Title: Grain sorghum after drought damaged corn
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Title: Grain sorghum after drought damaged corn
Series Title: Grain sorghum after drought damaged corn
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Creator: Jones, D. W.
Publisher: Department of Agronomy, Agricultural Experiment Station, IFAS, University of Florida
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Agronomy Research Report 77-7 June 1977


Department of Agronomy
Agricultural Experiment Station, IFAS
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611

GRAIN SORGHUM AFTER DROUGHT DAMAGED CORN

D. W. Jones and V. E. Green, Jr.


The continuing drought has destroyed or severely damaged much of the

non-irrigated corn in northern Florida. Farmers are considering plowing up

some of this corn and planting another crop when moisture is available. In

some instances, herbicide residues may present a problem (see David H. Teem

memo of May 20, 1977).

Late sorghum plantings will be more susceptible to cutworms, budworms,

and midges. Late sorghum plantings will be more susceptible to leaf diseases,

especially anthracnose.

Sorghum can be planted as a "catch" or "salvage" crop. Plantings made

in June usually do not produce as much grain as those planted two months ear-

lier. Table 1 shows this data for plantings made at Marianna for the years

1973-1976. Table 2 compares average yields of early and late plantings at

Marianna, 1968-1976. Table 3 gives a comparison of several grain sorghums

planted in April and in June at Gainesville in 1971. Table 4 presirtsqya.o-

nomic characteristics of 51 grain sorghum varieties grown near Gjpsville 'ti/

1976.

A decision must be made whether to plant hybrids that are '6r, resistant/

(BR) or that are not bird resistant (NBR). BR hydrids are high in tannifsa..And

lower in digestibility than are the NBR hydrids. Where birds are not not ex-

pected to be a problem, all indications are that the NBR hydrids should be

planted. But if harvesting will occur during wet weather or the grain must

be left standing in the field for some time before harvest, the BR hydrids







will tolerate weather better and will not mold or sprout on the stalks as

easily as will the NBR hydrids. At Gainesville in the 1976 crop season, a

test of 51 grain sorghum hybrids was planted April 2 and harvested July 22.

See Table 3.

Average yields were 4930 pounds per acre. The plants were mowed about

8 inches from the soil surface, and supplemental nitrogen was applied along

with a cultivation. The crop was allowed to make a ratoon growth from July

23 to November 30, although the ratoon crop could have been harvested on

November 1, or during the last week of October if supplemental drying had

been available. There were 14 BR hydrids in the test and the 14 highest

ratoon yields contained 13 of the BR hydrids, showing the value of the brown

and tan seeded hybrids against mold damage in the field and seed sprouting

in the heads. Half of these BR hydrids contained yellow endosperm, YE, a

source of Vitamin A, such as contained in yellow corn.

Sorghums may be planted in rows, drilled or broadcast. There will be

little difference in grain yield when planted by any of these methods. Row

plantings do give an opportunity for cultivation and the use of herbicides

as a directed spray. Seeding rate should be 8 to 10 pounds of seed per acre

when planted in 30 to 42 inch rows. For broadcast or drilled plantings, the

seeding rate should be increased by 25 percent.

If sorghum is to be planted following a drought damaged corn crop that

was adequately fertilized, most of the phosphorus, potassium and much of the

nitrogen should still be in the soil. In order to be sure that low fertility

does not limit sorghum seedling development, it is advisable to apply 200

pounds per acre of a complete fertilizer at planting and add additional nit-

rogen if the need becomes apparent.




- 3 -


Harvesting and drying of grain are most critical. When mature, grain

must be harvested before seed begin to shatter. Under the high humidity

conditions in Florida, it is necessary to artificially dry grain before it

is stored. It is essential that it be dried within 6 to 8 hours after har-

vesting in order to avoid mold formation. The moisture content of the grain

should not be more than 12 percent when placed in storage.

There are no well established commercial markets for grain sorghum in

Florida. It is suggested that disposition or utilization of the crop be

determined before the crop is planted.






Yields of Early vs Late Planted Grain Sorghum for the Years 1973-76, Marianna, Fla. 1/


1973* 1974* 1975* 1976*
BRAND-2/ VARIETY EARLY LATE ** EARLY LATE ** EARLY LATE ** EARLY LATE **


DeKalb
Asgrow
McNair
FMC
Funk
DeKalb
McCurdy
Excel
ACCO
FMC
McNair
Funk
McNair
Pennington
Funk
FMC
FMC
Excel
T-E
McCurdy
Asgrow
NK (Sawan)
T-E
McNair
ACCO
Asgrow
T-E
McCurdy
FMC


