MAR 21 1955
TORTTi FLOERIA PEX? Ai-l T oTATICAT
March 3, 1955
NFLS iimeo Report 55-3.
CITRITS iiOLASSLS, DRI-D CITTRS PILP, CITRUS :-AL, ArTL PLACI'TRA- ,C0LA.S3:36
IT STELR FATTEETIG RATI0NS
by F. S. "rker, Jr.
Assistant Animal Fusbandman
Previous steer fattenin- trials have shown the value of adding citrus
molasses to steer fattening rations1. aiolpsses hrs usually been cheaper Der
ton than corn, and in addition where ooor aqulity rougheae is fed, adding
molasses has stimulated feed consurrmtion and gains.
lackstrae molasses has not given as good results as citrus molasses, but
because of its availability more work with blackstrae is wrrrented.
Dried citrus ni.l and citrus meal, by-nroducts of the citrus canning
industry, Pre available in large quantities in "lorida and are be'ng used to
some extent by steer feeders in 'Torth 'lorifr. Ex-orimentpl data on their use
in local fettenin- rations is needed.
In the experiment reported herein, various r-ates of citrus molasses end
one rate Pach of blackstraon molasses, dried citr's nulp, and citrus meal were
tried as replacements for part of the ground snpo?-ned corn in the ration.
C-ood quality Hereford, Angus, and liereford-Angus crossbred steers were
used. These cattle grazed improved pasture prior to being placed in the feedlot.
After a. short preliminary period during which the cattle were allotted and
started on the experimental rations, the steers were weighed end 3 percent wrs
deducted to obtain the initial weights. At the completion of the experiment,
the cattle were picked up in the morning before feeding, trucked to Quincy,
weighed, and 3 percent was deducted to obtain the final weights. Thus, the
initial weights were shrunk 3 percent and final weights 4.5 to 5 percent (in-
cluding actual shrink in trucking to market) from feedlot weights.
Steers were slaughtered at Florida Paclking Comneny in cvincy when they
attained a satisfactory finish in the opinion of cattle buyers.
REPLACINTG GRTCITsD S:-APPED CCORi L..IT CITRUS iNCLASSES
Tqua.l Parts Corn and Liolrsses
In seven previous trials, a ration in wh'"c: one-helf of the snapped corn
was replaced with citrus molasses produced almost 0.4 pound more gain per head
daily at a saving in feed cost of approximately $4 per 100 pounds ain as com-
pared to a ration with ground snanped corn and no molasses1. In the present
trial the diffe-ence in results from the two rations waP not as great (Lots I
1Baker, F.S., Jr. 1954. Steer Fattening Trials in lTorth Flori _a, TNFSS Mimeo
-. II, Table 1-580). This is possibly due to the fact that high quality hay
was fed. In one previous trial when high quality legume hay was fed, there
was not a great difference in the gains made by steers fed molasses and those
not fed molasses2. It should be noted, however, that there was a substantial
saving in feed cost per 100 pounds gain in this as in previous trials.
Two Parts .olesses And Cne Part Corn
Gains from the higher level of molasses (Lot III) were not ouite as rood
as those from the ration with equal parts corn end molasses (Lot II). Gains
made by Lot III were very satisfactory, however, and carcass grades and yields
were fully equal to those made by the other pens. It should be noted that the
feed cost per 100 pounds gain from this ration was the lowest of any ration in
the trial. The cattle in Lot III (two parts molasses to one n-art corn) were
fed 20 days longer than those in Lot II (equal parts corn end molasses).
Two Parts Corn And One Pert inolrsses
As shown in Table 1-50F, gains from this ration (Lot IV) were satisfactory,
but feed costs were higher than where more molasses was fed. This *oen of cattle
was among the first to attain a satisfactory market finish as based on apnraisal
ETUAL PARTS CORN AID BLACG STPRP CLASSESS
Steers fed blackstran molasses (Lot V, Table 1-580) ate less feed than
those fed the comparable citrus molasses ration (Lot II). In addition, gains
from the blackstrap molasses ration were somewhat lower, and although all the
blPckstrep-fed cattle graded choice in the carcass, they definitely lacked the
finish of cattle fed citrus molasses. There ws much less marbling in the eye
muscle of the cattle in Lot V than in any of the other cattle in the test, and
all six carcasses were low in the choice grade even though. Lot V w-s kept on
feed longer than any of the other pens. results from this and a previous trial
indicate that blackstran molasses should not be fed in eoaPl proportion with
ground --la '06'r orn .iAth2 n .-- results were not as good from this ration
(Lot v) as from the corn ration without mol sses (Lot I). Consequently, if
blackstrap molasses is_.used, it is recommended that a. smaller quantity per day
DRIlD CI'. RUS PUL? AiTI CITwRUS ~-EAL
Dried citrus pulp and citrus meal were used to replace one third of the
ground snapped corn in rations that contained equal norts corn and citrus
molasses (Lots VI and VII, Table 1-580). These rations, therefore, contained
two parts of citrus products (p-olp and molPsses) to one -ort corn as did the
high molasses ration fed to Lot III. Gains, grades, yields, and feed costs
of the pens fed the citrus pul:- end meal were satisfactory. Steers ate the
citrus meal (Lot VII) a little more readily than the citrus pulo (Lot VI) and
pained slightly faster, probably because of the higher feed consum-otion. From
this one trial, it appears that either the citrus puln or the citrus meal would
2Baker, F.S., Jr. 1954. Citrus ancO Pleckstren iolrsses in Steer F'ttening Rations.
