance, they "see"
a body of water when they look at the blue surface of the map.
If boys and girls have seen the ocean by direct observation, so
much the better. If they have seen railroad tracks, they can
"see" the symbol for them. If they have seen a city, they can
"see" the dot on the map.


Children must learn to identify map symbols, just as they
must learn to identify numbers, but simply learning names of
symbols has little to do with learning meanings of symbols.
Children must learn that "blue" on a map means ."ocean",
but they must also learn what "ocean" means. The nearby
river offers opportunity to develop concepts of the meaning of
rivers, up and down stream, current, rate of flow, use of rivers
in transportation, etc. In learning to read the language of maps,
the children must learn to "see" the line on the map as a body
of water flowing downstream at a certain rate, and that boats
move up and down the river carrying people and goods. Again,
the best method of developing these concepts is by direct ob-
servation of the river. This principle holds true for all map
symbols and all concepts symbolized on a map. Learning to
"read" map symbols is learning to read the language of maps.

Pictures give meaning to map symbols. If direct observa-
tion is not possible, observation from pictures should be used.
Even where direct observation has been possible, pictures serve
to extend experience into areas which have not been observed,
and, hence, to extend the meaning of concepts.
When children have learned to observe their physical en-
vironment, many of the same meanings about the landscape and
man's adaptations to the environment may be drawn from pic-
tures as from direct observation. Pictures also furnish informa-
tion on land formations of inhabited and uninhabited areas
of the earth-plains, valleys, mountains, forests, grasslands,
mining areas, jungles, deserts.
In Florida, it is very difficult to develop understandings
of climate, mountains, snowfall, the rolling countryside, great
industrial cities. It is very difficult to develop an understand-
ing of life in northern climates unless children have felt snow,
walked in a blinding snowstorm, or seen traffic tied up in a
blizzard. It is very difficult to develop understanding of


mountains when, in Florida, no part of the land is more than
325 feet above sea level. The concept of a mountain, or a moun-
tain chain, or a-mile-high, is not within the experience of Flor-
ida children. It is almost beyond their imagination. Only
through the use of many pictures can understandings of moun-
tains be developed, and of the life of people who live in the

From fourth grade upward
In this stage, children can develop in their abilities (1) to
recognize map and globe symbols, (2) to visualize the thing or
place the symbol represents, (3) to find on the map or globe
the place being studied, (4) to compare the relative size of the
place studied with the area of the whole globe, and (5) to find
the globe facts about certain countries in relation to the equa-
tor, oceans, and other places already studied. This kind of

Pictures give meanings to maps


activity usually begins in the fourth grade and continues through
high school and university.

Copy, yes; free-hand, no
Contrary to desirable procedure in the graphic arts, where
the trend is away from coloring outlined pictures to the free
expression on the part of the children, the important thing in
map study is not map-drafting by children, but learning to
read maps and to use them as sources of information. It is not
desirable to have children engage in extended free-hand map
drawing because of the inevitable errors in scale, direction, and
area representation involved. Map-making is a highly technical
skill. Children's maps are like the map of the New Yorker's
idea of the United States. Learning by doing is, like all over-
simplifications, an undesirable principle of education if carried
too far in too many situations. However, simple maps of the
neighborhood and the community can be drawn to scale by
children, and the teaching of direction and scale is one of the
essentials of such a project. Also, it should be kept in mind that
there is a distinction between copying maps, and free-hand
drawing of maps. Copying is not free-hand drawing.
Outline maps are good for representation of historical in-
formation, place locations, use of state names, placing of rivers,
mountains, plains, and cities. Their value lies in their simplicity
and utility. As much or as little information can be added to
an outline map as is desired. Children develop valuable ex-
periences by filling in outline maps so as to summarize essen-
tial information and to portray this information in its correct
As we have already seen, globes and maps can be interpreted
only in the light of past experience. Up to this stage, we have
been learning to put meanings into a map. The next job is to
get meaning out of a map.
Let us approach this problem through an example. In the
fifth grade our class studied Southern California, its crops, its
climate, and its physical features. Through the use of pictures


and printed materials, these concepts of California were de-
veloped, and the geographical factors which affect living in
California were identified on a map. Nearness to the equator
(latitude), nearness to the sea (western continental shoreline),
elevation above sea level (elevation color symbols), ocean cur-
rents (lines or dashes) were studied through the use of pictures
and maps.
In the sixth grade, the interest of our class has turned to
the peoples of the Mediterranean area. Here we begin to re-
verse process of map reading. The climatic pattern of the Medi-
terranean may be inferred directly from a physical globe or
a physical map rather than "read into" the map through pic-
tures and other experiences. From either a globe or a map,
the boys and girls may check the Mediterranean area for (1)
nearness to the equator (temperature), (2) nearness to sea
(rainfall and temperature), (3) exposure to the sea (east or
west side of continent), (4) elevation (mountains to block the
winds), (5) prevailing winds (rainfall and temperature), and
(6) ocean currents (temperature).

Drawing inferences from maps
By comparing these geographic factors, the class can readily
see the similarity of geographic pattern of Southern California
and the Mediterranean area. From this study it can be inferred
that the long, dry summers and the rainy winters of Southern
California are also found in Italy, Algeria, Spain, Morocco,
Southern France, Greece, etc. Types of crops, such as grapes,
olives, dates, almonds, English walnuts, and citrus fruits can
also be inferred in the Mediterranean from the knowledge of
their culture in Southern California. Similarly, inferences may
be drawn on the architecture of homes and public buildings,
on colors used in dress and decoration, on sports and recreation,
and on the pace and rhythm of living and its savoir faire.
These inferences can then be verified from other sources;
pictures, statistics from The World Almanac, crop maps, text-
books, encyclopaedias, motion pictures, film strips, eyewitness
accounts, immigrants from these areas living in the community,


etc. This verification serves also to extend and enrich under-
standing and experience. Parenthetically, the process here de-
scribed is that of critical thinking, commonly stated as an ob-
jective, but too seldom acted out, in the curriculum.

The most advanced stage of map reading is the development
of understanding of the technical phases of the network of globes
and maps. When dealing with the network of latitude and
longitude of globes, it will be helpful if we correlate classroom
science experiments concerning day and night and the seasons
of the year. These experiments can easily be performed in a
semi-darkened room with a cradle globe and a flashlight.
In theory, the network is simple enough, but in practice it
can easily be made confusing. The network of the globe (and
map) is the crisscross pattern formed by the lines of latitude
and longitude. All lines of latitude are lines around the globe
parallel to the equator, and to each other. They are called
parallels. For example, the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn
and the Arctic and Antarctic Circles are lines of latitude.
Latitude and Longitude
There are several reasons why understanding of latitude
must be developed. For one thing, latitude is directly related
to temperature in various areas of the earth's surface. We fre-
quently think of Alaska, for instance, as a land of glaciers, bliz-
zards, and eternal snow; yet the climate of Southern Alaska
is identical with the climate of the British Isles because they
both lie within the same lines of latitude and they are both
warmed by tepid ocean currents. Unless we understand the lati-
tude and ocean currents of Southern Alaska and the British
Isles, we may continue to entertain our misconceptions.
Lines of longitude are north-south lines, called meridians,
which mark off areas of the earth's surface just as lines of lati-
tude are east-west lines. Latitude lines give us temperature;
longitude lines give us time. We must arbitrarily establish a
north-south line to divide the earth into equal east and west


areas, since there is no natural north-south line corresponding
to the equator. Geographers have, consequently, arbitrarily de-
fined the meridian (line of longitude) passing through Green-
wich, England, as the 0, or Prime Meridian. All distance is
measured each and west in degrees from the 0 or Prime Merid-
ian, just as all distances is measured north and south from the
equator, or 00 Parallel.
Parallels, (lines of latitude), are lines drawn completely
around the globe, forming a circle. Two opposite meridians,
(lines of longitude), also make a complete circle. Circles are
measured in degrees; therefore, meridians and parallels are
measured in degrees. There are as we know, 360 in any circle.

Time on our hands
An understanding of longitude is essential to an under-
standing of time. With such understandings we can compute
the difference in time between any east-west areas of the earth.
If we divide 360 by 24, we find that one hour of time is equal
to 150 of longitude. Consequently, if one travels 15 from east
to west, he gains an hour in time. For example, if we fly from
Jacksonville to Pensacola in the morning, we might find our-
serves missing lunch because we are too early; and, if we set
our watch to Pensacola time, we might miss dinner when we
fly back to Jacksonville because we are too late. The reason for
this seeming confusion is that the country has been divided into
time zones, corresponding approximately to 150 longitude, and
Jacksonville and Pensacola lie in two different time zones.
This same sort of thing goes on all over the earth. When it
is six a.m. in New York, it is noon in London. When it is mid-
night tonight in New Orleans, it is noon tomorrow in Calcutta.
When it is today in Hawaii, it is tomorrow in the Marshall
Islands. The international Date Line lies between Honolulu
and the Marshalls. A new day begins by definition at the Inter-
national Date Line, 180' east or west of the Prime Meridian. So
much for longitude and our understanding of time.


