SUMMARY OF THE ANNUAL STATE CONFERENCE
FOR TEACHERS OF VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE
Division of Vocational, Technical, and Adult Education
Walter R. Williams, Jr., Director
Agricultural Education Section
Harry E. Wood, Supervisor
The 1965 Annual State Conference for Teachers of Vocational Agri-
culture was held at the Langford Hotel in Winter Park, Florida, July 19
through July 23, 1965.
A program committee, consisting of the Executive Committee of the
Florida Vocational Agriculture Teachers' Association and the staff,
planned the conference program and selected the theme for the confer-
ence "Developing and Implementing Educational Programs for Agri-
This summary is divided into three parts; namely, a section, or
general summary of the proceedings of the conference, a section of
papers read before the conference, and the section on the recommenda-
tions of the nine conference "work groups" is included as a part of this
Acknowledgment and appreciation are expressed for the services and
contributions of those who planned and participated in the program, and
to the secretaries, and office personnel and state staff members who
assisted in making the report possible.
K. M. Eaddy
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Foreword ......... ,.............................................**
Table of Contents ........ ....................................... ii
SECTION I CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS .............................. 1
Monday, July 19
Introduction ........................................ 1
Plans for the Conference .............................. 1
Program of Florida State Board for Vocational Education
for Fiscal Year 1965-66 ...................... 2
Status of.Vocational Training Needs .................. 3
Basic Educational Needs for Occupational Training ..... 4
Implications of the Manpower Training Program to
Vocational Agriculture ........................ 4
Inter-Relationship Between Academic and Vocational
Agriculture Teachers ............................. 5
Vocational Guidance Role of the Local Agriculture
Teacher in His School and Community .............. 6
National Progress in Research and Developmental Activi-
ties in Vocational Education ...........,......... 6
Tuesday, July 20
Projects and Recent Developments as Summarized from
Rural Area Development Reports .................... 6
The Conservation of Human Resources .................... 6
Industrial Training Under the 1963 Vocational Education
Act ............................ ..... ............ 7
Guidelines; for Supervised Practice Program in Agri-
Business ................. . ................. ... 7
Project Proposal and Grant Requests Under 1963 Vocation-
al Education Act for Vocational Agriculture
Programs ....................................... 7
Technical Training .................................... 8
Wednesday, July 21
Procedure for Organizing an Agricultural Occupations
Program ......................... ..... .. ........ 10
Establishing Training for Golf Course Workers ......... 11
Experiences in Making Agricultural Survey for Indian
River Junior College ............................. 11
Aerospace Activities at Cape Kennedy .................. 11
Thursday, July 22
Suggested Guidelines for Utilizing the Agricultural
Mechanics Shop for Occupational Training ......... 12
Using the Agricultural Shop to Serve the Community in
Occupational Training ............................ 12
Programs for the Disadvantaged ....................... 12
Utilizing Advisory Committee in Setting up Junior
College Instructional Program for Agricultural
Occupations ......................................... 13
Child Labor Law ...................................... 14
The Environmental Control of Livestock ................
Progress of Agricultural Chemicals Safety Program .....
Friday, July 23
F.V.A.T.A. Installation of Officers .................
Comments, Presentation, Final Remarks and Observations.
SECTION II SPEECHES INCLUDED FOR REFERENCE PURPOSES
Proposed Guidelines for Supervised Practice Program in
Agri-Business, by Dean Gaiser .........................
Experiences in Making Agricultural Survey Indian River
Junior College, by Dr. Maxwell King ...................
Progress of Agricultural Chemicals Safety Program,
by Forrest E. Myers ...................................
Special Vocational Program for the Disadvantaged,
by C. L. Lowman .......................................
The Conservation of Human Resources, by Dr. E. T. York, Jr..
Vocational Guidance: The Role of the Local Agricultural
Teacher in His School and Community,
by Eddith Montgomery ..................................
Child Labor Laws, by Harry Garvin ..........................
Suggested Guidelines for Utilizing Agricultural Mechanics
Shops for Occupational Training, by Clarence J. Rogers.
New Dimensions in Rural Areas Development,
by Dr. M. O. Watkins ..................................
SECTION III REPORTS OF WORK GROUPS
Work Group 1.
Work Group 2.
Work Group 3.
Work Group 4.
Work Group 5.
Work Group 6.
Work Group 7A.
Work Group 7B.
Work Group 7C.
Work Group 7D.
Work Group 8.
Work Group 9.
What Should be the Pattern of Agricultural
Guidelines for Programs in Agri-Business and
Agricultural Occupations ....................
What Should be the Guidelines for Agricultural
Patterns of Instruction to Young Farmers,
Adult Farmers, and Post-High School Students?
Evaluating Local Programs ...................
What Qualification Patterns Should be Set Up
for Occupation Teachers on Grants in Regards
Recruitment, In-Service Training, and Certi-
fication? ......... .................. ........
Guidelines Challenges .....................
What FFA Activities and Calendar of Events
Implicating Merger Will Occur During 1965-667
What Responsibilities are Involved Which
Necessitate Guidelines Acceptable to Both
What Provisions Should be Made for Fair and
Equitable Participation in Contest, Awards,
Dues, Scholarships, and Financial Accounts?..
What Predoaeunes Should be F6llowed at Septem-
ber Conferences to Implement Recommendations
Accepted by the Summer Conference Teachers?..
Responsibilities and Plans for AVA and NVATA
Convention; Combined Agricultural Groups.....
Agricultural Mechanics Competendies Needed to
Qualify Propsective Employees ...............
Monday, July 19
Chairman Herbert Henley, Orlando; Secretary J. A. Barge, DeFuniak
The initial session of the 40th Annual State Conference opened
with an invocation given by Alton Howard and a welcome to Orange County
by Walton 0. Walker, Superintendent of Public Instruction.
Allen Trovillian, Jr. welcomed the teachers to Winter Park and Mr.
Langford expressed his delight to have the teachers of vocational agri-
culture conduct the 1965 conference in the Langford Hotel, Winter Park,
Florida Vocational Agriculture Teachers' Association President,
Herbert Henley introduced guests of the conference and Mr. W. T. Loften
introduced new teachers of vocational agriculture.
Plans for the Conference were given by Mr. H.E. Wood, State Super-
visor, who stressed the theme, "Developing and Implementing Educational
Programs for Agricultural Occupations". He read, and placed emphasis
upon the statement found on the back cover.,of'the :'official program;
namely, . The new Vocational Education Act::of 1963 provides for a
national evaluation of vocational education in the immediate years ahead.
When this evaluation is made it is imperative that vocational educators
be able to provide information indicating that graduates of vocational
program were employable. Congress will continue supporting "vocational
and technical education and the true image of vocational education will
be illuminated permanently" if this objective is reached. Vocational
education today needs people who are dedicated, willing to work, to ex-
plore, to be creative, to listen, to contribute, to adjust and with it
all to stay humble . out of a good argument can come a new idea if
the "hearts" are right. Vocational education people are beginning to
take a new look at themselves and are not afraid to do so,- where, per-
haps, there has been some "little thinking" there may now be some "big
Mr. Wood noted that the conference was integrated for first time
since its initial meeting in 1925. Mr. Wood's sincere desire for the
conference was expressed as a trust in each teacher and cther agricultural
leaders present to work in such a way to produce "a firm and substantial
foundation" for future meetings of agricultural teachers and Fu tu re
Mr. Wood then introduced Mr. Floyd Johnson,consultant for the con-
ference for the second consecutive year.
Dr. M. C. Gaar, Program Specialist, U. S. Office of Education, was
then introduced to the group of assembled teachers. He discussed Pro-
ject Co-ordination Under the 1963 Vocational Education Act. The foIlbw-
ing is an outline account of his presentation.
Introduction We are living in a changed and changing world.......
Change can only be made in proportion to the rate at which teachers
are able to make changes in their frame of references.
Suggested Course Content by Grade Ninth grade exploring ooccu-
pations, agriculture and others, to give students first hand experiences.
Tenth and eleventh grades Plant and Animal Science and some Farm
Twelfth grade; option Work closely with personnel actually giv-
ing the training to students.
Drop-out Interested in production agriculture and/or agricultural
services. Use high school personnel to help with the problems, or use
counselors, special teachers and T & I, D. E. specialist.
Post High school Training of pupils in specialized areas. U s e
Adults How to reach the adults who need help -
1. Use the Economic Opportunity Program
2. Use the ACP
Handicapped Meeting the needs of the handicapped Coordinating
the activities of all programs to meeting their need.
Program of Florida State Board 6rVVocationAl
Education for Fiscal Year 1965-66
Dr. W. R. Williams, Jr., State Director, Vocational, Technical and Adult
Education, State Department of Education,
Dr. Williams expressed,in his brief presentation, aconvitti6n that
leaders in vocational agricultural education must have a 0p.hi~bos'op h y
broad and flexible enough to meet the needs of our age; an age cohaaac-
terized by change, if we are to cope with the multitudinous problems of
He would place emphasis upon the teacher of agriculture earning
prestige -- prestige thought of asan earned increment through service.
"He who serves best is the one who is the happiest". Many opportunities
are present today for individual and group service since human n e e d
exists in all areas of human endeavor. As teachers of agriculture, we
are dealing with human needs; the poor and the disadvantaged as relates
to physical, social, emotional, financial, and cultural relationships.
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We must have a growing and successful economy if human needs are to be
solved most effectively, and the strength of the farm production is the
basis of success to the total economy. We can no longer think of our-
selves as specialists interested in agriculture; rather we should think
of ourselves as "educators" specialized in agriculture.
Factors relevant to our work are:
1. Reflection of employment needs and demands
2. Growth: 1.6 male employment
1.9 female employment
3. Projecting the ways and means of meeting the need of the future.
Reflecting the broad opportunities of new hOrizons.
4. State Board Advisory Council to be organized through a modifi-
cation of the revision of the Vocational Departments.
5. $8 million for non-junior colleges
$8 million for junior college
$4 million for federal matching funds
Total of $20 million to be used for construction purposes.
We need to be assured that:
1. Administrative and supervisory organizations work to help secure
and hold good teachers in vocational education.
2. Research and developmental programs are instigated to assure
improvement for where there is no vision, people perish.
3. Quality education must be made our eternal struggle and evalu-
ation must be a part of our functional programs if we areto~ds-
cover our weaknesses and strengths.
Status of Vocational Training Needs
Dr. G. W. Neubauer, Assistant Director, Program Services,
Division of Vocational, Technical, and Adult Education
Dr, Neubauer discussed the status of vocational training needs. The
following is a summary of selected needs.
1. Money for construction, equipment and operation
2. Expansion of business and distributive preparatory programs
3. More intensive development of agri-business education
4. More emphasis on home economics for gainful employment
5. More pre-occupational orientation in junior high schools -
6. Identification of basic supportive-education needed for emply-
ment in selected occupations
7. More qualified guidance counselors
8. More training for guidance counselors in vocational counseling.
Basic Educational Needs for Occupational Training
Mr. J. H. Fling, Acting Assistant Director,
Adult and Veteran Education
The pertinence of the remarks made by Mr. Fling are summarized be-
..."In closing, we feel that Florida is one of the leading states
in providing opportunities for its citizens to receive the training
and retraining required for employment. In basic education we have
made a good start but still have a long way to go to meet the needs
of our people, when you consider that there are over three-quarters
of a million people eighteen years of age and older who have less
than eighth grade education and over 1,600,000 who have less than
a high school diploma."
Implications of the Manpower Training Program to Vocational Agriculture
Mr. M. T. Capo, Project Coordinator,
Manpower Development Training Act
Mr. Capo discussed the following points:
What is M. D. T. A.? Its aim; the administration a joint venture.
Why M. D. T. A.? Selected groups not normally reached; sharing
Need in vocational agriculture relatively few agriculture pro-
grams. Vocational agriculture could render some worthwhile programs.
Areas to be developed: Service, production, distribution, pro-
cessing, farm market workers, farm foremen, crew leaders, horticulture,
multiple programs, mechanics multiple programs, artificial inseminators.
Types of training projects Institutional projects, on-the-job
training, couple projects, experimental and demonstration projects.
Eligibility limited to those who are: Unemployed, working below
their skill capacities, working less than full-time, workers wh o s e
skills are obsolete, under-employed.
Selection of trainees is based upon testing and counseling.
