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 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Preface
 Acknowledgement
 Job description
 The CPATSA and its mechanization...
 Research and development activ...
 Looking ahead (suggestions for...
 Some concluding remarks
 Appendices














Title: Final report of consultancy on agricultural mechanization for northeast Brazil
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Title: Final report of consultancy on agricultural mechanization for northeast Brazil
Series Title: Final report of consultancy on agricultural mechanization for northeast Brazil
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Creator: Lal, Harbans,
Publisher: Inter-American Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture
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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents 1
        Table of Contents 2
    Preface
        Page i
        Page ii
    Acknowledgement
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Job description
        Page v
        Page vi
    The CPATSA and its mechanization program
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
    Research and development activities
        Page 1
        Page 1a
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Looking ahead (suggestions for future work)
        Page 18
        Page 18a
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Some concluding remarks
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Appendices
        Page 25
        Page 25a
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
Full Text

V.z, ?23


PETER E. HILDEBRAND


INSTITUTE INTERAMERICANO DE COOPERACAO PARA A AGRICULTURE
INSTITUTE INTERAMERICANO DE COOPERATION PARA LA AGRICULTURE
INSTITUTE INTERAMERICAIN DE COOPERATION POUR L'AGRICULTURE
1/ 1fo INTER-AMERICAN INSTITUTE FOR COOPERATION ON AGRICULTURE

11ri i-PIIC 1 j-RL-~3lTglLr~- -sA-C


FINAL REPORT OF CONSULTANCY

ON

AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION

FOR

NORTHEAST BRAZIL


HARBANS LAL, M. Tech.
Mechanization Specialist
IICA/EMBRAPA-CPATSA


Petrolina, Nov. 20, 1985



S0Intituto 4 o organismo especializado em agriculture do sistema interarnericano. Foi estabelecido pelos governor americanas corn a
lI do "ectirnr iar. promoter e apoiar os esforgos dos Estados Membror para alcanCar seu desenvolvimento agrfcola e o bem-estar rural".O
S("titu Ilteramaricano de Cincias Agr(colas, estabelecido no dia 07 de outubro de 1942. foi reorganizado a passou a denominar-se
St3itu t Intlramericano de Cooperaqao para a Agricultura, por Convena'o aberta A assinatura dos Estados Americanos no dia 06 de maro de
Qu o entrou-em vin5nris am thromhrn rd 1Qft -


__ _









LIST OF CONTENTS


PREFACE

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

JOB DESCRIPTION

THE CPATSA AND ITS MECHANIZATION PROGRAM

I. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES

1.1. PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT

Introduction
Publications

1.2. PRESENT STATUS OF MECHANIZATION

Introduction
Publications

1.3. MACHINERY DEVELOPMENT AND ADAPTATION

Introduction
Publications.

1.4. MACHINERY-EVALUATION AND MANAGEMENT

Introduction
Publications

1.5. AGRONOMICAL STUDIES RELATED TO MACHINERY
(Tillage and Planting)

Introduction
Publications

1.6. MULTI-DISCIPLINARY RESEARCH AND EXTENSION
(Farming Systems Research and Training)

Introduction
Publications

II.. LOOKING AHEAD (Suggestions for Future Work)

III. SOME CONCLUDING REMARKS


CHAPTER


CHAPTER

CHAPTER


I

III

V

VII
Page.


1

1
1

2

2
3

4

4
6

8

-8
8


10

10
12


15

15
16

18

23














APPENDICES

I.

II.

III.



V.



V.

VI.


ABOUT THE CONSULTANT

TRAINING AND EXTENSION ACTIVITIES

ANALYTICAL SUMMARY OF PUBLICATIONS

SOME ADDITIONAL PUBLICATIONS AND
CONTRIBUTIONS

.TIPS FOR EFFICIENT CONSULTANT AND
USEFUL CONSULTANCY

SCHEDULE FOR ELABORATION AND
PRESENTATION OF FINAL REPORT


Page.










PREFACE


I have worked -as Mechanization Specialist/Consultant for Northeast

Brazil stationed at CPATSA (Agricultural Research Centre for the

Semi-Arid Tropics) of EMBRAPA (Brazilian Enterprise for Agricultural

Research) through its contract with IICA (Inter-American Institute for

Cooperation on Agriculture) for last six years. Over this period of

six years, I have been associated in planning, executing and

evaluating number of research and development activities related to

mechanization.

The information on all these activities is available in various

publications of the centre (CPATSA), in national or foreign journals

and different reports prepared for-CPATSA/EMBRAPA or for IICA from

time to time.

Never-the-less, this final report of my consultancy is aimed to

provide general outline of the research and development activities

carried-out by me and achievements of these-activities in relation

to overall-objectives of the CPATSA and that of IICA/EMBRAPA Contract.

The report is divided in three main parts. The first part

describes briefly the various research and development activities,

giving the list of publications, carried out. The scope of these

activities was always aimed to.meet the aims and objectives of the

CPATSA/EMBRAPA and the needs of the region. This part is further sub-

divided into the following sub-headings based on the types of

activities:

Program Development

Evaluation of Present Status of Mechanization

Machinery Development and Adaptation

Machinery Evaluation and Management









Agronomical Studies Related to Machinery (Tillage and Planting)

Multi-disciplinary Research and Extension (Farming Systems and

Training).


The second part of the report describes some suggestions for the

future work in the field of agricultural mechanization for the region.

In making these suggestions the on-going research activities and

past experience of the centre has been given due considerations.

The third part entitled as "SOME CONCLUDING REMARKS" is aimed to

provide some suggestions to IICA/EMBRAPA Coordination cell in order

to facilitate for the consultants to play their role more effectively

and hope to minimize the frustrations which he (the consultant)

faces from time to time because of the present administrative and

technical set up.

It is hoped that the report will be useful for IICA in evaluating

the contribution of its consultancy services to CPATSA, and for

.CPATSA/EMBRAPA and its staff, the report will serve as a ready

reference on the activities and achievements of its consultant in

the field of agricultural mechanization. Last but not the least,

the report will serve as handy reference for my future consultations

on my achievements during my employment as a Mechanization Specialist

with IICA/EMBRAPA-CPATSA over the period of six years from Oct. 1979

to Nov. 1985.




HARBANS LAL

Petrolina, Nov. 15, 1985






III


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT


I would like to register my deep hearted gratitudes for IICA

(Inter-american Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture) to provide

me the opportunity to work as Mechanization Specialist in its

category of international professional staff and to EMBRAPA

(Brazilian Enterprise for Agricultural Research) and its regional

centre CPATSA (Agricultural Research Centre for the Semi-Arid

Tropics) in accepting me for such a responsibility.

My special thanks are due to Dr. Jose Irineu Cabral, ex-director of

IICA office in Brazil, Dr. Jorge Soria, sub-director general, IICA,

Costa Rica & ex-coordinator of IICA/EMBRAPA contracts, Dr. Juan

-arlos Scarsi, director IICA-Brazil and-ex-coordinator IICA/EMBRAPA

contract, Dr. Elmar Wagner, coordinator IICA/EMBRAPA contracts and

Dr. Daniel Gustafson, Technical Assessor of IICA/EMBRAPA, in

providing the administrative briefing and- support from time to time

during my -sojourn as a mechanization specialist.

The Department of International Cooperation of EMBRAPA headed

till recently by Dr. Jose Maria Pompeu Memoria, has also been very

helpful in carrying out professional duties at CPATSA/EMBRAPA and

deserve my gratitudes.

The integrated and continuous encouragement of Dr. Renival Alves de

Souza, Chief of CPATSA have been really a moral boosting exercise

to achieve various professional objectives during my stay at CPATSA/

EMBRAPA. The administrative help of Depty Chiefs (technical and

administrative) of CPATSA has also contributed significantly in

meeting my professional goals of consultancy.

During my stay at CPATSA, I have had opportunity of working with

number of researchers and other professionals of CPATSA/EMBRAPA









and that of other research and extension organizations of Brazil and

would like to register my thanks for their critical and creative help

in making my present venture a success. The names of Mr. Pericles

F. Nunes, my Brazilian Counterpart from beginning (1979) till 1983 and

Adao de Mattus da Costa, trainee of CNPq/EMBRAPA who were associated

almost full time with my work need special mention for their help

both on professional and social aspects.

