Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Purpose and use of the guide
 Our beliefs regarding homemaking...
 Definition of terms used in this...
 Understanding adolescents
 Methods and techniques for developing...
 Teacher relations
 Homemaking education in the total...
 Future homemakers of America and...
 Scope and sequence chart for homemaking...
 Suggestions for the seventh...
 Suggestions for the eighth...
 Suggestions for junior high school...
 Suggestions for homemaking education...
 Suggestions for homemaking education...
 Suggestions for homemaking education...
 Suggestions for modern family...
 Suggestions for homemaking education...

Title: Florida homemaking education.
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00080917/00001
 Material Information
Title: Florida homemaking education.
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Florida Department of Education
Publisher: Florida Department of Education
Place of Publication: Tallahasse, Fla.
Publication Date: 1955
General Note: Florida Department of Education number 23
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00080917
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
    Table of Contents
        Page vi
        Page vii
    Purpose and use of the guide
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Our beliefs regarding homemaking education
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Definition of terms used in this guide
        Page 6
    Understanding adolescents
        Page 7
    Methods and techniques for developing experiences in homemaking education
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Teacher relations
        Page 18
    Homemaking education in the total educational program
        Page 19
    Future homemakers of America and new homemakers of America
        Page 20
    Scope and sequence chart for homemaking education
        Page 21
        Page 22
    Suggestions for the seventh grade
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
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        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
    Suggestions for the eighth grade
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
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        Page 63
        Page 64
    Suggestions for junior high school boys classes
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
    Suggestions for homemaking education I
        Page 71
        Page 72
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    Suggestions for homemaking education II
        Page 108
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        Page 136
    Suggestions for homemaking education III
        Page 137
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    Suggestions for modern family living
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
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    Suggestions for homemaking education for adult classes
        Page 216
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Full Text



N o. 2 3
575, 009759

INo. 23



D. BAILEY, State Superintendent
D. BAILEY, State Superintendent

Tallahassee, Florida




Revised 1955




F63 6b


Education for the responsibilities of homemaking has long been recognized
as an important part of the total school program for youth and adults in Florida.
In 1924, a state board regulation was passed, requiring one year of home-
making education for all girls graduating from high school. Since that time,
the program has expanded to such an extent that organized courses for both
boys and girls are provided for grades 7-12 in the junior and senior high
schools of the state. There is an ever-increasing demand for programs in
homemaking education for adults.

While the primary purpose of this bulletin is to serve as a guide in helping
teachers of homemaking education to provide more meaningful experiences
for pupils, it is hoped that it may also prove helpful to supervisors, principals,
teacher-trainers, and all who work closely with teachers in developing an
effective program of homemaking education.

The material contained in this bulletin was cooperatively developed during
two workshops held at the Florida State University and sponsored by the
State Department of Education. I compliment all those who participated in
its preparation.

Thomas D. Bailey
State Superintendent of Public Instruction

Preparation for home and family life has long been recognized as one of the
most important goals in education. Homemaking education makes its con-
tribution to this goal through a planned program of activities which enables
boys and girls to assume the responsibilities of homemaking.

Classroom experiences are supplemented with projects carried on in the home.
Emphasis is given home and community relationships in addition to Future
Homemaker or New Homemaker chapter activities. The homemaking educa-
tion classrooms are designed to approximate a homelike situation thereby pro-
viding a realistic laboratory in which pupils may gain experience in meeting
present and future needs for home and family living.

The curriculum for Homemaking Education I has been modified on the basis
of the experience and opinions of the teachers in the field. The most significant
change is that of emphasizing important aspects of child development, per-
sonal growth, and family relationships. Homemaking II is a comprehensive
course built on the problems and learning experiences of Homemaking I.
Homemaking III is planned in order that it may serve either as a compre-
hensive offering in sequence to Homemaking I or as a specialized course which
may be based on interests and needs of the students.

The course Modern Family Living for senior boys and girls was developed
because of the great demand for this type of offering. New materials have
also been prepared for the seventh and eighth grades and for the adult pro-
grams, in response to the many state-wide requests which have been received.

Deep appreciation is expressed to Miss Frances Champion, State Supervisor
for Home Economics Education, members of the staff and participating insti-
tutions, and all individuals who have so kindly and effectively cooperated in
the development of this bulletin. It is the fervent hope that the use of these
materials may greatly assist all homemaking programs in Florida to meet the
life needs of both youth and adults.

Walter R. Williams, Jr.
Director of Vocational and Adult Education


This curriculum guide (revised) for teachers of homemaking education
was prepared as a cooperative project by many teachers in Florida during the
summers of 1951 and 1952 on the campus of the Florida State University.
Working with the group of teachers were special consultants, members of the
Home Economics Section of the State Department of Education, County
Supervisors of Homemaking Education, members of the Faculty of the School
of Home Economics, Florida State University, two school administrators, and
others as their time permitted.
Grateful acknowledgments are extended to the following people who have
made this publication possible through their assistance in research, planning,
reviewing, writing, and other phases of manuscript production:

Adams, Gussie
Alford, Betty
Barrineau, Katie

Butts, Sadie
Buckey, Nellie

Cate, Helen D.

Cox, Zena
Connor, Ruth

Davis, Edith

Duval, Elise
DeMasters, Ann
Darsey, Okemah
Dickson, Martha
Farnell, Elizabeth
Fussell, Margie
Fincher, Edna Earle
Funderburk, Kathleen
Gleason, Virginia
Hamilton, Eva
Head, Dottie
Harrison, Katherine
Hayes, Ray M.
Johnson, Lillian B.
Krost, Ann M.

Lang, Lucy

Homemaking Education Teacher, Tallahassee
Homemaking Education Teacher, Tallahassee
Escambia County Supervisor of Homemaking
Dade County Supervisor of Homemaking Education
City Supervisor of Home Economics, Baltimore,
Professor, Food and Nutrition, Florida State
Homemaking Education Teacher, DeLand
Professor, Home and Family Life, Florida State
Pinellas County Supervisor of Homemaking
Research Assistant, Florida State University
Homemaking Education Teacher, Fort Myers
Homemaking Education Teacher, Jacksonville
Homemaking Education Teacher, Pensacola
Homemaking Education Teacher, Tavares
Instructor, Florida State University
Homemaking Education Teacher, Pensacola
Homemaking Education Teacher, Jacksonville
Homemaking Education Teacher, Miami
Homemaking Education Teacher, Crawfordville
Homemaking Education Teacher, Leesburg
Homemaking Education Teacher, Tallahassee
Supervising Principal, Leesburg Public Schools
Homemaking Education Teacher, Trenton
Consultant in Adult Education, Minneapolis Public
Area Supervisor, Home Economics Education, State
Department of Education

Lewis, Ruth E.
Leslie, Virginia

Lowrance, Margie V.
Lurry, Lucile

McConnaughhay, Mary
McGlamery, Josephine
Moore, Ovella
Nowlin, Lucy Faye
Nixon, Elizabeth
Parker, Hester
Powell, Kathryn
Parantha, Marjorie
Russell, Mary

Reed, Delpha A.
Sandels, Margaret R.

Simpson, A. M.

Self, Roxanne
Starr, Ernie M.
Stevens, Hazel T.

Stansell, Lucille
Saunders, Mattie Mae
Tucker, Katherine

Tye, Bobbie Lou
Willoughby, Pauline

Wilson, Margaret

Homemaking Education Teacher, Dade City
Area Supervisor, Home Economics Education, State
Department of Education
Homemaking Education Teacher, Carrabelle
Associate Professor, Home Economics Education,
Florida State University
Homemaking Education Teacher, Lake City
Homemaking Education Teacher, Chipley
Homemaking Education Teacher, Miami
Homemaking Education Teacher, Ormond
Homemaking Education Teacher, Panama City
Homemaking Education Teacher, Miami
Homemaking Education Teacher, High Springs
Homemaking Education Teacher, Zephyrhills
Professor of Home Economics, Oklahoma College for
Homemaking Education Teacher, Orlando
Dean, School of Home Economics, Florida State
Supervising Principal and General Supervisor, Cross
Homemaking Education Teacher, Sarasota
Homemaking Education Teacher, Winter Garden
Professor, Clothing and Textiles, Florida State
Homemaking Education Teacher, Tampa
Homemaking Education Teacher, Wauchula
Supervisor of Home Economics, Topeka Public
Homemaking Education Teacher, Naples
Area Supervisor, Home Economics Education, State
Department of Education
Home Economics Teacher, Pensacola

We are glad to express our gratitude and appreciation to Dr. Anne Buis,
Professor Home Economics Education and to Mrs. Marion Barclay, Hills-
borough County Supervisor of Homemaking Education for the many hours
spent in the final revision of the manuscript.
We acknowledge with thanks the contributions of Dr. Walter R. Williams
who assisted in the organization of the final revision of the manuscript.
We are grateful for the contributions of Mrs. Jessee M. Fears, Itinerant
Teacher Trainer, Florida A. & M. University, and Mrs. Dorothy Graham, Resi-
dent Teacher Trainer, also of Florida A. & M. University, who have given
constructive suggestions in the preparation of the guide.
Recognition is due the secretaries for their patience in preparing the many
copies required for this publication.
Our thanks also are extended to Mr. T. George Walker, Director of the
Division of Publications and Textbook Services, for editorial work on the
manuscript; to Mr. J. K. Chapman, Deputy Superintendent, State Department
of Education, for technical direction; and to Mr. Charles M. King, Fine and
Applied Arts Teacher at Miami Edison Senior High School, for the art work
which illustrates the text.
FRANCES CHAMPION, State Supervisor
Home Economics Education


Table of contents ... ........ ...... ....
Purpose and Use of the Guide ..........
Our Beliefs Regarding Homemaking Education ... ---- .......... .............
O b jectises .. ...... ........ . . .. ... .
Definition of Terms lUsed in this Guide ...
Understanding Adolescents .... ... ..
Methods and Techniques for De eloping Experiences in Homemaking Education
E valuation ... .. ........ ....... ..... .............
T teacher R relations . .. ..--.. ... .. ....... ... .... ... .. .. ......... . ..
Homemaking Education in the Total Educational Program .. . .. .................
Future Homemakers of America and New Homemakers of America .... ....
Scope and Sequence Chart for Homemaking Education ......................

Living Happily with Family and Friends .--.----.---.. ------
Who Am I? --------------- --- ---------.. -------
Get Readyl Get Set! Sew! ---------------- --. ------
Sharing in Care of the Home ---.--..--------------......-...
It's Time to Eat -....-----------------------. --.-...

Manners for Teens -......-- --------.--.......................
Enjoying and Caring for Children ---. ------..-.....
It's Smart to be Good Looking --..-.---.... .................
Cooking for Fun -------.---------- ........................
Helping When There is Illness at Home --------.

-----. ---- 44
..--- ..- ...... 47
---.-----. -- 51
--- ....----- 56
------..- 60

A B oy's D ay _------ ----- ---- ---- ----------- ------------------ --- 65

Personality-Tots to Teens ...... ... ....... .......-------------------71
Planning, Preparing, and Serving Family Meals --------------------------78
Improving My Surroundings -------------------------------------- ....... ....91
Choosing and Making Clothes -----..........----------------------------- 98


. 7
.... 8

-- 23
-- 31
-- 34
-- 37

TfA 4 NCwfenk

Clothing for the Modern Miss ------- -----
Mealtime Magic ---------------- --..-- ------
Promoting Health and Safety -------- --.
Understanding Ourselves and Others -------..--

Life with Baby ...---------. -------.- ..
Clothing and Income -.....-------------..
Art and Efficiency in the Kitchen --------.
Homes for Living ---------- -------...--

The Child in His Home and Community ------
Clothing the Family -- ----------
Partnership in the Kitchen
Health is Wealth in Family Life .---------
Homes for Young Moderns -------------
Looking Toward Marriage and Family Living -

Suggestions ----------------
Factors Applicable to all Programs
Organizing a Program ----- --
Advisory Committee .------------ --
Suggestions for the First Meeting
Methods of Instruction --------- -
Suggestions for the Last Meeting
Evaluation -- ------- .--------..
Suggested Units ---- .----. ---- -
Living and Learning with Young Children
The Homemaker Makes a Dress
Food and Nutrition in Adult Homemaking
A Family Plans Its Recreation .-----

-------- 216
--------- 217
.------- 220
------- 221
.--- 222
--------- 223
------.---- 224
------- 225

-------- 108
---------- 113
-.----. --- 122
----------. 129

--------- 137
.--- ------ 144
-------.-- 148
---..---.- 161

No ........... ---



The purpose of this curriculum guide is to offer suggestions for planning and
carrying out effective homemaking education programs in the public secondary
schools of Florida. It is hoped that its use will stimulate the thinking of
teachers and administrators as they plan with others to meet the needs of
individuals and families in each community.
Since the needs of individuals and society change and since we are constantly
increasing our knowledge of individuals and the learning process all curriculum
study must of necessity be evolving, and never static nor complete. The learn-
ing experiences in this guide have been designed in the light of present
knowledge to meet the needs, interests, and abilities of homemaking students
at various levels of maturity. Although the experiences have been arranged
with reference to expected maturity levels, allowances for individual differences
in maturation should be made in the use of the suggestions.
As will be said many more times throughout this guide, the teacher has the
responsibility and the opportunity to choose with the students and others con-
cerned the learning experiences which are feasible and interesting, and which
help students to attain their goals. It is suggested that at the beginning of
each year, the goals for the year be formulated, and the unit content and se-
quence be planned accordingly. It is not expected nor even possible, that any
one teacher will use every suggestion or carry out every activity in this guide.
The material is to be considered as resource material only and used to develop
learning experiences to meet local needs. Nor should this material be con-
sidered as all-inclusive. Much that is good may have been omitted. The
teacher is encouraged to make use of her own understandings and resources
as well. Under no condition is any teacher to be limited by the material in
this guide as long as the experiences developed are consistent with the beliefs
and objectives for homemaking education in Florida.
Adequate space and equipment should be afforded the homemaking depart-
ment in order for the school to receive maximum benefit from the learning
experiences in the homemaking curriculum. Adequate financial support by
the local school administration will enable the students to profit from many
of the most worthwhile learning experiences in this guide which would other-
wise be unattainable.
State adopted textbooks in homemaking education are available to implement
the learning experiences in each of the major areas of the subject. It is the
responsibility of the homemaking teacher to plan cooperatively with the ad-
ministration for securing a sufficient number of textbooks and reference books.
A wider range of learning experiences, broader concepts, and greater class
interest will be secured through the use of many books in the solution of a
problem, rather than many copies of one book. It will be helpful to the
teacher to have available at least one copy of each of the state-adopted text-
books in homemaking education from all grade levels.

State adopted textbooks in homemaking education are:

Grade seven:
Baxter, Laura, Justin, Margaret and Rust, Lucile. Sharing Family Living.
New York: J. B. Lippincott Company. 1951. One copy of this textbook may
be requested for each pupil. Supplementary references may be requested
from the list of the State Recommended Library Books.

Grade eight:
McDermott, Irene and Nicholas, Florence. Homemaking for Teen-Agers.
Peoria: Charles A. Bennett Company. 1951. One copy of this textbook may
be requested for each pupil. Supplementary references may be requested
from the list of State Recommended Library Books.

In selecting textbooks for the seventh and eighth grade classes in homemaking
education, consideration was given to books which would articulate satisfac-
torily with homemaking education textbooks to be used on the high school
level. Such a three-year sequence is followed in many Florida schools since
one year of homemaking above the eighth grade is required for all girls gradu-
ating from an accredited high school. These textbooks may offer helpful sug-
gestions for "Everyday Living" the science-health-home living integrated
course for grades seven and eight. Much of the material contained in these
textbooks actually relates to home living and to the personal needs of boys
and girls.

Grades nine through twelve:
Goodspeed, Helen, Mason, Esther and Woods, Elizabeth. Child Care and
Guidance. New York: J. B. Lippincott Company. 1953.
Carson, Byrta. How You Look and Dress. New York: McGraw-Hill Com-
pany. 1949.
Craig, Hazel and Rush, Ola. Homes with Character. Boston: D. C. Heath
and Company. 1952.
Moore, Bernice and Leahy, Dorothy. You and Your Family. Boston: D. C.
Heath and Company. 1958.
Lewis, Dora, Burns, Jean and Segner, Esther. Housing and Home Manage-
ment. New York: The Macmillan Company. 1954.
McDermott, Irene, Trilling, Mabel, and Nicholas, Florence. Food for Better
Living. New York: J. B. Lippincott Company. 1954.
Supplementary references may be requested from the list of State Recom-
mended Library Books.

At least one complete set of all homemaking education textbooks is needed
for each homemaking education department. However, textbooks provided
for homemaking education on the high school level will not be furnished at
the rate of one copy of each different textbook for each pupil. The plan is
to introduce all the textbooks listed in such a way that textbooks covering the
many phases of homemaking education are available for pupil use.
In order to obtain the necessary variety, textbooks should be requisitioned so
as to include some copies of each title. The total number of books is not to
exceed an average of one and one-half books per pupil. It is desirable to

check carefully the textbooks on hand to determine their recency and useful-
ness in achieving the goals of the program in homemaking education. It is
desirable to requisition the recently adopted textbooks and supplementary
materials which will provide materials of instruction for a comprehensive

Grade twelve: (Modern Family Living)
Justin, Margaret and Rust, Lucile. Today's Home Living. New York: J. B.
Lippincott Company. 1953.
This book was selected to assist the pupils in the area of personal, social, and
family relations.
The books listed for grades nine through twelve will also serve as reference
books for Modern Family Living.


We believe that:
Democracy depends upon the home and the school for its progress and
Homemaking education should offer opportunities for practice in demo-
cratic processes as a means of developing skills for effective participation
in our society.
Homemaking education should provide opportunities for the solution of
problems through appropriate educational methods and techniques.
Each program in homemaking education should be planned, executed, and
evaluated cooperatively by the teachers, students, parents, administrators,
and others concerned.
The experiences in homemaking education should develop appreciations,
attitudes, values, and skills necessary for effective personal, home, and
community living.
Learning experiences in homemaking education should meet the needs,
interests, and abilities of individuals concerned.
The needs, interests, and abilities of individuals vary with the maturation
The homemaking education program should provide for the optimal use
of the human and material resources in each community.
Organized programs of education for home and family life should be made
available for all individuals from childhood through adulthood.
The program in homemaking education should be comprehensive in scope
with provision for emphasis in special areas as interests and needs develop.
The program should be organized on a year-round basis with seasonal
emphasis on those aspects of homemaking that are seasonal.
Directed home experiences should be recognized as a valuable means of
attaining the goals of homemaking education.
The Future Homemakers of America or the New Homemakers of America
is an integral part of the total homemaking education program.


Homemaking education should assume responsibility in assisting individuals,
according to their maturity, to develop:
A desire to formulate for themselves a workable philosophy of personal
and family life.
Attitudes, appreciations, and values which are compatible with democratic
Skills in democratic processes through participation in democratic situa-
Increasing self-direction through participation in problem-solving situa-
An appreciation of homemaking as a profession which requires careful
preparation and continued training if it is to be carried on effectively.
An appreciation for the joys and satisfactions of homemaking.
A recognition of the importance of providing a home environment in
which all members of the family will have an opportunity for optimal
Homemaking skills and interests which will help individuals of varying
maturity levels to meet their developmental tasks.
Understandings and appropriate practices for achieving physical, mental,
emotional, and spiritual health.
Ability to use to the best advantage human resources such as time, energy,
health, attitudes, appreciations, and understandings.
Ability to select and use material resources to the best advantage consider-
ing cost, efficiency, desirability, aesthetic value, and ease of care.
A recognition of problems affecting the family and a willingness to par-
ticipate in an action program which has as its goal some solution to
these problems.
Ability to use effective methods and procedures leading to the development
of manipulative, managerial, social, and creative skills in homemaking.
An appreciation of beauty and an ability to create an attractive and
pleasing environment.
Ability to make more effective and satisfying use of leisure time.
Insight into the relationship of the Future Homemakers of America or the
New Homemakers of America to the total homemaking program.
Mutual respect between groups with different socio-economic, religious,
or ethnic backgrounds.


Home Economics is a term used to designate a broad field of education. It is
commonly used at the college and university level.

Homemaking Education is a program of organized experiences designed to
help in-school and adult groups in the solution of their family living problems
in the home, the school, and the community.

Adult Education is education for individuals beyond school age. It is designed
primarily to provide opportunity for securing guidance and help in making
adjustments to the changing social and economic conditions of contemporary

A Homemaker is an individual who shares the responsibility for the activities
and experiences of family living.

An Interest Approach is a means of motivating pupil participation in selecting
and planning learning experiences.

A Problem is a proposed challenge presented for a solution.

Goals are ends toward which we strive.

Evaluation is a cooperative means of determining progress toward the attain-
ment of agreed upon goals.

An Activity is purposeful doing involving learning.

A Learning Experience is a sequence of events leading to new understandings
or changed behavior on the part of the individual.

An Area is a group of learning experiences centered around any one aspect
of homemaking.


