Group Title: Agronomy research report
Title: Chemical analyses of a Typic Argiudoll in Marcos Juarez, Cordoba, Argentina affected by cropping system, tillage and soil depth
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 Material Information
Title: Chemical analyses of a Typic Argiudoll in Marcos Juarez, Cordoba, Argentina affected by cropping system, tillage and soil depth
Series Title: Agronomy research report
Alternate Title: Chemical analysis of a Typic Argiudoll in Marcos Juarez, Cordoba, Argentina affected by cropping system, tillage and soil depth
Physical Description: 22 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Gallaher, Raymond N
Lattanzi, Alfredo
Marelli, Hugo
University of Florida -- Agronomy Dept
Publisher: University of Florida, Agronomy Dept.
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1987?
 Subjects
Subject: Soils -- Analysis   ( lcsh )
Loam soils   ( lcsh )
Tillage   ( lcsh )
Cropping systems   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Summary: The objective in this paper is to present preliminary soil chemical analyses conducted by Raymond N. Gallaher at the University of Florida from three experiments conducted by Alfredo Lattanzi and Hugo Marelli located in Marcos Juarez, Cordoba, Argentina.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (leaves 9-11).
Statement of Responsibility: by Raymond N. Gallaher, Alfredo Lattanzi and Hugo Marelli.
General Note: Cover title.
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Bibliographic ID: UF00080900
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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Resource Identifier: oclc - 65465240

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Agronomy Research Report AY-87-03


Chemical Analyses of a Typic Argiudoll in Marcos Juarez, Cordoba

Argentina Affected by Cropping System, Tillage, and Soil Depth. '" -




BY


Raymond N. Gallaher, Professor of Agronomy, Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 and
Alfredo Lattanzi, Ing. Agr. and Hugo Marelli, Ing. Geog., Estacion
Experimental Regional Agropecuaria, Marcos Juarez, INIA, Casilla de Correro
21, 2580, Marcos Juarez, Cordoba, Argentina.


~;;f i I

INTRODUCrlON


No-tillage research studies have shown that OM (organic matter) in
surface soils is higher as compared to conventional tillage management after
several years of the same management (Beal, et al., 1955, Blevins et al.,
1977, Dick, 1983, and Lal, 1974). On the other hand Hargrove et al. (1982)
reported no increase in OM after 5 years of no-tillage when compared to
conventional tillage management. Gallaher (1983) reported that OM was
increased by no-tillage management in surface soils in some cropping systems
but was not affected in other systems. Differences in other soil chemical
analyses have also been observed by Gallaher and Nelson (1977), Ferrer and
Gallaher (1984), Ortiz and Gallaher (1984) and many of the above authors.


Long-term no-tillage and cropping system studies have been of interest to
Agronomist for the past several years. Such studies have been established in






several states of the Southern USA, in Brasil, Argentina, Australia, and are
likely under investigation elsewhere. The senior author has been seeking
cooperation from selected research scientists in the US and other countries.
Soil samples from long-term tillage experiments are obtained for chemical
analyses in a common laboratory using the same analytical procedures. This
study was initiated in 1985 between Gallaher, Lattanzi, and Marelli. The
objective in this paper is to present preliminary soil chemical analyses
conducted by Gallaher at the University of Florida from three experiments
conducted by Lattanzi and Marelli located in Marcos Juarez, Cordoba,
Argentina.


MATERIALS AND METODS

Initial agreement between Gallaher, Latanzi, and Marelli was made when
Gallaher visited Marcos Juarez in February 1985. Soil samples were collected
at the end of the growing season of the summer crops. This was agreed upon
because of this being the normal soil sampling time for Experiments conducted
by Gallaher at the University of Florida. Samples were shipped to the
University of Florida in July 1985. -


Three experiments were under investigation by INTA at Marcos Juarez. The

first experiment was continuous monocrop soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.)
rotation and was begun in 1975. Therefore, this experiment had been in place
for 10 years at the time of sampling. Tillage treatments included a)
conventional tillage, b) mulch tillage, and c) no-tillage. The second
experiment was continuous monocrop corn (Zea mays L.) rotation and was started
in 1974. This experiment was 11 years old when sampled for this research.
Tillage treatments were the sane as for experiment one. Experiment three was a

wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)/soybean double cropping system that was begun in -
1979 and had been under investigation for 6 years. Tillage treatments included
a) conventional tillage, b) minimum tillage, and c) no-tillage.








Each experiment was in a randanized complete block design. The first two
experiments had four replications and the third had three replications for
soil analysis. All three experiments were sampled at randan in each plot at
the 0 to 5 cm, 5 to 10 cm, 10 to 15 cm, and 15 to 30 cm soil depths. Soil was
air dried, stored in plastic bags, and shipped to Gainesville, Florida. Soil
depth will be treated as a split plot in future statistical analysis. -.


Soil samples were ground with,a stainless steel grinder, sieved to pass
2mm in a stainless steel sieve, and stored for chemical analysis. Several
analyses were performed on the soils.


Extractable Nutrients


A 5 g sample of the air dried soil was weighed into extraction bottles.

Twenty ml of extraction solution was added (0.05M HCI + 0.05M H2S4) (Mehlich,
1954). These were placed in a mechanical reciprocating shaker adjusted for 160
oscillations per minute with a 3-cm stroke. Samples were on the shaker for 5
minutes, and filtered through Whatman no. 6 filter paper (Mitchell and Ehue,
1979). The filtered extracted solution was used to analyze for extractable K,
Ca, Mg, P, Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Na, and Al. Potassium was determined by Atomic
Emission Spectrophotmaetry, P by colorimetry, and the other elements by Atomic
Absorption Spectrophotometry. Elemental concentrations are reported in mg kg-
(the same as parts per million).


Soil Organic Matter


Organic matter was determined (Walkley, 1947 and Allison, 1965) as
follows: 1) Weigh 1.0 g of soil into 500 ml Erlenmeyer flask. 2) Pipette 10 ml-
of 1 M K2Cr207 solution into the flask. 3) Add 20 ml of concentrated H2S04 and
mix by gentle rotation for 1 minute using care to avoid throwing soil up onto
the sides of the flask. 4) Let stand 30 minutes. 5) Dilute to 200 ml with
water. 6) Add 10 ml of 85% H3PO4, 0.2 g NaF, and 10 drops of diphenylamine

indicator. 7) Titrate with 0.5M Ferrous Ammonium Sulfate Solution until the









color changes from dull green to a turbid blue. Add the titrating solution
drop by drop until the end point when the color sharply shifts to a brilliant
green. 8) Prepare a flask (without soil) in the sane way and titrate to
determine the blank titrant. 9)' Calculations: % O.M. = 10 (1 T/S) X 0.67
where S = blank titration in ml of ferrous ammonium sulfate solution and T =
sample titration in ml ferrous anmonium sulfate solution (Isaac and Johnson, -
1977).


