ART IN THE LIVES OF FLORIDA CHILDREN
A Tentative Guide
Kindergarten through Grade Twelve
FLORIDA PROGRAM FOR IMPROVEMENT OF SCHOOLS
BULLETIN NO. 37 JANUARY, 1950
STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
THOMAS D. BAILEY, SUPERINTENDENT
DIVISION OF INSTRUCTION
T. Q. SRYGLEY, DIRECTOR
The children of Florida need many opportunities to improve the
quality of their living through experiences in art. As we continue
to work together to improve the Florida school program, I hope that
we can provide the teacher leadership, the necessary materials, and
a sound curriculum to insure a rich program in creative art for every
boy and girl.
I am grateful to the thirty-five Florida teachers,-supervisors, and
administrators who participated in preparing Bulletin No. 37, Art
in the Lives of Florida Children. Excellent guidance was provided by
Miss Pauline Johnson, visiting instructor at Florida State Univer-
sity from the University of Washington, Mr. Harold E. Sutton,
and Miss Mary Mooty of Florida State University. The University
was generous in providing facilities and faculty leadership for this
It is a privilege to present this curriculum guide to Florida edu-
cators. I believe it presents a sound philosophy for planning an
art program. It includes many practical suggestions for teaching
young people so that they may find living better through art exper-
iences. I recommend this bulletin to all who need help in developing
more effective programs of art in Florida schools.
THOMAS D. BAILEY
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction ................ ..................... ............. ........... vii
PURPOSE OF THE BULLETIN ............................................. ix
CHAPTER I. THE GOOD ART PROGRAM
What Is Art All About? ................. .......................................... .... 1
Who Is Responsible for a Good Art Program?................... .......................... 2
T h e A dm inistrator. ................................................................ 2. .
The Teacher ...................... ...................... ........................ 4
The Parent......... .....5................................................... 5
The Com m unity.............. ..................................... . 6
Who Benefits from Good Art Education? ................... ..... .................. ... 7
The Child ................... ........................ 7
The School ......... .............................. 7
The H om e ................. .. ................................................... .. 8
T h e C o m m u n ity ......................................................................... 8
W hat D o W e Believe? ............... .. ....................................................... 9
Art Is a Part of General Education. .................................................. 9
The Philosophy of Creative Living Should Be Developed .................. ...... .... 12
How Can We Improve the Art Program? ................................. .................. . 13
Understanding the Levels of Development in Child Art........................... ......... 13
Art for All Children ........... ......... ... ............................. ...... . 15
Integration ................................. ........... .... ............................ 16
M otivation or Stimulation ............................................................... 20
E valuation .... ........ .............. ..................... ......................... 22
Provide M materials .................. ....... .................................. . 23
The Teacher of Art ........................ .......................... 24
CHAPTER II. SUGGESTED AREAS OF ART EXPERIENCES
Painting .......... ............. ........ ........................................ 25
Tem pera or Pow der Paint ....... ........................ .... ....................... 25
W after C olor ............................................................................ 27
D raw ing ........... ..... ............................................................ 29
Illu stratio n . ...... ...... .... ............ ........ ..... ................. ................. 29
Perspective Explained ....................................... .... ........... 30
Figure D raw ing ......................................................................... 33
Contour Drawing........... .................................................... 35
The Mural and Frieze.................................... ................... ......... 36
Puppets ............................................ ....................................... 38
D esign ........... ............................. ................... ........ 43
Clay M odeling............... ... .................... ........................... 45
Papier M ache ................... ................. ................... ......... 48
Paper Sculpture........... ........ ...................................... ... .... ...... 53
Graphic Arts. ............. ...... ................................... ............ 57
Linoleum Block Printing .............................................................. 57
Potato Printing ................. ................... .................... ....... 58
Art Gum Eraser Printing. .............................................................. 58
Inner Tube Prints............................................................... ... 59
Scrap Materials Printing ...................... .......... ........................... 59
A appreciation ..................... .................. .................. ..................... 60
CHAPTER III. PHYSICAL ASPECTS OF THE ART PROGRAM
How Can We Make the Most of Inadequate Classroom Space ?..... ............................. 61
Classroom Space................... ................... ................... .......... 61
Storage Space ............ ..... ....................................................... 63
Display Space.................... ................... ................... .......... 65
Appearance of the Room. ........................................................... 66
How Do You Set Up a New Art Workshop?... ...................................... ..... 67
What Supplies and Equipment Are Needed ?. .................. ............................. 70
Money for Materials.................. ............................................... 70
Minimum Essential Materials. ................................................... 70
Elementary ...................................................... ........ 70
Secondary ................ ... ............... ............... ................ ..... 71
Materials and Tools for Specific Uses ..................................................... 74
Supply Houses ............................. ....... ............................. 77
Free and Inexpensive Materials and Natural Resources ..................................... 79
What Visual Materials Aid Art Teaching ?............ ......... ................................... 83
Film s............................................................................... 83
Florida Art Centers and Museums. ...................................................... 85
Pictures for the Classroom .................... .......... ......................... 86
Sources of Prints and Slides. .................... ............ ........................ 87
Available Exhibitions ................ .............................................. 88
The Library ...................................... .................... ....... 89
Art Periodicals ..................................... ................... .......... 90
Bibliography... ............... .................. .. .................. ....... 91
Recipes and Helpful Hints for the Teacher. ...................................... ............ 95
Memorandum Space-Suggestions for Revising Bulletin ............... ....... ...... ....... 99
At the request of many teachers, principals, supervisors, county superintendents, the
Art Section of the Florida Education Association, and the State Courses of Study Committee,
ART IN THE LIFE OF FLORIDA CHILDREN, Bulletin No. 37, has been prepared.
This bulletin, published now in tentative form, is intended as a guide for the classroom
teacher with no previous training in art as well as for the art specialist. It is hoped that
careful thought will be given to its contents; that units of work which involve art will
be carried out according to the philosophy and suggestions proposed here; that records
will be kept, and photographs of students at work together with suggestions for future
revision of the bulletin will be sent to the State Department of Education.
The bulletin was prepared at Florida State University in the summer of 1949 by a work-
shop group of thirty-five educators from the elementary and secondary schools, some of
whom were specialists in art or other areas, some supervisors, many general classroom
teachers. They met for lecture-discussion periods, read from books and curriculum ma-
terials, and experienced actual methods of art production in painting, sculpture, drawing,
design and crafts. With this as a basis the bulletin was written out of their own experiences.
The membership of the workshop included: Miss E. Marie Barrette, Clearwater; Mrs.
Clara A. Bacheler, Tampa; Mrs. Lois Boles, Miami; Mrs. Katheryn Bostick, Wauchula;
Mr. J. E. Brown, Tallahassee; Miss Mag Audrey Cameron, Bunnell; Miss Rose Cox, Orlando;
Mr. M. G. Donaldson, Okeechobee; Mrs. Thelma G. Elliott, Tampa; Mrs. Edna Fones,
Perry; Miss Nellie M. Gannon, Jacksonville; Miss Grace Godley, Ft. Meade; Miss Hilda E.
Grant, Havana; Mrs. Maude Hartness, Tampa; Mrs. Ronita L. Hendricks, Jay; Miss Vianna
Hullett, Jay; Mrs. Charlotte Larkin, Tampa; Mrs. Winifred O. Long, St. Petersburg; Mrs.
Vida Lovett, Ft. Lauderdale; Mrs. Sara M. McDonald, Lake Worth; Miss Eloise Moeller,
Pensacola; Miss Lois Ann Narovec, Miami; Mrs. Virginia Dowling Patton, Sarasota; Miss
Augusta Poer, Cross City; Miss Helen Pope, Homestead; Miss Fannie Mae Richards, Braden-
ton; Mrs. Sue Roberts, Miami Beach; Mrs. Ruth Snelling, Ft. Lauderdale; Mrs. Eva C.
Smith, Madison; Mrs. Marnita S. Taylor, Quincy; Mrs. Lilly Waller, Miami; Miss Ruby
Jane Wells, Bartow; Miss Dorothy West, Tampa; Mrs. Jessie Young, Starke; Mrs. Freda
Grateful acknowledgement is made to President Doak S. Campbell and Dean Ralph L.
Eyman for making available the facilities of Florida State University; to Miss Pauline John-
son of the University of Washington and Mr. Harold E. Sutton of Florida State University,
who acted as consultants; to Mrs. Dora Skipper of the State Department of Education who
served as coordinator; to Dr. T. Q. Srygley, Mr. D. E. Williams, and Miss Sara Krentzman
of the State Department of Education for valuable assistance with the project; to Miss Mary
Mooty of Florida State University for planning and coordination; to Miss Mildred Swearin-
gen and Mr. Charles Frothingham of Florida State University who met with the group;
to Miss Marie Allen of Louisiana State University, Mr. James Talley, and Mr. William
Eells of Florida State University who prepared in their final form the illustrations and the
cover for the bulletin; to Mrs. Helen Philpot, Mrs. Jean O. Mitchell, Mr. Hollis Holbrook,
Mr. Joseph Mack, Miss Peggy O'Brien, and Miss Elizabeth Belt who reviewed the manu-
script; to Miss Marie Malakowsky for assistance in securing personnel, information and
materials; to the secretaries who typed the copy; and to all the workshop group who devoted
such untiring energy and effort to its production.
PURPOSE OF THE BULLETIN
The purpose of this bulletin is to promote art education in all the schools of Florida
through creative experiences in the classroom and- to:
* Make it possible for a school to have a good art program even
where there is no special art teacher.
* Help the classroom teacher who has had little or no specialized
art training but upon whom falls the responsibility for art education.
* Assist the teacher by providing means which will free her from
any set course of study or rules and regulations and which will help
her to see that the teaching of art is not too different from anything
else she has ever taught, but depends largely upon her sympathetic
e Help the specialized art teacher strengthen her program and
make it possible for her to have adequate support and encourage-
* Show the need for the cooperative efforts of teachers, adminis-
trators, parents, and the community, both in seeing that sufficient
materials and equipment are provided, and that child art is encour-
aged, rather than adult art or pattern work.
Chapter I. THE GOOD ART PROGRAM
WHAT IS ART ALL ABOUT?
To the person who is unfamiliar with the art experience, art is nature imitated and repro-
duced in some material.
For this reason many have come to judge art by how nearly it
resembles something with which they are familiar. In their thinking,
art is a mirror reflecting nature and yet they would not think of music
as a record of sounds found in the street or in the barnyard. Copying
nature or anything else will never result in art.
Art is a reflection-a reflection of man's beliefs, thoughts and
feelings. It is a visual way of saying something through a sensuous
material so that it can be experienced by others or re-experienced
by the one who created it. There is always more in art than we can
see with our physical eye. It is more than painting and sculpture
to be looked at but not understood, as is often the case when museums
and galleries are visited. Too often this experience leaves us with
the concept that art is limited to queer studios, art schools, and
Actually art in most civilizations, including our own, enters into
our sensitive choices, decisions, and performances found in every aspect
of daily living. It is involved in buying a hat or a shirt, arranging
a table setting, and planning a window box for flowers. Endeavors
such as those of the Early American weavers and cabinet makers;
the American Indian shaping his pottery and weaving his blankets;
the ancestral carvings of the South Sea Island natives seeking pro-
tection through wooden sculpture; the painting and sculpture done
for the Renaissance church and the medieval weapons and armor
reveal evidence that art may serve in many ways to enrich and expand
human endeavor and living. But copying the above examples will
not enrich our own lives. Our problems and needs are different and
demand from us different solutions.
WHO IS RESPONSIBLE FOR A GOOD ART PROGRAM?
THE ADMINISTRATOR (Supervisor, Principal, and Superintendent)
If art is to function in the school it must have the understanding and support of the adminis-
tration. Here are some of the things that administrators can do to promote good art education.
* Become familiar with what constitutes a good art program and
what to expect from the teachers.
* Realize that there is such a thing as creative child art and that
it changes with the physical, mental, and emotional growth of
* Understand that art education is compatible with the aims of
general education and has a unique contribution to make to the all
around development of the child and our society.
* Encourage teachers to integrate art wherever possible with the
child's experiences and give appreciative acknowledgment where
this is done.
* Provide basic materials in sufficient quantities so that the teacher
does not have to use her own money in purchasing supplies.
* Make provision for bulletin boards and display cases in the
hallway, colorful murals in the cafeteria, a frieze in the library, a
beautifully decorated Christmas tree, etc., so that anyone stepping
into the building can see evidences of art education.
* See that the principal's office is attractive with perhaps a nicely
colored wall, a flower arrangement, or even an inviting book or
two readily available on the desk.
* Take care of the needs of the secondary school. See that boys and
girls are having good creative art experiences which will help them
to become well-rounded and better adjusted individuals. They
eventually willlbe exercising discriminatory judgment in making
purchases for their homes and businesses.