The air age thrusts upon us the necessity of understanding
another basic concept of the network of the globe. Air travel
is travel in circles around the globe. Anyone who flies around
the earth by the shortest route is literally traveling in circles.
This brings us to the Great Circles of the globe.
Traveling in circles
A great circle is a circle that separates the earth into two
equal parts. The shortest distance between any two places on
the earth is along the great circle that runs through both of
them. The equator is a Great Circle. The circumference of the
equator or of any other Great Circle is approximately 25,000
miles. Since there are 3600 in a circle, we can see that by dividing
25,000 miles by 360, one degree on any great circle is approxi-
mately 70 miles. To translate degrees of latitude into miles,
we simply multiply the number of degrees by 70. Since the
lines of latitude are always parallel to each other, a degree of
latitude is always equal to approximately 70 miles. Unlike the
lines of latitude, the meridians are not parallel, but converge
at both poles. Consequently, the distance between meridians
(lines of longitude) increases as the meridians approach the
equator, and it decreases as they approach the North and South
Poles. We can understand this best by tracing out with our
fingers on a globe the relationships and the distances between
and among lines of latitude and longitude. This will be true
with the boys and girls in our classes.
Not academic to air-minded youngsters
All this is not nearly as academic as it sounds. It is any-
thing but academic to our airminded younger generation, to
whom airplanes and air travel are as much a part of their daily
environment as were automobiles and car travel to us when we
were as young as they. To the older generation, which has not
learned to think in terms of air travel and global space, it seems
incredible that the flying distance between New York City and
the Panama Canal Zone is approximately the same as between
New York City and El Paso, Texas. It is hard for us to get the
idea that Central America is no farther from New York than


Texas. It is hard for Americans to understand that the air-age
frontiers of national defense are in the Arctic, as well as along
the Atlantic or Pacific Coasts.
Fundamental understandings of space and distance must be
taught by the use of the globe. There is no other way to do it.
Pupils and teachers can measure distances between points on the
globe and compute the distance in miles. Ordinary strings can
be used for these computations. By measuring distances on the
globe with the string, and then measuring the string against
the globe meter (computed generally in miles) boys and girls
can compute air distance and begin to develop the skills and
understandings required in the air age.
It now becomes clear that the globe is the only true map of
the world. It has true scale of distance in its parallels and

Thinking in circles


meridians. It has true direction, north, south, east, and west.
It has equal area; any square inch on the globe represents the
same area as any other square inch on the globe. It has true
shape because the parallels cross the meridians at right angles.
There are four basic characteristics of a true map: (1) true
scale of distance, (2) true direction, (3) equal area, and (4)
true shape.
There is no way by which these four characteristics can be
truly represented on a flat map. If a map is drawn to represent
equal area, there is distortion of shape. If a map is drawn to
represent true shape, there is distortion of areas. The best known
example of this is the Mercator projection, in which Greenland
occupies about the same map area as South America. If a map
is drawn to represent true direction, the scale of miles away
from the equator is exaggerated.
In selecting and using any map, the fundamental question
is the purpose for which it is to be used. We select the map
(1) that is best suited to our purposes, and (2) that is least
likely to create pictorial misconceptions of the areas shown in
the map. This goes for all maps. For general purposes in a
classroom, a world map should show the whole world, be equal
area, and be free from cluttering details. It is desirable that
parallels be shown as horizontal lines, thereby giving true east-
west direction. The problem of distortion is not so acute with
continent maps, because the continent can be centered on a
straight meridian.
In purchasing maps, the recommended priority is: (1)
16-inch globes, (2) world maps, (3) United States maps, (4)
continental maps, and (5) special purpose maps, such as rain-
fall, climate, relief, pictoral maps, and maps for the teaching
of history.
In the light of an understanding of how people learn to
read maps and of the characteristics of a true map, we can
readily answer questions that may arise as to pictorial maps,
relief maps, historical maps, and other special purpose maps.


Actually, pictorial maps fall into the stage of learning how
to read maps with pictures. They do not give a true picture
of the landscape because there is invariably greater variety of
landscape that can be shown in the relatively few photographs
or drawings included in a pictorial map. But, at least, a pic-
torial map does have some pictures. It is decorative and attrac-
tive. For the kind of teaching with maps we have discussed
here, the pictoral map is actually more restricting than helpful.
But for a quick summary of the essential landscape, and for
attractive and decorative purposes, it is excellent.
The relief map is also good for limited purposes. It pic-
tures at a glance the major features of the terrain-mountains,
valleys, and great plains. It is decorative. It summarizes the ter-
rain quickly, but it lacks exactitude and detailed data about
the terrain.
The following criteria will help in the selection of maps
which will serve the greatest number of purposes and will con-
form closest to the characteristics of a true map.

The Globe
1. Is it durable? It should be sturdy enough that pupils may
handle it freely.
2. Is it a 16-inch globe?
3. Are the colors pleasing? They should be clear, strong, and
readable, but not garish.
4. Is one outstanding color used to indicate all man-made fea-
tures, such as cities, political boundaries, railroads, canals,
5. Are the symbols used to show cultural or man-made fea-
tures easy to distinguish? For example, large dots to indi-
cate large cities, smaller dots for next size cities, and so on;
solid heavy lines for political boundaries, etc.
6. Are symbols for cultural or man-made features shown con-
sistently? For instance, there are so many large cities in
Western Europe that cities of less than 100,000 population


cannot be shown; Africa has so few population centers that
all cities-2500 and larger-can be shown. However, if
this were done it would give a wrong concept of the city
pattern. To make it consistent, no item should be shown
anywhere on the globe unless that item can be shown every-
where it occurs on the globe.
7. Is the type good?
8. Is the legend complete?
9. Is the mounting flexible? (The cradle mounting is most
flexible because the globe can be completely removed, car-
ried about, measured, etc.)

World Maps
1. Does the map show the whole world? (Check the polar
2. Is it mapped on an equal area projection? (Look at title
of map for this information.)
3. Are sufficient parallels shown? (About 100 or 15 inter-
4. Are the parallels straight lines spaced equal distances
apart ?
5. Do the 60th parallels measure approximately one-half the
length of the equator ?
6. Do the meridians converge at the poles?
7. How many straight or standard meridians does the map
have? Straight or standard meridians should measure one-
half the length of the equator to be true to scale. To main-
tain good shape a world map should have two or more
standard meridians.
8. Is the map political-physical?
9. What is the scale of miles? A scale of more than 500 miles
to the inch is not desirable because the features of such a
map are too small.
10. Are the colors distinct and pleasing?
11. Are the symbols consistent?
12. Is the legend complete?


13. Is the mounting flexible ? Maps should be mounted in single
copies to permit best use. Folded maps are particularly
desirable because they are easier to handle and store than
other types of mounting.

Maps of Continents
1. Is the continent shown in relation to other land masses ? On
the map of South America is the adjoining part of Central
America shown? Is Asia shown in relation to Africa and
2. Is the scale of miles large enough to show more detail than
a world map could show?
3. Are the colors pleasing?
4. Are the symbols consistent?
5. Is the legend complete?

Is there an index to all places located?
Is there a pronouncing gazetteer?
Are the maps accurate?
Are the maps clear and legible?
Does it include all types of maps, physical,
nomic, etc. ?
Is it up-to-date?
Is the scale on maps plainly indicated?
Is the lettering distinct and easily read?
Is the United States the country of origin?

political, eco-

History Maps
1. Is the map simple in content, clear, and not confusing be-
cause of innumerable details?
2. Is it historically accurate?
3. Is it attractive?
4. Do the symbols and lines stand out clearly so that the map
is readable from any part of the classroom?
5. Is it appropriate for the grade in which it is to be used?
6. Does it have a. meaningful title?


7. Does it have a scale?
8. Does it possess a legend, easily distinguished and conspicu-
ously placed, making it self-explanatory?
9. Is is durable and economical?
10. Does it show physical features? This is important because
historical events are greatly influenced by geographic con-
11. If a series is being selected, are the maps in chronological
order, so that the pupil can readily obtain the develop-
mental point of view?

Denoyer-Geppert Company
5235 Ravenswood Avenue
Chicago, Illinois
A. J. Nystrom and Company
3333 Elston Avenue
Chicago, Illinois
State Sales Agent
Newton School Equipment Company
Hildebrant Building
P. O. Box 5215
Jacksonville, Florida
Rand McNally and Company
536 South Clark Street
Chicago, Illinois
Weber-Costello Company
Chicago Heights, Illinois
State Sales Agent
Florida School Book Depository
Terminal Warehouse Building
Jacksonville, Florida

SLIDES, FILM STRIPS, and motion pictures have to be projected
on a screen; so we will treat them together here as projected
materials. But why go to the extra trouble and expense of using
projected materials? An immediate and superficial answer is
"to make teaching more effective", but one still may question
how and why?
In the kinds of educational experiences we have discussed
so far, we have been dealing with materials and procedures
which have sheer physical limits of possible use. We can't ex-
pand the educational environment indefinitely through com-
munity studies, field trips, and printed pictures simply because
we can't take trips all the time everywhere. Neither can we
find, classify, and display all the pictures we need to enrich
our concepts of these parts of the state, nation, and world in
which we do not live. Nor can we, with flat pictures alone,
convey the continuity, the movement, the action, and the inter-
aiction that is life's dynamic, mysterious quality.