I would also like to thank, ICRISAT and its directors (Drs L.D.

Swindale & J.S. Kanwar), FSRP- Farming Systems Research Program of

ICRISAT and its ex-leader Dr. B.A. Krantz and FPE- Farm Power and

Equipment sub-program and its ex-leader Mr. G.E. Thierstien who were

kind enough in reliving me to take up the present assignment for the

initial period of 16 months.

Last but not the least, the thanks are due to my wife Chitra

Arora and my daughters Bhawna, Monika and Prerna, who shared with me

both enjoyments and depressions through which we passed during our

stay at Petrolina(PE) in deep Sertao of Pernambuco.




HARBANS LAL

Petrolina, Nov. 15, 1985









AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF CONSULTANCY


The-consultancy started in Oct., 1979 for the initial period of
16 months which has been renewed and extended on yearly basis. The
details of the job description supplied by IICA alongwith the first
appointment is followed:


JOB DESCRIPTION


Title of positions:

Specialist on Agricultural Mechanization.


Responsible to:

Head of IICA Office in Brazil-through the General Coordinator of
the IICA/EMBRAPA contract and the head of the Semi-Arid Tropics
Agricultural Research Center (CPATSA of EMBRAPA). -


Objectives:

To participate with CPATSA specialists in activities geared to
strengthen the farm machinery program technical capacity by planning,
executing and evaluating research on farm machinery suited for the
cropping systems adapted to the semi-arid tropics.


Specific duties and responsibilities:

1..To analyse the problems and needs of mechanization and to fix
(decide) research priorities to produce farms machinery and equipment
efficiently adapted to cropping systems (traditional & modified) and
ecological and-socio-economic conditions of the semi-arid tropics of
Brazil.





Ai









2. Together with the specialists of EMBRAPA to design, construct

and evaluate manual, animal traction and mechanical farm machinery

and-equipment to improve the efficiency and economics of production

and to conserve the resources of soils and water of the semi-arid

cropping systems.

3. To test and/or adapt agricultural machinery or equipment available

locally to improve its efficiency and economics and to suggest

modifications or improvements to the makers.

4. To develop in-service training programs for researchers of the

CPATSA and other units of EMBRAPA on methodologies and laboratory

and field techniques:in your speciality.

5. Advise and guidetheses research projects on farm mechanization

carried out in CPATSA to EMBRAPA graduate students.

6. To prepare documents and technical reports, according to the

-need of IICA/EMBRAPA Contract, attherequestof the General Coordinator

of the Contract and the Head of the Centre.

7. To cooperate with the Head of CPATSA-to perform your activities

integrated to the multidisciplinary team of researchers.


Duration of contract:

th
Initially for sixteen months (16), starting Oct. 13 1979 and

extended on yearly basis till Dec. 1985 but resigned on Nov. 21, 1985

to pursue higher studies leading to Ph.D. -degree.


Residance Headquarters:

Semi-Arid Tropics Agricultural Research Center Petrolina.- State

of Pernambuco Brazil.






VII


THE CPATSA AND ITS MECHANIZATION PROGRAM


The-CPATSA (Agricultural Research Centre for the Semi-Arid Tropics)

was created in 1975 with the objective of generating new technologies

to improve the quality of life of the farmers of the region.

The Centre is located at Petrolina(PE) in the Sertao region of
Pernambuco state and coordinates.three national programs and

participates in others through its team of about 60 researchers of

different levels (B.S., M.S. and Ph.D.).

The three principal programs and their objectives coordinated by

CPATSA are:

Evaluation of the Natural and Socio-Economical Resources in rural

environment (PNP 027) aimed to assess the traditional farming systems,

their boundaries, limitations and potentials to be improved.

Utilization of Natural and Socio-Economical Resources (PNP 030)

aimed to carryout analytical and synthetical research at experiment

station in order to search the solutions for the limitations assessed

and the synthesis of promising alternative farming systems (models).

Development of improved Farming systems for the Semi-Arid Rural

Environment (PNP 033) aimed to assess the level of adoption of

technologies.


The mechanization program of the Centre (CPATSA) right from the

beginning has been contributing to the three national programs (PNPs)

in function of each of them. The mechanization program was initiated
in May 1979 with principal objective of developing and using-animal-

drawn implements in order to facilitate the introduction and

application of crop production technologies to make the farming ;
systems of the region more efficient. This program was reinforced in






VIII


Oct. 1979 through the consultancy of IICA consultant and later through

French specialists through the "Convenio" of CEEMAT/EMBRAPA/EMBRATER,

initiated in June 1980.

The two programs; proposed by IICA's consultant and that through

the Convenio (CEEMAT/EMBRAPA/EMBRATER) have been operating at CPATSA

simultaneously through specialized projects. The team, responsible

for mechanization research at CPATSA/EMBRAPA consisted of two local

researchers and three consultants supported by short term trainees

from time to time. In 1983 one of the local researcher, directly

associated with my work, went to France for higher studies, thus

leaving only one local researcher to accompany three foreign

Consultants. This lead to paralization/cancellation of some of
the projects initially planned. Never-the-less, I have been able to

complete most of the activities I-have initially planned. These

activities, apart from solving the regional problems, have resulted

in number of publications thus enriching the literature on-agricultural

mechanization for northeast Brazil. The fig. 1 presents the cronogram

of the activities carried out and their relationship with three

national programs coordinated by CPATSA/EMBRAPA.




- ----I-- -- *1


i- I- IncLU %,UtrriitNQit ZvUIIUl '
PURPOSE OF TRADITIONAL S
___ ,I- E~lFIC n I TECHNIQUES g
NATIONAL L PS ECIF J -COST COEFFICIENTS TECH
GENERATION
REGIONALMOELING OF NEW TECHNIQUES
RNRLYTICRL
SPECIFIC ANALYSIS



Fig. 1. Cronogram of research and development activities and their
relationship with national program coordinated by CPATSA/EMBRAPA.


I































CHAPTER I



RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES









CHAPTER 1.1

PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT


Introduction

The temporary nature of my assignment of IICA and limited know-

ledge about the region did not permit me to develop long term

proposals right in 1979. However by 1981, the proposals for the

program were finalized which has been followed till date. The program

development passed through following three phases:

Research Program 1979

Research Program 1980

Research Program 1981-


Pblications

LAL, HARBANS, Agricultural Mechanization research program for SAT

Brazil, IICA/EMBRAPA-CPATSA, Petrolina(PE), Oct. 1979, p. 5.


NUNES, P.F. and LAL, H, Programa de Pesquisa em Mecanizagao Agricola

para a regiao do Tropico Semi-Arido do Brasil, CPATSA/EMBRAPA, Pe-

trolina(PE), Jul. 1980, p. 11.


LAL, HARBANS, Programa de Pesquisa em Mecanizagao Agricola do CPATSA

(Retrospectivas e prospectivas). DRELA, Costa Rica, Vol. 15, No. 2,

December 1983.


LAL, HARBANS, 1985. Quinquennial (1980-84) report of research and

development activities on agricultural mechanization for Northeast

Brazil; Part I. Program Development and Summary, IICA/EMBRAPA-CPATSA

Petrolina(PE), Brazil. pp. 1-68.









CHAPTER 1.2

PRESENT STATUS OF MECHANIZATION


Introduction

The activities related to evaluation of the present status of

agricultural mechanizatonofthe region can be broadly classified into:

a) Systematic analysis and interpretation of the informations already

published by different national institutes related to agricultural

mechanization.

b) Collecting and analysing the informations using specialised

questionnaires, through personal visits to farmers' field and to

other mechanization related institutions.


The first type of activity covered the studies on (i) Tractorization

of Brazilian Agriculture (ii) Mode.and intensity of use tractores in

the valley of-river- San Francisco and (iii) Variations of production,

sale and Unit-price of principal agricultural machines used in

northeast.

The information on the inventory of presently possessed implements

by the farmers, its mode and intensity of utilization have been

collected through-a .set of questionnaires put to selected sample of

farmers. A survey on transport means used by the farmers for

transporting agricultural inputs and production and a detailed study

on the animal-drawn carts was also carried out in the Ouricuri region

of Pernambuco state.