* Introduce art into the high school wherever possible. If unable
to have classes, get an interested teacher and group together to start
an art club. See that the art teacher has respectable space in which to
work and recognize the fact that these classes are different from the
academic subjects and need a workshop area. Provide good equipment
by way of tables, art desks, cupboards, storage space, sink, paper-
cutter, and other necessary items, as well as supplies with which to
* Purchase a few good books on art and make them readily avail-
able to the teachers.
* Provide for some in-service training for teachers by bringing a
trained and capable person to conduct a workshop, demonstrations,
or give talks to both teachers and parents.
* Make provision for teachers to be allowed professional leave to
be absent from their regular schedule to attend professional meetings.
* Give emphasis to art in the school program by giving credit on
an equal basis with other fundamental subjects. It is suggested that
groups be divided, half of the group taking art daily for one semester
instead of two or three times a week for a whole year.
* Allow time in the elementary school schedule for conferences
between the classroom teacher and the art consultant. It is suggested
that the consultant meet with primary teachers one day and inter-
mediate teachers at another day. Periodically both groups should be
willing to meet together.
The classroom teacher must recognize and understand the creative process as a basis for edu-
cation. She is the one who understands the child at the various levels of maturity and can best
relate art to his total experiences.
* The teacher, by experiencing herself the thrill of creating, through
in-service workshops, can have a better understanding of what to
expect from the children, and at the same time find personal satis-
factions that will benefit her.
* The special art teacher or consultant needs to function as a re-
source person who can encourage the teacher and children. She knows
how to make use of a greater variety of materials; can demonstrate
some of the more effective teaching processes; can contribute help
in class projects which are benefited by the application of good
* The teacher can set the stage for art experiences through appro-
priate materials, good motivation, and sympathetic encouragement
and guidance. Even though she has had little or no training she can
teach art in her own classroom if she understands children and
makes it possible for them to create.
* She can gain the cooperation of the parents also. One way is to
send home a letter similar to the following which was used in one
"Dear Parents of First Grade Children,
Papers (art work or any written work) will be sent home only
once a week. They will be stapled together so as not to get scattered
or lost. Please make it a very pleasant event when papers are brought
home, so that your child will feel happy and secure in sharing his
work with you. The papers are naturally crude at the beginning of
the year, but there is always something about which to make a pleas-
ant comment, i.e., a bright color used, the largeness of his pictures,
his fine story idea, etc. If pictures are criticised or laughed about,
one may be sure that satisfactory growth will not follow. We must
remember that a six year old child is just beginning to manipulate
his tools. Your interest and understanding, as well as ours, will do
much to spur on greater effort and originality. Sit down with your
child each week and listen to him as he goes over each paper. His
pictures have interesting stories. Encourage him to do creative work
and let him know that you are especially pleased when he uses his
own ideas and when his work shows improvement. Ask him not to
roll or crease his papers, or he will spoil his pictures.
Our cooperation can do wonders!
Let's work together for your child!
If the parent will work with the teacher for the best interests of his child, and indicate
encouragement in the home, art will add to the enrichment of his child's life.
* As long as the parent expects "finished" results, and ignores child-
ish expressions, feeling they are crude and untalented, the whole art
program will be affected.
* Art can be encouraged in the home, not only by parents but by
gifts from relatives as well; by giving the child a brush and some large
paper instead of a "color book," or some clay or blocks with which
to work instead of a finished train that Dad operates.
* The parent can even go further and work actively for better art
education by indicating his approval to the teacher, by scheduling
good speakers on"art education at Parent-Teacher meetings, and by
seeing that there is sufficient money for basic art materials even if it
means added support from some community enterprise.
The community can indicate approval and it can encourage the art education program by
seeing that every child has an opportunity for art. Some communities actively promote art in
Art festivals can be held, in which children may be invited to
Community art exhibitions can devote a section of the display
space to work done by children.
County fairs frequently show children's art work from schools.
Store window space for displays or arrangements of child art
products can help to encourage children's art.
The community can organize evening art classes for adults. Some
localities have classes for parents, and others have "family nights"
in which the whole family works with clay, crafts, painting, etc.
If your community has an art museum or a children' museum,
are there Saturday art classes? This is a possibility for furthering
children's creative expression.
WHO BENEFITS FROM GOOD ART EDUCATION?
THE CHILD. The child benefits from the good art program because he has been allowed to
express himself naturally. As soon as he can grasp a stick or a pencil he scribbles, makes a circle,
etc., and delightedly names them.
The opportunity to use clay, paint, etc., satisfies the desire to
manipulate and express ideas in a plastic way.
The child gains in personal satisfaction from creativity which con-
tributes to his all around personality development. He learns to be-
come constructive, and show respect for things belonging to others.
He often develops needed confidence, self-reliance, worthwhileness,
and personal integrity.
Art has therapeutic values for many children in that it provides
emotional release. Developing resources from within enables the
child to use his imagination and art experiences to entertain himself
in place of always depending on paid entertainment. Someone has
said that the "modern child" is buried among his toys and has been
denied the opportunity for creating his own.
THE SCHOOL. Art can make a school a much more attractive place in which to work and
live. Environment has a great deal to do with behavior attitudes.
Work attractively displayed in the rooms and hallways enriches
the whole school.
Art can add meaning and enrichment to other subject areas. It
can be a tool that will make school experiences more interesting
THE HOME. Since art has to do with the selection and arrangement of objects, the home
definitely benefits. Art teaches us how to make the most of what we have, how to harmonize
things pleasingly about us.
It is well to take something made by the children and use it in
the home, as for instance a ceramic piece, a hooked rug, block printed
textile or drapery, book ends, etc. A painting by the child can be
matted and framed and put up on the wall. Children can learn to
arrange flowers and table settings. Hobbies can be carried on at
home involving the interest of the whole family.
THE COMMUNITY. The community benefits by art in the improvement of buildings and
business structures. Design can be applied to city planning in various ways.
A good art program in the schools can equip people with the
ability to apply creative thinking to their homes, businesses, and
By raising cultural standards in consumption and production,
Creative art may be used in the solution of behavior problems and
in helping those who are academically retarded, physically handi-
capped, or emotionally unstable.
WHAT DO WE BELIEVE?
ART IS A PART OF GENERAL EDUCATION. The ultimate aim in general edu-
cation is the development of a well-rounded personality that will live a constructive and happy
life in our society.
* In order to accomplish this we must provide a balanced program
which will enable the child to meet and adjust himself to changing
situations in the home, school, and society. Growth, success and
happiness in life depend upon the development of all of our capacities.
Psychologists and educators have discovered that art experiences are
a necessary part of our educational process-as necessary as the three
"R's." If we expect to utilize this present knowledge in education
some of us may need to reorganize our approaches to teaching. Psycholo-
gists also point out the significance of having desirable physical and
emotional experiences as well as intellectual and manual. What other
area has as much to offer this vital objective in the whole educational
field as art? Art, together with speech and writing, is one of the basic
tools of learning.
AIMS OF ART EDUCATION
* To be creative is one of the major objectives of art education. "All
who deal with children will have to realize that art is not just some-
thing we make. It is a way of living with our fellowman."* Let us
consider the aims of art education as shown below:
i. To develop creative abilities Emphasizes individual deviation
in all children, rather than conformity. Origi-
nality, initiative through crea-
2. To develop sensitivity
through seeing, hearing,
feeling and doing.
Develops tastes; leads to dis-
crimination in choice of ma-
terials used in everyday living
which will find expression in
more beautiful surroundings, not
only in the production of, but
also as more intelligent con-
* Jean Betzner, President, Association for Childhood Education.
3. To increase capacity for great-
Enriches the life of the child so
as to develop a love for beauty
and harmony in all the arts-
music, the dance, poetry, drama,
writing, construction and the
crafts (industrial art). These
qualities developed through a
combined process of seeing and
4. To discover, conserve and Furnishes wise direction and
guide the more gifted child, understanding by the teachers
not losing sight of differing for development of individual
personalities in the whole differences.
5. To secure social adjustment. Secures cooperation, responsi-
bility, self-reliance, industry,
initiative, tolerance and ability
to work with a group.
6. To develop skills that are Gives help when child feels the
functional and flexible. need. Techniques not imposed
upon the child before he is
7. To provide for recreation and
a means of earning a liveli-
Brings about sound mental health
through relaxation and recrea-
tion. Vocations such as fashion
designing, interior decorating,
the theatre arts, landscaping,
commercial art, building, and
TRENDS AND CHANGING CONCEPTS
* In keeping with recent trends in creative teaching, art education
proceeds through individual expression from the known to the un-
known as determined by the child's level of maturity rather than
beginning with theories and principles before he is ready for them.
A concise outline contrasting the old and new methods'is shown.
OLD METHOD NEW METHOD
i. Isolate art as subject in itself. Art integrated not only with
other subjects, but also with
z. Art used as "busy work" The child discovers himself
serving no other purpose, through meaningful experiences
Teacher resorts to methods, and creative expression. Inter-
practices and stereotyped pro- est of the child is paramount.
cesses such as patterns and Let him experiment for himself
hectographed rabbits, etc., and interpret according to his
which have no educational or own abilities.
art value. Therefore, original
and creative work is impos-
3. Technique used as an end in The child assimilates only what
itself. Emphasis placed on he can use. Too much teaching
theory, principle and imposed confuses him and takes away the
ideas and methods. Approach purpose of his original idea.
made through intellect, not However, if he is not growing,
through the senses, do not leave him alone. Guid-
ance and stimulation are needed.
4. Art for the talented few; spe- Art a potential power in every
cial recognition given their child. Work of every child ac-
work. knowledge, displayed or used
for its intended purpose.
5. Teacher usually a specialist,
whose chief interest was not
in the child, but in "teaching
the art lesson."
The classroom teacher as well
as the specialist, acts as an un-
derstanding guide to lead and
inspire rather than coerce.
"Teach the child" through art
6. Naturalistic representations Through the spontaneous ex-
in children's work. All results pression of the child, something
looked mechanically the of himself appears in his work.
7. Adult standards used to eval-
uate. Too much stress on
technique and detail. Mate-
rial limited or dictated.
Individual and group criticism
and evaluation geared to the
child's level of maturity. Free,
spontaneous expression of child's
own feelings and ideas allowed
and encouraged. Access to all
THE PHILOSOPHY OF CREATIVE LIVING SHOULD BE DEVELOPED. Every
child, potentially, is creative (try it out and see!).
* This creative process occurs when the child, assimilating past and
present experiences, reorganizes and creates new concepts according
to his own needs. If not suppressed, his creative capacities and ideas
will be developed through guidance so that he will understand him-
self, society and his environment-now and later. Probably no other
area offers more opportunity for the development of such understand-
ing than does art. No longer can it be considered as an isolated sub-
ject scheduled one day a week and with emphasis given to the more
gifted child. Art is interwoven with all aspects of everyday living.
It is in such things as the satisfaction experienced when you choose
a pink dress, when you notice the color and arrangement of the break-
fast table, when you feel the warm and friendly atmosphere of your
school and classroom. Flexible, functional art education can open
wide the doors of awareness, awakening and freeing the child for
fitting himself into his rightful place in society.
And color of the Senses
The arts are
Deepest of all
Educative Forces." *
* General Education in a Free Society (Report Harvard Committee, 1945).
CAN WE IMPROVE THE ART PROGRAM?
STANDING THE LEVELS OF DEVELOPMENT IN CHILD ART.
to understand the child better, the teacher must know the levels of maturity or stages
pment through which he passes as indicated in his art.
e By understanding these stages of growth the teacher can better
fit the art program to the child's needs. The way a child reacts indi-
cates his interests and abilities, which may be the result of:
The amount of creative experiences he has had in the past.
His general knowledge of people, places, and things.
His physical, mental, and emotional development.
His ability to use materials.
A child's level of maturity in art may not correspond with his
calendar age or grade classification. For example, his age may be
that of a seven year old child while his ability that of a four or an
eleven year old, depending upon the extent of his experiences, and
innate capacities. Although his abilities are limited because of in-
experience, the interests and needs of his own mental and physical
age must not be ignored. It would not do to expect a high school
student to be satisfied with the same art experiences a little kinder-
garten child delights in, even though their abilities are similar.
The stages of growth through which children pass in art are as
MANIPULATIVE (usually from infancy through pre-school level.)
At this time the child is learning to use materials, and finds
great enjoyment in just putting paint on paper, rolling out clay, or
pounding nails in boards. The result may be a scribble or a daub,
but these are first reactions to materials and should be expected. Do
not worry if a finished result is not produced.
SYMBOLIC (usually pre-school or before and into primary level.)