One right after another
People learn not from one experience, but from one experi-
ence right after another. We live not in environment, but with
one. Our problem in teaching is to provide an environment for
learning which (1) has variety, (2) has challenge, (3) has satis-
faction, (4) makes sense to the learner, (5) is nonterminal, and
(6) is compatible with the psychological laws of learning and
development. Projected pictures add much to an environment
so defined.
How? First, because large lighted pictures, still or moving,
command the rapt, maintained interest and attention of every
individual of an audience group. They are thus of great value
in group instruction. This is especially true with movies. Stu-
dents lose themselves in the action of the screen and "live
through" the picture in imagination and with emotional pos-
session. Such life-like experiences result in increased enrich-
ment and retention, besides making school work more enjoy-
able and meaningful.


Second, projected materials do motivate, not with the threat
of artificial failure or punishment we haplessly resort to when
we have failed to reach and teach our pupils, but by stimulat-
ing and awakening pupil interest and activity. Preparation
for the near or distant future is best made in today's living and
in today's choices and decisions. A vast realm of beauty in
ideas, processes, conducts, and skills is in the projected materials
available for school use to challenge youth toward achievable
new learning and understandings. Through their effective
use, pupils' concepts and ideas are clarified, horizons are broad-
ened, and enchanting open roads are extended to them.

There is an abundant supply of excellent educational slides,
film strips, and motion pictures commercially available. We
can no longer offer to ourselves or our students the convenient
excuse of inadequate supply or poor quality as a reason for
our failure to bring our schools up-to-date in the use of these
dynamic instructional materials.
For many years glass slides have been produced in curricu-
lum units and have enjoyed wide use. Since the war, produc-
tion of glass slides has been resumed, and their quality in terms
of picture selection, arrangement, and technique of photographic
production has improved.
Film strips, also known as film slides and slide films, have
taken a new lease on life since the war, largely because of the
prodigious production of film strips for military, naval, and in-
dustrial training during the war. A film strip is nothing but
a strip of 35 millimeter film on which separate pictures have
been printed in succession.
Not up to expectation
Film strips have not been used nearly as much as could logi-
cally be expected from the relatively low cost of both film strips
and projectors. For that matter, they were not used nearly as
much in the military, naval, or industrial training programs
as those specialists who produced them would have their lis-


teners believe. There are at least two reasons for this. First,
there was a great abundance of pictorial materials available
for war training, particularly sound motion pictures, many of
which were produced for the Army and Air Forces by the big
Hollywood studios. Sound motion pictures, especially those
made with imagination and sense of showmanship, are extremely
dynamic and extremely popular materials of instruction, and
the film strip, lacking the elements of sound and motion, came
out a poor second. However, in specialized military schools
where faculty members were inveterate "teachers" (talkers).
film strips were widely used if for no other reason (not the
only reason, by any means) than that film strips gave the in-
structors an opportunity "to teach" (talk) during their showing.
A second reason film strips have not been used as much as
movies have is that clear-cut ideas of what should go into a
film strip, how best it could contribute to learning, and how
it should be organized to make its greatest contribution as a
teaching medium, did not emerge until fairly recently. With
movies it is different. Educational films that dramatize their
lessons and unforgetably drive their lessons home were made
that way from the beginning. They have improved greatly,
but they were good from the first. The "know-how" of making
good film strips is growing. Our older strips are frequently
without teaching structure. They were often merely a collection
of pictures, with too many pictures in the collection, and too
much in each picture.
Influence of war production
Recent production of film strips has incorporated the val-
uable lessons learned within the past five years. There are now
several hundred excellent educational film strips covering a wide
range of curriculum areas. These film strips are made to con-
form to the way children and adolescents learn, are in line with
best teaching procedures, and closely conform to good standards
of commercial illustration and photography.
Educational motion pictures, good before the war, have taken
great strides forward in post-war production to make them even


more powerful teaching tools. The tremendous extent to which
they were used by the Army, Air Force, Navy and private in-
dustry during the war, and the many educational purposes for
which these movies were used, is at once a mark of the foresight
and effectiveness of the educational leaders who planned and
managed the war training program, and a measure of great
strides that must be taken immediately in the use of movies in
schools and in other educational institutions, if we are to be
even partially successful in preserving and expanding the fruits
of victory.
But the most beautiful car in the world doesn't get us any-
where unless we know something about its use. Since pupils are
not little vessels into which teachers can pour knowledge, there
are no iron-clad rules of teaching that will work with all chil-
dren in all situations. Nor are there any iron-clad rules for
using projected materials. However, there are a few general
"suggestions" that can be made to apply to many situations:
1. Be familiar with the content of your materials by preview-
ing, if possible. If not, study the descriptive literature that
accompanies most projected materials. Knowing the con-
tent will tell you:
(a) If this type of material best suits the purpose of your
(b) If the material suits the age level of your group, i.e.,
as to the vocabulary and their ability to understand.
(c) If it contains the subject matter you want, or fits your
purpose without the inclusion of too much extraneous
(d) If it portrays facts, sizes, and times accurately.
(e) If it contains good motivation.
(f) If it would leave distorted impressions or conclusions.
(g) If it is of suitable length and allows time for related
(h) If the material is interestingly presented, not too dull,
or too compact.


(i) What questions and activities you might anticipate in
the follow-up, or what preparation you may need to
make for it, allowing in your preparation for wholly
unanticipated responses and entirely different turns
of interest and activity after the showing.
2. Show the picture, and in doing so, remember:
(a) To use a classroom if possible, and not to crowd in
several classes.


(b) Not to park your pupils and leave them.
(c) Not to interrupt the showing.
(d) That the picture alone must not be expected to teach
the whole lesson.
(e) That the film should be shown at the time the class is
studying the subject covered in the film.
(f) That the class should be prepared in advance to view
the film with a clear purpose.
3. Have a follow-up discussion:
(a) Let the class analyze and discuss basic or main ideas
the material brings out.
(b) Be prepared for any questions and ideas the students
may raise.
4. Test, reshow and reteach as you see fit. If the picture is
good enough, the class will want and should have a second
showing. If not, remember a poor picture doesn't improve
with repeated showing.
5. Plan carefully for activity outgrowth from the material
used, have additional supplies available, and, above all, let
the follow-up be "natural", let it involve student activities,
and let it follow out the theme of the unit and the interests
and questions developed out of the showing.

Today's slides are produced in two sizes, each requiring a
different machine for projection. The 31/4" x 4" slide is printed
on glass. The 2" x 2" slide is printed on 35mm film and mounted
in cardboard or glass.
The terms filmslide and filmstrip and their reverse forms
of slidefilm and stripfilm are used interchangeably. They are,
as previously indicated, still pictures, printed on non-inflam-
mable motion picture film, made into strips of from 25 to 100
pictures. Those in which the pictures connect vertically are
called single frame filmstrips, while those which "run" hori-
zontally are called double frame filmstrips.



The following criteria for selecting slides and film strips
may be helpful, when applied in addition to general criteria
as to teaching values, enumerated in Chapter II.
1. Are they true to facts?
2. Are they appropriate to your age level and purpose?
3. Are they good in technical quality, i.e., with sharp lines,
good coloring, no blemishes, scratches, etc.?


4. Are they worth the price in terms of future as well as
present use?
5. Have you viewed them through a projector? (Some de-
fects may not be seen by the naked eye.)
One of the great assets of the use of slides and even the film
strip is the creative activity which develops by pupils' making
their own. This may be done from the first grade with their
paper cut-out slides, to the high school seniors with their photo-
graphic slides. However, a 35 mm camera and other additional
equipment are required in making the film strips and 2" x 2"
slides. Older pupils may make the more difficult film strips
which require more technique and group activity. Complete kits

Making their own slides


for making 31/4" x 4" slides may be purchased, or the materials
obtained separately. It is fun to make movies of school events.
Their value may be much more than just fun in such cases as
athletic contests, carnivals, field trips, etc. Some enterprising
teachers and their classes even make their own instructional
Of all projected material to-day, educational movies are
foremost in the thinking of many teachers and school adminis-
trators. Educators are sincerely endeavoring to choose and use
films that implement teaching. Our educational films can help
us teach fine attitudes, moral concepts, democratic living, and
high principles of behavior as well as fundamental facts. The
better the film can do its teaching job, the more teacher energy
can be saved to do the teaching that films can not do.
A variety of interesting educational films is also available
for adults. The use of films in P.T.A.'s, civic groups, and com-
munity clubs may lead to better public relations and prove to
be helpful in improving the standards of living in the com-
In selecting motion pictures for purchase and use in our
schools, it will be helpful to ask and answer questions such as
the following:
1. Is the film basic teaching material? Is it authentic?
2. Is it of suitable length for comprehension-ten, fifteen,
twenty minutes of film showing?
3. Does the film incorporate teaching qualities that reflect
the laws of learning: readiness, repetition, and effect?
4. Does it motivate pupil activities?
5. Is the film within the level of age of the group to which
it is to be shown?
6. Is the action in the film such that the pupils will "live"
through these experiences with the actors?
7. Are photographic quality and sound good?
8. Will the film actually help build desirable attitudes and
help develop abilities?