E-59
Dorado M
654
ORO-T
G522
BR-54
Birds-Off 81
808 (RA)
R1029
ORO
895
BR 79
650
Penngrain BR
G516BR
Early ORO
ORO-Y
811A (RA)
Y-101
Birds-Off 13
Capitan
Savanna 5
Bird-A-Boo II
656 BR
1029A
Granada
Hondo
Birds-Off 91
ORO-DR


5600
5870
6200
6290
5570
5320
5320
6140
5230
5840
6170
5750
6680
5270
5630
6410


4770 85
4540 77
4540 73
4430 70
4340 78
4340 82
4340 82
4300 70
4190 80
4140 71
4140 67
4070 71
3980 60
3780 72
3610 64
4250 66


6090
6450
6560
6520
6450
6400
6210
7280
6350
6960
6530
6440
6320
5550
6310
6310
6160
7000
6860
5690


2490 40
2570 40
2240 34
2520 39
2500 39
2660 42
2230 36
2490 34
3240 51
2300 33
2380 36
2110 33
2440 39
2020 36
2450 39
2130 34
2650 43
2710 39
2370 35
2510 44


5100 2940 58
4720 2810 60
4470 2610 58
4970 2760 56
5010 2720 54
4120 3540 86
4700 2270 48
4960 2670 54
---- ---- --
5010 2380 48
4390 2940 67
5210 2450 47
5210 2430 47
5160 2110 41
5500 3180 60
4720 2410 51
4370 2630 60
5770 2610 45
5450 2200 40
4740 3290 69
4390 2230 51
4570 4160 91
5080 2900 57
4670 3100 66
4850 3520 73
4370 2250 51
4030 3120 77
4140 2900 70
3740 2630 70


3860
4260
3300
4460
3900

3840
4010

4300


4160
3640
4500
4320
3280


3890
4920
4650
3640
3970
3720
3180
3240
2840
2920


3040 79
2790 65
2420 73
3560 80
3070 79

2610 68
3260 81

2900 67


2080 50
2880 79
3150 70
2980 69
3710 113


3630 93
3460 70
4270 92
2900 80
3350 84
3910 105
3000 94
3910 121
3530 124
3320 114


* Planting Dates:


Early Late
1973 April 20 June 15
1974 April 17 June 25
1975 April 17 June 18
1976 April 22 June 22


-/ Data of Dr. D. W. Gorbet, ARC-Marianna
2/
SFMC hybrids are now called Young's.


** Late
Eart or % of early
Early


TABLE 1













Table 2. A Comparison of Yields at Marianna, Florida from Early and Late
Plantings of Grain Sorghum, 1968-1976.


PLANTING DATES YIELDS, POUNDS PER ACRE
EAREARLY LATEEARLY LATE P PERCENT OF EARLY
YEAR EARLY LATE EARLY LATE PERCENT OF EARLY


1968

1969

1970

1971

1972

1973

1974

1975

1976


June 6

May 27

June 8


April

April

April

April

April

April


July

June

June

June

June


-- 4530

---- 3730

-- 2510


5630

4830

5390

5170

4680

3940


3030

3780

2360

2680

3110


63

73

38

59

83








Table 3 Comparison of an April 7 and a June 9 Grain Sorghum Planting Date
on Grain Yields. Gainesville, FL 1971.


BRAND HYBRID



DeKalb BR 64

Funk's BR 79

Ark AES AKS 663

Asgrow Dorado

Young's (FMC) Oro

Ring Around(XL) Bird-Go

Asgrow Double TX

Ga. AES Ga.1795E

NK(Sawan) Savanna 2

McNair 546

Pennington Penngrain BR

Funk's G-766W

Asgrow Bravis-R

Frontier 409

McCurdy Birds-off

McNair 880

DeKalb E-57A

Ring Around(XL) Bird-go A

Funk's BR 630

Pioneer BR 804

Dorman BR-100

Pioneer 828

Average


Yields, Pounds per acre Lat4
Planting date per
April 7 June 9

6700 1210

5650 2420

5420 0

5320 2900

5280 2700

5180 2300

5180 1370

5140 2020

4960 850

4800 1520

4760 2240

4720 1590

4540 1730

4500 1650

4480 2160

4320 1450

4230 1210

4210 2020

4170 1670

3850 1750

3790 1410

3630 1270

4570 1680


e yield as
cent of early


18

43

0

47

51

44

27

39

17

32

47

34

38

37

48

34

29

48

40

45

37

35

37







Table 4. Agronomic characteristics of 51 grain sorghum hybrids grown at the
Dairy Research Unit (Hague), Gainesville, FL, 1976.