Nitrogen


Determination of N was by Kjeldahl digestion (Gallaher et al. 1976) and
subsequent colorimetric analysis on an autoanalyzer as follows: 1) Weigh 2.00
g of soil into 100 ml digestion tubes. 2) Add 3.20 g of salt:catalyst mixture
(90% anhydrous K2S04, 10% CuSO4) and 2 boiling chips or boiling beads. 3) Add
10 ml of concentrated H2SO4 and mix ingredients. 4) Slowly add 2 ml of H202.
5) Digest samples on an aluminum block digester (Gallaher et al. 1975b) for 6
and 1/2 hours at 375 C. 6) Upon cooling, dilute solutions to 75 ml with
deionized water. 7) Determine N by autoanalyzer (Schuman, et al. 1973).


Total Sulfur


The LECO SC-132 Sulfur Determinator System, 781-400, consisting of:
measuring unit 781-500 and control console 780-400 were used to determine
total S in soil (Leco Corporation, 1980). This system essentially measures
released S gas after heating the soil to a high temperature in an 02 enriched
gas stream. The soil sample is placed in the combustion chamber that is heated
to 2550 C. The S gas is released into an 02 enriched gas stream and is
converted to SO2. The SO2 passes into the infrared chamber where the S
concentration is determined.









Nitrate Nitrogen


The automated procedure was used for determining nitrates in soil.
Nitrates are reduced to nitrite in a copper-cadmium reductor column. The
nitrite ion then reacts with sulfanilamide under acidic conditions to form a
diazo compound. This compound then couples with N-l-naphthylethylenediamine "
dihydrochloride to form a reddish-purple azo dye. To 20 g of soil 40 ml of
distilled water is added. This is mixed well with a stirring rod and allowed
to set for at least 12 hours. The liquid is filtered through Whatman no. 6
filter paper and analyzed on the autoanalyzer. he samples are analyzed on an
autoanalyzer at 40 samples per hour with a detection limit of 0.04 mg N per
litter (ppn) (Mitchell and Rhue, 1979).


Ammonium Nitrogen


The automated procedure for the determination of ammonium utilizes the
Berthelot Reaction. The formation of a blue-colored compound believed to be
closely related to indophenol occurs iwen the solution of an ammonium salt is
added to sodium phenoxide and follxoed by the addition of sodium hypochlorite.
A solution of potassium sodium tartrate and sodium citrate is added to the
sample stream to eliminate the precipitation of the hydroxides of Ca and Mg.
To 20 g of soil 40 ml of deionized water is added. This is mixed well with a
stirring rod and allowed to set for at least 12 hours. The solution is
filtered through Whatman no. 6 filter paper and analyzed on the autoanalyzer
(Mitchell and Rhue, 1979).


Sulfate


Available sulfates were measured by turbidimetric determination (Bradsley
and Lancaster, 1965). The details of this procedure is outlined in the book on
methods in soil analysis edited by Black (1965).











The pH was determined on soil samples using a 1:2 (V/V) soil:water ratio
(IRhue and Kidder, 1982). Soil and water were added to paper cups, mixed with a
stirring rod, let stand for 30 minutes, and pH determined with a pH meter and
a standard glass electrode and a calomel reference electrode. -


Tabulation and Statistical Analysis


Data were averaged over replications and tabulated in two way tables with
tillage as main plots and soil depth treated as split plots. Other than
averages no additional statistical analysis have been performed at this time.
Only generalized statements concerning trends can be made about the data at
this time.


RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


Organic Matter, N, S and P


Tables 1 through 8 are all set up in the same manner with tillage within
each of the three experiments across the top and soil depth along the left
side. Tables 1 through 4 contain data on OM, N, S, P and related ions. Each of
the three experiments must be evaluated independently. However, trends can be
noted where similarity or differences may have occurred for different
experiments. In the case of OM there was a trend for all three experiments to
have greater OM in the 0 to 5 cm layer but experiments differed at lower
depths. OM averaged over the 0 to 30 cm depth indicate that OM is only
redistributed to the soil surface and may not actually increase by no-tillage
management compared to conventional tillage.


Nitrogen appears to have a positive correlation with OM in all three
experiments but this is not the case for total S or extractable P. Total sums
of these elements and their ratios may aid in better interpretation of the








effects of cropping systems and tillage on the cycling of nutrients and the
need for replacement by fertilization. As expected OM, N, and S were all in
higher concentrations in the soil surface compared to lower depths.
Indications are that no-tillage may aid in conserving these nutrients.


Nitrogen as a percent of OM (assumes that all N is in OM) may aid as an
indicator of the degree of degradation of OM. One would expect that OM would
be degraded more in the 15 to 30 cm layer as compared to the 0 to 15 cm layer
and that conventional tillage would cause greater degradation compared to
no-tillage. In the corn study conventional tillage had higher percent N in OM
compared to no-tillage and the 15 to 30 cm depth had higher percent N in OM
compared to the 0 to 15 cm depth. Nitrogen, S, and P have historically been
associated with OM levels in soils and in virgin soil conditions the OM serves
as a major source of these elements for utilization by plants. An in-depth
evaluation of these data may reveal significant relationships under crop
production conditions when utilizing various tillage management.


There was a trend for greater amounts of NH4 in the corn and soybean
experiments but not in the wheat/soybean double cropping system. A trend for
greater NO3- in conventional tillage occurred in all three experiments. It
appears that NH4 and NO3 occur in greatest amounts near the soil surface.
Extractable SO4- varied with the tillage, soil depth, and experiment. Trends
in one experiment may have been the opposite for that in another.


Major Cations of K, Ca, and Mg


In general no-tillage appeared to aid in conserving the major cations
(Tables 5, 6, and 7). There was a trend for greater quantities of K, Ca, and
Mg in no-tillage corn canpared to conventional tillage. In most cases this
same thing appeared to occur in the other two experiments. Accumulation of
these cations on the soil surface may be due to absorption of the nutrients in
the subsoil which are later released on the surface during decay of the










residue. This appears to be illustrated for K in the soybean experiment where
K is accumulated on the soil surface in no-tillage while reducing the
concentration in the 15 to 30 cm layer.


Research has been conducted on the proper ratio of cations in plant
tissue for good growth (Gallaherret al., 1972, Gallaher, et al. 1975a, ;
Gallaher and Jellum, 1976a and 1976b and Gallaher, et al., 1981). The level of
cations and their ratio in soil has a direct influence on their concentration
in plants. Further evaluation of these data (Tables 6 and 7) may reveal the
greater significance of nutrient cycling by fibrous and tap root crops grown
under no-tillage management compared to the traditional conventional tillage
management.


Micronutrients of Zn, Cu, Mn, and Fe


Extractable micronutrients did not appear to maintain the same trends
from tillage variables for all experiments. However it appeared that Zn- -_
accumulated on the soil surface in no-tillage. This is probably a positive
relationship with the level of OM. In some experiments Mn showed the same
trend as did Zn. The Zn, Mn, and Fe were all higher in the 0 to 15 cm soil
layer compared to the 15 to 30 cm layer. The opposite was true for Cu.


Soil Profile Analysis


In most cases largest differences between the long-term pasture versus
the long-term agriculture management systems (Tables 9a, 9b, and 9c) occurred-
in soil layers near the surface. This was true for OM and N. However,
differences were greater in the lower layers for elements like Ca and Na.
Ratios of the various chemical components varied considerably between the
pasture and tilled agricultural soil profiles. On close examination it appears
that Na may have a significant influence on pH at the lower depths of the soil
profile.