Motion picture films are not a panacea for all our teaching
ills, but they are a partial remedy for a lot of them. Better
teaching devices properly used mean better teaching.

When the value of projected materials is recognized and the
desire to use them exists, the problem of what type of machines
is needed is paramount. The usability, cost, and the physical
conditions which exist in the school where the equipment is to
be used should be very carefully considered. It must be kept
in mind that the successful use of any equipment purchased
depends upon the supply of projection materials already avail-
able and funds for rental and purchase of additional materials
to use in the projector. There are many kinds of projectors on
the market, each with advantages which may or many not fit
the needs of the situation. There are several possible combina-
tions of projection equipment, some of which may prove to be
desirable under the proper circumstances. However, one piece
of equipment can only be used in one place at a time.

General Criteria for Selection of Projection Equipment
1. Is there a well defined plan of use before purchase?
2. Does it suit the purpose for which it will be used?
3. Is there an agency in the state which will provide full
maintenance when the machine needs repair?
4. Is the dealer reliable?
5. Is there a supply of available material to use with
the projector?
6. Is its weight sufficiently light for easy moving?
7. Is it easy to operate?
8. Are the parts accessible for cleaning and oiling?
9. Are the parts standard and easily replaced?
10. Is it possible to have competitive tryouts before pur-
11. Have you considered the advisability of standardiz-
ing equipment within a county?


12. Does it have a coated lens, which gives a brighter

Opaque Projectors
The opaque projector is a machine which projects on a screen,
by reflecting mirrors, any picture, diagram, or other flat or near
flat surfaced object which can be placed in the machine. These
pictures are reproduced in actual color, though greatly enlarged.
Most of the opaque projectors on the market at the present
time are heavy. Any increase in size of projected material re-
quires a brighter lamp in the projector, and brighter lamps
require greater cooling. This means a large fan, and a large
fan means more weight and higher price. The price and weight
of an opaque projector also increase with extra attachments.
Opaque projectors may be purchased with slide attachments
for 2" x 2" and 31/4" x 4" slides and film strips. In most cases,
however, it is not advisable to attach so many different things
to a single projection unit. In the case of a small school an
opaque projector with these attachments may be practical be-
cause there are not as many possible uses of the machine as in
a large school with many teachers. In general, the problem in
the small school is that of variety of uses, not number of uses.
In a large school, it is both.

What to look for
The opaque projector is relatively simple to set up and
operate, although its weight and shape tend to make it cumber-
some when moved from room to room. Another limitation of
the opaque projector is the need for thorough darkening of the
room. This is due to loss of light through reflection. The focus
on these machines is fixed within limits, and the size of the
material that can be reflected is restricted. Where the wattage
of the lamp is high, a blower is provided to insure cooling. If
there is a blower, pictures have a tendency to blow about unless
there is a glass cover to clip on the materials. The heat some-
times causes flat pictures to curl unless they are mounted on


Along with the general criteria for projectors, these specific
things should be considered when purchasing an opaque pro-
1. Illumination-at least 500 watts, preferably more.
2. Weight-should be light enough to be portable.
3. Size of inserted picture-should accommodate material at
least 6" x 6" in dimension.
4. Reflectors-readily available for replacement.

Slide and Filmstrip Projectors
The film strip and 2" x 2" slide projector is a light inex-
pensive machine usually found in combination for reasons of
economy. Except in a large school that makes an extensive use
of 2" x 2" slides, a combination projector is recommended.
Most standard film strip projectors are equipped to show 2"
x 2" slides. They are such simple machines to operate that any
teacher, after less than an hour's instruction, can learn how to
thread and project the film strip, or use the 2" x 2" slide at-
Slides and film strips have a great advantage in that they
may be used successfully in rooms not thoroughly darkened.
Closing the ordinary window shades and excluding direct sun-
light may provide adequate darkening for this type of pro-
Sound film strip projectors are now available that use film
strips in combination with a phonograph record synchronized
with the individual pictures. However, very few sound film
strips have been produced for school use.
In addition to the general criteria for all equipment, the
following should be considered when buying projectors for 2"
x 2" slides and film strips:
1. Illumination-300 watt lamp or its equivalent.
2. Simplicity of operation.
3. Minimum or absence of interchangeable parts for either


The 31/4" x 4" slide projector is relatively inexpensive to
own, simple to operate, and light in weight. It, too, requires
only partial room darkening. It may be purchased with 2" x 2"
slide, film strip, and micro-slide attachments but, as previously
stated in this chapter, it is desirable only in exceptional cases
to purchase a multi-purpose machine.
Slide Projectors
Another type of the lantern slide projector is the lecture-
table or overhead projector by which the image is thrown on
a screen above the speaker's head.
Special criteria for selection of 31/" x 4" slide projectors are:
1. Illumination-500 watt lamp.
2. Reasonable price.
3. Substantial slide carrier.

16mm Motion Picture Projectors
Most of the more popular 16 millimeter sound motion pic-
ture projectors have the same basic features. Any of these ma-
chines should give excellent service, if reasonable care is given
it. The basic educational trend is toward classroom projection.
Therefore, lighter weight without loss of any essential quali-
ties of the machine is highly desirable.
Most projector manufacturers are producing new models
which are lighter in weight so they can be carried easily from


All 16mm motion picture projectors are basically alike


classroom to classroom. This is a significant development in
projector design. Lighter weight projectors can contribute
much to the improved use of motion pictures in classroom situa-
tions. Before selecting a movie projector it is a good thing to
test the different makes in your own situation. Test them under
the worst light and acoustical conditions in which you expect
to use your machine. Use the same classroom film on all demon-
strations and be sure that this film is a good check on both
sound and photography. (A salesman's demonstration film is
generally selected for excellent sound and photographic quali-
ties.) Use a Kodachrome, not a Technicolor film for testing
sound, volume, and screen illumination. In general, Kodachrome
film requires greater illumination and higher amplifier output
than Technicolor. State and district school meetings provide
an opportunity for examining, but not testing various types
of projecting equipment.

Gadgets not necessary
Special gadgets on a movie projector are not necessarily de-
sirable. They add to the initial cost and weight of the machine.
Stop-projection is of little value due to the blurred picture, loss
of illumination, and possible damage to the film by burning.
Reverse running is seldom used and is of questionable value.
Elaborate safety devices are not absolutely necessary. Micro-
phone, phonograph and public address attachments may ap-
pear to be desirable, but are actually of little use in most cases.
They are unnecessary to a good audio-visual program. The use
of the projector outdoors with a public address system is not
recommended because of the possibilities of damaging the pro-
It is not advisable to purchase a silent projector. A sound
film cannot be used on most silent projectors. The sound-silent
projector may be used to project both types of films, but it is
foolish to demand silent speed on a sound projector. It increases
the cost, and silent films will be shown infrequently, if at all.
When buying a 16mm projector, keep in mind the general
criteria as listed above and check these points:


What special features are necessary or even desirable?
Does it have at least a 750 watt lamp?
Does it have a pilot light?
Are the arms of sufficient length to accommodate a
1600 foot reel?

Test them under your worst conditions of use


5. Does the speaker have adequate amplifying output, and
is the sound clear?
6. How does the cost compare with that of similar makes?
7. How much does it weigh?
8. Is the threading simple?
9. Is it easy to clean and oil?
10. Are replacement parts easily accessible?

A reflecting surface is necessary for using many projected
instructional materials but this does not necessarily mean that
one must purchase an expensive screen. There are a number
of'different kinds of screens available. Even a smooth white
wall may be used, but it must be smooth, it must be white, it
must be clean, and it must be just above eye level.
The most popular screen is the beaded type. This type screen
consists of a white surface covered with millions of clear tiny
glass particles which catch the light and reflect it in the same
direction as the source. A beaded screen can be used most suc-
cessfully in a long, narrow room. The angle of reflection of
the beaded screen is comparatively narrow, and consequently
the illumination decreases toward the sides of the room. In any
room which is not long, and rectangular, a flat white screen is
recommended. The angle of reflection of a flat white screen
is wider than that of a beaded screen. This means that the
audience along the sides will see the picture better.
It is impossible to remove dust and other blemishes from
a beaded screen without removing beads, and this, in turn,
diminishes reflection. In order to avoid damage, care should
be exercised in rolling and unrolling, and in moving the screen.
The size of the screen will depend upon the conditions under
which it is to be used. Roller screens can be mounted either on
a tripod or on the wall. A simple but adequate classroom screen
may actually be made by attaching a piece of white rubber
sheeting to a 48 inch shade roller.


A strong, firm support will be necessary for the projector.
This should be of sufficient height to allow the projection beam
to pass over the heads of students. It can be purchased or can
be built in the school shop.