NFTS iiimeo Rpt. 54-6.
be a satisfactory substitute for part of the ground snapped corn if prices of
the citrus products were low enough.
A ration with equal parts around snppoed corn rnd citrus molasses again
gave cheaper gains than one with corn but no molasses.
A ration with two parts molasses to one part corn produced satisfactory
gains and carcass grades at the lowest feed costs of any of the rations tried.
A ration with equal parts corn and blackstrap molasses did not give as
good results as the comparable ration with citrus molasses.
Replacing one-third of the ground snapped corn with either dried citrus
pulp or citrus meal in a ration of equal parts corn and citrus molasses (one
part citrus pulp or meal, two parts corn, and three parts molasses) gave satis-
factory results. If priced lower then corn, it ap-ears that either citrus
pulp or meal is a satisfactory substitute for pert of the corn in a ration
containing a relatively large quantity of molasses.
Tpble 1-580. Results steer fattening trial.
Lot I Lot II Lot III Lot IV. Lot V Lot VI Lot VII
G. s. corn Equal parts g.s. One part g.s. corn Two parts g.s. corn Equal parts g.s. Two parts g.s. Two perts g. s.
-corn A. cit. mol. & 2 Darts cit. mol. &. 1 part cit. mol. corn & b. mol. corn, 1 part corn, 1 part
--- -- ---- -dried cit. pulp & cit. meal, &
-- -- -- 3 parts cit. mol. 3 parts cit. mol.
C. s. meal C. s. meal C. s. meal C. s. meal C. s. meal C. s. meal C. s. meal
Hay }a.y Hay Hay Hay Hay hay
Number of steers 6 6 5* 6 6 6 6
Number of days 113 106 126 106 127 126 119
Average initial weight 725.8 721.5 724.0 723.8 725.5 727.0 721.3
Average final weight 987.8 980.5 1008.8 968.3 999.2 1001.5 994.2
Average gain 262.0 259.0 284.8 244.5 273.7 274.5 272.8
Average daily gain 2.32 2.44 2.26 2.31 2.15 2.18 2.29
Average carcass weight 606.7 596.7 620.6 595.3 610.5 607.2 602.2
Average carcass yield (percent) 61.41 60.85 61.52 61.48 61.10 60.63 60.47
Carcass grades 6 choice 5 choice 5 choice 5 choice 6 choice 6'bboice 6 choice
1 good 1 good
Average daily ration:
Ground snan-ed corn 17.85 12.16 7.07 14.87 10.74 6.81 7.30
Citrus molasses -- 12.16 14.13 7.43 -- 10.21 10.95
Plackstrap molasses -- -- 10.74 -- -
Dried citrus -ulp -- -- 3.40 --
Citrus meal -- -- -- -- 3.65
41 C. S. meal 2.50 2.50 2,.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50
Peanut Hay 7.38 3.66. 3.97 4.07 5.78 3.35 3.25
Feed consumed per 100 pounds gain (Pounds):
Ground snapped corn 769.97 497.78 312.61 644.58 498.29 312.51 318.45
Citrus molasses -- 497.78 625.21 322.29 --- 468.76 477.67
Blackstrap molasses -- --- --- -- 498.29 -- --
Dried citrus nulp -- -- -- --- 156.25 --
Citrus meal -- -- -- -- -- --- 159.22
41; C. S. meal 107.82 102.32 110.60 108.38 116.02 114.75 109.04
Peanut Hay 318.19 149.94 175.42 176.35 268.03 153.86 141.78
Salt 0.95 0.93 0.52 0.20 0.64 0.70 0.89
Steamed bonemeal 0.29 0.58 0.42 0.61 0.33 0.46 0.58
Feed cost -er 100 pounds gain* 224.11 $21.7'. .420.14 $23.31 $25.18 $21.39 $20.88
One steer injured and removed.
" Feed Prices used: Grourd snanped corn, $40 per ton; citrus molasses, $22.50; blackstrap molasses, $27.50; dried citrus puln, $40; citrus meal, $35;
414. C. s. meal, '$80; peanut hay, ;$27.50; salt, $30; steamed bonemeal, $100.