Back Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Understanding the problem
 Suggestions for the teacher

Group Title: Florida Program for the Improvement of Schools bulletin ; no. 7
Title: Suggestions for teaching the effects of narcotics and stimulants
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00080918/00001
 Material Information
Title: Suggestions for teaching the effects of narcotics and stimulants condensation of a master's thesis presented to Florida Southern College
Series Title: Florida Program for the Improvement of Schools bulletin
Physical Description: 45 p. : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Permenter, John A
Florida -- State Dept. of Education
Publisher: State Dept. of Education
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: [1939]
Subject: Alcoholism -- Study and teaching -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Drug abuse -- Study and teaching -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Statement of Responsibility: by John Permenter.
General Note: "A supplement to part V of Bulletin no. 4, Plans for Florida's School Health Program."
General Note: "November 1939."
Funding: Bulletin (Florida. Program for the Improvement of Schools) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00080918
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001630103
oclc - 23954381
notis - AHQ4870


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Table of Contents
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page i
    Table of Contents
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Understanding the problem
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Suggestions for the teacher
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
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Full Text



Suggestions for Teaching the Effects of

Narcotics and Stimulants

Condensation of a Master's Thesis
Presented to
Florida Southern College


Florida Program for

Improvement of Schools


A Supplement to Part V of Bulletin No. 4, Plans
for Florida's School Health Program



Tallahassee, Florida

COLIN ENGLISH, Superintendent

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The Challenge .

The Problem in General

The Educational Problem


Time Allotment and Relationship to Other Subjects

Balanced Program .

Graded Program .

Age Level and Ability of Student .

The Right Approach .

Objectives .

Activities-Projects .

Evaluation .


A Bibliography on the Alcohol Problem .

Nucleus for an Alcohol Reference Library .

A Library Shelf of Books, Pamphlets and Leaflets

Annotated Reference List for Alcohol Education

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Florida teachers and parents can have no higher aim than to aid our
young people in building character, and no single evidence of character is
more significant than temperance in all things. It is hoped that this bulle-
tin, prepared with the idea that it might be of assistance to teachers in
dealing with the difficult problems involved in creating a proper regard
for the useful as well as harmful effects of stimulants and narcotics, will
be of material assistance in this character building.
Our appreciation is extended to Mr. John Permenter, who, while advanc-
ing his own professional standing, has at the same time directed his efforts
toward the preparation of materials which contribute directly to the Florida
Program for Improvement of Schools. We also wish to thank the Wom-
an's Christian Temperance Union of Florida whose financial assistance
made the preparation of this bulletin possible.

State Superintendent of Public Instruction

1ii 34


This bulletin offers to Florida teachers a plan for including instruction
in the effects of narcotics and stimulants in the school curriculum. Nar-
cotic education begins with the narrow, exact scientific phase, and from that
point it gradually spreads and branches out to include a field as broad and
as complicated as life itself, and presenting just as many stimulating, in-
termingling problems.
This material was prepared at the request of the Florida State Depart-
ment of Education and contains suggestions regarding one phase of the
broad program for health as outlined in "Plans for Florida's School Health
Program," which is Bulletin No. Four in the series of bulletins dealing
with the Florida Program for Improvement of Schools.
There was quite a bit of research work connected with the problem, and
an attempt has been made to synthesize various approaches and procedures.
The hope is that the material will prove practical for administrators and
One of the areas of health subject matter listed in Part V of Bulletin
No. Four referred to above is "Stimulants and Narcotics." Bulletin Four
indicates the form which supplementary materials should have and
the organization of this bulletin has followed the suggested plan.
Since beverage alcohol constitutes the major narcotic problem of the
United States and the world today, most emphasis has been given to this
phase. Very little attention has been given specifically to the so-called
"heavy" narcotics, but most of the suggestions given here are broad enough
for their inclusion. We realize that our efforts can no more than dent the
surface of the whole great problem of stimulants and narcotics.
Source materials are indicated at the end for the use of teachers and
students who seek to discover details and answers to specific problems, as
well as the more general essential facts needed for building a course of study
on the subject.


Part One

Understanding the Problem

The Challenge
Modern civilization surrounds us with a bewildering multitude of dilem-
mas, confusions, contradictions, and paradoxes.
Americans want the good life as well as the good things of life. We
seek perfection constantly and are impatient with delays or with the state
of being resigned to things as they are. We believe in quick action and
cure-alls. We theorize a great deal about "seeing life whole," but in practice
we invariably compartmentalize it for our personal convenience.
We like to drink-at least some-but we do not like the ultimate personal,
social, or economic effects and consequences of drinking. We compromise
by ignoring these disagreeable and painful effects on the one hand, and
passing a law for the teaching of narcotic education on the other-and then
have the gall to be proud of our cleverness.
In the old days, with the horrors of the saloon vividly in our minds, we
attacked the liquor problem with zeal and emotion, but with very little
scientific knowledge. And when that assault failed to create a new world
we tossed it impatiently over-board, lock, stock, and barrel. And today we
are back again with a "scientific attack," and are just as confident and sure
that we have a cure-all and permanent weapon that will solve all our
But the truth is that science alone can no more completely solve the
problem of alcohol and other narcotics than could the old-time emotionalism.
Scientific knowledge concerning every part and working of the motor does
not necessarily keep the mechanic from killing himself, or others, with the
automobile. The doctor who knows most in the realm of scientific knowledge
about the effects of narcotics on the human organism may drink himself to
death at forty.
In the approach to the narcotic and stimulant problem and to our
hopes of a final settlement, we owe much to science' and the objective, exact
methods with which it has solved and is solving some of the toughest specific
problems of this great issue. However, an educational program is truly so
only as it elicits a response on the part of those who take part in it; only as
it gives rise to a desirable change in thought or feeling or action; only as it
contributes in a positive and constructive way to clarity of understanding,
to discrimination in judgment, to an enhanced appreciation of worthy values.
Therefore, if we depend entirely upon science alone, and disregard deeper
and unpredictable personal and personality factors, we are in danger of
being destroyed by the machine which we have created too well.
In its report, Implications of Social-Economic Goals for Education, the
Committee on Social-Economic Goals of America of the National Education
Association, has this to say on the subject of Alcohol Education:1
SImplications of Social-Economic Goals for Education (Washington: National Edu-
cation Association, 1937). p. 33.

The neglect of this subject in recent years now makes special
emphasis desirable. Modern scientists state that alcohol is not a
stimulant, as formerly supposed, but a narcotic which depresses the
higher centers and removes inhibitions. According to a report from
the Coroner of Cuyahoga County, Ohio (including Cleveland), of
110 fatal traffic cases tested, 45 percent showed the presence of
enough alcohol to cause intoxication in most persons. Psychologists
now see in the use of alcohol an attempt to escape from unpleasant
realities. Recent insurance data emphasize the importance of tem-
perance education. The excessive use of alcohol as a cause of
uninsurability among persons under thirty years of age applying to
one insurance company, increased 183 percent from 1932 to 1936.
The sale of alcoholic beverages is estimated to have reached almost
five billion dollars per year.
Modern advertising of intoxicating drinks is considerably more
skilful than that of pre-prohibition days. The ads are brightly
colored, and the ladies and gentlemen pictured in them are the
well-groomed kind. They may well give the impression that all
"smart people" drink. In many communities no voice is raised to
give youth the facts. While all the states have laws requiring that
the effects of alcohol be taught in the public schools, most of these
laws were originally passed between 1880 and 1890, and in only seven
states do they state that instruction must be furnished in teacher-
training schools.
The departments of education in a few states in recent years
have made a fresh approach to the problem. They include Kansas,
Louisiana, Maine, Massachusetts, Minnesota, New Hampshire, North
Carolina, and Pennsylvania. Obviously, more and better instruction
in this field is needed on the elementary, secondary, and college
Such is the challenge thrown out to the teachers of the land by the
National Education Association. This old problem with its ever recurring
and new manifestations today constitutes one of the new "frontiers of
Democracy. We quote from a recent publication of The American School
of the Air:2
We hear from many quarters that our frontiers are now closed,
that with their closing youth has lost the opportunity for venturing
into new paths and opening new territories. But clearly, if we
include other than physical (geographical) problems, this is not
true. There are still frontiers and they are as difficult, as chal-
lenging, as demanding of intelligent action.
How shall we conserve our human resources? How shall we
reduce crime? How shall we plan for the education of our nation?
These frontiers call for all of the social feeling, intelligence and zest
for action that we possess. And the essence of the democratic life
is that each of us can, in some way, have a part in exploring and
conquering our frontiers.
2 The American School of the Air, Teachers Manual and Classroom Guide, Second
Semester, January 30 to April 28, 1939 (New York: The Columbia Broadcasting System,
1939), pp. 9-10.

What equipment must we have for the conquest of these, our
new frontiers? First we must learn to know our problems and then
seek ways, with the methods of democracy, to solve them.

The Problem in General
One of the serious problems confronting civilization is that of the
prevalence of the use of narcotics. Narcotic usage, in one form or another,
is as old as the recorded history of the race and its consequences have
been woven into the proverbs and mores of every people on earth. Many
modern problems are no more than revived and disguised old problems.
Every country has its favorite narcotic or narcotics. In our own country
the manufacture, sale, and consumption of alcoholic beverages constitute
the greater part of the narcotic problem. Corradini says that beverage
alcohol is today the major narcotic problem in the world.3 It is easy to see
then why any discussion on narcotics, particularly concerning the United
States, would emphasize alcohol.
It might be well to emphasize at this point the fact that alcohol and
other narcotics have many important and necessary uses in the field of
science and industry. Many substances which can exert a narcotic or
toxic influence upon the human organism have an indispensable place in
our life when used by or at the direction of competent physicians. Over
100,000,000 gallons of commercial (denatured) alcohol are used annually
by commercial concerns in the United States alone. Commercial alcohol
may be said to constitute a "key" industry in our country. To its use
for these legitimate purposes neither science nor education objects. It is
only when the product is diverted from these useful purposes and sold as
beverage that men and women of ethically sensitive minds protest. That
protest is based upon the nature of alcohol and upon its psychological
and physical effects upon the user and the social consequences of its manu-
facture, sale, and use upon the community. On these points there is definite
and well-authenticated data in the fields of medicine, biology, physiology,
psychology, sociology, and economics.
Two facts about alcohol with reference to other narcotics seem worth
notice at this point: (1) Alcohol is the only narcotic drug, the use of which
is socially acceptable or a part of social custom, excluding tobacco, of course.
(2) Much more is known about alcohol than any other narcotic or stimulant.
Doctors, chemists, and other scientists have been experimenting, making
studies and analyses with the view of learning the facts about alcohol, for a
long time. They have discovered and authenticated much scientific infor-
mation concerning the actions, effects, manifestations, and consequences of
alcohol, inside and outside the human body, and when used in both small
and large quantities. Comparatively little scientific experimentation has
been carried out regarding other narcotics and stimulants.
This age-old problem changes very little, as we have said, but in its
aspects and manifestations, like civilization itself, it is ever changing. Within
the last decade we have seen drinking among women become widely accepted
as social custom for the first time in America. And with this change have
come inevitable concommitant social, economic, and moral issues and prob-
sRobert E. Corradini, Narcotics and Youth Today (New York: Foundation for Nar-
cotics Research and Information, Inc., 1934).

lems. The machine age too, particularly with reference to the automobile,
has added to the complexity of the problem in innumerable ways. Within
the relatively recent past the problem has been greatly intensified by the
application of modern scientific methods to the manufacture and distribution
of certain narcotics and stimulants and by the utilization of modern adver-
tising methods to stimulate their sale and use. An economic system domi-
nated by the profit motive is likely to sanctify the development of exploitative
industries and to become indifferent to the personal and social demoraliza-
tion created by the use of such a product as beverage alcohol in a highly
mechanized and closely interrelated society. The growing problems result-
ing from exploitative advertising (particularly of tobacco and alcohol) are
problems that affect young people and their future more directly than
their elders.
In attacking our problems we must have truth and understanding, both
of which are within the realm of education. We must then attack the
alcohol problem by discovering the truth about alcoholic beverages through
the natural and social sciences and permitting facts to speak for them-
selves in the conviction that truth is the most effective instrument for
the attainment of our objectives. In such a program it must be recognized
that the problem of the use of beverage alcohol, like that of other nar-
cotics, does not stand alone, either in its relation to the individual user
or to society, but is intimately related to such problems as a sense of per-
sonal inadequacy, frustration, maladjustment, poverty, disease, crime, so-
cial pressure, and the lack of normal human satisfactions along other lines.
The creation of desirable attitudes and habits of conduct with reference to
the use of narcotics is therefore to be regarded as a part of a total pro-
gram for the achievement of a social order of justice, freedom, security,
and happiness, which, after all, is the big aim of the health program and
all education in a democracy.
The Educational Problem
Narcotic education has for a long time been considered a task for the
public schools, and rightly so, for the emphasis upon education in the
nature and effects of narcotic drugs is not an innovation from the point
of view of the principles and purposes of public education. During the
past two decades educators have worked enthusiastically in the develop-
ment of a program of education in health and accident prevention. A gen-
eration ago little attention was given to these aspects of education, but
now no one questions the necessity of adequate programs designed to im-
prove the health of school children and adults, and to prevent accidents
among them. Narcotic instruction can parallel such instruction or be a
part of it. In any event, it is in direct line with other present educational
endeavors, and aims to promote the health and welfare of the American
people. The aims and ideals of present-day education in a democracy
place it in direct conflict with those elements in society which seek to
exploit human weaknesses or which degrade or destroy personality or
prevent persons from achieving their highest development.
We do not mean to imply that the public school alone can solve the
narcotic problem. It can not, and although many American still expect
miracles of the public school, regardless of whether they actively support

it or not, it should not be so expected. We do insist with Payne, "that no
ultimate solution can be attempted or attained without the inclusion of
education among the social forces involved in the control of the pro-
duction ., the manufacture, the distribution, and use of the finished
Laws, to be most effective, should follow public opinion, rather than
attempt to create public opinion. However, we must remember that pub-
lic opinion is seldom static and can move in either direction very quickly.
Therefore, the function of public education is not only to create public
opinion, but to safeguard it, to keep continually re-creating it toward desir-
able and democratic ends. Otherwise, we soon lose not only what we have
just gained but much more besides. Particularly is this true in dealing
with highly controversial matters, or with issues that are closely bound
up with rich commercial interests. History is studded with examples which
clearly illustrate these very facts.
Education then is the most fundamental weapon with which to fight
the traffic in narcotics, with which to confine them to their legitimate
and humane purposes. "In relying upon education, we are reverting to
the most fundamental factor in social control without which all other
factors will prove futile."5
The trouble with narcotic education in the past has been due to sev-
eral main factors which might be summarized thus:
1. The subject was largely unorganized.
2. Teachers were untrained in this field.
3. Instructional materials were scarce, difficult to understand, and
hard to get. Such studies, researches, and scientific experiments as there
were, were carried on for the most part by professional doctors and other
scientists who were interested only in scientific knowledge. These reports
were therefore largely dull and very technical.
4. The narcotic education legislation and program was promoted
largely by reformers whose personal zeal exceeded their knowledge.
The use of stimulants and narcotics is one of the grave problems which
confronts our society. In the solution of this problem our schools must
make provision for assuming their part of the responsibility.