An understanding of the bio-socio-psychological needs and tasks of adolescents
is necessary if the homemaking education teacher is to help adolescents to
continue to solve their common and individual problems. This understanding
of adolescents contributes to the ability of the teacher to anticipate the teach-
able moment and to provide learning experiences which will meet the needs,
interests, and abilities of homemaking education students.

Various individuals and groups have contributed to our knowledge concerning
the growth and development of adolescents. Some of the more recent writings
relative to the adolescent and the educative process are:


Alberty, Harold. Reorganizing the High School Curriculum. New York: The
Macmillan Company. 1953.

Havighurst, Robert J. Human Development and Education. New York:
Longmans, Green, and Company. 1953.

Kuhlen, Raymond G. The Psychology of Adolescent Development. New York:
Harper and Brothers. 1952.

Stiles, Lindley, and Dorsey, Mattie. Democratic Teaching in Secondary
Schools. Chicago: J. B. Lippincott Company. 1950.


Raths, Louis E. An Application to Education of the Needs Theory. New York:
Box 26. 1949.

Raths, Louis E. Do's and Dont's of the Needs Theory. New York: Box 26.


The fundamental tenets of democratic living necessitate a kind of group asso-
ciation which provides for the growth and development of each individual.
This implies that each individual is unique, that each individual is important,
and that his optimal development is of major concern. It further implies that
the manner in which individuals are associated may determine the extent of
their growth and development. In homemaking education an attempt is made
to provide the kind of group association which will promote the optimal de-
velopment of each individual by encouraging students, teachers, and others
concerned cooperatively to plan, execute, and evaluate learning experiences.
Student-teacher planning and sharing presupposes a kind of group association
in which all students feel secure in the knowledge that their ideas, needs,
interests, and abilities will be considered, and that their contribution to the
group will be welcomed and appreciated. It offers opportunities for students
to acquire habits and skills of initiative, self-direction, self-discipline, and
competence in democratic living.
The teacher's role becomes one of helping students to consider needs, to
formulate goals, to plan learning experiences, and to evaluate the effectiveness
of their plans as they proceed toward the predetermined goals. The techniques
of cooperative planning and sharing will be acquired gradually. Both teacher
and students will become more proficient through practice.
Student-teacher planning requires very careful preliminary preparation by the
teacher. The following suggestions may be helpful to the teacher in prelimi-
nary planning:
Study the needs of the students and the community.
Set up tentative goals for the class.
Create a homelike atmosphere and arrangement which will make informal
group discussion easy.
Assemble multi-sensory materials which will suggest the scope of the
problem or problems to be considered.
Gather many suggestions for possible learning experiences which may be
included in the plans.
Have a wealth of ideas regarding methods and techniques to be used.
Have a chalkboard available for recording every suggestion offered by
the students.

Student-teacher planning presupposes a problem-solving situation. Problem-
solving is basic to all experiences in homemaking education, since students are
constantly faced with the necessity for making adjustments and are in need
of increased skills in making decisions and choices. Frequently boys and girls
are involved in problems of .home and family living, and specific problems of
budgeting time for daily living.
In this guide the problem approach has been suggested, and the problems of
students around which learning experiences are grouped are expressed in the
form of questions. Progress toward the solution of these problems will result
from the understandings, skills, abilities, appreciations, values, and attitudes
acquired by the students through participation in the suggested learning
The teacher will need to guide students in the following general procedures
common to all problem solving:
Developing a concern regarding a problem.
Collecting all facts relevant to the problem.
Measuring and weighing evidence carefully and accurately.
Stating possible solutions to the problem.
Experimenting with the most probable solutions.
Evaluating the results of these experiments, taking all factors into account.
Coming to conclusions based upon possible consequences.
As students and teacher plan the learning experiences for solving problems
it is necessary that they plan to include many methods and techniques if these
learning experiences are to be interesting and effective. The methods and
techniques described below do not constitute an exhaustive list but represent
a sample of those commonly and frequently used by teacher and students
for solving problems in homemaking education.
A discussion is any form of group thinking in which those participating share
their information, opinions, and ideas. Discussion may take a number of
different forms, depending on such factors as the size of the group, how many
will take part, and the purpose for which it is used. Typical purposes are
to exchange information, to develop attitudes, to formulate policies, and to
arrive at group decisions.
Buzz sessions are a means of making possible increased participation in group
discussions. A large group quickly arranges itself into groups of not more
than six persons. Members enter these "buzz" groups with clear, concise goals
for the discussion in mind. Each group chooses a reporter to summarize its
thinking in order to channel back ideas to the large group. Getting together
in small groups makes it easier for timid persons to make a contribution and
for many individuals to express opinions or present ideas.
The lecture-forum is a method in which one person presents a speech followed
by a forum or discussion period participated in by the audience. The purpose
of the lecture is to explore a subject and to inform the audience concerning
one or more phases of it. The speaker may present his own point of view but
it is not intended that a persuasive speech be given. The lecture-forum is of
particular value in that it presents an opportunity for an authority to give a
systematic discussion of a subject. On the other hand, it is limited by being
the presentation of one person and lacks the informal development of the
subject which is characteristic of the panel discussion. The forum or dis-

cussion period may be conducted by the lecturer himself or by the chairman
of the meeting. Preceding the lecture the chairman should make it clear
that a forum will follow the lecture so members of the audience may have
time to formulate their questions. At the beginning of the forum the audience
should be assured that participation is genuinely desired. To encourage
audience participation a few members of the audience may be given previously
prepared questions which may be used to stimulate participation.
This method is often used in homemaking education classes when guest
speakers are invited who represent business firms, industries, professions, or
agencies. Some of these people may be doctors, dentists, nurses, recreation
directors, city officials, social workers, homemakers, insurance agents, lawyers,
plumbers, painters, or contractors.
The debate-forum provides an opportunity to present the pros and cons rele-
vant to a proposed solution to a problem. The debate requires a chairman
and two or four debaters or speakers. The question to be debated must be
stated so as to place the burden of proof on the affirmative speaker. One or
two debaters may speak for the affirmative side of the question and, one or two
debaters may speak for the negative side of the question. If there are only two
debaters, one on each side, the time allotment for the speakers may be as
For the chairman to introduce the topic and speakers. 5 minutes
Speech by the speaker for the affirmative. 10 minutes
Speech by the speaker for the negative. 10 minutes
Forum period for audience questions and comments. 15 minutes
Summary by the speaker for the negative. 5 minutes
Summary by the speaker for the affirmative. 5 minutes
This allotment of time may be altered to include more speakers or to give
more time for the debate. If there are four speakers the first speaker on the
affirmative and negative sides of the debate make the rebuttal summary.
The symposium is a method in which two or more persons under the direction
of a chairman present in separately prepared speeches the various phases of
a problem from several points of view. The audience is invited to participate
in a discussion which follows the speeches. The chairman introduces the
question to the audience, provides a transition from one speech to another,
correlates the contributions, takes. charge of the discussion period, and gives
a brief summary at the end of the discussion.
The dialogue or interview is a method in which two persons, using question-
and-answer method primarily, discuss a problem before a group. Usually one
of the participants acts as chairman and the other as respondent. The chair-
man frequently asks questions, but also discusses briefly some of the replies.
Later the group participates in the discussion and the chairman summarizes.
The dialogue stimulates thinking and encourages questioning on the part of
the students. An informal atmosphere and ready responses contribute to the
success of a dialogue. This type of discussion is often used on radio and
television programs.
The panel discussion offers an excellent opportunity for the exchange of ideas
and opinions, after which differences in viewpoints may be recognized and
reconciled. Although the discussion is informal and spontaneous each member
of the panel should be well prepared, having read and thoroughly investigated

the subject under discussion. The chairman should prepare questions in ad-
vance to give the problem focus. During the first few minutes of the discus-
sion the chairman may present the subject for consideration. The members
of the panel then discuss the problem without using set speeches. After the
panel members have developed the subject the chairman presents a summary.
The audience is then invited to make comments or to ask questions of any
one member of the panel or of the panel as a whole. During the audience
participation period the chairman presides and finally closes the panel with
a short summary. This procedure may be modified by having no clear line
of demarcation between the discussion by the panel and the participation of
the audience. In other words, the panel discussion may become an expanded
conversation to include the entire group.
The case conference is used to focus attention on a specific problem or incident.
The "case" chosen for consideration may be real or hypothetical. The facts
of the case are presented to the board or panel by the chairman who presides
during the discussion. The board seeks to solve the problems involved and
to formulate principles which can be applied in comparable cases. Any case
selected must be typical, not exceptional. The case must show that a specific
difficulty exists which requires easement or removal. The audience may be
invited by the chairman to participate with the board in seeking a solution
and in formulating principles regarding the case, or the audience may be
invited to participate in a re-evaluation of the solution and principles formu-
lated by the board. In the latter case care should be taken to make the
audience aware of each of the ways in which the case might have been
settled and the board's reasons for settling it as it did.
Dramatization is a form of "acting it out." It gives those participating and
those observing an intimate understanding of the situation being dramatized.
No one participates in or observes a play or pantomine without experiencing
the parts played by the actors. Dramatization should be carefully planned
and rehearsed. This method offers opportunities to summarize learning ex-
periences by writing the scripts to be used and it provides opportunities for
students to gain poise and self-confidence as they participate in the dramatiza-
tion. It is an excellent instrument for enlisting cooperative efforts toward
a common goal.
A socio-drama or role-playing is a method by which a group gains insight into
the inter-personal relations in a situation. It offers an opportunity to experi-
ment with various ways of behaving without suffering the consequences of
real-life situations. Role-playing is useful in the exploration of any situation
in which actions, emotions, beliefs, or values of people are dominant. In using
the socio-drama a problem is chosen and a cast is decided upon to assume
the roles of the characters involved in the problem. The characters are ob-
tained from volunteers and the dialogue is spontaneous. Students who volun-
teer identify themselves with particular roles Usually one is not cast in his
own role but is permitted to see how it feels to be in the position of another.
Thus, the personal situation is presented in an impersonal way and it is made
apparent how each individual might react in a similar situation. Rehearsal
kills the socio-drama. To rehearse is to defeat the purpose of role-playing.
Often the players need to have a short time in which to plan, away from the
larger group, what the setting and characterizations are to be. Brevity in
role-playing is important. It should last from three to ten minutes and be
followed by a discussion period. Role-playing has a strong interest appeal to
high school students and is especially adaptable to problems of group relations.

The demonstration is a method which may be used to facilitate the learning
of manipulative operations. Before giving a demonstration organize in detail
exactly what you will do and how you are going to do it. Have materials,
tools, and other required items at hand and arranged in orderly manner in
the sequence in which they will be used. When giving the demonstration
make every minute count. A slow moving demonstration usually indicates
poor planning and causes the students to lose interest. Explain the hows and
whys with each step. Encourage the group to ask questions so that all steps
are clearly understood. It may be helpful to have copies of pertinent informa-
tion to distribute. Summarize important points at the end of the demonstration.

The question and answer method of discussion is often found to be satisfactory
but its value is limited. "Yes" and "No" questions do not stimulate group
thinking; questions that are too broad baffle the members. When using this
method try to make a question specific. Start with "What" to get opinions
and facts, "Why" for reasons and causes, "Who" or "Where" for sources of
opinions and facts, and "How" or "When" to get down to specific cases. Use
the question and answer method as a means of problem solving and not for
the purpose of reciting a conclusion already reached. There should be inter-
action between all members of the group, including the chairman. A question
box may draw a number of questions which individuals are too timid to raise
in class.
A report presents the thinking or action of one or more persons, the results
of which are usually presented by an individual either written or orally. The
report may be used to show progress, to share experiences, or to present in-
formation gathered from various sources. Reports have a definite contribution
to make to the personal development of individual students. It is important
to be able to express ones self orally before a group. Practice is necessary
to develop poise and skill in this form of communication. Written reports
develop the ability to sift out important issues, to organize materials effec-
tively, and to summarize. Reports are a necessary part of group organization
if the large group is to be informed of the accomplishments of the smaller
groups. If the report is of an investigative nature it should be planned, pre-
pared, and presented in orderly sequence. If reports are used too frequently
or too many are given at any one time, they become monotonous and fail to
hold the interest of the group.
The laboratory method is used to provide opportunities for the students to
learn through the application of the experimental method and to develop
manipulative, managerial, social, or creative skills. The greatest difficulty in
the use of this method is the limited time of the class period for most learning
experiences in homemaking education. Careful planning is necessary to over-
come this difficulty.
A field trip is any planned and guided visit to a point of interest which will
make a contribution to the total learning situation. Its purpose may be to
gain information, understandings, attitudes, or appreciations relevant to the
problem under study. Careful planning and evaluation are involved.

The survey is used to gain information which may give evidence pertaining
to a problem being studied. The survey may be used to gather personal in-
formation concerning students, the opinions of parents regarding the learning
experience included in the curriculum, or the attitudes held by age-mates
regarding desirable actions for boys and girls in given situations. The survey

should contain specific items intended to get definite and concise answers that
are relevant to the subject being studied.

Radio and television programs use many methods and techniques of presenta-
tion that may be successfully adapted to classroom situations. Some of these
are the "Quiz Kids, "Information Please," and "Break the Bank."

Multi-sensory aids are those which we see, hear, feel, taste, or smell. The
homemaking curriculum provides many opportunities for the use of all kinds
of multi-sensory aids. These aids stimulate interest and supplement learning
experiences. Some of the multi-sensory aids used in homemaking education
Films and filmstrips bring life to the classroom. They should be selected
in terms of the problem being studied and should be suited to the level
of the class. Previewing the film before showing, preparing the students
for what they are to see, and discussing the material presented should
be part of every showing.
Recordings should be selected which relate to learning experiences. The
manner of presentation should be similar to that used with films and film-
Lantern slides make it possible for a group to view the same thing at the
same time. The image can be held on the screen as long as desired and
may be repeated again if necessary. Hand made lantern slides make it
possible to develop materials of interest and offers an opportunity for
creative expression on the part of the students and teachers.
The opaque projector is a device whereby printed materials, pictures, and
maps may be produced directly on a screen for group viewing. It is a
valuable classroom aid.
The tape recorder is useful in recording for later play-back group discus-
sions or special programs, and for preparing dramatizations, or radio skits.
Individual students can hear how their voices sound to others and make
plans for improvement. Groups can hear how they carry on a discussion
and make plans for improvement.
Charts, posters, graphs, pictures, books, pamphlets, and magazines are all
aids which make learning experiences more meaningful to students. Many
free up-to-date aids are available from commercial firms.

Samples of foods, textiles, or home furnishings may be used for enriching
homemaking education learning experiences.
An exhibit is a method of displaying materials for the purpose of supple-
menting learning experiences, introducing a unit, stimulating interest, or
as a culminating activity. An exhibit should develop one idea or central
theme. Labels should be clear and relevant to the theme or idea being
developed. Emphasis, balance, proportion, rhythm, color combinations,
and other art principles should be observed. Students enjoy developing
and arranging exhibits. It is a valuable means of interpreting the home-
making program to the school and community.
The tack board is used to publicize an event, to give information, to create
and maintain interest in an activity, and to display knowledge, skills or
hobbies which individuals or groups have acquired. Tack boards need

regular attention. Students should share the responsibility for keeping it
up to date. The materials they contribute may be supplemented by those
on file in the department. Tack boards should be simple and effective.
The materials displayed should be easily read and understood at a glance.

A flannel board may be used effectively as a visual aid by a speaker or
for a group project or a discussion. The flannel board may be constructed
by covering a piece of plywood with cotton outing flannel. The size of
the board and the color of the fabric depend upon the needs of the indi-
vidual or group using the flannel board. Models cut from a fuzzy fabric
or fine-grained sandpaper are ready for use on the flannel board. Models
cut from other materials must be backed with outing flannel or sandpaper
if they are to adhere to the flannel board.
A home visit is a personal contact made by the teacher to gain a better under-
standing of the student by seeing her as a family member. The visit assists the
teacher in discovering important facts that may not be gained through confer-
ences or questionnaires. It serves to help parents, teachers, and students in
planning suitable activities to further the individual growth of the student. The
motivating factor behind home visits must be the teacher's interest in each
student's growth and development. Home visits may be scheduled at any time
convenient to the teacher, student, and parent. Home visits are required in all
programs reimbursed by the Federal Government.
Home practice is a repetition of a class experience under home conditions for
the purpose of increasing skills. Home practice requires little supervision. An
example is the preparation of a certain food at home after class demonstration
or laboratory experience.
Directed home experience is a purposeful way of correlating the student's
school experiences with his home and community experiences. It should be
planned cooperatively by teacher, student, and parent; it should be related to
the needs and interests of the student and her family; and it should further the
goals of classroom instruction. The form for reporting the directed home ex-
perience may vary, but it should give evidence to the value of the experience in
promoting the growth of the individual. Written reports by students and
parents, oral reports by students to class, and discussions, interviews, or con-
ferences with the students and parents help in the evaluation of the directed
home experience. A teacher may find it difficult to arrange an already full
schedule to include this important activity. However, directed home experi-
ences and home visits are a required part of all programs reimbursed from
federal funds.


Evaluation is an integral part of teaching and learning. It is a process of deter-
mining the growth and development of the individual, group, and program.
To be effective, evaluation must be continuous, interesting, meaningful, and
purposeful. It should be planned at the time tentative objectives or goals are
determined. In order to show progress in the direction of a goal, pre-testing
is a necessary step. On-going evaluation is necessary in order to show attain-
ment and to provide for the opportunity to make necessary adjustments in goals,
in the selection of materials and resources, and in methods and techniques
being used. Evaluation at the end of time allotments (completion of a unit,
and of a semester or year) should provide a sense of accomplishment and indi-
cate further opportunities for advancement and growth. Evidence should be
gathered which shows the qualities and characteristics which are being de-
veloped by the students.

Beliefs Concerning Evaluation

Educators agree that plans for the
teaching-learning process must include
Teacher, parents, students, and asso-
ciates should participate in evaluation.
Evaluation in the learning process
motivates growth and development.

Any situation or device which pro-
vides an opportunity to gather evi-
dence that shows weaknesses or
strengths, growth and development,
or changed behavior may be used.
Evaluation acts as a check on the
effectiveness of teaching.

Evidence must be gathered not only
on the student's ability to tell or write
what he knows but also on his ability
to use information in meeting situa-
tions as they arise in everyday life.

Practices of the Teacher

Provide for various ways of gathering
evidence which shows progress in the
light of the goals selected.
Provide for cooperative evaluation of
all phases of the homemaking program.
Guide students in understanding per-
sonal needs and develop the interest
and enthusiasm necessary to pursue
the necessary accomplishment of re-
lated goals.
Use many devices both oral and writ-
ten, and set up situations which evoke
the type of behavior that is desired to
attain as stated in the objectives.

Use methods, techniques, and mater-
ials best suited to the particular group
or situation and make adjustments as
Evaluate student's ability in situations
permitting the following: (a) Applica-
tions of facts and principles. (b)
Habits of work and skill in study.
(c) Attitudes and interests. (d) Col-
lection and interpretation of data. (e)

Drawing conclusions after all facts
have been considered. (f) Sensitivity
to significant situations.
Evaluation devices must be adapted Use applicable devices or techniques
to particular units and situations, in accordance with conditions and
variable factors.
Evaluation should emphasize atti- (a) Observe students to understand
tudes, appreciations, values, and satis- better how they feel about themselves,
factions as well as information and their work, and their associations. (b)
skills. Keep anecdotal records. (c) Keep
records of various types of evaluation
so that adjustments can be made to
bring about optimal results.
While the continuous nature of the process of evaluation is recognized it is fre-
quently desirable to focus the evaluation at certain points in a group of learning
The initial appraisal or pre-testing of students may include the following
Class discussion of past experiences or written autobiographies.
Home visits.
Checking project records and cumulative records.
Providing check lists on situations for the expression of present interests.
Observation of present practices.
Social distance scales or social acceptance scale.
Checking anecdotal records of significant behavior.
Using problem check lists.
Value analysis.
Checking against standards that have been set up.
Using paper-pencil tests.

On-going appraisal may be at significant times and may consist of the following:
Keeping anecdotal records of significant behavior.
Checking activities of student to note progress and improvement.
Checking "logs" kept by students.
Using same check list a second time to note progress.
Continuing conferences and visits.
Interpretation of data tests.
Keeping project records.
Problem solving situations.
Taking field trips and educational excursions and noting student's reaction.
Using paper-pencil tests.
Methods and techniques which may be used at various stages are also applic-
able in evaluation following the completion of a unit or a semester's work.
Additional evaluation methods and techniques are:
Observation of student practices in assuming responsibility.
Through home visits or conferences with students or parents observation of
extent to which student has made improvement in areas or units studied.

Final check of problem check list.
Class reports and home project reports.
Practical tests of skill and understanding of techniques in areas or units
Paper-pencil tests.
Interviews with students.
Rating or evaluating of end products such as dresses, special meals, and
Checking records in other departments which afforded good situations to
exhibit or practice certain behavior.
Checking reading interests as shown by record in library.
Checking health records which may include health standards, habits, and
Evaluating interest shown in activities and clubs.

Below are listed some of the newer devices for continuous evaluation.