Cooperative Film Library Service to members only.
General Extension Division Write for information.
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida
Coronet Instructional Films Sale only
65 E. South Water St.
Chicago, Illinois
Encyclopaedia Britannica Films, Inc. Sale only

20 N. Wacker Drive
Chicago 6, Illinois
Film Library
University of Georgia
Athens, Georgia
Frith Films
P. O. Box 565
Hollywood, Calif.
March of Time
Forum Edition
369 Lexington Avenue
New York 17, N. Y.
9538 Brighton Way
Beverly Hill, Calif.
Teaching Film Custodians, Inc.
25 W. 43rd Street
New York 18, N. Y.
Teaching Films, Inc.
2 W. 20th Street
New York 11, N. Y.
Young America Films, Inc.
18 E. 41st Street
New York, N. Y.

Large supply of educational
films, rental only.

Sale only

Lease and rental

Sale only

Lease only

Sale only

Sale only



Curriculum Films
RKO Building
Radio City
New York 20, N. Y.

General Extension Division Write for catalogues of
University of Florida free slides
Gainesville, Florida
Jam Handy Organization
2900 E. Grand Boulevard
Detroit 11, Mich.
Keystone View Company Glass slides only
Meadville, Pa.

Popular Science Publishing Company
353 Fourth Avenue
New York 10, N. Y.

Society for Visual Education, Inc.
100 E. Qhio Street
Chicago 11, Il1.

Teaching Films, Inc.
2 W. 20th Street
New York 11, N. Y.

Young America Films, Inc.
18 E. 41st Street
New York, N. Y.


Bausch and Lomb
655 St. Paul Street
Rochester 2, New York
Bell and Howell
1801 Larchmont Ave.
Chicago, Illinois
Charles Beseler Company
243 E. 23rd Street,
New York 10, N. Y.
Gold E Manufacturing Company
1216-K W. Madison Street
Chicago 7, Illinois
Keystone View Company
Meadville, Penna
Spencer Lens Company
Buffalo, New York
Society for Visual Education, Inc.
100 East Ohio Street
Chicago 11, Illinois
Viewlex Incorporated
35-01 Queens Boulevard
Long Island City 1, New York


Ampro Corporation
2839-51 North Western Avenue
Chicago 18, Illinois
Bell and Howell
1801 Larchmont Ave.
Chicago, Illinois
DeVry Corporation
1111 Armitage Ave.
Chicago, Ill.
Natco, Inc.
505 N. Sacramento Boulevard
Chicago 12, Illinois
Camden, N. J.
Victor Animatograph Company
Davenport, Iowa

Da-Lite Screen Company, Inc.
2711-23 N. Pulaski Road
Chicago 39, Illinois
Radiant Manufacturing Corporation
1185 W. Superior Street
Chicago 22, Illinois

RADIO AND PHONOGRAPHS have their place in a school as well
as at home and in the cola bar around the corner. They add not
only to interest, but much worthwhile experience that cannot
be found in books or movies.
The field of sound is a fascinating one, so fascinating that
schools can easily leap into this field before they look. A radio
receiver is of little use in a school unless radio programs of
importance to the school are on the air regularly during school
.ours and can be received clearly. A central sound system,
capable of transmitting radio programs, broadcasting school
dramatizations, or piping recordings into classroom loudspeak-
ers, is a deadweight and luxury item unless there are radio pro-
grams that can be tuned in, school dramatizations to be broad-
cast, and recordings to be played. The purchase and use of a
central sound system to broadcast school announcements from
the principal's office into every classroom is an expensive and
disruptive method of distributing routine administrative in-
formation. A recording machine is valuable for language arts
and other curriculum purposes, if used effectively for these pur-
poses; otherwise, it becomes the hobby of a faculty member.
But when the educational possibilities of sound equipment
are clear, when program material is abundantly available, and
when curriculum uses are well planned, record players, radios,
and recorders are important additions to the school. They can
add much to the enrichment of experience and greatly increase
instructional effectiveness.
Educational uses of radio in Florida have not been exploited
and the possibilities of its use have been neglected for a number
of reasons. For one thing, climatic conditions in Florida make
it difficult to tune in on educational programs presented by
the major networks during school hours. For another, teachers
find it impossible to use a radio in the classroom because of
lack of an electrical outlet or because of the rigid rostering of
class schedules. Then, too, the systematic use of radio in organ-


ized education requires a variety of programs tailored to the
curriculum of local schools. This means that educational radio
be broadcast locally or regionally within the state, and this
means program production.
Program production requires the talent of professional radio
artists-script writers, actors, musicians, directors, etc. It is no
job for the amateur with radio ambition but no talent. Such
talent can be found and developed in teachers, but not in every
teacher. All in all, educational radio production is a job for
specialists if the game is to be worth the candle.
Out-of-school radio
The average student is a radio fan who listens to a variety
of programs during the course of a week. It is not possible for
teachers to tell pupils what to listen to on the radio or when
to listen, but teachers can, by becoming familiar with the inter-
ests of the pupils and the variety of radio programs on the air,
guide and direct pupils in the development of their radio lis-
tening habits, tastes, and skills. In school it may be possible
for teachers to direct the selection of programs. Out-of-school
radio listening assignments may be made, and students may
be held responsible for auditing these programs. Some types
of programs available for educational use in or out of school
are: youth broadcasts, interpretations of the news by analysts,
popular and classical music, book reviews, historical and literary
dramatizations, roundtable discussions and forums, science pro-
grams, and religious talks by eminent divines.
There is a growing appreciation of the fact that out-of-school
radio may be the richest source of the educational values of this
mass medium. The Columbia Broadcasting System has sched-
uled its educational programs in the afternoon during the same
pre-dinner hours occupied by the blood and thunder programs
used to "huckster" breakfast foods. During the past year, the
Mutual network broadcast a series of dramatizations of the
popular reading classics for boys and girls, and, interestingly,
their Hooper rating of listening audience was high.


This development in after-school educational broadcasting,
if significant at all, may be significant of several things. For
one thing, radio advertisers, program managers, and script
writers may have been guilty in the past of the serious educa-
tional sin of underestimating the intelligence, tastes, and values

... during the course of a week ..


of the listening public, particularly of boys and girls. For an-
other thing, it may be that we can capitalize on the established
listening habits by bringing educational broadcasts into the
home, instead of trying to schedule them during in-school lis-
tening hours. Radio listening may require the kind of relaxed
attention that is found more often in the home than in the
classroom. Third, a new appreciation of educational possibili-
ties of radio may develop and its educational value increase,
by applying the same norms of radio quality to educational
broadcasts that have been applied to advertising and commercial
radio programs.
A lot to learn
All of us have a lot to learn about the educational uses and
values of radio-certainly, we as professional educators must
learn to use rich resources of available radio programs, and
reciprocally, radio producers must learn the enormous popular
appeal of programs which have educational value and
The teacher can do much to develop good listening habits
among students, in-school or out-of-school. Woelfel and Tyler
suggest the following:
1. Remind pupils of the coming broadcast by putting pro-
gram title on the blackboard.
2. Make necessary seating arrangements for all to hear.
3. Make adjustments in lighting and ventilation and putting
away books.
4. Test the receiver to insure good reception.
5. Maintain silence for a few seconds previous to the broad-
6. Read or discuss material related to the broadcast.
7. Select broadcast content to relate to class activities.
8. Have pupils give oral summaries of experience and reading
related to topic.
9. Discuss assigned related reading of newspapers, books, or
magazine articles.
10. Examine illustrative or explanatory materials.
11. Keep a radio log for a week.


Since radio programs are seldom repeated over the air, the
art of critical listening must be developed. The following sug-
gestions based on those recommended by The National Council
of Teachers of English may prove helpful: Concentrate on the
main points. Be open-minded. Listen for facts. Listen with
critical judgment in order not to be convinced against reason.
Listen for entertainment or inspiration. Learn to recognize
musical backgrounds, to notice sound effects, to interpret silences.
Pay attention to inflection, pronunciation, enunciation. Use dis-
crimination in selecting radio programs.