*E. George Payne, The Menace of Narcotic Drugs (New York: Prentice-Hall, Inc.,
1931), pp. 232-233.
E Ibid., p. 234.

Part Two

Suggestions for the Teacher
Time Allotment and Relationship to Other Subjects
To determine the amount of time to be devoted specifically to nar-
cotic education in a separate period is an arbitrary matter dependent
upon many local factors and conditions. We do not recommend that it
be given whole-period recognition except as a part of health, science, or
other appropriate correlated subject matter.
The increasing emphasis upon health education of late years is caus-
ing teachers to become health conscious, and health instruction is being
inserted and correlated more and more with other subjects. This is par-
ticularly true on the high school level with regard to such subjects as
general science, biology, physiology, home economics, and physical educa-
tion. There is a definite and needed place for that part of the health
program which deals with stimulants and narcotics in each of the above
subjects, and such instruction may be inserted and correlated just as
easily and just as appropriately as any other phase of the health program.
Some schools are purposely avoiding definite periods for all health
education and are making use of integrated units and health activities
instead. Narcotic education would fit into any such scheme or plan and
would serve among other things to make the whole complete and well-
Many health experts as well as curriculum makers advocate that the
different phases of health education be allocated to those departments
or groups of subjects in which they can be taught to the best advantage.
The phases thus treated might then be co-ordinated and supplemented
by a health-discussion and activity period. Such a period capitalizes on
the work done in other classes and makes for a well-rounded program of
health education. In such a program the different phases of narcotic
instruction would be handled exactly as the other phases of the health
question. No program of health is well rounded without some organized
instruction in narcotics and stimulants.
Narcotic instruction touches the whole of living and because of its
importance and value it should be taught both incidentally and directly,
just as any other phase of the health program. A regular period for the
presentation of organized and progressively arranged material concerning
habits, knowledge, and attitudes is recommended.
The tendency, as stated above, is to make the health program-all of
its phases-a part of an integrated and correlated larger program. In such
a well-integrated program, for example, general science and biology units
present the scientific foundations of health and would include the scien-
tific phase of narcotic education. Home economics would include such
topics as food composition and values, sanitation, infant care, etc. In this
connection would be considered such problems as (1) Is alcohol a food?
and (2) Does alcohol consumed by the mother affect the infant before
birth? after birth? Physical education provides big-muscle activities and
here the emphasis is placed on showing the relationship between narcotics,

stimulants, etc., and athletic prowess. The social studies emphasize com-
munity health. Therefore, in such studies we can seek to discover what
the results are in communities where many persons drink or use other
narcotics, the relationship of narcotics to general community health,
crime, etc.
"A school health program should be concerned with the whole of life-
with ways of thinking, attitudes, and emotions-quite as much as with
proper habits relating to such items as food, exercise, and sleep ..
'Mental hygiene of the school child includes a study of the habit life
of the school period, an evaluation of moods and cravings, impulses and
imaginations, and play reactions and social relationships'."'
The school's responsibility for mental health, and for providing for
personality needs and adjustments, is greater than ever before. "Among
the factors which tend to bring about emotional stability for adults are
these: an effective philosophy of life, interest and satisfaction in one's
work, right use of leisure, a hobby, the feeling of belonging in a commun-
ity, and proper sex and home adjustments."' These things bring emotional
stability to the individual and enable him to keep it. And so we can say
that they are in a very real sense preventive with regard to the use of
alcohol and other narcotics. They are preventive and provide wholesome
and natural substitutes for such unnatural practices as the alcohol habit.
They protect the individual from beginning such habits and-which is more
important-from the need of turning to any such artificial, harmful ave-
nues of escape. Probably the most effective substitute of all is the will
and the ability to take part in vigorous, well-directed muscular activity.
The place of physical education thus becomes quite important. We
live in an industrial age of increasing sedentary occupations and leisure,
an age of speed-mania, an age of nervous overstimulation, particularly
in the overcrowded urban centers, an age where the natural opportunities
for play have been reduced on many levels, an age where the demand for
greater cooperation in most areas of adult life is pressing, and finally, an
age where the problem of over-fatigue has become acute. The deficien-
cies and needs and failures of such an age produce important factors
which may lead people to drink, and to the use of other narcotics. There-
fore, it is only as we succeed in providing natural opportunities for play
and wholesome substitutes for narcotics that we can hope for a real solu-
tion of the personal problems which they produce.
Many specialists argue that the decrease in outdoor life and vigorous
muscular activity is undoubtedly one of the causes for the recent increase
in deaths due to diseases of the circulatory system, kidneys, liver, and di-
gestive tract. And these same organs, if they are at all susceptible to dis-
ease, will be harmed by alcohol and tobacco in proportion to the amount
Power to resist fatigue and power to sustain effort are built through
a vigorous big-muscle-activity training program. Alcohol may temporarily
produce these results, but each time it is resorted to the natural powers
"John Kelley Norton and M. M. Norton, Foundations of Curriculum Building,
(Boston: Ginn and Company, 1936), p. 138.
7 Ibid., pp. 138-139.
8 Raymond Pearl, "Tobacco Smoking and Longevity," reprinted in The Narcotic
Review, Vol. III, No. 2 (1938), p. 1.

of resisting fatigue and sustaining effort are impaired and weakened.
The natural and healthy solution lies in big-muscle activities which have
been trained and encouraged for the sheer joy of playing, and repeated
until they become a habit. Such activities bring poise and relaxation,
rest, diversion, and release from tension. Before a pupil leaves school he
should have developed such skill and satisfaction in games and sports
such as swimming, tennis, and hiking that he will continue to participate
in them until incapacitated by old age, and he should know how to relax
and practice the rules of mental hygiene. If his education succeeds in
making him a success in these things he is unlikely to become a victim
of alcohol or of any other narcotics.
From what we have just said it is apparent that physical education
should contribute to the development of the child's total personality and
not merely to his physique. And it is apparent at the outset that bev-
erage alcohol, and to a lesser degree certain stimulants, will prevent or
interfere with the achievement of both the broad and specific aims of
physical education. The alert teacher or coach, then, will miss no op-
portunity to drive home this fact.
The most effective substitutes would seem, for a variety of reasons,
to be those involving big-muscle activities; however, any activities, mental
or physical, which lead to the development of an effective philosophy,
interest and satisfaction in one's work, right use of leisure, a wholesome
hobby, the feeling of belonging in a community, and proper sex and home
adjustments, are not to be overlooked as potential and powerful substi-
tutes for narcotics. The following are diverse possibilities for younger persons
chosen at random: student government, clubs, intra-mural sports, group
music, poetry clubs, motion pictures (selected "educational" and entertain-
ment films shown in schools), and organized activity courses, such as
journalism, photography, social customs, safety driving, first aid, modern
dancing, boys' camp cookery, art crafts, art metal work, model airplane
building, penmanship and spelling, remedial reading, library practice,
parliamentary practice, public housing, and the standard Red Cross first-
aid course.
The radio, too, has a place. Unguided, undirected listening can some-
times be worse than harmless, but school and educational broadcasts can
be meaningful for teacher as well as student and can greatly enrich the
lives of children and older persons. The teacher's opportunity is to use
the radio in the classroom and his responsibility is to help guide the lis-
tening of the pupils outside the classroom. "New interests are being de-
veloped by radio. Children are reading books because of radio dramas
they have heard. 'Hobby Lobby' has started many a youngster on a new
leisure-time activity. 'The World is Yours' has stirred the curiosity of
thousands of boys and girls and stimulated their exploration of the world
around them."'
For older youth and adults there are also many substitute possibilities.
To mention several: the establishment of semi-professional, subtechnical,
and general cultural courses such as will be made available through the
upward extension of the high school; the provision of more industrial train-
0I. Keith Tyler, "Radio's Function in Education," The Education Digest (March,
1939), p. 32.

ing and adult education (local school system in cooperation with employer
and labor groups); make schools and other public buildings and facilities
more readily available for use by adult education projects; improve library
facilities, particularly in rural areas; urge all colleges and universities to
inaugurate adult education programs appropriate to their localities; make
certain that local school guidance service and local public employment service
are given full up-to-date information regarding adult education and retrain-
ing opportunities.

Balanced Program
The philosophy upon which the health education program of the Spring-
field, Missouri, schools is based is as follows:
Health is not a subject or a special skill; it is a way of living.
Health is a way of living-mentally, emotionally, socially, and
physically-and as such cannot be taught except to a very limited
extent as a special subject, but must grow out of and be a part of
all child experiences in the school, the home, and the community.10

This ideal demands that the school environment be so arranged that it
is always possible for pupils to practice healthful living. The Springfield
committee divided the child's school day into eleven main situations that
began with "coming to school-from the time the pupil leaves home" and
ended with "activities outside the school hours for which the school assumes
some responsibility."
Those who hold that health education should consist of experiences in
healthful living are vitally concerned with all outside activities that have a
bearing on health. Courses of study built according to this approach include
not merely pupil activities for developing health habits, skills, and knowledge
but also suggestions for awakening health ideals in pupils and for instructing,
advising, and cooperating with parents. Children must be fortified with
health ideals concerning narcotics that will carry over into later life. As
with some other phases of health instruction, the carry-over ideal is one
of the big objectives of narcotic education.
Just as health is a social and economic as well as a personal and edu-
cational problem, so is the problem of narcotics. Economic depressions have
effects on nutrition of children and incidence of disease. Beverage alcohol
likewise has similar effects. Socio-economic forces have a very marked
influence upon nearly all health measures. That narcotics affect health has
been noted from the very beginning of history.
Health education faces a serious task, even among children of educated
parents, of eradicating common superstitions, misconceptions, and unfounded
beliefs concerning health. Caldwell and Lundeen" have made a study of
the curious histories of scores of these, and presented scientific evidence to
explode such common fallacies as: (a) fish provides especially good brain
food; (b) boils are caused by impure blood; (c) warts result from handling
toads; and (d) feed a cold and starve a fever. They do not neglect alcohol
either, about which there has immemorially hovered countless unfounded
0 Hershel O. Hartley, "Constructing a Health-Education Curriculum," Journal of
Health and Physical Education, 4:32-34 (September, 1933).
"0. W. Caldwell and 0. E. Lundeen, Do You Believe It? (New York: Doubleday,
Doran and Company, 1934).

beliefs, superstitions, and misconceptions of all degrees and types, even to
the present day, ranging all the way from grave scientific misconceptions to
ridiculous superstitions. For example, alcohol has long been known by
modern science to be a depressant narcotic drug. Nevertheless, it is com-
monly accepted by many persons to be a stimulant. Another common
fallacy is that alcohol is an antidote for snake poison. Such unfounded
beliefs have their roots in history. Because in the past people have derived,
or thought they derived certain benefits-temporary or permanent-from the
use of narcotics, legends have arisen which have attributed to them almost
magic powers. It is the task of the educator to uproot all superstitions and
misconceptions, and replace them with objective appeals to intelligence
and reason.
In general, one may say that only a limited amount of knowledge is
available at the present time on the points to be considered in building a
health-education course, and much of what we do know applies to specific
situations and is very limited in extent. To a degree, personal opinion must
still supplement objective evidence as to what should be included in a course
of study in health education, including all its multitudinous phases, even
that of narcotics.
Graded Program
We have discussed certain approaches which bring us face to face with
health problems which teachers and course-of-study committees should con-
sider. "'Tentative materials and activities, designed to meet these problems,
have to be selected and tried out experimentally in classrooms before a
graded course of study in health education is really achieved.""' Such a
project was carried through to completion by Turner, who, with the assist-
ance of a special supervisor of health education, tested out various health-
education procedures at Malden, Massachusetts, over a ten-year period. On
the basis of his discoveries he developed a course of study. In his book
he says:
The first task was to formulate a program of health training
and instruction with which to begin work in our experimental
classes. We first familiarized ourselves with the program of general
education in the schools and with the general health problems and
activities in the city. From a knowledge and a study of the field of
child hygiene, supplemented by an investigation of such data as were
available concerning causes of illness and death in the community, a
list of specific desirable habits, attitudes, and knowledge units was
developed. As our work progressed, it became possible to build our
health-education program systematically from the first grade."3
In using such an approach to a course of study and a graded program
the units developed would deal with all phases of health. There should be
units having to do with stimulants and narcotics on all grade levels; or such
instruction could be correlated with other units all along the line without
having any specific mention made of it in big titles or headings. However,
this instruction cannot be successfully and satisfactorily taught unless the

Norton and Norton, op. cit., p. 135.
3 C. E. Turner, Principles of Health Education (New York: D. C. Heath and Com-
pany, 1932), p. 48.

materials of instruction have been carefully gathered and organized; this is
true at the outset whether it is correlated with other subjects, integrated
into large units, or taught as a special subject.
There seems to be as much confusion and as many differences of
opinion concerning a graded program of narcotic education among teachers
as there are over the most heated of educational issues. Confused personal
opinions, conflicting theories, and ignorance about the subject have natur-
ally produced a great deal of confusing and confused practice, and in a
vast number of instances, no practice at all.
The scientific phase of alcohol education furnishes a sound foundation
upon which to build a complete and satisfactory graded program of instruc-
tion from the first grade through the college-a foundation of objective,
unemotional facts, a foundation of sustaining interest.
In the primary grades the children are led by their teacher's conversa-
tional questions to state the things they know "here and now" about the
problem. For example, "Accidents in Our Community" is a sure fire starting
point, even for first graders. Next through what has been observed con-
cerning drinking, children are led into activities and simple experiments
which show what alcohol is and what it does. Eye appeal is added to ear
appeal when there is something to see, something taking place. Children
learn that plants drink by performing certain simple experiments with celery,
red ink, and alcohol. They also see what the alcohol does to the celery.
They also study the effects of diluted alcohol on growing plants and germi-
nating seeds. Later they compare the effects (actions?) of alcohol and
water on bread and on meat. The children bring their own containers and
As pupils pass on into the intermediate grades they make other experi-
ments with water and alcohol on common substances. They learn of the
great value of alcohol in industry and business and the reasons for its value.
They come to know that alcohol is alcohol because of its two characteristic
and unchanging actions: (1) that of a solvent, dissolving what water will
not, and (2) that of a dehydrant; and they know what those actions are
because they have seen them take place. All the while they are learning
by doing and by seeing. They learn again that the chemical actions of a
product never change and that alcohol always has the same actions or
effects, but different manifestations. "Scientific observances of the human
body have shown that, even in the greatly diluted form in which, in the
blood stream, it comes in contact with the nerves and tissues, these two
qualities of alcohol are chiefly responsible for the effects on the body.""
The story of the elementary program is almost told. It requires very
little time during any single year and can be correlated quite easily with
such subjects as science, safety, character education; or, of course, it can
be taught as a part of the health program. Some health, character, or
science stories which emphasize the stimulant and narcotic point-of-view
should be used. A few such good ones are available. An occasional drama-
tization or "radio program" makes for a good climax and is helpful from
the interest, habit, and attitude angles. Such ventures should be planned
and presented entirely by the children, if possible.
Bertha Rachel Palmer, A Syllabus in Alcohol Education, Fifth Edition (Evanston,'
Illinois: The National W. C. T. U. Publishing House, September, 1937), p. 19.