Publications

LAL, HARBANS, .COSTA, A.M. and NUNES, P.F., 1983. Tractorization of
Brazilian Agriculture 1950-82. XIII Brazilian Congress of

Agricultural Engineering, 18-21 Jul. Rio de Janeiro(RJ), Brazil,

(portuguese).


LAL, HARBANS, COSTA, A.M. and NUNES, P.F., 1984. Development and
Oscilations of National Industry of Tractors, A Lavoura, National

Society of Agriculture, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Jan./Feb. 84,

Ano LXXXVI, pp. 40-44, (portuguese).


LAL, HARBANS, 1985. Characterization and Utilization of Rural
Transport Means in Ouricuri(PE) Region of Northeast Brazil, Revista

de Economia Rural, Brasilia(DF), (in press).


LAL, HARBANS, 1985. Moto-Mechanization in Irrigated Perimeter of
River San Francisco (Case Study of Project Bebedouro), Pesq.

Agropec. Bras., Brasilia(DF), (in press).


LAL, HARBANS, 1985. Quinquennial (1980-84) report of research and
development activities on agricultural mechanization for Northeast

Brazil; Part II. Evaluation of Present Status, IICA/EMBRAPA-CPATSA,
Petrolina(PE), Brazil. pp. 69-136.









CHAPTER 1.3

MACHINERY DEVELOPMENT AND.ADAPTATION


Introduction

The machinery developed or adapted over the period of 6 years can

be broadly classified in two following categories:

General purpose machines

Specific purpose machines


The general purpose machines such as Multicultores (Multicultor

CPATSA and Multicultor CPATSA II) are those machines which can be

used for different agricultural field operations under different

farming and production systems. On the other hand the specific

-purpose-machines (Ridger-blades and weeding blades etc.) have been

developed for specific requirements of an operation in the modified

soil management and tillage system found promising for the region.

The both types of machines have been adapted keeping in view the

possibility of these being produced by urban based workshop with

limited resources of technical capabilities. The experiences with

this approach of machinery development has been dual fold. On one

side the simplicity of the machines impressed many. local workshops

to initiate their fabrication and generated interest in wide variety

of public ranging from farmers to students. Table 1 presents the

statistics of about 1000 letters received by CPATSA after a television

broadcast on Multicultor CPATSA. Though number of small workshops

started fabricating this machines in northeast and other regions of

Brazil but CPATSA patronized a local workshop "OFICINA VENCEDORA" to

meet the immediate demand about this machine principally for multi-

location testing. Unfortunately this workshop was not able to main-
tain the required level of "quality control" for the fabrication. Many





MULTICULTOR CIATL'SA


'I'A'TI.sTCS 01' KEQU-ST~' S ON


STATES FARMERS INDUSTRIALISTS STUDENTS INSTITUTES TRADERS OTHERS TOTAL (o) PER STATE

SaQ Paulo 141 08 22 03 06 37 217 22.24
Rio Grande do Sul 83 04 14' 06 05 21 133 13.63
Minas Gerais 98 01 04 10 05 19 137 14.04
Rio de Janeiro 49 03 06 01 11 71 7.27
Manaus 02 -- 01 03 0.31
Mato Grosso do. Sul 06. 01 03 10 1.02
Mato Grosso 04 01 01 01 07 0.72
Goias 17 01 C: 01 .02 22 2.25
Santa Catarina 07 01 02 02 04 02 17 1.74
Distrito Federal 20 01 04 03 .10 38 3.89
Pnra 11 01 01 13 1.33
lslf j-it, L Santo 22 10 01 07 40 4.10
PlarIini 50 05 09 o 01 03 16 84 8.61
A I "a 05 02 07 0.72
Seg i peo 08 01 10 1.02
Maranhao 04 01 -01 06 0.61
Paraiba 09 03 01 03 16 1.64
Rio Grande do Norte 06 01 06 02 01 16 1.64
Ceara 13 04 02 01 03 23 2.36
Pernambdco 21 01 05 01 06 34 3.48
Bahia 49 02 10 C0 01 08 72 7.38

TOTAL 625 32 103 37 27 152 976 100,00%

PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL 64.04 3.28 10.55 3.79 2.77 15.57 100 -


OBSERVATIONS:


-Approximately 90% of the requests expressed their desire to fabricate the machine (100% industrialist
and 95% of farmers)
- The column of "others" includes professionals like agronomists, agricultural technicians, economists,
medical doctors, lawyers etc.
- 18.85% requests came of northeast and 81.15o from other regions of northeast Brazil.


CDT/CPATSA/NOV. 03, 1080 I









of the initial units supplied by this workshop did not withstand t'

rigorous testing under different soil conditions, thus forcing

CPATSA to look for the alternative. On the-other hand the

industrialized production of similar machines by CEMAG (Ceara Maqnu

Agricolas) Fortaleza, through the Convenio CEEMAT/EMBRAPA/EMBRATER

also contributed in reducing the interest on the part of CPATSA ar'

on my personal behalf in boosting the fabrication of this type of

machines by local workshop.

The specific purpose machines developed so far have been tested

on experiment station and on farmers' field and no systematic efft'

has been made, so far, to get them manufactured on the commercial

scale.

The publications related-to this activity have been of two typ -

-The first type, in the form of technical circular or communication

aimed to meet the need of urban workshops and others interested in

fabricating them. The second type, in the form of technical artic'

have been aimed-for divulgation of basic concepts of new machines

their operational details.


Publications

LAL, HARBANS and NUNES, P.F. 1980. How to Construct Multicultor (

in urban workshop, Technical Comunication n2 3. CPATSA/EMBRAPA.

Petrolina(PE), Brazil. pp. 22. (portuguese).


LAL, HARBANS and NUNES, P.F. 1981. Multicultor CPATSA: Fabricali

and Use, Technical Circular nG 6, CPATSA/EMBRAPA. Petrolina(PE)

Brazil. pp. 96. (portuguese).









LAL, HARBANS and NUNES, P.F. 1981. Development of Multicultor CPATSA
II. A Research under Progress n2 13. CPATSA/EMBRAPA. Petr.olina(PE),
Brazil. pp. 6. (portuguese).


LAL, HARBANS, 1984. Low Cost Animal-drawn wheeled tool carrier. World
Animal Review. FAO, Rome. (in press).


LAL, HARBANS,SILVA, A.S.,PORTO, E.R. and COSTA, A.M. 1984. Ridger-blade; a
multipurpose equipment for cultivation system of "in-situ" rain-

water harvesting technique. Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira, Bra-

silia, 19(11): 1385-1393, (portuguese).


LAL, HARBANS and SILVA, A.S. 1985. --Development of Appropriate
Mechanization for "W" form-of Soil Management System. Soil and
Tillage Research, Amsterdam, Netherlands (under review).


LAL, HARBANS, 1985. Quinquennial (1980-84) report of research and
development activities on agricultural mechanization for Northeast

Brazil; Part III. Machinery Development and Adaptation. IICA/
EMBRAPA-CPATSA, Petrolina(PE), Brazil. pp. 137-253.









CHAPTER 1.4

MACHINERY EVALUATION AND MANAGEMENT


Introduction

The activity on machinery evaluation and management has been geared

to evaluate the performance of the agricultural machines on

experimental test plots or on the operational scale. The basic

objectives have been to quantify field capacity, field efficiency

and economical parameters of traditional and newly developed machines.

The studies carried out under this activity can be broadly

classified into two following categories:

Field scale experimentation and observations to quantify

operational parameters of the machines-

Analytical studies aimed to develop simple mathematical models to

predict the performance of the machine.


Both types of studies have generated number of publications.


Publications

LAL, HARBANS, 1981. Operational performance of animal-drawn wheeled

tool carrier for broadbed-and-furrow system. Proceedings of XI

Brazilian Congress of Agricultural Engineering 22-7 Jun. Brasilia

(DF). pp. 1147-5-9 (portuguese).


LAL, HARBANS and NUNES, P.F. 1982. Operational performance of wheeled

tool carrier for plowing and ridging. Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasi-

leira, 17(8): 1191-1212. (portuguese).