SUMPAR


This paper is a preliminary report of soil chemical analyses from
long-term cropping systems and tillage experiments that were conducted by INA
at Marcos Juarez, Cordoba, Argentina. This is a cooperative effort by
Gallaher, Lattanzi, and Marelli.: he primary objective is to evaluate the soil
chemistry of these soils affected by tillage, cropping systems, and soil depth
in relation to similar cropping systems and tillage systems conducted in
Florida and elsewhere. This research should aid in establishing soil chemical,
fertility, environmental, and plant nutrition relationships associated with
conventional and no-tillage management.


Data in this paper indicate numerous trends. For example in all three
corn, soybean and wheat/soybean experiments the OM is redistributed to the
soil surface in no-tillage. This appears to be at the expense of CM
concentration at lower soil depths. The data also show that cations are being
recycled from subsoil to the soil surface in no-tillage. If this is the-.4se
then no-tillage may play a significant role in conserving fertilizers.
Numerous relationships exist and final conclusions will have to be made after
further evaluation of the data by the authors.


ACENOWLEDGMENT


The authors express their appreciation to Ms. Olivieth V. Ortiz and Mr.
John E. Thomas for laboratory assistance.


REFERENCES

1. Allison, L.E. 1965. Organic carbon. In C.A. Black et al. (ed.) Methods of
Soil Analysis, Part 2. Agronomy 9:1367-1378. Amer. Soc. of Agron., Madison,
Wisconsin.


2. Beale, O.W., G.B. Nutt, and T.C. Peele. 1955. The effects of mulch tillage
on runoff, erosion, soil properties, and crop yield. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer.
Proc. 19:244-247.










3. Black, C.A. 1965. Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2. Amer. Soc. of Agron.,
Madison, Wisconsin.

4. Blevins, R.L., G.W. hmonas, and P.L. Cornelius. 1977. Influence of
no-tillage and nitrogen fertilization on certain soil properties after 5
years of continuous corn. Agron. J. 69:383-386.

5. Bradsley, C.E., and J.D. Lancaster. 1965. Sulfur. P. 1102-1116. In C.A.
Black, et al. 1965. Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2. Amer. Soc. of Agron.,
Inc. Madison, Wisconsin.

6. Dick, W.A. 1983. Organic carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus concentrations
and pH in soil profiles as' affected by tillage intensity. Soil Sci. Soc.
Aner. J. 47:102-107.

7. Ferrer, M.B., R.N. Gallaher, and B.G. Vblk. 1984. Soil nitrogen and
organic matter changes as affected by tillage after six years of corn. p.
189-193. In J.T. Touchton, and R.E. Stevenson (ed.) 1984. Proceedings Seventh
Annual Southeast No-Tillage Systems Conference. July 10, 1984, Wiregrass
Substation, Headland, Alabama. Alabama Agric. Exp. Stn., Auburn University,
Augurn, Alabama.

8. Gallaher, R.N., W.L. Parks, and L.M. Josephson. 1972. Effects of levels of
soil potassium, fertilizer potassium and season on corn yield and potassium
content by inbreds and hybrids. Agron. J. 64:645-647.

9. Gallaher, R.N., W.L. Parks, and L.M. Josephson. 1975a. Sane factors
influencing yield and cation sum and ratios in corn. Comm. Soil Sci. Plant
Anal. 6:51-61.

10. Gallaher, R.N., C.O. Weldon, and J.G. Futral. 1975b. An aluminum block
digester for plant and soil analysis. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. proc. 39:803-806.

11. Gallaher, R.N., and M.D. Jellum. 1976a. Elemental and/or cation ratio
efficiency of corn hybrids grown on an infertil soil inadequate in magnesium.
Comm. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 7(7):692-696.

12. Gallaher, R.N., and M.D. Jellum. 1976b. Influence of soil planting dates
on mineral element efficiency of corn hybrids. Comm. Soil Sci. Plant Anal.
7(7) :665-676.

13. Gallaher, R.N., C.O. Weldon, and F.C. Boswell. 1976. A semiautanated
procedure for total nitrogen in plant and soil samples. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer.
J. 40:887-889.

14. Gallaher, R.N., and L.R. Nelson. 1977. Soil fertility management of
double cropping systems. Georgia Agric. Res. Report 248. Georgia Experiment
Station, Experiment, Georgia.









15. Gallaher, R.N., M.D. Jellum, and J.B. Jones. 1981. Leaf magnesium
concentration efficiency versus yield efficiency of corn hybrids. Comn. in
Soil Sci. and Plant Analy. 12:345-354.

16. Gallaher, R.N. 1983. Soil organic matter in long-term multicrcpping
and/or minimum tillage trials in Florida as affected by cropping system and
tillage. Agronomy Research Repbrt AY-83-16. Agronomy Department, IFAS, Univ.
of Florida, Gainesville, Florida..

17. Hargrove, W.L., J.T. Reid, J.T. Touchton, and R.N. Gallaher. 1982.
Influence of tillage practices on the fertility status of an acid soil
double-cropped to wheat and soybean. Agron. J. 74:684-687.

18. Isaac, Robert A., and William C. Johnson. 1977. Methodology for the
analysis of soil, plant, feed, water, and fertilizer samples. Lab manual,
Soil and Plant Analysis Laboratory, College of Agriculture, Univ. of Georgia,
2400 College Station Road, Athens, Georgia 30602.

19. Lal, R. 1974. No-tillage effects on soil properties and maize (Zea mays
L.) production in Western Nigeria. Plant Soil. 40:321-331.

20. LEOD Corporation. 1980. SC-132, 781-400 Sulfur System Instruction Manual.
3000 Lakeview Ave. St. Joseph, MI 49085 U.S.A.

21. Mehlich, A. 1953. Determination of P, Ca, Mg, K, Na, and NH. North
Carolina Soil Test Division (Mimeo, 1953), North Carolina State niv.,
Raleigh, N.C.

22. Mitchell, C.C.,Jr., and R.D. Rhue. 1979. Procedures used by the
University of Florida Soil Testing and Analytical Research Laboratory. Soil
Sci. Res. Report No. 79-1. Soil Science Department, IFAS, Univ. of Florida,
Gainesville, Florida 32611.

23. Ortiz, Ruben A., and R.N. Gallaher. 1984. Organic matter and nitrogen in
an Ultisol as affected by cropping and tillage systems after seven years. p.
193-196. In J.T. Touchton, and R.E. Stevenson (ed.). 1984. Proceedings
Seventh Annual Southeast No-Tillage Systems Conference. July 10, 1984,
Wiregrass Substation, Headland, Alabama. Alabama Agric. Exp. Sta., Auburn
University, Auburn, Alabama.

24. Rhue, R.D, and G. Kidder. 1982. Procedures used by the IFAS extension
soil testing laboratory and interpretation of results. Florida Cooperative
Extension Service, IFAS, Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611.
Circular 596.

25. Schuman, G.E., M.A. Stanley, and D. Knudsen. 1973. Automated total
nitrogen analysis of soil and plant samples. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc.
37:480-481.

26. Walkley, A. 1947. A critical examination of a rapid method for

determining organic carbon in soil. Soil Sci. 65:251-264.