Here the desire for more meaning-
ful shapes takes place, and there is
an attempt to portray ideas. Ob-
jects become more and more recog-
Snizable, though there is a great
deal of distortion. Sometimes the
feet grow from the head with no
body present in the work of very
1 young children, often parts are
omitted when not important to
the idea being conveyed, as the
drawing of a child or dog might
have eyes but no ears when he is
looking but not listening. Parts
important to the child are large
in size. Parts are arranged with
little regard for logic. The sun may
appear at the bottom of a painting
and a child at the top. Do not
force the child at this time to make the drawing look more "real."
What he does should be encouraged and appreciated. Never make a
child feel that he cannot "draw." A dislike and fear for art will be
planted which may never be overcome.
SEMI-REALISTIC (usually primary and intermediate level.)
The child at this level is beginning to be concerned with making
things appear natural, but as long as the subject is recognizable he
is usually satisfied. At this stage there is more awareness of environ-
mental relationships. His ideas begin to be arranged according to a
scheme. He often starts organizing his ideas on a baseline. The teacher
should keep in mind during this stage that many ideas to express is
more important than how natural the subject matter appears.
REALISTIC (usually late elementary into higher grade levels.)
At this time the child becomes more critical of his results and is
often "self-conscious" about his art. He is no longer satisfied with
symbolism but wants realism. A figure must look right. Some under-
standing of perspective and proportion are desired. It is then he
wants to be shown "how" to draw people, etc., and instruction
should be given. The teacher should be ready to help him get a better
visual image of the form needed, leaving interpretation to him. Ob-
servation should be directed to nature for study but not for copying.
OR ALL CHILDREN. Leading psychologists and educators have discovered
experiences are a necessary part of the educational process as valuable as the three R's.
Art, writing, speaking, singing, and rhythmic movement are all
means of communication and expression. Expression is a tool that
makes our experiences more meaningful and vital both to ourselves
and others. Therefore the visual language, art, is as necessary a
tool for learning as any other medium of expression and no child
should be denied the opportunity of developing his native capacities
in this area. The purpose of art for all children is not to make fin-
ished artists of them no more than to make mathematicians or authors,
but to provide opportunity for improvement in another area of
The more avenues of expression we have, the more likely are we
to develop confidence and well-rounded personalities capable of cop-
ing with the problems of society.
The graphic expression of drawing is a natural means of com-
munication. People from time immemorial have drawn diagrams
and pictures in the sand to explain their ideas to others when words
did not suffice. The first form of writing was picture writing. We
need only watch the very small child in undirected play to realize
that art such as drawing, construction, and modeling is natural
The idea that only those students who show particular talent
should have opportunities in art is a false concept. Psychologists
have shown us that every child has a native capacity for developing
the ability to express himself in art. It is true that all individuals
will not express themselves in the same manner nor show the same
degree of development, but each person can paint, draw or sculpt
to some degree and all can make remarkable improvement if given
Talent in the past has been associated with the ability to draw
recognizably. A truer picture of the nature of talent would be found
in the following characteristics:
Sensitivity to color.
Capacity for rhythmic arrangement.
Imaginative use of ideas and materials.
Freedom of execution.
Ability to react intensely to experiences
which result in vitality of expression.
Ability to visualize form.
Some people have a keen insight into one of more of these attributes,
but may be lacking in others. Few people possess them all. How-
ever, it must be remembered that all persons have a capacity for
making improvement in each of these abilities.
FION. Another way of improving the educational process is to make art an integ-
the school program.
o Through integration relationships are achieved which make
learning more meaningful. We must realize that integration is a
more thorough and vital concept than correlation. Integration is
something that takes place within children while correlation may
be the relating of subjects only. Integration relates all of a child's
experiences in and out of school including those found in
subject areas. It is centered upon the intense and vital thoughts and
feelings of children.
There are many ways in which art can be integrated into the
life of a child. The good teacher will be alert to these opoprtunities.
Following is an example:
A UNIT ON CHINA. Children eleven and twelve year level.
* A group of children were improvising on the playground interpre-
tations from the comic strip character, Terry and the Pirates. They
were using as props some Chinese money which a relative had given
one of the children and Spanish moss for moustaches. A difference of
opinion over Chinese costume arose and the teacher was consulted.
This provided an opportunity for classroom discussion, where it was
found that two of the children's parents had been in China, one as
a soldier and one as a missionary, and that one child had lived in
California and had seen many Chinese. The interest in the topic was
so great that it was decided to invite these parents to talk to the
class. At this point the teacher decided the situation presented itself
as an ideal opportunity for a unit on China.
* After listening to the parents, and looking at the objects that
they brought with them, the children raised the following ques-
tions for further investigation:
What do we have and use that came from China?
What do they eat?
How many miles of railroad do they have?
What are other means of travel?
What kind of religion do they have?
Do all Chinese use dope?
What do people do for a living in China? etc.
These questions were written on the blackboard and the teacher
and children discussed means of finding answers to them. It was de-
cided to group the questions under major topics such as food and
clothing, religion and customs, transportation, and occupations.
Available material and information on these subjects were brought in
by the children and the teacher, such as movies, snapshots, prints,
pictures, objects made in China, books, magazines and victrola
* A committee of children worked on each of these topics. While
the information was being gathered, the question arose of how best
to present the findings to the remainder of the class and other inter-
ested people. They discussed the possibilities of written reports, oral
reports, dramatization, musical expression and various art expres-
sions such as murals, friezes, moving pictures, book illustrations,
building miniatures from scrap materials, paper mache and clay
* The children decided they would like to write and produce a
puppet show since it would give them a chance to tell their findings
about China and use practically all the forms of expression.
A SYNOPSIS OF THEIR PLAY, "TERRY IN CHINA," FOLLOWS:
Scene i. Terry, an American pilot fighting with the Chinese army, has
a plane crash. He is pulled from the plane and carried home
by a Chinese farmer and his wife.
Scene 2. Terry and the farmer are seated on the floor eating typical
Chinese food while the wife serves them. Terry is amazed
that a pig saunters through the room while the farmer is
unconcerned. They discuss directions to the city.
Scene 3. Inside a shop, after wrangling over prices, Terry gives shop-
keeper the loyalist password and asks information about
General Chu. He is given a green flag to use as signal at the
New Year's Parade.
Scene 4. On a street corner Terry watches parade (a revolving frieze
of the moving picture type). A puppet character sees the
green flag and steps out of parade to talk with Terry, telling
him to go to Chang Fu's tea house.
Scene j. In the tea house Terry is seated at a table with tea and almond
cakes before him. He watches various entertainers, a juggler,
dancers, wrestlers, musicians. A Chinese soldier enters telling
Terry to meet a fisherman at sunrise at dock eleven.
Scene 6. Terry is riding in a rickshaw.
Scene 7. Blackout-Sounds of a scuffle as Terry is captured.
Scene 8. In a dungeon Terry sits dejectedly muttering to himself. The
soldier appears at the window giving him directions for oper-
ating the secret trap door by removing a brick. Door opens
revealing a passage to the water front.
Scene 9. On the dock-Fisherman holding fish caught by a cormorant
explains his method of fishing to Terry. They discuss their
trip down the river to General Chu's headquarters. Terry
and the fisherman climb into Chinese junk and sail away.
* Since integration takes place within children, let us look at a
few of the educational outcomes that take place here. Notice how
the following experiences were related to the whole child (emo-
tional, mental, physical, social).
* EMOTIONAL-Opportunities for using and developing various
senses: seeing-movies and puppets; hearing-victrola records and
lines of puppet play; touching--Chinese souvenirs and art, mate-
rials used in puppets;tasting and smelling-Chinese food.
Development of a sense of security was accomplished through each
child's opportunity to contribute information gained and ideas for
execution of the play and the satisfaction of being accepted in the
"gang spirit" of the project as a whole.
* MENTAL-Mental development was furthered through the
gathering of information; organization of materials in committee
work; skill in reading, writing, and speaking; reasoning out prob-
lems in playwriting and constructing puppets and stage.
* PHYSICAL-Physical coordination was improved through con-
structing and manipulating puppets, props and stage. A study of
Chinese foods and the question of the pig in the farmer's house af-
forded the comparison of Chinese and American health habits.
* SOCIAL-The whole unit is built upon the concept of democratic
group participation which involves sharing, cooperating and tak-
ing responsibility. The children discovered the social pattern of the
Chinese and found out how it is similar and different from ours.
* It has been suggested how the processes of this unit have been
related to the various aspects of a child's make up. Subject matter
areas have also played their part in this process.
* LANGUAGE ARTS-Reading, speaking, writing, listening.
SCIENCE-Study of weather and farming methods in China. Stage
* HEALTH-Food, standards of cleanliness in China.
* MATHEMATICS-Problems arising in construction of puppets and
stage. Problems related to distances and population.
SOCIAL SCIENCES-Practice of democracy in the classroom.
Study of Chinese customs, religion, government, resources, etc.
MUSIC-Listening to Chinese music. Developing music for pup-
ART-Arranging of displays of Chinese objects collected. De-
signing and constructing puppets and costumes. Designing and
constructing stage sets and properties such as:
This project in art involves arrangement, designing, constructing,
drawing and illustration, painting, modeling, carving, paper mache,
costuming, use of scrap materials, lighting, problems in color,
publicity materials, etc.
The unit's vital beginning, based on an interest in comic strips,
the use of puppets as a culminating activity, and the spirit of seri-
ous play maintained throughout, gave the experience the vivid and
exciting quality necessary to learning. When the various phases of a
child's being, (mental, physical, emotional and social) are brought
in contact with an exciting educational environment, learning takes
place within the child. This is integration.
ON OR STIMULATION. Some type of motivating force is necessary before
sire to act or produce.
Good motivation causes the individual to respond strongly, often
causing him to forget any inhibitions which he might have, and
put his whole self into an intense effort.
In thinking of motivations, we should consider the value of
joint planning by teacher and pupils so that children will have a
share in the choices made, and a personal reason for their actions.
This will insure a richer and more meaningful experience. No project
should ever be "teacher dictated." Evaluation and planning between
teacher and the individual child will be important throughout the
art experience. A sympathetic attitude of enthusiasm can do much to
stimulate the spirit of serious play necessary to a good art program.
When art is considered in an integrated process, the various other
activities going on can offer stimulation for it and insure a vital
purpose for its use. Many types of stimulation are necessary in order
to provide for interests and backgrounds and to keep a program from
* Some suggestions for stimulation follow:
* Changing from one material to another affords a fesh interest.
* The inherent stimulation of a new material is important to chil-
* Often with small children in pre-school and kindergarten, the
material alone, such as paint and clay, is sufficient motivation.
* Teachers should be alert for guiding class discussions around
personal interests and experiences.
* Sometimes "acting out" or dramatizing an idea will make it more
vivid and insure stronger reaction and art expression.
* Victrola records, movies, stories and poetry can provide inspira-
ation for art work.
* Excursions and visits to local places provide new and stimulating
situations. Such spots as the zoo, a curb market, the railroad station,
the bus station, a busy street corner, the water-front of docks, boats,
and fishermen are suggestions. All children will enjoy expressing
their reactions to these trips from memory. Occasionally older chil-
dren may want to work on the spot, adapting and interpreting the
material, not copying it. Class trips to department stores and dime
stores can be a means of teaching appreciation for wise selection of
utilitarian objects. When children decide to design and make objects
from materials, it is very important that they be guided to select a
project for which they have a purpose. Often natural material and
man-made objects brought into the classroom by the children or
the teacher can stimulate interest. These should never be copied but
used to further understanding and enrich ideas. Reference materials
such as color reproductions, prints, post cards, art pictures clipped
from magazines, etc., should be used in the same manner. Showing
too much illustrative material at the beginning of a project and
stressing technique can become an inhibiting factor and should be
* Giving proper acknowledgment to children's efforts by display-
ing them in the classroom and in school exhibitions can have enormous
motivating value. Every child should be represented from time to
time. Discussions of children's art, where good points of the work
is stressed, leads to growth and understanding.
EVALUATION. Teachers often ask what quality and standard of work to expect from a
* Since art does not conform to a standard as do some subjects it is
not possible to have an exact measuring rule. Neither will tests
of any sort help in determining the standard to be achieved.
* There was a time when teachers judged art by neatness and con-
formity, as well as technical skill, but these are not the criteria for
judging children's art experiences.
* Art is a personal matter. It is important to encourage each child
to use his own ideas. Naturally, some will do better than others,
depending on experience and interest. Helping the child compare
his present successes with his previous efforts will provide stimu-
lation and growth.
* Progress depends upon individual growth and each person work-
ing up to his own capacity and level of development.
* Evaluation should be the joint' responsibility of the teacher and
children in group and individual planning. It should take place at
the beginning of a problem, continue throughout the entire experi-
ence, and in summing up the activity, lay plans for future growth
and goals. Through such guidance a child will learn to develop crit-
ical judgment of his own efforts and other people's thinking.