Phonograph records are much the same as radio programs
and have many of the same uses. The significant difference
is that recordings are available for use at any time and for re-
peated use, whereas radio programs are pre-scheduled and there
are few, if any, repeat performances. Excellent recordings are
available for many subjects of the curriculum, and their supply
and quality are steadily improving. They are inexpensive, easily
housed and distributed, require little or no maintenance, and,
with more abundant supply of recordings, they are now avail-
able in rhythmics, social studies, health, foreign languages, etc.
The use of recordings for foreign language teaching was tried
with considerable success during the war by the armed services.
Most of these language recordings are now commercially avail-
able to schools.
It should be emphasized that recordings are not automatic
teachers, but are materials to implement curriculum plans. They
serve a number of important purposes, depending on subject
and content: (1) story telling for younger children, (2) to
make students more fully aware of social problems by drama-
tizations, (3) to give students more personal acquaintance with
historical characters, (4) to teach rhythm, sound, and appre-
ciation of music and literature, (5) to demonstrate proper pro-
nunciation and enunciation of foreign languages, (6) to teach
correct use of spoken English, (7) to teach penmanship and


typewriting by rhythm, or to furnish rhythm for physical edu-
cation classes, (8) for shorthand dictation, (9) to stimulate
language expression, and (10) recreation.
Note to teachers
For recordings to be a real part of the curriculum, teachers
should select programs appropriate in content to the interests
and maturity level of their classes. They should know the play-
back equipment well enough to secure quality of sound repro-
duction. It pays dividends for teachers to prepare the students
psychologically for the listening experience so that they will
anticipate the event, drama, poem, or story and will be stimu-
lated to activities, such as, discussion, debate, or theme writing.
A phonograph record is 12 inches or less in diameter, is
recorded to play back at 78 revolutions per minute, and pre-
sents a program of from 2 to 5 minutes on a single side. A
"transcription" is usually 16 inches in diameter, is recorded
to play back at 33 1/3 revolutions per minute, and presents a
program of from 12 to 15 minutes on a single side. This differ-
ence must be kept in mind in buying playback equipment. It
is the only major difference between a "recording" and a
Standards for selection
In purchasing recordings for the school, or in selecting them
for classroom use, it will be helpful to ask and answer such
questions as the following:
1. Is the recording appropriate to the purpose intended?
2. Does it have clear tone quality?
3. Is the content and vocabulary suitable to the maturity
level of the pupils with whom it is to be used ?
4. Is the material interestingly presented?
5. Is it up-to-date and authentic ?
6. Does it encourage intelligent listening?
7. Does it stimulate learning and promote follow-up ac-
tivities ?
8. May it be used effectively without a teachers manual?


In purchasing recordings, it is well to be informed as to the
difference in number arrangement of album recordings for a
manual change machine and those for an automatic change type.
For automatic change they should be numbered in the following
manner: Recording I, side 1, Side 8; Recording II, Side 2,
Side 7; Recording III, Side 3, Side 6; Recording IV, Side 4,
Side 5. For manual change albums are numbered as follows:
Recording I, Side 1, Side 2; Recording II, Side 3, Side 4, etc.
School collections
Primary and intermediate children particularly enjoy the
stories narrated by Paul Wing. The musical effects are so out-
standing in these records that older children ask to listen to
them also. Intermediate children respond best to dramatized
recordings, such as the "Let's Pretend" albums. Dramatized
recordings of the classics fit well into the junior high school
program. The senior high school English classes may be en-
livened by the Orson Wells' recordings of Shakespeare.
Individual schools should have a basic collection of record-
ings to aid in teaching and for recreation and relaxation. These
records should be the type to be used in several classes rather
than just one. The county center should collect the less fre-
quently used recordings and the more expensive ones. At the
state level one might expect to find rare recordings or documen-
tary and other highly specialized records.
Housing and handling
Recordings can be stored either on edge, or flat. If the latter
method is preferred, recordings of the same size should be placed
in stacks of not more than six. Recording should be stored ac-
cording to the filing or stack system used for other materials
and should be lettered or numbered systematically. Large manila
envelopes offer inexpensive but adequate protection in trans-
porting recordings to and from the classroom. Extra albums,
which are useful in housing and transporting recordings, may be
obtained from recording companies or stores that sell record-
ings. A schedule should be prepared for the time of use of


Soft cotton gloves should be used for handling recordings
to protect them from grease and dirt. To remove dust, clear
with a dry piece of plush or a medium stiff brush, using a cir-
cular motion. To prevent warping, recordings should always be
removed from automatic record-changers when the playing is
finished. Recordings may be ruined by placing in the sun or
near other heat sources. The correct procedure is to return
them to their proper storage place as soon as possible after class-
room use, reporting damaged or broken ones. A teacher will
wish to become familiar with the recordings available for her
class or subjects and should listen to the recordings prior to
class use.
The use a school makes of recordings will determine to a
large extent the kind of record players needed to implement
the program. If a school uses only 10 to 12 inch records with
78 revolutions per minute, a standard portable phonograph
will serve the purpose in the classroom. Adequate amplifying
output of the machine for both classroom and auditorium use
ranges from 4 to 10 watts. Some schools may find it desirable
to purchase a combination radio-phonograph, depending on the
extent of use of each. Schools that make use of both the ordi-
nary recordings (78 r.p.m) and the radio transcriptions (33 1/3
r.p.m.) will find it desirable to purchase a dual-speed playback,
one that is adjustable to either 78 r.p.m. or 33 1/3 r.p.m. This
increases the weight and cost of playback equipment.
One-playing and permanent-point needles (playing more
than 5000 recordings) may be bought for record players. The
one-playing type should be changed with each recording. The
permanent-point type should never be removed and put back
in the machine, because it wears the recording when it is re-
placed in a different position. A tone arm should not be heavy
enough to cause the needle to cut the recording, nor should it
be too light for good tone quality. It should weigh not more
than one to two ounces.
A record player must be selected according to the purpose
for which it is to be used, in classroom or auditorium, or both.


Other requirements to be considered are fidelity of sound, cost of
maintenance, availability of recordings and transcriptions, port-
ability, and ease of operation. Prior to the purchase of equip-
ment, schools should arrange for competitive tryouts to de-
termine the best equipment for the money.

Recording machines may be used for making permanent re-
cordings of school music, such as band, orchestra, or glee club;
for recording or rehearsing important speeches; for diagnosing
and correcting speech difficulties of individual pupils; and for
rehearsal of plays or radio broadcasts.
There are 3 types of recording instruments available and
practical for school use; (1) disc recorders, (2) tape recorders,
and (3) wire recorders. All three are relatively simple to op-
erate and require little maintenance. Some schools, which have
provided themselves with an adequate amount of projection
materials and equipment, may wish to add a recording machine.
The disc recorder is still the standard commercial instrument
primarily because of its fidelity and the fact that no re-winding
is necessary for repeated playings. However, most schools can-
not or should not buy the expensive recording equipment that
is essential for quality reproduction in commercial studios.
A recent development in the field of instantaneous recording
utilizes a magnetized paper or metal tape, the record of which
may be played back as soon as the recording is completed. The
recording may be erased and the tape used repeatedly for new
recording, or it may be preserved indefinitely for repeatedly
reproduction. In all tape recorders so far available, the onex
instrument combines both the recorder and the playback.
Another development in instantaneous recording utilizes a
magnetic wire and operates on the same principle as the tape
recorder. Some wire recordings can be replayed several thou-
sand times without losing fidelity. Both recorder and playback
are combined in the wire recorder.


Some manufacturers of sound equipment are producing
equipment with multiple uses, i.e., one machine which combines
a radio, a record-player, a disc or wire recorder, and a public
address system. Care should be exercised on the part of the
school in purchasing such equipment. A small school, with two
hundred students or fewer, in which each instrument is used
only occasionally, will find a multiple machine adequate for its
needs. Large schools may find that one use of a multiple ma-
chine ties up other uses and that individual machines would
be more satisfactory. It should also be remembered in purchas-
ing this type of equipment, that you get only what you pay for,
and that no one instrument will do everything equally well,
or anything superbly.
Schools should consider the following questions in selecting
1. Is the school first well-equipped with other audio-visual
materials ?
2. Is the machine to be used for educational purposes?
3. Will it reproduce without distortion?
4. Is it simple to operate?
5. Does your school need a portable machine to be used
in several places?
6. Does it require little maintenance?
7. Is there an agency within the state which provides full
maintenance if the machine is in need of repair?
8. Is the amplifying output sufficient for all required use ?
9. Is it possible to have competitive tryouts of the equip-
ment prior to purchase?
10. Is the dealer reliable?
11. Will the number of teachers using this piece of equip-
ment, or its importance to a few teachers, be sufficient
to justify its purchase?


Public address systems, though not considered equipment of
first or second priority, do have some important school uses.
Where amplification is needed, a portable public address sys-
tem provides a convenient tool for audibility. In addition to
the common uses which this equipment serves, teachers will
find a light portable public address system an excellent device
for motivating correctness and precision in spoken English. By
placing the microphone in the corridor and the loudspeaker in
the classroom, pupils and teachers will experience a keen delight
in imitating broadcasts or in presenting classroom dramatiza-
tions or programs which are an outgrowth of classroom study
and activity. Pupils may also be stimulated to write creatively
plays, poems, and news broadcasts, if such material can be re-
layed to the class.

It is not advisable to purchase a cheap P.A. system,
either portable or for permanent installation. A good portable
P.A. system should be compactly built, not so heavy that it
cannot be easily moved, and should require little maintenance.
Schools with large auditoriums or with auditoriums with
poor acoustics will find it desirable to install a permanent
public address system, or permanent amplifying equipment to
which a microphone may be attached. A sound engineer should
be consulted when new buildings are being erected. It is much
easier to install amplifying equipment during the course of
building construction than after the building has been com-
Discussion of central sound systems is omitted here since
there are so few schools in Florida which can justify their pur-
chase in addition to the more basic and educationally more
useful audio-visual equipment and materials.


Capitol Records, Inc.
250 W. 57th Street
New York 19, N. Y.
Columbia Recording Corporation
7799 Seventh Avenue
New York 19, N. Y.
Decca Records, Inc.
50 W. 57th Street
New York 19, N. Y.
General Extension Division Write for catalogue of free
University of Florida materials.
Gainesville, Fla.
Popular Science Publishing Company
353 Fourth Avenue
New York 10, N. Y.
RCA Victor Records
Front and Cooper Streets
Camden, N. J.
9538 Brighton Way
Beverly Hills, Calif.