Table 1. Soil organic matter, N, P, and S affected by tillage and soil depth in
long-term corn, soybean, and wheat/soybean cropping systems in Marcos Juarez, Argentina.
Soil Corn Rotation Tillage Soybean Rotation Tillage Wheat/Soybean Tillage
Depth Conv. Mulch No-Till X Ccnv. Mulch No-Till X Conv. Mulch No-till X
Potassium Dichranate Organic Matter


3.46
2.94
2.41


3.72
3.01
2.52


3.37
2.97
2.50


2.79
2.85
2.68


- dag kg-1
2.97 3.48
2.92 2.72
2.56 2.53


3.08
2.83
2.59


2.86
2.84
2.45


3.09
2.88
2.30


3.55
2.72
2.55


3.17-
2.81
2.43


0-15 2.83 2.94 3.08 2.95 2.77 2.74 2.91 2.81 2.72 2.75 2.94 2.80
15-30 1.71 1.61 1.77 1.70 1.92 1.76 1.83 1.84 1.59 1.59 1.83 1.67


0-30 2.27 2.28 2.43 2.32 2.35 2.25 2.37
Kjeldahl Nitrogen


0- 5
5-10
10-15


1384
1364
1214


1514
1304
1184


1667
1336
1194


1522
1335
1197


1301
1273
1265


14(
14(
12;


mg kg-1.
37 1704
)2 1313
21 1188


2.32 2.16 2.17 2.39 2.24


1471
1329
1225


1238
1232
1133


1418
1298
1110


1613
1287
1209


1423
1272
1151


0-15 1321 1334 1399 1351 1274 1344 1402 1340 1201 1275 1370 1282
15-30 0901 0904 0896 0900 0960 0916 0912 0929 0843 0857 0958 0886

0-30 1111 1119 1148 1126 1117 1130 1157 1135 1022 1066 1164 1084
Apparent Total Combustible Sulfur -


0- 5
5-10
10-15


116 129 145 130
119 132 118 123
101 129 125 118


0-15 112 130 136 126
15-30 102 102 117 107

-0-30 107 116 127 117


-- mg kg-1
136 98 130
142 94 108
90 100 110


121
115
100


150
147
142


123 100 116 113
98 99 111 103

110 100 114 108
Extractable Phosphorus


164 169
146 151
126 139


161
148
136


146 145 153 148
124 131 113 123

135 138 133 135


0- 5
5-10
10-15


145 186 159 163
137 169 157 154
142 166 151 153


0-15 141 173 156 157
15-30 141 166 148 152

0-30 141 170 152 154


95
82
74

84
91


kg-1
99
79
79

86
90


137
90
83


109
80
73-

87
84


103 78
92 83


85 87 88 87 98- 81 79 86


- cm -
0- 5
5-10
10-15


2.94
2.96
2.58


Conv. = Conventional tillage; Mulch = Mulch tillage; No-ti.ll = No-tillage; Corn rotation
was monocrop for 11 years; Soybean rotation was monocrqp for 10 years; Wheat/soybean was
double cropping for 7 years. Values are an average of 4 replications for the corn and
soybean experiments and 3 replications for the wheat/soybean experiment.









Table 2. Soil N/S, N/P, S/P, and N + S affected by tillage and soil depth in long-term
long-term soybean, and wheat/soybean cropping systems in Marcos Juarez, Argentina.
Soil Corn Rotation Tillage Soybean Rotation Tillage Wheat/Soybean Tillage
Depth Conv. Mulch No-Till X Conv. Mulch No-Till X Conv. Mulch No-till X
Nitrogen/Sulfur


0-15 11.79 10.26 10.29
15-30 8.83 8.86 7.66

0-30 10.38 9.64 9.04


8.31-10.48
7.71 8.51
7.13 7.90


11.71
10.85
10.14

10.72
8.41


mg kg-1
9.57 14.35 13.11
8.97 14.91 12.16
14.06 12.21 10.80


Ratio
12.15
11.56
12.25


10.36 13.44 12.09 11.99
9.80 9.25 8.22 9.02


9.62 10.15 11.30 10.15 10.50
Nitrogen/Phosphorus


9.33
8.67
7.82


ag kg- Ratio -
13.28 14.81 19.36 15.17
13.99 17.10 16.62 15.82
14.88 16.50 15.04 15.51


0-15 9.36 7.71 8.97 8.60 14.00 16.00 16.30
15-30 6.39 5.45 6.05 5.92 12.30 10.07 10.13


15.50
10.80


0-30 7.88 6.58 7.55 7.31 13.14 12.99 13.15 13.15
Sulfur/Phosphorus


0.80
0.80
0.77


1.39
1.56
1.06


-
mg kg
1.03
1.15
1.35


1 Ratio -
1.48 1.25
1.37 1.37
1.39 1.27


8.25
8.38
7.98


8.65
8.89
8.81


9.54
8.52
8.70


8.20 8.78 8.92
6.80 6.54 8.48


8.83
8.60 -
8.50


8.64
7.27


7.50 7.66 8.70 7.96


9.03
13.69
13.65


15.76
16.64
16.82


16.29
17.88
17.02


12.12 16.41 17.06
9.16 10.32 12.28

10.64 13.36 14.67


1.09
1.63
1.71


1.82
1.87
1.91


1.71
2.10
1.96


13.06
16.07
15.83

14.99
10.59

12.79


1.48
1.87
1.86


0-15 0.79 0.75 0.87 0.80
15-30 0.72 0.61 0.79 0.70


1.35 1.19 1.35 1.30 1.48 1.87 1.92 1.74
1.26 1.09 1.23 1.20 1.35 1.58 1.45 1.46


0-30 0.76 0.68 0.83 0.76 1.29 1.15 1.30 1.25
Nitrogen + Sulfur


0- 5
5-10
10-15


1500
1483
1315


1643
1436
1313


1812
1454
1319


1652
1458
1315


1437
1415
1355


- mg
1505
1496
1321


kg-1
1834
1421
1290


1592
1444
1325


1.41 1.72 1.69 1.60


1388
1379
1275


1582
1444
1236


1782
1438
1348


1584
1420
1286


0-15 1433 1464 1535 1477 1397 1444 1518 1454
15-30 1003 1172 1013 1052 1058 1015 1023 1032


1347 1421 1523 1430
967 988 1071 1009


0-30 1218 1233 1275 1265 1227 1230 1271 1243 1157 1204 1297 1220
Cony. = Conventional tillage; Mulch = Mulch tillage; No-till = No-tillage; Corn rotation
was monocrcp for 11 years; Soybean rotation was monocrqp for 10 years; Wheat/soybean was
double cropping for 7 years. Values are an average of 4 replications for the corn and
soybean experiments and 3 replications for the wheat/soybean experiment.