* Ways in which a child may show growth through art are:
i. Increased ability to do independent thinking and planning.
2. Ability to gain insight, understanding, and tolerance of other
people's ideas and expressions. Group discussions which
take into consideration why other people believe and ex-
press themselves as they do, can foster these abilities.
3. Ability to proceed with boldness and freedom.
4. Ability to express ideas clearly. Encouraging children to put
paintings on wall, then step to back of room to observe results
will clarify whether the space has been filled and lights and
darks have been sufficiently constrasted so that shapes separ-
ate. Important ideas are stressed through position, size, con-
trast and color. Note: leading questions should be tactfully
asked so that children will discover their own weaknesses
and strengths. Weaknesses should not be pointed out directly
by the teacher.
5. Ability to find new and imaginative ways to express ideas.
6. Ability to show respect for the nature of the material. Has
clay been handled like clay, not metal? Has wood been treated
as wood to bring out the grain, not painted like canvas or
7. Increased sensitivity to color, space, texture, etc. Are chil-
dren conscious of the effect of one color in relation to another
placed by it? Do they have a feeling for filling spaces without
being mechanical? Are they sensitive to textures and the feel of
surfaces? Collecting and using pebbles, shells, bark, woven
materials, broken pottery fragments, and other things whose
surfaces children enjoy looking at and handling will help to
keep alive this native endowment which each child has.
8. Ability to care for tools, material and equipment.
9. Ability to handle materials more skilfully.
The teacher should remember that equal amounts of growth
will not occur simultaneously in each of these areas. She should also
keep in mind the individual differences to be found within a group
and refrain from urging children beyond their capacities. She should
help children plan for balanced growth according to their individual
The present art program can be improved by making available the
materials and equipment for the teacher to use. This is discussed in
detail in the section on materials and equipment.
THE TEACHER OF ART
* The classroom teacher needs to realize that she does not have to
be a trained art specialist in order to teach art. She should under-
stand the needs and interests of children and enjoy working with
them. She should become familiar with the ways in which children
naturally express themselves in art. There are certain stages through
which all children pass in their development.* She should be famil-
iar with various means of stimulating or motivating children.**
She should also be sensitive to the total welfare of the child in mak-
ing evaluation of his work.*** She must be willing to stand by and
to guide without imposing adult ideas on the child.
* There needs to be provision for having teachers especially trained
in art for the junior and senior high schools. These teachers must have
support, and in return they must seek opportunities to make art
function in an integral way in the life of the child and the school.
* Special resource teachers or art consultants are recommended for
the city or the county. They can do much to assist elementary teach-
ers in planning their programs, help the special art teachers with
their problems, facilitate the economical buying of supplies, and
promote in-service workshops or extension classes.
* The departmental subject matter teachers in the junior and
senior high schools need to be shown how art can be integrated into
the areas in which they teach.
* The present art program can be improved through encouragement
and opportunities for professional growth of teachers of art. Local
areas need to make it possible for the art teacher to attend at least
one or two professional art meetings a year where she can benefit
as well as contribute. The art section of the F.E.A. can be built up
so that it can be a strong force for supporting art education in the
schools of the state through having classroom teachers take an
** Page 2o-20
*** Page zz
Chapter II. SUGGESTED AREAS OF ART EXPERIENCES
* The scope of art is so extensive that it should not be isolated into a few areas. It is de-
sirable that children have opportunity to experience a variety of types of art, since no one
means of expression will appeal to all children and since a limited type of program will
soon become tiresome and lacking in educational value.
* In selecting art experiences in connection with the development of a unit it may be
necessary to refer for technical information to the sections on drawing and painting for one
or two children, to that on clay modeling for another group, to pages on puppet construction
for a third, etc.
* The following experiences are possible within the facilities of most present day schools.
TEMPERA OR POWDER PAINT
Paint-tempera, dry powder paint, or calcimine
Brush-at least one-half inch wide with bristles about one inch
Paper-large size (18 x 24) newsprint, American white paper,
cream manila or wrapping paper
Capable children (even in the primary grades) can be taught to
mix powder paint, using two parts dry powder paint to one part
water. The mixed paint should be about the consistency of cream.
For smaller children the paint should be poured into glasses until
about half filled, with a brush in each glass. A set of four or five
colors may be put into a small box for several children to share.
Muffin tins or plastic egg trays provide efficient containers for colors
for older children. Each student should have a container such as a
can or jar of water for washing his brush.
You may have one or more easels which have trays for holding
the paint jars. If not, easels may be made from cardboard and leaned
against the blackboard. Clothespins are good to clip the paper to the
cardboard. These cardboard easels may be used on individual desks,
on tables or on the floor. One long easel saves space and six children
can work at one time. Beaver board 2 feet high and 6 feet long is a
good size. Gummed tape works well in fastening the paper to the
blackboard when no easels are available. Newspapers spread on the
floor will help keep the room clean, rags should be on hand for use
in wiping up spilled paint. Children should be reminded that acci-
dents may accur to anyone and that everybody appreciates help in
cleaning up. If the brush is wiped against the side of the glass or
pan, paint will not be dripped where it is not wanted. Aprons made
from father's old shirt (worn backwards), old pillow cases, sugar
sacks, pieces of plastic shower curtains, etc., are useful in protecting
* The number of children painting at one time depends upon the
amount of space, the amount of materials and control.
* At first young children are interested in manipulating the paint and
are satisfied with just putting color on the paper. Older children will
require more direction, and the teacher may want them to begin
on practice paper to "see what the brush will do"-how many kinds
of strokes and textures can be obtained.
* The first problem may begin by painting in an interesting shape
near the center of the paper, repeating sizes. Do the same thing with
a second, third or even fourth color until the space is filled. Work
large and try to balance the colors; variations from plain color may
be obtained by using dots, stripes, dashes or stippling.
* To carry this idea a little further, the colors may be put on by
changing from one color to another without washing the brush.
This blending will show the children that green is obtained if blue
is used after yellow.
* When recognizable objects are being painted, the teacher can do
much to stimulate and encourage expression. This may be done by
a few minutes of discussion at the beginning of the period; recent
trips, stories from history or reading class, the baseball game, hap-
penings at home-all these will supply impetus. Intermediate and
older children enjoy painting portraits of themselves and their
friends in this medium. The teacher can stimulate the children so
that they are anxious to put down their own interpretation. Chil-
dren should learn to think and concentrate as they work. Observation
and memory are important factors in learning to put ideas down
WATER COLOR PAINTING
A water color box with eight colors
Pan of water
Brush (not too tiny we hope)
A good size paint rag
Several sheets of 9 x 12 inch or iz x 18 inch white or manila
* Transparent water colors may be started in about the fourth
grade. At first let each child try out the colors and learn to care for
the materials. Handle the brush carefully, dip it in water, then strike
it gently against a cake of paint. Try the color on the paper making
a stroke all the way across. Do not go back over it but leave any
white spaces of the paper that show through.
* Next clean the brush by wiping it carefully with the paint rag.
That way your brush is clean and the water is kept from getting
dirty. Clean water makes for clean colors.
* Next try painting good sized patches all over the paper, being
careful not to go over a stroke a second time. Use plenty of very
wet paint on the brush. Tip the paper slightly so the color will run.
Remember not to go over it or touch it again with the brush. If too
much paint has collected at the bottom of the area, you may squeeze
out the brush and use it as a blotter at the bottom edge to pick up
* Observing these technical limitations, painting with water color
is the same as painting with tempera.
Give the young child a piece of chalk or crayon and see what he
will do with it. Just as the adult very often will make "doodling"
marks with a pencil, so will the child start making scribbles and
The desire to draw and make illustrations in order to express ideas
is as natural to a young child as handwriting and occurs much
earlier. Usually all he needs is materials, such as crayons, colored
chalks, charcoal, or water colors, and a little encouragement.
Ideas for illustration may come from personal interests and expe-
riences, such as the "Trip to the Dentist," "Thanksgiving Dinner,"
"The Parade Down Main Street," "My Visit to the Fair," or related
with other school subject matter, as, "A Market Place in Mexico,"
"The Indians Making Pottery," "William Penn Trading with the
Illustration refers to narration, and means telling a story, or de-
scribing an event. Thus, in illustration, children can be encouraged
to tell their ideas graphically.
To encourage illustration, it is important to build up good mental
pictures and a desire to tell the story. This can be done through
experience, such as a visit to the market, etc.; through discussion;
and through material that has become familiar in study in history,
geography, and other areas.
It is important to fill up the paper well and not make tiny draw-
ings, leaving a large empty space.
Young children draw quite naturally and, as a rule, are quite
willing to attempt anything until ridiculed or "corrected" by older
children or adults. They should be encouraged, stimulated, and di-
rected, but never taught formulas and methods which hinder their
own child-like ideas.
Perspective is a means of creating a feeling of space in drawing
(and painting). It is not an end in itself and should not be stressed
in the average art experience. As children become interested in draw-
ing three dimensional objects in their pictures, they frequently feel
the need of some knowledge of aerial perspective and linear perspective.
The best way for them to save their problems is by drawing what they
There are many children who never become interested in drawing
objects in three dimensions. These individuals, who are sometimes
called the non-visual minded, are more interested in drawing what
they feel and know rather than what they see. They naturally use
In order that the teacher may better understand her pupils' work
and her pupils' needs she should have some knowledge of the kinds
Aerial perspective is the type of
f) perspective used to create a three
dimensional feeling by making the
persons and objects in the back-
ground smaller, less distinct-and more
grayed in color. Some children be-
gin to discover and to use aerial
-perspective in the fifth and sixth
grades. Others begin in junior and
senior high school.
Linear perspective is so-called be-
cause a feeling of distance is achieved
through the use of lines. Nearly ev-
ery child observes at some time how
railroad tracks seem to come closer
together the farther away they go
and finally vanish on the horizon (B).
They may also observe how a build-
ing such as a packing-house seems to
be smaller at the furthermost end (c).
These two examples vanish toward
one point. They have one side parallel
Sto the eye.
Front I Side T (h)
Sometimes objects seem to van-
ish toward two points. These ob-
jects appear to be on an angle to
the observer's eye. (:D)
In perspective, a circle appears
to become an ellipse. (E, F, G)
A third kind of perspective
teachers should know about is
multiple perspective. This is the
use of more than one (multiple)
point of view. Young children
use multiple perspective. A com-
mon example is a house drawn
with front and side views drawn
(I) together as though seen at one
time. (H) Sometimes we find even
a third side as shown in (1). Again
a young child may draw a house
showing the side, the roof and the
opposite side as in (.).
To show the stores on each side of a
street children frequently use multiple per-
spective as in (K).
The non-visually minded student may
S continue to use multiple perspective through-
out his life. It is not "wrong" for him to
do so. Some adults who draw and paint
(K) this way are known as "Primitives." Much
of the great art of the world is drawn
in multiple perspective. Among those peo-
ples famous for their use of multiple per-
spective are the Persians, the Egyptians,
and the Medieval Europeans.
(L) Many modern artists use multiple per-
spective to express certain ideas or for the
sake of design. Picasso is famous for draw-
ing heads showing the front and side views
(L). Picasso and Braque sometimes draw the
top and side views of objects at the same
In drawing and painting, the teacher
should keep the design quality uppermost
in mind. Perspective should never hinder
Children start to draw people at a very early age. Their concepts
will vary as they grow older, and they should be encouraged to draw
the figure the way they best comprehend it. At first they may make
a very nebulous shape with grotesque, exaggerated features. Arms
may protrude from ears and the torso may be omitted entirely.
Primary children can be made aware of the figure by means of
observation. They can be taken out on the school grounds and di-
rected to look at their shadows. Then they can observe while three
or four children walk slowly by. By observing and learning to see,
the memory is developed, and the drawing of people becomes a
part of their art expressions. They should be encouraged to use people
in their drawings, and not feel hesitant to do so.
Primary children enjoy doing self-portraits. These can be in
crayon or paint, on any size paper. Encourage filling the space by
making the head touch the top of the paper, and the feet at the bot-
tom. Have some of the children stand up while the others observe the
position of the head, body, arms, and legs, before they start to draw
Intermediate grade children should ob-
serve the body also. When they reach the
place where they need some direction, they
can sometimes comprehend the figure by
means of oval shapes. Or they can start
with a solid mass for the torso and "push
out" shapes that indicate arms, legs, neck
Draw with a"doodling type'of scrawl
line, or with the side of chalk or crayon.
Work freely and easily.
* Intermediate grade chil-
dren can do interesting self-
portraits of heads and shoul-
ders in crayon, chalk, or
paint. They can block in the
general plan or structure,
starting with an egg shape
for the head, then add-
their own characteristics as
to hair, features, freckles,
clothes, etc. A decorative
background may also be used.