Brush Development Corporation
Cleveland, Ohio
Fairchild Recorder
8806 VanWyck Boulevard
Jamaica, Long Island, N. Y.
Presto Recording Corporation
242 W. 55th Street
New York, N. Y.
Camden, N. J.
5610 Bloomingdale Ave.
Chicago 39, Ill.
Western Electric Company
300 E. Allegheny Avenue
Phila., Pa.
Wilcox-Gay Corp.
Charlotte, Mich.

Magnetic tape



Disc and wire


Bell Sound System, Inc.
1183 Essex Avenue
Columbus, Ohio
David Bogen
663 Broadway
New York, N. Y.
Bowen and Company, Inc.
Bethesda, Maryland
Optron, Inc.
223 W. Erie St.
Chicago, Ill.
1115 W. Washington Boulevard
Chicago 7, Ill.
Camden, N. J.




Admiral Corporation
3800 W. Courtland Avenue
Chicago, Ill.
Emerson Radio and Phonograph Corporation
111 8th Avenue
New York, N. Y.
General Electric Company
Schnectady, New York
Philco Products, Inc.
Tioga and C Streets
Phila., Pa.
Camden, N. J.
Westinghouse Electric Corporation,
306 Fourth Avenue
Pittsburgh 19, Pa.
Wilcox-Gay Corp.
Charlotte, Mich.

THE USE OF AUDIO-VISUAL materials in the Florida schools is
increasing so rapidly and spreading so widely that serious con-
sideration must be given to the development of a sound program
of administration. For the most part, these materials and the
equipment for their use have been purchased independently by
individual schools in a county. As more and more schools begin
to use them, a county-wide interest grows and brings about the
active participation of the county school board. This recognition
by the county authorities in turn spurs many of the heretofore
inactive schools to participate in the program. As school in-
terest grows, state interest grows. This, in turn, is reflected
back into other counties and other schools.
As interest and participation develop on these three levels,
administration must be planned on three levels. The adminis-
tration problems are parallel and interdependent on all three,
differing only in degree.
The school program and the county program have the same
basic structure. The authorities, principal, county board, and
superintendent, stimulate interest and determine policies. The
Instructional Materials Committee of the school and of the
county recommend policies and advise on expenditures. The
executive officer, i.e., school coordinator or county director or
supervisor of materials, executes the policies and supervises the
distribution and use of materials. All of these groups and indi-
viduals bend their efforts towards getting effective materials
into the hands of the teacher, who accomplishes the all impor-
tant job of presenting them effectively to the boys and girls in
the classroom. This effective presentation is the goal of the
entire program.
Available to all
Every school, however small, isolated, or poorly equipped,
has some audio-visual materials and equipment within its
reach. Perhaps they are flat pictures, maps, globes; or they
may be slide projectors, motion picture equipment, record play-
ers, recorders, or radios, or some of each. In schools where there


is no organized program of audio-visual education, these ma-
terials will sometimes be found in active use in classrooms, and
sometimes stored away in closets, perhaps forgotten. They may
be and sometimes are stored under lock and key, and their
guarded inaccessibility keeps teachers from knowing or using
what is available. Proper organization and efficient manage-
ment are needed to bring these materials to light and make
them centrally available to every classroom teacher.
Some of the instructional materials within a school are pur-
chased before a planned program for their use has been devel-
oped. This may result in unbalanced purchase of materials and
equipment, and certainly it results in inadequate and ineffec-
tive use. Frequently, expensive projection equipment is pur-
chased without due provision for materials that are to be pro-
jected. Proper planning is necessary to minimize the acquisi-
tion of materials and equipment that are apt to prove dead
Often individual teachers have become interested in secur-
ing materials which they feel will be helpful in carrying out
their individual part of the instructional program. Such teach-
ers use their initiative in securing materials through school
funds. In a few rare cases, a possessive attitude may develop
which prevents others from getting maximum use of the material
which could have been made available from the beginning to all
teachers within the school. The feeling of personal ownership
of school equipment would be greatly reduced under a prop-
erly organized and guided program.
Here are a few examples of the kinds of things that have
happened in Florida. In one school, several teachers were sur-
prised to learn that the school owned a record player, which
had been housed for years in a classroom and used only by one
department. In another school an inventory brought to life


Minimum Requirement of A-V Materials
for Adequate Instructional Program
in Florida

Pictures and recordings frequently used in grade
and subject.
Bulletin board and picture displays.
16 inch globe.
Temporary exhibit materials.

Frequently used slides, film strips and record-
ings of wide grade and subject usefulness.
Vertical file of "Permanent" pictures.
Exhibit materials.
School Basic maps.
78 rpm record player; and projectors for the
following materials: flat pictures, 31/4" x 4"
slides, film-strips, 2" x 2" slides, 16mm sound
motion pictures.

Frequently and widely used motion pictures
for all county schools.
Recordings, slides, and film strips on special
County subjects.
Special purpose pictures of permanent value.
Special purpose maps.
Auxiliary projectors and record players.

Rare, documentary, and special subject record-
ings, motion pictures, and slides to supplement
State county materials.
Motion pictures, film strips, slides for commun-
ity and adult education use.


approximately 2000 slides which had lain idle for ten years.
In still another school, a teacher purchased a film strip projec-
tor and film strips with school funds for use in her department.
Upon leaving that school she left the equipment with the prin-

Avoid skeletons in the closet


cipal, who locked it in the vault. Several years later, when an
audio-visual minded teacher expressed a desire for a film strip
projector, she learned from another teacher that the school had
purchased one several years before. After a diligent search the
projector was found in the locked vault and put into general
school use. If effective organization and administration had
been in force, these materials would not have remained unknown
or unused.
Even though a school is operating on limited funds, there is
no reason why a workable and satisfactory program of audio-
visual instruction cannot be developed. This can be done
through the work of the principal, a school committee, a school
coordinator, the teachers, and community organizations.

.The principal, by virtue of his position, is the administra-
tive head of the school's instructional program. He must feel
a need for the improvement of instruction in his school and
inspire and encourage his faculty to use all available instruc-
tional materials to the best advantage.
The principal should carefully consider recommendations of
the faculty committees he appoints to study methods of improve-
ing instruction and approve such as are to the best interests of
his school. This approval places a seal of authority on com-
mittee recommendations and greatly facilitates their being car-
ried out enthusiastically by the entire faculty. An unwilling-
ness to invite this faculty cooperation may retard the develop-
ment of an active working school. A neat little autocracy may
develop where democracy is required. Then "Little Caesar"
will find he has too many calls on his time to give this program
the attention it demands. He will wonder why his teachers are
reluctant to go to the "office", and why they show little con-
fidence and less enthusiasm in the use of the materials available.
A school audio-visual program costs money. A method of
securing funds is a matter that looms large on the list of the
principal's responsibilities. The wise principal will seek the ad-


vice of his advisory committee on instructional materials. Such
advice will help him decide whether the program must operate
entirely on funds provided by the county or whether these
funds can and must be supplemented through school effort.
Donations from the community organizations, profits from pay
movies, carnivals, paper sales, school plays, etc., are common
sources of income. Each of these has its own penalty in the form
of obligations to groups within the school, the amount of work
required or the reaction of the community.
Another important part of the principal's participation in
the audio-visual program will be to determine how much money
can be allocated to it out of the school budget, and to approve
expenditures. He will advise with the committee preparing
such a budget so as to include and divide funds for purchase,
maintenance, rentals and operating expenses.
No program can grow without the active interest and sup-
port of the principal. He is the key to the instructional program
of his school.

The desirability of a committee on instructional materials
within a school has already been indicated. The size of the com-
mittee should be determined by the size of the school, but too
large a number is inadvisable. The suggested maximum num-
ber is nine, otherwise the committee becomes unwieldy. The
committee should be representative of the various grades or de-
partments, with the coordinator of instructional materials serv-
ing as chairman or secretary. The principal should be consid-
ered an ex-officio member.
In initiating a program of audio-visual materials and their
use, the first function of the committee is to survey the materials
and equipment on hand. Based on the findings of this survey,
the committee can set up policies and procedures in order to
make the program run smoothly. They should formulate poli-
cies to govern such problems as:


(1) Whether projection equipment shall be moved from
room to room, used in an audio-visual room, or both.
(2) Whether projection equipment shall be student operat-
ed, teacher operated, or both.
(3) To what extent the school shall (a) purchase materials
for use within the school, (b) rely on county sources,
(c) utilize the materials available from the Department
of Audio-Visual Instruction, General Extension Divi-
sion, Gainesville.
(4) What kind and how much equipment and materials
should be purchased for the school.
(5) How best to centralize equipment and materials so as
to increase their availability to everyone and increase
the extent and effectiveness of their use.
This committee can also do much toward publicizing the
program both within the school and within the community, to
dramatize its importance, and to enlist the hearty cooperation
of all concerned.