- an -
0- 5
5-10
10-15


11.93
11.46
12.02


11.94
9.88
9.17


11.50
11.32
9.55


0- 5
5-10
10-15


9.54
9.96
8.54


0- 5
5-10
10-15


0.80
0.86
0.71


0.69
0.78
0.78


0.91
0.75
0.83










Table 3. Soil N + S + P, and N, S, and P as percent of organic matter affected by
tillage and soil depth in long-term corn, soybean, and wheat/soybean cropping systems in
Marcos Juarez, Argentina.
Soil Corn Rotation Tillage Soybean Rn Rotati Tillage Wheat/Soybean Tillage
Depth Cony. Mulch No-Till X Conv. Mulch No-Till X Conv. Mulch No-till X
Nitrogen + Sulfur + Phosphorus


1829
1605
1479


1971
1611
1470


1815
1612
1468


1535
1506
1440


- mg kg
1600 1933
1578 1500
1395 1377


0-15 1574 1637 1691 1634 1488 1528 1604
15-30 1144 1338 1161 1159 1136 1106 1113


0-30 1359 1405 1427 1397 1312
Nitrogen as


7.38
4.44
4.91


4.48
4.44
4.74


4.52
4.50
4.79


4.66
4.47
4.72


1317 1359
a Percent


- dag
4.74
4.80
4.77


kg-I
4.90
4.82
4.70


0-15 4.67 4.54 4.54 4.58 4.60 4.91 4.84
15-30 5.27 5.61 5.06 5.31 5.00 5.21 4.98

0-30 4.89 4.91 4.72 4.84 4.75 5.02 4.88
Sulfur as a Percent o:


0.37
0.45
0.54


0.39
0.39
0.50


0.38
0.41
0.48


0.49
0.50
0.34


* dag
0.33
0.32
0.39


kg-1
0.37
0.40
0.44


0-15 0.40 0.45 0.43 0.43 0.44 0.35 0.40
15-30 0.60 0.63 0.66 0.63 0.44 0.56 0.61

0-30 0.50 0.54 0.55 0.53 0.44 0.46 0.51
Phosphorus as Percent


- an -
0- 5
5-10
10-15


0- 5
5-10
10-15


0.49
0.46
0.55


0.54
0.58
0.69


0.43
0.52
0.60


0.49
0.52
0.61


0.35
0.32
0.32


-dag
0.32
0.28
0.29


kg-1
0.28
0.29
0.31


0.32
0.32
0.31


0.48
0.32
0.34


0.29
0.27
0.29


0-15 0.50 0.59 0.51 0.53 0.33 0.31 0.29 0.31 0.38 0.28
15-30 0.82 1.03 0.84 0.90 0.41 0.52 0.49 0.47 0.58 0.52


0.28
0.27
0.28

0.28
0.43


0.35
0.29
0.30

0.31
0.51


0-30 0.66 0.81 0.67 0.72 0.36 0.41 0.39 0.39 0.48 0.40 0.35 0.41
Cony. = Conventional tillage; Mulch = Mulch tillage; No-till = No-tillage; Corn rotation
was monocrop for 11 years; Soybean rotation was monocrop for 10 years; Wheat/soybean was
double cropping for 7 years. Values are an average of 4 replications for the corn and
soybean experiments and 3 replications for the wheat/soybean experiment.


1645
1620
1457


0- 5
5-10
10-15


4.71
4.61
4.71


0- 5
5-10
10-15


0.39
0.40
0.39


1689 1525 1672 1881 1693 -
1528 1469 1522 1510. 1500
1404 1358 1302 1419 1360

1540 1451 1499 1603 1518
1118 1059 1071 1149 1093

1329 1255 1285 1376 1305
of Organic Matter


4.77 4.33 4.59 4.54 4.49
S4.70 4.33 4.51 4.73 4.53
4.73 4.62 4.83 4.74 4.74

S4.78 4.42 4.64 4.66 4.58
S5.06 5.30 5.39 5.23 5.31

S4.88 4.73 4.91 4.87 4184
f Organic Matter


0.40 0.52 0.53 0.48 0.51
0.41 0.52 0.51 0.56 0.53
0.39 0.58 0.55 0.58 0.56

0.40 0.54 0.53 0.53 0.53
0.54 0.78 0.82 0.62 0.74

0.47 0.66 0.68 0.58 0.64
of Organic Matter


-


i









Table


4. Soil NH NO SO ,-


corn, soybean, and whea /soybean
Soil Corn Rotation Tillage
Depth Conv. Mulch No-Till X


and C1 affected by tillage and soil depth in long-term
cropping systems in Marcos Juarez, Argentina.
Soybean Rotation Tillage Wheat/Soybean Tillage
Conv. Mulch No-Till X Conv. Mulch No-till X
Extractable NH4
4


1.0 1.2 0.9 1.0
1.3 0.8 0.8 1.0
1.0 0.8 0.5 0.8


0-15 1.1 0.9 0.7 0.9
15-30 0.6 0.5 0.3 0.5


0-30 0.9 0.7


17.0
7.3
6.8


14.1.
4.9
3.0


0.5 0.7


14.1
5.6
3.9


15.1
5.9
4.6


I- mg
2.6 1.3
2.2 1.4
2.1 1.4


kg-1
1.5
1.4
1.1


1.8
1.7
1.5


1.1
0.9
0.9


2.3 1.4 1.4 1.7
1.1 0.9 0.8 0.9

1.7 1.1 1.1 1.3
Extractable NO3


26.9
16.1
9.4


-mg
8.5
4.6
3.5


kg-1
17.2
7.2
6.2


17.5
9.3
6.4


0.8 1.7 1.2
0.8 1.1 09 --
0.7 1.2 0.9


1.0 0.8 1.3 1.0
0.2 0.4 0.7 0.4

0.6 0.6 1.0 0.7


22.9
18.3
17.3


27.6
17.1
12.4


25.5
10.8
8.4


25.3
15.4
12.7


0-15 10.4 7.3 7.9 .8.5 17.5 5.5 10.2 11.1 19.5 19.0 14.9 17.8
15-30 3.9 2.5 3.7 3.4 7.6 1.5 3.7 4.3 10.7 6.7 7.5 8.3


0-30 7.1 4.9 5.8 5.9 12.6 5.4 7.0 8.4
Extractable S4


15.1 12.9 11.2 13.1


0- 5
5-10
10-15


15.90
12.44
16.90


5.97
8.81
9.30


12.08
19.88
7.23


0-15 15.08 8.03 13.06
15-30 10.12 7.02 14.03

0-30 12.60 7.52 13.55


11.32
13.71
11.14

12.06
10.39

11.22


7.13
6.14
6.95


*mg
8.76
9.94
7.03


kg-1
7.46
5.07
12.92


6.74 8.58 7.41
8.39 10.50 11.59

7.56 9.54 9.50
Extractable C1


7.78
7.05
8.97

7.58
10.16


9.52
15.59
12.22


8.04
7.07
7.83


12.44 7.65
11.89 10.87


8.87 12.17 9.26


0- 5
5-10
10-15

0-15
15-30

0-30


kg-1


9 6 10 8


Conv. = Conventional
was monocrop for 11
double cropping for
soybean experiments


7 1 3


- cman -
0- 5
5-10
10-15


0- 5
5-10
10-15


8.17
5.19
6.92

6.76
6.63

6.70


8.58
9.28
8.99

8.95
9.80

9.38


3


2 2


tillage; Mulch = Mulch tillage; No-till = No-tillage; Corn rotation
years; Soybean rotation was monocrop for 10 years; Wheat/soybean was
7 years. Values are an average of 4 replications for the corn and
and 3 replications for the wheat/soybean experiment.


--


2 2 3








Table 5. Soil K, Ca, Mg, and Na affected by tillage and soil
soybean, and wheat/soybean cropping systems in Marcos Juarez,


depth in long-term corn,
Argentina.