LAL, HARBANS, 1983. Simple Mathematical Model of field efficiency
and quantification of its components for animal-drawn wheeled

tool-carrier, Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira, 18(3): 649-56.

(portuguese).


LAL, HARBANS and FREIRE, L.C. 1984. Operational cost of animal-drawn
agricultural implements in various sizes of farm holdings.
Research Bulletin 21. CPATSA/EMBRAPA, Petrolina(PE), Brazil. pp. 33.

(portuguese).


LAL, HARBANS, 1984. Improved nomographs for estimating field capacity

and field efficiency for agricultural field operations, AMA-
Agricultural Mechanization in Asia Africa & Latin America, Tokyo,

Japan. (in press).


LAL, HARBANS, 1985.. Mechanics-of animal-drawn wheeled tool carrier,
Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research, London, UK (in press).


LAL, HARBANS, 1985. Quinquennial (19;0-84) report of research and
development activities on agricultural mechanization for Northeast

Brazil; Part IV; Machinery evaluation and management, IICA/EMBRAPA-

CPATSA, Petrolina(PE), Brazil. pp. 254-346.










CHAPTER 1.5

AGRONOMICAL STUDIES RELATED TO MACHINERY

( Tillage and Planting )


Introduction

The agronomical studies relatedtomachinery has been aimed to define

the "Soil, Machine and Plant Relationship" under traditional and

improved crop production systems.

The traditional crop production systems of the region for dryland

agriculture (totally dependent on rainfall) based on the engineering

aspects (soil management and implements use) can be grouped,

predominantly in the following three categories:

a. Cultivation on flat using tractorized implements for land

preparation (plowing and harrowing) and animal-drawn or manual

implements for other operations (planting, weeding etc.),

b. Cultivation on flat using animal-drawn implements for land

preparation and weeding, and manual implements for other operations

(planting, etc.).

c. Cultivation on flat using manual implement for all the

operations.


The cultivation on flat generally along the slope on slopping lands

with low management level results in low productivity of the land and

manpower under eratic and badly distributed rainfall of the region.

Table 1 presents precipitation received at Petrolina(PE) during 1981-

85 showing the variation of rainfall distribution within a rainy

season and over a period of five rainy seasons. It has been estimated

that for Petrolina region, with presently used production and

management techniques, the probability of success of -any crop is only

10%.


Y C





TABLE 1: Precipitation received at Dry-land Experiment station of CPATSA/EMBRAPA during 1981-85-.


YEAR


JAN


1981, 30.8
(5//)1

1982 73.5
(5/2)


1983 77-7
(9/2)

1984 9.6
(2/0)

1985 286.6
(22/7)


FEB

4.3
(3/0

26.4

(3/1

116.

(7/4

3.1
(4/0

84.9
(8/3


MONTHLY PRECIPITATION

MAY JUN JUL


MAR

45-.3
I) (15/0)

,51.5
) (7/1)

1' 115,1
). (12/3)

317.2
i) (15/8)

172.0
I) (15/5)


APR

41.6
(6/2)

44.0
(6/1)





146.2

(15/3)

151.6

(13/7)


4.1

(3/0)

17.5
(2/1)





5.6

(3/0)


(mm)

AUG

1.7
(1/0)

10.2
(2/0)

0.9
(1/0)


SEPT OCT


NOV

15.0
(2/1)


7.4
(3/0)


1.8

(1/0)


89.5
(5/3)


1.4
(1/0),

4-. 1

,( 1/0) )

25.3
(6/0)

15.6
('10/0)


Supplied by Mr. Malaquias da S. Amorim Neto,
Figures in the brackets represents the ratio
with more than 10 mm of precipitation.
NA- Not available.-


Agroclinatologist o


f CPATSA/EMBRAPA,


Petrolina(PE),


of total number of rainy clays to the rainy days


I-.


DEC

11.4
(5/1)

42.3
(4/1)

13.7
(2/1)


NA NA NA NA


8.3
(6/0)





5.3
(3/0)

69.9
(10/3)


^L-_-_-y ly ~~~~lly- LL (IIIUYLLIIYI(~JB)L~~~L~IY~ili;llj. (L~









It means that farmer is-going to lose his crop for 9-years out of

every 10 he plants. To reduce this risk, planting a mixture of

crops with little or no systematic arrangement is the common practise

followed by the farmers of the region. The other common practice,

to reduce the affect of draught during cropping season, is to maintain

low plant population. It has been observed on farmers' field, the

p pulation of 10,000 hills/ha of beans with two to three seeds per

S1 as compare to 20.000 hills/ha, generally, recommended for the

r -ion. Under these circumstances where crop failure or low crop

yield are associated with inadequate water supply, the research to

quantify the causes of failure and to develop and evaluate alternative

means to increase and stabilize the production breeks no delay.

As a mechanization specialist, I also contributed to these efforts

by evaluating traditional tillage and planting techniques and

developing and evaluating alternatives soil preparation and planting

systems to improve the-probability of success of crop production in

the region.

The systematic efforts on this line of action was initiated from 1983

so most of the publications on this aspects of mechanization have been

recently compiled which have been recently submitted to scientific

journals in for their initial review.


Publications

LAL, HARBANS, SILVA, A.S., PORTO, E.R. & NUNES, P.F. 1983. A new type

of "in-situ" rainwater harvesting technique for stabilizing crop

production in semi-arid tropics. XIII Brazilian Congress of

Agricultural Engineering-18-21 Jul. Rio de Janeiro(RJ), Brazil.

(portuguese).










LAL, HARBANS, 1985. Characterization and need of tillage research for

dryland agriculture for northeast Brazil, Journal of Agricultural

Engineering, ISAE, India (under review).


LAL, HARBANS, 1985. Effect of different methods of soil preparation

on soil moisture loss, weed growth and soil compaction, Agricultural

Mechanization for Asia, Africa and Latin America, Tokyo-Japan.

(under review).


LAL, HARBANS, 1985. Specific pull for plowing with different tool

bars/carrier over various moisture regimes, Agricultural Mechanization

for Asia, Africa and Latin America, Tokyo-Japan (under review).


LAL, HARBANS, 1985. Influence of different levels of press wheels on

seedling emergence under various moisture regimes- of Latossol of

northeast Brazil, Soil and Tillage Research, Amesterdam-Netherlands

(under review).


LAL, HARBANS, 1985. Evaluation of flat and broadbed-and-furrow systems

jf cultivations using animal-drawn and tractorized implements, Pes-

quisa Agropecuaria Brasileira, Brasilia-Brazil (under review).


COSTA, E.M. and LAL, HARBA-NS, 1985. Experiences with new type of "in-

situ" rainwater harvesting techniques during 1983. Quinquennial

(1980-84) report of research and development activities on

agricultural mechanization for northeast Brazil, agronomical studies

related to machinery (tillage and planting), IICA/EMBRAPA-CPATSA,

Petrolina(PE), Part V. pp. 368-85, (portuguese).









LAL, HARBANS, 1985. Complimentary results of the experiments about
the new technique of "in-situ" rainwater harvesting. Quinquennial
(1980-84) report of research and development activities on
agricultural mechanization for northeast Brazil, agronomical
studies related to machinery (tillage and planting), IICA/EMBRAPA-
CPATSA, Petrolina(PE), Part V.- pp. 386-441, (portuguese).


LAL, HARBANS, 1985. Evaluation of different types of "W" form of
soil preparation systems, IICA/EMBRAPA-CPATSA, Petrolina(PE),
(under review).


LAL, HARBANS, 1985. Quinquennial (1980-84) report of research and
development activities on agricultural mechanization for northeast
Brazil; Part V. Agronomical studies related to machinery (tillage
and planting), IICA/EMBRAPA-CPATSA, Petrolina(PE), Brazil.

pp. 347-441.










CHAPTER 1.6

MULTI-DISCIPLINARY RESEARCH AND EXTENSION

( Farming Systems Research and Training )


Introduction

The role of agriculture mechanization in the multi-disciplinary

research and extension can be summarised through the following

citation (INN, 1980)

"The machinery should be looked as a requirement to support the
farming systems that has been formulated and not other way round. The
farming system is a dog and machinery the tail. And it is accepted
.-actise that the dog should wag the tail".


