Title: Observations on the quality of oranges used by processors during the 1957-1958 season
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 Material Information
Title: Observations on the quality of oranges used by processors during the 1957-1958 season
Series Title: Observations on the quality of oranges used by processors during the 1957-1958 season
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Westbrook, George Franklin,
Publisher: Citrus and Vegetable Inspection Division
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Bibliographic ID: UF00080907
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 173491416

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October 2, 1958


Observations on the Quality of Oranges Used by Processors
During the 1957-1958 Season

Geo.F.Westbrook and E.C. Stenstrom

The 1957-58 season began with indications of high juice content and
average Brix, although few concentrators were actually operating prior to
the December 12 freeze. Immediately after the freeze, however, the juice
yield began to drop, principally due to mechanical losses during ex-
traction and finishing of the soft fruit; but within two or three weeks,
much of the loss in juice could be attributed to actual dryness. A
succession of freezes contributed further to damage to the fruit, and
juice content steadily decreased throughout the processing of midseason
oranges.

The greatest period of fruit utilization in the history of the
State took place during the seven-week period of December 16 to February 2,
when an average of almost 4 million boxes of oranges per week were used
by processors. Weather conditions at that time were favorable for the
maintenance of wholesome fruit. However, much of this fruit was seriously
injured by freezing and had to be packed as bulk concentrate, since re-
gulations tightly controlled the portion of it which could be packed into
consumer-size containers.

Due to the rapidity of utilization of the midseason oranges, and to
the severe damage to Valencia oranges in localized areas, the processing
of the late fruit began several weeks in advance of its ideal maturation
stage. By the first week in March, heavy utilization of the salvage
Valencias had begun. This fruit, barely meeting maturity requirements
and poor in solids and juice content, was not suitable for concentrate.
Fortunately, most of the Valencias were not severely damaged by the cold
weather, and since that variety normally tends to recover partially from
freeze injury, both solids and juice content began to climb consistently
after the middle of March. Using this better quality fruit, it was
possible to produce an acceptable frozen orange concentrate by blending
with bulk pack from damaged midseason oranges. Well before the first
of June, when the processing season was practically complete, the Val-
encias being used were relatively undamaged. The actual yield for the
season, in terms of juice, was only 8 percent below the average for the
previous two seasons, but more individual fruit per box were required
to make up the 90-pound weight than in the past.

In tabulating the loss of juice data from oranges, under the pro-
cedures which were set up by regulations of the Florida Citrus Commission
for determining extent of freeze injury, all loads of oranges for con-
centrate were classed under one of four categories: (1) Those showing
from 0 to 25% serious damage based on the i" cut, (2) those showing from
26 to 50%, (3) those showing from 51 to 75%, and (4) those showing from
76 to 100% serious damage. The following table shows the relationship
obtained by comparing juice content in terms of pounds of juice per box
with serious damage under each of the above categories:


Citrus and Vegetable Inspection Division
Winter Haven, Florida






POUNDS OF JUICE VS. FREEZE DAMAGE ON I" CUT


0 to 25% 26 to 50% $1 to 175% 76 to 100;
vs. cut vs. cut vs, C" cut vs. cut

Week INo. of lbs, 1, of lbs. % of lbs. 1% of lbs. i% of Avg. Ibs
ending loads jic'e,loads juloadsoads juice ice lo juice loads juice
12/29 419 48.73 22 46.23 43 443 .97 214 43.3i4 11 6.61
I45. ii 1 o
1/12 667 47.56 49 U 3.84 26 40.82 15 37.79 10 5.10
1/26 636 47.11 53 41.20 31 38.34 13 34.58 3 I 4.10
2/9 70o5 17.93 64 43.40 21 38.79 8 34.96 7 45.16
2/16 1141 47.46 62 43.68 20 40.40 9 35.44 9 45.19
2/23 1166 46.91 56 43.0o4 22 40.27 13 35.45 9 44.72
3/2 9514 46.84 29 42.72 25 39.031 20 34.21 26 3.23
| I I I 3 1
i3/9 1 1590 145.93 33 42.70' 31 39.87 21 3$.50 15 4 2.71
3/23 1422 46.38 43 42.69j 32 39.28 18 35.85 6 I 3.63
/6 1136 47.95i 65 43.50o 25 41.46 8 37.07 2 I 5.75
4/20 1522 148.24'; 75 433.75 20 41.17 4 38.03 1 47.26


i
5/4 453 49.o4 84 43.145 13 42.22i 2 35.143i 1 48.12
i I
5/18 304 49.28 I 86 43.63 12 42.52 j 2 - 1 48.16
6/1 73 49-54 95 140-891 5 4 874
S6/1 73 !9.5 9 o.89 - - 48.74

After dryness begins to occur, it is evident that there is very good
correlation between the extent of freezing injury (as measured by the
cutting procedure) and the juice content or yield. Once dryness is the
chief determining factor, the control measures can be applied by the industry
by setting up a minimum juice requirement. However, this method should not
be used for two to four weeks immediately following a freeze as minimum
juice content alone would not control the use of seriously damaged fruit,
for physical loss of juice will not have occurred and mechanical losses
could be minimized. During that period, it will be necessary to actually
cut samples and determine the extent of injury as is done with fresh fruit
shipments. If weather conditions are unfavorable to maintaining and
preserving the quality of the fruit on the trees, it may be advisable
to continue the cutting and examination for a period of several weeks,
in order to control or prevent the use of fruit which is found to be
internally decomposed or "fermented", as it is commonly designated.


Citrus and Vegetable Inspection Division
Winter Haven, Florida




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