Setting up a project:
The local employment office is responsible for:
1. Project justification MT-1
2. Application for training MT-2
3. Selection of trainees
4. Placement of trainees
The Superintendent of Public Instruction, through the local Direc-
tor of Vocational Education, is responsible for:
1. The training plan
3. Supplies and equipment
5. Teacher qualifications
The Advisory Committee is very important to the planning of the
project, especially on decisions related to:
1. Course outline
2. Supplies and equipment
3. Proper training facilities
4. Public relations
After development the project must be reviewed, approved and funded.
Accomplishments to date under the M. D. T. A. Program have been
sufficiently encouraging to warrant greater effort to meet our challeng-
ing manpower problems.
A placement record of almost 70 percent in Florida is a strong in-
dication that manpower training has been a success and has demonstrated
that the unemployed can be trained to fill today's jobs.
Should you desire to plan a project contact the Project Coordinator
for your area or the office of Dr. Charles Crumpton, State Supervisor of
M. D. T. A. Someone will be available to help you with the formation of
Inter-Relationship Between Academic and Vocational Agriculture Teachers
Dr. Fred Turner, Director
Division of Instructional Services
Dr. Turner discussed the importance of cooperative efforts on the
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part of vocational education and general education. He emphasized the
similarity of objectives for both academic and vocational education.
His point of view encompassed both aspects of education as necessary
and needed in our present world society.
Vocational Guidance Role of the Local Agriculture Teacher i
in His School and Community
(See Section II for a review of this presentation)
National Progress in Research and Developmental
Activities in Vocational Education
Dr. Duane M. Nielsen, Director of Educational Resources Development,
Division of Adult and Vocational Research of the U.S. Office
Dr. Nielsen discussed briefly the above topic, His ealainations
dealt primarily with needs for research in vocational education and1ways
of working effectively with people, occupations, and instructionsin amch
a way'to utilize the strengths of each in establishing an effective vo-
cational education program.
Tuesday, July 20
Chairman Carl Rehwinkel, Ocala; Secretary E. M. Kinsler, Ocala
The general session opened at 8:20 a.m. with a devotional service
given by Al Whitmore, who spoke on The Four Freedoms and iademaay perti-
nent points that were directly relevant to the role of the vocational 1
agriculture teacher in the changed and changing American society.
Projects and Recent Developments as
Summarized from Rural Area Development Reports
Dr. M. 0. Watkinds.Director of the Florida Agricultural
(Statements by Dr. Watkins are included in Section II of this report)
The Conservation of Human Resources
Dr. E. T. York, Jr., Provost of Agriculture, University of Florida
Dr. York's remarks were timely and seemingly of considerable inter-
est to many of the teachers and guests. The topic is presentedin Section
II of this summary.
Industrial Training Under the 1963 Vocational Education Act
Mr. E. B. Heiny, Area Supervisor of Industrial Education
An outline of Mr. Heiny's talk follows.
Definition: Trade and Industrial occupations shall include any
craft, skilled trade,or semi-skilled occupation which directly fiuctiona
in the designing, producing, processing, fabricating, assembling, test-
ing, modifying, maintaining, servicing, or repairing of any product or
commodity; or any other occupation, including a service occupation
which is generally considered to be technical or trade and industrial
in nature. Trade andi Industrial Education shall include any subject
which is necessary to develop the manipulative skills, technical knowl-
edge, and related information necessary for employment in a trade and
Background information on Trade and Industry in Florida Spon-
sored all vocational programs except Agriculture and Home Economics -
Cooperative Education (DCT and BE); Vocational Business Education; D.E.;
and Technical Education.
Now sponsoring administration and supervision,Trade and Industrial
examples: Health occupations Licensed Practical Nurse, Dental Assist-
ant, Optometric Assistant, Laboratory Assistant. Fishery occupations
of a T & I nature, examples: Commercial vehicle driver training; RE A
job training and safety; Supervisory occupations crosses sectional
lines; school bus driver training; custodial and maintenance training;
Apprenticeship related (JAC) relationships; Peace officer ttriting;
Industrial Arts coordination (staff person).
Future curriculum development may include combinations of train-
ing never before anticipated due to automation, job obsolescence, and
new knowledge and skills required.
Guidelines for Supervised Practice Program in Agri-Business
Mr. Dean Gaiser, Consultant in Distributive Education,
State Department of Education
Mr. Dean Gaiser brought to the group a discussion onithe above
topic. The proposal presented is included in Section II of this report.
Project Proposal and Grant Requests Under 1963 Vocational
Education Act for Vocational Agriculture Programs
Mr. G. C. Norman, Program Specialist,
Mr. Norman talked to the assembly on the above topic. His paper
is included in Section II of this report.
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Dr. T. W. Strickland, Assistant Director, Technical Education
State Department of Education
Dr. Strickland deliverdd a paper of Technical Education, and ert i
nent statements from his speech follow.
"Technical Education in some form has been evolving over a period
of many years. Half of what men knew in 1963 will be obsolete in 1973,
and only half of what they will need to know then in available to them
Currently, technical education, supported jointly by local, state,
and federal funds is provided in 31 institutions. These include 10
high schools, 4 vocational-technical schools, 1 technical institute,
and 17 junior colleges employing 334 teachers with a combined enrollment
in excess of 10,000 students. Combined, their facilities make technical
education available to well over eighty-five percent of the state's
population. Among the principal areas of instruction were drafting and
designing, electronics, civil engineering, electronic data processing,
microminiaturization, mechanical technology, and instrumentation.
It will be noted that to this point, technical education has been
treated as specific disciplines within the general field of engineering
technology. Its basic purpose of course was preparation of technicians
to fill the ever widening gap between the skilled craftsman and the
professional engineer. This was a logical development since these re-
presented occupational areas reflecting great need in terms of employ-
ment opportunity. Furthermore, the engineering technician responsibi-
lities were easily identified and hence provided a basis upon which to
develop training programs.
There is an increasing awareness that technical education does in
fact, imply more than a discrete discipline or even a cluster of disci-
plines limited to the general field of engineering technology. Rather,
the term "technical education" is more appropriately used as a generic
term to describe a wide range of curricula each of which represents
both an upward and downward extension of vocational and professional
educational programs respectively.
The technician is neither engineer nor draftsman. He possesses
neither the advanced scientific training of the engineer nor the high
level skills of the craftsman. He has, instead, his own peculiar skills
which equip him to perform many of the duties formerly assigned to the
graduate engineer. It is the function of the technician to design the
mechanism, compute the cost, write the specifications, oi.rg4alnize the
production, and test the finished product."
Dr. Walter R. Williams, Jr., in speaking be6fre the American Vo-
cational Association Convention in 1963, referred to the comprehensive-
ness of technical education when he said: "Over the years most effort
has gone into the preparation of industrial technicians. But the tech-
nology of non-industrial pursuits has changed just as the technology
of industry had changed. In the future, more attention will certainly
be directed to preparing agricultural technicians, competent specialists
in homemaking services, and technicians to expedite the performance of
increasingly complex business operations. These are but a few of the
specialized personnel for whom demand is growing rapidly. Developments
in the design and construction of automobiles and aircraft show further
that change is continuing on all fronts." 1
"The application of science and invention to the technology of Agri-
culture has created a need for highly skilled technicians. Typical
among these are agricultural engineering technicians, agricultural pro-
cessing technicians, research technicians, landscape and nursery tech-
nicians, and soil technicians. Indeed, production and processing are
becoming more and more science and engineering based, and distri-
bution and marketing, business based.
Mr. Dougan defines the technician as highly skilled worker.., who
provides a semi-professional service tosome segments of the agricultural
industry. He is responsible for using and disseminating technical in-
formation for a particular phase of the production, servicing, proces-
sing, or marketing of agricultural products. He performs laboratory
tests, collects data, makes computations and analyses. He needs to be
informed on management principles, agricultural standards, as well as
Agricultural Technician Training Program
At this point, it would appear that the agricultural technician
training program should
1. Be organized as a two-year post-high school curriculum. Tech-
nical education curricula should be included as a part of the
high school program only when it is closely articulated with
opportunity for post-high school instruction.
2. Emphasize work in the field of science and mathematics.
3. Give attention to technical knowledge and general education
but stress practice and skill in the use of tools And instru-
ments where applicable.
4. Lead to competence in one of the technical occupations.
5. Include a core of general education courses, e.g., English,
1 An address delivered by Walter R. Williams,Jr.,Director of Vocational,
Technical, and Adult Education, State Department of Education, Talla-
hassee, Florida, at the joint meeting of the National Association of
State Supervisors of Trade and Industrial Education, National Council
of Local Administrators of Vocational and Practical Arts, and American
Technical Education Association in Atlantic City,New Jersey, December 8,
It appears that a satisfactory balance of the foregoing conditions
could be achieved by devoting
15% of the time to non-technical subjects
35% of the time to the appropriate basic sciences, and
50% of the time to the technical specialities uniquely identified
with the particular technology."
The afternoon session began with a presentation by Mr. Bobby Ben-
nett,a representative from the Florida Farm Bureau. He discussed The
Importance of Farm Records". Emphasis was placed on the various record
keeping services provided by the Florida Farm Bureau to various farmers,
especially dairy farmers. These services include giving the farmers a
financial status of this type of farm relative to assets and liabili-
ties; also a record of their Social Security status and inventory re-
cords. It was also pointed out that records on household spending by
the farmers' family are provided.
Mr. L. A. Potts, former Dean of Agriculture at Tuskeegee Institute,
Alabama, who presently serves with the U.S.D.A., was introduced by
Mr. H. E. Wood, State Supervisor of Agricultural Education.
Mr. L. A. Davis, former agriculture teacher at Lincoln High School,
Gainesville, now serving in the capacity of Coordinator of Equal Oppor-
tunity, Florida Industrial Commission,Tallahassee, was permitted by Mr.
Wood to give the group a resume of his new duties.
The rest of the afternoon was devoted to group meetings.
Wednesday, July 21
Chairman G. C. Norman, Tallahassee; Secretary David Wyche,
The devotional service was conducted by Rev. Elbert Wilson, Asso-
ciate Minister, College Park Methodist Church, Orlando, Florida.
Procedure for Organizing an Agricultural Occupations Program
Dr. Duane Nielsen, Specialist, Teacher Training and Research,
U. S. Office of Education, Washington, D.C.
Dr. Nielsen began his discussion by making statements concerning
the purpose of the vocational agriculture teacher's work. He gave some
background information and examples of different plans used in various
states as he explained Pilot Programs. He stated that education has
been accused of not stating identification ideas in pilot programs and
emphasized the belief that shate leadership should provide guidelines
for establishing pilot programs and that ideas should be sought from.dl
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levels in setting up pilot programs in education. Best ideas should be
sought from all education branches. i.e., sociology, psychology, phil-
osophy, human growth, etc. Kentucky was mentioned as one bO the first
states to begin work on pilot programs and that information concerning
organization may be obtained from the Kentucky State Department of Edu-
Plans, he said, should be concentrated on many concrete ideas and
materials. He was emphatic in his statements concerning the belief
that pilot programs are not to be used as demonstrations, but as ex-
periments. All trials should be evaluated in due time.
When plans have been developed and found, through pilot programs,
to be sound, they should be passed on to teachers and other vocational
agriculture leaders. One of the major purposes of pilot programs is to
seek out new and better ways of doing things.
Establishing Training for Golf Course Workers
Dr. M. C. Gaar, Program Specialist,
U.S. Office of Education, Atlanta, Georgia
Dr. Gaar, before talking to the teachers about establishing train-
ing for golf course workers, commented upon the recruitment for teachers
og agriculture. He urged teachers to recruit new teachers from among
their regular vocational agriculture class enrollments.
Opportunities and responsibilities for golf course w(otk were
explained as being many and varied. The worker is a skilled person who
has scientific knowledge and understanding. To effectively educate
persons for these jobs we must work closely with heads of golf courses.
The superintendent must be a "grower of grass" and he must have a knowl-
edge of the needs of grass (turf). Golf course workers need training
to do a job and there is a need to train for jobs as they occur.
Experiences in Making Agricultural Survey
for Indian River Junior College
Dr. Maxwell King, President
Indian River Junior College, Ft. Pierce
Mr. C. M. Lawrence made comments and introduced Dr. King, who dis-
cussed the above subject. Dr. King recommended the booklet "Fact Find-
ing", from the State Department of Education as an aid in setting up
surveys. A list of items included in Dr. King's speech is included in
Section II of this report.