Soil Corn Rotation Tillage Soybean Rotation Tillage Wheat/Soybean Tillage
Depth Cony. Mulch No-Till X Conv. Mulch No-Till X Conv. Mulch No-till X
Extractable Potassium


- Cn -
0- 5
5-10
10-15


799
704
712


917
787
823


893
747
712


870
746
749


0-15 738 842 784 788
15-30 735 837 803 791

0-30 737 840 794 787


0- 5
5-10
10-15


2294
2280
2412


2450
2432
2502


2384
2424
2472


0-15 2329 2461 2427
15-30 2468 2526 2544


2376
2379
2462


mg kg-
499, 657 675
452 498 505
492 437 448


481: 531
502 435


610
485
459


536 516
441 459


492 483 489 488
Extractable Calcium


2156
2136
2115


- mg
2222
2146
2154


kg-1
2376
2124
2144


2251
2135
2138


491 563 670 575
459 485 446 463
443 427 444 438

464 492 520. 492
468 417 436 440

466 454 478 466


2464
2339
2413


2381
2475
2544


2493
2365
2416


2406 2136 2174 2215 2175 2405 2467 2425
2513 2336 2389 2450 2392 2648 2621 2602


2446
2393
2458

2432
2624


0-30 2398 2494 2485 2459 2211 2282 2381 2291
Extractable Magnesium


2527 2544 2513 2528


322
314
348


373
343
360


376 357
317 325
333 347


0-15 328 359 342 343
15-30 418 428 425 424

0-30 373 393 384 383


15.2
14.4
17.2


15.9
14.2
13.8


14.2
13.2
15.0


15.1
13.9
15.3


mg
281 301
277 281
291 294


kg-1


348
286
278


310
381
288


283 292 304 293
366 371 388 375

325 332 346 334
Extractable Sodium


18.6
16.6
16.2


- mg
15.2
16.4
17.8


kg -
14.8
17.0
14.6


16.2
16.7
16.2


302 315 337
296 324 296
330 341 371


318
305
347


309 327 335 324
437 435 410 427

373 381 372 375


14.9
12.8
15.7


9.6
15.7
18.4


13.8
14.7
18.7


12.8
14.4
17.6


0-15 15.6 14.6 14.1 14.8 17.1 16.5 15.5 16.4 14.5 14.6 15.7 14.9
15-30 16.6 16.8 21.4 18.3 19.4 21.2 18.8 19.8 21.9 22.7 24.3 23.0


0-30 16.1 15.7 17.8


16.5 18.3 18.8 17.1 18.1 18.2 18.6 20.0 18.0


0- 5
5-10
10-15


0- 5
5-10
10-15


Cony. = Conventional tillage; Mulch = Mulch tillage; No-till = No-tillage; Corn rotation
was monocrqp for 11 years; Soybean rotation was monocrqp for 10 years; Wheat/soybean was
double cropping for 7 years. Values are an average of 4 replications for the corn and
soybean experiments and 3 replications for the wheat/soybean experiment.


--


-


---










Table 6. Soil K + Ca + Mg, Ca + Mg, Ca + Mg/K, and Ca/K ratios affected by tillage and
soil depth in long-term corn, soybean, and wheat/soybean cropping systems in Marcos
Juarez, Argentina.
Soil Corn Rotation Tillage Soybean Rotation Tillage Wheat/Soybean Tillage
Depth Conv. Mulch No-Till X Conv. Mulch No-Till X Conv. Mulch No-till X
Potassium + Calcium + Magnesium


3653
3488
3517


3603
3449
3558


2936
2865
2898


-1
mg kg Total -
-3179 3380 3165
2925 2914 2901
2885 2870 2884


3257
3094
3186


3259
3284
3312


3500
3107
3231


3339 -
3162
3243


0-15 3395 3650 3553 3533 2900 2996
15-30 3621 3791 3749 3720 3204 3195


3055
3279


2984
3226


0-30 3508 3721 3651 3627 3052 3096 3167 3105
Calcium + Magnesium


2733
2703
2809


2437
2413
2406


mg kg
2522
2427
2448


-i
Total
2705 2555
2409 2416
2422 2425


3179 3285 3279 3248
3553 3473 3448 3491

3366 3379 3364 3370


2766
2635
2743


2696
2799
2885


2830
2661
2787


2764
2698
2805


0-15 2657 2820 2769 2749 2419 2466 2512 2459 2715 2793 2759 2756
15-30 2886 2954 2946 2929 2702 2760 2838 2767 3085 3056 3012 3051


0-30 2771 2887 2857


2838 2560 2613 2675 2616 2900 2925 2886 -2904
Calcium + Magnesium/Potassium


3.09
3.67
3.94


3.15
3.63
3.77


mg kg- Ratio
4.88 3.84 4.01
5.34 4.87 4.77
4.89 5.60 5.41


0-15 3.61 3.36 3.57 3.51 5.04 4.77 4.73
15-30 3.93 3.53 3.67 3.71 5.38 6.34 6.44


4.24
4.99
5.30

4.85
6.05


0-30 3.77 3.45 3.62 3.61 5.21 5.56 5.59 5.45
Calcium/Potassium


2.67
3.25
3.47


2.74
3.19
3.30


4.32
4.73
4.30


mg kg- Ratio
3.38 3.52
4.31 4.31
4.93 4.79


0-15 3.17 2.93 3.13 3.08 4.45 4.21 4.17
15-30 3.36 3.02 3.17 3.18 4.65 5.49 5.56

0-30 3.26 2.98 3.15 3.13 4.55 4.85 4.87


3.74
4.42
4.67


5.63
5.74
6.19


4.79
5.77
6.76


4.22
5.97
6.28


4.83
5.83
6.41


5.85 5.77 5.49 5.70
6.59 7.33 6.90 6.94

6.22 6.55 6.20 6.32


5.02
5.10
5.45


4.23
5.10
5.96


3.72
5.30
5.44


3.99
5.17
5.62


4.28 5.19 5.10 4.82 5.04
5.23 5.66 6.29 5.97 5.97


4.76 5.43 5.69 5.40


5.51


- cm -
0- 5
5-10
10-15


3415
3298
3472


3740
3562
3685


0- 5
5-10
10-15


2616
2594
2760


2823
2775
2862


2760
2741
2805


0- 5
5-10
10-15


3.27
3.68
3.88


3.08
3.53
3.48


0- 5
5-10
10-15


2.87
3.24
3.39


2.67
3.09
3.04


Conv. = Conventional tillage; Mulch = Mulch tillage;. No-till = No-tillage; Corn rotation
was monocrcp for 11 years; Soybean rotation was monocrqp for 10 years; Wheat/soybean was
double cropping for 7 years. Values are an average of 4 replications for the corn and
soybean experiments and 3 replications for the wheat/soybean experiment.


I


I -










Table 7. Soil Ca/Mg and Mg/K ratios, pH and Al affected by
long-term corn, soybean, and wheat/soybean cropping systems


tillage and soil depth in
in Marcos Juarez, Argentina.