With these point in view the efforts right from the beginning'has

been to develop-activities in agricultural mechanization-to fit in the

overall objective, "to develop appropriate farming systems for the

northeast",bf the CPATSA.

The activities carried out under this line of action has

been triple fold:

To generate documents relating agricultural mechanization

activities to farming systems being developed by the CPATSA,

Colaborate with other-specialists of the CPATSA in elaborating

documents on farming systems research of CPATSA,

participate in planning and executing-research on farming systems

on experiment research station and on farmers' field alongwith other

specialists of the CPATSA.

As regards the extension activity (training) it is well recognized



INN, M. 1980, Animal Power in Agricultural Production with special

reference to Tanzania, World Anim. Review, FAO: 2-10.









that mechanization alongwith appropriate soil and crop management

systems developed for improving and stabilizing crop production for

the region can only bear fruits if the training of extensionists

and other fellow researchers of state organization is organized on

regular basis. I have been participating in specialized training

programs on operation and maintenance of animal-drawn tool bars and

tool carriers and traditional implements and also collaborating

with land and water management and inter-cropping groups in training

related to their respective fields by contributing special lectures on

agricultural mechanization.

The wider divulgation of the research results have been made by

participating and presenting papers in various national congresses

and simposiums apart from publishing them in national and foreign

journals. The Appendix II gives the list of training and extension

activities, in which I have participated during my stay at CPATSA/

EMBRAPA.


Publications

LAL, HARBANS and NUNES, P.F. 1981. Agricultural mechanization for
farming systems of small and medium farmers of semi-arid tropics.

Proceedings of II National Meeting of Soil Conservation Research.

28 July-1 Aug. 1981. Recife(PE), Brazil, pp. 49-72, (portuguese).


LAL, HARBANS and NUNES, P.F. 1981. Agricultural mechanization with

wheeled tool carrier and some experience of CPATSA. Proceedings

of XI Brazilian Congress of Agricultural Engineering 22-7 Jun.

Brasilia(DF), Brazil. pp. 1567-76, (portuguese).


LAL, HARBANS, 1983. Animal-drawn wheeled tool carrier a solution for
small holdings. Revista de Mecanizagao Rural, Sao Paulo, 3(18): 24-

30. (portuguese).









LIMA, A.F., PORTO, E.R., PINARE, A.G.V., LOPES, L.H., OLIVEIRA, M.C.,

VALLEE, G.J.A., DORASWAMY, G. and LAL, HARBANS, 1984. Farming

Systems Research in the Brazilian Semi-Arid Tropics; the

Experience of Ouricuri, State of Pernambuco, Farming Systems

Research Symposium, Kansas State University, Oct. 7-10, p. 22.


LAL, HARBANS, 1985. Animal-drawn wheeled tool carrier; An appropriate

mechanization for improved farming systems. AMA- Agricultural

Mechanization for Asia, Africa and Latin America. Tokyo-Japan,

Vol. 16, n2 1, pp. 38-44.


LAL, HARBANS, 1985. Quinquennial (1980-84) report of research and

development activities on agricultural mechanization for northeast

Brazil; Part VI. Multi-disciplinary research and extension

(Farming Systems and Training). IICA/EMBRAPA-CPATSA, Petrolina(PE),

Brazil. pp. 441-547.
































CHAPTER II.


LOOKING AHEAD

( Suggestions for Future Work )





18


CHAPTER II.

LOOKING AHEAD

( Suggestions for Future Work )


Unlike many consultants who are generally hired for solving

specific problems in an established program, I have had the chance

to participate in the mechanization research program of CPATSA right

from beginning (1979) till date (1985). During this period, the

program has developed sufficiently and has acquired a definite

position among the national and international colleagues working on

similar aspects.

Never-the-less, the mechanization research just like that of

other areas of agriculture is a continuous process demanding

continuous -attention of local researchers and administrators. There-

fore, I would like to register here some of the general guidelines

about the future prospective and line of action of the program.

The mechanization research program of CPATSA has received on

continuous basis, apart from my consultancy, the French Experts

within the agreements of CEEMAT/EMBRAPA/EMBRATER. I feel that with

my contributions and that of French and local Experts the research

program (Agricultural Mechanization) has developed sufficient number

research projects on virtually every aspect of mechanization

ranging from development of machinery to the studies related to

alternative energy sources. However, due to the lack of appropriate

coordination and necessary support staff, many of the projects were

cancelled or are paralised. Therefore a critical analysis is

urgently sought for-to reactivate some of the important but

paralised/cancelled projects.









The definition and scope of research project within EMBRAPA system

has been changing and becoming clearer since 1981. Unlike 1980 when

it was thought appropriate to develop a single project on

agricultural mechanization covering the proposals of my consultancy

and that of the French Expert, at present, a research project is set

to be problem oriented with a well defined objectives, hypotheses

and methodology. With this definition of a research project, the

execusion of one project would lead to identification of many other

related problems, apart from solving the initial one. Therefore, I

would suggest that the on-going research projects should be executed

with awareness to identify other related problem and to continue the

process.

At this moment, I recall the well established definition of

research and the role of researcher. The research and job of the

researcher is not complete till the experiences of both (research

and researcher) are widely known. One of the easy and fast media of

wider circulation of the results is through publication in recognized

scientific and technical journals. I feel,the mechanization team

of CPATSA/EMBRAPA need to be motivated to analyse a great pool of

data generated and make the results available to the scientific and

farming community of Brazil and elsewhere.

The success of agricultural mechanization research, specially its

aspects of machinery development and adaptation, depends very much

on the participation and the interest of machinery manufacturers of

the region. It is therefore recommended that the industrialists should

be involved, right from beginning in the development of new prototypes

or adapting the existing one. I feel, rather strongly, that the

development of new machine is not complete, till some manufacturer

has taken it up for mass production. With this point in view, it is

f









recommended that development of new prototypes should be restricted

to the machines which are urgently needed for the region and should be

made simple enough to generate interest of the manufacturers for its

mass production and commercialization.

Till date, the major efforts of the research team on agricultural

mechanization of CPATSA has been concentrating on various aspects of

dryland agriculture; totally dependent on rainfall or supported by

life saving irrigation. And virtually no systematic efforts have been

made to look into the possible areas where mechanization team could

contribute significantly in irrigated agriculture which is ever

increasing in the region. It is, therefore, recommended that

appropriate attention should be given to this neglected area. These

efforts could range from developing appropriate simple equipment

for various field operations to developing appropriate tillage

techniques to minimize the power input for irrigated agriculture. A

study on Mechanization of Irrigation Project, Bebedouro (PE) showed

that a large number of field operations,-except initial land

preparation, are still done by manual labour, thus leaving a lot of

scope for developing simple and inexpensive equipment for these

operations. The same studies also showed that a standard mode of

soil preparation (plowing and/or harrowing complete area) is used for

all the crop, thus leaving a good scope of experimenting alternative

soil preparation techniques inclusive minimum and zero tillage for

certain crops.

The other field which has been completely neglected so far, and

mechanization specialists of the CPATSA could make significant

contribution is the post-harvest technology both for dryland and

irrigated crops of the region. There isan urgent need to evaluate the

existing threshers and to identify most appropriate one(s) for the









crop varieties of the region.

The role of a research centre like CPATSA. whose clients in

general are small and medium farmers with little educational and

technical knowledge, is not complete till they (the farmers) are

trained simultaneously in using the developed technology (specially

Lhe machinery aspects) by the centre-. The researchers in collaboration

with the extensionists should always be ready to impart formal and

informal training to the users of the generated technologies. Once

the technology (the machines in particular) has passed the initial

phases (development and commercialization) the researchers of the

centre should aim to generate information regarding the grade of

acceptability and mode of utilization of the developed machinery in

the region, either through specialized research projects or through

the casual -visits to the region where the machine has become

popular. These efforts should also be aimed to identify causes of

non-acceptability of the machine in other region. A modest start on

this aspect has already been made by developing a special project

to identify the degree of acceptability and utilization of the

wheeled tool carrier/tool bars types of machines on which CPATSA has

been working for last years. This project will be carried out

from early 1986 under -ne coordination of Dr. G.M. Calegar, Economist

of CPATSA/EMBRAPA.
































CHAPTER III.