Aerospace Activities at Cape Kennedy
Lt. Raymond J. Cauwet, U. S. Air Force
Mr. G. C. Norman introduced Lt. Cauwet, who discussed the activi-
ties at Cape Kennedy, including aerospace functions for the Cape and
its range. The various systems and their launching were shown on film
and explained by Lt. Cauwet.
Thursday, July 22
Chairman Kenneth Lee, Alachua Secretary E. R. Scott, Madison
The session was begun with a devotional service given by Mr. Key.
Suggested Guidelines for Utilizing the Agricultural
Mechanics Shop for Occupational Training
Clarence Rogers, Assistant Professor,
Agricultural Engineering Department, University of Florida
Mr. Rogers suggested that teachers: (1) Ascertain what employers
desire employees to have in the way of skills, knowledge and related
skills, etc.; (2) Organize the shop to accomplish the needs of the
students. A detailed account of his speech is included in Section II
of this report.
Using the Agricultural Shop to Serve
the Community in Occupational Training
Mr. Floyd Johnson, Teacher of
Vocational Agriculture, York, North Carolina
Mr. Johnson, Consultant for the Conference, introduced a panel of
speakers on the subject above. A summary of comments made follows.
Glynn Key We must not discard ways and means of teaching we know
to be good; however,we must survey needs and expand to meet those needs
as they are determined.
V. T. Sewell Three methods: (1) Student projects; (2) Train for
job specialize; (3) Small group example: assign 20 students five
areas of instruction; i.e., electric welding, oxy-anetylene welding;
pipe fitting; painting and glazing; electricity.
Isaac Pittman Using the agricultural shop to serve the community
in occupational training is developed around individual problems, needs
Programs for the Disadvantaged
Mr. C. L. Lowman, Educational Materials Specialist,
State Department of Education
Mr. Lowman gave a presentation on special vocational programs for
the disadvantaged. The speech is included in Section II of this report
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Utilizing Advisory Committees in Setting up Junior College
Instructional Program for Agricultural Occupations
Mr. Harry Brinkley, Teacher of Agriculture,
Indian River Junior College, Fort Pierce
Mr. Brinkley, in discussing this topic, said ,,.. Summing up, we
feel that our committees are an important part of our program even of
our faculty. We are teaching their children and their employees or
future employees. They know what their employees need to know, and to
top it all, they are paying the bills. We are in business to produce a
better society through better people. Taking a cue from one of our
early heroes 9 I have but one in mind to give to my department and its
needs. Our committees multiply this many times, not only by their num-
berg but by their varied experience and knowledge.
This being so, we use them as committees and as individuals. We
pick their brains. We use their position of leadership in the community.
And, we give them credit publicly 9 for it all.
A summary of remarks by Mr. Owen Lee of Polk Junior College,
speaking on the same topic, follows.
Use of committees to:
1. Represent major industries in the county
2. Suggest curricular content
3. Suggest course content
4. Meet continuously to revise
5. Work on community occupational surveys
6. Recruit full-time and part-time instructors
7. Procure training equipment
8. Cooperate between school and industry
9. Serve as public relation experts
10. Help mold public opinion
11. Serve on career days in high schools
12. Enhance financial support
13. Improve civic club contacts
14. Support legislation
15. Sell adult training
16. Assist in placement of students
17. Secure summer jobs
18. Locate full-time jobs for graduates
19. Furnish training stations
20. Serve as resource people
21, Set wage scales
22. Recruiting and promoting
23. Instigate scholarship funds
Selection of committee members:
1. Type of person interested persons
2. Number on committee 5-7
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3. Appointment by school board
4. Terms staggered
5. Certificate issued upon completion of service
Structure of committee:
3. School representative
4. Ex-officio members
1. Is program meeting needs?
2. Are students properly prepared?
3. Are facilities adequate?
Child Labor Law
Mr. Harry Garvin, District Supervisor,
Department of Field Services for the Florida Industrial Commission
Mr. Garvin presented a paper on Child Labor Laws. Material con-
tained in his paper is pertinent to all teachers of vocational edu-
cation in agriculture and; therefore, is reprinted in Section II of
The Environmental Control of Livestock
Mr. S. John Folks, Director of Rural Development,
Florida Power Corporation
Mr. Folks prepared a paper on the above topic. In hiAspapepahe
treats many of the identifiable factors in the environment of livestock
such as temperature, air flow, moisture, space, light, dust, odors,
colors, sound and handling techniques. His assumption is that ffiture
growth of the livestock industry must come within each individual animal,
not from the enlargement of one's farm property. This may indicate a
control of the farmstead environment.
Progress of Agricultural Chemicals Safety Program
Mr. James E. Brogdon, Extension Entomologist, University of Florida
Mr. Brogdon delivered the paper prepared by Mr. Forrest E. Myers
of the Florida Agricultural Extension Service. The~4aper is included in
Section IIof this report.
Mr. Wakeman and Mr. Sparks explained the new score cards for judg-
ing dairy and livestock in the F.F.A, judging contests.
- 14 -
Friday, July 23
Chairman Perry Sistrunk, Miami; Secretary H. D. Hudson, Sebring
The final regular meeting of the Florida Vocational Agriculture
Teachers' Association held during the 1965 Annual Summer Conference was
called to order at 8:30 a. m. in the Pavillion Room of the Lang ford
Hotel, Winter Park, Florida. President Herbert Henley presided and
Mr. John Maddox led our devotional period.
President Henley called immediately upon Dr. Duane M. Nielsen, one
of the special guests appearing several times previously on the program,
to voice his parting remarks to the group.
The following men were installed as the leaders of the Florida Vo-
cational Agriculture Teachers' Association for 1966:
Carl Rehwinkel, President-Elect Directors:
Dean Griffin, Secretary J. W. Brown, District II
Glynn Key, Treasurer Glenn Wade, Jr., Distritt V
F.F.A. Advisory Board: George W. Busby, District III, Area II
It should be noted that Darwin Bennett was nominated and installed
in a ceremony fo fill the vacancy created by election of Carl Rehwinkel
in District IV to President-Elect. Darwin Bennett was elected by ac-
Leadership by newly installed President:
Mr. Perry Sistrunk, having been duly and properly installed by re-
quired ceremony, held earlier, assumed his responsibility. He immedi-
ately called for the reports of earlier appointed work groups, Lbggin-
ning with Work Group # 1, and continued through Work Group # 9. Each
report was received and adopted according to correct parliamentary law.
Recommendations and reports from the various work groups will be
found in Section III.
Comments and Observations: President Perry Sistrunk called on
Mr. Floyd Johnson to make any observation that he desired to make
Among many well phrased statements he commended the agriculture teachers
on their dedication to their work as a whole, especially as emkhlbited
in the way they carried out their functions and responsibil te s at
Presentation: President Perry Sistrunk called on Mr. Bill West to
make a presentation. This presentation, in the form of a gavel substi-
tuting for one to come later, was to Mr. Herbert Henley, outgoing Presi-
dent of the Florida Vocational Agriculture Teahhers Association. Presi-
dent Sistrunk expressed his gratitude for Mr. Henley.
Final Remarks and Observations: President Sistrunk called on Mr.
H. E. Wood to speak to the group in his own way. Mr. Wood complied by
- 15 -
commenting about the work done during the conference by the supervisors,
consultants, guest speakers and the vocational agriculture teachers.
Statements of praise were made to cooperating businesses and manufac-
- 16 -
SPEECHES INCLUDED FOR REFERENCE PURPOSES
PROPOSED GUIDELINES FOR SUPERVISED PRACTICE PROGRAM
The State of Florida, Department of Agriculture, tells us that
Florida's agri-business is the State's biggest business. Agrridultural
economists coined the word "agri-business" to define the income gener-
ated by crop and livestock production plus the income of all businesses
associated with or dependent on agriculture. We are talking about a
business with annual sales of more than three billion dollars and a
total investment of 10 billion dollars.
The vastness of this business points up the need for a relation-
ship between Vocational Agriculture and Distributive Education. Dis-
tributive Education is a program of instruction in distribution,market-
ing, and management. We currently limit instruction to those who are
employed in a distributive occupation. These occupations are those fol-
lowed by proprietors,managers,or employees engaged primarily in market-
ing or merchandising goods and services. Such occupations may be found
in various business establishments including retailing, wholesaling,
manufacturing, storing, transporting, financing, and risk bearing.
In view of the employment restriction, the program operates in the
high school and in the post-high school on a cooperative basis which
involves a combination of classroom instruction and supervised on-the-
job training. The curriculum is directed to the occupational objectives
of the students. This objective may be in a product area such as food
merchandising; it may be in a service area such as housing in the hotel
and motel industry; or it may be in a function such as retailing or
wholesaling. The high school is generally found to have an objective
such as retailing; while in the post-high school program, product or
service objective may be found.
A student youth activity known as the Distributive Education Clubs
of America is an important part of both the high school and the post-
high school program. This youth activity takes the form on local chap-
ters which become part of a local program. These chapters are organized
in 50 of the states as State Associations. These state groups form the
national organization which carries on a varied program of youth activi-
A large segment of the enrollment in the distributive education
program is in adult education which is designed primarily for upgrading
adults employed in a wide range of distributive occupations. These
courses are generally specific in their objectives and range in ;serv-
ing employees, supervisors, managers, and proprietors.
- 17 -
Following this brief description of the distributive education pro-
gram, it might be pertinent to point out certain fundamental approaches
which seem to be common to both Vocational Agriculture and Distributive
1. Both programs appear to have a basic belief in career develop-
ment. The distributive education program recognizes that the
job entry is only the first of a series of consecutive experi-
ences which workers in this field perform as they progress in
their careers. In the same sense, you in vocational aggti-
culture are preparing young men for careers in rural communi-
2. There is evidence of a kind of entrepreneur approach in both
programs. Distribution particularly has been for years a kind
of activity in which an individual can engage as a proprietor
even though he does not own a business in the literal sense.
He has an opportunity to achieve success in relation to his
motivation and willingness to work and apply himself. You are
educating young men to become farm operators.
3. The club movements in both programs, DECA and FFA, emphasize
a common interest in developing both leadership and follower-
4. In the training of teachers, distributive education finds it
advantageous to use the facilities of a school of business to
develop technical competencies and a school of education to
develop professional education. In like manner, your teachers
are prepared through combined efforts of the school of agri-
culture and a school of education.
5. I will not attempt to review in great detail the many activi-
ties that were undertaken in a cooperative relationship of some
of the states; but I would like to indicate that they havebeen
undertaken in California, Massachusetts, and Pennsylvania with
I would like to make some suggestions for your consideration which
I believe might result in some cooperative activities which would be
helpful in what I believe is our major goal to develop and extend an
improved Vocational Education Program considering each of our specialized
fields as part of this major field of education.
1. Initiate relationships at the state level which will improve
the State Supervisor of Vocational Agriculture and the Super-
visor for Distributive Education for the purpose of determin-
ing the state and local situations which might lend themselves
to joint activities of the two services. This would be the
essential leadership phase of getting underway some joint pro-
2. Undertake some pilot or experimental projects which seem to
lend themselves to the needs of students in a particular com-
munity. It is difficult Fo suggest at this point particular
projects for they would suggest that you might like to con-
sider projects in areas which are not being served effectively
For example, the vast agriculture undertakings in Manatee and
Dade Counties might be an area of consideration.
3. If cooperative projects are to be undertaken, it would un-
doubtedly be desirable to consider needed teacher training
activities. I do not know how far such activities might go,
but it is very possible at some time in the future consider -
ation might be given to preparing teachers who can serve ef-
fectively certain communitieniiobbthVoVoto~tio alfg-Agriculture
and Distributive Education.
4. The researchaspects of this program of cooperation should not
be neglected. First of all, any pilot program should be care-
fully documented and evaluated. Further encouragement can be
given to studies which would point up discussions for cooper-
ative projects in Distributive Education and Vocational Agrit
5. Some consideration should be given to the development of joint
activities among the two youth groups. An interesting develop-
ment might be to involve the officers of all the youth groups
at the Annual State-wide Leadership Conference. VWcatidnal
education has never presented the full impact of the worth-
whileness of the youth groups which have been organized in the
various fields of vocational education. FFA and DECA could
take a needed step in this direction.
The following is a proposal for experimental cooperative agri~Llture
distribution program for Florida senior high schools:
1. Training objectives should be employment in the distributive
phase of agriculture or in the distribution of goods and
services that are closely related to the production of agri-
cultural goods such as farm implement dealers, nursery, feed
and/or seed dealers, fertilizer chemical dealers, etc.