1. Personality Progress Folders.
This device allows a student to keep his own progress report. This
report may consist of figure correction charts, food and health charts,
anecdotal records (student prepared) of personality clashes and quirks
corrected, and any written work of which he is proud. This progress
folder is most helpful in guidance work.

2. Keeping a Department Checkboard.
On this checkboard the students list repairs and improvements needed
in the department to make it more useful and livable. They work co-
operatively in carrying out those suggestions which they can do, and
make recommendations to the maintenance supervisor for others.
This checkboard should be a cumulative one in order for the student to
gain a sense of accomplishment as suggestions are carried through,
priorities established, and next steps decided upon.

3. Development of a Teen-Age Code for Parents and Youth.
This is especially helpful in correlating personal problems, moral prob-
lems, and problems of family relations. Each student may have a
number of problems in these areas which disturb him. These problems
may be written out by individuals and compiled by a student commit-
tee. Student and parent groups meeting in separate sessions may arrive
at satisfactory solutions to these problems, and then come together to
reconcile their beliefs. Student groups are usually more critical of
themselves than are the parents, but the give-and-take and compromise
necessary for satisfactory solutions are conducive to growth in both

4. The production of Films and Film Strips.
Important for both motivation and evaluation in the fields of grooming,
food service, and home decoration are pictures of finished products. A
student achieves satisfaction if he models the finished product in a
film. Many communities have amateur photographers who will pro-
vide the equipment and assist in technical phases of production.


The homemaking teacher is equipped by her training, experience, and knowl-
edge of family situations to integrate the family life activities in the community
with the school program. She has both an opportunity and a responsibility for
developing and interpreting the homemaking program in cooperation with
others. While she is the key person in the school in homemaking education,
she is most effective when she includes others concerned in the planning, de-
veloping, and evaluating of experiences for which the school assumes responsi-
bility. Through home visits, conferences, and adult teaching the homemaking
teacher gains information which she may share with other school personnel,
thus enriching the school guidance program. Inter-departmental planning is
important and homemaking teachers may share in school responsibilities which
are not specifically the responsibility of any one department. Homemaking
students have many opportunities to learn through service to others. It is im-
portant that such experiences have real value for the learner. Cooperative
planning for the best use of the homemaking department by the day school
teacher, a teacher of adults, other faculty members or student groups, and civic
groups will clarify the responsibilities of each for scheduling, and for use and
care of the rooms and equipment.

In addition to the understanding and shared responsibility resulting when
groups plan together and carry out those plans with evaluation and change as
needed, there is the public relations program which makes possible continuing
financial and moral support of homemaking education. People less directly
concerned with the actual operation of the program are entitled to continuing
interpretation of the program as it develops.

Many ways of keeping the public informed are possible. All good ways should
be used. Newspaper articles, radio programs, television programs, displays,
exhibits, and assembly or other school programs may be effective in reaching
large numbers. Future Homemakers of America and New Homemakers of
America are organized with many possibilities for good public relations. It is
assumed that each homemaking teacher will make every effort to organize a
chapter if one is not already active.




Homemaking education has a contribution to make to the total educational
program. This contribution is possible because of the scope of the field of
knowledge basic to home economics. Homemaking education provides oppor-
tunities for an individual to acquire special learning, skills, and abilities in
homemaking and in addition, it has a contribution to make to the solution of
the common and persistent problems of all individuals of all age levels.

Throughout the elementary school are found many opportunities for including
valuable experiences in homemaking education. The child of elementary school
age is learning to acquire skills and abilities in group living, in getting along
with age-mates, and in sharing home and community facilities. He will profit
by experiences in which his ability to solve everyday living problems is de-
veloped. Many class activities are designed to increase his knowledge, skill,
and ability in the areas of health and safety, food selection, grooming and per-
sonal cleanliness, and in the care of younger children. All of these learning
experiences and many more related to homemaking education, prepare the
child for worthy home and community membership.

Homemaking education has a significant contribution to make to the core pro-
gram at any age level. Since the core includes those learning experiences which
are basic for all students there are many common and persistent problems in the
field of homemaking which must be included. Any group interested in develop-
ing a core program should be cognizant of the potential contribution the home-
making education teacher can make to the core program. The bulletin "Every-
day Living" developed by the Florida Department of Education offers helpful
suggestions for those individuals interested in planning core experiences for
junior high school students. This bulletin includes many problem areas related
to homemaking education.

Adult education is considered an important part of the total homemaking
education program. Suggestions for learning experiences which may be used
to help adults to solve their homemaking problems may be found in this Guide.


The Future Homemakers of America is the national organization of homemak-
ing education students in junior and senior high schools of the United States
and the Territories. The New Homemakers of America is the similar national
organization of Negro homemaking education students in the junior and senior
high schools in the states having separate schools for Negroes. The Future
Homemakers of America and the New Homemakers of America offer unique
opportunities for the accomplishment of the goals of the homemaking education
program. Some ways in which the activities of these organizations may be
integrated and correlated with the total homemaking education program are:

As an extension and enrichment of the classroom learning experiences.
As a stimulating and motivating factor for classroom experiences.
As a means of providing incentive and greater recognition for directed
home experience through using them to meet the requirements for the
various Degrees of Achievement.
As a means of offering students an opportunity to contribute to their
families and homes, to participate in community projects for the better-
ment of family life, to gain leadership abilities, and to develop desirable
personal qualities.
As an effective instrument of measuring progress toward the goals of the
total homemaking education program.
As a means of interpreting the homemaking education program to the
homes, the school, and the community through the publicity gained from
the activities and accomplishments of the Future Homemakers of America
and the New Homemakers of America.

The Future Homemakers of America and the New Homemakers of America
Chapter Guides, the Adviser's Handbook, and other information which may be
helpful to chapters may be secured from the Home Economics Section, of the
State Department of Education.


Area Seventh Eighth Ninth

Child Care Learning to enjoy and Learning how the baby grows and develops
and care for children Applying knowledge of care and development of
Development children to help me care for them

Clothing Learning to keep myself neat and Learning to improve my groom- Understanding the value of good grooming as con-
and clean ing practices from the artistic tributing to my personal attractiveness
Textiles Learning coordination in simple viewpoint Understanding how to make good choices in choosing
hand and machine sewing Learning to improve my appear- clothes for myself, using only my fair share of the
ance by choosing and wearing family clothing budget
becoming clothes Learning to work with others in the clothing room
Learning sewing skills by mak- Learning techniques in constructing and evaluating a
ing simple garments simple garment

Food and Learning to choose foods that Choosing foods that contribute to good health and at-
Nutrition make me alert and attractive tractive appearance
Doing my share in making the Understanding the part food plays in fostering good
family mealtime a pleasant family relations
occasion Learning to use and care for kitchen equipment
Learning simple preparation of Storing foods at home and school safely
Protecting food and equipment from household pests
Spending our food dollar effectively
Preserving and conserving foods

Health, Home Sharing with family members in
Safety and caring for illness in the home
Home Care of
the Sick

Housing Making the homemaking depart- Sharing responsibility in care of the home and the
ment more home-like department
Learning and doing my part in Understanding how one's house can contribute to
the care of the department and satisfactory family life
of my home
Helping to keep my surroundings Learning to make one's home safe
sanitary and safe Learning to do simple home repairs
Learning to cope with housing problems which are
due to climatic conditions
Sharing in use and care of kitchen
Helping to make home surroundings attractive
Learning to make specific rooms attractive, functional
and convenient

Personal, Understanding factors which Learning and practicing good Understanding the factors which have contributed to my
Social and have influenced my personality manners at home, at school personal development
Family Learning to live happily with and in public places Helping family members in their personal development
Relations family and friends Extending simple home hos- Recognizing my place in the school and the com-
pitality munity
Learning how to plan, buy and
prepare for simple parties

Consumer Problems and Home Management are co-existent factors.


Homemaking II, Grades 10, 11 and 12 Homemaking III, Grades 11, 12 Modem Family Living for Grade 12

Prerequisite: HM I Prerequisites: HM I and II Prerequisite: Senior status for girls and boys.
Girls will have had Homemaking I.

Planning for the baby (including pre-natal Learning to be a good parent
and post-natal care) Understanding communities' responsibility and
Understanding baby care and development concern for child welfare
Planning with family members to meet the
needs of the baby

Developing ability to care for machine and to Choosing and caring for my clothing in order Planning family clothing budgets
use attachments to extend clothing dollar Selecting ready-made clothing
Developing ability to make simple alterations Making suitable accessories and related crafts Studying labels and fabrics
Developing ability to construct garments apply- Increasing skill in clothing construction in Choosing suitable clothing for the occasion
ing improved skills order to sew for myself and others
Developing ability to select and wear accessories Increasing appreciation of the newer trends
appropriately in textiles and clothing
Developing skills in fabric care Becoming able to make more complex alter-
Recognizing the part clothing contributes to actions
emotional security and social acceptance

Developing ability to apply nutritional knowl- Adapting knowledge of food conservation to Understanding food needs of family members
edge to meal planning special problems Planning for short-cuts in meal preparation
Developing ability to preserve family's food Applying nutritional knowledge to prevent diet Marketing for food for a beginning family
Developing ability to plan aesthetic and prac- deficiencies Developing social graces in all food experiences
tical meals in attractive setting Assuming responsibility for more advanced prob- Understanding how to buy and use kitchen
Improving work habits to increase efficiency in lems of food preparation and management equipment
use of time and resources in meal planning Choosing suitable table appointments Sharing experience in food preparation and
and preparation Understanding the responsibility of the corn- simple hospitality, both boys and girls
Using home kitchen equipment effectively munity for maintaining standards of sanita-
Developing skill in food preparation and food tion for food
service and storage Planning for utilization of native products in
Entertaining age mates in a simple way in the meal patterns
home Developing the cultural aspects of food prep-
Using community resources for enrichment aration and service
Recognizing opportunity for careers in foods

Assuming some of the responsibility of the per- Realizing the relations of good health to happy
sonal and family health marriage
Assuming home care of the sick Understanding the reasons for dangers of in-
Assuming responsibility for accident prevention dulgence in tobacco, alcohol and narcotics
Using medicine cabinet and providing for Recognizing that all family members have a
emergency situations responsibility for good family health

Understanding how to make a livable home Realizing the value of good housing to family
Applying art principles to achieve home beau- relations
tification Selecting a dwelling to meet housing needs of
Selecting, arranging, and caring for furnishings a family
and equipment Developing the ability to improve, renovate, or
Developing skills in home improvement improvise furnishings, in order to make a
Planning for safety in the home home in any dwelling
Understanding problems involved in buying or
building and furnishing a home for enjoyable
Developing an understanding of citizenship as
it applies to housing

Understanding ourselves and others Expanding our social world
Achieving harmonious social relations with age Understanding of roles of individuals as family
mates of both sexes members
Developing desirable social graces Understanding role of the family in the com-
Becoming better family member munity
Understanding dating as a tool for creating
successful marriage
Making the most of family resources
Creating a happy home








Getting acqainted with each other is important to boys
and girls. How to choose and make friends, and how to
be a good friend are major concerns.
The pupil should be helped to recognize the contributions
he can make to family living. He should be made aware
of the need for sharing. It is important that the pupil see
the possibilities for fun at home and think of his home as
a social center for his friends.

An Introduction to Personal, Social,
and Family Relations:
Living Happily with Family and
Who Am I?
Clothing and Textiles:
Get Ready! Get Set! Sew!
My Share in Caring for the Home

The teacher should know as much as possible about the Food and Nutrition:
pupils with whom she will be working. It is suggested It's Time to Eat
that this unit be introduced early in the school year to help I
establish friendly and understanding relationships with the boys and girls. Through the infor-
mality of the homemaking class the teacher has an excellent opportunity for guidance.
To become orientated to the new conditions of junior high school living.
To learn how to make and keep friends.
To realize the value of many friends as compared with one friend.
To become familiar with the responsibilities and interests of all members of the family.
To assume a share of home responsibilities.
To acquire a greater satisfaction from living in one's own home.
To realize that the family can enjoy one another's company.
Interest Approaches:
Trip through the homemaking rooms.
Contest on learning names of classmates and teachers, and parts of the school building.
Cartoons and comics on family living from the newspaper, such as "Gasoline Alley," "Boots
and Her Buddies," and "Priscilla's Pop."
Question boxes in which the students may place questions concerning problems they would
like discussed in this unit.
Discussion on books or movies depicting home and family life.


PR oBLEMay Lela oei hsNw EAnvir nGm e XPEIECE

The school building

The courses offered

The pupils

The faculty

The school and
classroom regulations

The school activities
and organizations

Tour the school building and grounds.
On the chalkboard, draw a map of the school building, showing the plan of
rooms, offices, library, and other important features.
Tour the Homemaking Department, discovering how and when each area is
Study the courses offered in the 7th, 8th, and 9th grades.
Discuss possible opportunities for learning experiences to be included in the
7th, 8th, and 9th grade homemaking courses. Learn other homemaking
teachers' names.
Become acquainted with classmates through "buzz" sessions.
Plan and carry out a "get-acquainted party."
Collect data about yourself; include such items as home activities, number in
family, distance from school, and ages of all family members.
Plan a contest on learning names of teachers.
Invite an upper class officer or member of the student council to explain the
school regulations.
Prepare a question box so class members may drop in questions about the
Invite the president of the Future Homemakers or the New Homemakers of
America chapter to speak to the group on the chapter purposes and activities.
Discuss briefly the other clubs in the school.

< : How Con I Improve My Study Practice?

Conditions for study

Study habits

Value of many friends

Qualities of a good

Present a skit showing poor and good study conditions.
Classify and list on the chalkboard, "Good and Poor Study Habits."
Discuss successful study methods you have used and compile a list of practices
to be explored and reported on later.

List qualities that you think are really important in a friend. Check one's
own qualifications for being a friend.
Experiment to see the reaction which results from being cordial, acting as if
you were indifferent, using "catty" remarks, and smiling.



How Can I Make New Friends ?

Ifth 9909

Acceptance of
individual rights
and differences

Friendliness and

Try giving five compliments each day and notice the results.
For a specified time call people by name when speaking to them. Notice the
Cite examples of ways international friendships have developed as a result of
wars and air travel.
Make a list of "do's" and don'tt" for making friends.

How Can I Keep Friends?

Be friendly
Be interested in
Be dependable
Be sincere

Be understanding
Be loyal

What Does Place of esidence Have to Dowith Making Friends




Set up rules for borrowing.
Do role-playing on problems related to loyalty to friends.
Describe a friendship of your mother's or father's and tell why it has lasted.

List the number of your close friends whose parents are close friends of your
Draw a map showing where your close friends live.
Compare the advantages of living in a rural and urban home for developing
Survey the community to see what organizations exist through which one may
make new friends.

1 How Do Homes Differ?



Bring to class and read poems about the home.
Debate: "The Homes of Yesterday Were Better Than The Homes of Today."
Display on the tack board pictures of family life, "Today and Yesterday."
View and discuss a film such as "Heredity."
Discuss the patterns of family living and food and eating habits of people from
different countries, and their contribution to the American way of life.
Bring to class choice foreign recipes. Plan to use them later or compile into a
a cook book.

The importance of
my home

What does my
home do for me?
What do I care for
my home?

Recognizing the
rights of other family
Being pleasant and
Sharing family

Invite a person from a foreign country to speak to the class on family customs
in his country.

Make a list of the things you do for your home and the things the home does for

Work out a check list to use in evaluating one's self as a worthy family member.
Use role-playing techniques on problems of sharing.
List the things that family members do that annoy you. List the things you do
annoy others. Make plans to eliminate friction at home.
View and discuss a film on family life such as "Friendship Begins at Home."
Present a panel on how to be a considerate family member.
Take part in debate pertaining to the allocation of various home responsibilities.

GHw M 1 Have Fun With My Fomily? S

Sharing and caring Bring in pictures from magazines showing families doing things together and
for pets display on a tack board or show with an opaque projector.
Sharing family life Collect games that can be played by the whole family. Practice playing some
Planning for leisure games. Make games to use at home.
time and recreation Plan to give mother a holiday by assuming the housekeeping duties.
Summer vacation Plan for celebrating some special day as a birthday, Christmas, Easter, or other
Special days and occasion.
family celebrations Report on the way you acquired and the way you take care of your pet.

Hospitality in the
Courtesies at home
Family fun
Outdoor picnic or
Games at home

Conduct a buzz session pertaining to entertaining guests at home.
Make plans for receiving visitors in the homemaking department.
Demonstrate courtesies which younger people should show older people.
Plan an evening's entertainment at home for the family.
Plan an outdoor entertainment for families without adequate home space for

What Is My Part in Making My Home Happy?

Culminating Activities:
Have a "Hobby Night" having the entire families participate.
Cooperate in making a scrapbook of suggestions for games, refreshments, and the kinds of
fun families can have together.
Sponsor an international party in communities where a number of different nationalities are


Bailard, Virginia, and Strang, Ruth. Ways to Improve Your Personality. New York: McGraw-
Hill Book Co., Inc. 1951.
Baxter, Laura, Justin, Margaret, and Rust, Lucile. Sharing Family Living. New York: J. B.
Lippincott Co. 1951.
Betz, Betty. Your Manners Are Showing. New York: Grossett and Dunlap, Inc. 1949.
Greer, Carlotta C. Your Home and You. New York: Allyn and Bacon. 1950.
Landis, Judson T., and Landis, Mary G. Building Your Life. New York: Prentice-Hall Inc.
McDermott, Irene, and Nicholas, Florence W. Homemaking For Teen-Agers. Peoria: Chas.
A. Bennett Co., Inc. 1951.
Randolph, Helen, Pixley, Erma, Duggan, Dorothy, and McKinney, Fred. You and Your Life.
Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. 1951.
Strain, Frances. Teen Days. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, Inc. 1946.

Bricker, Harry, and Witty, Paul. You Can Read Better. Chicago: Science Research Associ-
ates, Inc. 1951.
Dimond, Stanley E. Citizenship for Boys and Girls. Chicago: Science Research Associates, Inc.
Neugarten, Bernice L. How to Get Along With Others. Chicago: Science Research Associ-
ates, Inc. 1953.
Neugarten, Bernice, and Misner, Paul. Getting Along in School. Chicago: Science Research
Associates, Inc. 1951.
Riper, C. Van. You Can Talk Better. Chicago: Science Research Associates, Inc. 1953.
Ullman, Frances. Life With Brothers and Sisters. Chicago: Science Research Associates, Inc.
Whiteside-Taylor, Katharine. Getting Along with Parents. Chicago: Science Research Associ-
ates, Inc. 1952.

Are You Popular-10 minutes, sound, Coronet.
Controlling Your Emotions-13 minutes, sound, Coronet.
Developing Friendships-10 minutes, sound, Coronet.
Family Life-10 minutes, sound, Coronet.
Friendship Begins at Home-14 minutes, sound. Audio-Visual Service, Florida State University,
Tallahassee, Florida.

Fun of Making Friends-12 minutes, sound, Coronet.
Heredity and Environment-11 minutes, sound, Coronet. Audio-Visual Service, Florida State
University, Tallahassee, Florida.
Homework: Studying On Your Own-14 minutes, sound, Coronet.
How To Study-10 minutes, sound, Coronet.
Improve Your Personality-10 minutes, sound, Coronet.
Improve Your Reading-10 minutes, sound, Coronet.
Learning Through Cooperative Planning-20 minutes, sound, Teaching Film Custodians.
You and Your Family-8 minutes, sound. Audio-Visual Service, Florida State University, Talla-
hassee, Florida.
You and Your Parents-14 minutes, sound, Coronet.

This unit should present opportunities for learning experiences having as their goals the develop-
ment of personality and acceptable social behavior with friends and family.

To cultivate a wholesome personality.
To understand one's personal development.
To develop a plan for individual personality improvement based on one's social needs.
To use acceptable social customs naturally.
To gain some understanding of why people act as they do.

Interest Approaches:
Prepare a tack board showing examples of good and poor posture, "Postures
(Stick figure or pipe cleaners are effective for this type of arrangement.)
Class interviews mothers as to what is meant by the following expressions:
"Pretty is as pretty does."
"Beauty is only skin deep."
"You can smile with your eyes."


How Does My Family Explain Me to Myself?

on Parade."

Likeness to relatives
Places we have lived
Family customs
Family beliefs,
values, and attitudes

Display baby pictures or family pictures to compare likenesses.
Write a brief autobiography as a means of recording places lived, family cus-
toms, and other significant facts.
Make a map of all the places class members have lived.
Have reports pertaining to unusual family customs from class members who
have lived in other places.


Standards Compare the possessions and experiences of a girl living in a rural area with
Customs those of a girl living in an urban center. Give the advantages of each.
Relate some habits and customs in your family that would be desirable for a
Religion guest to understand.
Speech Conduct a symposium involving a boy and a girl to discuss the contribution a
Feeling of security boy and a girl can make to the home when both parents are working.

How Will I Change As I Grow Up?

Physically Invite a doctor to speak to the boys about their physical development.
Mentally Show a film on menstruation.
Emotionally Discuss problems of such a typical adolescent radio or television personality as
Henry Aldrich.
Socially Present short skits depicting childish behavior for young teen-agers.

