Group Title: Agronomy research report
Title: Sunflower tests in the Gainesville area
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 Material Information
Title: Sunflower tests in the Gainesville area yields and oil contents
Series Title: Agronomy research report
Physical Description: 11 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Green, Victor E
Akhanda, Abdul Muttalib, 1937-
Prine, G. M ( Gordon Madison ), 1928-
University of Florida -- Agronomy Dept
Publisher: University of Florida, Agronomy Dept.
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1978?
 Subjects
Subject: Sunflowers -- Yields -- Florida -- Gainesville   ( lcsh )
Sunflower seed oil -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 4).
Statement of Responsibility: Victor E. Green, Jr., Abdul M. Akhanda, and Gordon M. Prine.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "February 1978."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00080901
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 65465415

Full Text



Agronomy Research Report AG 78-6 February 1978

3 SUNFLOWER TESTS IN THE GAINESVILLE AREA--YIELDS AND OIL CpNj'i- ..

Victor E. Green, Jr., Abdul M. Akhanda, and Gordon M. Prine- .


Sunflower cultivars have been improved for three general u tsE-o-t- ,-bd -.....:j

feed, silage, and confection (hulled and unhulled). Tests at Gainesville have

been conducted only with sunflower for oil. As incomes rise, so does the use

of vegetable oils. As the use of synthetic fibers increases, so does the supply

of cotton, and hence cottonseed for oil decreases. There is a concerted effort

in the USA at this time to increase the supply of sunflower seed for oil to

keep the cottonseed presses in operation the entire year. Sunflower is an

excellent choice of oilcrop for the South because its seeds contain 50% oil of

which about 90% is poly-unsaturated, making it one of the most healthful oils

in the world. Sunflower oil produced in the southern USA is much more poly-

unsaturated than that grown in the northern USA.

Sunflower should be a good crop in multiple cropping systems for north and

west Florida. It is resistant to frost and yields well when planted in the first

half of February. Before the advent of hybrids, Killinger grew sunflower crops

in the early 1970s. His early February tests made higher yields using Russian

open-pollinated varieties than our tests with hybrids planted in March or April,

or even later, as summer weather was approached. Tests planted at Jay annually

since about 1972 in March or April with both open-pollinated varieties and

hybrids have always yielded less than Killinger's early February tests with the

Russian releases. See Table 1.

1/ These tests were conducted cooperatively with Dr. Dalton E. Gandy, Agronomist,
National Cottonseed Producers Assn., Memphis, Tenn. Oil and fatty acid
analyses are courtesy of Dr. James A. Robertson, ARS-USDA, Athens, Ga., without
whose assistance these tests would have been impossible.

2/ Professor (Agronomist), Doctoral Candidate on Ford Foundation Scholarship on
leave from Bangladesh Academy for Rural Development, Kotbari, Comilla; and
Professor (Agronomist), Agronomy Department, IFAS, University of Florida,
Gainesville, Fla. 32611.





- 2-


In 1976, a 14-entry test was made in cooperation with the National Cotton-

seed Producers Association. See Table 2. Peredovik 66 and Sputnik 71 are

Russian open-pollinated varieties, the remainder are USA hybrids. Details of

the test are in the footnotes of Table 2. Average data are as follows: 63 inch

plants varying from 46-66 inches; June 18 flowering date, with extremes of June

16 and 21; 1140 Ibs/A yield varying from 870-1470; total oil content of from

44.0 to 51.3%, averaging 47.7%, 7.6% or polysaturated (undesirable) fatty acids

palmiticc and stearic) but 91.4% poly-unsaturated (desirable) fatty acids oleicc

and linoleic). This totals 99% due to rounding. This composition makes the

oil very desirable in the diet of cardiac and vascular disease patients and

those persons who do not desire to become such.

Table 3 shows the results of the 1976 National Sunflower Performance Trials.

Average yields per acre are shown for the western, northern, and southern areas.