Soil Corn Rotation Tillage Soybean Rotation Tillage Wheat/Soybean Tillage
Depth Conv. Mulch No-Till X Cony. Mulch No-Till X Conv. Mulch No-till X
Calcium/Magnesium


6.57
7.09
6.95


6.34
7.65
7.42


6.68
7.33
7.10


7.67
7.71
7.27


*ag kg-1 Ratio
7.38 6.83 7.29
'7.64 7.42 7.59
7.32 7.71 7.43


8.16
7.90
7.31


7.56
6.64
7.46


7.40
7.99
6.51


7.71
7.84
7.09


0-15 7.10 6.87 7.14 7.04 7.55 7.45 7.32 7.44
15-30 5.90 5.90 6.32 6.04 6.38 6.44 6.31 .6.38

0-30 6.50 6.39 6.72 6.38 6.97 6.94 6.82 6.91
Magnes ium/Potassium


7.79 7.55 7.30 7.55
6.06 6.03 6.35 6.15

6.93 6.79 6.83 6.85


0- 5
5-10
10-15

0-15
15-30

0-30



0- 5
5-10
10-15


I
0.40 0.41 0.42 0.41 0.56
0.45 0.44 0.42 0.44 0.61
0.49 0.44 0.47 0.47 0.59

0.45 0.43 0.44 0.44 0.59
0.57 0.51 0.50 0.53 0.73

- .51 0.47 0.47 0.48 0.66
1


6.2 6.3 6.3 6.3
6.1 6.3 6.2 6.2
6.2 6.4 6.2 6.3


0-15 6.2 6.3 6.2 6.2
-15-30 6.5 6.7 6.7 6.6

S0-30 6.4 6.5 6.5 6.5


g kg
0.46
0.56
0.67


Ratio -
0.52 0.51
0.57 0.58
0.62 0.63


0.62
0.65
0.75


0.56
0.67
0.80


0.50
0.66
0.84


0.56
0.66
0.80


0.56 0.57 0.57 0.67 0.68 0.67 0.67
0.85 0.88 0.82 0.93 1.04 0.94 0.97


0.71 0.73 0.70
Soil:2 Water pH


5.9 6.2 6.3
5.9 6.1 5.9
6.0 6.0 5.9


6.1
6.0
6.0


5.9 6.1 6.0 6.0
6.3 6.3 6.3 6.3

6.1 6.2 6.2 6.2
Extractable Aluminum


0.80 0.86 0.80 -l.82
1


5.9 5.9 6.2 6.0
5.9 6.0 6.0 6.0
6.1 6.1 6.0 6.1

6.0 6.0 6.1 6.0
6.4 6.5 6.3 6.4

6.2 6.3 6.2 6.2


0- 5
5-10
10-15


266 294 276 279
260 279 286 275
253 268 268 263


0-15 260 280 277 272
15-30 224 245 248 239

0-30 241 263 262 255
Conv. = Conventional tillage; Mulch


mg
248 239
236 212
231 215


kg-1


238
227
225


238 222 230
207 209 217


242
225
224

230
211


223 216 224 221
= Mulch tillage; No-till


253 242 243
233 236 237
232 225 231


246
235
229


239 234 237 237
228 215 221 221


234 225
= No-tillage;


229 229
Corn rotation


- cm -
0- 5
5-10
10-15


7.12
7.26
6.93


was monocrop for 11 years; Soybean rotation was monocrqp for 10 years; Wheat/soybean was
double cropping for 7 years. Values are an average of 4 replications for the corn and
soybean experiments and 3 replications for the wheat/soybean experiment.


--


nH











soybean, and wheat/soybean cropping systems in Marcos Juarez, Argentina.
Soil Corn Rotation Tillage Soybean Rotation Tillage Wheat/Soybean Tillage
Depth Cony. Mulch No-Till X Conv. Mulch No-Till X Cony. Mulch No-till X
Extractable Zinc


3.30
2.94
2.14


3.32
2.24
1.66


2.81
2.31
1.73


1.39
1.36
1.26


- g kg-
1.60 2.14
.1.36 1.12..
;1.02 0.92


1.71
1.28
1.07


1.23
1.36
0.88


1.36
1.20
0.83


1.92
1.07
0.96


1.50
1.21 -
0.89


0-15 1.65 2.79 2.41 2.28 1.33 1.33 1.39 1.19 1.16 1.13 1.32 1.20
15-30 0.64 0.92 0.80 0.79 0.62 0.66 0.60 0.63 0.40 0.43 0.59 0.47


0-30 1.14 1.86 1.60 1.53 0.98 0.99 1.00 0.99
Extractable Copper


0.84
0.86
0.92


0.80- 0.70
0.82 0.80
0.92 0.86


0.78
0.83
0.90


0.90
0.88
0.88


- mg
0.88
0.92
0.98


kg-1
0.76
0.90
0.96


0.85
0.90
0.94


0.78 0.78 0.95 0.84


0.86
0.93
0.99


0.85
0.88
0.99


0.77
0.88
0.93


0.86
0.90
0.97


0-15 0.87 0.85 0.79 0.84 0.89 0.93 0.87 0.90 0.96 0.91 0.86 0.91
15-30 1.10 1.08 1.22 1.13 1.02 1.12 1.06 1.07 1.12 1.15 1.09 1.12


0-30 0.99 0.96 1.00 0.98 0.95 1.02 0.97 0.98
Extractable Manganese


45 52 54 50 66
39 41 40 40 61
36 35 36 36 64

40 43 43 42 64
25 24 27 25 42


1.04 1.03 0.98 1.02


mg kg-1
70 6
62 6
59 6


33 33 35 34 53 50 51
Extractable Iron


13.0
14.2
12.6


14.2
14.8
13.0


12.4
11.8
11.0


13.2
16.6
12.2


12.4
11.6
10.6


12.4
12.0
10.8


kg-1
11.0
13.0
10.8


51 45 38 38 40


11.9
12.2
10.7


10.7
9.9
9.3


10.1
10.7
9.3


9.6
10.1
9.6


10.1
10.2
9.4


0-15 13.3 14.0 11.7 13.0 11.5 11.7 11.6 11.6 10.0 10.0 9.8 9.9
15-30 9.3 9.4 8.4 9.0 8.0 8.2 8.4 8.2 7.5 7.5 8.0 7.7


0-30 11.3 11.7 10.1 10.0


9.8 10.0 10.0


9.9


8.7 8_7


R_Q R R


- cm -
0- 5
5-10
10-15


1.82
1.74
1.38


0- 5
5-10
10-15


0- 5
5-10
10-15

0-15
15-30

0-30



0- 5
5-10
10-15


Cony. = Conventional tillage; Mulch = Mulch tillage; No-till = No-tillage; Corn rotation
was monocrop for 11 years; Soybean rotation was monocrop for 10 years; Wheat/soybean was
double cropping for 7 years. Values are an average of 4 replications for the corn and
soybean experiments and 3 replications for the wheat/soybean experiment,


--


Table 8. Soil Zn, Cu, Mn, and Fe affected by tillage


and soil depth in long-term corn,











Table 9A. Chemical analysis of the soil profile of long-term pasture site
l~...4 JCj.& -te tilled agriculitural site in Mars Jua. grentmna.