A mirror on the teacher's
desk, or on the wall will serve
to remind the young artists
occasionally of how they
look. In that way, they can
study their own features be-
fore drawing them.
* Stripes or dots or some
kind of decoration may be painted on the clothes. Buttons or other
details may be added.
* Children in junior high school can draw from class models pos-
ing. They need to observe the figure, seeing the torso as the main
part of the body upon which the rest of the parts are related. Rhythmic
relationships of the body need to be pointed out and proportions of one
part with the other. Sometimes it helps to lightly suggest the largest
movements or masses in order to capture the feeling of the position.
* A good book to use in continuing with the drawing of the figure
is: "Of Course You Can Draw," by Herbert L. Kruckman.
* When the desire for realism becomes strong, and the child wants
to be able to draw what he sees, contour drawing is a good means
for taking care of this need. This usually occurs at the junior and
senior high school level.
* Contour drawing is a means for learning to draw by keeping the
eye and mind on the object. The actual drawing is done without
looking at the paper except to glance when starting a new line.
* This type of drawing can be done with crayon, or charcoal, or
pen and ink on any size paper. Students must learn to concentrate
and work slowly. It is good to start with a posed model first. Let
the eye travel around the figure before attempting to draw it.
* After the first drawing, put the work up on display for dis-
Ask such questions
i. Who came
closest to putting
down what he saw?
2. Who has the
best line quality?
* Continue to
draw from differ-
ent posed models,
trying full figure
front, back, and
profile, also head
* Other subjects
that might be used
for contour draw-
ing are pets, fam-
objects on dresser,
corner of room,
* Refer to Art as Education, by Rosabelle Macdonald, for further
information on this type of drawing.
* Murals offer excellent possibilities for group work. A mural is a
painting done directly on a wall. In most schools, this is impossible
so other materials such as heavy wrapping paper, building paper,
beaver board, old shades or the back of oil cloth can be used. While
the children are working, these may be taped to the blackboard,
laid on a table or put on the floor. A wall in a hallway might also
* If the finished mural is to be in a permanent location, considera-
tion should be given to the shape required. This might be in a class-
room, a cafeteria, the library, or hallway.
* Before actual work begins, the teacher's direction and guidance
is needed in planning and organizing the subject matter. Children
should take an active part in this organization. Each should be given
an opportunity to contribute ideas to the plan. This sharing of ideas
and experiences is good training for working in a group.
* The subject matter for the mural will vary with age level and
interests. Big units of class work, field trips, playground and class-
room activities, home experiences, the circus, jungle life, special
occasions and industries are a few of the many ideas and subjects
that might be used.
* In the Primary Grades the method of working will be free, spon-
taneous and direct. For instance, each child is asked to express his
idea for some part of the mural on his own paper, making his objects
fill the space. If Dick's house is chosen he is asked to draw or paint
it directly on the mural. Mary adds her tree or man close to the house
and the work continues until all the space is well filled.
* With older children more planning and preliminary drawing may
* In choosing the color, remember that this is a work of art for a
wall decoration and not a photographic reproduction. Therefore, it
is important to limit the number of colors and see that they are re-
peated and interspersed throughout the composition. This will help
to unify the whole plan of the mural.
* Keep the objects large and close together. Nothing spoils the
effect like having a number of small isolated things with large
empty areas around them.
* The frieze is usually a long continuous horizontal structure, which
repeats variations of a theme. For example, each child might make a
drawing on iz x 18 inch paper of some phase of a unit of study and
when these are linked together, they form a frieze.
Children may create
characters on tagboard.
Paint or paste cloth on. o
Paste on flat stick. Chil-
dren behind teacher's
desk, operate with sticks.
With experience, the
child can operate one
puppet with two sticks.
This puppet in two parts
moves more, is held to-
gether in center with
Children may devise
methods for moving tag-
board figures operated
with sticks or one or
more strings. When chil-
dren grasp the idea of a
sectioned body, they will
adopt method best suited
to one level, and thus
originate methods as well
as characters. Some
* The third grader's stage can be anything he wishes to use. He will think of
things such as table tops, chairs, the floor itself, which is excellent as it allows
him vast movement. When he seems ready to add elements such as background
paintings and stage sets, he may devise such a set up as the one below in which
he stands on one bench or table, leans over easel that displays background paint-
ing and operates on an-
other table. In addi-
tion, to puppets already
described, the third,
fourth, fifth and sixth
grader may make and
use the hand or glove
puppet, as follows:
* For head, three inch
dowel. Surround with
excelsior, or some other
material that won't
shrink. Hold with
piece of newsprint by
tying around bottom of
head with string.
Leave some dowel for
neck. Wet whole head.
Cover and mold with
papier-mache. Let dry.
* Let children discov-
er things to make wigs of, from yarn to moss, pot cleaners to sponge. Hands may
be drawn freely on plywood and sawed out and painted. Feet may be an added
interest to the older child. These may be added to the front bottom edge of the
thick muslin dress, tacked on or glued. When feet are added to the hand puppet
they simply rest on table edge or on desk arm before the arm of the operator.
Start with a flexible piece of cardboard about 3 x 4 inches and make into a
tube an inch or less in diameter. Tie with a string or use Scotch tape to hold.
This will form the neck of the puppet and be the place where the finger is in-
serted when manipulating it later.
* To hasten drying and also to necessi-
tate using less pulp, a core of wadded-up
newspaper may be used as a base. Tie
securely with a string over the cardboard
tube, letting part of the tube project
* Cover this foundation all over with
the paper mache mixture working it
firmly with the fingers, until it sticks
on. Shape the head into whatever char-
acter desired, and form the features. Eyes,
cheeks, ears, and other parts may be
rolled up and attached on. Exaggerate
the features so they are pronounced.
* The face may be painted with tem-
pera paint and then varnished or shel-
lacked. Use color to bring out the char-
acter of the puppet. If needed, hair can
be added, and may be made of paper
curls, fringe, yarn, rope, string, cotton,
* Puppet heads may also be made by
modeling with a mixture of sawdust and
glue, plastic wood, or plaster of paris.
* Keep the clothing simple but effective.
Make it loose enough so the hand can be
inserted to manipulate the puppet's move-
ments. Cut a pattern first of paper and pin
together to see if it will fit over the hand.
Cut out of cloth, sew two sides together
by hand or on a sewing machine. Put in
* Gather the neck of the garment and sew or glue to the cardboard
tube neck of the puppets.
* Gather the sleeves and sew to hands made of something heavy,
such as leather scraps, suede, or muslin stuffed with cotton. Small
cardboard tubes inserted in the puppet's hands help in manipulating
the puppet with the fingers. Put index finger in the head and thumb
and middle finger in each sleeve.
Heads and hands are made like those made for the hand puppets.
Bodies may vary widely. Different movement is obtained by long
and short limbs and can be shown in preliminary figure drawing
plans. Caricature drawings and exaggerations of the model can help
to distinguish in the child's
mind a real person from a the-
* Dowel used for limbs, any
light wood for body, as illus-
trated. When a puppet or mari-
onette is finished, and it should
not be a tedious nor a very long
process, children may create
costumes. The character
evolves and its interpretation
is the big thing.
* Do not stop the process
here and tell the children to
take the puppets home. Now
is the time they have been
waiting for. Let them show
you what the marionette means
to them in full.
* Because of the muscu-
lar skill required in manipulat-
ing marionettes they are rec-
ommended for older children.
They are especially good for
children from the ages of elev-
en to fifteen.
DESIGN. Design is Planning.
* A well rounded concept of design includes considering the intent
or purpose of the artist (or child), the nature of the material from
which the article is to be made, its visual appearance (governed by
aesthetic laws), and the utilitarian purpose for which it is intended.
Design can be structural (three dimensional) or decorative (two
* When using design projects in an art experience, there should al-
ways be a purpose for the design at any age level. The child should
choose his own object to be made, whether for his own use or as a
gift. He should invent a way of building it with wise guidance from
the teacher, never resorting to patterns which will cripple his ability
for structural planning.
* Each material has its own limitations. A period of "playing with
the material" or experimentation to find its potentialities is recom-
mended in order to see how clay, wood, metal, cloth, paper, etc., each
differ from one another in appearance and structural possibilities.
* While the visual appearance aspect on the aesthetic is very im-
portant in art, in fact one of its most distinguishing features, in child
art we must remember that we cannot expect an adult project. Aes-
thetic values are not taught to children, they are discovered through
trial and error and intuition. When aesthetic qualities appear in a
child's work they can be pointed out in simple fashion and praised
by the teacher. Some of these qualities are:
* LINE PROPORTION: Not too much sameness of sizes nor so
much difference that the parts fail to "hang together."
* RELATIONSHIPS OF PARTS: Does one thing seem to be sim-
ilar to another one, yet different from it? This may be in shape, size,
color, texture, etc.
* RHYTHM: Do the directions of parts of the object go well
with the whole?
* An intuitive sense will tell a child when it is "right" if he thinks
about it. It is finished when it satisfies him. The teacher should be
happy with the result. She must remember that if she keeps his con-
fidence he will improve in future projects.
* The utilitarian aspect of a design refers to its useful properties.
In designing and making bookends, care should be given to making
them heavy enough to support books. In making a flower-pot, size
should be considered so that roots may grow well.
* Many materials may be used in planning design projects. Besides
clay, wood, metal, paper, and cloth, which have already been sug-
gested, there are leather, reed, paint, and many kinds of scrap
* Qualities to be fostered are inventiveness, imaginativeness, and dis-
crimination in visual judgment.
Clay is one of the most popular
materials with young children. It
is pliable and responsive and feels
good in the hands. In some schools
the custodian assumes the responsi-
bility of mixing it. More often the
teacher must do it, and to save her
strength and valuable time she can
use some short cut methods.
Take a bag such as a flour sack
or burlap bag and fill it as full as de-
sired with flour clay. Tie the bag
with string and suspend it in a pail
of water. The clay will absorb the
water overnight and the bag can be
lifted out and allowed to dry to the
Some schools place a mediul size
garbage can in each room, which
keeps clay ready for use at all times.
The clay can be mixed in the can.
Put in the clay-flour and water, and
stir with a good stout stick. Use
about four times more clay than
water. Let soak a day or so if pos
sible. If too wet, leave the lid of
so the water will evaporate. The clay
can be formed into good sized balls
j which can be passed out readily when
Two ways in which older
school children can mix their own
clay are: (i) Empty two or three
cups of clay flour into small individual bags, either 5 pound sugar
sacks or small bags made at home from rags, or two paper sacks one
inside of the other. Place on oil cloth or newspaper. Dig a hollow
in the clay and fill with water. The clay will quickly absorb the
water through the cloth. (2.) Empty several cups of clay flour into a
2. pound coffee can. Add a little water gradually and mix by hand.
Repeat until clay is the correct consistency. Clay that is sticky and
clings to the hands is too wet and should have more clay flour added.
Clay that cracks is too dry and needs water.
* Work on a padding of old newspapers on the desk, or a piece of
oil-cloth, or a square board like the end of an apple box. Clay can
be put back into the can and used over again. If it gets too dry, add
a little water. One needs to be strict in cleaning up to see that bits
are not left on the floors or tracked about the room. Children need
to be cautioned about not abusing the privilege of using this inter-
esting material. Do not let clay get in the drain as sinks can become
clogged up easily. One solution is to have a pail of water in which
to dip hands that have first been wiped as clean as possible on a
paper towel; or if allowed to dry a few minutes it will rub easily
off the hands.
FLAT TOP BIN
SLANT TOP BIN
* Young children are usually permitted to "play" with the clay
at first to get the "feel" and find out what it can do. These first
efforts need not be kept. Later they can be guided and directed into
expressing ideas, such as people, animals, and birds, etc., which
lend themselves to this three dimensional material. This may relate
to a unit being studied such as the "Farm" in which the different
animals can be modeled. Many things will suggest themselves to
the teacher and children as they get used to the material and experi-
ment with it.
* Some children learn first to start with a ball of clay and "pull
out" parts rather than "stick" them together. They can later learn to
weld parts together so they won't fall apart when dry.
* Finished work that is kept must be put on a shelf or window sill
to dry. If not fired it can be painted and shellacked or varnished.
* Unfinished work may be kept moist by placing it in an empty
* In the secondary level, more concern is given to the art conscious-
ness of the form of the material. This can be directed toward sculp-
ture or toward pottery. Students should see good examples such as
are found in art magazines and books on ceramics. Especially recom-
mended are: "Creative Teaching of Art," by Victor D'Amico, "Pot-
tery Made Easy," by John W. Dougherty, "How to Make Pottery
and Ceramic Sculpture," by Julia Hammond Duncan and Victor
Papier mache is a material used in modeling animals, figures, and objects
of a three-dimensional nature. It is utilized in store windows and interior
displays, and in schools for toys, decorations of a display type, and wher-
ever large solid objects need to be constructed.