SOME CONCLUDING-REMARKS





23



CHAPTER III.

SOME CONCLUDING REMARKS



My stay at CPATSA/EMBRAPA, as an IICA Consultant has been very

rewarding both on professional and social fronts. The number of pages

of my CV (Curriculum Vitae) has substantially increased with list of

publications and other activities carried out during this period. My

family size has also -ncreased with two more lovely daughters who

were born in Petrolina and would remember it (Petrolina) as their

birth place for whole of their life. I am quite satisfied with my

achievements and my wife joins me on these feelings. We, once again,

would like to repeat that all this has been possible with the

cooperation and help of my Brazilian and other colleagues with whom

we have had social and professional contacts during our stay at Pe-

trolina.

Never-the-less, I would like to register here some of my thoughts

about the role and aspirations of a consultant like me. I have

discussed on these aspects with ITCA and CPATSA administration from

time to time.

It is not within the scope of the present report to define specific roles

and aspirations, individually of any consultant. However, in general

terms, one could say that an international consultant, hired with the

intension to serve on long term basis, should play the role of a

senior researcher. He should be able to organize his own research

projects and should collaborate with other researchers in helping them

to develop and carry out research projects of their interest. In

response to these duties, he (the consultant) aspires for due

recognization of r,his contributions and expects from the local

administration to provide him with sufficient opportunities to divulge










his work, in person, to national and international scientific

community.

Whether the present administrative and technical set up of IICA/

EMBRAPA Contract provides the necessary conditions for the consultants

(internationally hired) to play this role and achieve his aspirations

described above, has been a matter of controversy among the various

IICA/EMBRAPA Consultants with whom I have had opportunity to

discuss on these points over last six years. Therefore I strongly

recommend that IICA/EMBRAPA Coordination should look into the matter

and analyse the existing administrative and technical set up and

modify it, as required, to develop necessary directives within IICA/

EMBRAPA Contracts which would facilitate for the Consultants to

play their role more effectively and also would minimize the

frustrationswhich he (Consultants) faces from time to time because

of present administrative and technical-set up.

With these concluding remarks I would like to say good-by to

all those who have made my present venture, as a mechanization

specialist of IICA stationed at CPATSA/EMBRAPA for last six years, a

great success. I would always like to maintain my professional and

social contacts with all of them. I know that my contributions in

solving mechanization problems fur northeast Brazil, has been like a

drop in ocean but I am aware that-if I would not have done-so, this

drop would have always been missing from the ocean.


_ ~I




































APPENDICES










APPENDIX I.

ABOUT THE CONSULTANT


NAME


DURATION OF CONSULTANCY :

PERMANENT ADDRESS



PLACE OF BJRTH


DATE OF BIRTH


CITIZENSHIP AT BIRTH

PRESENT CITIZENSHIP

SEX


MARITAL STATUS

NUMBER OF DEPENDENTS. :


.LANGUAGES PROFICIENCY:


Harbans Lal


6 years


IV/0/48, Lajpat Nagar
New Delhi 110024 India

Kashipur (UP) India

J.:nuary 6, 1949

Indian

Indian

Male.


Married


4


Language

Hindi

English

Portuguese

Spanish

French


Read

Excellent

Excellent

Very Good

Good

Slight


Write

Excellent

Excellent

Very Good

Good

-x-


Speak

Excellent

Excellent

Very Good

Good

-x-


---


---










EDUCATION:


(a) University or Equivalent


Years Attended Degree and
Main
Name and Place Academic
Subjects
From To Distinction

Indian Institute of Technology, 66 1971 B.Tech.Ho) Agricultural
1966 1971 B.Tech.(Hons)
.haragpur (WB), India Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology. Farm Machinery
Kharagpur (WB), India and Power



(b) Schooling and Other Formal Trainings



Years Attended
Certificate/
Name and.Place Type
Diploma
From To

.Central Board of Secondary
Educational, New Dei-India Higher Secondary 1963 1966 Certificate
Educational, New Delhi-India
.Tractor Training and Test- Agricultural Machinery
ing Centre, Hissar(Haryana) Utilization and Jan.74-Mar.74 Certificate
India Managenent
.The Maharastra Agro-Indust-
ries Development Corporat- Machine-y
Apr.74-Apr.74 Certificate
ion Ltd. Poona, Maharastra Management
(India)
.Andhra Pradesh Productivity Quantitative Tech-
Feb.78-Aug.78- Diploma
Council, Hyderabad (India) iques, PERT and-CPM
.Indian Institute of Managem- Operations Research
Oct.78-0ct.78 Certificate
ent,Bariglore (Mysore)- India and Computers
.Department of Human Resour- Scieftific and
Sept.-Oct.81 Certificate
ces, EMBRAPA, Brazil Technical Writings
.Education Foundation of Pe- COBOL and BASIC
Bra C r ProrMay-Oct.84 Certificate
trolina(PE), Brazil Computer Programing









EMPLOYMENT RECORD: (Starting with most recent post).


I. TITLE OF THE POST :


DATES


Agricultural Mechanization Specialist


From Oct. 1979 till Nov. 1985


REASON FOR LEAVING : To pursue higher studies leading to Ph.D.
in Agricultural Engineering

NAME AND ADDRESS OF IICA- Inter-american Institute for Cooperation
EMPLOYER : on Agriculture, Coronado, Apartado 55 San
Jose, COSTA RICA

DUTY STATION : CPATSA/EMBRAPA
Petrolina(PE), Brazil

NAME OF SUPERVISORSS: Dr. Daniel Gustafson
Technical Assessor IICA/EMBRAPA

NATURE OF WORK : Research, Development and Training

JOB RESPONSIBILITY To organize activities of CPATSA (Agricultural
Research Centre for Semi-Arid Tropics) in the
field of agricultural mechanization by
planning, executing and evaluation of research
in farm machinery and power adopted to
farming systems of semi-arid tropics of
northeast Brazil

PROJECTS HANDLED AND a. Present status of Agricultural Mechanization
ACHIEVEMENTS : in the region:

-Tractorization of Brazilian Agriculture
(1950-82)
-Comercialization of Agricultural Implements
in Brazil (1977-82)-
-Mechanization of Irrigated Agriculture in the
Valley of River San Francisco, Petrolina(PE)
-Rural Transportation Systems in Ouricuri
region of Pernambuco State.









b. Design and Development of improved agricultural
implements:

-Development of Multicultor CPATSA and its basic
implement set
-Development of Multicultor CPATSA II
-Development of animal-drawn and tractorized
implements for implantation, reformation and wwed-
ing for the soil preparation system in the form of
"W"


c. Machinery Evaluation and Management:

-Operational performance of wheeled tool carrier for
basic tillage operations
-Operational cost of animal-drawn implements for
different sizes of land-holdings
-A simple mathematical model and nomographs Jor
estimating field efficiency and-field-capacity
for agricultural field operations
-Mechanics of animal-drawn wheeled tool carrier

u. Tillage and Planting:

-Quantification of effect of different means of soil
preparation (manual, animal-drawn and tractorized
implements) on soil moisture loss, weed growth and
soil compaction
-Quantification of specific pull for plowing with
different tool bars (Policultor 300, 600 e 1500)
on different soil moisture regimes
-Performance of EBRA planter with different soil
compaction wheels on various soil moisture regimes
-Evaluation of flat and broadbed-and-furrow systems
of cultivation with animal-drawn and tractorized
implements
-Development of a system of soil preparation in the
form of "W" to improve rainwater harvesting
efficiency for arid and semi-arid region
-Quantification of optimum dimensions of "W" form
of soil preparation
-Quantification of effect of soil conditioners
(fertilizers, vermiculite and multch) and different
level of weedings on crop yields for the "W" f6rm
of soil preparation system
-Adaptation and testing of "W" form of soil preparat-
ion system to facilitate planting and inter-row
cultivation with available animal-drawn implements.