Desirable traits and Prepare a tack board showing examples of good and bad habits.
Discuss ways to develop good habits and break undesirable habits.
Habit formation
Using a personality check sheet rate yourself, and have others rate you.
Relation of
personality traits to Choose a bad habit to eliminate and a good habit to substitute.
choice of friends Have a day of smiling and speaking; have a day of not smiling or speaking.
Respect for Notice the difference.
individual differences

How Do People Judge Me?

Manners Present a skit on acceptable manners.
Use a tape recorder to see how your voice sounds to others.
Bring in articles from the school paper, magazines, and newspapers which give
Conversation a basis for conversation. Practice conversing in groups.

Grooming Cite examples of how we judge people by the way they look.
Posture Discuss the slogan, "Pretty is as pretty does."
Personality Show film, "Shy-Guy."

Culminating Activity:
Present a skit dealing with social behavior in an assembly or chapter meeting of the Future
Homemakers of America or the New Homemakers of America.

Baxter, Laura, Justin, Margaret, and Rust, Lucile. Sharing Family Living. New York: J. B.
Lippincott Co. 1951.
Beery, Mary. Manners Made Easy. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc. 1949.
Betz, Betty. Your Manners Are Showing. New York: Grossett and Dunlap, Inc. 1949.
Billett, Roy C., and Yeo, J. Wendell. Growing Up. Boston: D. C. Heath and Co. 1951.
Randolph, Helen, Pixley, Erma, Duggan, Dorothy, and McKinney, Fred. You and Your Life.
Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. 1951.
Strain, Frances. Teen Days. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, Inc. 1946.
Van Duzer, A. L., and Others. The Girl's Daily Life. New York: J. B. Lippincott Co. 1951.

Bauernfeind, Robert, and Remmers, Hermann. Your Problems: How to Handle Them. Chicago:
Science Research Associates, Inc. 1953.
Berry, Mary. Guide to Good Manners. Chicago: Science Research Associates, Inc. 1952.
Dimond, Stanley E. You and Your Problems. Chicago: Science Research Associates, Inc. 1952.
Neugarten, Bernice L. How You Grow. Chicago: Science Research Associates, Inc. 1951.
Stephenson, Margaret, and Millett, Ruth. As Others Like You. Bloomington: McKnight and
McKnight. 1947.
Stephenson, Margaret, and Millett, Ruth. How Do You Do. Bloomington: McKnight and Mc-
Knight. 1938.

Care of the Skin-11 minutes, sound, Encyclopedia Britanica Films, Inc.
Developing Your Character-10 minutes, sound, Coronet.
Feeling Left Out-14 minutes, sound, Coronet.
Good Table Manners-10 minutes, sound Coronet.
How Honest Are You?-10 minutes, sound, Coronet.
Mind Your Manners-10 minutes, sound, Coronet.
Self-Conscious Guy-10 minutes, sound, Coronet.
Shy-Guy-14 minutes, sound, Coronet.
Social Courtesy-10 minutes, sound, Coronet.
Story of Menstruation-10 minutes, sound, Film Library, Division of Health Information, Florida
State Board of Health, Jacksonville, Florida.

For most boys and girls, entering the junior high school represents an experience in a new envir-
onment among new friends. Personal appearance is noticed by others, and if it is satisfactory, the
boy or girl is accorded status in the group. Therefore, personal appearance may be a concern
of these boys and girls and they will be interested in opportunities for learning experiences in
good grooming. Practices in personal cleanliness should be emphasized and desirable habits
should be formed.
Care and minor repair of clothing is an integral part of good grooming. As basic to all future
clothing construction, the pupil should learn to use with some degree of success, the equipment
for hand sewing and for machine sewing.

To keep self and clothes clean with the least expenditure of time, effort, and money.
To practice simple ways of caring for clothing.
To practice minor repairs of clothing.
To make the most of one's looks.
To acquire a sense of responsibility for one's personal grooming.
To use equipment required in hand and machine stitching.
To select a clothing construction project related to good grooming.
To do successfully the following:
Straighten edge of material by pulling thread.
Prepare fabric by shrinking and straightening selvedge.
Use proper procedures in cutting thread.
Thread needle and knot thread.
Use sewing machine with some degree of skill.
Use thimble, pins, shears, tape measures, and gauge.
Stay-stitch the pieces of a garment.
Baste and hem, using needle and sewing machine.
Tie thread at the end of stitching.
Sew on buttons and fastenings.
Press seams.
To enjoy one's experiences in sewing.

Interest Approaches:
Use the caption, "Helps for That Well-Scrubbed Look," for an attractive poster and display
actual articles to be used as a kit for good grooming.
Collect, organize, and display grooming materials.
Study the year's calendar of events for the school and suggest grooming experiences in
preparation for school events.
Place a full-length mirror in an accessible location where pupils often pass. Notice the
comments of pupils and suggest ways to meet expressed needs in grooming and clothing
Use the film strip, "As Others See You."
Invite a capable beautician to discuss "Teen-Age Grooming."



Body odors

Use of deodorants
Deodorant made at

Care of feet

Care of hair
Kinds of soap

Care of teeth
Materials needed
Correct way to
brush teeth

Care of hands
Hand lotion made
at home

Clothing clean
Clothing pressed
Hemline even
Fastenings secure
Socks darned
Holes and rips in
clothing repaired
Hair neat

Care of shoes

Artistic combination
of clothing designs
and fabrics

Collect, organize, and display materials to be kept on hand for emergency
grooming at school.

Plan and make a variety of personal grooming kits for use at home.

Discuss the problems relevant to regular bathing at home. Discuss possible
improvement in bathing facilities.

Demonstrate the use of deodorants, including those made at home.

Demonstrate helpful foot exercises and a pedicure.

Demonstrate good ways to give a shampoo.

Demonstrate hair brushing.

Demonstrate the ways to clean a brush and comb.
Discuss the importance of using one's own comb, instead of borrowing one.
This may be done by touching a few combs to a sterile solution of agar-agar
(may be prepared by science department) placed in a petri dish which is cov-
ered and placed in a warm place for the micro-organisms to grow. The same
thing may be done at the same time for nail biting or the habit of putting vari-
ous articles in the mouth.
Demonstrate correct ways to brush teeth.
Demonstrate the methods of caring for hands. File own nails.
Make plans for the regular care of one's hands including the prevention of
chapping, shaping nails, and the care of the cuticle.
Carry out a project to break the nail-biting habit when needed.
Plan a weekly schedule to include the regular use of grooming articles as
practiced in class. Set up a clever evaluation sheet.
Demonstrate laundering undergarments and socks.
Demonstrate pressing a cotton blouse, shirt, skirt, or dress.
Discuss and demonstrate, "Does your posture affect your hemline?" Check
hemlines and make alterations in class.
Discuss and demonstrate ways to keep purses neat and in order.
Discuss and demonstrate care of shoes.
Prepare and present a skit which deals with good and bad grooming practices.
After some practice with hand sewing equipment, demonstrate patching and
Bring to class clothing in need of simple repairs and make these repairs.



^^^^^^^^^^^^^S~^SSow vw Conn 11 Look My Best?^^

Whatwig Equipment.Will Help'Me to Leamn to Sew?

Necessary equipment
for individual use
Sewing box
Tape measure

Make a display of sewing equipment. Discuss the advantages and disadvan-
tages of the various kinds of equipment.

Set up some criteria for the selection of sewing equipment and demonstrate
the use of each article to be included.

Assemble suitable personal sewing equipment, label, and arrange conveniently
and neatly for class use.

.~ iiia

Laundry bag
Shoe bag
Cosmetic case
Hand towel
Duffel bag (boys)

Discuss suitable construction projects which will assist grooming practices and
will give experience in hand sewing. Select projects of interest to boys and
At frequent intervals groups may practice to improve their skills in pin-basting
and holding a needle. At different stages of accomplishment individuals move
to "higher level" tables.

How Can I Learn to Use the Sewing Machine?

Parts of machine Plan a certificate of achievement ("License to Operate") to be given to class
Threading machine members who can successfully operate sewing equipment.
Winding bobbin Divide into teams and have a relay race to thread the sewing machine.

W at ril a I M ak on th SeigMcie

Suggested projects:
Beach bag
Hobby apron

Make a simple apron of cotton fabric which will use the construction tech-
niques suggested for this grade level.
Make a halter from a triangular piece of cotton fabric. A large bandana, cut
diagonally, may be used.
Make a beach bag of scrap material, avoiding terry cloth.

Culminating Activities:
Have a simple open house or tea, giving demonstrations or displaying articles or posters
made in this and previous units. Present skits on grooming as part of the entertainment.

(The teaching aids suggested at the end of the unit, "It's Smart to be Good Looking," may
help to augment the learning experiences offered in this unit.)


Girls and boys in junior high school have a part in the care of their homes. It is important that
they develop attitudes and skills which will make these home responsibilities happy experiences.
When girls and boys are given opportunities to share in the planning and doing of the family
tasks, they will have a greater sense of responsibility and a desire to do the job well. This shar-
ing of household tasks makes them contributing members of the family and helps toward a sense
of family unity.
There is often a great difference in economic levels and in the appreciations regarding order and
cleanliness among families in the same community. To make this unit practical for every pupil,
the teacher needs to know as much as possible about the homes in the community.
Through the learning experiences in this unit the teacher will have many opportunities to work
with pupils and community members in developing desirable standards of housing and family

To recognize the place of housing in satisfying family living.
To improve my own room.
To learn better ways of keeping my closet and dresser drawers orderly.
To make my home a safer place in which to live.
To become familiar with the arrangement of equipment and the types of facilities within the
homemaking department.
To assume some responsibility in the care and improvement of the homemaking department.
To practice at home the housekeeping methods learned at school.

Interest Approaches:
Each pupil bring to class articles of equipment used in the care of the home, and make an
exhibit with captions, "Do you know what this is?", "Do you know how to use this?"
Present a parent-pupil panel on "How a junior high school pupil can help at home."
Exhibit a well-arranged dresser, dresser drawer, or closet.
Take a tour of the homemaking department. Notice the arrangement of the furnishings, the
placement of the equipment, and the storage facilities.

How Can We Make Our Homemaking Department More Homelike?

Arranging flowers
and pictures


Arranging of the
furniture in living
area for family living

Arranging tack
boards and other
interest centers

Caring for my own
housing needs

Making beds

Storing clothes

Meeting personal
grooming needs

Sharing in the care of
the entire house
Cleaning the
Cleaning the floors
Cleaning the

Make a list of the things which make a place homelike. Secure opinions from
people outside the class. From these lists decide by means of buzz sessions
what things can be done to make the homemaking department more home-
like and attractive. Plan to make these changes in the department.
Arrange in different kinds of containers, flowers and native materials brought
by the class members. Combine each arrangement with several types of back-
grounds and materials to get a pleasing effect.
Make flower containers from cans, bottles, and jars.

Plant flowers at school or at home for school use.
Small groups make plans and re-arrange the furniture in the department to get
a more homelike atmosphere.
List the activities required for the daily and occasional care of the department,
and make plans for sharing these responsibilities throughout the year.

Discover by reading, observation, or discussion the reasons for and characteris-
tics of a well-made bed.

Invite a young man who has been in the Military Service to demonstrate making
a bed. Make a check list for a well-made bed and practice making a bed at
school and then at home. Score your bed by the check list for a well-made bed.

Keep a record of the time it takes you to make your bed and try to shorten the
time it takes.
Conduct a panel discussion concerning problems in clothing storage. Decide
possible ways to meet these clothing storage needs.
Make a clothes closet or dressing table from apple boxes or orange crates.
At home or in a schoolroom, arrange some low hooks for children's clothing.
Plan to meet storage needs at home by making a tooth brush holder, shoe bag,
laundry bag, or by partitioning dresser drawers.
Demonstrate and practice good techniques of cleaning.
Demonstrate and practice proper procedures for cleaning the bathroom.
Make plans to help with specific cleaning tasks at home and report to the class
as to the time, materials, and methods you used.



^^^^*^^^ How^ Ca ITK^~ Enjofiyi SaingTTTM in ^PTuthe Car of My Home? ^^^^^^^

What Can I Do to Make My Home More Satisfying for My Family?

personality in

Developing home

Using flowers

Sharing family

Providing privacy

Invite a person to talk to the class about a hobby or particular interest ar-
ranged for in his home.
Bring small collections or hobbies to school. Arrange a place to display hob-
bies in the homemaking department. Set up some qualifications for a desirable
Suggest ways and places for carrying on and sharing hobbies at home. Carry
out these suggestions at home.
Invite a garden club member to demonstrate flower arrangements for home use.
Visit a florist and observe flower arrangements.
Arrange flowers at home.
Pupils and parents have a panel discussion about the use of possessions a fam-
ily must share such as the piano, radio, television, record player, games, living
room, and bathroom. Include in the discussion the things one does not share
such as clothing or personal grooming items.
Through buzz sessions suggest ways in which the family members may have
their needed privacy, such as grandma's chair on the front porch, daddy's tools,
and sister's shell collection.

What. Ca I Do toM k yH m-ae lc nW iht ie

Causes of home
Safety practices in
the home
First aid supplies

Bring to class newspaper clippings of home accidents. Discuss ways these ac-
cidents could have been prevented.
Present a skit on home safety.
Make plans for eliminating safety hazards in your home.
Set up a minimum first aid kit. Plan a safe place for first aid supplies at home.
Demonstrate safety practices in labeling medicine bottles.
Label bottles in the medicine cabinet at home.

Culminating Activities:
Plan and carry out the cleaning of a room in the school.
At an assembly program present a skit on safety.

Balderston, Lydia Ray. Housekeeping Workbook. New York: J. B. Lippincott Co. 1944.
Baxter, Laura, Justin, Margaret, and Rust, Lucile. Sharing Family Living. New York: J. B.
Lippincott Co, 1951,

Craig, Hazel, and Rush, Ola Day. Homes With Character. Boston: D. C. Heath and Co. 1952.
Crouse, William H. Home Guide to Repair, Upkeep, and Remodeling. New York: McGraw-
Hill Book Company. 1947.
Harris, Florence, and Kauffman, Treva. Young Folks At Home. Boston: D. C. Heath and Co.
McDermott, Irene, and Nicholas, Florence. Homemaking For Teen-Agers. Peoria: Chas. A.
Bennett Co., Inc. 1951.

Dearborn, Ned, and Andrews, Bill. Your Safety Handbook. Chicago: Science Research As-
sociates, Inc. 1952.
Watkins, John V. Annual Flowers. Gainesville: Agricultural Extension Service. 1950.

Family Affair-20 minutes, sound, Teaching Film Custodians.
Family Teamwork-18 minutes, sound, Frith Films.
Kitchen Safety-11 minutes, sound, Young America.
Safety Begins At Home-Film Library, Division of Health Information, Florida State Board of
Health, Jacksonville, Florida.
Sharing Work At Home-10 minutes, sound, Coronet.
What Price Happiness? (Safety in the Home)-9 minutes, sound, Newark Safety Council.
Your Family-10 minutes, sound, Coronet.

Film Strips:
Are You Safe At Home?-Society For Visual Edu cation.
How To Be Careful At Home-Society For Visual Education.
How To Be Careful In Our Neighborhood-Society for Visual Education.
Making Your House Livable-The Young Modem Homemaker filmstrip series. Chas. A. Ben-
nett Co., Inc.


Helping with the family meals is a household activity commonly shared by junior high school
boys and girls. Interest in the use of tools is very keen at this age. Food units can be used as
an outlet for the natural desire for manipulative experiences. The food preparation and meal
service planned should take into account the limitation of pupils experience and the length of
class periods. Careful planning accompanied by demonstrations is essential to this age group.

Desirable habits of work, orderliness, cleanliness, and good manners should be developed. Ev-
ery opportunity should be taken to emphasize the importance of pleasant family relations. De-
sirable attitudes toward nutrition and increased acceptance of foods commonly served at family
meals are anticipated outcomes of this unit.

A class organization of family groups provides for experiences in democratic living and makes
possible practice in attractive table service and approved social behavior.

To develop good food habits.
To plan, prepare, and serve simple meals.
To practice good table manners.
To understand the contribution of each family member at mealtime.
To have desirable attitudes toward home duties.
To acquire some skill in working in the kitchen.

Interest Approaches:
List superstitions about food and investigate them to stimulate interest in nutrition.
View a film, "Something You Didn't Eat."
Arrange an attractive tack board on such subjects as:
"Seven Basic Foods."
"What makes the difference?" showing signs of good and poor nutrition.
Set up an attractive breakfast table in the style most frequently used in the community.
Using food models, set up typical breakfasts eaten by some of the pupils in the class and
plan to check later in the unit for differences.
Take a practical pre-test to determine extent of knowledge about meal planning and food



Why Do We Eat?

Mental alertness
Choice of food one
eats is determined by:
What mother cooks
Foods you like
Amount of money
What parents insist
that you eat
What friends eat
Choice of food
should be determined
Body needs
Availability of

Select five persons whom you believe to be healthy. Point out characteristics
of these people as related to nutrition.
Invite a physical education director or instructor to discuss training rules for
athletes related to eating habits.
Develop a check list and evaluate your own meals for a period of several days.
Divide into seven committees, one for each of the basic seven groups. Each
committee gather information concerning the foods in the basic group chosen
by them. Present findings in a panel or skit.
Plan meals for one day in which one or two groups of the basic seven are
omitted. Exchange papers and have the missing groups detected and added to
the menu.
Discuss and study the results of eating too little or eating too much.
Investigate the origin and accuracy of common beliefs or superstitions con-
cerning food.
Discuss the social and health values of liking most foods.
Make a seasonal chart of foods grown in Florida.
Study pictures of animals and humans showing food deficiencies.
Set up an exhibit of foods that feed our teeth and bones and display so entire
school may see it.

Wha sp. C P C

Personal habits
Be on time
Be presentable in
Be cheerful in
Accept foods
Learn to like all

My contribution
Simple foods I can
Care of the kitchen
Set the table
Wash the dishes

Bring pictures showing happy family mealtime scenes. Arrange on a tack
List the household activities you now share in relation to the family's meals.
From these lists make a check sheet and keep a record of one week of your
activities in your own home.
Compile a list of ways in which junior high school pupils can contribute to
family meals.
Suggest ways mealtime may bring the family together.
Determine ways in which you may help make mealtime a pleasant family
affair in your own home.
Suggest habits of behavior that may be acquired at the family table.
Make a chart:

Foods I Like

Foods I Will Learn to Like in

Foods I Don't Like

the Next Two Months

List foods commonly prepared at home by class members.
Demonstrate the care and use of kitchen equipment.
Invite a home economist from the power or gas company to show films on the
use and care of ranges or other equipment.
Observe sanitary and efficient ways of washing the dishes; practice using these
methods in class lessons and at home.

What Things Will Help Me to Learn to Cook?

Basic information Take a pre-test on abbreviations and equivalents.
Practice accurate measurements of ingredients.
Measuring Discuss with the class reasons for the importance of accurate measurement.
Equivalents Examine recipe books and observe the abbreviations used, the ingredients
Dividing recipes called for, and the clearness of directions given.
Reading and List unfamiliar terms used in recipes and discuss their meaning.
interpreting recipes Learn abbreviations and table of measurements used in recipes.
Terms Organize into family groups; each girl participates in setting up the group in
which she is to work.

Working together in
the school kitchen

Family group

Set up laboratory rules under which the class may work smoothly and
Personal cleanliness when one is handling food.
Relation of cleanliness to health and safety.
Clothing requirements in the kitchen.
Characteristics of a desirable kitchen apron.
List the things girls are to bring from home to use in the school kitchen.
Discuss the care and storage of apron, towels, luncheon set, and recipes.
Have an apron style show.

WIW~~ Ho Ca I rpr ipeMas

Characteristics of
simple meals
Easily prepared
Low cost
Short time required
for preparation
Getting acquainted
with the school
For each food
prepared emphasize
Its place in the
Basic Seven
Daily requirements
How to care for
food at home
Simple cookery
Simple ways to
Steps in food
preparation include
Study of recipe
Decide on how the
food should look
and taste
Determine when
and how each job
should be done

Explore the homemaking department kitchen.

Plan, prepare, and serve simple meals such as:

Orange juice
Raisin toast

Scrambled eggs



Tomato stuffed with egg salad


Creamed potato



Macaroni and cheese
Congealed vegetable salad

Get supplies
Prepare and cook
Serve and eat food
Put kitchen in

Evaluate each meal served in relation to the management and the enjoyment of
the meal and make improvements as needed.

How Can I Be Well Mannered at the Table?

Simple rules of table

Simple rules of table

Topics for pleasant
conversation at the

Arrange a tack board with pictures of attractive tables suitably set for simple
Demonstrate ways of serving meals more attractively.
Demonstrate and practice approved table manners and simple table service.
Make a collection of cartoons and pictures related to good and bad table man-
ners. Use on the tack board. Consider the importance of knowing and using
good table manners.
Demonstrate and practice setting the table and serving the meal in advance
(mock service).
Set the table and assist with waiting on the table at dinner for one or two weeks
at home.
Practice interesting and pleasant conversation at the table at home.