The yields for the southern and northern areas were essentially the same for the

10 hybrids and the 2 open-pollinated varieties, at about 1700 Ibs/A. The west-

ern area averaged about 2500 Ibs/A for all entries in the 1976 tests. The

entries were also ranked for yields under irrigation and nonirrigation. Inter-

state 891 yielded best when not irrigated, nationwide, as well as in north

Florida. It ranked number 2 when irrigated.

On February 18, 1977 a test was seeded with 11 hybrids and 2 open-pollinated

varieties. Table 4 shows the agronomic characteristics and Table 5 shows the

industrial characteristics of this irrigated field trial. Footnotes to these

tables outline the log of the test, key dates, and operations such as irrigations,

fertilizations, and sprayings, as well as planting and harvest dates. First

flowering was recorded from April 19 to May 5, averaging April 28 from the

February 18 plantings, with full flower from April 29 to May 18, averaging

May 9; plant heights of from 50 to 78 inches, averaging 69 inches tall; yields

per acre of from 1230 to 2730, averaging about one ton per acre; with test

weights of 29 to 34 pounds per bushel, averaging 31 Ibs/bu. See Table 4.




- 3 -


Table 5 shows the total oil content of the 11 hybrids and 2 open-pollinated

varieties as well as the fatty acid composition of the oil and oil production

per acre. Standard deviations of each parameter were calculated. This table

shows the real value of a sunflower crop. Note that the total oil content of

13 entries averaged 48.3% oil, with extremes of 45.8 and 51.1%. Over 90% of

this oil is poly-unsaturated and therefore very useful in the diets of cardio-

vascular disease patients. Only about 9% of the total oil is saturated. Oil

production per acre averaged 960 pounds, with extremes of from 560 and 1320

pounds per acre. See Table 5.

Since a number of Alachua County farmers were going to plant sunflower

following drought killed corn following grazing by livestock, we also planted

a test on August 18, 1977. The same 13 entries of the February planting were

tested. Footnotes to Table 6 show the log, important dates and practices of

the test. This test followed tobacco and nematodes were a great problem. At

harvest, there was hardly any root system on many of the plants. There were

great reductions from the February planting in plant heights (30-55", averaging

40); head diameters (1.5-3.7", averaging 2.5); number of heads per 10-foot row

(3-20, averaging 15); and yields (180-720, averaging 500 pounds per acre) in

this test. Yields would probably have been higher had pesticides and irrigation

water been applied. Farmers in the area made 800-2300 pounds per acre which

soil at $0.08/1b. Most of the farmers planted Golden Harvest hybrids from the

Columbiana Seed Company.

Table 7 is the information sheet that accompanied the seed for the National

Sunflower Performance Trials and was drawn up by Dr. Dalton E. Gandy of the

National Cottonseed Producers Association of Memphis, Tenn. Useful information

in this table includes the hybrid names and sources, number of seeds per pound,

the seed size index, and the planter plate guide for three manufacturers plates.





-4-


ADDITIONAL READING


Striking oil with sunflowers. 1977. Agricultural Research, ARS-USDA, pp. 6-7.

Sunflowers: Production, pests and marketing. June 1975. Extension Bull. 25,
North Dakota State Univ. 60 pp.

Sunflower food products. March 1972. Texas A & M Univ. MP-1026, 10 pp.

Sunflower: A survey of the literature. May 1971. Texas A & M Univ. MP-992.
32 pp.

USDA ARS North Central Region, Iowa-Missouri area. North Central Regional
Plant Introduction Station. May 1976. 9pp. Damage to sunflower
introductions by sunflower moth and birds, by James L. Jarvis. Ames,
Iowa.

University of Minnesota. 1976. Sunflower population, row width, and row
direction. MP-141. 24 pp.

USDA-FAS. Oilseeds and products. Dec. 1977. World production and trade of
sunflowerseed and oil and meal. FOP 23-77. 8 pp. Washington, D. C. 20250.