Fold several thicknesses of news-
paper in half and roll tight. Tie firmly with
string and shape the body.
Roll two other strips tight and wrap with
string. Attach over first piece and tie firmly
to form legs.
Build animal up with wadded-up pieces
of newspaper tied on where needed. Then
cover with paper strips dipped in a thin paste
solution. Add ears, tail and other features,
which may be formed of wire, colored paper, yarn, string, rope, etc.
The outer layer may be formed of strips of newspaper, paper toweling,
or a paper mache pulp. When dry, paint with tempera and then cover with
varnish or shellac, or use enamel paint. It may be necessary to use several
layers of paint.
The animal may be formed of
wire instead of a newspaper base.
Pad where necessary with wads of
newspaper. Cover with strips of news-
paper dipped in water and covered
with paste. Use enough layers to give
the animal the form desired. Apply
paint and when dry, use varnish.
y to y inch
rope or yarn, felt, wire, raffia, etc.
Tack wires to broom stick.
Shape wires to form head.
* Cover form with strips of paper. Form may be stuffed with news-
paper padding which may also be tied around to form the neck. Con-
tinue covering with paper strips. Use paste generously. Add crumpled
paper to fill out hollows and to bring out such features as jaw bone,
nostrils, eyes, etc. Shape of head and features may be partially modeled
from basic form if enough paste is used to keep form moist and pliable.
Twelve to fourteen or more layers of newspaper strips may be needed.
The shape should be solid when dry.
Cut or tear ears using
several layers of paper. Roll
ear at base and paste on
head. Cover with strips.
Final entire coat may be
toweling. Let dry. Paint
with tempera or enamel.
Double strands of raveled
rope may be used for a mane.
Bind in middle or near base,
flatten, and glue to neck.
Buttons may be used for
eyes. A harness may be made
if desired, from leather,
rope, felt, etc.
Board on which to work (end of an apple box will do)
Paper-plain white, wrapping paper, paper towels, or newspaper
Grease-cheap vaseline, salad oil, etc.
Paste-flour and water, wall paper paste, etc.
Paint-tempera, powder, or oil
Method i-Work directly with the clay on a board, letting the
material suggest as you work what shape it should take.
Method 2.-Determine ahead of time the character of the mask,
whether it is to be human, animal, or bird, and any par-
ticular type. Make sketches, if you desire, to help clarify
your idea. Look at pictures of masks and actual examples to
see how they are formed.
Determine size. May vary from 3Y inches to life size or larger.
Take amount of clay needed. Put on wood board, which is in a
slanting position if possible.
Model the clay with both hands to form an oval shape which
is flat underneath. This will be approximately the shape of a face
which is rounding at top end and more pointed toward the chin.
Thickness or depth of shape should be 2-4 inches.
Using both thumbs at once, press in the eyes about halfway be-
tween top of head and chin. Push nose up from sides, letting it end
about halfway between eyes and chin. Push in mouth between end
of nose and chin.
Roll small balls of clay to fit into eye sockets. Roll strips of clay
to build up mouth.
Now start in and exaggerate. Pronounced features, chin, and
cheek bones are more effective than those that are too naturalistic.
Use your imagination. Dramatize. Try different expressions which
require the mouth to be turned, the nose made crooked, the eye-
brows raised, or the forehead wrinkled.
Method i. Grease clay all over to facili-
tate removal when mask is finished.
Waxed bread paper torn in small pieces
less than an inch in size may be substi-
tuted for grease by placing them real
close together all over the damp clay.
Tear strips of paper (newspaper or
toweling) several at a time, with a
ruler. Make various lengths and an inch
or less in width. Put strips in a pan
of water, and use one at a time, placing
them across the clay model horizontally.
Across the nose is a good place to be-
gin. Overlay strips a little and push
them down into crevices. Use smaller
pieces where needed. Cover entire clay
model around edges and everywhere,
and apply some strips vertically, to
strengthen. Apply layer of paste with
hands. Have paste thinned with water.
Cooked Argo starch may be used as a substitute.
* Repeat process of paper strips and paste until you have from 5 to 7 layers,
depending upon strength of paper used and sturdiness of mask.
* When dry, remove from clay base. If it doesn't come off easily, use a knife
to loosen edges, or dig clay out.
* A thin coat of shellac may then be applied if desired, and after a few minutes
when dry, use tempera paint. Another coat of shellac can be applied over the
Method 2. Buckram may be used as a base
for the mask. The clay model should be
thoroughly dry and covered with grease
or real soapy suds.
* Cut buckram large enough to fit down
in the impressions, wring it out of water,
and fit it carefully onto the model. Keep
hands wet and use a clay modeling tool if
needed to press parts down. While buckram
is still wet cover with paste. Then cover
with wet soft paper strips, as described
above, both crosswise and lengthwise.
* Let dry about 2.4 hours, remove (break
clay out) and decorate as in Method. I
Method 3. When it is desired to have the mask fit, as for a play,
it can be made with the face as a model. Children can work as part-
ners, with one as the model.
* Put cold cream on the face and fit the wet buckram over it. Cut
holes to breathe through. Press into contour and lines of face. Sit
in front of light heat until buckram is dry.
* Build any character on this foundation using putty, gummed
paper, whiting and shellac. When hard and dry paint with tempera
Method 4. Make a paper mache mixture. Use a clay model base;
grease it; build paper mache mask over it. Or if clay is not available,
wad up newspaper as a foundation and build a shell of a mask over
the newspaper core with the paper mache mixture. When dry, re-
move the newspaper core.
USES FOR MASKS:
School Plays and Festivities
Decorative (for the wall)
In relation to units of work on:
South American Festivals (Ancient Peru,
OBJECTS THAT CAN BE MADE OF PAPER MACHE:
Animals Masks Fruits and Gourds Beads
Figures Trees Tray or Plate Buttons
Puppets Nativity Set Broomstick Horse Lapel Ornaments
* In constructing people, the effect of clothing projecting and of
folds, may be achieved by dipping the papers in plaster of Paris to
make it stiff.
* Paper sculpture is an inexpensive three-dimensional medium which
offers endless possibilities for creation. By folding, rolling, and cut-
ting the paper in various ways, many interesting paper structures
may be made. Figures and animals also may be cut from one piece
of paper or assembled from several pieces. Paper sculpture should
be simple and direct in expression; stylized rather than realistic in
* Paper sculpture is of value as a study of the material and its poten-
tialities. Paper structures may be put to use as interior and window
displays in stores, and by schools, clubs, churches, etc., for posters
and decorative effects. Designs may be entirely in the round, attached
to a wood or cardboard background, or suspended by a wire from
* Materials include a good quality construction paper either in white
or in color, or gold and silver paper, scissors, a sharp knife, ruler,
and a stapler, scotch tape, paste, pins, or paper fasteners. The knife
may be an X-acto, stencil, pocket knife, or razor blade with holder.
* A heavy cardboard or padding of newspapers should be kept on
the table while working to prevent cutting through into the wood
* A miniature scale model may be made of a piece first to use as a
pattern for a bigger one.
* Some examples are given on the following pages which may be
used as an approach to the possibilities of construction with paper
and as a stimulus to further experimentation in paper work. These
examples are of no particular value if used merely as patterns, rather
they should be a guide to creative working with the material. Experi-
ment and see what you and your students can make.
The paper is bent around to
form various shapes. It may be
curled by wrapping around a pen-
cil or by stretching with scissors
or ruler. For the cone shape, re-
move 4 of the circle.
Folding is achieved by scoring with
a knife or scissors. The cut does not go
clear through the paper, but only deep
enough for it to fold.
Try scoring on scraps of paper.
* Christmas Trees
Roll a rectangle into a tapering cone,
by starting at one corner and rolling di-
agonally across. Let cone be about y
inch wide at base.
* Slit at base and insert in hole in
* To make the box, start with a square
and after determining size, draw lines
equal from all four sides. Cut on dotted
lines, and fold on other lines. Cut hole
* Insert pole in hole and secure
scotch tape underneath. Paste or
* Using the pole and box as a
cut shapes from colored papers to
a tree. Designs may be painted on
Star shapes can be cut.
Paper can be fringed and curled.
These are only suggestions. Try
other ideas. See how originally
each tree can be created.
Overlap two areas of paper, each
cut up the center. These may be
cut in various shapes such as a
ball, bell, etc., for tree decora-
tions. Try inventing various other
shapes. Add yarn, beads, colored
* For more advanced work in
paper sculpture, consult the fol-
"Paper Sculpture," by Paul Mc-
"Paper Sculpture," by Tadeusz
"Modeling for Amateurs," by
Masks Nativity Dances
Birds Santa Claus Musician
Animals Bride Toy Soldier
Angel Jack-in-the-Box Abstract Forms
* Creating animal toys from various size boxes (toothpaste cartons, thumb-
tack boxes, razor blade boxes, oatmeal boxes, etc.) is a good problem for
junior high school age children. They can take a paper sack at home and
fill it with the boxes and such scraps as beads, feathers, yarn, string, spools,
etc. Then at school, each child may keep his work in his sack labeled with
Boxes (all sizes)
Strong Glue, Spools,
Yarn, Colored Pa-
Other scraps, Tem-
Glue boxes together or use a large box for
body. Add legs and head of smaller box-
es. Tail, wings, eyes, horns may be cre-
ated from scrap materials.
Paint with tempera.
Apply shellac, clear varnish, or lacquer
for shiny effect.
LINOLEUM BLOCK PRINTING
Christmas cards, book illustrations, calendars, fabric designs,
gift wrapping paper, bookbinding end sheets or covers, scarfs, cur-
tains for the play house, place mats, and many other useful and attrac-
tive problems may be met through the use of the block print.
Although block prints were for many years made from wood, it
has been found that they may be made from many materials in a
simple manner by children at very little cost. One of the most satis-
factory of these is the linoleum block print. Unmounted battleship
linoleum is less expensive than the mounted blocks. Scraps may
often be had free of charge from a friendly floor covering or linoleum
store. However, if such generosity is not available, battleship lino-
leum may be purchased for approximately sixty cents per square foot
from any good craft supply house. This will make twelve three by
four inch blocks which will average about five cents each. If it is
desired to print these on a press, the linoleum may be mounted on
wooden blocks of the needed thickness.
i. Plan a simple design the same size as the linoleum block. The best
results are obtained by beginners if the design is drawn with a
small brush and white paint on dark colored paper.
2. Any lettering should be simple, large, and transferred in reverse.
3. The design may be reversed on the block by tracing over the de-
sign placed on a piece of carbon which is face up. Trace the design
which is on the back side of the paper onto the block. If the dark
carbon does not show on the dark linoleum, paint the linoleum
with a thin coat of white paint and then trace.
4. Cut out, with a linoleum
tool or single edge razor blade
the lines made by the brush
and white paint on the orig-
inal sketch. Insist that all cut
edges have firm foundations
or the print will not be clear.
Use care to avoid cut fingers.
5. Squeeze a small amount of
ink onto the metal, glass,
or marble slab and spread
evenly with a brayer or roll-
er. Run the roller over the
linoleum until it is covered
with the ink. Print on any
absorbent paper slightly
larger than the linoleun
block. Newsprint or tissue
wrapping paper is excellent.
Under this paper, adequate padding of newspaper or cloth is nec-
6. Place block face down on the paper to be printed. Apply heavy
pressure to insure a clear print.
* In making potato prints, cut off the end of the potato. Use water
color, tempera, or mixed powder paint, and paint out area with a
brush. Stamp off on paper as a repeat, to see what a print looks like.
* Then take a knife and try cutting a design out, and print the
same way. The design may be done directly on the potato, or planned
first on a piece of paper.
* Potato prints can be used either on paper or cloth and make good
all-over designs for wrapping papers, bookbinding end sheets or
covers, curtains for the playhouse, scarfs, place mats, etc.
ART GUM ERASER-RUBBER STOPPER PRINTS
* Use same procedure as used with the potato prints.
INNER TUBE PRINTS
* Cut design from a thick inner tube
with scissors. Glue onto a heavy card-
board and apply ink and print as other
block prints are printed.
SCRAP MATERIALS PRINTING
* The illustration below shows how
scrap materials such as sticks, yarn,
sponge, screen wire, etc., have been
APPRECIATION. When we think of teaching art appreciation we should go back to our
concept of integration.
It is useless and detrimental to teach appreciation in the form of
isolated picture study.