Culminating Activities:
Prepare a simple breakfast or Sunday night supper for the family. Ask the family to eval-
uate the meal.
Invite your mothers to visit the department and observe the class at work. Serve the
mothers the food which you have prepared.
Plan, with your family, to take the responsibility at home for the daily preparation of a cer-
tain food for a period of time. Discuss plans in class. Report on the project and give
family evaluations.

Amidon, Edna, Bradbury, D. E., and Drenckhahn, V. V. Good Food and Nutrition. New York:
John Wiley and Sons, Inc. 1946.
Baxter, Laura, Justin, Margaret, and Rust, Lucile. Sharing Family Living. New York: J. B.
Lippincott Co. 1951.
Harris, J. W., and Speer, Elizabeth Lacey. Everyday Foods. New York: Houghton Mifflin
Company. 1954.
Mattimore, Jean, and Clarke. Cooking by the Clock. New York: Farrar, Straus and Company.

McDermott, Irene, Trilling, Mabel, and Nicholas, Florence. Food For Better Living. New
York: J. B. Lippincott Co. 1954.
Silver, Fern. Junior Foods and Nutrition. New York: D. Appleton-Century Company, Inc.
Wieland, Loretta. At Work in the Kitchen. Scranton: International Textbook Co. 1948.

Bauerfeind, Robert, and Remmers, Hermann. Your Problems: How to Handle Them. Chi-
cago: Science Research Associates, Inc. 1953.
Eat a Good Breakfast to Start a Good Day. United States Department of Agriculture.
Richmond, Julius. Your Health Handbook. Chicago: Science Research Associates, Inc. 1953.

Basic Seven. United States Department of Agriculture.
Cereals In Our Meals. Cereal Institute, Inc.
Food Models. Florida Citrus Commission.
Food Models. National Dairy Council.
Good and Poor Breakfasts. National Dairy Council.
Milk Completes The Meals. National Dairy Council.
Table Setting. Manual Arts Press.

Attractive painted cans for storing flour, sugar, and spices.
Bottles of various kinds of salad dressing.
Daily menus suggested by pupils for evaluation.
Demonstration table with equipment and supplies.
Display of equipment used in preparation of meals.
Display of foods in Basic Seven Food Groups.
Display of standard measuring equipment.
Equipment for cooking eggs in various ways such as skillet, poacher, baking dishes, or double
Equipment for practice in table setting.
Equipment for serving foods easily.
Food advertisements from local newspapers.
Foods which can take the place of sweets and candy, such as dried fruits.
Improvised double boiler.
One cover set for soup service.
One cover set properly with linen, silver, and dishes.
Picture of table settings, attractive meals, soup accompaniments, and attractive plate service.
Pictures of families eating together at dinner, picnics, or parties.
Pictures of luncheon tables.
Salad bowl with fork and spoon.
Several possibilities for simple table decoration.

Cooking and Measuring-11 minutes, sound, Young America.
Home Management: Buying Food-11 minutes, sound, Young America.
Man Who Missed His Breakfast-12 minutes, sound, Cooperative Film Library, University of
Florida, Gainesville, Florida.
Something You Didn't Eat-9 minutes, sound, Cooperative Film Library, University of Florida,
Gainesville, Florida.
The School That Learned To Eat-22 minutes, sound, Southern Education Film.
Why Won't Tommy Eat?-19 minutes, sound, National Film Board.

Film Strips:
Buying Fruits and Vegetables-Household Finance Corporation.
Buying Meats, Fish, Poultry and Eggs-Household Finance Corporation.
Eggs, Selection and Cookery-National Poultry Institute.
Spending Your Food Dollar-Household Finance Corporation.
Table Manners-Eye Gate House, Inc.
The Gracious Hostess-Chav A. Bennett Company and Society for Visual Education.
What Do You Know About Food?-Young America filmstrip series. Chas. A. Bennett Company,

--- 7

Social experiences play a very important part in personal
development. Through these experiences an individual de-
velops poise, assurance, and a feeling of personal worth.
All boys and girls desire to be accepted by their peers.
Working and playing together offers opportunities for young
people to know each other.
The basic rules of etiquette are essential for pleasant and
effective association with others in everyday living activities
and on special occasions. These may be discussed in this

To know and practice good manners.
To be a desirable friend.
To choose friends wisely.
To adjust to the social life of the school.
To develop self-respect and poise.







Personal, Social, and Family
Manners for Teens
Child Care and Development:
Enjoying and Caring for Children
Clothing and Textiles:
It's Smart to be Good Looking
Food and Nutrition:
Cooking for Fun
Health, Home Safety, and Home Care
of the Sick:
Helping When There Is illness at

Interest Approaches:
Plan skits in which courtesies and manners are dramatized.
View and discuss the filmstrip, "Stepping Out."
Look up origins of different social customs.
Relate your "most embarrassing moment."
Take a pre-test on manners.



Why A re One's Actios sImportant?

Importance of first

Consideration for
Knowledge of
accepted rules of

Write an account of an impression you gained when meeting a person for the
first time. Check to see if your first impression has changed.
List the factors which are involved in first impressions.
Set up some rules which, if followed, will help one make good impressions.

Dramatize making introductions, giving and accepting compliments, and being
a good listener.

Define "etiquette," "courtesy," and "knowing the rules."

. - --No

Courtesy to parents
Courtesy to parents'
Courtesy to other
family members
Older people
Young children
Rules to be observed
in class room,
assemblies, halls, and
at school events
Courtesies to
teachers, chaperones,
guests, classmates,
and strangers in the
school building
Courtesies at school

Begin a collection of cartoons in newspapers and magazines portraying inci-
dents of good or bad behavior at home or school.

Plan and carry out a program for school courtesy week.

Have a series of "Do Days", when pupils do something kind or thoughtful for
parents, for teachers, for the school, and for the community.


Am I a Shy Guy or Gal?

Boy-Girl relationships Use a question box for problems on boy-girl relationships.
Ways to feel socially See a film as, "Are You Popular?"
Ways to feel socially
at ease Discuss the advantages of having a good time with large and small groups.
Make a list of "do's" and don'tt" for boy-girl relationships.
Have a parent and pupil panel on pupils' problems, such as the time to be in
at night.

Culminating Activities:
Take a follow-up test on manners.
Plan and carry out one or several affairs, such as a tea, a birthday party, a class party, a
kitchen party, or a hobo party.


Baxter, Laura, Justin, Margaret, and Rust, Lucile. Sharing Family Living. New York: J. B.
Lippincott Co. 1951.
Beery, Mary. Manners Made Easy. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. 1949.
Betz, Betty. Your Manners Are Showing. New York: Grossett and Dunlap, Inc. 1949.
Boykin, Eleanor. This Way Please. New York: The Macmillan Company. 1948.
Daly, Maureen. Smarter and Smoother. New York: Dodd, Meade and Company, Inc. 1944.
McDermott, Irene, and Nicholas, Florence. Homemaking For Teen-Agers. Peoria: Charles A.
Bennett, Inc. 1951.
Pierce, Wellington. This Is The Life. Boston: D. C. Heath Company. 1951.
Reid, Lillian. Personality and Etiquette. Boston: D. C. Heath Company. 1950.
State Guide. Everyday Living. Tallahassee: State Department of Education.
Strain, Frances. Teen Days. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, Inc. 1946.

Bauernfeind, Robert, and Remmers, Hermann. Your Problems: How to Handle Them. Chicago:
Science Research Associates, Inc. 1953.
Beery, Mary. Guide to Good Manners. Chicago: Science Research Associates, Inc. 1952.
Hertz, Barbara Valentine. Where Are Your Manners? Chicago: Science Research Associates,
Inc. 1950.
Kirkendall, Lester, and Osborne, Ruth. Dating Days. Chicago: Science Research Associates,
Inc. 1949,
Neugarten, Bernice. How to Get Along With Others. Chicago: Science Research Associates,
Inc. 1953.

Stephenson, Margaret, and Millett, Ruth. As Others Like You. Bloomington: McKnight and
McKnight, 1947.

Act Your Age-15 minutes, sound, Coronet.
Are You Popular-10 minutes, sound, Coronet.
Courtesy Comes to Town-20 minutes, sound, Forum Films, Inc.
Dating Do's and Don't's-14 minutes, sound, Coronet.
Everyday Courtesy-10 minutes, sound, Coronet.
Good Table Manners-12 minutes, sound, Coronet.
How Do You Do?-15 minutes, sound, Young America.
Introduction-10 minutes, sound, Simmel-Meservey.
You and Your Friends-8 minutes, sound, Association Films.

Film Strips:
Good Manners at School-Eye Gate House, Inc.
Good Manners on the Street and in Public Conveyances-Eye Gate House, Inc.
Good Manners at the Movie or the Theatre-Eye Gate House, Inc.
Polish Up Your Personality-Young Modern Homemakers film strip series, Chas. A. Bennett, Co.,


Many eighth grade pupils have younger brothers and sisters at home. Many earn money caring
for children. In each case they need an understanding of children and an appreciation of the
rights of children as individuals.
Through an increased understanding of child behavior the eighth grade pupil should be better
able to find the answer to many of his own perplexities.

To increase interest in children.
To appreciate the place of children as members of the family group.
To understand one's responsibility when caring for children.
To enjoy and appreciate children as individuals.
To learn to make simple toys for children.

Interest Approaches:
Class visits a nursery school, kindergarten, or Sunday School to observe personality and play
habits of the children.
Pupils relate the earliest childhood experiences they can remember and try to determine
why this experience is remembered.
Girls who care for young children at home relate the interesting experiences and difficult
problems they have encountered.
Conduct a survey of the class to determine what responsibilities eighth grade boys and girls
have for younger brothers and sisters or other children.
Show pictures of children enjoying a number of activities.


Provision for daily

Protection from
disease and injury

Formation of good

Provision of sufficient
and suitable clothing

Observe children in a kindergarten, pre-school, Sunday School, or first grade.
Discuss all the activities you observed.

Bring to class and discuss magazine articles and books dealing with children's
interests and actions.

Discover the age at which most children are capable of doing various things
for themselves.

Observe children in the lunchroom. Notice how many bring lunches, amount
and type of food brought, and how the lunch from home is supplemented by
food in the lunchroom. Evaluate the children's food practices.

Bring to class your baby clothes and those worn by older members of your
family and observe the differences.

Collect pictures of clothes worn by children of different ages. Set up standards
of suitable clothing for children.
View the film, "Clothing for Children."

Ask the school nurse to talk to the class on immunization of children.

Make a survey to see how many children in the school or community have been
immunized against diseases common to children.

SWhat Responsibility
Do We Have When There Are Children in the Home?

Help with care

Avoid teasing or
irritating children

Respect and
safeguard the rights
of children

Be consistent in

Have a panel discussion on the rights of children.

List the things you can do for younger children in the family so that mother
will have more time for other things. Make plans to assume some of these

Debate: The care of younger children is a responsibility of older boys and
girls in the home.



Ho Ca We Gud hlrniShi ly

Give opportunity to

Help them to learn
to respect others

Help them to learn
to play alone or with

Provide suitable toys,
games, or stories

Observe children on the playground. Make a list of all activities. List them
as teacher-directed or self-directed.

Observe a child playing alone. Observe this child playing with a group.
Compare his ability to play alone with his ability to play with a group.

Through interviews, reading, and observation, secure information concerning
the value of play for children, play for different ages, and the like. Report to
the class.

Invite a librarian or some other person to discuss children's books and demon-
strate telling a story to young children. Practice telling stories to children in
the first grade.

Make some toy for a young child. Examples: Stuffed toy, picture books, box
or spool toys, or box for storing toys.

What Responsibilities Do We Have When Staying With Children?

Carry out desires of

Get definite
concerning schedules

Ascertain how to
reach parents and
whom to contact if
parents cannot be

Learn where first aid
supplies are kept

Avoid punishments

Be business-like

Be a good influence
on the child

Keep children busy
and happy

List all the information you should have when assuming responsibility for the
care of children.

See a film on baby-sitting.

Find articles in magazines, newspapers, and books on baby sitting. Discuss
the information presented.

Read the pamphlet, "You're in Charge." Present a panel discussion on the
information given.

Report on the success you have had in diverting children from unacceptable

Set up standards, rules, and requirements for the job of baby sitters.

Refer to the previous discussion of experiences members of the class have had
when caring for children, and in the light of new knowledge, decide what dif-
ferent procedures you might have used.

Plan ways of entertaining children for an afternoon. Assume this responsibility
and evaluate the experience.

Culminating Activities:
Plan and carry out a party for a group of young children.
Take care of children for mothers attending the Parent-Teachers Association meetings.
Make up a kit to take with you when you baby-sit. In the kit have things to entertain
children of various ages.

Baxter, Laura, Justin, Margaret, and Rust, Lucile. Sharing Family Living. New York: J. P.
Dippincott Company. 1951.
Goodspeed, Helen, Mason, Esther, and Woods, Elizabeth. Child Care and Guidance. New
York: J. B. Lippincott Company. 1953.
McDermott, Irene, and Nicholas, Florence. Homemaking for Teen-Agers. Peoria: Charles A.
Bennett Company. 1951.

Children's Bureau. Child Management. Washington: Federal Security Agency.
Children's Bureau. Guiding the Adolescent. Washington: Federal Security Agency.
Children's Bureau. Homemade Play Materials for the Pre-School Child. Federal Security Agency.
Children's Bureau. Infant Care. Federal Security Agency.
Children's Bureau. Prenatal Care. Federal Security Agency.
Children's Bureau. Your Child from One to Six. Federal Security Agency.
Creative Activities. Detroit: Merrill-Palmer School.
Flander, Judy. Baby-Sitters Handbook. Chicago: Science Research Associates, Inc. 1952.
For the Story Teller. New York: National Recreation Association.
Home Play. New York: National Recreation Association.
Homemade Play Apparatus. New York: National Recreation Association.
Homemade Playthings. Bulletin #360. Ithaca: Cornell University.
Homemade Toys and Play Equipment. East Lansing: Michigan State College.
Smart, Russell. Baby Sitters. Ithaca: Cornell University.
Ulmann, Frances. Life With Brothers and Sisters. Chicago: Science Research Associates, Inc.
You're in Charge. Chicago: National Safety Council, Inc.

Clothing For Children-Florida State Board of Health, Jacksonville, Florida.
Helping in the Care of Younger Children-10 minutes, sound, Coronet.
The Baby Sitter-14 minutes, sound, Young America.
Tommy's Day-15 minutes, sound, Young America.

Film Strips:
Getting Acquainted-Child Care Series, Young America.
Keeping Children Happy-Child Care Series, Young America.
Keeping Children Safe-Child Care Series, Young America.
Special Daytime Problems-Child Care Series, Young America.
Your Job as Big Brother or Sister-Young Modern Homemaker filmstrip series, Chas A. Bennett
Co., Inc.


The eighth grade girl is becoming more interested in herself as a person. At one moment she is
a tomboy, at another time a demure young lady. She is awkward and uncertain of her role and
is concerned with good grooming experiences which give her self-assurance and poise. The
teacher may approach clothing construction experiences as affording a means for making the
girl more attractive.
The boy at this age is much less interested in his appearance but is concerned that he be ac-
cepted by his age group. Embarrassment is often acute because of changing voice, skin blem-
ishes, and body odors, matters which may affect popularity and group acceptance.
Since girls and boys of the junior high school level have increasing responsibility in selecting
and purchasing their own clothing, they should be guided in making wise choices. Consumer ex-
periences in this and other homemaking areas are valuable.
In increasing the effectiveness of this unit as well as that of other units of homemaking, the
teacher has an obligation to her pupils and to her profession to be well-groomed and attractively
dressed. It is well to remember that "a picture is worth a thousand words."

To develop poise through good grooming.
To relate good health to good looks and good grooming.
To select clothing suited to one's self and to the occasion.
To improve skills of caring for clothing.
To use sewing techniques suggested for this grade level in constructing a garment for one's
self. The following techniques are suggested:
Continued practice of sewing techniques suggested for "Get Ready! Get Set! Sew!"
Use of a commercial pattern for a simple garment, to include use of the construction sheet.
Construction of tailor tacks or the use of the tracing wheel and tracing paper.
Pressing of seams as they are made.
Pinning and stitching of darts.
Application of shaped facing and bias facing.
Use of outline stitch or chain stitch in decorating garments.
Measurement of hems.
Finish of hems by turning edge, machine stitching turn, and hand hemming or machine

Interest Approaches:
Without advance notice, take individual pictures of the pupils. Show pictures to the group
and, from comments and group criticism, make plans to have pictures taken again at a
definite future date.
All class members plan to wear on a specified day, dresses they most enjoy wearing. Dis-
cuss reasons for their choice. Later, all wear dresses they like the least and discuss reasons.
As a result, plan future experiences in clothing selection.
Discuss well-groomed girls and boys in the school. Ask those girls and boys to meet with
the class and tell how they achieve good grooming.
Group members write their impressions of "A Girl (or Boy) I Admire and Why." Use
the results to point out the relation of good grooming to other good personal qualities.
Exhibit, if possible, clothing projects which relate to grooming.
Formulate a series of questions relevant to grooming for boys and girls. Have the boys get
girls' opinions, and the girls get boys' opinions. Tabulate and discuss the results.

bb a 5. .. .

Effect of



Sleep and rest



Develop a series of check lists to use with learning experiences in the unit as
the need arises.
Describe the appearance of a healthy person; of one who seems not to be
Make a check list of health practices which affect appearance, and check one's
own practices.
Make plans for improving personal appearance through improvement in
needed health practices.
Check one's weight and compare with standards for age, height, and body
build, remembering that family characteristics influence body build and height.
Keep a record of one's food for three days. Using Basic Seven Charts, check
for adequacy. Also review the food record to see what food practice, if con-
tinued, would detract from personal appearance.
Interview and plan with the physical education teacher types of exercises
suited to class members' problems, as posture and body symmetry, weight, and
elimination. Report and demonstrate some of these exercises to the class.
Place on a tack board pictures and articles dealing with health practices as they
affect appearance.

How Do My Grooming Practices Affect My Appearance?

Hair styling




Care of hands



Set up standards for hair styling and hair care for junior high school girls.
Consider good taste and sanitation in such practices as pin curls worn to school,
using others' combs, and combing hair in public.
On the tack board, place suggestions for suitable hair styles for teen-age girls.
Have small groups practice styling the hair of the girls in the group, considering
the material on the tack board.
Cooperate in a class project to provide a place and the equipment for caring for
the hair at school.
As a home experience, make improvements in the care of your own hair.
Discuss the practices which will improve the appearance of one's hands, con-
sidering careful washing and drying, nail biting, length of nails, hangnails, and
selection of nail polish.
Demonstrate and practice nail care, including filing and treatment of hangnails.
Demonstrate and practice correct handwashing and drying.



Care of Skin

Skin problems

Interview a nurse, or ask her to talk to the class on ways to improve the appear-
ance of the skin.
Discuss: "A well-groomed girl is neat, clean, and natural."
Prepare an attractive and clever booklet to be a guide to good grooming for
junior high school girls and boys. Sponsor its distribution to the school.
Sponsor "Glamour Week" at school. During this time present skits over the
school public-address system or in assembly, possibly stressing a different
point of grooming each day.

HowB Is My A ppear.......aSHne A e by te lothin ICo

Inventory of present
List of needs and
purchases in
terms of the
family budget

Make an inventory of your garments in wearable condition. Decide which
ones could be worn if they were repaired. Decide with your mother what new
garments can be purchased.
Have a panel discussion on points to consider in being a good shopper for your
clothes and set up guides for purchasing these clothes.
Make plans to assist in purchasing an article of clothing for yourself.

-How .My Appearance Affected by the Way I Wear.My Clothes?

Well matched Assemble and display a variety of blouses, sweaters, and skirts of types worn
Suited to wearer by your group. Select good combinations, considering color, design, and ma-
Well fitted trials. Use this experience in choosing skirts and blouses to be worn each
Correct posture day and to be made in the construction unit.

How *.- Is My Aperac Afece byteWyICro yCohs

Assist in caring for
my clothes
Hanging up clothes
Pressing dresses,
blouses, skirts,
Laundering my own
blouses, socks and
(possible others)
Making repairs in

As a home experience, assume the responsibility for caring for your own clothes
for a period of time. Make plans for this activity with mother. Keep careful
record, and make a report to the class on the success of the experience.

Make plans for better home storage of personal clothing. If a closet is avail-
able, plan systematic placing of clothing, and plan to make the closet attractive.
Cover paper boxes with paper, cloth, or paint for storing various articles. If no
closet is available, improvise a storage closet from crates or by curtaining a
corner of a room. (A similar experience is suggested in "Sharing in the Care of
the Home.")

Assume more responsibility for laundering or repairing one's own clothes.

What Do I Need to Know Before I Select My Cotton Fabric?

How cotton fabrics
are made
Production of fiber
Manufacturing of
Names of the most
common cotton

Closeness and
Amount of material
to buy
Allow for rapid
growth of girl

Set up a display of cotton from the raw to the finished stage. Explain the
different stages.