This sort of thing should be carried on throughout the elementary
grades. Repetitions in the various grades of what they had last year or
even the year before are desirable and will be welcomed by the youngsters as
"reviews." Just a little more material and something different is added
each year, but not a great deal is needed.
This kind of program, tried out in various types of schools and under a
variety of conditions, has been found to be effective. With this sort of an
elementary school foundation we find the pupils ready for and eager to
tackle the deeper issues back of the problem before they are well out of
junior high school. Instead of dogmatic "preaching," they have had an
objective, scientific introduction to the subject, and they are eager to pry
deeper into it; they are ready for the "appeal to reason."
The high school graded program, then, as has been intimated, is given
over to a consideration of the social and economic, which are built logically
upon the scientific, and supplemented and unified by the historical phases
which, as history goes, is as old and as fascinating as the best. Such material
naturally falls into the field of the social studies. But health itself is a
"social study," and most health material on the high school level is largely
a consideration of the social and economic phases of the subject. This is
not vastly important, however, for the narcotic education program for this
level can readily be correlated and integrated in various ways.
But we must not forget the status quo. Mention should be made at
this point of the high school program as it is. Without the previous ele-
mentary instruction on the scientific phase the high school program is more
difficult and complicated. The social and economic phases are the important
part of this period of training, but without the scientific bases, there tends
to be a lack of interest and an attitude of non-concern. Social consciousness
is lacking or only luke warm. Because of the confusion in the public mind,
the student tends to consider the whole problem as controversial and a
matter of different personal opinions. In this fact lies the real value of the
scientific basis, which proves to all what alcohol does. Therefore, the graded
program for such high schools should include a thorough scientific back-
ground of the problem. Most modern high school science texts give at least
a hint of this phase, and some review of it is desirable, regardless of what
the child's previous training has been.
There are a variety of related techniques, procedures, and possible activi-
ties for presenting the problems of stimulants and narcotics to students of
high school age. Some of them will be discussed in some detail as this theme
is developed.

Age Level and Ability of Student
When shall health instruction begin? "Before the child is born" is the
answer given by those who stress relation of pre-natal care to structure of
various organs. The Children's Charter says:
For every child from birth through adolescence, promotion of
health, including health instruction and a health program, whole-
scme physical and mental recreation, with teachers and leaders
adequately trained."
'5 Norton and Norton, op. cit., p. 117.

The prevailing practice is to put most emphasis upon correct health
habits and skills in the kindergarten and first grades, with decreasing but
repeated emphasis throughout the elementary grades. Health behavior
rather than health knowledge is stressed in these grades, and as the child
grows older he is given facts relative to his personal habits, since to be
effective these must ultimately be rationalized.
There is a great deal of confusion as to when narcotic and stimulant
instruction should begin, a wide difference of opinion as to what phase of
the instruction should be included and omitted at the various age-levels.
This is, of course, of vital importance in dealing with any so-called "subject
matter." There must always be some attempt at differentiation to fit indi-
vidual pupil needs. The health education course should be built for the
particular group that is to use it, since growth rather than rigid standard-
ization, is important. Some differentiation may even still be important. The
teacher should begin "by discovering the present health status of pupils and
the corresponding health-education needs of each individual pupil as shown
by his habits, attitudes, and knowledge."

The chief sources of data" are (a) findings of school physi-
cian's examination of each pupil, (b) information given by the pupil
and his parents, (c) health knowledge tests, (d) daily observation
and check of pupil's personal habits, and (e) the use of the conver-
sational, question method in the classroom on such points as: food
habits; physical activities; sleep and rest habits; use of fresh air and
sunshine; habits of elimination; habits of cleanliness; emotional
responses; and attitudes toward others in the group and toward the
daily problems of living-social and psychological aspects of health.
A health-education program to meet the needs of an individual
pupil should be based on a knowledge of his present health habits
and be adapted to his mental level and home background."

At a recent convention of The American Association of School Adminis-
trators of the National Education Association the author questioned a score
of teachers and school administrators, picked at random, concerning the
problem of the grade level at which alcohol education should begin. The
majority answered that such instruction should begin in the junior high
school. A few others believed that it should begin at about fourth grade level.
We sometimes attempt to avoid our responsibilities by assuming that
certain instruction is above the age level and understanding of the pupils.
The tendency, particularly in the early elementary or foundation grades,
seems to be to disregard many of the deeper issues of the health problem,
such as racial hygiene, mental and nervous hygiene, narcotic education,
degenerative diseases, and use of professional health service. Curriculum
makers and teachers quite often do so on the grounds that the children
can not understand such problems or do not have the vocabulary for dis-
cussing such complicated matters. The greater truth would seem to be that
large numbers of our primary school population need such instruction exactly
because they are faced with such problems in the home, or the neighborhood,

'6 Jay B. Nash (editor), Physiological Health (New York: A. S. Barnes and Company,
1933), Chapters XX-XXII.
17 Norton and Norton, op. cit., pp. 145-146.

or through friends or relatives. To be sure, the tots in the first and second
grades are not faced with individual drink problems, but if they have any
knowledge of drinking or drunkenness, they are faced with a problem that
the school should begin to do something about at the earliest possible date.
Learning is not spasmodic, but is a gradual, developmental process, and the
early years of a child's life are most impressionable. In deciding what to
teach and where to begin the teacher needs only to find out what the children
know, what their problems are, and begin at that point. The best way of
organizing alcohol education materials and activities is around situations
with which pupils are now face to face. From there it is a natural and
gradual step to what they will be likely to meet.
As to the problem of lack of vocabulary, this need not be a problem
at all, if we start with what the child knows, or has heard or seen. All we
need to do is to use the conversational approach and lead the child to present
and formulate the problem himself. In other words, the children will furnish
the vocabulary themselves if we give them half a chance, by always starting
with what they know, or where they are "here and now."
The elementary teacher will feel an added responsibility toward attack-
ing such difficult problems as alcohol if he considers the high percentage of
elementary pupils who drop out of school all along the line. For one reason
or another, many of them do not get as far as junior high school. Only
half of our adults over 21 years of age have had more than an eighth-grade
To put the matter another way, elementary health activities that offer
opportunity for acquiring health habits, attitudes, skills, and knowledge
about such things as washing hands after lunch period and after going to
the toilet, caring for pets, listening to stories, taking walks, and dramatizing
-as important as these undoubtedly are-are not sufficient; at least
they are insufficient in the eyes of those who are "imbued with the belief
that it is the duty of education to exercise a more dynamic role in influencing
the advance of civilization toward desirable goals."'
Narcotic education on the secondary-age level is concerned primarily
with the social and economic aspects of the problem. However, such a pro-
gram must be based squarely upon the scientific phase, which furnishes a
foundation and carry-over interest into the more involved phases that are
considered on the secondary level. This point will be discussed more fully
inder another head.
Narcotic education is based on these principles:
1. Begin with what the class knows on this subject and proceed in an
orderly manner to what they should know.
2. Approach the understanding through the eye as well as the ear.
3. Be impersonal and positive; that is, avoid negative, dogmatic, and
irritating words and phrases.
4. Appeal to reason and intelligence rather than emotion.
5. Lead members of class to state conclusions in their own words.
The basic, underlying principle for the study of the effects of alcohol is
that the chemical actions, as solvent and dehydrant, of absolute alcohol
(discovered in simple experiments), which make it of use in industry, are

Is Ibid., p. 56.

the same which, when diluted (to 4 per cent), impair growth of seeds and
plants, and, when disguised (in drinks), are chiefly responsible for the
psychological and physiological effects in the human organism.
With this simple approach to the whole subject and with these basic
principles upon which to build, much experimenting has been carried on in
various public schools in all parts of the country. The program finally
worked out has proven itself practical, attractive to teachers and pupils alike,
and acceptable by curriculum committees. A fuller explanation of what that
program is may be discovered in the thread of thought and the philosophy
which runs through this entire work.
For inclusion here we have worked out a short outline for the narcotic
education program in which has been indicated a practical, psychological
progression from primary to college levels, with suggestions of how to carry
out and get desirable results from such a program. The outline and sug-
gestions are based on a consideration of (1) the aim, (2) the approach, (3) the
experience level of the pupils, and (4) directed activities and projects which
have been successfully used. These considerations have been used for each
of the several levels from primary to college, and the outline is followed with
suggestions for teachers' colleges and teacher training programs. The anno-
tated reference list which is included as a part of this outline will be found
on pages 52-55. It should be remembered that any such outline or suggestions
are to be considered only as such and not as a definite hard-and-fast pro-
gram. General and specific suggestions are offered to aid teachers in working
out their individual plans, and for that purpose only. The outline follows:


To build per-
sonal attitudes
and habits in
regard to what
to eat and

Experience Level Approach

That drinking Through
milk, fresh fruit informa-
juices and water tion gained
"'is good for by observa-
you." Drinking tion and
beer and wine experience
makes you in environ-
"sick," "talk ment of
silly," "yell," home and
"want to fight," elsewhere.
"crazy," "have
These result be-
cause the
drinker "can't
hear good,"
"'can't see
good," "can't
think straight

Directed Activities

To be correlated with science,
safety, health, number s.
language, drama, character.

Experiments with celery, red
ink, alcohol; growing plants,
germinating seeds; oil, bread.

References See Annotated
Reference List.

Experience Level Approach

To the above
add new pro-
visions to meet
new experi-
ences in ex-
panding en-

Junior High-

Intelligent and
reasonable at-
titudes for, and
habits of per-
sonal absti-
nence from al-
cohol, other
narcotics, and
all harmful
substances of
human con-

To the above is
added informa-
tion from in-
formal talks
insurance man,
business man,
traffic captain,
factory mana-
airplane pilot,
athletic coach,
food expert, etc.

Reading, radio
and motion pic-
tures expand
experience and
raise questions
to which ac-
curate and sat-
isfying answers
must be found.

As particular
information is
personal ra-
tionalization of
the right kind
should result,
based on ex-
planned and
developed to
meet the grow-
ing under-
standing of the

With the
offer op-
to make
use of ad-
and experi-
ences in
ment, in-

"Why do
"Does it do
for them
what they
think it

and values
of passing
and perma-
nent satis-

Simple experiments: (1)
comparing chemical actions
of absolute alcohol and pure
water on common organic
substances (oil, resin, meat,
sugar, etc.) show solvent
and dehydrating actions
which make it valuable in
industry; (2) diluted (to 4
per cent), on living tissue,
shows interference with de-
velopment of living plants
and germinating seeds; (3)
reports of laboratory experi-
ments with alcohol disguised
(in beer, wine, etc.) indicate
these two (previously ob-
served) actions are chiefly
responsible for its psycho-
logical and physiological ac-
tions in the human body.

References- See list men-
tioned above.

Studies from printed reports
of findings of professional
laboratory experiments; or-
ganized interviews and con-
ferences; oral and written
reports of materials fur-
nished by insurance com-
panies, safety councils, po-
lice and hospital records.

Directed Activities

Aim Experience Level Approach
Senior High and College-

Directed Activities

To above add:
To achieve so-
cial conscious-
ness based on
an intelligent
of the nature
and actions of
narcotics on
human be-
havior and re-
lationships in
home and

During this
period, the stu-
dent should be-
come able to
make intelli-
gent personal
decisions which
are the basis
for building
into social and
civic conduct
the ideals of a
democratic way
of life consist-
ent with the
highest well-
being for all
the people.

Considera- Above activities continued
tion of and enlarged: application of
(1) the psy-these scientific findings to
chological the deeper social and
motivation broader economic implica-
back of tions and issues as they re-
satisfac- late to and affect life in our
tions seem- democracy.
ingly at-
tained from The study of the influ-
emotional ences of drink and other
releases narcotics as they are re-
secured corded and implicated in the
through pages of history and mir-
the use of rored in the literature of all
narcotics nations. S u c h influences
and stimu- may be readily traced
plants; through Greek and Roman
(2) whole- classics, the traditions and
some and superstitions of medieval
socially ef- writings and folklore, and in
fective sub- the forces of present every-
stitutes day life as reflected in the
which re- newspapers, and in narrative
suit in and personal histories of
natural and such holocausts as the Chi-
healthful cago fire and the World
mental and War.
recreation. The findings from the above
should culminate in a uni-
fied presentation of debates,
themes and essays, plays
and pageants and, most of
all, specific programs for
bettering unwholesome and
costly social and civic com-
munity conditions.