II. TITLE OF THE POST :


DATES


Agricultural Engineer

From Aug. 75 to Feb. 81


REASON FOR LEAVING : Wider responsibility and better prospects

NAME AND ADDRESS OF ICRISAT- International Crops Research
EMPLOYER Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics
Patancheru (PO) AP 502.324 India

DUTY STATION : Hyderabad (India)

NAME OF SUPERVISORSS: Mr. G.E. Thierstein

NATURE OF WORK : Research, Development and Training

JOB RESPONSABILITY : To organize and carryout applied research on
agricultural mechanization as a team member
of Farm Power and Equipment-sub-program of
FSRP/ICRISAT, Hyderabad (India-)

PROJECTS HANDLED AND a. Mach-inery development and adaptation:
ACHIEVEMENTS
-Selection, adaptation and testing of -at-
tachments for Tropicultor for broadbed-and-
furrow system of cultivation
-Development of cart-based tool carrier and
its attachments for operations on broadbed-
and-furrow system of cultivation

b. Machinery evaluation and management:

-Evaluation of different types of tool
carriers for improved farming systems
-Quantification of implement use efficiency
as- affected by various factors
-Comparative and operational evaluation of
various machinery systems for broadbed-and-
furrow systems of cultivation
-Ouantification of command area for of
wheeled tool carrier










c. Adoption constraints for improved
--------------------------------
implements:

-Satisfaction level derived by the farmers
from presently used equipment package
-Necessity for improved implements felt by
farmers.
-Awareners about improved implements
-Factors contributory for limited adoption
of improved implements.


III. TITLE OF THE POST:


DATES


Research Technician


: From Aug. 74 to Aug. 75


REASON FOR LEAVING : Promoted

NAME AND ADDRESS OF ICRISAT- International Crops Research
EMPLOYER- : Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropi-cs
1.11-256, Begampet- Hyderabad (AP)- India

DUTY STATION Hyderabad (AP) India

NAME OF SUPERVISORSS). D:. J. Kampen

NATURE OF WORK : Research, Development and Training

JOB RESPONSABILITY : To participate in the operational scale
farming system research of ICRISAT with the
responsibility for selection, adaption and
testing of appropriate machinery for improved
and traditional systems of farming

PROJECTS HANDLED AND a. Development and testing of machine:
ACHIEVEMENTS
-Development of animal-drawn relay planter
cum fertilizer applicator
-Modification of animal-drawn buck-scrapper
-Adaption of KENMORE tool carrier
-Adaption of a local seed-cum-fertilizer
drill.









IV. TITLE OF THE POST :


DATES


Full time volunteer

From June 73 to Aug. 74


REASON FOR LEAVING : Wider responsibility and better prospects

NAME AND ADDRESS OF FREA- Front for Rapid Economics Advance for
EMPLOYER : India, Bombay (Maharastra) India

DUTY STATION Patoda (Dist.Bir..) Maharastra

NAME OF SUPERVISORSS: Mr. Ulas Gore

NATURE OF WORK : Development, Extension and Management

JOB RESPONSABILITY : To strengthen FREA team of Marathwada region
of India through planning and installation
of an Agro-Service Centre to make its Patoda
(Bir.) base self supporting

SPECIFIC WORKS CARRIED -Organization and execution of custon hire
OUT : service-of agricultural machines available
at FREA- base in Patoda
-Adaptation of a tractor-drawn 9 tine
cultivator to a.9- row-planter
-Orientation to the farmers in proper use
of traditional and modified equipment.



MEMBERSHIP OF PROFESSIONAL SOCIETIES

Member- American Society of Agricultural Engineers (USA)

Member- International Soil Tillage Research Organization, Wageningen

(NETHERLANDS)

Ex-Member- British Society for Research in Agricultural Engineering

(UK)

Life Member- Indian Society of Agricultural Engineers (INDIA)

Member- Brazilian Society of Agricultural Engineering (BRAZIL)

Member- National Society of Agriculture (BRAZIL).-









INTERNATIONAL AND DOMESTIC TRAVELS


I have considerably toured around the world I have been to Paris

(FRANCE), Rome (ITALY), London (UK), Amsterdam and Wageningen-

(NETHERLANDS), Bangkok (THAILAND), Tokyo (JAPAN), and Los Angels,

Columbus and New York (USA). In India and Brazil, I have visited

most of the institutions and universities engaged in research,

extension and teaching in Agricultural Engineering and have visited

National Tillage Laboratory (NETHERLANDS) and University of

Reedings (UK).


SPECIAL REMARKS

I have been actively involved and have made significant

contributions as a mechanization expert in multi-disciplinary -team

of researchers of ICRISAT and-that of CPATSA/EMBRAPA in their-

Farming Systems Research Program at experiment stations and on

farmers' field.

I-have been faculty member in various courses and training

programs organized by-CPATSA/EMBKAPA in Brazil and by ICRISAT in

India.

I have attended numerous national and international congresses,

conferences and seminars and presented technical and scientific

papers.

I have worked as a Coordinator of Discussion Group on

Mechanization and Energy during I Brazilian Symposium of -Semi-Arid

Tropics, in Olinda(PE), Brazil.

SI have delivered number of invitational lectures at various

Indian and Brazilian Universities.

SA television report on Multicultor CPATSA (A machine developed

by me in Brazil) was considered the best of the year (1980) and CPATSA

received over 5000 letters requesting the details of the machine.









Over ten thousands copies of the bulletin on Multicultor CPATSA

of my authorship have been distributed attendingthe requests

within Brazil and overseas.

I have oriented graduate (M.S.) research thesis of agricultural

engineering students of UFPb (Federal Universities of Paraiba),

Campina Grande.


POSSIBLE ADDRESSES FOR FUTURE CONTACTS

c/o Mr. RAM LAL

IV/0/48, Lajpat Nagar

New Delhi 110024

INDIA


c/o Dr. J. WAYNE MISHOE

Graduate Coordinator

Agricultural Engineering Department

IFAS, University of Florida

Frazier Rogers Hall.

Gainesville, Florida 32611

USA








APPENDIX II.

TRAINING AND EXTENSION ACTIVITIES


Training:

For animal operators about the use of wheeled tool carrier types

of implements (Jan.-March 1980),
For extensionists and researchers about agricultural mechanization,

Petrolina(PE)(April 1981, April 1982),
For extensionists about the "in-situ" rainwater harvesting

technique, Petrolina(PE), Oct. 1982,
For engineers of Sertanejo Project about the implantation of "W"

form of soil preparation system, Ouricuri(PE)(March 1984).


Demonstrations and Orientations:

Operational demonstration of Multicultor CPATSA II to

Technology Diffusion Team of CPATSA/EMBRAPA, July 1981,

Orientation to local workshops.in fabrication and repair of

wheeled tool carrier types of implements (1980-82).


Participations and Presentations of Papers:
--------------------"------"---'-------

Internal Seminar to CPATSA researchers on "Agricultural

Mechanization Research Program for Farming Systems of Semi-Arid
Tropics", Petrolina(PE), July 25, 1980,

IIIrd. National Meeting about Soil Conservation Research,

Recife(PE), July 28-Aug. 1, 1980,
I Regional Meeting of Engineers of Project Sertanejo, Petroli-

na(PE), July 14-17, 1980,

National Meeting on Small Irrigation, Brasilia(DF), Aug. 11-13,

1981,





35


XI Brazilian Congress of Agricultural Engineering, Brasilia(DF),

July 22-28, 1981,
Internal Seminar to CPATSA researchers "Agricultural Mechanization
Research Program of CPATSA: Retrospectives and Prospectives", Petro-
lina(PE), Aug. 28, 1981,

Short Course on Scientific and Technical Writing, Petrolina(PE),

Sept. 28-Oct. 2, 1982,
XII Brazilian Congress of Agricultural Engineers, Itabuna(BA),
July 19-23, 1982,
VI Academic Week of Agricultural Engineering, UFPEL- Federal

University of Pelotas-RS, Pelotas(RS), Sept. 20-24, 1982,

I Brazilian Symposium of Semi-Arid Tropics, Recife(PE), Aug. 16-

20, 1982,
I Regional Meeting of Intercropping, Petrolina(PE), Nov. 10-12,

1982,

XIII Brazilian Congress of Agricultural Engineering, Rio de Ja-

neiro(RJ), July 18-21, 1983,
Regional Meeting on Farming Systems Research, Petrolina(PE),

Aug. 18-28, 1983,
XIV Brazilian Congress of Agricultural Engineering, Fortaleza(CE),

July 22-27, 1984,

Invitational lecturers at various Indian and Brazilian

Universities. (July-Sept. 1982),
Program Meeting on Farming Systems Research on Dryland

Agriculture, Ouricuri(PE), Aug. 21-22, 1984,
Program Meeting on Farming Systems Research on Irrigated

Agriculture, Petrolina(PE), Sept. 24 and Oct. 1, 1984,
S- Presentation of Mechanization Research Program of CPATSA to the

term of directors of international program of various american
universities, Petrolina(PE), Nov. 27, 1984,






36


Presentation of Quinquennial (1980-84) report on research and
development activities on agricultural mechanization of northeast
Brazil to various authorities of IICA/EMBRAPA and to professors and
students of various Brazilian Universities, Brasilia(DF), Campinas
(SP), Piracicaba(SP), Campina Grande(PB), Petrolina(PE), Mar.-Sept.
1985.-









APPENDIX III.