A coordinator is the spark plug of the audio-visual program
in the school. It is the coordinator's job to get the right material
into the hands of the right teacher at the right time. Audio-
visual materials must be considered as materials of instruction,
and, ideally, the audio-visual coordinator should be coordinator
of all instructional materials. Practically, however, the question
of who will be audio-visual coordinator will be determined by
who can do the job best-a teacher, the librarian, or the teacher-
librarian. The same qualities that make a good audio-visual co-
ordinator will also help this person grow into the larger respon-
sibility of coordinating the broad field of instructional materials.
In order to accomplish this work effectively, however, the co-
ordinator of even the small school should be relieved of class-
room duties a certain period of time each day. As the program
grows, the position is likely to develop into a full-time responsi-
bility in large schools.


Enthusiasm and ability are the prime qualifications of the
coordinator. He must be a staff member of the school who has
sought out the job, not one on whom an additional burden has
been placed unwanted. Enthusiasm is needed to carry on the
extra work inherent in the position. He should have a broad
concept of instructional materials, and his energies should be
directed along the lines of the professional growth of the en-
tire school, not in the narrow and technical mechanics of the
equipment, or the ego-inflation of being a big frog in a little
puddle. The coordinator must have a sound knowledge of the
school curriculum as well as a high degree of familiarity with
the audio-visual materials and equipment available to the teach-
ers. His personality must be such as to invite the teachers to
call on him for assistance and advice in improving their class-
room work. With his knowledge of what material is available
and what is called for by the curriculum and with his pleasant
personal relations with the teachers, he can fulfill his job of
getting the right material to the right teacher at the right time.
He can be and, in most cases, probably will be a she.
In accepting new responsibility, the coordinator assumes an
imposing list of duties, the most important of which are listed
(1) To serve as the school center of information on instruc-
tional materials available. The coordinator must know what ma-
terials and equipment are owned by the school, what is available
from county or local sources, and what can be secured from
more distant sources. Catalogs that list and describe this ma-
terial must be maintained by the coordinator and made readily
available to the teacher.
(2) To serve as advisor to the teacher in the selection and
use of audio-visual materials. It is not enough for the coordi-
nator merely to have information passively available. He must
carry it actively to the teacher. By means of his curriculum
knowledge he should suggest materials that will enrich the work
of the teacher. He may also give advice, gently and subtly, to
be sure, on the most effective way to use them.


(3) To serve as scheduling, procurement, and distribution
agent. All requests for instructional materials and equipment
should pass through the hands of the coordinator. From these
requests the coordinator should make a written schedule and
promptly inform the teacher whether or not the material will
be available for use. Materials and equipment that are not in
the school should be secured from local or out-of-town sources
by the coordinator. All requests for material and equipment
should be channeled through him. Materials and equipment
should be delivered to the teacher by the coordinator and picked
up by him after the scheduled period of use. The return of
material to the school files or to out-of-school sources is his re-
(4) To store materials and equipment. The coordinator
must keep all materials and equipment in suitable files or racks
so that they will remain in good condition and be easily located
for use. Securing and maintaining equipment storage space,
material storage files, and racks, are problems that must be
worked out in each school.
(5) To provide for preventive maintenance. A regular
maintenance program must be worked out by the coordinator.
The responsibility for properly cleaning and oiling projection
equipment may be assigned to student assistants. However, it
is not the duty of the coordinator or his assistants to make re-
pairs. A well intentioned but misdirected screwdriver may do
major damage to expensive equipment.
(6) To train operators for equipment. Because unsatisfac-
tory projection may ruin the effectiveness of any audio-visual
program and damage both materials and projectors, all projec-
tion equipment should be handled only by well trained and com-
petent operators. Operator training should be planned and exe-
cuted by the coordinator, both for teachers and for student pro-
(7) To provide facilities for previewing material. Teachers
should be urged to preview all material before using it in the
classroom. Every effort must be made to carry out this pre-


viewing with a minimum of trouble to her. To this end the co-
ordinator should provide equipment and operators to show
(8) To act as liaison agent between the school and the in-
structional materials center of the county and other sources. By
attending meetings called by the county director or supervisor,
the coordinator will become informed of the county activities

"'... publicize the program . ."


and policies. He should use these meetings to present problems
raised by the teachers of his school and to profit from the pooled
experiences of the other coordinators and the director in working
out solutions.
(9) To publicize the program. The coordinator must make
use of every opportunity to keep the teachers, the school authori-
ties, and the community well informed on the progress of the
audio-visual program. He should make a constant effort to en-
courage the teachers to participate to the fullest extent, and to
enlist the cooperation of all community and school groups who
can assist in developing the program.

The teacher is the focal point in the audio-visual program.
All other supervisory and administrative personnel concentrate
on securing materials and making them available to her. If the
teacher fails to play her part, the entire program collapses like
a house of cards. The teacher should (1) know where to secure
information on available materials, (2) know how to secure
these materials, (3) know how to use them, and (4) use them.
A small minority of our teachers fall in two undesirable cate-
gories. First, and most dangerous, is the group that gives stu-
dents mental indigestion from over-dosage of audio-visual ma-
terial. The second group represents the opposite extreme-the
teacher who does not "have time" to use the audio-visual ma-
terials. The truly effective teacher is the one who recognizes
that audio-visual materials are instructional materials. They
will help her to do better teaching. To use audio-visual materials
effectively the teacher should (1) plan the work, (2) make
ready the materials, (3) know the precise moment and the proper
place to use available materials, and (4) capitalize on the inter-
est they arouse to motivate further learning activities.

The Parent-Teachers' Association and other community
agencies can be of great assistance in the development of the
audio-visual program and should be brought into the picture as


soon as possible. Actual demonstrations can be given with chil-
dren or parents acting as pupils. In many schools civic organi-
zations have been instrumental in starting an audio-visual pro-
gram through their donation of materials and equipment. While
further financial aid is anticipated from tax funds, it is likely
that many schools may have to rely on these groups for con-
tinued support for some time to come. Materials of instruction
are as essential for good school programs as are buildings, desks,
and good teachers. They should be regularly planned for and
financially supported to insure the continuing improvement
of instruction. The enthusiasm of the community groups can
be a great force in persuading school boards to set aside suf-
ficient funds for adequate financial support of such a program.

For the fullest future development, an administrative or-
ganization which provides for the coordination of all instruc-
tional materials within a county is recommended. In small
counties which will serve only six or seven schools, two or three
adjoining counties may centralize their equipment and materials,
Whether the centralization is to be within one county or more
than one, the organization should be approximately the same.
As stated earlier in this chapter, the duties and responsibilities
of the county personnel parallel that of the school organization.
A centralized collection affords better service to more people.
It will not be necessary for each school to give up all its present
equipment in order to effect a desirable centralization of re-
sources, but rather to pool funds for purchase of other county
distributed equipment and materials. A county may buy motion
picture projectors, film strip projectors, and record players
which it lends periodically (1) to schools which have no equip-
ment, (2) to schools whose equipment needs repair, or (3) to
schools that need extra equipment. Because of the expense in-
volved, only the largest schools can afford their own collection
of motion pictures; the county should be the basic source of
motion pictures for all individual schools. At the same time it


should build a supplementary collection of film strips, exhibits,
recordings, displays, slides, and perhaps flat pictures. These
county owned materials and equipment should be housed and
distributed from a central location. Basic collections of film
strips, recordings, picture files, etc., should be part of the ma-
terials of instruction of the individual school.
Before such an organized program can be initiated, the
county school superintendent and county and district school
boards must cooperate actively. It is they who will ear-mark
the funds necessary to carry out such a plan. This money will
form the core of the budget for the audio-visual program and
must be provided annually. Without a regular budget the pro-
gram cannot be carried out with continuing success. The County
Materials of Instruction Committee has the responsibility of
advising the county superintendent and the county school board
and trustees as to the amount of money necessary for purchasing
instructional materials, and for continued advice on expendi-
tures for this purpose.

By their control of the purse strings, the county superin-
tendent and school board exercise a profound influence on the
instructional materials program. Materials and equipment for
this program are expensive; therefore, it will be limited in
extent in those counties where the board members are unsym-
pathetic or uninformed. Individual schools may carry on limited
but efficient programs, but county-wide growth is impossible
without financial support and encouragement from the top.
Long range planning is necessary to initiate a program that
will grow with the years and keep the schools abreast of progress
made in the business and industrial world. By budgeting a sum
per pupil annually for instructional materials, a worthwhile
County Center can be started, continued, and expanded. It is
suggested that part of this budgeted amount be allocated to the
center, and the other part be allocated to the individual schools
for the development of the program within the schools.


County school buses could be used advantageously for field
trips. Often these buses take the children to school and are not
in use until time to take the children home. Schools that do not
have children transported by bus could also schedule bus services
for field trips and other school activities by careful planning
with the county superintendent and school board.

The county superintendent will find an advisory committee
on instructional materials invaluable in recommending county
policies and advising on the purchase of materials and equip-
ment. In order for the audio-visual program to operate effec-
tively, it must be developed on a cooperative basis. The County
Instructional Materials Committee can do much to bring about
mutual cooperation between school personnel and the county

committee should advise ..

... thie isnstrulctional nw~terials

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