Suggestions for Teacher Colleges and Teacher Training Schools

Teachers tend to teach as they were taught. In order to meet the
requirements for teachers in the several states, some definite program must
be included in all teacher-training institutions.
The above suggested outline is purposely flexible and adapts itself
readily to various correlations and integration. At the same time, learning
and grade levels are observed in the interest of completeness, organization
and psychological progression. Likewise this outline suggests practical

projects or units of work in how and what to teach in narcotic education.
Such a project or unit may well be included in any of several required courses
for all teachers such as physical education, natural or social sciences, and
English. The outline also suggests certain specific points of value to be
included in courses on methods, principles, and philosophy of education.
This outline could well be the basis of various projects or units of work
within the realm of the natural or social sciences. Embryo teachers are fre-
quently called upon to prepare and present just such units. We must not
overlook the possibilities and practical values of utilizing such a suggested
program, by the college instructors, teachers in training, and the pupils,
in the work of the practice school. Such a project would be a definite step
toward fulfilling the spirit of the state laws without additional expenditure
in program time or faculty personnel, and would provide definite contribu-
tions to experimental learning and teaching.
The Right Approach
Health education, along with sanitary measures and control of con-
tagious diseases, has already had a share in lengthening the average span
of human life. We are, however, in this as in other programs, far from
fulfilling our greatest capacities. Men and women should live longer than
they do today.
What the lengthening of human life means to social well-being
in dollars and cents has been estimated in billions of dollars, but
this saving is only a small part of the good resulting from increas-
ing the span of human life. In the United States more than a mil-
lion men and women over twenty years of age, and more or less
trained, die each year. Hence a large part of the annual educa-
tional effort has to go to "replacement education." Each year added
to an individual's life expectancy would mean that, once he is train-
ed, he would have so much longer in which to use his training, to
profit by experience, and to contribute ideas and labor for the social
well-being. One gets a new vision of the productivity of health
education when he contemplates the tremendous contribution that
each generation could make if it had even one more year of life
that was trained, experienced, healthy, and socially productive."

That the continual use of alcohol over a period of years, even in "mod-
erate amounts," is likely to have deleterious effects and thus affect length
of life, is a scientific fact based on well-authenticated data. Tobacco also
should be considered in this connection. Dr. Henry C. Link has this to
say in a recent issue of the Reader's Digest: "From the recent studies of
Dr. Raymond Pearl at Johns Hopkins, we know that tobacco smokers do
not live as long as non-smokers.""
Most children of high school age will probably not be interested in this
type of appeal concerning the tobacco habit. When one is in the teens
he is not usually interested very much in adding a year or two to his life
span. On the other hand the very facts of tobacco and length of life are
of vital importance to the school, to democracy, and to our posterity. As
19Ibid., pp. 113-114.
20 Henry C. Link, "So You're Going to Stop Smoking?", Your Life, as condensed in
Reader's Digest (August, 1938), p. 18.

Dr. Pearl's studies and the studies of those scientists who follow him bear
out the more indefinite findings of the earlier researchers so will the
educational responsibility of the school in dealing with the tobacco prob-
lem become more vital and pressing. We will have to find approaches
to our educational problems that will appeal, whether they be problems
of narcotics, vocational adjustment, or social relationship.
Approach Through Common Basic Needs
Deaths in the age group 45-64 are due primarily to functional
disorders of the heart, lungs, liver, kidneys, and stomach. These
vital organs, essential to life and well-being, depend upon big-muscle
activity. The industrial age involves special strains which are re-
flected in the death rates of persons in middle life. The preventive
are reduction in infection, such as scarlet fever, common in earlier
years of life, and a better balance between work, play, and rest,
more big-muscle activities through sports and games, and more time
spent out of doors.21
It is common medical knowledge that the continual use of alcohol as a
beverage causes functional disorders to susceptible vital organs.2 If the
organs are not susceptible the alcohol may produce no noticeable tissue
changes when taken in small amounts, even over a long period of years.
However, in this case, the "special strains of the industrial age" would
probably likewise produce no noticeable physical effects on these organs.
Therefore, it seems logical to conclude that the reduction of consumption
of alcoholic beverages would rightfully belong in the above list of "pre-
ventives" of death in this age-group. (No consideration is given in this
connection to the almost immediate psychological effects of alcohol.)
Discovery of the most prevalent diseases through analysis of
mortality and morbidity statistics is only the first step in select-
ing health-education content and activities. The second is in ana-
lyzing and summarizing the causes of each of the major diseases.
For example, for heart disease, which according to the Bureau of
Census, heads the list of causes of mortality,23 Cairns listed general
infection, faulty habits of living, and congenital defects as the chief
causes. Similarly, a review of the literature relative to causes, pre-
vention, and reduction of cancer and other prevalent diseases will
lead to the selection of additional items of instruction. Such items
should include information concerning alcohol and general infection,
the effects of alcohol on habits of living, alcohol and congenital de-
fects, and the relationship that alcohol may have to the causes,
prevention, and reduction of cancer and other prevalent diseases.
The fact that certain diseases are associated with particular
age groups should be taken into consideration in developing health
service and health-education programs. Dublin points out that the
enormous waste due to preventable illness and premature death is
to a great extent an educational problem."2
21 Norton and Norton, op. cit., p. 123.
22Haven Emerson (editor), Alcohol and Man (New York: The Macmillan Company,
2 Cairns, Mortality Statistics-1932 (Washington: Bureau of the Census, 1935).
24Louis I. Dublin and A. J. Lotka, The Money Value of a Man (New York: The
Ronald Press Company, 1930), p. 120.

If these things are educational problems then certainly we should feel
responsible for discovering such studies and experiments that have been
made by reputable scientists as to the relationship of alcohol to prevent-
able illness and premature death. Such reports and studies are available,
if limited. The fact that additional scientific studies and experiments
would make the evidence more conclusive does not mean that we should
by any means disregard the well-authenticated scientific data already at
our disposal.
The Committee on the Cost of Medical Care" reported that on
any average day of the year about 2 per cent of the working popu-
lation of the United States are disabled by illness. Seven to nine
days per year, on an average, are lost by male workers, and approxi-
mately eight to twelve day per year by females ....
Cairn's analysis showed that the diseases causing the greatest
amount of sickness are those of the respiratory tract (such as colds,
bronchitis, tonsilitis, sore throat, and pneumonia), digestive disturb-
ances, nervous diseases, headache, rheumatism, dysmenorrhea, dis-
eases of the skin, the communicable diseases of childhood, and tu-
berculosis. To aid in the prevention and reduction of these ailments,
as well as those which are the chief causes of mortality, Cairns lists
the following outline of general health knowledge: structure and
functions of the body; epidemiology; personal hygiene; mental and
physical defects; race hygiene, including heredity and eugenics;
maternal hygiene, and infant care; organic welfare, including both
mental and physical welfare; and accident prevention.2"
In relation to our problem specific narcotic knowledge and understand-
ing should be a part of and arise from the above general knowledge.
For example, an attempt should be made to discover what relationship,
if any, existed between drinking and loss of working days by both men and
women. Does alcohol enter into the story of those diseases which cause
the greatest amount of sickness, and if so to what extent? What is the
connection between alcohol and disease?
One of the techniques used in constructing a health course of study
is to formulate a list of vital health problems through 'the method of analy-
sis, using the judgment of specialists, literature, and statistics as a basis
from which to summarize health needs. "One analysis2 of twenty-four
different sources, which had as its purpose the formulation of a list of
health problems useful as a basis for curriculum construction, yielded one
hundred and sixteen groups of problems, classified under the following
ten headings: Racial hygiene, personal hygiene, mental and nervous hy-
giene, degenerative diseases, control of infection, community hygiene, use
of professional health service, temperance education, safety education, and
interpretative materials.""s Under each of these divisions were scores of
subtopics, a number of which had to do with some aspect of the great
problem of narcotics and stimulants. "Only in a general way can frequen-
25 Alden B. Mills, The Extent of Illness and of Physical and Mental Defects Prevailing
in the United States (Washington: The Committee on the Cost of Medical Care,
1929), p. 5.
2 Norton and Norton, op. cit., p. 126.
27Marion O. Lerrigo, Health-Problem Sources (New York: Bureau of Publications,
Teachers College, Columbia University, 1926).
28 Norton and Norton, op. cit., pp. 126-127.

cy of mention be taken as indicative of the relative importance of the health
problems discovered through such an analysis." It must also be remem-
bered that each of these problems and sub-problems is related to each
other and to the whole field of health, which, as has been pointed out
previously, is in turn related intricately with the great mystery of life.
Our task is to seek to discover precise and influencing relationships that
stimulants and narcotics have to these problems. This is one way to say
that the problem of narcotics in education is primarily one of correla-
tion and integration.

Approach Through Interest
There should be recognition that the basic physiological needs and
health drives can be capitalized for health education through proper en-
vironment as well as teaching emphasis. However, sight must not be lost
of children's immediate interests. Although health as an end in itself may
have very little interest for children or adults, both have interests which
are closely associated with health, or even contingent upon it. Young and
old get joy from play and games. Vocational success brings satisfaction.
The girl desires to be beautiful and the boy strong. These are interests
which the health instructor cannot afford to overlook. From childhood
to adulthood keeping in condition for worthwhile ends is one of the drives
that should be made use of in establishing health habits. It will help, as
few things can, to bridge the chasm that frequently exists between knowl-
edge and conduct in health education. This is, of course, one of the big
objectives of all narcotic instruction, and probably no phase of the health
program can be used more naturally and effectively for such motivating
Too much self-consciousness about health should be avoided as it en-
dangers true interest and sound motivation. Sufficient consciousness of
health to aid one in making intelligent choices in new situations is a happy
medium. The teacher's interpretation of any phase of the health pro-
gram can make health a bugaboo or a factor in joyous living for the indi-
vidual and for the group.
A number of studies and analyses of activities and interests of chil-
dren and adults have been made. Turner's2' investigation is an example
of this approach. He includes the following among children's incentives
in health education: desire to grow; desire for approval from one's social
group; interest in personal appearance; desire to participate in sports
and in playground and gymnastic activities; desire to win in competition;
desire to earn membership and improve standing in Boy Scouts, Girl Scouts,
and similar organizations; desire to improve in athletic events.
Every one of the above personal interests of children can be utilized
in a variety of ways in the promotion and development of health habits
and attitudes in regard to the use of tobacco and alcohol, as well, of course,
as other health ideals. Records of spontaneous questions about health,
asked by children and collected by teachers, are also used as an interest
basis for the selection of various health content and activities.

2 C. E. Turner, "Incentives and Interests in Health," Journal of Education, 110: 37-38
(July 8, 1929).

At least one negative factor should be given consideration here. Edger-
ton says:

Undoubted progress has been made in interesting boys and girls
in personal development. Advancement in habits of cleanliness and
pride in appearance are increasingly apparent. There is no ques-
tion that the adolescent shows desire for, and increased attainment
of, a more beautiful, efficient body machine."2

The negative interest approach to be made use of here in regard to
alcohol particularly, is the appearance of the drinker. Stress should be
laid upon the fact that he usually appears foolish, silly, simple, weak-
willed, confused, and untidy to those who see him. In real life he does
not get social approval. Sometimes we pity him, or even abhor his con-
duct. The boy or girl of high school age is extremely sensitive to this
point of view, if it is properly presented.
Possibly the effort to interest pupils in more healthful living has re-
sulted in over-emphasis on self, to the neglect of consideration of health
problems that influence others. As we become interested in others, in the
community, we develop social-consciousness. The more we are helped to
practice the art of becoming socially conscious, the more we become inter-
ested in the welfare of others.
One of the most commonly known ethical facts concerning the use
of narcotics is that it tends to destroy social-conscioushess in the indi-
vidual. The consequences of his acts are quite often visited upon others,
as a direct result of this loss of social-consciousness.
Self-centered behavior is instinctive, but since all individuals do not
behave selfishly, we know that it is possible to condition behavior. We
should start with and utilize personal interests as motivating forces for
healthful living. Upon that foundation we should attempt to build broader,
unselfish interests-interests outside ourselves.

If the child is going to develop the ideal of protecting the well-
fare of all, ultimately every opportunity should be grasped to turn
his attention from "me" to "we."5'

Approach Through Local Needs-Indigenous Home Problems

The health problems of one community usually have much in com-
mon with those of another; therefore as a starting point for making a
course of study for a specific situation, we can well make use of a "tabu-
lation of topics as to frequency of mention in selected 'best' courses and
recent textbooks on health education." Of course differences in com-
munities necessitate modification of any such general map of values in
accordance with local needs. From topics found in selected textbooks on
health education, selections can be made on the following bases suggested
by Strang.82

o Avis E. Edgerton, "Social Consciousness-A Major Objective of Health Education,"
The Education Digest (March, 1938), p. 15. (Reprinted from Elementary School Journal.)
3 Ibid., p. 15.
2 Ruth Strang, Subject Matter in Health Education (New York: Bureau of Publica-
tions, Teachers College, Columbia University, 1927).

1. Teacher's judgment of the importance of certain topics for
a particular group of pupils "here and now" and in adult life.
2. Deficiencies revealed by the health examination of pupils.
3. Questionnaires answered by children concerning their health
4. Tests of pupils' health knowledge.
5. Questionnaires answered by representative adults of the
community concerning their health status and problems.

Important health problems of a particular group of pupils may
be obtained from these five sources. Statements from selected
health-education courses help in suggesting ways of acting, feel-
ing, and thinking which will solve these problems. Topics thus
tentatively selected must then be evaluated by teachers in terms
of the interests and capacities (of their pupils); and, finally, school
activities are selected in which the problems can most oppor-
tunely be introduced.

This approach seems appropriate and pertinent for getting at the heart
of the individual problems that are born of tobacco and narcotics.