There are many devices for teaching appreciation. Movies, slides,
prints, postcards, color reproductions, pictures clipped from maga-
zines and books on art are rich sources for furthering an understanding
of art. These, as well as traveling exhibitions, exhibitions of local
artists, exhibitions of children's work, and displays of objects gath-
ered from the community can be used. These will have great educative
value if they are related to the immediate and personal interests of the
child. For example, in painting a mural for the classroom, reference
to local murals and reproductions of famous artists' murals can mo-
tivate interest in the project and clarify the problems of composition
Chapter III. PHYSICAL ASPECTS OF THE ART PROGRAM
HOW CAN WE MAKE THE MOST OF INADEQUATE CLASSROOM SPACE?
CLASS ROOM SPACE
Stationary desks that are much too
small for art work are often one of
our greatest handicaps in the aver-
age classroom. This can be over-
come by using beaver board or cor-
rugated boxes. Cut boards 18 x 14
inches or larger. Place the long end
over front of desk. Mark the card-
board and slit it so that it will slip
over the raised part of the desk.
This will hold it in place and chil-
dren will now have a working
space for larger paper and a place
for paint pans. Often the child will
stand in the aisle to work.
Desk or table easels may be made
by using drawing boards or heavy
Bore two holes in top corners of
two drawing boards and tie togeth-
er with light rope. Two small strips
(18 x i x y2 inches) with one hole
bored at each end will slip over
nails on the bottom edges of both
drawing boards and will serve as a
brace for the easel.
If there are no drawing boards,
beaver board, celotex, plywood, or
materials may be used.
Blackboards may be used as shown in diagram 3. (i) Use clothes
pins and put paper on large corrugated boards. Stand on black-
board ledge. Use newspapers on floor for protection. (2) Scotch
tape large papers to the blackboard. Let the children work with
paints or colored chalks.
Work (i) Every classroom should have a work corner in which
Center painting materials are out for the children to see and use.
(2.) If we do not have large tables. Table size areas can be
made by getting mattress boxes and placing them over
desk tops. These can be made stationary the same way as
in Diagram i.
The (i) Newspapers placed on available classroom floor will
Floor provide space for large paintings. Large papers for the
children to paint on can be placed on these.
(2.) Available hall space may be used in the same manner.
Cafeteria Cafeteria tables provide excellent working space for
painting, finger painting and clay.
Cabinets Attractive cabinets for storage space can be made out of
orange crates or other wooden boxes. These can be painted
a bright color and arranged in many interesting ways.
_/ / \~
(i) Files may be made out of orange crates with drawers to
fit each section. This will give space for filing materials
needed so often in a classroom.
Pasteboard boxes may also be used
for files. (2.) The large corrugated
box may be fixed as the orange
Paper Each child may have his own paper
Sack sack with his name label on it. He
may keep scraps of all kinds needed
for certain craft problems.
Tin Cans Coffee cans and other tin cans with
lids work well for clay. Each child
may have his own can with his
name on it. He can put his own clay
work in this and it will keep moist.
Reversed, the can may be used as
working platform which may be
turned to view work from any
Every classroom should have clay to use. A garbage can
or crock will keep the clay moist. Any other non-rustable
containers may be used.
Portfolios for the work of
each child or one large one
for the group may be used for
keeping flat work. Chip
board or corrugated board
(24 x 36 inches) may be used
for large portfolios. Place
for large portfolios. Place
boards about an inch apart
and use 3 inch brown sealing
tape as hinge. Twine may be
used under horizontal strips
of tape placed inside the port-
folio for reinforcement.
Water If a sink is unavailable, water in pails or large tin cans
may be used, one for clean water and one for dirty water.
Black- Blackboards may be used for display space. Paper or other
board materials may be used to cover blackboard if desired.
Bulletin Keep bulletin boards attractive and
Board interesting. The children will take
great pride and become very effi-
cient in taking this responsibility
with the guidance of the teacher.
(i) Use interesting related mate-
rials. Change bulletin often.
(2) Pin all four corners down, so
that material will stay flat.
(3) If possible mount all pictures,
clippings, or printed material. Use
colored paper sometimes.
(4) Keep the bulletin board so that
it has an orderly arrangement. Space so that things will
not seem too crowded or have empty areas.
Substi- (i) If no bulletin boards are pro-
tutes for vided, old scraps of beaver board,
Bulletin celotex, plywood, large packing
Boards cases, etc., can be used. If space
is limited, a series of small boards i
may be laced together with heavy
cord, which can be folded and
stored when not in use. Paint often
improves the appearance of bul-
(z) Old picture frames may be re-
finished and used to display chil-
dren's work. Change them often.
(3) Screens may be used where
there are no bulletin boards. Ma-
terials for these can often be scrap materials from lumber
yards, such as packing cases. Screens may be folded and put
out of the way when not in use.
APPEARANCE OF THE CLASSROOM
Display Display cases from boxes and
crates may be used for clay work
small carved objects, and other
three dimensional pieces of art
work. Two or three boxes stacked
in tiers when sanded and painted
make an attractive case.
SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPROVEMENT OF ROOM
Flower Where there are no flowers many
Arrange- beautiful arrangements can be
ments made from foliage and grasses.
Children need guidance in choos-
ing shape, size, and color of con-
tainers; also in using different
arrangements and varieties of ma-
Painting Paint rooms pleasing colors. Keep in mind amount of light
the Room in room.
Picture (i) Pictures should be hung at eye-level of the average
Hanging person. Things hung in higher wall spaces should be dec-
orative rather than pictorial.
(2) Hang picture in blackboard space rather than above
or below it only for temporary use.
(3) Select pictures for fine quality and interest to children.
HOW DO YOU SET UP A NEW ART WORKSHOP?
* This is a plan for an art workshop which may be helpful when a
new building is being planned.
6 movable tables 3 x 9 feet
4 easel tables
2. sturdy work benches
i large sink with 6 faucets
i clay bin
i wedging board
i paper cutter
i paper rack
5 gas outlets
S 6 electrical outlets
Ample storage space for ma-
terials, tools and student
Bulletin board space
Suggestions for Art
Area, iy times as long as a
c Extra storage space for incom-
Art room should be on ground
floor near main entrance and
near the auditorium
Natural lighting from tall
___ windows set close together
I with adequate lighting for
dark days and a northern ex-
posure if possible.
Other plans and suggestions for equipping an art room will be
included in the revised edition of this bulletin.
i. Book Shelves
2. Bulletin Board
3. Black Boards (and i mov-
4. Display Cabinet
7. Bin File
8. Teacher's Closet
i. and 2. Tools and Materials
3. Gas Outlets
4. Electrical Outlets
5. Roll of Paper
6. Paper Cutter
8. Counter Space for Working
Wedging Board for Clay
Cabinet for Clay
I, I I,
3. Counter Space
z. Wedging Board
3. Cabinet for Clay
4. Clay Bin
6. Cabinet Space
7. Counter Space
8. Celotex Wall
WHAT SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT ARE NEEDED?
MONEY FOR MATERIALS
It is recommended that $2.oo or $z.5o per child be requested for
In some areas this is provided out of the State Minimum Foun-
dation Program, while other localities charge the children fees, and
some use the combination of both plans to provide a rich program.
Approximate amount and price
for thirty children
News Print 18 x 24 in...........
Wrapping paper 36 in., 40 lb.. .
Cream Manila 18 x 24 in........
Construction 9 x 12 in., assorted
colors ........ .........
Powder Tempera, 4 Ibs., or
pints of red, blue, yellow,
3 lbs. green, black, turquoise,
orange, brown, 6 Ibs. white,
60 cents each .................
Brushes..... i in. Brush, long handle,
55 cents each ......... ...... 5 8.25
Chalk...... Assorted colors (144 sticks per
box).. .................... 3 boxes 7.50
Clay........ Dry Clay flour ................. 2oo Ibs. 8.00
Garbage Can ......... ....... i can 3 .00
Paste....... Paste flour ................. .. 12 boxes 3.50
2 in. Gum Tape..
* This leaves approximately $25.oo to spend on materials for a
richer program. The following pages suggest things you will want
to consider. It is wise to buy a few tools each year to provide for a
Crayons..... Large pressed, 30 cents, to be bought by children.
Chalks and Charcoal
files, book binding,
Murals, large signs,
ADD FOR A RICHER PROGRAM
Alphatone-18 x 24 in.-cream and as-
Bristol Board-large size
Charcoal Paper-large size
Detail Paper-18 x 24 in.
Water Color Paper--8 x 24 in.
Pen and ink work
Paints Powdered Paints-assorted rich colors or
Tempera (moist)-assorted colors
Water Colors (transparent)
8 color boxes (semi-moist) refills available
ADD FOR A RICHER PROGRAM
Enamel Paint (see recipe) Painting wood, clay,
Finger Paint (see recipe) metal
Textile Paints Cloth
Crayons Large Soft-16 color boxes; or Wax-24
ADD FOR A RICHER PROGRAM
Chalks Large box-assorted colors
ADD FOR A RICHER PROGRAM
Charcoal-sticks or pencils
Brushes Camels Hair-assorted sizes
Poster or Easel Brushes (bristle)-long
handles-i- in. or 4 in.
House Painter's Brush-- in. or larger
Murals, shellac, etc.
ADD FOR A RICHER PROGRAM
Stenciling or dry brush
4. Construction-white and colors
(The above papers are available in such
sizes as: 9 x 12 in., 12 x 18 in., 18 x 24
in., 24 x 36 in. We recommend 18 x 24
in. as a good general size.)
5. Oak tag-2-4 x 36 in.
6. Chip board-2-4 x 36 in.
7. Poster Board-2.2 x 2-8 in.-white and
8. Wrapping Paper-24 x 36 in. roll-
40 Ib. weight white or brown
Clay Potter's (moist or powdered)
ADD FOR A RICHER PROGRAM
Paste Powdered-wall paper (see also recipe)
ADD FOR A RICHER PROGRAM
Airplane Cement or Household Cement
Rubber Cement (obtainable at filling stations)
*Scotch Tape or Transparent Mending Tape
Erasers (Pink Pearl or Artist Queen)
India Ink (black and colors)
Pencils (beginner's-large, soft)
Making fixatif, thin
ning shellac, etc.
Making fixatif (se
recipe) over temper;
ADD FOR A RICHER PROGRAM
Paraffin (might use melted old crayons or
Bee's Wax (3-oz. cake)
Foto Flat (gummed on each side)
Mixed with paraffin
for batik work
Tie and dye work,
To stick papers o0
In paste or flour an,
MATERIAL BASIC LIST SUGGESTED USE
Gummed z in. Tape
Pencils (carpenter's oval, wedge sharp-
Plaster of Paris or Moulding Plaster
Turpentine or Mineral Spirits
Lettering Pens-round and square nib
Pen Holders (assorted sizes)
*Rulers--I2 in. (i-i6ths)
*Scissors-9 in. sharp
*Hack Saw blades
*Knife (X-acto or pocket)
Paper Cutter (18 in. is desirable)
(Large lard can may be used)
Chalk or Charcoal
metal work, etc.
Clay bats, casts, carv-
Mix with Enamel, re-
Wood, metal, plastics,
ADD FOR A RICHER PROGRAM
*Coping Saw blades
Cut window panes for
slides, block print-
Cut metals, heavy
MATERIALS AND TOOLS FOR SPECIFIC USES (depending on level of children
Y in. if to be mounted
4 in. if not to be mounted
Printing Ink (water or oil soluble)
Brayer-4 in. or larger
Linoleum Block-Cutting-pull type, speedball
Glass, Tin, or Shellacked Plywood
Clay (moist or powdered)
Glazes-where kiln may be used for firing clay.
Tempera Paints covered with clear shellac, clear
varnish, or liquid wax may be used where
clay is not to be fired
Garbage Can (or Lard Can)
Modeling Tools (umbrella ribs, tongue depres-
sors, ice cream sticks, or orange sticks may
Plaster of Paris Bats (may be used easily)
Hides or Scrap Leather (for tooling)
"Modelit"-a substitute for leather-comes
in yellow or brown (Sheets 18 x 24 in. about
Metal Sheet, Glass or Wood Block for tooling
Leather Tooler (nails, spoons, metal stamps,
etc., may be substituted)
Leather Glue or Rubber Cement
Leather Punch and Snap Set
Aluminum (18 to to gauge) (cheapest metal)
Nickel Silver (assorted gauges)
Asphaltum-an acid resistant
Mineral Spirits or Turpentine
Muriatic Acid (etching aluminum)
Nitric Acid (etching silver and copper)
Steel Wool (fine)
Emery Cloth (fine)
Rouge, Tripoli or Pumice Stone
Birch or Fir Block (or Sand Bag)
Solder (soft and liquid)
Lacquer or Liquid Wax
Ball Pein Hammer
Hack Saw 8 in.-iz in. (medium teeth)
Files (mill and needle)
Hand Drill Bits
Jeweler's Saw and blades (or jeweler's blades
for coping saw)
Assorted Woods-all sizes
Bass Wood (for carving)
Plywood (assorted thicknesses)
Dowel Rods 14 in. to I in. (30 in. lengths)
(Broom handles may be substituted)
Sand Paper (assorted grades)
Brads (assorted sizes)
Carpenter's Saw (io teeth to the inch)
Back Saw (io-iz teeth to the inch)
Brace and Bits (bits, assorted sizes)
Chisel (y in. to y in. widths)
Hand Drill (drills, assorted sizes)
Planes (block and jack)
Rasp (9 in.-io in. half round)
Wood Carving Tools
Cotton Roving (assorted colors)
Raffia (assorted colors)
Warp Cord (Macrome)
Twine (i lb. cone)
LoOMS-VARIOUS TYPES AND SIZES
* With emphasis on free expression, it is necessary that the right materials
be provided. The quantity of items and quality will vary with the resources
of the school and experience of the teacher.