Bring scraps of cotton fabrics from home and arrange according to weaves, and
quality. Examine under a microscope.

Number a series of fabrics and have an identification contest.

Bring a cotton garment to class that has worn well and has been easy to
launder, and a garment that has not been a good buy because of wearing
qualities or laundering difficulties. Discuss the possible reasons for the services
given by each of these garments.

Consider shopping guides to use when buying material for blouses and skirts.

What Simple Garment Can I Learn to Make for Myself?

Garments selected
Simple blouse, with
or without collar
Drawstring type
Raglan sleeve

Make a list of all the processes involved in constructing the garment. Each
girl check for completion of each step as soon as it has been approved by the

Make a score card for evaluating the finished garment.

What Points Should Be Considered in Buying Cotton Fabrics?

hft ---N" im

Cap sleeve type
(It may be advisable
for the group to
choose one of several
approved patterns at
this stage of their
Processes involved
Selecting fabric
Preparing fabric
Selecting pattern
Placement of
Appropriate seams
Basting (pin and
Pressing seams
Neck finish
Sleeve finish
Hem finish
Trimming suitable
to blouse
Simple skirt
Machine gathering
Suitable material
for gathered skirt
Inserting zipper
Machine hemming
Fill out score card for

Select from several suggested styles the most flattering pattern for yourself.

Take your body measurements and decide on your pattern and fabric, using
the shopping suggestions previously discussed.

Study the guide sheet.

Take a test on the guide sheet.

Prepare your fabric to grain-perfection.

Place the pattern on the fabric; cut, after checking.

Keep personal progress report sheets. If time permits
from another approved pattern.

make a second blouse

Make a gathered or gored skirt, using one of several approved patterns.

Make a simple gathered skirt without a pattern.

Culminating Activities:
Class members plan and present a "Blouse and Skirt Review" for the Parent-Teacher Associa-
tion or for mothers.
Arrange a display of the garments in a downtown store window.
Arrange a showcase display of the garments at school.
Originate a skit, emphasizing good grooming and attractiveness and its importance in one's
life. Present at an assembly program.
Sponsor "Glamour Week."
Develop a good grooming booklet to be distributed to others in the school.
Sponsor "Blouse and Skirt Week."


Baxter, Laura, Justin, Margaret, and Rust, Lucile. Sharing Family Living. New York: J. B.
Lippincott Co. 1951.
Betz, Betty. Your Manners Are Showing. New York: Grossett and Dunlap. 1946.
Carson, Byrta. How You Look and Dress. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company. 1949.
Craig, Hazel, and Rush, Ola Day. Clothes With Character. Boston: D. C. Heath and Company.
Hunter, Lucretia. The Girl Today The Woman Tomorrow. New York: Allyn and Bacon. 1948.
McDermott, Irene, and Nicholas, Florence. Homemaking For Teen-Agers. Peoria: Chas. A.
Bennett Co., Inc. 1951.
Todd, Elizabeth. Clothes For Girls. Boston: D. C. Heath and Company. 1948.

Basic Fibers in Cloth-10 minutes, sound, Coronet.
Crest of Quality (Weaving and manufacture of cotton goods)-30 minutes, sound, Modern Talk-
ing Picture Service, Inc.
Pattern for Smartness-20 minutes, sound, Association Films.
Sewing Fundamentals-10 minutes, sound, Young America Films.
Sewing Simple Seams-10 minutes, sound, Young America Films.
Threads of a Nation-11 minutes, sound, Teaching Film Custodians, Inc.
What is Cloth?-10 minutes, sound, Coronet.

Film Strips:
As Others See You-McGraw-Hill Company.
Facts About Cotton Fabrics-Young America.
You Can Make Pretty Clothes-Young Modern Homemaker Series, Chas A. Bennett Co., Inc.


Wherever a group of young people get together, food has an important place. This unit is de-
signed to stimulate the development of good food habits and good social relations through group
activities for young people.
Homemaking classes offer excellent opportunities for pupils to practice accepted rules of hospi-
tality and to develop qualities of genuine friendliness. Teen-agers who entertain friends in their
homes make progress toward emotional adjustment and parental understandings of their social
Food prepared for special family occasions gives warmth and color to family living and helps to
foster lasting memories.

To plan, prepare, and serve simple refreshments.
To be a welcome guest and acceptable host or hostess.
To use good manners in serving and being served food.

To practice different ways of entertaining friends.
To buy food more wisely and economically.
To plan for special family occasions.

Interest Approaches:
Relate experiences of special occasions with your family which you have particularly enjoyed.
Describe families you know who always celebrate special occasions together in an interesting
Prepare or view a tack board showing teen-agers having fun at home with friends.
Prepare or view a tack board, "Let's Go Marketing for Fun Food."
Describe or see an attractively set party table for a teen-age party or birthday.
See the film, "You and Your Friends."



How^ Con I Pionfor Fu-it yFriends?

Interesting ways to
entertain my friends
Kitchen parties
after school
Outdoor parties
Television parties

Planning with my
Type party-cost
Decorations and
Time and place
Guest list
Work plan
Preparation of food
Simple service

Start a scrapbook of party suggestions which one could use for ideas when
entertaining teen-age friends.

In buzz session, plan ways to entertain teen-age friends. Consider cost, size
of home, help, interests of group, and local customs.

On the basis of reports from buzz sessions, plan in group for a variety of in-
formal parties; report plans for class discussion. Try out some of the plans in

Ask the physical education teacher to demonstrate different types of games
suitable for teen-age parties.

Keep a school file of good ideas for decorations and food for special occasions.

Evaluate a party you have been responsible for at home including comments
by your parents.

Present a demonstration of simple flower arrangements for various types of

What Are Some Things I Need to Know About Buying Fun Food?

How to estimate
amounts needed for
various size groups

What foods are

What to look for at
the grocery store

Some basic shopping

Take a pre-test on factual knowledge and abilities to make judgments related
to good food market practices.
Visit a grocery store to observe labels, purchasing units, and the number of
servings per unit for many types of packaged or canned foods. Compare costs.
Prepare for the trip with a discussion as to qualities you need to watch for and
ways to save.
Bring to class week-end food advertisements and compare with the regular
prices of the same foods.
Compare the costs of the same foods in various forms: Fresh, dried, frozen,
canned, pre-cooked.

How Can I Ler od anr
fo Speia Ocain wit My Fred an Famly

As a host or hostess
extending a cordial
Making guests feel
at home and
Greeting each
guest at door
Introducing guests
to other guests
and parents
Providing a place
for their wraps
consideration of
other family
As a guest
Using restraint in
Being on time
Being neat and
Entering into plans
Being careful of
Using good

Discuss conditions which make one feel at ease in another's home.

Practice receiving people at the door and introducing them to other guests.

Make a plan for participation by other members of the family when you are
entertaining your friends at home.

Practice proper etiquette when a guest at tea.

As a class, write informal invitations, acceptance, and regrets. Practice giving
oral invitations.

Determine the correct use of lace tablecloths, candles, paper and linen napkins,
cut flowers and plants as table or party accessories.

Set a tea table, showing the location of food, dishes, silver, napkins, and

Plan and serve a tea for a special group.

Dining out
Drug stores
School lunchrooms
Restaurants with
family or friends

Secure information concerning correct practices when eating out at various
types of places:
Entering and finding seats
Paying check

How Can I Prepare Suitable Refreshments?

Simple foods I can
Tea, cocoa, fruit
Cookies and cakes
Picnic fare
Others suggested
by groups
Suitable foods for
various types of
teen-age parties
Preparation and
serving of simple
party foods

Plan and prepare food for parties, including sandwiches, salads, party breads,
and desserts.
Demonstrate correct ways to pack a picnic lunch. Working in family groups,
pack picnic lunches to take on a picnic you have planned. Evaluate the picnic.
Exhibit picnic equipment.
Visit a local store to see picnic equipment.
Plan and prepare suitable inexpensive snacks for parties at home.
Collect recipes and plan menus for outdoor cookery.
Practice methods of outdoor cookery, using fish and other foods which are
abundant in Florida.
As members of the Future Homemakers of America or the New Homemakers
of America, plan and carry out a taffy pull or popcorn party.
Prepart a simple booklet of suggestions for foods for fun.

How CanWe SCele brate Specal Oc caS a H ome?-

Special days
important to families
Value of special
attention to these
Ways of celebrating

List special dates which are celebrated in your home. Summarize for the
entire class.
Select one special occasion and plan to celebrate it with your family. Do the
shopping and prepare the food for the special occasion. Evaluate results in
terms of what has been learned in class.

Culminating Activities:
Plan and present a party in the homemaking department for mothers and fathers. Evaluate
the party by a group discussion.


Baxter, Laura, Justin, Margaret, and Rust, Lucile. Sharing Family Living. New York: J. B.
Lippincott Company. 1951.
Browns, The, Cora, Rose and Bob. Outdoor Cooking. New York: The Greystone Press. 1940.
Betz, Betty. Your Manners Are Showing. New York: Grosset and Dunlap. 1946.
Hedgecock, Elizabeth. The Successful Hostess. Minneapolis: Burgess Publishing Company.
Lewis, Dora, Peckham, Gladys, Houey, Helen. Family Meals and Hospitality. New York:
The Macmillan Company. 1951.
Powers, Margaret. The Party Table. Peoria: Chas. A. Bennett Company, Inc. 1946.
Woodward, Elizabeth. Let's Have a Party. New York: Thos. Y. Crowell Company. 1946.

Copies of informal and formal invitations and replies.
Equipment for flower arrangement demonstrations.
Labels from canned goods and prepared mixes.
Magazine articles describing informal parties.
Pictures of attractively served party refreshments.
Styles of note-paper which could be used for invitations.
Table set for parties.
Tablecloths, candles, napkins, flower vases, bowls, teapots, and other table accessories.
Tack board: "Mrs. America Buys with Care" with cartoons, news items, magazine articles, and
pictures to develop ideas for content or unit in marketing.
Various favors, decorations, and invitations.

Cooking: Measurements-11 minutes, sound, Young America.
Cooking: Planning and Organization-11 minutes, sound, Young America.
You and Your Friends-8 minutes, sound, Association Films.

Film Strips:
Good Manners When Visiting-Eye Gate House, Inc.
The Gracious Hostess-Chas. A. Bennett Company and Society for Visual Education.

Teen-age girls and boys are frequently called upon to assist with the care of ill ones at home. They
do not take complete responsibility but they can be helpful by sharing household duties. They
can do simple things to make the sick person more comfortable. Their understanding and accept-
ance of change in the family life brought about by the illness of a family member is a most impor-
tant contribution.
Simple home nursing activities should be planned with as much pupil participation and laboratory
experiences as possible.


To know the contributions an eighth grade pupil can make when there is illness in the home.
To recognize some of the signs of illness.
To help care for a person who is ill at home.
To help keep the sickroom clean and attractive.
To help with household duties.
To plan, prepare, and serve attractively, simple food for the sick.

Interest Approaches:
Relate any experiences or problems you have had with illness in the home.
Show the film, "Confessions of a Cold," from Florida State Board of Health.
Arrange for a talk by a doctor or nurse on the need for training in home care of the sick.



What Can Young Teen-Agers Do When There Is Illness at Home?

Maintain quiet
Be cheerful and
Assume responsibili-
ties which will relieve
the person in charge
Do housework
Do marketing
Help with prepara-
tion of trays
Keep self in good
Stay away from others
who have contagious
Accept changes in
family living which
are a result of the
Answer telephone
and doorbell
Assist with family
Assist with household
Take care of younger
brothers or sisters

Report to class ways to help in the following situations:
Mother has a sick headache.
Baby sister has a cold and sore throat.
Father has a broken leg.
Brother is home from the hospital after an operation for appendicitis.

Present a panel discussion concerning ways to prevent illness.

Discuss the importance of keeping a sick person as happy as possible, and ways
in which the well members of the family can help speed recovery.

Discuss things young people can do to promote a good atmosphere when a
family member is convalescent.

Flushed face
Eyes unusually
bright, dull or red
Nausea, headache,
sore throat, cold
Impatience or
Skin eruptions

Discuss the symptoms of some communicable diseases. Study ways to prevent
and control diseases.

Compile a summary of basic symptoms for most common illnesses.

Make a study of school absences due to illness and of the problems created by
irregular attendance.

Practice using a thermometer to take temperature.

How Can You Help Care for a Sick Person?

Increase comfort of
Adjust pillows
Get patient ready
for meals
Arrange bedside
table, and lights
Bring water to patient
Make patient
Entertain patient
Prepare for visitors

Discuss and practice as they are discussed in class some
nursing procedures in caring for a patient:

of the following

Make an unoccupied bed.
Wash a patient's face and hands.
Prepare a wash basin for a patient to wash her own face and hands.
Comb and brush hair for a bed patient.
Fill a hot water bottle or an ice bag.
Make waste bags from newspaper or paper bags.
Arrange pillows to make a patient more comfortable.
Give an alcohol rub.
Improvise many articles for use in caring for patient.
Plan ways to entertain a sick brother or sister.
Plan for visits of friends and doctor.
Make games suitable for a sick child.

M6 9909

Furniture for the
convenience of the
sick person and the
one who nurses
Arrangement and
care of fresh flowers
or plants

Plan methods to use in cleaning a sick room without disturbing the patient.

Plan and display flower arrangements suitable for the sick room.

w- How Can You Tell When a Person is Sick? N

hom go

Steps in cleaning and
putting a sick room
in order

Suggest ways to regulate ventilation and light for the patient's comfort.

What Foods Should Be Prepared for Patients at Home?

Types of foods to
Easy to digest
Easy to eat in bed
Amounts to serve
When to serve
The tray
Improvised or
Easy to handle
Convenient to use

Relate experiences with types of food served to you or a member of your family
during illness.

Set up some general rules for selecting food for a tray to be served to a sick

Improvise trays from various household articles and display them.

Plan, prepare, and serve foods suitable for a sick person, such as fruit drinks,
custards, junket, broth, and soft diets.

Demonstrate correct procedures for washing and sterilizing dishes used by
the sick.

Culminating Activities:
Help the school nurse or doctor on clinic days.
Prepare and serve a simple breakfast to a member of one's family on a tray.
Prepare a short skit on desirable and undesirable visitors in the sick room.


American Red Cross. Home Nursing Textbook. Philadelphia: The Blakiston Company. 1951.
Baxter, Laura, Justin, Margaret, and Rust, Lucile. Sharing Family Living. New York: J. B.
Lippincott Co. 1951.
Briggs, Susan. Home Nursing With Confidence. New York: Chester R. Heck, Inc. 1946.
Justin, Margaret, and Rust, Lucile. Today's Home Living. New York: J. B. Lippincott Co. 1953.
McCullough, Wava. Illustrated Handbook of Simple Nursing. New York: McGraw-Hill Book
Co. 1949.

Caring for the Sick in the Home. Boston: John Hancock Mutual Life Insurance Co.
Controlling Communicable Diseases. Boston: John Hancock Mutual Life Insurance Co.
Diversions for the Sick. Boston: John Hancock Mutual Life Insurance Co.


Bathing the Patient-Home Care-24 minutes, sound, Castle.
Child Care-Bathing the Infant-10 minutes, silent, Encyclopaedia Britannica Films, Inc.
Confessions of a Cold-Florida State Board of Health, Jacksonville, Florida.
Feeding the Patient-15 minutes, sound, Castle.
Home Nursing-10 minutes, sound, Encyclopaedia Britannica Films, Inc.
Let's Have Fewer Colds-10 minutes, sound, Coronet. Audio-Visual Service, Florida State Uni-
versity, Tallahassee, Florida.
Open Bed (Stripping and Making the Hospital Bed)-15 minutes, silent, Bureau of Visual Instruc-
tion, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, 14.
Temperature, Pulse and Respiration-14 minutes, sound, Castle.








When homemaking experiences are made available to girls alone, only part of the family is being
educated for family life. Junior high school boys, too, live with people, select food, wear clothes,
and share in family responsibilities. An effective homemaking program will give boys an insight
into their share in family living.
If the school organization does not permit a semester or a year's course for boys, either alone or
with girls, there may be cooperative units or exchange units between homemaking and agriculture
or industrial arts. If classes are exchanged, while the girls are provided such experiences as plant-
ing trees and shrubbery, vegetables and flowers, gardening, poultry raising, simple homeme-
chanics, simple home repairs and making small articles for the home, the boys may have experi-
ences such as are suggested in this unit. The learning experiences suggested in other units in this
guide may be used to supplement the suggestions given here.
To understand and enjoy my friends.
To become a more useful member of my family.
To select food and prepare simple meals.
To help care for my home.
To look my best through improved choice and care of my clothing.
To enjoy the members of my family.
Interest Approaches:
Develop a tack board display, showing a boy's day, and following the general activities of a
junior high school boy through the day.
Display illustrative materials on family life such as movies, filmstrips, and pictures.
Have a class discussion or buzz session to find out what responsibilities boys have at home.
Invite some of the following persons to the class:
A serviceman to describe his service experiences as related to homemaking.
An individual who has a homemaking hobby or occupation such as landscaping, flower
arranging, tailoring, or cooking to discuss his hobby.
A young married man to discuss the aspects of homemaking for which he has found need
for as a home member.
The coach to talk on good diet and health in relation to sports.


Ho Do I Spn yDy

Daily activities of
junior high school boy

Family routines and

Responsibilities of
family members

Make a display for the tack board. Use a clock in the center of the board with
lines radiating from it to colored illustrations of boy's activities.

Divide into buzz groups to make lists of your activities during the day. Com-
pile a summary list of problems. Select from these the problems you wish to

What Can I Do Before Breakfast
to Help My Mother and Father Start Their Busy Day?

Sharing bathroom or
Sharing bathroom or Practice making beds at school.
other grooming
facilities Discuss and practice good home cleaning procedures such as sweeping,

Cleaning practices scrubbing, and dusting.

Care of own room Set an attractive family breakfast table.
S Make a schedule for the use of the bathroom.
Table setting

Basic Seven

Desirable breakfast

Simple food

Everyday table

Set up several breakfasts using food models. Judge in terms of the day's need.

View the film, "Something You Didn't Eat."

Plan, prepare, and serve a simple breakfast.

Practice table etiquette.


Will My Friends Think I Look "0. K." This Morning?

Personal appearance

Care of clothing

Clothing selection

Storage facilities

Invite a manicurist, beautician, and barber to demonstrate the care of the nails
and hair.
Select some person who makes an especially good appearance. Decide on
factors which contribute to this person's appearance. Develop a score sheet
from this for one's own use.
Invite a representative from a men's clothing store to discuss and show
examples of latest styles.
Invite an art instructor to discuss the relation of art principles to clothing
Plan for and give demonstrations of the daily care of clothing.
Demonstrate ways of putting clothes away so they can be worn without further
Visit a dry cleaner to observe methods of cleaning and pressing.
Demonstrate how to shine shoes.
By use of pictures, field trips, or use of actual garments, develop standards for
clothing selection.
Visit homes to observe different ways to store clothes, especially for boys.
Carry out a project for improving the clothing storage facilities at home.

bo --N 19...



Habit formation


Think of a person with whom you like to associate. List the nice things about
that person. From construction paper make a wheel for showing these traits.
Use it on the tack board. Small groups or individuals may select one of the
personality traits on the wheel and may seek the opinions of people outside the
class for ways to develop these traits. Present the results of your survey to
the entire class through panel discussion.
Dramatize acceptable and unacceptable behavior in various situations.

What Shall I Choose for Lunch?

Importance of eating
three meals a day
Development of good
food habits

List the foods you have eaten in the last twenty-four hours. Check your list
to see if any basic seven food groups have been omitted.

Family shopping
Helping in the care of
brothers and sisters
Having fun with
Qualities of good toys
and play equipment
Play equipment
Improvised play
equipment for
Baby-sitting as a way
of earning money
Standards for
Helping with outdoor

Study carefully the progress of the animal experiment.

Prepare and pack a box lunch.

Have a picnic outdoors.

How ~ ~ ~ ~ Ca I no-yAteno hrs

Set up guides for buying groceries and supplies.

See what information is found on the labels of food products you use.

Plan with the family for groceries to be bought.

Arrange a tack board with pictures of children engaged in various activities.

At home give a dog a bath, letting the younger child help.

Read children's stories. Evaluate and practice reading them to the class.

Help children look for hidden treasures, tiny rocks, wild flowers, colored
pictures, shells, and other items.

Make toys and storage facilities for toys.

Set up standards for baby-sitting.

Make a check sheet of chores a boy can do at home. Keep a record for one
week of the chores you do.

How Can Our Family Have Fun Together?

Value of family
members planning
things together
Outdoor cooking
Family games
Sharing common

Report ways in which your family has fun together.

Help your family to plant and cultivate flower and vegetable gardens.

Prepare outdoor foods suitable for family parties.

Play favorite family games.

Value of specific
Lunch at home and
away from home
The packed lunch
The school lunch

Family recreation
Family hobbies Use panels, debates, and role-playing to solve problems relating to the use of
Family hobbies
common possessions, such as radio, television, and the family car.
Community resources
for families doing
things together

Culminating Activities:
Dramatize "A Boy's Day" in school assembly for the Parent-Teacher Association.
Have an outdoor party for our families.
Show experimental animals to different classes and discuss the results of the experiments.