Local health needs can also be discovered by analyzing school rec-
ords; by information contributed by parents, pupils, teachers, public
health nurses; and by community records. The questionnaire method is fre-
quently used to obtain facts about children's health, health problems, and
surroundings. From such information aid will be derived for building a
practical course in health for the particular group. This has been done
in many cities. The answers to the questionnaire prove helpful by indi-
cating what phases of hygiene and what health problems to stress. The
questionnaire (when used on the secondary level) should naturally con-
tain some questions relating to the personal, social, and economic phases
of the problems created by the production, distribution, and use of stimu-
lants and narcotics.
Perhaps the use of a specific questionnaire on stimulants and narcotics
will be of much value in determining health needs along these lines; this is
in addition to the general health questionnaire, which will usually contain
some such questions. It is important to discover what the youth in the
schools actually know about stimulants and narcotics and to discover fur-
ther their attitudes relating to these drugs and their problems. High
school students will usually be found to possess very little accurate infor-
mation about certain narcotics. Naturally, such specific information is
invaluable to the teacher in planning her work. One such questionnaire
or test was constructed as follows:

At the top of the first sheet, in large letters, are these words:
"Do not sign your name." Then follows a brief note of explanation
addressed to the student and specific directions for answering the
questions in the test. The student is asked to write one important
fact about each item under consideration, and also to express an
opinion; one column of the test provides spaces for telling where
he obtained his information or how he formed his opinion. Not all

of the items in the test pertain to narcotics. A few items pertain-
ing to foods, stimulants, etc., are included to provide a basis for
comparing knowledge of these substances with knowledge of

It is interesting and of value to notice the specific sources from which
the students get their information about narcotics. In one such survey,
out of 242 of the sources specifically mentioned, newspapers were men-
tioned most frequently. Then follow in order of frequency: the dentist,
books and pamphlets, magazines, school sources, the home, the physician,
experience with users, movies, drug store or druggist, using or experiment-
ing with drug, lecture, radio, and nurses. Such information is challeng-
ing to the curriculum maker and to the teacher.

If it appears that students are learning outside of school vague
half truths about all or most of the narcotics, with accompanying
attitudes either neutral or very weakly positive, and that the smaller
number of truths learned in school are of decidedly higher quality,
then we might have one additional basis for advocating more defi-
nite instruction in school. It might then be said, "The information
will be obtained by these students in an inadequate and often inju-
rious way, injurious because of indefinite nature. Let the school do
the job right and see that these vague and therefore potentially
harmful impressions become specific, entirely accurate, and very
positive in attitude value.""'
Ascertaining health needs of pupils in each grade is only one
step in the development of a course of study in health education.
The next steps include (a) listing the habits, knowledge, and atti-
tudes necessary to meet these needs, and (b) suggesting some of the
school situations in which this subject matter may be taught most

A safety program is essentially a neighborhood or local program, aris-
ing out of local conditions and problems. The big problem of alcohol and
accidents will be considered further on, but a word here about the local
problem of safety. The first step in building a safety program is to make
a survey of local conditions.

Analyses of children's activities involving the practice of safety
at home and at school, on the street and on the playground, togeth-
er with analyses of available material in books, magazines, and
statistical reports, are the best approaches to the selection of safety-
education materials and activities. One investigator3 in build-
ing up in an analytic way a course in safety education to fit the
actual needs of a particular community, (a) gathered data as to
the extent to which safety education is already a part of the ele-

33 E. George Payne, The Menace of Narcotic Drugs (New York: Prentice-Hall, Inc.,
1931), p. 247.
3s Thos. D. Wood and Ruth Strang, "The Making of a Course of Study for a Specific
Situation," Teachers College Record, 27:224-247 (November, 1925).
"Ruth Streitz, Safety Education in the Elementary School, A Technique for De-
veloping Subject Matter (New York: National Bureau of Casualty and Surety Under-
writers, 1926).

mentary-school program, (b) analyzed statistical reports showing
the type and frequency of classified accidents and the need for safety
education, and (c) studied specific circumstances peculiar to the
school situation for which the safety-education program was being
developed. This included not only a survey of the neighborhood
but also a survey of pupil experiences concerning accidents which
had happened to the pupils from the fourth grade to the eighth.
A map was made of the school district, showing where accidents
occurred. It was found that the greatest.number happened from
three to six in the afternoon. The things which children were most
commonly doing when vehicular accidents occurred were crossing
not at crossing, or at crossing, playing games in roadway, running
off sidewalk into street, and stealing rides on vehicles. To meet
the needs revealed by these analyses and surveys, units of safety
education were drawn from materials found in courses of study
and textbooks in general science, civics, and home economics."
Such a program of safety could well be spread out over all grades.
Every child of public school age has some knowledge of accidents and the
terror of them. Units of safety could be worked out in every grade, start-
ing in each grade with what they know. The units would range from very
simple facts and materials in the primary grades, all the way to the com-
plicated social and economic consequences, in the senior high school.
Since alcohol is a big cause of accidents, alcohol education could be
brought into the picture naturally and without difficulty right in the first
grade, and likewise be carried straight through, going from the simple to
the more complex, from the immediate consequences to the far-reaching.
Approach Through an Understanding of the Relationship to the Seven
Cardinal Principles:

1. Health. "Every interest of the State whether economic, social, or
moral is dependent upon the health of its people." Comment: Does not
the problem of narcotics and stimulants influence the health of the people,
both directly and indirectly, and so affect the economic, social and moral
welfare of all the people?
2. Command of Fundamental Processes. "... He must be able to per-
form with speed and accuracy those computations incident to the activi-
ties of his life." Comment: What do tests show about the effects of the
use of alcohol in large and small amounts on both speed and accuracy in
the performing of both mental and physical activities?
3. Vocational Efficiency. ". .. This fact requires that our public schools
give some place in their program to the training for vocational efficiency .."
Comment: How far do persons who drink get in applying for positions with
railroad companies, bus and truck lines, air transport companies, or even
such work as operating machinery in factories, etc.?
4. Citizenship. "Good citizenship depends upon both the ability and
the willingness of the individual to adjust himself to the demands which
society and the world make upon him." Comment: If the use of narcotics
7 Norton and Norton, op. cit., pp. 141-142.

S'. .." -.. -'*;"

is an admission of poor adjustment, has it not been proved to be a highly
artificial, passing, dangerous and harmful attempt to become better
5. Worthy Home Membership. "The tendency toward the disintegra-
tion of the American home demands that our public schools give some
direct attention in their programs to strengthening those habits and pro-
moting those activities which will make for better home life. Cooperation,
loyalty, thrift, health, child care, etc., are essential parts of the programs
of our present day public schools." Comment: Is there a connection be-
tween the present tendency toward the disintegration of the American home
and the recently grown customs of "cocktail parties" and drinking in the
home? What are the effects of the new social custom which permits
women to drink with men, inside and outside the home?
6. Worthy Use of Leisure. "With the increasing amount of leisure
there is demand for training our citizens to spend worthily the increasing
amounts of time at their disposal for play, recreation, and enjoyment ..
enjoyment of good literature, music, art, right social relationships, worth-
while hobbies, and wholesome amusements." Comment: Is the use of nar-
cotics a worthy use of leisure, or does it develop in the individual or the
group any one of the desirable growths that is produced through the wor-
thy use of leisure?
7. Ethical Character. "A democracy is largely dependent upon the
high moral tone of its citizens." Comment: Has the use of alcohol or other
narcotics ever been known to improve the moral tone of individuals or of
groups? Does not every generation record the case histories of literally
thousands of individuals whose moral tone was impaired and degraded
through the use of narcotics? Is not the challenge to the school and to
modern democratic education plainer than ever? How shall we meet that


One of our first statements was this: "Nothing which would tend to
break down the general aims of education or to achieve aims which are not
incorporated in the general aims should be included in the program of
health education." We then stated that that phase of health which dealt
with stimulants and narcotics must naturally meet this acid test. In other
words, any and all specific objectives, regardless of the subject-branch, must
not in any way break down the general aims of education or achieve ends
which are not incorporated in those general aims.
It is only natural that some of the aims of narcotic education are
plainly and simply general aims of education, others plainly the aims
of health instruction. Some concern character building and social-con-
sciousness, and others deal with the more specific objectives and principles
of narcotic instruction. Palmer in A Syllabus in Alcohol Education3" divides
the objectives in "Teaching Objectives" and "Pupil Outcomes," the lat-
ter being subdivided into Knowledges, Attitudes, and Habits. The follow-
ing is taken directly from A Syllabus in Alcohol Education:

Bertha Rachel Palmer, op. cit.

... ." .... ... .....
-- ..
.. .. ,. -
*.,, '" ^ '*** f

Teaching Objectives
1. To promote personal health and fine character.
2. To insure community health, welfare, and progress.
3. To present practical scientific information on the subject of alco-
holic drinks.
4. To impress children and young people with the seriousness of the
drinking problem.
5. To undo the impression that drinking is clever, for the nature of
alcohol makes true cleverness impossible.
6. To inform, equip, and fortify young persons so that they will
intelligently avoid alcoholic drinks of all kinds.
7. To provide an educated public that will support state and national
education programs and effective legislation.
8. To provide an influence that will spread from the classroom to
the home, that will discourage the use of patent medicines and home-
brewed drinks used because of tradition or the impression that they are

Pupil Outcomes
1. Knowledges: that beer, ale, cider, wine, brandy, gin, rum, and whis-
key are part alcohol; that a very little alcohol in water put on a growing
plant very soon interferes with its growth and development; that bread,
meat, egg and other substances will harden in alcohol; that oil, gum, resin,
the color and scent-materials in leaves and flowers, dissolve in alcohol;
that alcohol is of great value OUTSIDE but not INSIDE the body; that
as a BEVERAGE it affects the nervous system and never aids bodily func-
tions; that alcohol is a habit-forming drug, and that the first drink is
so seldom the last; that while some people seem to use it with no apparent
harm, no one tested has been found to be more skillful, or to do more or
better work, after taking it, and untold thousands have been ruined by
it in every generation; that because of individual differences and different
conditions people are affected by it in widely different ways; of physiology
and hygiene, and of the ways in which alcohol does or may injure the
mind and body; of the reasons for, and the history of, the age-long fight
against alcoholism; of the influence of financial interests, drinking cus-
toms, and traditions, and of the deceptive effects of alcohol itself upon the
drinker; of the causes of temptation especially among young people; of some
of the great scientists and how they reached the conclusions regarding the
effects of alcohol; of what wise men and great leaders have said from their
observations and experiences with alcohol.
2. Attitudes: desire to do only those things to make one strong and
dependable in body, clear in mind; desire to eat and drink only those things
which build and strengthen the body and mind; desire to EARN success
by habits of skill, good judgment, thoughtfulness; desire to keep fit by avoid-
ing dangerous or degrading acts, as well as by cultivating positive behavior;
a healthy ambition for leadership toward higher ideals and a better way of
doing things.
3. Habits of: refusing drinks, powders, candies, given away on the
streets; refusing unfamiliar drinks at soda fountains or elsewhere; reading
the printed labels on bottles or packages; consulting a reputable physi-

cian about ailments; refusing things of a questionable nature; refusing to
commit acts of questionable nature; refusing to do questionable things be-
cause others do them; making an individual choice based upon what is
believed to be right.
Although the above considerations were formulated for alcohol edu-
cation still many of the objectives may be readily applied to the teaching
of other narcotic, and stimulant material. For another consideration of the
objectives of general narcotic education we turn to those of Robinson who
has written a Syllabus in Narcotic Education." Her eleven listed objectives
1. To promote personal health and welfare.
2. To insure community health and welfare and progress.
3. To insure through the education of individuals a body of sentiment
that will help in solution of the narcotic drug problem.
4. To present sane information, developed from a scientific basis, on
the subject of narcotics.
5. To impress upon young people the seriousness and the reality of the
problem of narcotic drugs.
6. To undo the impression on the popular mind made by the stories
of achievement of persons under the influence of narcotic drugs.
7. To inform the normal young person so that he will intelligently
avoid contact with narcotic drugs.
8. To equip the supernormal young person so that he will intelligently
help in the crusade against narcotic drugs.
9. To fortify the sub-normal young person against the perils of con-
tact with narcotics.
10. To provide an educational stratum upon which to erect the struc-
ture of anti-narcotic legislation.
11. To provide an influence that will extend from the school to the
home and help abolish the self-medication tendencies of American fami-
lies, such as quieting the baby with soothing syrup, putting the child to
sleep with paregoric and like compounds.
Robinson then goes ahead to suggest cumulative scales of attainment
for the different grades, based partly, as she tells us, upon Thomas Wood's
book Health Behavior. These scales are based on habits, attitudes, and
knowledge to be gained progressively at each grade-level from the primary
through senior high school. At each succeeding level those habits, attitudes,
and knowledge of the preceding level or levels are to be reviewed and
retained. Both the lists of Palmer and of Robinson should be given careful
consideration by those who are planning a program of narcotic instruction.
In addition to the rather complete compilations of the objectives of nar-
cotic instruction contained in the above lists, certain other factors seem
worth consideration in view of some recent scientific findings in regard to
narcotics, as well as some recent curriculum developments in our changing
social order.
One such consideration concerns advertising, commercial propaganda,
and industrial pressure groups-in general and in particular. One important
objective of narcotic instruction on the secondary and college level should
8 Gertrude Robinson, Revised Syllabus in Narcotic Education (Los Angeles: Inter-
national Narcotic Education Association, Inc., 1936).

be to teach students how to detect and analyze propaganda so as to be able
to understand it and judge it intelligently for what it is. Those who sell
tobacco and alcoholic drinks, and the habits of using their products to the
general public, are among the worst offenders in this entire category.
Narcotic education should also aim at promoting a general understand-
ing among young and old concerning the latest findings relative to the
results and effects of small amounts of alcohol: small amounts and accidents'
small amounts and bodily functions (the nervous system); small amounts and
over-confidence. And directly in connection with this is the objective of
promoting an understanding of the importance and value of the recently
developed scientific tests for intoxication and the illuminating facts these
tests have brought to light concerning alcohol and the drinking (rather than
the drunk) driver."
Other specific objectives might be mentioned, some of which naturally
more or less overlap with some already referred to, but which throw addi-
tional light upon the matter. Such objectives are:
To promote an understanding of the psychological problem of nar-
cotic usage-particularly alcohol-without disregarding the nature of nar-
cotics, and to promote habits, attitudes, and ideals which will help to solve
the problem.
To promote the understanding that because of individual differences
and different conditions persons are affected by alcohol in widely differ-
ent ways, but that when proportionately equal amounts of alcohol are
concentrated in the blood streams of different persons each is then equally
removed from his normal condition, and this regardless of the different
ways in which the alcohol manifests itself.
To make studies and discover findings of the latest scientific experi-
ments with tobacco and caffeine and to understand the results of these
findings and the relation that the use of such products has with general
health, length of life, digestion, pre-natal well being, and vicious mechan-
ical habit formation.
To build attitudes and habits of right living; wholesome, active recre-
ation; and stimulating, creative hobbies.
To promote an understanding of the significance of the fact that "the
student who emerges from the grade school, high school or college without
the intelligent conviction that he is the creator of his habits, rather than
their victim, is educated for defeat rather than power, for slavery rather
than for freedom.""