- 5-


Table 1. Sunflower seed yields
1970s at Gainesville,


of open-pollinated varieties in the early
FL from early February plantings.


Yields, Pounds Per Acre During Indicated Growing Season

1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 Average1-

Krasnodarets 2418 1942 N --- N 2180
0 0
Peredovik 2360 2152 3231 2580
T T
NK HO1 2548 3422 E -E 2990
S S
T T
Record --- 3134 S 3557 S 3340

HS 52 --- 3877 --- 3880

Issanka -- ---- 4048 4050

8946 ---- -- 4592 4590

Romansun H552 -- ---- 3775 3780

896 -- ---- 3249 3250


Data courtesy of Dr. Gordon B. Killinger, Agronomist (Professor) Emeritus,
University of Florida, IFAS, Gainesville, FL 32611.


1/ Yield figures rounded to nearest 10 lbs. per acre.

1971 Notes: Seeded Feb. 1 @ 7 Ibs/A in 36-inch rows; 400 Ibs/A 10-10-10
at plantings; 50 Ibs/A N and 30 Ib/A K20 on April 13; 3 on-inch irri-
gations in 4/71 + 5/71; harvested 6/8. Arredondo fine sand.

1972 Notes: Planted Feb. 7; harvested early June; Krasnodarets earliest
bloomer; 4 reps; 10' row combined for yield; Avg 25 plants/10' of row
36" apart; harvested before bird damage; 500 Ibs/A 10-10-10 on Jan 24;
sidedressed in March with 66 Ibs N and 60 Ibs K20 peracre; irrigated
3 times 0.75" each H20, on Arredondo fine sand.

1974 Notes: Planted Feb. 11, 6 to 7 Ibs/A seed; 500 Ibs/A 10-10-10 on
Feb. 4; 100 Ibs/A NH4N03 and 60 Ibs/A K20 from KCL; harvested from late
May to early June; 16 plants/8' of row stand; irrigated 4/19 and 5/1
with 0.75" H20; considerable bird damage, but harvested prior to that.

More details on these tests can be found in Agronomy Research Reports
AG 72-5, 73-3; and 75-3, Agronomy Department, IFAS, University of Florida,
Gainesville, Florida 32611.








Table 2.


The agronomic and industrial characteristics of late planted sunflowers at the Agronomy Farm, University
of Florida, Gainesville, 1976.


Height, Date of Yields, Test Total Oil Fatty Acid Content of the Sunflower Oil; %
Brand Hybrid Inches Flower, Pounds/ Wt/Bu. Percent, Palmitic Stearic Oleic Linoleic
June Acre Lbs. Dry Basis 16:0 18:0 18:1 18:2


Cargill 201 63 21 1470 27.9 --
Interstate 891 64 17 1470 26.1 51.3 4.7 2.5 52.5 39.7
Northrup-King Romsun HS-52 65 21 1315 26.8 ----- ---
Pacific Oilseeds Sun-hi 304 65 20 1290 26.5 46.9 4.7 3.1 50.6 40.6
Cargill Peredovik 66 66 16 1165 26.1 47.3 4.6 3.0 54.8 36.6
Growers Sungrow 372 62 16 1145 27.2 50.4 4.7 2.8 49.6 41.9
Northrup-King Sunbred 212 65 16 1145 26.8 44.0 4.4 3.3 59.3 31.8
Northrup-King Sunbred 223 46 18 1085 28.2 46.0 4.6 3.0 54.6 37.0.
Dalgren DO 410 62 16 1080 27.2 46.6 4.4 3.3 55.7 35.4
Pacific Oilseeds Sun-hi 301 64 21 1035 25.4 48.5 4.5 3.1 56.7 34.9
Growers Sungrow 380 65 18 1015 26.4 50.4 4.7 2.9 53.5 37.7
Interstate 8944 65 16 990 26.8 44.7 4.6 3.2 54.7 36.4
Cargill 204 62 17 885 27.2 47.6 5.1 2.6 49.6 41.6
Cargill Sputnik 71 64 17 870 26.8 49.2 4.4 3.1 59.0 32.5

Mean Values 63 18 1140 26.8 47.7 4.6 3.0 54.2 37.2


Planted April


14; Harvested July 21.