2. Prerequisites for entrance into this program shall be a strong
foundation in the vocational agriculture at the 9th, 10th, and
or llth grade levels. Seniors only will be enrolled.
3, Students in this program should be approved by the Vocational
Agriculture teacher and the Distributive Education teacher-co-
ordinator based on an analysis of the student's interest and
potential for success in the distribution aspects of agriculture.
4. The student should be scheduled for one period of instruction
with the Vocational Agriculture teacher daily. Content of
this period will be devoted to subject matter related to the
student's training objectives and his immediate occupational
information needs. A subsequent period in the morning would
- 19 -
be conducted by the Distributive Education teacher coordinator.
This class would be devoted solely to the agriculture-distri -
bution students. During this period, students would be given
instructions in marketing and merchandising methods. Particular
emphasis would be placed on the relationship of these disci-
plines to the area of agricultural products. In addition to
credit received for classroom work, a unit of credit would
also be given for 540 hours of completed occupational experi-
5. Placement of the student for on-the-job training would be co-
operatively arranged by the Vocational Agriculture teacher and
the Distributive Education teacher-coordinator.
6. Both teachers would assume responsibilities for visitation on
the job. These visitations would serve to bring into focus
the need for specific classroom instruction.
7. The on-the-job supervisor should prepare a report for evalu-
ation of the student's work performance each six weeks in con-
sultation with the Vocational Agriculture and Distributive
8. The elementary responsibility for assigning a letter grade for
the occupational experience shall rest with the Distributive
Education teacher after consultation with the Vocational 4Agti-
9. The student would be permitted to participate in the co-curri-
cular activities that are provided through both FFA and DECA
10. The state staff of the Vocational Agriculture and the Distri-
butive and Cooperative Education sections of the State Depart-
ment of Education would provide consultative services to the
programs through visitations and in-service training confer-
11. The teacher-coordinator of Distribhtive Education and the Vo-
cational Agriculture teacher should prepare an evaluation of
the program at the termination of the first year of operation
and recommendations for future operation of the program.
In summary, I can assure that we, in the field of Distributive
Education, would be pleased to have an opportunity to cooperate with Vo-
cational Agriculture educators in any part of the state in undertaking
cooperative projects which would help to further the Vocational Edu
- 20 -
EXPERIENCES IN MAKING AGRICULTURAL SURVEY
INDIAN RIVER JUNIOR COLLEGE
Dr. Maxwell King
Purpose of Survey --
-- was to determine that need for technically trained _persons in
agriculture in the 4-county area; to determine opportunities for future
employment of trained persons; the specific courses or areas of study
deemed essential by the prospective employers; study and recommendations
for facilities for the establishment of the desired programs.
Advisory Committee --
Composed of three prominent and knowledgeable men from each of the
four counties involved.
-- Chairman was elected.
-- Study Director was member of the college staff.
Techniques of Surveying --
-- Questionnaire submitted to committee for criticism and con-
structive reactions -- "Do the questions mean anything to you, and if
-- Survey Sample
Firms employing agricultural and agriculture related employers
-- List of firms selected from the Florida State Employment office,
telephone directories, as well as contacts from the Advisory Board mem-
1. Would your business needs be met to a greater degree if your
employees could obtain additional educational training ttagght
at the college level?
2. What job classifications do you now employ and how many do you
anticipate employing in the future?
3. Which agricultural related job positions do you think could
profit from additional college training?
4. What courses or subjects do you think would be of the m o s t
value to agriculture students?
5. Other comments.
New Survey -- to be conducted this year.
- 21 -
Plan for Survey --
This time we will not mail questionnaires. We plan to train stu-
dents (under the College Work Study Program) to go out into the commutii-
ty to conduct the survey. Interview form would be made avaiaab-l e to
-- Continue to try to find out what subjects, courses, arctechntqies
should be taught to these agriculture students.
-- Find out job classification needed.
-- Number of employees now employed.
-- Number needed in next five years.
Involve more people including the county teachers of v oc national
- 22 -
PROGRESS OF AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS
Forrest E. Myers
Our objectives in the next few minutes are as follows:
1. To report back to you on some of the responses we have received
from people outside of Florida concerning our "Training Guide
Safety Kit for Agricultural Chemicals"
2. To review Florida's latest giant step in the field of chemical
education known as the "County Chemical Education Group" ef-
This will take a little scene setting. In short, I feel our co-
operation on the above project is paying dividends. Here are some
You will recall that we distributed it to each of you and discus-
sed the background for the training guide at your Annual State Confer-
ence last July in Orlando. It had been developed on guidance from your
state staff with its main objective being to give agricultural teachers
a useful tool for working with students in this vital area of chemi-
Your evaluation of it in areaconference in September of 1964
indicated we successfully met that objective, and that it would also be
useful for working with many other groups, individuals and programs.
This was quite gratifying. You may also be interested that .'when
the training guide was explained to the Florida Rural Health Committee,
Dr. L. L. Parks, Director, Bureau of Local Health Services, FT6ridd
State Board of Health, requested that we find some way to make a copy
available to all county health officers. This we were able to do by
holding most of our own staff to one guide per county. This added up
to at least three guides in every county, with the bulk of the supply
with agricultural teachers.
We sincerely hope you are continuously putting it to the uses
indicated by your evaluations. As you know, what we do in the area of
chemicals education is watched very closely. We can afford to do only
the best job: possible. We must pioneer, and proceed on the soundest
Our other cooperators in the training guide, for example, USDA,
FDA, NACA, PHS, FARI, e. g. have expressed great interest in what you
are attempting and appreciate your efforts in behalf of chemical edu-
What you are doing is also of benefit in helping people in other
- 23 -
states get programs underway. For example, most of you have likely seen
the description of the guide in the April 1965 issue of NACA News and
Pesticide Review. This goes to about every individual in the country
having interest in agricultural chemicals. This article had its origin
in getting some of the materials made available for your kit. In fact,
NACA took on the job of securing supplies of some of the hard-to-get
items because they saw merit in the project, believed in what we were
attempting, and asked at that time for a summary for publication when
we had some tangible measure of the value. This is good for Florida.
We've had inquiries on it from many other states, yes, even other
countries ... e. g. British Columbia, Portugal, Australia, and Philip-
pine Islands. Other U. S. requests have included foreign agricultural
advisors, Extension and Vo-Ag workers, Army Medical Laboratory, public
health advisors, industry specialists, Ag college instructors, college
of pharmacy library, etc. You can readily see that not only you but
many others can get good mileage out of what's done in Florida. We must
always provide good leadership and sound programs in chemical education.
Now let's move to our second objective, Florida's County Chemical
Another giant step in the field of chemical education is underway
right here in Florida today. Some of you are already a part of it as a
designated representative of vocational agriculture from your county.
We want the participation of all of you and every key organization
necessary to the success of this cooperative undertaking.
First, some background information to set the scene.
You know that Florida's favorable environment is attractive not
only to people, but to pests that cause economic and public health
problems. Safe use of chemicals has made possible our vital role in
the Nation's food supply and healthful indoor and outdoor living. There
is, at present, no other practical replacement for chemical pesticides.
We are faced with the need for continuous educational efforts in
the proper use, disposal, handling and storage of pesticides. This is
a need related to agriculture and to every home in the state.
Florida's agricultural chemical safety educational program is
second to none. Through our Experiment Station System, inspection by
the State Department of Agriculture and FDA, it is on a sound research
and regulatory base. Much of what has been done (residue research,
mobile pesticide labs, information center, pesticide schools, etc.) has
been relayed to other states by national groups as armodel of what they
might adapt or undertake.
Our most recent step is a very significant one, which should be
known to especially agricultural teachers. It is building local edu-
cational programs,around local people. It is founded on creating bet-
ter understanding of chemicals though education, rather than an alarm-
- 24 -
About every county in the state now has what is known as a County
Chemical Education Group. This is a coordinated effort initiated last
fall by the Florida Agricultural Extension Service, the Florida State
Board of Health, Florida State Department of Agriculture, Vocational
Agricultural Educatibn, and industries' Florida Agricultural -Researbh
Institute. Many other interested organizations and individuals are in-
volved in each county. No other;;state has made such an advancement in
the chemicals area.
Here are some slides, covering our rationale, objectives, DARE
projections, and some continuing questions these groups face.
The real strength lies in others who are cooperating or are a part
of these groups. Some examples are: producers, garden clubs, industry
chemists, research and diagnostic workers, salesmen, druggists, veteri-
narians, medical doctors, nurses, Extension Advisory Committee, Farm
Bureau, aerial applicators, lawn spraymen, nurserymen,home pest control
operators, caretakers, mass media, community leaders, school lunch
workers, Chamber of Commerce, civic clubs, county commissioner$qwomen:m
clubs, city administrators, agency employees, and many others.
The objectives of these efforts include:
--- improving identification of problems and developing effective
--- stimulating educational efforts on a local basis around local
--- accelerating procurement and use of educational aids, programs
personnel, and activities.
--- increasing awareness and understanding on the part of the pub-
lic, organizations, interests, etc.
--- directing emphasis to specific audiences or situations includ-
ing positive side of chemicals and precautions.
The County Chemical Education Group is an excellent resource in
terms of trained people, teaching aids, and literature in conducting
What do these groups do? One in Collier County recently
a Pesticide Safet Contest with a fish-fryat which winners were honored
by the community. Early one Tuesday morning, an Extension Vegetable
Specialist met with members of the Putnam County group and some tractor
drivers for a session on proper use. That night our Extension Ento-
mologist met with a group of salesmen in the Indian River area at the
request of a county group. The next day the Dade County group met to
review a new film with possible use to their program.
Here are some other examples of county group efforts:
--- Demonstration to be put on at 4 or 5 locations throughout the
- 25 -
county aimed at the operators of spray equipment...planning to
use an English and Spanish speaking team. A more sophisticated
program will be for owners, managers, and other key personnel.
--- Check situation re various outlets such as grocery stores,
drug stores, and variety stores... put up posters and dii-
tribute publications through these retail markets.
--- Assign group members task of developing ways to reach civic
clubs, women's clubs, schools, vo-ag classes, 4-H, and scouts.
--- Ask banks to distribute handouts and publications through bank
statement mail;handouts and envelope stuffers mailed in month-
ly statements to customers via industry.
--- Agent secure extra copies of "Chemically Speaking" for key
members of County Chemical Education Group; assemble a good
library of references for the group.
--- Arrange time on local TV program widely viewed in area v.where
civic panel interviews guest experts; chemicals exhibit at
fair. (We've even seen I Love Lucy on prime Thursday, 7:30 PM
time, held off the air for a special on pesticides via ona
county group's efforts.)
--- Members of the group make presentation at series of junior high
pesticide educational periods.
--- Home demonstration agents and 4-H clubs to bear down on home
storage, medicine cabinet, etc., clean-up, lock-up, and label-
--- Representatives of group to meet with management and offer
information and assistance on how they could instruct their
customers on safe use.
--- Hold county-wide information meetings of officials, community
leaders, group members, and other interested---including dis-
cussion by expert on identified problem; develop one-day
--- UUtigg Pesticides Safely" color slides (and handouts) from agent
to Vo-Ag members for use with students and civic clubs, then to
be turned over to another instructor until all have used.
--- Proclaim a County Pesticide Safety Week, show films at all
schools, distribute "Dennis the Menace" to students, show filfs
to civic clubs, use envelope stuffers, Garden Clubs and Women's
Clubs, distribute material and have Safety Program, use full
page ad in newspaper.
--- Locate central storage sites in agricultural areassfor highly
toxic pesticides, arrange periodic pickup for proper disposal.
- 26 -
--- Utilize home calls of nurses, sanitarians, etc. to include
proper use and storage of pesticides information and comments.
--- Organize group for specific functions: screening-, information-,
public relations-, safety-, school program- sub groups.
--- Use community approach to form local groups around towns, type
of agriculture, etc., supplement and cooperate with county
The message of proper use,disposal, handling and storage of pesti-
cides is one needed throughout every community and home in Florida.
The educational challenge is tremendous; all available help and interest
We want each of you to join with us in a continuous cooperative
educational program. Help by your individual efforts, find ways to
support county groups, lend active assistance to your designated Vo-Ag
representative, and keep others informed of your interest at the local
Yes, we feel our cooperative projects in chemical education are
paying dividends. Thank you for this opportunity of reviewing our pro-
- 27 -
SPECIAL VOCATIONAL PROGRAMS FOR THE DISADVANTAGED
C. L. Lowman
The Vocational Education Act of 1963 offers vocational educators
along with all educators, the greatest challenge and opportunity yet
bestowed on education. On them has been placed the responsibility of
providing for the occupational training needs of all peopleo6ffall:gges
who want and need education and training for occupations that match
their interests and abilities.