Dorothy F. Osburn, a science teacher in a California junior high school,
in working out an experiment course for teaching narcotic education, form-
ulated and carried out a number of interesting and enlightening activity-

40 Committee on Tests for Intoxication, 1938 Report (Chicago: National Safety Coun-
Henry C. Link, op. cit., p. 20.

projects for the use of her pupils. She points out that there are a num-
ber of ways to set the stage without the teacher even expressing an opin-
ion on the matter. Several of her suggested activities follow:

1. One plan begins with a "Search for Facts" for and against
the use of alcohol and other narcotics. If possible, reserve the
school library for class use during the period. Merely ask the stu-
dents to hunt for facts, regardless of which side the fact may sup-
port, and arrange these facts in this manner:

Facts in favor of the use of Facts against the use of
alcohol and other narcotics alcohol and other narcotics
a. a.
b. b.

Emphasize the necessity of noticing who wrote the books or
sources from which facts are quoted in order to judge their validity.
Ask the students to state the source of information after each fact
Interest grows as one column fills more rapidly than the other
and plenty of discussion will be ready when the "hunt" is over and
the time comes in class to express ideas.
2. Another activity leads out of a study of all substances likely
to be harmful to the human body, including poisons, patent medi-
cines, stimulants, and narcotics. Students soon discover the limi-
tations of the Pure Food and Drug Act and readily see that one
cannot believe all that is said or printed or pictured in advertise-
ments designed to sell any product. They also learn that one dan-
gerous aspect of patent medicines is their alcohol or other narcotic
content. This naturally leads to discussion as to why those are
harmful and makes the student willing and eager to learn more
facts about all narcotics.
3. Still another plan utilizes a "Trial by Jury" in which a court
room situation is set up, with a judge, prosecuting and defense
attorneys, bailiff, court secretary to record results, etc., and the
whole plan is made as lifelike as possible. The case on the docket
in "Science versus Narcotics" and every student is to be a detec-
tive in search of evidence. Preliminary discussion usually brings
out many charges against alcohol or some other member of the
narcotics family which need to be either proved or disproved, and
one or more "detectives" are assigned (by choice or chance) to
search out the evidence on each "count." Typical charges are:
a. That alcohol is often involved in traffic accidents.
b. That alcohol is a narcotic.
c. That alcohol hinders athletic achievements.
d. That alcohol ruins judgment and lessens reasoning power.
It is urged that police departments, safety councils, insurance
companies, athletic coaches, physicians, railroad officials, employers
of skilled labor, etc., be asked to assist in supplying material and
information to be used in answering the charges against alcohol and
other narcotics. This is to be in addition to that contained in text-

books and other printed sources of authentic information. Use as
wide a variety of textbooks as possible. Invite special members
or experts from the police department to speak to the class con-
cerning the "heavy" narcotics or special phases of the problem.
When the search for evidence is over, the trial begins and the
"detectives" report their evidence (in visual form whenever possible),
"attorneys" examine and cross-examine the witnesses, the "court
secretary" records the point made, and finally the whole class, by
secret ballot, decides the charges upon which alcohol and the other
narcotics are found "guilty."
4. Make a study of the whole field of accident prevention and
first aid. Begin to prepare several weeks in advance by asking
students to watch the newspapers and clip all items referring to
accidents. Post these on the bulletin board and let them accumu-
late, without comment, until you are ready to begin the study of
accidents and their social significance. Then, taking the record
for whatever it happens to be at that time, let the class list the
common causes of these accidents and have them suggest a set of
rules by which these tragedies might have been prevented. Some-
times it is interesting and profitable to have the class construct a
"Safety First Alphabet" with a safety slogan for every letter in the
Of course, many of the accidents will be listed as due to alcohol
as the primary cause, but now try to determine fairly in what ways
alcohol might have been responsible for part of the other acci-
dents which have occurred during the period of observation. In or-
der to do this it is necessary to study the ways in which alcohol
affects man both mentally and physically, and so the subject of
alcohol is introduced in a normal way.
Show slides, available from the Visual Center, based upon the
book, "What About Alcohol?""2 Use whatever textbooks are available.
Ask the local safety council and insurance companies to furnish
speakers who will discuss the causes and results of traffic injuries
which maim or disable for life, as these have a great economic sig-
nificance. The National Safety Council, and the State Motor Ve-
hicle Department, local safety councils and commissions, Travelers
Insurance Company, and local police departments will be able to
furnish information concerning total traffic accident figures as well
as the number known to have involved the use of alcohol. The
yearly booklets issued by the Travelers Insurance Company are es-
pecially interesting and practical as sources of information concern-
ing the whole traffic accident problem. The results of many surveys
are also available.
An interesting and worthwhile sidelight on the subject may be
developed from the first aid angle, as the use of alcohol internally is
"taboo" in any first aid treatment. In order to see the accident
problem through the eyes of a real "First Aider," ask the director

4' Emil Bogen and L. W. S. Hisey, What About Alcohol? (Los Angeles: Angelus Press.

of the local Y. M. C. A. or a Red Cross officer to speak to your
class or to give a First Aid Demonstration. He has a wide range
of first aid experience and will make clear the things to do and
not to do in connection with accidents.
As a climax to the study of alcohol and other narcotics, it is
vital to let the students express their conviction by means of de-
bates, panel discussions, and short plays, as well as by preparing
slides, cartoons, or posters on the subject.
5. Since alcohol and other narcotics are a social danger it is
possible to make or use still other methods of approach in the
various social studies classes. The question of social progress,
legislation, international relations, crime, safety, poverty, and wor-
thy home membership all present points of contact with the nar-
cotics problem. Use every available authentic source of current
information possible in order to let the students see that it is not a
static problem. Learn what other countries are doing; progress
especially worthy of note is being made in Mexico, Germany,
Russia, France, England, Japan, Turkey, and Italy. After a study
of the problem, allow students to present their views either by writ-
ing "editorials" or by drawing cartoons to illustrate an editorial
page. Debates are also useful in crystallizing student opinion.

As a unit or project a class can make a study of the nature of alcohol
and its effects upon the individual and upon society. The class may be
divided into committees or groups and each group can make a careful
study of scientific reports concerning a particular phase, which it is to
put into condensed, written form and also given to the class in the form
of oral reports. Suggested subjects for individual committees may include:
(1) the nature and actions of alcohol, (2) the place of alcohol in industry
and science, (3) its effect upon cell structure, (4) its effect upon the brain
and nervous system, (5) its psychological effects, (6) its social effects,
(7) the part its beverage use plays in the revenue structure of the com-
munity, the state, and the nation, and (8) its relation to crime and other
social maladjustments. The facts discovered by these committees can
form the ground-work or foundation upon which other reports can be
based and a broader program of education and activities developed. Spe-
cial reports and special books should be consulted, as well as textbooks
on hygiene, social sciences, biology, chemistry, psychology, and the like.
Getting deeper into the subject, the advanced high school or college
class can embark upon the difficult task of ascertaining the problems
and needs arising from the sale of beverage alcohol in the community.
A specific activity in this connection might be to discover the number of
boys, girls and young women who are employed in places where liquor
is sold or who through the conditions of their employment are compelled
to handle or sell alcoholic beverages and to compare this number with other
places and with other times (prohibition and pre-prohibition days). The
class might make a study to determine to what extent social pressure op-
erates upon people in the matter of drinking. From what source does
such pressure come?-clubs, fraternities, lodges, social gatherings, busi-
ness demands, or what?

Various other studies and surveys can be conducted in the effort to
determine the effects of alcoholic beverages upon the community. Among
the lines of investigation which might be undertaken are the following:'"
... .Additional problems will doubtless be discovered growing
out of local conditions and needs. The following paragraphs call
for a wide variety of information that can be obtained with a little
effort, in any community. For a copy of the state liquor law one
can write the secretary of state. A list of license holders in the
community, together with information concerning sales, tax reve-
nue, and other data, can be secured from the liquor control com-
mission or from the county clerk. Police, crime, and traffic statis-
tics can be had from the police department. Statistics covering
disease and other health matters can be gotten from the local or
other health offices. Certain types of information will have to be
secured by observation and interviews.
Such a project-activity program as here outlined is challenging to
the school and to modern education that will not remain blind to the
"dangerous" issues.
(1) A study of the state or provincial liquor law or laws and
analysis of its provisions. What type of liquor law does the area
have? License? State control commission? State monopoly?
What rights do local communities have with reference to control of
liquor selling within their boundaries? Does the community have
the right of local option? What regulations govern the sale of li-
quor, especially with reference to location, hours of sale, sale to
minors, sale to intoxicated persons, the use of music, entertainment,
etc.? (The Indiana liquor law, for instance, provides for an "im-
porter" in each senatorial district and a beer "wholesaler" for each
county.) What are the probable purposes of such unusual pro-
visions? (Note the possibilities of the Indiana law with reference
to the control of the state senate and house of representatives.)
(2) A listing of the liquor licenses held in the community
according to name of holder, type of license, and location. If the
government monopoly or dispensary system is in effect, find out the
total monthly sales. Make a spot map of the liquor selling places
of the community. Where are they most prevalent? What sec-
tions of the community are most affected? Business? Residential?
Slum? Where license is held in the name of a corporation, secure
names of principal stockholders. (Well-known citizens sometimes
hide their connection with the liquor business under corporate
devices.) How much revenue accrues to the local, area, and national
governments from the consumption of liquor in the community?
What is the probable total expenditure for liquor by the communi-
ty? What is the probable total cost to the community of the sale
of liquor, excluding increased crime and disease costs?
(3) A study of the police and crime records of the community.
How many arrests were made for drunkenness during the past year?
3 The Local Church and the Liquor Problem (Chicago: The International Council
of Religious Education, 1938), pp. 11-14.

From what section of the community do most of them come? Do
the names and locations suggest any connection between the use
of liquor and unwholesome social conditions, lack of income, lack
of socially desirable alternatives? How do the records compare with
records of the prohibition era? Are the types of offenses those com-
monly associated with the use of liquor? (Drunkenness, assault and
battery, fighting, manslaughter, and so-called "crimes of passion,"
such as offenses against women and children, criminal assault,
and murder.)
(4) A study of traffic violations for the past year. What
number or percentage of cases are of a type that are likely to ac-
company the use of liquor? (Many offenses charged simply as
"speeding," "failure to stop at red light," "leaving the scene of an
accident," "driving on the wrong side of the road," etc., are due to
the driver's being more or less under the influence of liquor.)
(5) A study of traffic deaths during the past year. How many
fatalities involved the use of liquor on the part of the driver? How
many deaths were due to the use of liquor by pedestrians? (Fatali-
ties to pedestrians in the streets or caused by walking into the side
or path of a moving car may be due to drinking.) Care should be
exercised not to draw conclusions from unverified data. Not all
traffic accidents are due to the use of liquor, though some authori-
ties believe that liquor is present in a very large percentage of the
(6) Liquor-caused or liquor-associated diseases in the com-
munity. Among such diseases are acute alcoholism, alcoholic insan-
ity, cirrhosis of the liver, Bright's disease, syphilis, etc. At this point
the advice of a competent physician should be sought.
(7) The situation with reference to law enforcement. Are
liquor licenses refused persons with records of conviction or of
known bad repute? Are regulations (both local and state) govern-
ing location, character of place, hours of sale, sale to minors and
intoxicated persons, etc., observed and enforced? What is the gen-
eral character of taverns and drinking places in the community?
(Write for reports of Chicago Juvenile Protective Association for
types found in one metropolitan area.)
(8) Bootlegging in the community. What efforts are made
to curb the practice? What penalties do the courts inflict? Are
sentences served?
(9) Substitutes in the community for the social features that
are to be found in taverns and drinking places. Are there places
where young people can congregate for sandwiches, soft drinks,
dancing and a general "good time" free from the presence of li-
quor? Is liquor generally served at young people's social functions
in the community? Is the "cocktail hour" a social institution in
the so-called "best" homes of the community? If so, what effect
does this have on efforts toward alcohol education?

Harry H. Porter. "Handling the Drunken Driver-The Modern Method," address at
Art Center. Evanston, Illinois, February 24. 1938.