Fertilizer at planting: 800 Lbs/Acre 4-8-16. Arredondo fine sand. Four row plots,


4 replications, rows 3 feet apart and 25 feet long. Harvested 2 center rows for data. Sidedressed with 250 Lbs/Acre
NHqNO0 on May 21. No irrigation water applied. Yields were suppressed by severe damage by birds. In cooperation with
Dr. Dalton E. Gandy, Agronomist, National Cottonseed Producers Assn., Memphis, TN. Oil and fatty acid analysis courtesy
of Dr. Jim Robertson, R. B. Russell ARC, UG, Athens, Ga. Rainfall recorded during crop growth of the experiment:
April 14-30: 0.85, May: 6.38; June: 11.37; and July 1-21: 2.06 inches; Total rainfall= 20.66 inches.


V.E. GREEN, JR.




- 7-


SUMMARY

1976 National Sunflower Performance Trials


Average

Western
Variety Average
Hybrids
1. Hybrid 204 2370

2. DO 410 2766

3. Sun-Gro 372 2252

4. Sun-Gro 380 2483

5. Hybrid 891 2611

6. Hybrid 8944 2563

7. Sunbred 212 2890

8. Sunbred 223 2390

9. Sun-Hi 301 2374

10. Sun-Hi 304 2535
YIELD AVERAGE: 2523.4

Open Pollinated
11. Peredovik 66 2301

12. Sputnik 71 2690
YIELD AVERAGE: 2495.5


Yields Per Acre for Each Area

Southern
Rank Average Rank

10 1720 6

2 1561 12

12 1659 8

7 1725 5

4 1758 3

5 1726 4

1 1715 7

8 1639 9

9 1817 1

6 1807 2
1742.7


1601

1615
1608


Ranking of Sunflower Varieties
in the Performance Trials

Overall Nonirrigated Irrigated
Rank Rank Rank
1 Hybrid 891 2 2
2 Sunbred 212 1 5
3 Sun-Hi 304 3 1
4 Sun-Hi 301 6 6
5 Hybrid 8944 4 7
6 Sun-Gro 380 8 4
7 Sputnik 71 9 3
8 Hybrid 204 7 9
9 Sun-Gro 372 11 10
10 Peredovik 66 10 11
11 Sunbred 223 5 12
12 DO 410 12 8
This table courtesy Dr. Dalton E. Gandy, President, International Sunflower Assn.


TABLE 3.


Northern
Average

1771

1677

1681

1808

1876

1790

1783

1601

1771

1782
1754


1717

1761
1739


Rank

7

11

10

2

1

3

4

12

6

5



9

8




8 -
Table 4 1977 Sunflower Test Characteristics Gainesville, FL

Entry Gandy Brand Name Hybrid First Full Plant Yields, Test Weight
Letter Entry Desig- Flower Flower Heights, Lb/Acre Lb/Bu Kg/HI
nation Date Date 5/ Inches x6.257
A 3 Cargill 204 4/26 9 70 2180 32 200

B Cargill X-203 4/27 9 78 2730 32 200

C 13 Cargill Sputnik 71 4/22 7 73 2270 30 188

D 14 Interstate Peredovik 4/25 7 77 2450 29 181
66
E 4 Growers Sun-gro 5/2 9 73 1690 29 181
372A
F 5 Growers Sun-gro 5/4 13 75 1650 32 200
380
G Interstate 891 5/5 10 75 1920 32 200

H Interstate 8944 4/25 5 65 1740 33 207

I Northrup-King Sunbred 4/25 5 60 2580 34 212
212
J 8 Northrup-King Sunbred 4/19 4/29 50 1520 29 181
223
K Northrup-King Romsun 5/2 16 67 1230 26 163
HS52
L 9 Pacific Oil Sun-hi 5/4 18 69 1980 33 207
301A
M 10 Pacific Oil Sun-hi 4/25 10 65 1860 32 200
304