Section 4, part (a), item (4) of the Vocational Education.Act of
1963 states funds are to be used for vocational education @or persons
who have academic, socio-economic, or other handicaps that prevent them
from succeeding in the regular vocational education program, Also in-
cluded in Section 4, part (a), item (6) are ancillary funds which in-
clude among other items, funds for special demonstration and experi-
mental programs. Included in Section 13 of the Act are funds to support
a program of work-study for youngsters in need of such support to con-
tinue or begin their vocational training.
Within the act lies the possibility of providing for the occu-
pational training needs of special groups th'atihhve:nothhd addqqate
vocational education opportunity in the past. Previously, the employ-
ment needs of these special groups were met to some degree by the pos-
sibility of low-skill level jobs or possible inductifniitoanaaabranca'iof
the Armed Forces. Today automation has done away with most of the entry
or low-level types of jobs and higher requirements by the Armed Force s
have tended to eliminate the possibility of induction for individuals
with little education or skill training.
Who are the Disadvantaged?
The word disadvantaged is an all inclusive word which encompasses
many different handicaps possessed by individuals. When we use the word
in this context,we are referring to those individuals who have not been
able to tune their ways of living to the spirit and practice of modern
life. This condition or situation may have been caused by their cultur-
al environment, race, physical condition, mental ability, emotional
stability, or any combination of two or more of these factors.
The following list includes some of the groups that are generally
considered to fall into the disadvantaged classification.
The Puerto Rican
The sick and/or disabled
Those living in extreme rural areas
Those unable emotionally to meet the strain of our complex indus-
- 28 -
Those living in economically depressed areas such as certain coal
mining areas or where human and natural resources are no longer
required by industry
Characteristics of the Disadvantaged
Disadvantaged Americans are characterized by being on the outside
of the mainstream of American life and limited as to their opportunities
to develop their potentialities to the fullest. These limitations are
the result of family income ahd educational and occupational background
and in many cases, local or national origin. These factors set into
motion a cycle of cultural, educational, and economic deprivation.
There is strong evidence that the individuals classified as disad-
vantaged have a tendency to perpetuate their condition from one gener-
ation to the next. Those born into such situation may never find their
way out unless society breaks the cycle by providing educational and
employment possibilities and adopting a more enlightened attitude in
The individuals classified as disadvantaged are often thought of as
being part of "the other America", an America that few of our citizens
are familiar with. Most citizens have few dealings across ethnic or
racial linesor few reasons for relationships with members of "the other
America". Their personal experiences would lend little to establish a
basis for understanding of their fellow citizens and in many cases they
have little concern for the welfare of others. Yet all that many of the
disadvantaged need to enter the mainstream of American life isa measure
of encouragement and support in their efforts.
The following are some of the characteristics that tha disadvantaged
Low-level reading ability
Limited formal vocabulary
Poor speech and diction
A negative intellectual attitude
Slow in intellectual performance
Poor health habits
Reluctance to accept responsibility
Apathy and lack of self-confidence
Limited social and cultural experience
These negative characteristics combine into a situation of limited
academic talent possessed by the disadvantaged person. These persons in
the past were encouraged to leave school at age sixteen or before, and
in most cases found employment in some type of unskilled work. Today
business and industry does not want this type of person and because of
lack of employment opportunity the youngsters forced to stay in school.
The resulting situation in school is that of disadvantaged youngsters
expect to take a watered-down version of the college-preparatory cur-
riculum, sometimes called "general education". This curriculum is not
compatible with their interests and needs and the result is an unsatis-
factory program plus a faculty that is frequently unsympathetic and
Elements of Strength of the Disadvantaged
Most of the programs devised for training and education of the dis-
advantaged tend to attach the weaknesses or deficits while very few
attempt td build on the strengths of positive features of these special
groups. The fact that an individual is slow in school does not neces-
sarily indicate that it is dull, but may indicate that he is extremely
careful, cautious, or meticulous. Much emphasis has been given to speed
in our culture and in many cases has caused many persons to be left be-
hind in their education.
The fact that the disadvantaged are not as verbal as other students
lends us to believe that they are non-verbal. Yet in many cases they
are highly verbal in out-of-school situations. It would seem that ad-
vantage could be taken of this kind of verbal ability.
Research has indicated that the disadvantaged have a positive
attitude towards education but a negative attitude towards school. They
realize that they are second class citizens in the school and react ac-
cordingly. It would seem that their positive attitude towards education
could be used to an advantage.
Many of the problems of undeyrtanding the disadvantaged person stem
from the fact that he is not oriented to our middleclass or above type
of culture and we in turn are not oriented to his cultural level. Much
attention needs to be given to understanding the disadvantaged person
before we can actually understand what his problems are and in turn plan
programs to assist him in gaining entrance to the mainstream of American
Vocational Education's Responsibility to the Disadvantaged
Federal aid to vocational education prior to 1963 was directed to
meeting specific occupational needs in specific occupational categories.
This prevented vocational education from making on optimum contribution
to the economic growth of the country by causing vocational education
to set such standards and qualifications as to disqualify many potential
students. In most cases the disadvantaged person was eliminated.
The passage of the Vocational Education Act of 1963,with its modi-
fication and expansion of previous vocational education legislation,
has offered the opportunity for many persons totiownhavb the'possibility
of occupational training to meet their specific needs that were not met
before. Those having special needs such as the handicapped, are speci-
fically identified as one of the groups to be served. This has real
meaning in planning different types of training programs geared to the
special needs of the socio-economically handicapped, the educationally
handicapped, the physically handicapped, the mentally handicapped, or
other identifiable handicaps.
The planning of new types of programs to meet the occupational
training needs of special groups has real implication for close working
relationships with other existing educational agencies having concern
for the special needs of individuals. These other agencies may include
Special Education Guidance, Vocational Rehabilitation,Research, General
Education, and others having a concern for the special needs of people.
Program planning to meet the special needs of the disadvantaged
should include concern for the total educational experience of the
youngsters including both general education and vocational education.
In many cases, basic education will be necessary in order to prepare
individuals to take advantage of occupational training. The basic edu-
cation may be in the form of remedial class or special class work pre-
paratory for special types of occupational training.
Planning for the occupational training needs of special groups
should not be limited to the more econventional typesofFvocati6nal
offerings, but should include programs that are geared to meet the
special needs of individuals. These. may include completely new types
of training programs,offered in completely new administrative patterns,
with joint responsibility with other existing agencies having concern
for the educational needs of individuals. In most cases programs will
be experimental in nature and therefore should offer the possibility of
trying new approaches and new techniques.
Types of Programs Possible
In spite of the fact that there are many negatives involved in the
characteristics of the disadvantaged, there are nevertheless many posi-
tive factors in their favor and they can be motivated and can become
proficient in situations that interest them. They are willing to do
the accepted thing and be rewarded for their efforts. Most important
to the disadvantaged person is that someone really cares.
It is felt that programs may be started in the junior high school
with youngsters of 14 years of age or older. These programs should
emphasize remedial basic education where needed that closely relates to
vocational training of a general nature, rather than a specific type of
vocational training. It is important to treat each student as an indi-
vidual case in order that more specific job training can be offered as
soon as the student can take advantage of it.
Programs developed for persons having handicaps of a specific
nature, such as a physical handicap or for personswwithlimitdiimental
ability, can be planned with a specific, repetitive type functi6niin
mind. Since they are limited as to the function they can best perform,
programs can emphasize specific job training. It is still most import-
ant that the general education received should relate as closely as
possible to the vocational training received.
Programs planned for older youngsters can be more specific in
nature depending on the ability of the youngsters to take advantage of
the training and also in terms of employment possibilities in the place-
ment area. Consideration should be given to the overall educational
- 31 -
and training experience of the youngster while he is in school. There-
fore, planning should include a progressive program including a number
of steps that progressively advance a person to full-time employment.
An application for funds may include a plan for offering only one of
the steps or may include an overall plan of job training for disadvan-
Funds for program operation for the training of adults classified
as disadvantaged may also be obtained. The procedure for a grant re-
quest would follow the same pattern as for in-school or out-of-school
Program planning should not be limited to the possibility of con-
forming to conventional vocational training, but should be in terms of
meeting the occupational training needs of individuals. As long as the
plan is educationally sound and contributes to the occupational train-
ing of individuals, there is a good chance for funding.
Maximum Class Size
Persons having special needs ddmand'moveJsidividda~l.attenti6n than
the average, therefore it is strongly recommended that classes con-
tain no more than 15 students. This will allow the instructor to get
to know the individual student better and therefore plan to better meet
his individual needs. The individual needs of a class will vary con-
siderably necessitating instructors to plan on an individual basis in
most cases. This would necessitate considerable time in gathering
materials, in developing materials, and in planning at a level that the
student can best begin and progress in his work.
Classes involving students for physical education or other activi-
ties of a large group nature could exceed the recommended 15 maximum.
In many cases it would be well to have the students mix with the rest
of the school students as much as possible in order to assist them in
feeling that they are a part of the total school student body and not
an unusual group.
Home visitations would greatly assist instructors in gaining valu-
able information about the student's home environment andin turn assist
in the individual planning for the student. The home visitation will
also give the instructors the opportunity to meet parents and/or
guardians and acquaint them with program intent. Group guidance or
counseling sessions with parents may very well develop as a result of
home visitations. These sessions would not only acquaint parents with
the program but could also assist parents in improving their home en-
vironment which would make conditions more inducive to learning for
the student. The envolvment of parents with students in special pro-
jects may greatly enhance the educational process.
Steps in Filing a Project Proposal and Grant Request
Following the identification of a group of individuals having the
- 32 -
need of special vocational training and visualizing a possible plan for
providing the needed training, a request for funds to operate the pro-
posed program may be made on form VTAD-2, "Project Proposal and Grant
Request". This form includes directions for the completion of the form
and the inclusion of attachments covering the nature of the project and
people to be served, need for the project, description of the project,
and cost factors. Form VTAD-2 is submitted to the State Director of
Vocational, Technical, and Adult Education in triplicate along with
triplicate copies of all attachments. The grant request is reviewed by
the Project Coordinating Committee in terms of the value of the project's
contribution to the education and occupational training of the special
group. Depending on the judgement of the Project Coordinating Committee
and the availability of funds, a grant may be made to the county to
assist in support of the project. Notification of the Project Co-
ordinating Committee's action will be made on one copy of the Grant
Request and returned to the county. Funding will be for one fiscal
year beginning on July 1st and ending June 30th. The project may be
renewed subject to Project Coordinating Committee's action based on
further review, the success of the project, and the availability of
When completing request for funds to operate a special vocational
program, it is strongly suggested that all details of the project are
covered completely in order to give the Project Coordinating Committee
a complete picture of the proposed action. The reverse side of the
VTAD-2 form contains directions for the completion of all necessary
attachments. When the writing of a project is completed, it may be read
by a county staff person not familiar with the idea of the project. If
that person does not understand a part of the project proposal, that is
an indication that sufficient detail has not been included and that
portion of the project should be rewritten.
Necessary Information to be Included in the Attachments
1. Nature of Project and People Served
This portion of the project should include a detailed descrip-
tion of the group to be served including their characteristics and
the basis for grouping them for this project. A general overview
of the project should be include-d indicating the courses to be
offered in both vocational and general education. The bases for
selection of the vocational courses should be given, indicating
whether done as a result of research studies, interest inventory,
employer survey of job opportunities, etc. The general !education
courses to be included should also be described with the basis for
2. Need for Project
Background information shouldbe given pertaining to the county
school program in general and more specifically, what is or is not
being offered for persons of the type described to be served in
this project. Information pertaining to studies made identifying
- 33 -
persons with special needs should be included as well as information
concerning other agencies involved in providing for special needs
such as Special Education and Vocational RehabilitAtion. Any sur-
veys done in the community indicating placement possibilities or
employment needs should be described. Attitudes of county staff
and teaching personnel as to acceptance of the need for this pro-
ject should be indicated. Any and all information indicating the
need for this project however minute, should be included.