(10) The attitude manifested by civic organizations, clubs,
luncheon groups and the like, toward the use of liquor. Consult
Parent-Teacher Associations, leaders of women's clubs, leaders of
business and professional organizations, etc., to learn what the prac-
tice is at functions sponsored by these groups.
(11) Interviews with superintendents of schools, teachers,
trustees, family welfare agencies and the like to learn how liquor-
selling has affected children.
(12) The extent, if any, to which the business of making and
selling liquor enters into the economic life of the community. Is
there a brewery or distillery in the community? Are there types
of business that cater to the liquor trade in a secondary capacity,
such as the manufacture of glass bottles, patent bottle-caps, bar
fixtures, refrigerators, etc.?
(13) Protective influences at work in the community.
In the homes, to what extent do parents accept responsibility for
training their children against the use of alcohol? Are brewer-
and distiller-sponsored radio programs popular in the community?
Is the serving of liquor in the home widely practiced in the com-
munity? (Care should be taken to avoid giving personal offense
in answering this question. General facts are called for, rather
than attempting to catalog individuals or families.) What protec-
tive influences are at work in the schools, the churches, and through
temperance groups?
Such an involved project as outlined above may be pursued in a num-
ber of ways. It might be started in the junior year and carried out during a
two-year period until graduation. Or it may be divided among two or
more classes or sections of a class and completed in a month or two.
... Reports should be carefully prepared, with special regard
for maintaining an unprejudiced, objective, factual point of view.
Data contained in the reports should be carefully studied and eval-
uated by the group. Eliminate all statements which do not have
substantial group support. Avoid all extreme statements. The pur-
pose of the project is to furnish facts. The needs revealed should
be carefully noted. If the studies show, for instance, that a large
number of young people frequent taverns and drinking places and
that facilities for wholesome recreation and association are limited
in the community, these facts seem to indicate a possible line of
action for the group. High ratios of drunkenness, crime, traffic
accidents, and fatalities, etc., suggest needs to be met. The number
of class periods or other meetings of the group or groups to analyze
the studies and plan a program of education and action will de-
pend to a large extent upon the amount of accurate data secured,
the care with which it is studied, and the type of program which
conditions seem to require.
The reports, together with all data gathered, should be carefully
filed away for future reference. Statements may be called in ques-
tion, figures challenged, or more detailed information demanded.
If properly classified, the reports and their supporting data ought to

be valuable source material for the school and for the community
at large. In cases where community action develops, this material
will form the basis for further study.
Throughout this bulletin we have tried to emphasize the objectives of
education, of health instruction, and more particularly, that phase of health
having to do with narcotic instruction; and to show that all instruction
should lead to the realization of these goals. There are always at least
two reasons why the teacher should know how nearly the outcomes of in-
struction fulfill the objectives or reasons for an evaluation program. The
first has to do with remedial instruction and the relationship of future
instruction to present achievement. In the second place, a measuring
program helps the teacher evaluate her materials and methods, and thus
to improve her instruction from experience.
Measurements of outcomes are inadequate at best, but the teacher
must use them, and if she is wise and careful how she uses them, she can
secure valuable help for teaching. The four general types of tests are:
standard, essay type tests, new-type tests, and observational tests. Each
type has advantages peculiar to itself and occasions arise in most teaching
for the use of all types. With the great stress that is being placed on ob-
jective knowledge and facts in the teaching of narcotics, it would seem
that tests are of great importance. We know of no standard tests concern-
ing narcotics at the present time; however the need is apparent. At the
present time we will have to depend upon the other types of testing, par-
ticularly the essay and observational kind.
In any attempt to evaluate the outcomes of a social science subject
such as narcotic education there must be consideration of the capacities
for leadership, creative work, and of those elements of personality which
control habits and attitudes. The most satisfactory method of evaluat-
ing such abstract ideas and ideals is through use of the observational tests
in the class room, in group projects, in the halls, on the grounds, and in
all situations in which there is a possibility of such qualities being dis-
played. "A careful check should be made of all school work and activi-
ties of the pupils in order to ascertain the various forms and quality of
creative effort which is finding expression through these outlets. In this
manner these traits which can not be measured by educational tests, but
which are vital outcomes of the social studies can be evaluated." (See the
Florida Elementary Course of Study.)
The real and important test of the effectiveness of narcotic education,
like the final test of all education, comes during the period after the stu-
dent has left his school days behind. The progress of our civilization to-
ward the ideal of the good life is the great objective that should become
the final outcome.

Part Three


Scientific Social Economic Historic
Bastedo, W. A.: Materia Medica (1934), W. B. Saunders Co., ed. 3, 1932..$ 6.50
Bogen, E., and Hisey, L. W. S.: What About Alcohol? (1934), Angelus
Press, Los Angeles, California ................ ..... ............... ....................... 1.50
Burkard, W., Chambers, R. L., Maroney, F. W.: Health and Human Wel-
fare (1937), Lyons & Carnahan .......................................... ............... 1.60
Cherrington, E. H.: The Evolution of Prohibition (1920), American
Issue Press, Westerville, Ohio ................................ ................... 2.50
Colvin, D. L.: Prohibition in the United States (1926), Geo. H. Doran Co. 5.00
Cooper, R. W.: The Drama of Drink (1932), Drama of Drink Distrib-
tors, Andover, Mass .............................................................................. 1.90
Corradini, R. E.: Narcotics and Youth Today (1934), Foundation for
Narcotics Research and Information, Inc., 150 Fifth Ave., New
York City ........................................................... ................................. .65
Demerest, A. R.: Educate for Total Abstinence (1934), The Standard
Publishing Company, Cincinnati, Ohio ...................................... 1.00
Donnelly, G. L.: Alcohol and the Habit-Forming Drugs (1936), Alfred
Williams & Co., Raleigh, North Carolina ............................................ .80
Emerson, Haven (editor): Alcohol and Man (1932), The Macmillan Co. 3.50
Emerson, Haven: Alcohol-Its Effects on Man (1934), D. Appleton-
Century Company .................................. ................... ........................... 1.00
Feldman, H.: Prohibition-Its Economic and Industrial Aspects (1930)
D. Appleton & Company ................................................................ 2.00
Fisher, I.: The "Noble Experiment" (1930), Alcohol Information Com-
mittee, 150 Fifth Avenue, New York City ............................. .... .... 2.00
Fisher, I., and Emerson, H.: How To Live (1938), Funk & Wagnalls Co. 2.50
Gordon, E. B.: The Dry Fight in Europe and Its Relation to America
(1933), Washington College Press, Takoma Park, D. C. (cloth) .... 1.00
(paper) .. .....-------- ...................... ................ ............-.. ....- ............... .50
Gordon, E. B.: When the Brewer Had the Stranglehold (1930), Alcohol
Information Committee, 150 Fifth Avenue, New York City ............ 1.50
Harkness, K. M., and Fort, L. M.: Youth Studies Alcohol (1936), Benj.
H Sanborn & Co. ..................... ..... .. ........... ............................... .64
Horsley, V. A. H., and Sturge, M. D.: Alcohol and the Human Body
(1920), The Macmillan Company (0. P. ed. 6 pub.) ........................... 1.25
Kelynack, T. N.: The Drink Problem of Today (1918), E. P. Dutton &
Co. (0. P.) ............................................................................................. 2.50
Medical Research Council: Alcohol, Its Action on the Human Organism
(1924), His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, England (May
be obtained from The Signal Press, Evanston, Illinois) ................ .50
Miles, W. R.: Alcohol and Human Efficiency (1924), Judd & Detweiler
for the Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, D. C .... 3.00

Mobley, C.: Illusions End (1938), Bucklee Publishing Co., Inc., 1018 S.
Wabash Avenue, Chicago, Illinois ................... ......................... 60
Moon, T. J., and Mann, P. B.: Biology for Beginners (1933), Henry
H olt & Co. ......................................... ......... ... ...........- ...... ....... 1.72
National Forum: Alcohol Problems Visualized (1938), The National
Forum, 850 East 58th Street, Chicago, Ill. ..................................... .70
Overton, Frank: Applied Physiology- Advanced (1925), American
B ook Co .......................... ...... ..... .. ... .............. ............ .... .. 1.16
Pickett, E. D.: Alcohol and the New Age (1926), The Methodist Book
Concern .................................. ................. .75
Pickett, E. D.: Temperance and the Changing Liquor Situation (1934),
The Methodist Book Concern --....... ........... .......... .. ......... ...... .75
Poteat, W. L.: Stop-Light (1935), Broadman Press, Nashville, Tenn. ... .75
Review of The Effects of Alcohol on Man (1931), Victor Gollancz, Ltd.,
14 Henrietta St., Covent Garden, London, England ..................... 2.50
Rosenau, N. J.: Preventive Medicine and Hygiene (1927), D. Appleton-
Century Com pany .............................................................................. 10.00
Skidmore, M., and Brooks, C. L.: Boys and Girls Learning About Alcohol
(1937), The Abingdon Press ......... .----.......................................... 1.00
Smallwood, W. M., Reveley, I. L., and Bailey, G. A.: New General Biology
(1929), Allyn & Bacon ........................................ 1.80
Social and Economic Aspects of the Drink Problem (1931), Victor Gol-
lancz, Ltd., 14 Henrietta St., Covent Garden, London, England ........ 4.00
Standard Encyclopedia of the Alcohol Problem (6 Vol.) (1930), Ameri-
can Issue Publishing Company, Westerville, Ohio .................... .. 37.50
Strecker, E. A., and Chambers, F. T.: Alcohol, One Man's Meat (1938),
The Macmillan Company .-... ...................... ................................. 2.50
Transeau: E. L. B.: Effects of Alcoholic Drinks: A Review, (1933), Sci-
entific Temperance Federation, Boston, Massachusetts ............... 1.25
Trobridge, L. J.: Frances Willard of Evanston (1938), Willett, Clark &
Company, 440 South Dearborn Street, Chicago, Illinois ................... 2.00
Warner, H. S.: Prohibition, An Adventure in Freedom (1928), The
American Issue Press, W esterville, Ohio ............... ......................... 2.00
Warner, H. S.: Social Welfare and the Liquor Problem (1913), Inter-
collegiate Association, 635 F. Street, N. W., Washington, D. C. ....... .50
Weeks, C. C.: Alcohol and Human Life (1938), H. K. Lewis & Co., Ltd.,
London, England. (May be obtained from The Signal Press, Evan-
ston, Illinois) ................ .. -....... ....... ... ................-............... ........... 1.85
Williams, J. F.: Healthful Living (1935), The Macmillan Company .... 1.56


List of a Few of the Valuable "Out-of-Print" Books Which May Be Found
in Libraries or at Second-hand Dealers
Allen, Mrs. Martha M.: Alcohol, a Dangerous and Unnecessary Medi-
cine (1900), Chas. C. Haskell & Son, Norwich, Connecticut; L. N.
Fowler & Company, London, England (linen) ....................................$ 1.25
(buck .) ............................ .............................................................. ... 1.50

American Temperance Society: Permanent Temperance Documents,
Vol. 1 (Contains Reports Nos. 4-9) (1835), Seth Bliss, 5 Cornhill,
Boston, Mass; and Perkins, Marvin, and Co., 114 Washington Street,
Boston, Mass.
Blair, Henry W.: The Temperance Movement (1888), Smythe Com-
pany, Boston, Massachusetts.
Centennial Temperance Conference, Philadelphia, 1885: One Hundred
Years of Temperance (1886), National Temperance Society Pub-
lishing House, New York City ........ ...................................... 1.50
Crothers, T. D.: Inebriety; a Clinical Treatise on the Etiology, Symp-
tomology, Neurosis, Psychosis and Treatment, and Medico-legal
Relations (1911), Harvey Publishing Company, Cincinnati, Ohio .... 3.00
Dorchester, Daniel: The Liquor Problem in All Ages (1884), Phillips and
Hunt, New York City; Cranston & Stowe, Cincinnati, Ohio.
Eddy, Richard: Alcohol in History, an Account of Intemperance in All
Ages (1887), National Temperance Society and Publication House,
N ew Y ork City ................................. ..................... .................................. 1.25
Eddy, Richard: Alcohol in Society, an Arraignment of the Drink System
(1883), National Temperance Society and Publication House, New
Y ork C ity ............................ ....... ..................... ....................................... 1.25
Gough, John B.: Autobiography and Personal Recollections (1870), Bill,
Nichols & Company, Springfield, Mass:; Bill & Heron, Chicago, Ill.
Grindrod, Ralph Barnes: Bacchus; an Essay on the Nature, Causes,
Effects and Cure of Intemperance (1840), J. & H. G. Langley, New
York City (1st American, from the 3rd English Edition).
Gustafson, Axel, and Zadel, B.: The Foundation of Death; a Study of
the Drink Question (1884) 5th edition, Heath, Boston, Mass. ........ 1.68
Hargreaves, William: Alcohol and Science; or, Alcohol, What It Is, and
What It Does (1884), National Temperance Society and Publishing
House, New York City .......................... ................. 1.25
(Pap.) ..... ........................ ... .. .................... ..................... .50
Horsley, Sir Victor, and Sturge, Mary D.: Alcohol and the Human Body
(6th ed., 1920), Macmillan, London ................................................... 1.25
International Temperance Conference, Philadelphia, 1876: Centennial
Temperance Volume, A Memorial (1877), National Temperance
Society and Publication House, New York City ............................. 3.00
Scomp, H. A.: King Alcohol in the Realm of King Cotton; or, A History
of the Liquor Traffic and of the Temperance Movement in Georgia
from 1733 to 1887 (1888), The Blakely Printing Company.
Warner, Harry S.: Social Welfare and the Liquor Problem (1913),
Intercollegiate Prohibition Association, Chicago, Illinois rev. ed..... .50


Baker: Here's Health To You-Richard J. James, 10-12 Ivy Lane,
Paternoster Row, E. C. 4, London, England (May be obtained from
The Signal Press, Evanston, Illinois) ...............----.................................$ .35
Inside Inform nation ................................................... ........................ .20
The Three Partners .................................................................................. .20
Caldwell: Answers To Alcohol, The McCormick-Armstrong Co., Wichi-
ta, K ans ............................... .............. ........................................ .... 20

Crabb: Mrs. Gray Bunny's Children, Minnie Rowe Crabb, Los Gatos,
Calif. ............-....................- .....-- .....-..... ........ ........... .....- .15
Mrs. Gray Bunny's Health Color-Book ....................... ..................... .15
Gray Bunny Children Still Learning ................................................ .15
Hamlin: Alcohol Talks to Youth, The Signal Press, Evanston, Illinois .... .25
King: The Psychology of Drunkenness, The Signal Press, Evanston,
Illin ois ..............-....... ............. .................................................................... .10
Palmer: A Syllabus In Alcohol Education, The National W. C. T. U.
Publishing House, Evanston, Illinois -------........... .....--.............-........ .25
How I Taught Alcohol Education, The Signal Press, Evanston, Ill. .. .10
What Alcohol Is and What It Does, Cokesbury Press, Nashville,
Tenn ............................... .................. ....................... .................. ....... .10
Pressly: "That Awful Ethel," Junior Life, Presbyterian Committee of
Publication, Richmond, Virginia ............................................. .15
Reed: Alcohol-Effects and Social Consequences, Mary Lewis Reed,
132 E. 45th Street, New York City ...................................................... .15
Scholastic Coach Magazine: Top Form, Alcohol Education, 1730 Chi-
cago Avenue, Evanston, Illinois ............................................. .15
Williams & Stoddard: The Scientist Experiments With Alcohol, The
Signal Press, Evanston, Illinois .............. ..................... ................ .25
Social Action, 289 Fourth Avenue, New York City.
Landis: Liquor Control (32 pages) ............................. .................... .10
Herring: The Liquor Traffic-Its Costs (32 pages) ........................ .10
Holcomb, R. L.: Alcohol in Relation to Traffic Accidents (1938), Re-
print from Journal of A. M. A.-Address R. L. Holcomb, Evanston,
Travelers Insurance Co.: Death Begins at 40, The Travelers Insurance
Co., Hartford, Conn. ...... ...... ........................................... Free
Emerson: You Shall Decide-Reprint from The Scholastic Magazine,
The Signal Press, Evanston, Illnois .......................................... .05
National Safety Council: Tests for Intoxication (1938), National Safety
Council, 20 N. Wacker Drive, Chicago, Illinois ................................ .25
National Safety Council: Tests for Driver Intoxication (1937) .............. .10

For School, Church and Public Libraries for Narcotic Education
Special Price, $14.85 Plus Carriage; Signal Press, Evanston, Illinois.