Average 4/28 5/9 69 1980 31 194

Planted February 18; Harvested June 14-16, 1977. Field S-16, Agronomy Farm; Rows 3-feet apart
running east and west. Fertilized with 500 Ibs/A 10-10-10; Sidedressed with 300 Ibs/A 15-0-15
on March 29; and 200 Ibs/A NH4NO3 on April 7. Irrigated as necessary to prevent stress. Rain-
fall: Feb: 1.94; March: 1.22; April: 0.83; May: 0.46; June: 0.37; Total: 4.82 inches.
Irrigation water added: 14.5 inches during crop growth. Cooperative test with Dr. Dalton
Gandy, President, International Sunflower Assn. and Agronomist, National Cottonseed Products
Assn. Inc., Memphis, TE.


V.E. GREEN, JR.




e Inusfftri criaracteristi oirigated Sunfower Trial at Gainesville, FL, 1977.


Randd Name


Growers
Pacific Oil
Sputnik
Growers
Pacific Oil
NK
Cargill
Interstate
Cargill
Interstate
NK
Peredovin
NK


Hybrid or
Variety Name


SunGro 372A
SunHi 301A
71
SunGro 380
SunHi 304
Sunbred 212
X-203
891
204
8944
Sunbred 223
66
Romsun HS-52


Total Oil %
Dry Basis


51.1
50.5
49.8
48.9
48.9
48.5
48.3
48.3
47.8
47.4
46.7
46.0
45.8


Fatty Acid Composition (Average Percent)
Unsat. Fatty Acids Total Saturated Fatty Acids Total
18:1 18:2 18:3 1/ 16:0 18:0 20:0 2/


42.8
39.0
42.4
41.2
37.9
45.6
50.6
39.3
40.2
41.5
30.5
47. 1
44.4


47.5
51.6
48.4
50.0
53.1
44.4
39.9
51.5
51.2
49.2
58.3
43.2
46.3


0.1
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.1
0.1
0.1
0. 1
0.1


90.4
90.8
90.9
91.3
91.1
90.1
90.7
91 .1
91.5
90.8
88.9
90.4
90.8


5.3
5.2
4.7
5.2
5.6
5.2
4.7
4.9
5.3
5.3
6.1
4.8
5.3


3.5
3.0
3.5
2.8
2.9
3.8
3.5
2.9
2.6
3.3
4.1
3.7
3.1


0.3
0.4
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.3
0.3
0.5
0.4
0.4


Average, % 48.3 41.7 48.9 0.2 90.7 5.2 3.3 0.4 8.9 1980 960

Std. Dev., % 1.6 4.9 4.7 0.1 0.7 0.4 0.4 0.1 0.7 440 220


Each figure represents the results of triplicate analyses. 18:1 = oleic; 18:2 = Linoleic; 18:3 = Linolenic;
16:0 = Palmitic; 18:0 = Stearic; 20:0 = Arachidic Acid. Test planted: February 18, harvested June

18:1 + 18:2 + 18:3 = Total "unsaturate"; 16:0 + 18:0 + 20:0 = Total "saturate" in the total oil.

Analyses courtesy Dr. Jim RQbertson, ARS-USDA, Box 5677, Athens, GA 30604.


14-16.


VE GREEN, JR.


9.1
8.6
8.6
8.3
8.7
9.5
8.7
8.3
8.2
8.9
10.7
8.9
8.8


Acre Yields
Seed OIl
Pounds per Acre
1690 860
1980 1000
2270 1130
1650 810
1860 910
2580 1250
2730 1320
1920 930
2180 1040
1740 820
1520 710
2450 1130
1230 560




Table 6 Agronomic characteristics of a late-summer planted sunflower variety test following tobacco
at the Green Acres Agronomy Farm near Gainesville, FL, 1977.