3. Description of Project
The information included in the attachments pertaining to the
description of the project should be in detail and describe the
organization of the project as to classes in vocational education
as well as classes in general education. Information should in-
clude how, when, and where the courses are to be offered and how
the general education courses support or relate to the vocational
training. The details as to how the students will be scheduled
that describes how the students will be selected for certain types
of vocational training and how that training will progress t o
eventual employment. Course outlines should be included for each
occupation for which training will be offered.
Qualifications do~the pprsonne 11toobb 2usedditathappojefit should
be included. This information should include the basic certifi-
cation requirement of a valid Rank III, Florida Certificate,plus
any special competencies that an individual should have in order
to instruct the class or training program. Personnel to be used
in counseling, testing, supervision, or any supportive role should
be included and information as to their expected qualifications
should be included. Positions should be described as opposed to
describing certain individuals in mind because positions remain
constant while personnel change.
Supportive educational competencies needed for each type of
occupation training should be outlined. The basic academic skills
with their application should be described. The plan for orien-
tation to the world of work should be outlined as well as outlin-
ing the simple work-related skills necessary for all employees.
Necessary social skills to be developed should be described and
related to the gaining and holding of a job. The necessary per-
formance skills to be developed in each occupation for which train-
ingiis'bo be received should be outlined in terms of those neces-
sary for job entry.
Included in the attachment pertaining to evaluation should be
copies of the instruments to be used in gathering individual in-
formation. Any special techniques such as case studies, interviews,
or observations should be described. The total evaluation function
should be outlined from the beginning evaluation used to select
students for the project, the in-program evaluation, to the evalu-
ation to be completed at the end of the training program. Any fol-
lowup evaluation to be done should also be described.
- 34 -
4. Cost Factors
The attachment including the budget should include a detailed
listing of items of equipment and/or supplies requested. The list-
ing should be done by type of occupational training program. If
you are to include three different types of occupational training
programs in the project, three separate equipment lists should be
included. Duplication of items for two or more training programs
should be avoided.
Also included in the budget, should be salary and travel items
as well as custodial, secretarial, utility, and miscellAneous:items.
All expenses that are to be paid by the county pertaining to the
project should be itemized in detail. Pro-rated portions of super-
visors and/or teachers salaries should be included as well as any
other pro-rated expenses. Careful consideration should be given to
the budget and its items and counties should avoid including items
of equipment and/or supplies of less than $10 per item as they will
not be approved.
- 35 -
THE CONSERVATION OF HUMAN RESOURCES
Dr. E. T. York, Jr.
The conservation and development of our natural resources is a
matter of great concern throughout our society. We hear much about the
conservation of our soil, water and wildlife, for example. I think we
could all agree that these conservation efforts are tremendously import-
But I would like to talk to you about another type of conservation,
which in my judgment is far more important--the conservation of our
human resources. These are by any measure our most precious resources.
This is, in my opinion, our nation's number one conservation problem
In the beginning, I would like to make clear what we mean by con-
servation. To some, "conservation" means saving or protecting in a
rather restricted sense--it means laying something away or putting some-
thing 'Ipn the shelf", so to speak. This is not a meaningful concept of
conservation--whether we are talking about soil, water, or people. To
conserve means to avoid waste. This in turn suggests that true con-
servation involves using resources in such a manner as to avoid waste--
using them in such a manner that the greatest good can be derived from
them. It is within this context that I want to talk about the conserv-
ation of human resources.
Of course, the thing which makes human resources do unique and so
valuable, is the human mind and its power to think, reason, and to
generate new ideas. The mind is not an exhaustible resource--the mind
is enhanced--it becomes more valuable with use.
In this age of great technological development, we -tiend to over-
look or minimize the power of the human mind. In the early days of our
space program, there were strong advocates of using machines rather
than humans to pilot our space crafts. In pointing out the advantages
of using human beings, one of the astronauts made this point: "Where
else can you find a device that can make an infinite number of calcu-
lations in a short period of time, that weighs less than 180 pounds,
and that can be mass produced by unskilled labor."
I am sure I don't have to impress upon you the value of education
and its role in developing human resources. We have made great strides
in education in recent years, but we yet have a long way to go.
Inadequate education and training are at the root of some of the
great problems facing our society today. The poverty problem we hear
so much about is in essence an educational problem. More than 1-1/2
million unemployed people today have less than an eigith-grade education.
People do ill-prepared are at a great disadvantage in today's highly
skilled labor market. And they will become progressively more disad-
- 36 -
vantaged as the nation pushes itself toward even greater technological
Education is, of course, expensive. Will Rogers once said, how-
ever, that the only thing more expensive than education was ignorance.
We should recognize that education is an investment which pays handsome
dividends to the individual, the state and the nation.
For example, a recent study has shown that a person between 45 and
54 years of age today who had lsscthan an eighth-grade education--
would have annual earnings of less than one-half the amount he would
have received had he completed high school. Furthermore, the same study
showed that with a college education he would be making almost twice as
much as he would if he only finished high school.
Our government spent a lot of money in supporting the educational
endeavors of veterans of World War II. I recently figured that I have
already paid back Uncle Sam through increased income taxes between two
and three times the amount he spent on me under the GI Bill (based on
the higher income growing out of this education).
A prominent University of Chicago economist has calculated that
for each dollar spent for all education, there is a return of about 170
per year--a 17 percent return on the investment.
I cite these economic considerations to respond to those who con-
tend that we cannot afford essential education services. We can ill
afford not to develop our human resources to the fullest possible ex-
I don't meqn to suggest that everyone should get a college degree.
However, our goal should be that of providing every individual with the
opportunity to secure that education and training which is best suited
to his ability, and which can enable him to make the greatest contri-
bution. to society.
This may involve Ph.D. training as a theoretical physicist, or may
involve training as a specialized mechanic or technician. A rocket may
blow up on its launching pad because the designer was incompetent, or
because the mechanic who adjusted the last valve was incompetent. Some-
one has iade the observation that we must have excellent plumbers as
well as excellent philosophers--otherwise neither our pipes nor our
philosophies will hold water.
Of course, our soil, water and other natural resources are all in
some respect limited. But we have never yet discovered the power and
the potential of the human mind. We can only cultivate it, train it,
educate it in a continuing expansion of the one resource on which God
has put no limit.
But the conservation of human resources involves much more than
education and training. We are experiencing a great loss of human re-
sources today, resulting from factors other than a lack of education.
In the last 30 years, particularly since the great floods and dust
storms of the mid 1930's, we have been appropriately concerned about
soil erosion and we have done something about it. As a nation, it is
high time that we became concerned about a different type of erosion--
far more insidious and dangerous. I am speaking of an erosion of our
moral fiber, and concepts of honesty, integrity, justice and fair play-
the wearing away of many of our basic principles which have contributed
to the greatness of our nation, the loss of respect for law and order--
an eroding away of our belief in the dignity and worth o6f.'Ttheh.iinTdi-
This is a problem which focuses upon our young people for two
reasons--first, because this is where the losses begin and where they
are most acute, and second, because we are becoming a world of young
people. Over half the people on earth are below the age of 21. In this
country by 1966, over half of our population will be below 25.
Let me cite some of the evidence for the type of losses to which I
refer--losses which are preventing the full and most fruitful develop-
ment of these most precious of all our resources.
We see wide-spread disregard if not contempt for law and order.
FBI reports that serious crime is increasing in this country at a rate
5 times as fast as the population--and that the greatest increase is
occurring among youth under 18. For all serious crimes committed in
the United States if'1963youybuitiful.idafenderr rweretespphdibIerfor a
staggering 72 percent of the total arrests for these crimes.
Let me quote J. Edgar Hoover concerning these alarming statistics.
Mr. Hoover said: "What a grim and unhappy commentary on the moral
climate of this great nation. The moral strength of our nation has
"These shocking statistics t9gaeher with the public's apparent in-
difference to them are indicative of the false morality we are tolerat-
ing today .... This breakdown in our moral standards can only render us
impotent as a people and as a nation .... We must return to the teach-
ings of God if we are to cure this sickness."
We see growing evidence of this immorality to which Mr. Hoo ver
refers. The Association of University Women Deans ahd Counselors de-
voted an entire issue of its publication to "Student Sex Standards and
Behavior". The gist of its several articles by some of the most re-
spected authorities in the field was that student sex behavior has be-
come a national problem "unacknowledged, unsavory, and unsolved."
Dr. Terry, the Surgeon General, indicated recently that each day 1500
young Americans--mostly teenagers--became new victims of venereal
disease. The sale of pornographic material has become a $2 billion
annual business in this country--with most of it being directed to teen-
There is wide-spread rebellion against many of our basic iinstitu-
tions. Many of the old-fashioned and time-honored concepts of honesty,
loyalty, patriotism, courage and thrift are considered by many to be
outmoded, and those who practice them are looked upon as some sort of
"odd ball". A recent survey made by Columbia University indicated that
of all students questioned in some 99 colleges, more than half of them
We see a rather wide-spread rebellion in any of our universities
against authority. We have in recent months seen a group of young
people contribute to complete turmoil and chaos in one of our nation's
greatest universities, through their defiance of long-established rules
and laws, and their disregard for even reasonable standards of conduct.
They express the view that only those rules and laws which they them-
selves consider to be acceptable would be obeyed.
I could cite many other examples of this type of erosion of our
respect for authority, moral principles and basic beliefs, but I doubt
if it is necessary. And I want to make !t clear that what I am saying
is not an indictment qf( young people generally. We know that many,
many of our young people are just as fine today as any who ever lived.
Yet no one can dispute some of the serious trends to which I refer.
Why are these things happening? Young people are inherently no
different than their parents or grandparents. The only reasonable ex-
planation for this is that young people and their behavior tend to
reflect their environment. And those of us who contribute to that en-
vironment must accept the responsibility for what it is producing.
Young people do not assimilate values by merely learning the mean-
ing of such words as honesty, morality, and justice. They learn atti-
tudes, habits, and ways of judging in personal relationships with those
around them. They do not learn ethical principles, they emulate ethi-
cal or unethical people. That is why young people need modelsof what
man at his best can be.
The Swiss philosophy, Amiel, said: "Every life is a profession oof
faith. Every man's conduct is an unspoken ss;ermon that is forever
preaching to others."
It is surprising, therefore, that there should be growing dis-
respect for authority, law and order by young people, when large groups
can, at will, disregard certain laws under the label righteouss civil
disobedience", and actually protected if not encouraged in their efforts
by some of the highest officials in the land. Is it surprising that
young people should ignore rules and laws, when a well-known figure in
our country today--the recipient of a Nobel Peace Prize--should openly
defy a federal court order, because he thought it "unjust"?
Specific disobedience such as this breeds general disobedience as
was evident some months ago in the disastrous riots in New York and
New Jersey--when mobs ran wild in the streets--completely unresponsive
to law and order. This is completely contrary to the concept of a
government of law. There can be no laws to which obedience is optionall.
Law and order are the foundations under which successful governmentmust
stand. Without law and order, society will surely destroy itself.
- 39 -
Is it surprising that there should be cheating and dishonesty by
students when the newspapers are full every day of examples of cheating
and dishonesty on the part of prominent people in public and private
life--a State Supreme Court Justice being sent to prison for evading
his income taxes--a man occupying one of the most itppoetat;positionst
Congress, being charged with influence peddling, accepting bribes, and
other dishonest and immoral acts--with this man refusing to reply to
questions put to him by a congressional committee on the grounds of
"possible self incrimination".
These are just some of the "unspoken sermons--forever preaching"
to our young people and constantly influencing their behavior.
Our educational institutions have a great responsibility to do
something about this--a responsibility to contribute not only to tpe
development of the student's mind but to the development of his charac-
ter and moral fiber as well.
Our schools must spell out high standards of behavior and let it
be known that everyone is expected to abide by these standards. The
failure to do this is at the root of some of our problems today. Young
people are often not sure what society expects of them+-what the stand-
ards of behavior are. Contrary to what some believe, I:ddn1t;:think
young people want--and I'm sure they don't need--the sort of freedom
which too many schools and colleges are providing today.
Of course, rules and regulations will not in themselves solve the
problem. The desire to behave morally and ethically must be instilled
in these young people. The big task is that of challenging young people
to have an intellectual understanding of the place of moral and spitit-
ual values in their lives.
Recently one of the largest religious groups in the nation asked
the President to call a White House Conference on public morality "to
study ways to halt a weakening of the moral fiber of American Society".