Corradini: Narcotics and Youth Today.
Demerest: Educate for Total Abstinence.
Donnelly: Alcohol and the Habit-Forming Drugs.
Gordon: The Dry Fight in Europe.
Gordon: When the Brewer Had the Stranglehold.
Harkness & Fort: Youth Studies Alcohol.
Skidmore & Brooks: Boys and Girls Learning About Alcohol.
Transeau: Effects of Alcoholic Drinks.
Weeks: Alcohol and Human Life.
The National Forum: Alcohol Problems Visualized.

Baker: Inside Information.
Baker: The Three Partners.
Caldwell: Answers to Alcohol.
Crabb: Mrs. Gray Bunny's Children.
Mrs. Gray Bunny's Health Color-Book.
Gray Bunny Children Still Learning.
Gregg: Practical Experiments with Tobacco.
Gregg: Practical Experiments with Alcohol.
Hamlin: Alcohol Talks to Youth.
King: The Psychology of Drunkenness.
Kress: The Cigarette as the Physician Sees It.
Palmer: A Syllabus in Alcohol Education.
Palmer: Frances E. Willard Day Programs, No. I and No. II.
Palmer: How I Taught Alcohol Education.
Palmer: What Alcohol Is and What It Does.
Pennington: Teaing About (non-alcoholic fruit juice recipes).
Pressly: "That Awful Ethel".
Williams & Stoddard: The Scientist Experiments with Alcohol.
LEAFLETS (5 copies of each):
Bourdeau-Sisco: Subintoxication.
Boston Post: Drinking Drivers.
Byrnes: Alcohol and Athletics.
Carter: The Citizen and Total Abstinence.
Christian Science Monitor: An Adventure in Nonchalance.
Craig: The Gospel of Pain.
Craig: Helpful Hints on Harmful Habits.
Crist: My Car- andWhiskey-Killed a Baby.
Emerson: You Shall Decide-Is It YES or NO For Alcohol?
Ferguson: The Simplified Story of Alcohol.
Hayward: Sensible Fellow Gives His Reasons.
Heise: Alcohol and Automobile Accidents.
Hess: Marihuana the Killer Drug.
Hess: Medicinal Alcohol Discredited.
Hess: Nostrum Perils.
Hess: Progressive Physicians Ban Medicinal Alcohol.
Macleod: Alcohol and Aviation.
Palmer: Annotated Reference List.
Palmer: Beverage Alcohol and the Nervous System.
Palmer: How to Reduce "Alcoholitis."
Palmer: Old Fallacies and Modern Facts about Beverage Alcohol.
Palmer: Teaching Plan for Alcohol Education.
Palmer: The Bible and the Use of the Word "Wine."
Palmer: The Danger in Wine and Beer.
Palmer: What's in a Drink?
Palmer: Why Drink Dulls the Driver.
Think-A-Minute Series: Nos. 309 and 312.
Rolleston: Alcohol in Medical Practice.
Stoddard: Traffic Safety and Alcohol.
Transeau: Yes, Ethyl Alcohol Is a Poison.

These selected books cover the scientific, the social, the economic
and the historic phases of the alcohol problem.
Signal Press, Evanston, Illinois.
Author and Title Price
Cooper: The Drama of Drink (1932). Study of social problems caused
by alcohol ............. ... ............... .... ................................................$ 1.50
Emerson (editor) Alcohol and Man (1932). Scientific articles on many
phases of the liquor problem, by twenty-three authorities ........... 3.50
Emerson: Alcohol-Its Effects on Man (1934). A summary, by Dr.
Emerson, of material in Alcohol and Man .......................................... 1.00
Fisher & Emerson: How to Live (Revised, 1938). A new approach to
an old subject-health ................ ........................... 2.50
Review of the Effects of Alcohol on Man (1931) Victor Gollancz, Ltd.,
London, England. Ten authorities, in their special subjects, review
and summarize the findings of studies in the problem .................. 2.50
Social and Economic Aspects of the Drink Problem (1931). Victor
Gollancz, Ltd., London, England. The work of a committee pro-
ducing a companion book to Review of The Effects of Alcohol on
M an ......................................................... ............ ...................................... 4.00
Medical Research Council: Alcohol, Its Action on the Human Organism
(1924). Report of an English study of the alcohol question ........ .50
Miles: Alcohol and Human Efficiency (1924). A technical study of
"m ild" alcoholic drinks .................. ................ .. .. ............ ................. 3.00
Mobley: Illusion's End (1938). A story based on actual news items
since 1933 ................ .................... ......... .................................................. .60
National Forum: Alcohol Problems Visualized (1938) Graphs, charts
and diagram s .................................................... .... .............. ..... .70
Pickett: Temperance and the Changing Liquor Situation (1934). An
analysis of modern conditions ...... ....................................... ...... .75
Trowbridge: Frances Willard of Evanston (1938). An up-to-date biog-
raphy of an outstanding woman of the 19th century .......................... 2.00
Weeks: Alcohol and Human Life (1938). All phases covered. Complete
bibliography. Excellent index ............................................... 1.85

Elementary, secondary, and college levels

For the Teacher-Basic Principles and Outlines
PALMER: A Syllabus In Alcohol Education-50 pages. A logical or-
ganization of the several steps in the study of alcohol-source, nature, ac-
tions, uses outside the body and effects when taken in drinks, showing the
relation between these several phases. Arranged pedagogically for teachers
and others who need an orderly understanding of the subject. Easy reading,
high school vocabulary. What every teacher should know about alcohol,
regardless of the grade she will teach. 25 cents, $13.00 per 100.
PALMER: What Alcohol Is and What It Does (for discussion groups)--
30 pages. A course of thirteen lessons based on "A Syllabus." The style
is conversational. Easy reading, time about 21/2 hours. 10 cents (Cokesbury

PALMER: How I Taught Alcohol Education, by Successful Teachers
(a compilation) 16 pages. Reports of successful teaching projects: (1)
Account and full outline of unit developed in sixth grade together with
the approximate wording of the numbers in the "radio program" given by
the children at the close of the course. Method suitable for grades from
fourth to tenth. Fascinating reading. (2) Three correlations with high
school English classes. Method adaptable to any grade. Excellent read-
ing. 10 cents each, $7.00 per 100.
PALMER: Teaching Plan for Alcohol Education-4 pages. An outline
of material for objective teaching with suggestions for correlations at the
various grade levels. 2 cents each; 65 cents per 100.
PALMER: Special Program for Frances E. Willard Day (No. I for High
Schools; No. II for Grades)-16 pages each. Selections by well known
authors and specially-written numbers in prose and rhyme to help make
the scientific facts easy to remember. 5 cents each, $2.75 per 100.
HANSON: Seeing Is Believing-4 pages. Cut of and directions for an
exhibit in alcohol education. 2 cents each, 65 cents per 100.
Alcohol Charts (Manufactured by DeNoyer-Geppert Company, Chicago)
W17, Alcohol: Showing that actions of alcohols which are useful outside the
body cause undesirable effects inside the body (when taken in drinks).
Seven colors, on cloth, with wood rollers. $3.75 plus carriage. W18, Alcohol
the Narcotic: Indicating narcotic effects of alcohol on higher, lower, and
basic functions of the nervous system. $3.75 plus carriage.

For Primary Group (Grades 1, 2, 3)
To be read to class or by pupils.
BAKER: The Three Partners-50 pages. Author is a teacher in Lon-
don. Material especially for the teacher of Grades I, II, III, but inval-
uable help for any teacher. Six lessons on six subjects, which may be sub-
divided and elaborated, each followed by a story for little children, based
on the preceding scientific principles. Clever illustrations, easy to copy.
20 cents each.
CRABB: Mrs. Gray Bunny's Children-44 pages. For first, second, and
third grades. The little Bunnies learn many valuable things; so do the
children who also learn by coloring 9 full-page pictures. 15 cents (Mrs.
Minnie Rowe Crabb, Los Gatos, California).
CRABB: Mrs. Gray Bunny's Health Color-Book.
CRABB: Mrs. Gray Bunny's Children Still Learning-Uniform with
Mrs. Gray Bunny's Children. 15 cents each.

For Intermediate Group (Grades 4, 5, 6)
BAKER: Here's Health 'To You-200 pages. Physiology is easy and
interesting when followed through these seventeen chapters with drawings
by the author (a teacher in London). A textbook for the teacher making
plain the effects of alcohol. Easy reading for children above fifth grade.
35 cents (paper). (Margaret Baker, Grange Court, Leominster, Here-
BAKER: Inside Information-50 pages. Ten chapters. Material for
teachers in intermediate grades. A story of a little boy who hated physiol-

ogy and wished, if he had to learn all those things, he could see inside of
himself-and how his wish came true. Suitable for children's reading above
fourth grade. 20 cents.
CALDWELL: Answers To Alcohol-45 pages. For teachers and pupils
of grammar grades. Stories of fifteen visits made by the class to the
chemist, the doctor, the police, etc., to ask about alcohol. Illustrated by
members of the class. 20 cents. (L. H. Caldwell, principal Gardiner Ele-
mentary School, Wichita, Kansas).
For Junior High (Grades 7, 8, 9)
BOGEN AND HISEY: What About Alcohol? 100 pages. For teachers
and pupils of junior and senior high school. 40 drawings; references; sug-
gestions for correlations with other school subjects. $1.50 (board) (An-
gelus Press).
DONNELLY: Alcohol and the Habit-Forming Drugs-218 pages. The
official text for the public schools of North Carolina. The subject matter
is interesting; the illustrations are excellent. 80 cents each (Alfred Wil-
liams & Co.)
FRESSLY: "That Awful Ethel"-24 pages; 9 chapters (lessons). Con-
versations between ten-year-old Billy, who is "taking a course" in alcohol
education, and his college-student uncle, who gets some new ideas. For
junior and senior high school. 15 cents each.
THE NATIONAL FORUM: Alcohol Problems Visualized-Grafts, charts,
cartoons, etc. 70 cents.
Strip Films: "What Alcohol Is and What It Does" and "Alcohol Prob-
lems Visualized." Suitable also for high-school and collegiate levels. Write
for terms. (Society for Visual Education, Chicago, Illinois).

For Senior High and Collegiate Levels
(Also for Teacher Background)
CORRADINI: Narcotics and Youth Today-100 pages. Six chapters
covering what high school pupils want to know about narcotics in general,
alcohol in particular. Fifteen figures, diagrams and graphs; appendices,
references, index. 65 cents (board) (Foundation for Narcotics Research
and Information, Inc.)
HAMLIN: Alcohol Talks to Youth-When in the laboratory, alcohol
tells high-school pupils the truth about itself-what it is and does. 25 cents.
HARKNESS AND FORT: Youth Studies Alcohol-123 pages. Excellent
suggestions to teachers on how to direct discussion of the alcohol problems in
class situation. 64 cents (Benj. H. Sanborn & Co.)
MEDICAL RESEARCH COUNCIL: Alcohol: Its Action on the Human
Organism-170 pages. Eleven chapters. By the British Medical Research
Council, appointed to report the effects of alcohol for the benefit of Parlia-
ment in making laws to control sales. 50 cents (His Majesty's Stationery
THE NATIONAL FORUM: Alcohol Problems Visualized.
TRANSEAU: Effects of Alcoholic Drinks-100 pages. An authoritative
review of what scientists have discovered about the effects of alcohol upon
the human mind and body. Eighty-two authorities mentioned, page refer-
ences and dated articles listed for each chapter. $1.25 (board), $1.00 paper).

WEEKS: Alcohol and Human Life (1929)-200 pages, 11 chapters, cov-
ering use in medicines; effects on nervous system, liver, kidneys, circulation;
as a racial poison; influence on national life. $1.50 (paper), $1.85 (cloth).
(H. K. Lewis & Co., Ltd.)
WILLIAMS AND STODDARD: The Scientist Experiments With Alcohol
-50 pages. Descriptions of thirteen experiments performed in seven dif-
ferent countries, showing effects of alcohol on muscular control, endurance,
hearing, mental control, color perception, typewriting, etc. For teachers of
all grades and for high school reading. 25 cents each, $13.00 per 100.
BURKARD-CHAMBERS-MARONEY: Health and Human Welfare-
(Lyons & Carnahan).
MOON AND MANN: Biology for Beginners-(Henry Holt & Company,
New York).
WILLIAMS: Healthful Living-(The Macmillan Company, 60 Fifth
Avenue, New York).
WOOD AND CARPENTER: Our Environment-(Allyn & Bacon, New
York, San Francisco, etc.)

Educational Leaflets
Signal Press, Evanston, Illinois

Each Per 100
The Simplified Story of Alcohol........................ ................. 2 cents $ .35
Yes, Ethyl Alcohol Is a Poison.................................. ......... 2 1.00
The Danger in Wine and Beer....................- ............... 2 .65
Why Drink Dulls the Driver................. ................... 2 .65
W hat's in a Drink?........................................... 2 .65
How to Reduce-"Alcoholitis" ................... ..--- .......... 2 .65
These Troublesome Triplets-Temperance, Moderation,
Abstinence ................ ................ ............... 2 .65
Why His Father's Son Did Not Drink.-.... ---...................... 2 .35
Alcohol and Automobile Accidents.................................. 2 .35
Safety on the Highroad....................---- .................... 2 .65
The Bible and the Use of the Word "Wine".......................... 2 .65
W ho Is Responsible?....................... .............. ....... 2 .65
The Sequence (venereal disease) .................................. 3 2.25
"Amethyst Drinks" (three booklets with recipes, "New
Mugs o' Joy," "Brisk Beverages," "Beverage on Your
Dinner Table") each 10 cents (85 cents per dozen)

Playlets-From Class Projects
Signal Press, Evanston, Illinois

Alcohol in Court (Grade 4)..................................... 10 cents 3 for 25 cents
The Wise Bunnies (Grade 5).................................. 10 cents 3 for 25 cents
One Drink Is Too Many (Grade 6)........................ 5 cents 4 for 15 cents
Experience Is a Dear Teacher (Grades 7, 8)........ 10 cents 3 for 25 cents

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