ANALYTICAL SUMMARY OF PUBLICATIONS PRODUCED

DURING EMPLOYMENT WITH IICA/EMBRAPA

( Oct. 1979 to Nov. 1985 )


Published Articles
Conference
or Brazilian Foreign
Year Institute Total
popular journals journals
articles
in in in
press press press


1980 2 1 3

1981 4 2 6

1982 1 1 2

1983 4 2 1 7

1984 3 1 2 2 3 11

1985 6. 2* 6- 14

Total 20 4 5 2 3 9 43


Under review.-






38


APPENDIX IV.

SOME ADDITIONAL PUBLICATIONS AND CONTRIBUTIONS


Publications


LAL, HARBANS, 1971. Components of water loss form puddled paddy field.

B.Tech. Thesis. I.I.T. Kharagpur (WB), India. pp. 31.


LAL, HARBANS, 1973. Design and development of paddy stripper

harvesting. M.Tech. Thesis. I.I.T. Kharagpur (W), India. pp. 55.


KRISHNA, J.H. and LAL, HARBANS, 1975. Optimum resource management and

use of improved animal-drawn implements in farming systems research

at ICRISAT. Annual Workshop on Agricultural Engineering Research

28-31 Oct. 1975. Punjab Agricultural University, Lundhiana, India.


THIERSTEIN, G.,. LAL, HARBANS, KAMPEN, J. and KRANTZ, B. A. 1976. Farm

Machinery Program at ICRISAT. Annual Research Engineers Workshop

for Research and Development of Farm Implements and Machinery, 17-

27 Dec. 1976. Andhra Pradesh Agricultural University, Rajendra

Nagar, Hyderabad. India.


BANSAL, R.K., LAL, HARBANS and MAYANDE, V.M. 1980. Mechanizing

farming in semi-arid tropics. Andhra Pradesh Chapter, Indian Society

of Agricultural Engineers, Hyderabad, India.


LAL, HARBANS, 1981. Present status of agricultural mechanization of
India and its evolution at ICRISAT. Proceedings of XI Brazilian

Congress of Agricultural Engineering 22-7 Jun. Brasilia(DF), Brazil,

PP- 1339-47 (portuguese).









Contributions to Institutes' Reports:

FSRP/ICRISAT Annual Reports

1974-75

Adaptation of Planet Jr. Seeders for relay planting and fertilizer

application (pp. 65),

Modification of buck scrapper (pp. 62),

SAdaptation of Kenmore tool carrier (pp. 62),

SAdaptation of fluted feed roller mechanism for fertilizer

application (pp. 64).


1975-76

Evaluation of different types of tool carriers for improved

farming systems,

Selection and fabrication of attachments of Tropicultor for

improved farming systems.


1976-77

Implement use efficiency as affected by different factors,

Quantification of time efficiency for different field operations,

SDevelopment of cart-based tool carrier and its attachments.


1977-78

Evaluation of low-cost tool bars and tool carriers for improved

farming systems,

SEffect of field lay-out on machinery capacity for bed farming

and inter-row cultivation.






40



Annual Bulletin of EMBRAPA's Research Results

1981

Development of Multicultor CPATSA.


1982

Improvements in Multicultor CPATSA,

Development of Multicultor CPATSA II.


Special Reports:

Research program on farmer's field in the region of semi-arid

tropics retrospectives and prospectives. CPATSA/EMBRAPA. Petrolina

(PE), Brazil (1983).

Evaluation of impact of technologies generated by CPATSA as an

integrated component of farming systems of farmers of Ouricuri(PE)

region. A Research Project, Research Program of Farming System of

Semi-Arid Tropics. CPATSA/EMBRAPA-. Petrolina(PE), Brazil (1983).

The "in-situ" rainwater harvesting technique of CPATSA/EMBRAPA,

ISTRO-INFO. Soil and Tillage Research, Amsterdam, Netherlands, No. 21.

Sept. 1984. pp. 495-98.









APPENDIX V

TIPS FOR EFFICIENT CONSULTANT AND USEFUL CONSULTANCY


In general, as far as effective use of a consultant is concerned,

one must separate two major activities: the institution building and
problem solving, and define these two functions and the type of foreign

technicians accordingly.

It needs to be recognized that an individual with specialised

competence can often make a notable contribution in a short period of

time, provided the existing staff are able to convey their experience

and understanding of problems to the new staff member and in turn profit

from his special knowledge and skill. But all too often the core staff

to provide that continuity and fruitful interaction has been lacking.

It is almost inevitable that a foreign scientist will lack a

deep understanding of existing farming systems and the constraints

that conditions the ability and willingness of local farmers to accept

innovations.

The "Capacity Transfer" should be the major role of Institution

Building Consultants. They should build in the host country a

capacity that with time will enable the production of locally adaptable

technology following prototypes-which exists abroad or might even

create completely new prototypes together with local researchers and

supporting institutions. They should:show how to modify. imported

machinery designs in order to meet local climatic and social

requirements and factors endowment of the economy.


Extracts from "Making Effective Use of Expartriate Personnel" by
Eliseu Roberto de Andrade Alves and Levon Yeganiantz, Respectively Ex-
president of EMBRAPA and Ex-consultant IICA; A paper presented at the
workshop on "Increasing the Productivity and Impact of Agricultural
Research" held at Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakatra, Indonesia (Asia),
November, 1980.-










It is highly desirable that the contract of Institution

Building consultant be long term so that he can become completely

involved with the problemsof the country/organization that he is

serving.

It is advisable that the national institution who employs the

consultant helps them to feel that they are welcome and useful. They

should be part of all meetings, field days etc. including social

events. By clearly specifying what is expected of them and then

giving them complete freedom to work the necessary relationship can

be achieved.

The Problem Solving Consultant hired on short term basis can

make his best contribution if at first the local technicians and

admistrators have defined clearly the specific research problem.

The work of expartriate scientists should be looked on the

basis of the of cooperation and partnership. The visiting scientists

should not be working "for" the host institution and their scientists,

rather they should work "with" them.








































9.



10.


APPENDIX VI

SCHEDULE FOR ELABORATION AND

PRESENTATION OF FINAL REPORT


Inter-american Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture (IICA).

Name of the Consultant: Harbans Lal

Name of the Project: Agricultural Mechanization for Semi-Arid

Tropics of Northeast Brazil

Name of the Activity: To strengthen Semi-Arid Production Systems

Objective: Refer to Job Description (Page V)

Period of Consultancy: Oct. 13, 1979 to Nov. 20, 1985

Local: Petrolina(PE), Brazil

Organization Benefited: CPATSA/EMBRAPA and other regional research,

extension and teaching organizations

Collaborating Scientists: Refer to authors of Publications

produced

Persons Interviewed with Local farmers and farm equipment

relations to activities manufacturers.


Developed

11. Activities Developed: Refer to Cahpter I (Page 1 to 17)

12. Results of the Activities: Refer to Chapter I (Page 1 to 17)

13. Conclusions: Refer to Chapter I (Page 1 to 17)

14. Technical Recommendations Refer to Chapter II (Page 18-22)

and Suggestions








15. Circumstances and Happenings outside

IICA affecting activities of

Consultancy

16. Signature of the Consultant:

17. Date of Presentation: Nov. 15, 1985.


Refer to Chapter III

(Page-23-24)




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