And one of the specific actions was an appeal to educators to stress
"chastity, honesty, personal goodness, and integrity" in their teach-
In addition to helping to instill in our young people by precept
and by example, a sense of moral, spiritual, and ethical values, our
schools and colleges must also do more to give these young people an
appreciation of their great American Heritage--to instill in them a
feeling of patriotism and loyalty to their country.
Today, I sometimes think that patriotism has gone out of style.
Those who express their love of country are often looked upon as right-
wing extremists--or to say the least, some sort of "square". Let me
quote from an article which appeared in a recent issue of a student
publication of one of our Midwestern colleges, entitlhd"Nix Patriotism'"
This article stated: "Patriotism is an emotion that is marked by igonr-
ance, stupidity, prejudice, autism, fear, and hostility."
It was a great shock to all of us during the KMvean conflittto
- 40 -
see so many of our young men surrender to the enemy without a fight and
denounce not only their comrades but their country as well. We have
even seen some of these traitors return home after a few years with the
gall to petition their government for back-pay-4paylor phe:.')oeriod in
which they were carrying out their treasonable acts.
How and why does this sort of thing happen? I think this is hap-
pening because these young people have not been given a knowledge and
appreciation of their Heritage--they have not been introduced to the
great heroes of American History--they haveno knowledge of these men to
pattern their own lives after--to guide their own conduct.
Today we see many schools and colleges doing away with American
History as required work. And even the courses which are offered are
in many cases relatively sterile and ineffective.
This Week magazine made a survey recently of school history books
issued before 1920, compared with those issued since. Nathan Hale's
classic statement, "I regret that I have but one life to give for my
country" was in all of the old texts, and only one of the new texts.
Patrick Henry's ringing declaration, "Give me liberty or give me
death", was in twelve of the fourteen earlier texts, and in only two of
the forty-five more recent ones.
But John Paul Jones really set the record. He said, "I have not
yet begun to fight" in nine of the old books--his historic statement
was found in none of the new ones.
Arnold Toynbee, the famous historian, has said that of 20 notable
civilizations, 19 perished not from external conquest, but from evapor-
ation of belief within.
"Evaporation of belief from within"--isn't this at the root of
many of the difficulties I have discussed?
A University of California sophomore put it this way--"I don't
believe in anything--but I believe against a lot of things".
A chaplain in one of our western universities made this observation:
"All too prevalent on the college campus today is the teacher who de-
lights in the destruction of traditional ideals and values, without any
balanced appraisal in the beginning or replacement of intellectual
security at the end of this devastating process."
I don't mean to sound critical of our educational institutions.I
am indeed proud to be a part of this great educational mission. What I
do say is the form of constructive self-examination. We must always be
willing to look at what we are doing and if we have faults, weaknesses
or short comings, we must be willing to make whatever adjustments might
be called for.
In my judgment, our schools and colleges are doing an excellent
- 41 -
job from the standpoint of academic and technical training. However, I
am afraid we have been far less successful in helping to install in our
young people the sense of values which might give their lives greater
stability and more purposeful direction.
This is by no means the sole responsibility of our educational
institutions. It is a responsibility we must all share. This is a
type of conservation we all pancpractite--ip:;.tyingcto:dvoid the tragic
waste of human potential--in providing conditions under which young
people can develop mentally, physically, morally, and spiritually in
such a way that they can live rich, full lives and make their maximum
contribution to society.
This is conservation in its finest and most meaningful form--this
is the type of conservation which offers great returns--because, and I
close with these familiar words: "Inasmuch as you have done it unto
one of the least of these, my brethern, you have done it unto me."
- 42 -
VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE: THE ROLE OF THE LOCAL AGRICULTURAL TEACHER
IN HIS SCHOOL AND COMMUNITY
Vocational guidance, the oldest area of the general field of guid-
ance, was developed within the first decade of this century, the idea of
the orignators being to help some persons find jobs and to assist others
in finding better jobs. These early workers soon came to realize that
it was necessary to counsel with the whole person--his hopes, prejudices,
aims, and ambitions, as well as with vocational and personal problems.
This reference, of course, is to the history of the formal organization
of the guidance movement. Informally, parents and teachers have always
been important participants in vocational guidance. Wise parents have
always sought to help their children to establish themselves as pro-
ductive members of society. Not all efforts have been wise. Parents
have sometimes tried to realize their own ambitions through their
children. Nor have teachers always acted wisely. They have been known
to place their own interests and subject matter above the individual's
interests and welfare. More often than not, however, when a successful
person has been asked why he embarked upon his chosen career, he has re-
ferred to some significant other, frequently a teacher, who '.ifiluencd4
him during the formative years to enter the field which led to ultimate
No one sensitive to the occupational trends of this decade can
under-rate the importance of the mastery of the basic knowledge and
skills of general education to the choice of a vocation. In speaking
of vocational education, Mr. Bailey stated in an address to the Chief
State School Officers that the best vocational education we can give a
student is to teach him to read. I expect each one of you would agree
with him from your own experience. Gone is the day when it would suf-
fice merely to teach the agricultural worker the mechanics of hand
skills. The worker of today must be able to communicate--to read, to
express himself with clarity and to deal effectively with the funda-
mentals of mathematics and science.
You know far better than I that the expensive equipment in use on
most farms today requires considerable mechanical ability for operation
and maintenance, and more than the minimum supporting skills of reading,
The role of the agricultural teacher begins with his role as a
classroom teacher with all the responsibilities and opportunities of any
classroom teacher. Here I wish to digress to pay respect to the excel-
lent classroom teacher as the single most important influence in the
educational structure. The excellent classroom teacher feels the re-
sponsibility for every student in this sphere of influence,regardshim
as a unique individual and has tolerance for his ,uniquenessesy!,accepts
him as a person of worth, capable of becoming better than he now is,
regardless of his present classification. How prone we sometimes are
- 43 -
to categorize--these are the gifted, these the average, these the slow
learners, herding human beings, our most precious resource, into groups
much as we might our cattle, and consider our job half done now that
they are branded. Then we measure out the carefully balanced feed to
the gifted, the average to the average, and turn the slow learners out
to pasture--or in your county perhaps the tables are turned. It is dif-
ficult and time consuming to work effectively with individuals, but I
like the way Neil Postman expresses the idea in the Introduction to the
Teacher Edition of The Uses of Language:
"Education in a democratic society, rather than trim all the stu-
dents to form neat hedgerows, must nurture the growth of widely
different and individualistic plants. Of course, this makes for
an untidy garden, and it creates all kinds of problems for the
gardener. But the resulting brilliance and diversity are worth
all the trouble."
As an excellent classroom teacher he has respect for and is master
of the subject content of his field. His enthusiasm for his subject is
contagious, but he is sensitive to the needs of his students. One of
the local agricultural teachers expressed it well when he said:
"I respect high standard and strive for high standard, but I do
not want to hold my standards so high that I leave the boys"
Dr. Harold Benjamin, distinguished visiting professor at Univer
city of Southern California, addressing the Conferende of School
Superintendents last semester on the intriguing subject "Revolution by
Education in the Twenty-First Century", spoke as if he were reporting
on education in the year 2065, and referring to excellent classroom
teachers, he said,
Professional teachers on all levels of schooling in 1965 thought
that education was a matter of changing the learner's attitudes,
helping him develop '.a) drive 'to:acheuiementj agdaigivAAgXm1 the
fullest possible opportunity to acquire his bwdliiAdividuai' style
of learning and living ... The heart of the school process was now
a system of studying each lerner to discover his untqueness,
developing his strenths so that they would obliterate his weak-
nesses, and fostering the drive he required to reach his goals.
In addition to his responsibilities as an excellent classroom
teacher, as an agricultural teacher he is the representative of one of
the oldest, most honored, and most essential of all vocations. Let him
not forget that the vocation is being evaluated through him and the
image he gives it. He has met the requirements for certification, but
the excellent teacher also represents his profession well--he is able
to handle his language--means of communication both written and spoken,
with correctness and clarity, and his dress is appropriate to the oc-
casion, the task, and the circumstances Young people are great imita-
tors and emulators. Each individual's representation of the profession
in general may either attract or repel.
The agricultural teacher is a member of a team and has the same
responsibility for the effective operation of the team as does the
English teacher, the mathematics teacher, or the science teacher. :Be-
cause the location of the physical facilities of the agricultural depart-
ment is often removed from the building in which most of the activities
of the school take place, either the agricultural teacher or the other
members of the staff may tend to operate independently of the other. It
is difficult in a large school to foster close relationship with all
members of the staff, but education in the secondary school should not
be so compartmentalized that there seems to be no relationship between
the various subjects and departments. The English department add the
agricultural department have much in common. The ability to read, the
correct, concise, clear expression of one's language in order to com-
municate agricultural information and ideas are functions of the agri-
culture class as well as the English class. Naturally the. agricultural
teacher is not expected to be an expert in the remedial aspects of
teaching, but he can assume his responsibility for teaching reading
agriculture, writing agriculture, and performing the necessary number
skills which apply to agriculture. Wendell Johnson observed that you
can't write writing. Similarly, you can't read reading. Just as dif-
ferent forms of writing require different competencies, different forms
of reading require different competencies. The mathematics department
and the agricultural department have much in common. The science de-
partment and the agricultural department have much in common. If you
would aid vocational guidance, let your influence as a-s~brng member of
the team be felt on your facilities. Remind them of the changing role
of agriculture and acquaint them with the opportunities for members of
their specialties in agriculture.
Especially would I urge you to work closely with the guidance de-
partment. Few schools in Florida are staffed with guidance counselors
in the recommended ratio of students to counselor to permit them to do
well all of the responsibilities required of them. The role of guid-
ance is sometimes misunderstood, and improved communication is greatly
needed. Guidance counselors really are not all like the plump female
outlined in the coloring book published by one of the book companies
last year. The caption read:
This is the Guidance Counselor. She gives all the good students to
the teacher down the hall. Color her a vile color.
If you haven't tried it,drop in for a friendly and informative chat
with the guidance department. I believe you will find that they want
to help you individualize instruction, to help you meet the needs of
your students, and to help direct the students to you who have the
greatest interest and can profit most from your course of study. And
if you find that you have a student who is not responding to your best
efforts, you can sometimes get help from the guidance department; if
hot help, you will have a fine chance to let off steam. If you.have a
student who is outstanding and needs a scholarship this is a gdod place
to get information. Counselors need to know what is going on in your
department in order to know how to help students find what they are
seeking. Counselors also identify needs that are not being met, and
- 45 -
and you may furnish the means of finding the solution.
The agricultural teacher as a member of the community finds places
of service to the community through church, civic, and service clubs
and assumes leadership roles when opportunities present themselves. He
serves as consultant to adults of the community either as individuals
or In groups as they seek his specialized knowledge.
Mr. Johnson invited me to meet with the Orange County agricultural
teachers recently to give me a chance to gather some suggestions to
bring to you today. It was a most rewarding experience for me. It gave
them a chance to say some things they had wanted to say about guidance
personnel, and it gave me an opportunity to see ourselves as others see
us, I have also talked with some guidance counselors since that meet-
ing. Some suggestions from the counselor's office include:
1. Be realistic in planning the programs to be offered. In adapting
the content to meet present needs, give some thought to changing
the designations. For example, it is not uncommon to find young
people with high interest in outdoor activities, plants and animals,
respond negatively to the course called Agriculturelaer Agriculture
II, but do respond enthusiastically to a course called "Forestry".
2. One of the most difficult problems of the guidance counselor in
Orange County is finding a course of study suitable for non-college
bound student, one with high interest level and yet not beyond his
ability. Because of the nature of your course--laboratory type
course and the opportunity to individualize instruction, the agri-
cultural teacher has one of the most important roles in the modern
secondary school. This teacher has an unusual opportunity to be-
come the significant other in the lies of young people that others
Cannot reach. To avoid the pathos revealed in this piece of origi-
nal writing from a creative writing class composed of less than
shining stars in the academic realm. The class assignment was to
write the words for a Blues tune. It goes like this:
Went to see the teacher; gotta pass this test.
Went to see the teacher; gotta pass this test.
She said, "Ain't any use, son, you flunk like the rest."
Today we got report cards; gotta take them home.
Today we got report cards; gotta take them home..
Ain't any use to, my old man's always stoned.
Leaving home forever; 'cause nobody wants me there.
Leaving home forever; 'cause nobody wants me there.
Find another family, someone to really care.