Bradbury, D., and Amidon, E. Learning To Care For Children. New York: D. Appleton-Cen-
tury-Crofts, Inc.
Browns, The, Cora, Rose, and Bob. Outdoor Cooking. New York: The Greystone Press. 1940.
Burnham, Helen, Jones, Evelyn, and Redford, Helen. Boys Will Be Men. New York: J. B. Lip-
pincott Co. 1942.
Evans, Mary. Better Clothes For Your Money. New York: J. B. Lippincott Co. 1952.
Harris, Florence, and Kauffman, T. Young Folks At Home. Boston: D. C. Heath and Company.
Landis, Judson, and Landis, Mary. Building Your Life. New York: Prentice-Hall, Inc. 1954.
McKown, H. C. A Boy Grows Up. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc. 1949.
Scharmer, Fay. A Boy's Guide To Living. New York: Allyn and Bacon. 1948.

Beery, Mary. Guide to Good Manners. Chicago: Science Research Associates, Inc. 1952.
Camping With Canned Food. Washington: National Canners Association.
Cleaning and Pressing a Man's Suit. Brieflet #344. Montpelier: Vermont Agriculture Extension
Cleaning and Pressing Neckties. Brieflet #479. Montpelier: Vermont Agriculture Extension
Dearborn, Ned, and Andrews, Bill. Your Safety Handbook. Chicago: Science Research As-
sociates, Inc. 1952.
Dimond, Stanley E. Citizenship for Boys and Girls. Chicago: Science Research Associates, Inc.
Flander, Judy. Baby-Sitters' Handbook. Chicago: Science Research Associates, Inc. 1952.
Homemade Aids to Good Grooming. Circular #96. Montpelier: Vermont Agriculture Exten-
sion Service.
Neugarten, Bernice. How To Get Along With Others. Chicago: Science Research Associates,
Inc. 1953.
Pressing-When You're Pressing Clothes. Brieflet #576. Montpelier: Vermont Agriculture Ex-
tension Service.
Remmers, Hermann H. Your Problemss How to Handle Them. Chicago: Science Research
Associates, Inc. 1953.
Richmond, Julius B. Your Health Handbook. Chicago: Science Research Associates, Inc. 1953.

Short Time Camps. Washington: United States Department of Agriculture.
Ullmann, Frances. Life With Brothers and Sisters. Chicago: Science Research Associates, Inc.
Whiteside-Taylor, Katharine. Getting Along with Parents. Chicago: Science Research Associ-
ates, Inc. 1952.

Appreciating Your Parents-10 minutes, sound, Coronet.
Are You Popular-10 minutes, sound, Coronet. Audio-Visual Service, Florida State University,
Tallahassee, Florida.
Good Table Manners-12 minutes, sound, Coronet.
How Do You Do?-15 minutes, sound, Young America. Cooperative Film Library, University of
Florida, Gainesville, Florida.
Something You Didn't Eat-9 minutes, sound, Cooperative Film Library, University of Florida,
Gainesville, Florida.
You and Your Family-8 minutes, sound, Association Films.
You and Your Friends-8 minutes, sound, Association Films.

Film Strips:
What Shall I Wear?-Household Finance Corporation.


A person learns most readily the things that are directly
related to him. For this reason, in this unit, the areas of
child development and family living are being integrated
and directed toward the personality development of the
student. It is suggested that the teacher and students plan
his unit so as to use as a focal point of interest the student
herself as she develops from babyhood through adolescence.

If the majority of the class are new students in the school,
it is strongly recommended that some learning experiences
from "Who Am I" and "Living Happily with Family and
Friends" precede this unit.


To develop:
An understanding of why children behave as they do.
An ability to see each child in his relation to the other m(
An ability to see himself in his relation to home, school, a
An ability to recognize and solve his own problems of pei




Start a tack board display using your own baby pictures and those of your
parents, grandparents, or other members of your family. Point out characteris-
tics of "likeness" and unlikenesss".
List some of the things that were done for you as a baby.
Relate some interesting stories about your babyhood.
Debate: Heredity is more important than environment in determining person-

What Are Some of the
Characteristics of "Baby Ways and Baby Days"?

Physical needs

Clothing needs

Food requirements

Sleep and rest

Adopt a small baby for a class project. Have the mother bring him in and let
the girls assist in bathing him. Find out all you can about the baby's life at
home. Keep in touch with this baby and watch him grow during the year.
Arrange exhibits, group discussions, committee reports, special projects, panel
discussions, or symposiums on the following:
Materials needed for baby's daily bath.
Clothing for modern babies.
Food essentials.
Conditions which make meal time pleasant.
Factors influencing a child's food choices.
Debate: Should all children of a given age have the same amount of sleep?

Of What Importance is it
to a Child.5 to Be Able to Do ThingsforHimself?



Habit formation

Observe children at different developmental levels engaged in such activities
as bathing, feeding, dressing, and caring for themselves. Notice differences.
Observe and discuss situations which are conducive to a child's learning to
help himself, thereby gaining a sense of accomplishment.
Arrange an exhibit of self-help clothing.
Discuss equipment and furnishings which foster self-help in habit formation.
A low rack for hanging clothes may be an example.



What In My Family Life
Has Contributed to Making Me the Person I Am Today?

No Id

Ho ilaKoldeo








Assume the responsibility for the care of a child for a period of time, and relate
your experiences to the class.
Discuss the purpose of play.
Bring in toys for different ages. Discuss their functional values.
Visit a toy shop and select toys you think desirable for children of various
ages. Explain your choices to the class.
Make inexpensive toys.
Arrange pictures of toys for various ages on a tack board.
Plan a recreation hour for the first grade children.
Have a party in the homemaking department for younger brothers and sisters
and observe their interests.
Arrange an exhibit of household objects with which young children would
enjoy playing. Include pots, pans, purse, oatmeal carton, and wooden spoons
in your exhibit.
Bring in a toy that is the favorite of some child. Relate details of the child's
interest in this toy and determine reasons for his choice.
Relate incidents of ways in which children imitate interactions of family
Observe and analyze some of the questions children ask about God, the world,
and immediate surroundings. Use role-playing for help in answering these
Discuss ways in which wholesome sex attitudes can be developed in children.
Recall methods of discipline which have been used with you or with small
children. Evaluate the effectiveness in each case.
Present case conferences relevant to discipline problems.

Collect baby pictures which seem to reflect different personalities. Arrange on
a tack board and label, as the politician, the dreamer, and the optimist.

Collect cartoons or magazine covers depicting adjustment difficulties of

How Does -My Family Influence My Personality?

Make a list of your responsibilities in your home for work and play. Select
responsibilities that you could assume. Assume one or two of these responsi-
Responsibilities abilities for a set time and observe the reactions of other family members.

Plan an outing for your family.
Plan recreation in which all members of your family can participate.

Contributions Collect or make games suitable for the entire family. Prepare a family fun box.

Observe the ways in which elementary children are being helped to make
better adjustments in home, school, and community. Participate in these
activities when possible.

From your readings, describe situations of family life in which a person of
your age was made to feel she belonged to her family group or was made to
feel rejected. The same procedure may be used with movie, radio, or television

Present dramatizations which portray satisfactory and unsatisfactory family

Decide what traits you need to foster in yourself to become a better family
member. Make a plan for your procedure in developing one or more of these
traits and follow it.

As a game at home, exchange roles with other family members. Evaluate this
experience in terms of future behavior.

Church Study the activities in your community that influence your personality.

Present a symposium on "Recreational Problems of the Community."
Youth center
Debate: Home conditions contribute to juvenile delinquency more than do
community conditions.
Recreational facilities Present a case conference dealing with a juvenile delinquent to whom desir-
able recreational facilities were not available.

Make a survey of the recreational facilities in your community.

How Does My School Influence My Personality?

Classmates Discuss the possibility and importance of belonging to clubs in your school, and
ways of organizing new clubs you would like to have.
Teachers Have a panel discussion on "The influence of membership in Future Home-
makers of America or New Homemakers of America on personality develop-
Clubs ment."
Curriculum Present a symposium on "Ways teachers can contribute to the personality
development of students."
Have buzz sessions on the contribution of learning experiences in homemaking
education to personality development.

What ~ I Ar MyDvlpetlTss

Getting along with

Accepting masculine
or feminine social role

Accepting one's

Getting along with

Achieving assurance
of economic

Selecting a career

Developing an
interest in civic affairs

Preparing for family

Achieving socially
responsible behavior

Acquiring a set of

Write an autobiography, doing your best to look at yourself honestly and
frankly. (This need not necessarily be discussed with class members or
teacher, but placed in your personality folder.)

Compile for the tack board a list of statements describing the basic character-
istics of a person you might like to be.

Mount pictures of teen-agers engaged in activities that contribute to being

Present a panel discussion on "How to Get and Keep Friends."

Present a panel discussion on "How to Live with Parents."

Working in groups or as a class, set up some statements of belief relevant to
teen-age ideals.

Select one or two of these beliefs and concentrate on living accordingly. Keep
a record of your progress in your personality folder.

Use your personality folder to record your progress in all areas of learning
throughout the year.

Participate in a Career Day.

As a member of the Future Homemakers of America or the New Homemakers
of America participate in a civic project.

Bailard, Virginia, and Strang, Ruth. Ways To Improve Your Personality. New York: McGraw-
Hill Book Company, Inc. 1951.
Beery, Mary. Manners Made Easy. New York: McGraw-Hil Book Company, Inc. 1949.
Boykin, Eleanor. This Way, Please. New York: The Macmillan Company. 1940.
Chittenden, Gertrude E. Living With Children. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1945.
Crawford, Claude E., and Others. Living Your Life. Boston: D. C. Heath and Company. 1940.
Crow, Leslie, and Crow, Alice. Our Teen Age Boys and Girls. New York: McGraw-Hill Book
Company, Inc. 1945.
Duvall, Evelyn M. Facts of Life and Love for Teen-agers. New York: Young Men's Christian
Association (Association Press). 1950.
Duvall, Evelyn M., and Lewis, Dora S. Family Living. New York: The Macmillan Company.
Eldred, Myrtle Meyer. Your Baby And Mine. New York: The John Day Company. 1951.
Ellenwood, James Lee. It Runs In The Family. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. 1948.
Fields, Morey, Goldberg, Jacob, and Kilander, Holger. Youth Grows Into Adulthood. New
York: Chartwell House, Inc. 1951.
Geisel, John B. Personal Problems. Atlanta: Houghton Mifflin Company. 1949.
Goodspeed, Helen, Mason, Esther, and Woods, Elizabeth. Child Care and Guidance. New
York: J. B. Lippincott Company. 1953.
Groves, Ernest R., Skinner, Edna L., and Swenson, Sadie J. The Family And Its Relationships.
New York: J. B. Lippincott Company. 1953.
Hatcher, Hazel M., and Andrews, Mildred E. Adventuring In Home Living. Boston: D. C.
Heath and Company. 1954.
Harris, Florence L., and Kauffman, Treva E. Young Folks At Home. Boston: D. C. Heath
and Company. 1953.
Hogue, Helen G. Bringing Up Ourselves. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. 1949.
King, Eleanore. Glorify Yourself. New York: Prentice-Hall, Inc. 1948.
Marsh, Hattie Marie. Building Your Personality. New York: Prentice-Hall, Inc. 1947.
Meek, Lois. Your Child's Development And Guidance Told In Pictures. New York: J. B. Lip-
pincott Company. 1951.
Montgomery, John, and Suydam, Margaret. America's Baby Book. New York: Charles. Scrib-
ner's Sons. 1951.
Moore, Bernice, and Leahy, Dorothy. You And Your Family. Boston: D. C. Heath and Com-
pany. 1953.
McDermott, Irene, and Nicholas, Florence. Homemaking For Teen-Agers. Peoria: Charles A.
Bennett Company. 1953.
Newsom, N. William, Douglas, Harl, and Dotson, Harry. Living And Planning Your Life. New
York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. 1952.
Pierce, Wellington. Youth Comes of Age. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. 1948.
Randolph, Helen R., and Others. You And Your Life. Atlanta: Houghton Mifflin Company.
Rathbone, Lucy, Bacon, Francis, and Keene, Charles. Health In Your Daily Living. Atlanta:
Houghton Mifflin Company. 1948.
Reid, Lillian N. Personality And Etiquette. Boston: Little, Brown and Company. 1941.
Ryan, Mildred Graves. Cues For You. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. 1940.
Smith, Augustus, Bahr, Gladys, and Wilhelms, Fred. Your Personal Economics. New York:
McGraw-Hill Company, Inc. 1949.

Strain, Frances Bruce. Teen Days. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, Inc. 1946.
Van Duzer, Adelaide, and Others. The Girl's Daily Life. New York: J. B. Lippincott Company.
Wood, Mildred Weigley. Living Together In The Family. Washington: American Home Eco-
nomics Association, 1946.

Bennett, Margaret E. High School Handbook. Chicago: Science Research Associates, Inc.
Bouthilet, Lorraine, and Byrne, Katharine. You And Your Mental Abilities. Chicago: Science
Research Associates, Inc.
Clark, Thaddeus B. What Is Honesty? Chicago: Science Research Associates, Inc.
English, 0. Spurgeon. Your Behavior Problems. Chicago: Science Research Associates, Inc.
Flander, Judy. Baby-Sitters' Handbook. Chicago: Science Research Associates, Inc.
Flesch, Rudolf. How To Write Better. Chicago: Science Research Associates, Inc.
Folds, Thomas. Your Taste And Good Design. Chicago: Science Research Associates, Inc.
Gallagher, J. Roswell. You And Your Health. Chicago: Science Research Associates, Inc.
Gerken, C. C'A. Study Your Way Through School. Chicago: Science Research Associates, Inc.
Henry, William E. Exploring Your Personality. Chicago: Science Research Associates, Inc.
Hertz, Barbara Valentine. Where Are Your Manners? Chicago: Science Research Associates,
Jenkins, Gladys G., and Neuman, Joy. How To Live With Parents. Chicago: Science Research
Associates, Inc.
Kirkendall, Lester A. Understanding Sex. Chicago: Science Research Associates, Inc.
Kirkendall, Lester, and Osborne, Ruth. Dating Days. Chicago: Science Research Associates,
Kuder, G. Frederick, and Paulson, Blanche B. Discovering Your Real Interests. Chicago: Sci-
ence Research Associates, Inc.
Lindquist, E. F., Van Dyke, Lauren, and Yale, John. What Good Is High School? Chicago:
Science Research Associates, Inc.
McDowell, Nancy E. Your Club Handbook. Chicago: Science Research Associates, Inc.
Menninger, William C. Enjoying Leisure Time. Chicago: Science Research Associates, Inc.
Menninger, William C. Making And Keeping Friends. Chicago: Science Research Associates,
Menninger, William C. Understanding Yourself. Chicago: Science Research Associates, Inc.
Neugarten, Bernice L. Your Heredity. Chicago: Science Research Associates, Inc.
Remmers, H. H., and Hackett, C. G. What Are Your Problems? Chicago: Science Research
Associates, Inc.
Seashore, Robert H., and Van Dusen, A. C. How To Solve Your Problems. Chicago: Science
Research Associates, Inc.
Shacter, Helen. Getting Along With Others. Chicago: Science Research Associates, Inc.
Sondel, Bess. How To Be A Better Speaker. Chicago: Science Research Associates, Inc.
Smith, T. V. Building Your Philosophy of Life. Chicago: Science Research Associates, Inc.
Taylor, Florence. Why Stay In School? Chicago: Science Research Associates, Inc.
Ulmann, Frances. Getting Along With Brothers And Sisters. Chicago: Science Research Asso-
ciates, Inc.
Witty, Paul. Streamline Your Reading. Chicago: Science Research Associates, Inc.

Act Your Age-15 minutes, sound, Coronet.
Are You Popular?-10 minutes, sound, Coronet, Audio-Visual Service, Florida State University.
Care Of The Skin-11 minutes, sound, Encyclopedia Britannica Films, Inc., Audio-Visual Service,
Florida State University.
Beginning Responsibility: Taking Care Of Things-10 minutes, sound, Coronet.
Child Care And Development-15 minutes, sound, McGraw-Hill.
Children's Emotions-20 minutes, sound, McGraw-Hill,
Dating Do's and Don't's-14 minutes, sound, Coronet, Audio-Visual Service, Florida State Uni-
Early Social Behavior-11 minutes, sound, Encyclopedia Britannica Films, Inc., Audio-Visual
Service, Florida State University.
Friendship Begins At Home-14 minutes, sound, Coronet, Audio-Visual Service, Florida State
Going Steady-10 minutes, sound, Coronet.
Growth Of Infant Behavior: Early Stages-11 minutes, sound, Encyclopedia Britannica Films,
Inc., Audio-Visual Service, Florida State University.
Growth Of Infant Behavior: Later Stages-11 minutes, sound, Encyclopedia Brittanica Films, Inc.,
Audio-Visual Service, Florida State University.
Helping The Child Face The Don't's-11 minutes, sound, Encyclopedia Britannica Films, Inc., Au-
dio-Visual Service, Florida State University.
Helping The Child To Accept The Do's-11 minutes, sound, Encyclopedia Britannica Films, Inc.,
Audio-Visual Service, Florida State University.
Heredity-11 minutes, sound, Encyclopedia Britannica Films, Inc., Audio-Visual Service, Florida
State University.
How Do You Know It's Love-13 minutes, sound, Coronet.
Life With Baby-18 minutes, sound, March of Time Forum Films, Audio-Visual Service, Florida
State University.
What To Do On A Date?-10 minutes, sound, Coronet.
For further suggestions see the following:
Gould, Flo, and Morgan, Mildred. List of Films on Family Relations and Child Development.
Washington: American Home Economics Association. 1954.

It is assumed that the learning experiences of this unit will be centered around the problems in-
volved in the planning, preparing, and serving of simple meals or food combinations. As the
teacher and students determine their goals and proceed, they will need to plan interesting, at-
tractive, and nutritious meals. The careful buying and storing of foods must be considered.
Working together efficiently and effectively within the time, the space, and with the available
equipment will necessitate careful planning and cooperation. Familiarity with the ways of pre-
paring and serving food which can be enjoyed by the family and friends is an achievement
which will require practice. Continuous evaluation by those concerned will help the group to
solve these problems and attain the desired goals.
The learning experiences included in this unit are intended to provide supplementary suggestions
which may help in solving the problems encountered by the teacher and students as they make
plans for preparing and serving simple meals. The problems which may arise have been listed

in the probable sequence most teachers and students will follow as they make their plans. Many
learning experiences have been listed under each problem so that the teacher and students may
have suggestions from which to choose experiences which will help them to meet their needs. It
is possible that in considering some problems one suggestion may be used for one meal and an-
other suggestion used for another meal. The selection and sequence of the learning experiences
should be the prerogative of the teacher and students.

To develop:
Increased ability to plan, prepare, and serve attractive, nutritious, and economical meals.
The ability to assume one's share of the responsibility for keeping the school and home
kitchen well-arranged, clean, and attractive.
The ability to use good table manners.
An appreciation of the importance of making mealtime a happy time.
Increased ability to entertain friends at home with skill and poise.
The ability to cope with the problems involved in eating away from home.


What Do I Need to Know
About Interesting Food Combinations in Planning Meals?

Variety and contrast Collect pictures of colorful combinations of foods served for breakfasts, lunch-
eons, dinners, or parties. Arrange them on the tack board or the flannel board.
Color Plan a menu which would have attractive color combinations and a menu
which would be uninteresting.
Plan a menu in which more than one method of food preparation is used. Plan
Shape a menu in which only one method is used, as all fried foods, all creamed foods,
or all salads. Compare the two menus.
Taste Plan a menu in which the foods are of contrasting shape or texture. Plan a
menu in which the foods are the same in shape or texture, as all mashed, all
Method of cubed, or all sliced. Compare the two menus.
On a flannel board, place pictures of foods which offer interesting taste com-
binations. As contrast, place pictures of foods whose flavors in combination
would be distasteful.
Bring to class your family's favorite menu and discuss the reasons for the
Make a list of food combinations used in various sections of the country.
Collect recipes for foreign dishes that Americans like.
Plan an interesting, attractive menu including available foods which you have
never eaten but which you would like to try.
Plan a menu using only foods produced in Florida, exclusive of condiments.

Basic Seven Foods as
a device for checking
one's diet

Fuel value of foods
Calories as units
of measure

Food nutrients






Take a pre-test to determine your knowledge of nutrition. Arrange a "cafe-
teria" of food models from which you may select meals for yourself for a day.

Check the meals by the Basic Seven Food Chart and decide what you need
to know about food selection.

Plan a day's meals to include foods from each of the basic seven food groups.
Display them on the flannel board using food models.

Determine the number of calories you should include in your diet. Determine
the number of calories other members of your family should include in their

Keep an accurate record of all the food you eat in the next three days. Com-
pute the caloric content for the food for each day and average the totals. Use
the results-to improve your caloric intake.

Make an exhibit of the average servings of common foods, using real foods or
food models. State the number of calories in each food serving.