Flower
Height, Date, Midpoint Yields, Test Wt. BR or Endosperr
hybrid Brand inches June Days Lbs/Acre Lb/Bu. NBR Color

58 T-E Bird-a-Boo II Taylor-Evans 53 11 70 6560 47.2 BR WE

15 RA 808 Ring Around (Excel) 53 11 70 6350 50.7 NBR YE

i53 Birds-off 13 McCurdy 49 10 69 6090 53.6 BR WE

84 RA 811A GB Ring Around (Excel) 59 10 69 5990 53.8 NBR YE
)84 Penngrain-BR Pennington 52 11 70 5620 47.9 BR WE

!27 656 BR McNair 53 11 70 5600 50.7 BR YE

62 B-815 Pioneer 58 14 73 5540 50.0 BR YE

13 Early ORO FMC (Young) 53 9 68 5520 52.2 NBR YE

)86 RA Bird GO 68 Ring Around (Excel) 51 14 73 5500 52.2 BR YE

165 Savanna 5 NK 60 10 69 5440 52.2 BR WE

0 ORO T FMC (Young) 58 11 70 5420 54.3 NBR YE

30 G-516 BR Funk 52 12 71 5340 49.3 BR YE

,39 BR-64 DeKalb 59 16 75 5320 55.0 BR WE

$3 GSA 1334BR Growers 51 11 70 5300 50.7 BR YE

i23 Birds-off 81 McCurdy 50 9 68 5280 46.5 BR WE

1.33 ORO-Y FMC (Young) 50 11 70 5230 52.9 NBR YE
591 Dorado-M Asgrow 55 11 70 5220 53.6 NBR YE

89 695 McNair 54 11 70 5110 52.2 NBR YE

\73 D-60 DeKalb 57 12 71 5080 55.7 NBR WE
88 650-D McNair 50 11 70 5030 50.7 NBR YE

170 T-E Total-R Taylor-Evans 58 11 70 5010 54.3 NBR YE

.85 BR Y-93 ACCO 55 10 69 5010 50.7 BR YE

81 ML-135 Growers 51 12 71 4950 50.7 NBR YE


Planted April 2; 3-foot rows. Harvested July 22.
4-8-16, 125 Lbs/A. NH4NO3side-dressed on May 11.


Preplant fertilizer with 700 Lbs/A
No irrigation water applied.




able ** (cont). Grain sorhum hybrids, bU ague, L) uainesville, _/o.
Flower
Height, Date, Midpoint Yields Test Wt. BR or End6spcNr
hybrid Brand inches June Days Lbs/Acre Lb/Bu. NBR Color-
B2 R-1090 ACCO 52 11 70 4920 52.2 NBR YE

66 Birds-off 91 McCurdy 49 10 69 4910 52.2 BR WE

79 G-589 Funk 51 10 69 4900 56.4 NBR YE

B7 284 NK 53 14 73 4900 52.9 NBR YE

74 ORO FMC (Young) 51 10 69 4890 51.5 NBR YE

S1 R 1029 A ACCO 51 9 61 4880 50.0 NBR YE

57 M-51 McCurdy 48 11 70 4810 53.6 NBR WE

38 E-59+ DeKalb 55 14 73 4800 55.0 NBR HYE

59 G-522 Funk 51 12 71 4760 50.7 NBR YE

34 654 McNair 53 11 70 4750 51.5 NBR YE

72 BR-65 DeKalb 57 11 70 4750 53.6 BR WE

74 8311 Pioneer 50 10 69 4740 52.2 NBR HYE

30 G-522 GBR Funk 53 10 69 4620 50.7 NBR YE

16 X-0912(D-2912) ACCO 53 11 70 4610 52.9 NBR WE

M2 GSA 1180 Growers 51 9 68 4540 51.5 NBR YE

,1 Grenada Asgrow 54 10 69 4470 49.3 NBR WE

!6 650 McNair 51 9 68 4400 50.7 NBR YE

)0 695-D McNair 55 10 69 4330 52.2 NBR YE

'8 G-701 GBR Funk 51 16 75 4320 50.7 NBR YE

'8 Penngrain-YE Pennington 49 10 69 4310 49.3 NBR YE

'5 Bugoff Asgrow 51 9 68 4210 50.7 NBR YE

,9 Capitan Asgrow 49 16 75 4190 52.9 NBR YE

7 T-E Hondo Taylor-Evans 51 11 70 4160 55.7 NBR WE

i9 T-E Y-101-R Taylor-Evans 50 10 69 4070 50.7 NBR YE

17 G-399 Funk 47 9 68 4030 52.9 NBR HYE

1 F-67 DeKalb 50 15 74 3990 55.0 NBR YE

16 G-722 DR Funk 53 13 72 3880 56.4 NBR YE

3 ORO DR FMC (Young) 52 11 70 3590 53.6 NBR YE
Planted ADril 2: 3-foot rows. Harvested July 22. Preplant fertilizer with 700 Lbs/Acre


4-8-16, 125 Lbs/Acre NH4N03 side-dressed
Average yield= 4,930 Ibs/Acre.


on.May 11. No irrigation water applied.




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