Entry Gandy Brand Hybrid Plant Head Number Heads Yields,
Letter Entry Name Name Ht., In. Dia., In. per 10' Row Lbs/Acre

A 3 Cargill 204 30 1.8 15 490
B -- Cargill X-203 35 2.9 15 480
C 13 Cargill Sputnik 71 35 3.1 16 330
D 14 Interstate Peredovik 66 40 3.2 18 580
E 4 Growers Sun-Gro 372A 45 1.5 17 670
F 5 Growers Sun-Gro 380 45 2.5 20 680
G -- Interstate 891 55 1.9 19 660
H -- Interstate 8944 50 2.3 17 410
I -- Northrup-King Sunbred 212 50 3.2 16 720
J 8 Northrup-King Sunbred 223 40 3.1 9 530
K -- Northrup-King Romsun HS-52 30 2.Q 3 180
L 9 Pacific Oilseeds Sun-Hi 301A 40 3.7 12 250
M 10 Pacific Oilseeds Sun-Hi 304 30 1.8 13 460
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Average 40 2.5 15 500

Planted: August 18; Harvested: December 6, following frosts. Fertilizer at planting with 600
Lbs/Acre 10-10-10. Side-dressed on September 8 with 200 Lbs/Acre NH4NO3. No Pesticides applied.
Rainfall during growth: August 8-31: 6.92"; September: 5.72"; October: 0.13"; November: 1.95".
Irrigation water added: None. Cooperative test with Dr. Dalton Gandy, President, International Sunflower
Assn. and Dr. James E. Robertson, ARS USDA, Russell Research Center, Athens, GA. Planting underwent
a serious nematode infestation following a tobacco crop.

V.E. GREEN, JR.




- 11 -


TABLE 7. 1977 NATIONAL SUNFLOWER PERFORMANCE TRIALS


Entry Germination Seed
No. Entry % Source of Seed Seeds/lb. Size

Hybrids

1. Cal/West 894 86 Cal/West Seed Company 5500-5600 3
2. Cal/West 903 91 II" 5500-5600 3
Cargill 204 95 Cargill, Inc. 6288 5
Sun-Gro 372A 85 Growers Seed Assn. 5800 3
Sun-Gro 380 85 6500 4
SHybrid 8943 90 Interstate Seed & Grain Co. 5900-6100 3
Sunbred 254 90 Northrup-King & Co. 5925-6125 3
Sunbred 223 90 I 6675-6875 3
Sun-Hi 301A 90 Pacific Oilseeds, Inc. 6000-6500 3
SSun-Hi 304 90 ," 6000-6500 3
Big Top + 91 Rauenhorst, Bellows & Assoc. 5500 3
Sigco 894 96 SigCo Sun Products 6500 3

Open Pollinated
Varieties (check)

13. Sputnik 71 93 Cargill, Inc. 5808 3
14. Peredovik dG 90 Interstate Seed & Grain Co. 6000-6200 3



Planter Plates Guide

Grade 5 Grade 4 Grade 3 Grade 2

Planter Filler Planter Filler Planter Filler Planter Filler
Plate Ring Plate Ring Plate Ring Plate Ring

(1) B 050-24 B FR-40 B 040-24 B FR-40 B 030-24 B FR-2 B 020-24 B FR-2

(2) C 050-24 C FR-3 C 040-24 C FR-3 C 030-24 C FR-3 C 020-24 C FR-3

(3) B 050-24 B 040-24 B 030-24 B 020-24
+ Adapter B FR-40 + Adapter B FR-40 + Adapter B FR-2 + Adapter B FR-2

(1) John Deere; (2) International; (3) Allis Chalmers


This table courtesy of Dr. Daldon E. Gandy, formerly Agronomist for the National
Cottonseed Producers Assn, Memphis, TE; now Agronomist, Rauenhorst, Bellows & Assoc.
Olivia, MN.




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