Plan a menu to include foods high in caloric value. Plan a menu to include
foods low in caloric value.

Arrange a tack board exhibit of newspaper and magazine pictures of persons
showing signs of malnutrition. Display pictures, similarly, of healthy indi-

In groups, plan several menus high in various food nutrients. See if the other
groups can guess what nutrient you used to an excess.

Make and set up a whole school exhibit of foods that feed our teeth and bones.

Try to make the exhibit original and interesting to younger as well as to older

Prepare a three minute talk on some of the differences food makes in our lives
and bodies. Make a poster to illustrate your talk. Arrange to give some of
these talks and to show some of the posters to the elementary children in the

Observe good nutritional habits in the lunchroom and summarize your observa-
tions. Discuss the ways in which the class may participate in activities which
improve the habits of students.

Present a health skit in assembly or an elementary classroom emphasizing the
relation of food habits to personal appearance and health.

Take the responsibility for improving the food choices of elementary children
at school and at home.

^^^^^^KnmM~r~fB^'^^^ff~mnffti Meals?^^^^f

What Do I Need to Know
About Buying Food to Keep Within My Budget?

Factors influencing Participate in a panel discussion on the influence of advertising on our eating
Factors influencing habits.
the cost of food
Collect and display on the tack board pictures of food advertisements which
Where produced exemplify the various ways advertisers use to sell their products.
Make a calendar for the year. On it show the fruits and vegetables available
Season each month in your community. Indicate the months when the market supply
is best.
services offered Arrange a trip to a local dairy to see the facilities for the sanitary treatment of
merchant milk.
Advertising Compare the prices of one quart of milk sold in different forms in your com-
munity and decide when you might use each form.
Quantity buying Arrange a display of as many kinds of cheese as can be obtained. If possible,
arrange to taste unfamiliar varieties.
Test eggs for freshness and compare the differences in the appearance of eggs
of varying ages.
Arrange for a demonstration of meat cutting by a local butcher.
Visit a meat market to identify the number and kind of stamps on meat.
Knowledge necessary
for wise buying Compare the cost of a serving of ready-to-eat cereal when purchased in a large
box, a small box, and in a variety package. Compute the cost per pound of the
Informative cereal.
labeling Compare the price of different brands of all-purpose flour; compare the price
per pound of flour in different size bags; compare the price per pound of bread,
pastry, and all purpose flour.
Have a debate-forum: The homemaker should buy butter rather than oleo-
Bring labels from canned foods to class and study price, size of can, grade,
brands, and contents. Actually compare the contents of several grades.
Compare the costs of the same amount of frozen, fresh, and canned food.
Compare the costs and quality of certain foods purchased at different types of
Compare the cost of one pound of a food in a fancy container and in bulk.
Using eggs or another common food make a price chart which will show the
variations in seasonal prices.
Make a list of all the fruits and vegetables grown in Florida which may be
included in your shopping list.
Make market orders for specified meals. Compute the cost using the local
Assist with the purchase of foods for school and home use.
Visit a grocery store and ask the grocer to tell you some of the ways he uses to
select the produce he buys.

Determine satisfactory ways of storing food in the laboratory and at home.
Discuss the results of poor methods of caring for foods.
Make charts of the laboratory storage space indicating where foods can be
stored and protected advantageously.
Discuss with the family the possible improvement of the storage and care of
food in the home. Carry out the plans formulated if possible.
Discuss some problems Florida climate presents in keeping food fresh.
Discuss the effectiveness of various ways of retaining the freshness of foods.
Include the use of labeled cans or jars.
Discuss the precautions to take in using insecticides near foods. Discuss the
pros and cons of using shelf paper in cabinets in relation to pest control. Use
the methods decided upon in the school kitchen.
Demonstrate the ways to prepare foods for storage in the refrigerator and the
food freezer.

Demonstrate the placement of foods for storage in the refrigerator and food

Demonstrate the cleaning of the refrigerator.

Study the adequate storage of staples in cabinets.

What Do I Need to Know
About Table Service and. Table Manners?

Table setting Demonstrate approved ways of setting a table for simple meals.
individual cover Practice setting the table for different meals using a variety of linens or table
Individual cover
Dishes Demonstrate and practice the various types of service.
Silver Collect pictures and diagrams showing acceptable table service. Display them
on the tack board.
Glassware See a film or filmstrip illustrating acceptable table setting and discuss its prac-
tical application.
Table cover and
napkins Arrange centerpieces suitable to different types of meals and menus.

Service dishes Demonstrate and practice correct methods of placing and removing tableware.
Demonstrate and practice ways of passing or serving food at the table.

What Do I ed to Know About Storing the Food I Buy?

Center pieces

Table service
With and without a
Family service

Correct usage

Table manners

Buffet service

Outdoor meal service

Collect information from etiquette books and current magazines on approved
table manners.
Participate in a skit showing good and bad table manners.

Have a question box for questions related to table service and good manners.
Demonstrate and practice approved ways of eating special foods. Demonstrate
and practice procedures for serving buffet meals.
Describe an interesting outdoor meal you have experienced and the way in
which the meal was served.
Plan menus and table decorations which may be used for meals served for
some of the following occasions:
Christmas Day
Thanksgiving Day
Valentine's Day
St. Patrick's Day
George Washington's Birthday
Lincoln's Birthday
Fourth of July
Mother-daughter affairs
New Year's Day
Future Homemakers of America or New Homemakers of America
Graduation functions
Flag Day

Draw a diagram of the seating arrangement for a
and woman guest at dinner.

family entertaining a man

How Do We Work Together-in the Kitchen?

Family group

Ways of working in
the laboratory

Discuss possible group combinations that might be used in meal planning,
preparation, and service in this homemaking department.

Decide on a plan for grouping the class members for effective experiences in
meal planning, preparation, and service.

Discuss the ways of dividing the duties for laboratory experiences in meal
planning, preparation, and service.

Examine some time schedules which have been used in meal preparation and
service and develop the form you expect to use.

Present a skit on how Susie Fumble's group works in the kitchen and how
Patsy Planner's group works.

Present a demonstration of wrong and right ways to wash dishes. Include
sanitary procedures, safety, and order.

Care of personal

Suitable, dress .and

Dramatize or pantomime a meal preparation lesson with some of the following
Mary Dodge
Joan Messy
Hazel Sampler
Dottie Doolittle
Prissy Perfect
Ima Bosser
Present a panel on the characteristics of a good member of a food laboratory
Sponsor a personal appearance inspection in which each pupil exhibits the
apron which will be worn in the laboratory and decide whether or not it will
be suitable.
Compile the rules for laboratory behavior acceptable to the group.
Discuss the importance of wearing a clean apron, a washable dress, and a hair
net in the kitchen.
Determine approved practices for using a handkerchief, combing your hair, or
handling personal belongings during a meal preparation lesson.
Determine approved practices for sampling foods or handling dish towels in
the kitchen.
Display on the tack board cartoons depicting "crises" in the kitchen.

What Do I Need to Know About Kitchen Space and Equipment?

Use of equipment

Care of equipment

Prepare a tack board on "Kitchens, Then and Now."

Discuss the over-all arrangement of the homemaking department. Suggest the
improvements that can be made in the arrangement of equipment or acces-

Arrange the department according to these suggestions and decide whether or
not the result is more desirable than the original plan.

Check the equipment in the homemaking department. Observe demonstrations
of the use and care of unfamiliar equipment. Discuss the best use of all of
the equipment.

Make plans to use the various kinds of equipment in the homemaking depart-
ment during ;the food experiences.

Demonstrate the proper and safe care and use of ranges, sinks, refrigerators,
working surfaces, mixers, toasters, and other equipment.

' Discuss the size, shape, and 'material of cooking utensils which are best suited
for the maximum utilization of the heating surfaces of the range.

Observe demonstrations of common kitchen procedures where precautions are
necessary. These may include opening a can, slicing bread, peeling potatoes,
and handling glassware.

Discuss the necessity for having a definite place for everything in the kitchen.

Arrange the small equipment in each kitchen unit with reference to its avail-
ability for instant use. Place where it can be seen, a list of the equipment
stored in each space.

Make a display of pictures or actual articles of small equipment used in food
preparation. Label each piece of equipment. Test your knowledge of the
names and uses of each piece.

As you work in the several kitchens in the homemaking department, decide
which kitchen has the most convenient and efficient arrangement and analyze
the reasons for your decision.

Demonstrate and practice the use of equipment for measuring:
Brown sugar
Baking powder

List the work centers in a kitchen. Discuss the activities which take place at
each center and the equipment which should be placed adjacent to that center.

Demonstrate the use of garbage disposal units when available in the depart-
ment. Discuss the care of garbage and its relation to health. Demonstrate
the use of paper sacks and newspapers for lining garbage cans.

Check community garbage disposal and report your findings to the class.

Present a skit showing the eflfcient use of time and motion in washing dishes.

Follow this skit with another showing the inefficient use of time and motion.

Display on the tack board, interesting, attractive, well arranged, and convenient
kitchens. Direct arrows to the unusual features, especially those pertaining to
the saving of time and motion.

Display on the tack board, pictures showing L-shaped, U-shaped, single-wall,
and double-wall kitchens.



Dividing the recipe

Reading and
interpreting recipes

Terms used in

Methods of:
Cooking fruits to
preserve shape
and flavor
Combining flour
and liquids as in
creamed dishes
or puddings
Preparing mild or
strong, leafy or
Cooking protein
foods such as
cheese, eggs, and
Cooking meat by
moist or dry
Mixing batters and
doughs as in
biscuits, pastry,
muffins, cake,
and ready-mixes
Cooking cereals
using granular,
flaked, or whole
grits, rice, and
Serving foods raw
as appetizers,
garnishes, and
Deep-fat frying
and sauteing

Become proficient in measuring accurately and correctly each ingredient in the
recipes you use.

Ascertain and list for future use the number of teaspoons in a tablespoon,
tablespoons in a cup, and cups in a pint or quart.

Ascertain the meaning of abbreviations commonly used in recipes.

Ascertain the number of cups of sifted flour in a pound, cups of sugar in a
pound, tablespoons in a pound of butter, and other equivalents used in meal

Discuss the statement, "A pint's a pound, the world around."

Compare the volume of ordinary tea cups with a standard measuring cup, and
of serving spoons with measuring spoons.

Compile a list of the terms used in recipes that must be known in order to
follow the recipe intelligently.

Collect simple recipes from cookbooks and magazines. Reduce a recipe in-
tended to serve six people to an amount which will serve four people. Enlarge
a recipe intended to serve six people to an amount which will serve twelve

Use recipes from cookbooks and magazines to observe the order in which the
ingredients are combined, the methods of combining them, and the cooking
instructions. Pantomime the way in which you would follow one of these

Collect recipes you would like to use in your food preparation. Make a file of
the recipes you would like to repeat at home.

Discuss such terms as leavening agent, thickening agent, dry ingredients,
shortening, batter, dough, broil, baste, parboil, simmer, saute, fry, fricasse,
appetizer, marinate, meringue, beverage, barbecue, julienne, grate, and garnish.

Compare the thickening power of equal amounts of cornstarch and flour. Use
the information gained in recipes for gravies, sauces, or puddings.

Ascertain the recommended oven temperatures for baking or roasting various

^^^^^^^^^^What TcjiTi5hn~ique*t^^so od rprtB i on Do I Need

How Do I Make Mealtime a Happy Time?

Describe your most enjoyable family meal and list the factors which you be-
Courtesy lieve contributed to your enjoyment.

Sharing Discuss meals in fiction which have been described as particularly happy.
responsibility Discuss mealtime as a time for sharing experiences and promoting good family
Appreciation Present skits showing happy and unhappy mealtime situations.
Use role-playing to resolve conflict situations arising from:
Relaxation The misbehavior of a child at the table when guests are present.
Tactless, or adverse criticisms regarding the food being served.
Conversation The extra work resulting from being late to a meal.
Have buzz sessions to suggest the courtesies necessary for making mealtime
a happy time.
Have buzz sessions to suggest suitable topics for conversation at the family
dinner table.
Compare the pleasure derived from being a guest in a home with that from
being entertained at a public place.
Discuss the responsibilities of a guest in making mealtime a happy time.
Recall some courtesies which were extended to you on occasions when you
were the dinner guest of a friend.

Selecting food

Acceptable behavior

Collect sample menu cards from dining cars, tea rooms, restaurants, and hotels.
Order mock menus from these cards.
Using menu cards from various eating places plan a breakfast, a lunch, and a
dinner which together will meet the nutritional requirements for a day.
Make plans to eat in a restaurant or tea room and arrange to carry out the
activity as a group.
Have a question box for receiving unsigned questions involving etiquette at
hotels, restaurants, dining cars, and tea rooms.
See a film on correct manners in public places and discuss its application to the
class problem.
Use correct table manners at all times at school and at home so that acceptable
habits are established.
Demonstrate and practice the approved ways of eating special foods.
Discuss common practices regarding tipping.
Interview waitresses to get their descriptions of desirable and undesirable
Prepare and present skits which illustrate good -and bad ways of. entering a
restaurant and ordering food.

Personal appearance




Construct an evaluation instrument and evaluate the planning, preparing, and
serving of each of your meals. An example of such an instrument is as follows:

Personal Appearance
--My hair was neat and covered with a net.
- My apron was clean.
--My hands and nails were clean.

- The meal was well planned.
__ All the foods needed were available.
_ The meal was served on time.
- The meal was nutritious.
__ The food was tasty and good.
--The group worked together efficiently.
_ The kitchen was kept orderly.

_ The table was set correctly.
__ The table was attractive.
_ The color combination of foods was pleasing.
__ The foods were served at the proper temperature.
_ The serving was accomplished with ease and dignity.
__The conversation was participated in and enjoyed by all.

__ The dishes and equipment were put back in place.
_ The work space was left clean.
_ The floor was left clean.
_ The sink and stove were left clean.
__ Sanitary methods were used throughout the cleaning process.
_ The group finished on time.
Take a paper and pencil test on abbreviations and equivalents used in food
If some groups in the class prepare and serve their meals on one day the other
members of the class may observe and offer constructive criticisms.
Exchange with other groups your plans for preparing and serving a meal.
Offer suggestions for improving all plans.
Evaluate in class a meal you have planned, prepared, and served at home in
which you used skills and information you gained in this unit.
Check frequently to determine your progress toward your goals for this unit.

What Have I Learned
Through Planning, Preparing, and Serving Meals?


Adams, Charlotte. Housekeeping After Office Hours. New York: Harper and Brothers Publish-
ers. 1953.
Allen, Ida Bailey. Double-quick Cooking for Part-time Homemakers. New York: M. Barrows
and Company. 1943.
Amidon, Edna P., Bradbury, Dorothy E., and Drenckhahn, Vivian V. Good Food and Nutrition.
New York: John Wiley and Sons. 1946.
Betz, Betty. Your Manners Are Showing. New York: Grosset and Dunlap. 1946.
Baxter, Laura, Justin, Margaret, and Rust, Lucile. Sharing Family Living. New York: J. B. Lip-
pincott Company, 1951.
Crocker, Betty. Betty Crocker's Good and Easy Cook Book. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Furnas, C. 0., and Furnas, S. M. The Story of Man and His Food. New York: The New Home
Library. 1942.
Goldman, Mary E. Planning and Serving Your Meals. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Com-
pany, Inc. 1950.
Gorrell, Faith L., and Others. Food and Family Living. New York: J. B. Lippincott Company.
Harris, Florence LaGanke. Cooking with a Foreign Flavor. New York: M. Barrows and Com-
pany, Inc. 1946.
Harris, Florence L., and Henderson, Ruth A. Let's Study Foods. Boston: D. C. Heath and
Company. 1945.
Harris, Florence L., and Kauffman, Treva E. Young Folks at Home. Boston: D. C. Heath and
Company. 1953.
Harris, Jessie, and Speer, Elizabeth Lacey. Everyday Foods. Atlanta: Houghton Mifflin Com-
pany. 1954.
Hatcher, Hazel M., and Andrews, Mildred E. Adventuring in Home Living. Boston: D. C.
Heath and Company. 1954.
Home Institute of the New York Herald Tribune. Young America's Cook Book. New York:
Charles Scribner's Sons. 1938.
Ilovey, Helen, and Reynolds, Kay. The Practical Book of Food Shopping. New York: J. B.
Lippincott Company. 1951.
Kilander, Holger. Nutrition for Health. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1951.
Leverton, Ruth M. Food Becomes You. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. 1952.
McDermott, Irene, and Nicholas, Florence. Homemaking for Teen-Agers. Peoria: Charles A.
Bennett Company. 1953.
McDermott, Irene, Trilling, Mabel, and Nicholas, Florence. Food for Better Living. New York:
J. B. Lippincott Company. 1949.
McLean, Beth Bailey. The Table Graces. Peoria: The Manual Arts Press. 1941.
Powers, Margaret. The Party Table. Peoria: The Manual Arts Press. 1946.
Reid, Lillian N. Personality and Etiquette. Boston: Little, Brown and Company. 1941.
Rombauer, Irma S. A Cookbook for Girls and Boys. New York: The Bobbs-Merrill Company.
Van Duzer, Adelaide, and Others. The Girl's Daily Life. New York: J. B. Lippincott Company.
Wertsner, Anne. Make Your Own Merry Christmas. New York: M. Barrows and Company,
Inc. 1946-1947.

Wood, Mildred Weigley. Living Together in the Family. Washington: American Home Eco-
nomics Association. 1946.

Better Buymanship Series. Dairy Products. Dinnerware. Fats and Oils. Fish. Fresh Fruits and
Vegetables. Kitchen Utensils. Meat. Poultry and Eggs. Processed Fruits and Vegetables.
Chicago: Household Finance Corporation.
Breakfast Is Ready. Newer Knowledge of Milk. Safe Milk. Chicago: National Dairy Council.
Canning Surplus Fruits and Vegetables. Bulletin No. 121. Gainesville: Agricultural Extension
Service, University of Florida. 1943.
Case, W. M., Davenport, Exine, and Eckhlad, Inez M. Home Storage of Fruits and Vegetables.
Fort Collins: Colorado A. and M. College. 1942.
Consumer Education Series. Using Standards and Labels. Washington: National Association
of Secondary School Principals.
Overweight and Underweight. New York: Metropolitan Life Insurance Company.
Read Your Labels. New York: Public Affairs Committee, Inc.

Beef charts. Pork charts. Chicago: American Meat Institute.
Brown, Clara M. Food Score Cards. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. 1940.
Color Types in Foods. Denver: Morris Brothers Brokerage Company.
Do You Know ABC of Buying U. S. Graded Fruits. New York: United States Inspected Foods
Education Service, Inc.
Food Models. It's Always Breakfast Time Somewhere. Chicago: National Dairy Council.
Gracious Living. Table Setting. New York: Towle Manufacturing Company.

Arranging the Buffet Table-6 minutes, sound, Cooperative Film Library, University of Florida.
Arranging the Tea Table-5 minutes, sound, Cooperative Film Library, University of Florida.
Blame it on Love-40 minutes, sound, Modem Talking Pictures.
Coffee, Pride of Columbia-20 minutes, sound, Young Men Christian's Association Motion Picture
Cooking: Kitchen Safety-11 minutes, sound, Young America Films, Inc.
Cooking: Measurement-11 minutes, sound, Young America Films, Inc.
Four Hundred Years in Four Minutes-22 minutes, sound, Cooperative Film Library, University of
Fundamentals of Diet-11 minutes, sound, Encyclopedia Britannica Films, Inc.
Home Cooking of Fish-11 minutes, sound, Encyclopedia Britannica Films, Inc.
Let's Give a Tea-20 minutes, sound, Cooperative Film Library, University of Florida.
Magic in the Kitchen-17 minutes, sound, Castle.
Meat and Romance-40 minutes, sound, Castle, Cooperative Film Library, University of Florida.
Principles of Cookery-11 minutes, sound, Encyclopedia Britannica Films, Inc.
The Balanced Way-30 minutes, silent, Castle.
The Gentle Art of Meal Cookery-28 minutes, sound, Modem Talking Pictures, Cooperative Film
Library, University of Florida.
The Way to a Man's Heart-20 minutes, sound, Castle.


Homemaking education has a responsibility for providing learning experiences which contribute
to improved housing in the school and community. The homemaking department should exemp-
lify the characteristics of a desirable home situation as to beauty, convenience, and utility. Better
home living may be achieved by developing social, manipulative, managerial, and creative skills in
classroom activities.


To develop:

An appreciation of the importance of healthful and attractive school and home surroundings.

An increased interest in home improvement.

A concern for the needs and wants of others in the use and care of rooms, equipment, and

The ability to make simple alterations and repairs in one's home.

A recognition of the influence of housing upon home life.

The ability to bring about more satisfying home and family living through improved home-



Ho ........w.. May I Become Ac quitdwhheH emakng eparte



Storage facilities

Make a tour of the homemaking department and notice the arrangement, the
equipment, and the storage facilities.

Plan an orderly arrangement of dishes, kitchen utensils, and clothing equipment
in the homemaking department so as to have the best place for everything and
everything in its place.

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