SoilU --------L ~~~Y ---------- Type Analysis-- ----------------
Soil Type Analysis
Organic Matter Nitrogen Sulfur Phosphorus
Depth Pasture Tilled Pasture Tilled Pasture Ti led Pasture Tilled
-dag kg mg kg


0- 20
20- 35
35- 50
50- 65
65- 80
80- 95
95-110
110-125
125-140
140-155


3.26
2.02
1.02
0.76
0.56
0.46
0.36
0.34
0.28
0.23


3.09
1.78
1.15
0.69
0.49
0.39
0.44
0.32
0.25
0.18


. N/S


0- 20
20- 35
35- 50
50- 65
65- 80
80- 95
95-110
110-125
125-140
140-155


11.05
11.90
6.13
7.35
7.38
6.32
4.93
6.60
5.96
5.91


9.99
6.91
6.71
9.10
8.56
6.89
8.52
5.51
5.45
4.60


1525'
952
637
500
428
379
355
343
286
266


NI
mg kg
14.81
11.33
4.22
2.50
1.42
0.99
0.88
0.81
0.60
0.50


1388
884
678
528
428
379
375
303
278
230


Ratio -
17.14
13.00
7.14
3.77
2.09
1.60
1.27
0.83
0.66
0.49


138
80
104
68
58
60
72
52
48
45


139
128
101
58
50
55
44
55
51
50


s/P


1.34
0.95
0.69
0.34
0.19
0.16
0.18
0.12
0.10
0.08


1.72
1.88
1.06
0.41
0.25
0.23
0.15
0.15
0.12
0.11


103
84
151
200
301
382
403
426
478
533


N
mlg
1663 -
1032
741
568
486
439
427
395
334
311


s1
68- -
95
140
204
237
296
363
424
468


+ s
kg -
1527
968
883
586
478
434
-419
358
329
280


N + S_ P
- mg kg -
1766 1608
1116 1036
892 978
573 726
787 682
821 671
830 715
821 721
812 753
844 748


N as % of OM


4.68
4.71
6.25
6.58
7.64
8.24
9.86
10.09
10.21
11.56


4.49
4.9
5.9(
7.6!
8.7
9.7
8.5
9.4
11.1:
12.71


S as % of
Based on dag
9 0.42
7 0.27
0 1.02
5 0.90
4 1.04
2 1.30
2 2.00
7 1.53
2 1.71
8 1.96


OM1
kg
0.45
0.72
0.88
0.84
1.02
1.41
1.00
1.72
2.04
2.78


P as % of OM
Values
00.32 00.26
00.42 00.38
01.48 00.83
02.63 02.03
03.96 04.16
06.13 06.08
11.19 06.73
S12.53 11.34
17.07 16.96
23.17 26.00


0- 20
20- 35
35- 50
50- 65
65- 80
80- 95
95-110
110-125
125-140
140-155











Chemical analysis of the soil profile of long-term pasture site


versus long-term tilled agricultural site in Marcos Juraz, Argentina.
Soil + Type Analysis
NH- NO1 SO- Cl-
Depth Pasture -Tilled Pasture--,Tilled asture -:Tilled Pasture Tilled
mg ka


523
398
396
382
442
455
488
536
584
591


K + Ca

3522
3572
3683
3612
4094
4675
4089
4197
4290
4373


2600
2760
2784
2728
3096
3712
3088
3152
3216
3304

Ca
Total
2999
3216
3287
3230
3652
4220
3601
3661
3706
3782


6.0
4.4
2.4
2.0
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.1
0.4


243
253(
273(
276(
275
2641
2784
288(
2881
286(


+ Mg

2762
2984
3301
3340
3317
3182
3316
3406
3365
3324


3.44
4.75
19.67
3.50
17.59
10.51
29.28
10.43
25.34
10.51


mg kg-1
z 399
5 456
6 503
3 502
2 556
3 508
1 513
0 509
0 490
4 478


10.35
9.13
12.43
11.86
9.05
15.68
6.33
15.60
9.28
4.94


330
448
565
580
565
534
532
526
485
460


Ca + Mg/K -1
ag kg
5.73 4.04
8.08 6.56
8.30 7.21
8.46 7.28
8.26 6.69
9.28 6.93
7.38 6.50
6.83 6.09
6.35 5.88
6.40 4.43


54.4
24.0
33.6
37.6
44.8
46.4
45.6
48.0
56.0
64.8


16
0-
0
O
0
0
0
0
0
0
0


14.4
25.6
39.2
41.6
40.8
47.2
-56.0
73.6
103.2
142.4


Ca/K
Ratio
4.97 3.56
6.93 5.57
7.03 5.97
7.14 6.01
7.01 5.55
8.16 5.77
6.39 5.46
5.88 5.15
5.51 5.03
5.59 4.68


2.0
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4


4.0
0.4
0.4
0.8
0.4
0.4
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.3


1.2
0.4
0.4
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.4


0- 20
20- 35
35- 50
50- 65
65- 80
80- 95
95-110
110-125
125-140
140-155


0- 20
20- 35
35- 50
50- 65
65- 80
80- 95
95-110
110-125
125-140
140-155


0- 20
20- 35
35- 50
50- 65
65- 80
80- 95
95-110
110-125
125-140
140-155


684
455
458
459
496
459
510
559
572
612


+ Mg -1
mg kg
3446
3439
3759
3799
3813
3641
3826
3965
3937
3936


Table 9B.










Table 9C. Chemical analysis of the soil profile of long-term pasture site
versus long-term tilled agricultural site in Marcos Juraz, Argentina.
Soil Type Analysis
Ca/Mg Mg/K pH Al
Depth Pasture Tilled Pasture Tilled Pasture Tilled Pasture Tilled
mg kg Ratio --1:2 Soil:Water- -- g kg --
0- 20 6.52 7.37 0.76 0.48 6.6 6.4 253 247
20- 35 6.05 5.66 1.15 0.99 6.6 6.8 239 224
35- 50 5.53 4.84 1.27 1.23 6.9 7.1 270 -246 '
50- 65 5.43 4.76 1.31 1.26 7.1 7.3 270 286
65- 80 5.57 4.87 1.26 1.14 7.2 7.4 342 309
80- 95 7.31 4.96 1.12 1.16 7.4 7.5 350 318
95-110 6.02 5.23 1.05 1.04 7.5 7.7 370 360
110-125 6.19 5.48 0.95 0.94 7.7 7.9 390 427
125-140 6.56 5.93 0.84 0.85 7.9 8.2 426 466
140-155 6.91 6.23 0.81 0.75 8.0 8.5 459 470

Zn Cu Mn Fe
-1
-mg kg
0- 20 1.92 1.44 1.04 0.72 52.8 51.2 8.0 8.8
20- 35 0.40 0.40 1.20 1.04 27.2 29.6 8.0 6.4
35- 50 0.40 0.32 1.20 1.12 21.6 22.4 9.6 8.8
50- 65 0.24 0.32 1.04 1.12 16.8 15.2 10.4 9.6
65- 80 0.56 0.32 1.20 0.96 14.4 11.2 12.8 9.6
80- 95 1.04 0.40 0.88 0.88 11.2 11.2 12.0 10.4
95-110 0.32 0.40 0.80 0.80 8.8 12.0 12.0 12.0
110-125 0.40 0.32 0.88 0.80 8.8 7.9 12.0 12.8
125-140 0.40 0.40 0.72 0.72 6.5 7.0 13.6 15.2
140-155 0.48 0.40 0.72 0.64 7.7 7.3 17.6 16.8




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