* To take care of the needs of the children, such basic supplies as: large paper;
large brushes; newsprint; a variety of colors in crayons, chalks and paints;
and material for crafts such as cloth, wood, clay, etc., should be available to
* Those who are initiating an art program should begin with the minimum
essentials and add others as the needs are known. More expensive equipment
and tools may be added a few at a time each year.
* In schools where several teachers are sharing art supplies, it is advisable
to keep a record book in the supply room where those getting materials and
tools may sign up. Elementary school children may furnish their own scissors
and crayons, or several classes might share the set of scissors, brushes, etc.
SUPPLY HOUSE SUPPLIES HANDLED
American Art Clay Co. Clay
4717 W. 16th Street Glazes
Indianapolis, Indiana Tools
American Handicrafts Co. General Supplies
192 William Street Metals
New York, N.Y. Plastics
American Seating Co. General Supplies
2.21 Main Street Distributors for:
Jacksonville, Florida Binney Smith and Co.
American Crayon Co.
Bartlett Mills Weaving Materials
Harmony, Maine Raffia
Brodhead-Garrett Co. General Supplies
Newburg Station Wood
Cleveland, Ohio Plastics
Burgess Handicrafts and Hobby Service General Supplies
117 N. Wabash Avenue Metal
Devoe and Reynolds Co., Inc., Paints
Kansas City, Missouri
H. & W. B. Drew Co. Higgin's Inks
Jacksonville, Florida Speedball Pens, etc.
B. F. Drakenfeld Clay
45-47 Park Place Glazes
New York, N.Y. Crafts
Fellow Crafters, Inc., Crafts
64 Stanhope Street
George Fetzer Co., Clay (inexpensive)
1105 i7th Street Glazes
Waupun, Wisconsin Metal
Knight Paper Co. Paper
Jacksonville, Florida Distributors for:
Tampa, Florida Binney Smith Co.
Leathercraft Studios Leather
Giaton and Knight Co.
Magnus Craft Materials Tools
Wakefield, Massachusetts Crafts
Metal Goods Corporation Aluminum
5139 Brown Avenue
St. Louis 15, Missouri
Milton Bradley Co. Crafts
Atlanta, Georgia Weaving Supplies
Newton Supply Co. General Supplies
P.O. Box 4334 Distributors for:
119 W. Ashley Street Windsor Newton
Jacksonville, Florida American Crayon Co.
Grumbacher Co. Brushes
Universal Handicrafts Plastics
5oth Street and 6th Avenue Tools
New York, N.Y.
Western Stoneware Clay
* To keep scissors and other tools from rusting,
not in use.
wrap in wax paper when
* Classroom teachers and special art teachers should be provided with a
small fund for incidentals which heretofore have sometimes come from their
FREE AND INEXPENSIVE MATERIALS AND NATURAL RESOURCES
* The teacher must keep in mind that there can be educational values and
experiences in the use of these materials by stressing design values:
MATERIALS SUGGESTED USES
Men's shirts or pajama tops Cut out sleeves and use as painting smock
Jars (mayonnaise, fruit, etc.) Paint jars, water jars, and brush jars
Bottles Decorations for room, musical instruments
Posters Use backs to paint on
Newspapers Painting pads, table and floor protection;
to paint on (want ad section); to use as
apron, trays for clay work, paper mache
Clean rags Paint rags; to roll up or roll on sucker
sticks to use for painting; wet and wrap
clay to keep moist
Rubber sponge and natural sponge For background painting, texture effects;
for wetting finger paint paper; and for
Life Magazine cover Finger painting paper substitute
Shelf paper (glazed) Finger painting paper
Wallpaper Use back to paint on
Dry Cleaning bags Painting activities; murals
Window shades For painting murals, panels, friezes
Wrapping paper (brown Kraft) Murals, friezes, scenery for stage, painting
Tongue depressors Mixing paint; modeling tools; looms
Orange sticks Modeling tools
Ice cream spoons Mixing paint, spreading paste
Paper cups To mix paint in
Clothes pins To clip drawings together, or to fasten
drawings to easel; bodies for figures
Bottle cap containers (tubes)
Wooden boxes, crates
Metal milk bottle caps
Scrap soft woods from lumber yards
Australian Pine burrs
Tops, construction, Christmas tree orna-
Storage space, construction units, book-
cases, display cases, filing cases
Hobby horse body, rollers for movie box-
es, dowel rods for marionettes
Furniture construction, printing activities
For carving; construction
Bodies for figures, handles
For printing, designs, necklaces, and
Printing; Christmas tree ornaments
Pools for sandtable
Hallowe'en masks; containers for chil-
Batik work, decorative candles
Ornaments, bean-bag filler
Substitute for cotton (boil io minutes and
dry in sun). Use for paddings, fillings,
Glass window panes
Kleenex, toilet tissue
Small scrub brush or tooth brush
White shoe polish
Coffee cans with lids
Vaseline or Cup Grease
Scrap materials (buttons, yarn,
felt, fabrics, milk bottle
wires, feathers, etc.)
Hook rug base; scenery
Crayon etching, melted wax painting
Put adhesive tape around edges and use
Table coverings for painting, clay model-
Use for brush
Erasing charcoal and colored chalk
For screen (by stretching over cigar box
or larger box)
To scatter paint by scraping stick or tongue
depressor over bristles
Tint with vegetable coloring and use for
paint (spatter paint)
For storage of individual clay modeling
to keep material damp; bottom of can
may be used as modeling wheel
Home made paste and finger paint (see
For last layer of paper mache. Paint will
take well on this.
To keep paper mache from sticking to
Base for paper mache animals and figures
Decorations for paper mache, puppets,
Modeling, grass for table construction
unit (see recipe)
Sago Palm fronds
Palmetto Palm fronds
Yarn scraps, string, twine
Old leather purses
Old felt hats
Cold cream jars
Cardboard boxes, cereal boxes
Simple loom for weaving; paper sculp-
ture; drawing board
Linoleum block printing tool, clay model-
ing tool; for stick puppets
As base to model puppet head
Color and use for sand painting
Felt projects; printing pad; bottom of
Individual paste jars
In place of thumb tacks
Decoration, color study, designs, cut work
Construction, storage, files, stage sets,
VISUAL MATERIALS AID ART TEACHING?
* The use of motion picture films in the art education program de-
serves consideration due to the great possibilities that they present
for effectively illustrating principles and practices of creative art.
* However, it should be borne in mind that the showing of the film
should be preceded by discussion and suggestions as to what to
observe. It is further suggested that the films be discussed after
having been viewed, for the purpose of revealing observation, in
addition to reinforcing the principles and practices presented.
* Two of the free films listed by the Educators Progress Service,
Randolph, Wisconsin, are:
How Young America Paints
This film describes some of the various media children use in
Workshops of Old Mexico
A review of Mexican art showing creativity as well as use.
* The following film may be rented or purchased from the addresses
Fiddle De Dee
Illustrated Film Bureau, 1500 N. Michigan Avenue, Chicago,
Illinois. A short four-minute film, but colorful. It can be effec-
tively used to stimulate creative expression. Children enjoy
Learning Through Cooperative Planning
Teachers' College, Columbia University, New York
An excellent film that shows the possibilities that exist in a
classroom for cooperative planning, with a view before and
after of the attitudes and practices of pupils.
Learning to Understand Children, Parts i and z
McGraw Hill Publishing Company, New York
An excellent demonstration of the use of art as an approach to
the solution of the problem of adolescents. This film could be
shown in faculty groups as well as P.T.A. meetings.
The Loon's Necklace
The Encyclopedia Britannica Films, Inc.
32-3 East Roxboro Road, Atlanta, Georgia
This is a unique and interesting showing of masks.
* Additional sources of motion pictures, with suggestion that these
sources be contacted for information about services that they provide:
Cooperative Film Library
General Extension Division
University of Florida
65 East South Water Street
Devoe and Reynolds Company
34 Olive Street
Newark, New Jersey
Eastman Classroom Films
Rochester, New York
Encyclopedia Britannica Films
1150 Wilmette Avenue
University of Georgia Film Library
140 Nassau Street
New York, New York
Metropolitan Museum of Art
Museum Extension Division
Fifth Avenue and 8znd Street
New York, New York (Films for teaching art
Museum of Modern Art Film Library
ii West 53rd Street
New York, New York
Ringling Museum of Art
Teaching Films Custodians, Inc.
25 West 43rd Street
New York, New York (Non-current "spots")
Young America Films
Florida School Book Depository
84 Jacksonville, Florida
FLORIDA ART CENTERS AND MUSEUMS
* Art Centers and Museums in Florida Offering Permanent
and Changing Art Exhibits
Manatee County Art
Florida West Coast Art
Center and School
University of Florida
Riverside at Lomax
Lakeland Florida Southern College
Lake Worth Strait Museum
Lake Worth, Florida
Miami University of Miami
Bayfront Park Audito-
Friends of Contempo-
rary Art in Miami
77th St. and Boulevard
Terry Art School
zIi West Flagler Street
Sarasota Sarasota Art Center
Ringling Art Museum
St. Petersburg Art Club of St. Peters-
zoi Beach Drive, North
St. Petersburg, Florida
Florida State University
Florida State University
Tampa Art Museum
University of Tampa
Gallery of Tampa Art
and School of Art
West Palm Beach
Winter Park, Florida
FOR THE CLASS ROOM
There is a need for a better understanding of what is good art.
This can best be obtained by showing good examples. It is there-
fore recommended that art teachers be allowed to select and pur-
chase fifteen or twenty prints per year ranging in price from fifty
cents to one dollar per print. Reproductions can also be bought in
larger sizes varying from $3.00 to $15.oo each. Following is a list
of suggested prints.
Sunflowers With Yellow Background Van Gogh
The Bridge Van Gogh
The White Horse Gauguin
Two Deer Marc
Red Horses Marc
Blue Horses Marc
By the Seashore Renoir
Portrait of a Young Girl Renoir
Mother and Child Rivera
Indian Girl Rivera
Flower Vendor Rivera
The Gourmet Picasso
The Sleeping Gypsy Rousseau
The Poet's Bouquet Rousseau
The Wild Horses Chirico
The Dream Ride Glackens
Beach at Amisquam Glackens
The King Rouault
Vase of Flowers Cezanne
Les Regales a Deauville Dufy
Regatta of Deauville Dufy
Chateau and Horses Dufy
The Flute Player Manet
Other recommended painters are:
Fra Angelica Walch
Klee Winslow Homer
SOURCES OF PRINTS AND SLIDES
American Library of Color Slides
2.2 West 23rd Street, New York, N.Y.
Artex Prints, Inc.
Art Extension Press, Westport, Conn.
(Post card size)
Colored Slides Cooperative
40 East 52nd Street, New York, N.Y.
Metropolitan Museum of Art
Fifth Ave. and 8znd St., New York, N.Y.
(Post Card Size)
Museum of Modern Art
ii West 53rd St., New York i9, N.Y.
(Large, small, and post card sizes)
Dr. Konrad Prothmann
7 Soper Avenue
Baldwin, L.I., N.Y.
The National Gallery
Philadelphia Museum of Art
Parkway at 26th Street
New York Graphic Society
10 West 33rd Street, New York i, N.Y.
i. Regional exhibits of children's work are circulated throughout a
group of counties each year. Representative work of this group
is exhibited at F.E.A. each year. See your local district art chair-
man of the F.E.A. If unknown, write to:
Mrs. Jean O. Mitchell
P. K. Yonge School
2. General Extension Service
University of Florida
For children's work from throughout the state.
3. Museum of Modern Art
Museum Extension Division
New York City, New York
Prints, mounts, lending collections, and loan objects are made
available. Write for information.
4. See local Junior Red Cross for information concerning exchange
of International Children's Art.
5. The Cooperative Arts Department
New York, New York
For plates, portfolios and units of work.
6. Colonial Art Company
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma
Exhibits of old and contemporary masters sent to schools, on
plan of purchasing pictures for classrooms and schools from ad-