3. Work with the administration and department chairman to revise and
4. Since so many of the vocational opportunities in the broad fieldof
agriculture require college preparation, the agricultural teacher
can serve as resource person to other members of the faculty. He
- 46 -
can make his own classroom and laboratory an attractive area to
appeal to all students who have an interest in his field and give
them individual information. He can furnish specialized profes-
sional information to faculty and students. He can sponsor assembly
programs. He can maintain a bulletin board with current information
about opportunities in agriculture.
5. One of the most effective proceduresin vocational guidance is to
provide the opportunity fora person to try out on temporary basis.
Through his contacts with the business community he can help place
students in part-time or temporary jobs. In short, all that can be
done to help students know more about themselves and more about .oc-
cupations will help them find that most satisfying place to spend
the large portion of one's life which is to be devoted to his vo-
We have attempted to make some general statements about vocational
guidance; about the role of the agricultural teacher as a classroom
teacher, as a member of the whole school team and as a participating
citizen in his community. Some suggestions were offered for agricultural
teachers in working with all members of the school.
- 47 -
CHILD LABOR LAWS
Thank you, Mr. Wood. I appreciate having been given the oppor-
tunity to talk with you all.
I had the occasion to visit with some ofthe teachers of vocational
agriculture this past Monday, and had quite a discussion with them. I
believe, one of the facts brought out, was that every county and even
the larger cities in a county have different child labor problems. And
as many child labor problems as there are! There are that many q stiunse.
A pamphlet was passed out to you, called "The FTar.dalC.M= ;IdtborLaw"
in a Nutshell". Many questions in your mind are, no doubt, answene d
in this pamphlet. One of the main purposes of the Florida Child Labor
Law, is to keep children in school as long as they can profit by con-
tinued education. The uneducated children of today are the unemployed.
of tomorrow, and children who "follow the crops" are usually more edu-
cationally disadvantaged than the boys and girls who attend regularly
and follow the school program.
The State Legislature sets a 16 year age minimum for the employ-
ment of children working in agriculture during school hours and this
applies to migratory workers as well. All states have child labor laws
and most have school attendance laws. In many cases the employers
also under the United States Department of Labors Fair Labor Standards
From time to time, survey teams make inspections in the fields,
and all employers who are illegally working minors, are in violation of
the law and such offense is a misdemeanor, and punishable, as explained
in your pamphlet. We, however, take the premises, that it is far bet-
ter to educate than to eradicate and with it in mind, in making our
field surveys, we ask that the employer comply with the law in the
future use of minors. We find very few, who are chronic or flagrant
To many, any law implies a deterrent to activities. It is not and
never was the intent of the Child Labor Law to do anything other than
implement the employment of minors between the ages of 12 and 18.
Minors between these ages, regardless of whether or not they are
in school, must secure a work certificate, sometimes called a Work Per-
mit. An original of this certificate, which is issued through the
school system, must be in the hands of the employer. The certificate
does not constitute a permission of employment or work. Its purpose is
to show the age of the minor as shown by school records and also calls
to the attention of the employer the hours of legal employment for the
minor named. There are very few exceptions to the rule, but one of
these exceptions, which I am sure you would be interested in, is minors
employed in agriculture. When so employed, they do not need a certifi-
cate and the hour limitations removed, however, no minor under 16 may
be employed during school hours, nor is he permitted to do any of the
hazardous occupations listed on page 3 of "The Florida Child Labor Law
in the Nutshell" pamphlet.
Please note also, the addresses listed on the back of these pamph-
lets. I assure you that if any time you have a question and will ad-
dress a letter of call any of the offices,you will receive an immediate
While there is no requirement necessitating a certificate for a
minor working in agriculture neither is there any law against it. Themre
fore, we ask the school authority, in the event the employer or
the minor, requests such a certificate, that it be issued. An example
of -suchL certificate would be, that of the minor working for:a citrus
packing plant. While this may be agricultural in nature, the packing
plant does not necessarily fall in the category of exempt agricultural
Any employer, whose crops or products, go either directly or in-
directly, into interstate or foreign commerce, as in the case of a
farmer who sends his product outside-the;state or delivers his productt
to a canner, processor, or dealer who he knows or has reason to believe,
will send it outside the state, either in its original form or as an
ingredient of another product. For example: orange growers, who send
their oranges to a cannery within the same state are covered by federal
regulations, if the canned orange product made from their orgnges, goes
out of the state would fall under Federal Rules and Regulations. Under
the federal requirements, no minor under 16 may work on a farm during
school hours. Now this may seem to be a contradiction between the
federal law and the laws of the State of Florida. At the bottom of
page 2 in your pamphlet, it states that a minor under 16 may work dur-
ing school hours, when such employment has been determined as necessary
for the maintenance and support of the family. In such cases the
county superintendent of schools may issue a certificate to minors 14 or
15 years of age. But such certificate would be valid only to the
employer who does not come within the meaning and requirements of the
Federal Government's Fair Labor Standards Act. To those of you who may
be interested, this is Child Labor Bulletin #101 and #102, revised,
February, 1962, and issued by the United States Department of Labor,
Regional Office, Atlanta, Georgia.
I would prefer that we do not refer always to the term Child Labor
Law, but "Supervision of Employment". Using this phraseology, we very
easily will see the reasoning behind the law. I believe, at this time,
it would be appropriate to ask if there are questions?
- 49 -
SUGGESTED GUIDELINES FOR UTILIZING AGRICULTURAL MECHANICS SHOPS
FOR OCCUPATIONAL TRAINING
Clarence J. Rogers
In approaching this subject I think we had better define occupa-
tional training. I am assuming that occupational training means train-
ing for the off-farm agriculture related occupations or jobs thatyou
have been hearing about this week. All of the occupations are not lo-
cated off the farm but they are not strictly production activities that
you have been training for in:hhe past.
You have been told that Agricultural Machineyy,tAgticultur&l Sup-
plies and Ornamental Horticulture shows the probability of hiring the
largest number of persons in the next 5 years. To break this down
further, let's take agricultural machinery alone and divide it into
various segments of jobs. These are Agricultural Machinerybiechadics,
Agricultural Machinery mechanics helper, Agricultural Machinery parts
man, Agricultural Machinery service supervisor, and Agricultural Mach-
inery delivery and set-up man. These are the types of men industry has
said they need. There are others that we might name such as Agri-
cultural Machinery operators and maintenance men who would be employed
on the farm.
However, the point I want to bring out is that the occupations
just named will require a higher degree of skills and competence that
has been taught in vocational agriculture in the past. It is estimated
that the required time for training might run from 300 hours for a set-
up and delivery man to 2000 hours for tractor mechanic.
Now lets get back to the subject at hand, guidelines for utilizing
agricultural mechanics shops for occupational training. What are some
of the things we are going to have to do if we are going to train our
students for some of these occupations. Let me say right here vocational
agriculture departments are not ready to train for all of these ocau-
pations. Keep this in mind as we go along. Ask yourself which ones
you could teach in your department?
The first thing I think you will haveut~;.do is study the occu-
pation for which you will be training people. What does this employee r
or this segment of industry require, in the way of skills, knowledge,
related agriculture, etc.? After all of this has been determined the
shop will have to be organized to accomplish the objective.
Perhaps part of the shop can be set up to resemble as close as
possible the actual working conditions the student will encounter later.
You must bear in mind, however, that you still have other students that
will be using the shop, These students that you are training for occu-
pations will probably be 3rd and 4th year students.
Equipment will probably be one of the most important items to con-
- 50 -
sider in this program. In a recent occupational survey a big criticism
was that schools training technicians were not using up-to-date equip-
ment. We all know this problem, once a shop is equipped, itis pretty
hard to get additional or new equipment. In fact, there are many shops
in the state that have never been properly equipped for the strictly
agriculture production program we have been teaching. In this program
it will not be adequate to teach a student how to lap or grind valves
with a piece of string rather than the right tool. Training the stu-
dents to be proficient in welding cannot be done with the one welding
machine most of you have in your shop at present. Study the tools and
equipment you will need and teach the student how to use them.
Your reference library will have to be expanded greatly to satisfy
the needs of this man. He will have to be able to read blueprints and
make drawings. Safety will have to be stressed more than ever. Not
that it is anymore important now but this man will have to not only
know safety but practice it. All types of visual aids will need to be
utilized, film strips, slides, movies, charts, and mock-ups, and visual
aids. This is one:area which has been greatly neglected. If I may, I
would like to demonstrate a new visual aid to be used in teaching small
There is one other item I would like to mention. Are you satisfied
to teach these off-farm occupations? Some of you are !perhaps, others
perhaps some part of the occupation. Please do not misunderstand me.
This is not a reflection on anyone. You were not trained to do this
teaching. What I am trying to say, is approach this with caution, don't
jump into it too quick. There will be pilot programs all over the
country, Florida included; there are curricula being developed which can
be used as a guide. Perhaps our role will be to show the student the
opportunities in these occupations and give him some preliminary train-
ing for post high school work.
I hope I have not sounded too pessimistic but the avenue opened by
the Vocational Act of 1963 for Vocational Agriculture to go into train-
ing for off-farm occupations will require a lot of planning and changes
in the years just ahead.
- 51 -
NEW DIMENSIONS IN RURAL AREAS DEVELOPMENT
Dr. M. O. Watkins
I appreciate very much this opportunity of bringing you up to date
on.what is happening in Rural Areas Development here in Florida,and
nationally, as it affects Florida.
Perhaps, before discussing the present and future in this broad
planning effort, it might be helpful to look briefly at the past to re-
fresh our minds on the what ,ai4 the why of Rural Areas Development.
As most of you know, Rural Development has its beginning in the
middle 1950's. The then administration became greatly concerned and
viewed as a national problem trends and directions in maoyo6f the rural
sections of the United States. National leadership was greatly con-
cerned about the fact that many communities and rural areas were drying
up, losing population, with resulting deterioration of public school
systems, churches, community services and community life in general.
The Rural Development Program, then, had as its original objective
a nationwide effort, at first on a pilot basis, to reverse this trend
in loss of population from rural areas by attempting to provide addi-
tional job opportunities through industry and otherwise for those people
who were having to move, the speeding up of agricultural development
there so that incomes would not decline, and in general the effort was
to reverse the decline in the economies of thesercuril-aeas, and to
start economic development, economic opportunity, and in fact, advance-
ment on a broad front in/rural communities.
Here-in Florida,our first state committee was formed in 1957 with
membership from some 30 organizations and agencies having concern for
rural people and rural programs. Two counties were established on a
pilot basis, Suwannee and Washington, in an effort to see what might be
done in reversing the trend in economic decline in rural areas.
Later here in Florida additional counties were added as interest
grew among people. In 1961, when President Kennedy was imvihigurated,
his administration felt that the Rural Development program was one of
the most successful in the Eisenhower administration and decided to
further broaden and expand it. The name was changed to Rural Areas
Development. The new administration indicated that, with slight modi-
fications, the original objectives could be changed and expanded so
that Rural Development would apply to any county in the United States.
A structure of committees and other organizations covering an entire
state was envisioned with the objective of planning for the development
of resources in each county, of solving problems which limited th' de-
velopment of.a county, and through both group action and individual
action, work toward the solution of problems involving both rural de-
cline on the one hand and urban expansion on the other. T1ese com-
mittees would function on both county and community basis, as well as
- 52 -
statewide, and would develop understanding of potentials and opportuni-
ties for the people and development of their resources. Technical
assistance would be provided through the Technical Action Panels, made
up primarily of USDA people. Rural Areas Development would bea people's
program which would work on problems which people themselves were con-
cerned with. It would include work with all organizations and groups
in the county interested in this development. It would include work on
many different fronts, such as the following:
Development, conservation and use of land and water, forest and
Development of human resources;
Development of institutional resources and community services;
Development of business and industrial resources.
Educational and organizational work was pressed upon the Extension
Service. However, we need the cooperation of you,Vocational Agriculture
teachers, and others like you, in the counties as we continue to expand
Under the administrationsof President Kennedy and President John-
son, the Area Redevelopment Act became a reality providing funds for
industrial development expansion. In rural areas, this Act was appli-
cable only where incomes were lowest and unemployment was highest. The
Act did give a boost to bringing in new industries into rural areas and
to providing new job opportunities for rural people.
In more recent months, the Economic Opportunity Act has been pas-
sed and this also has had tremendous implications for enlarging upon
the objectives of Rural Areas Develppment.
A quick rundown on the present situation here in Florida and the
developments nationally which are of concern to us here in Florida
might be of interest to you. At the present time there are 19 counties
in the state with Rural Areas Development committees. These committees
may not be called Rural Areas Development committees and this is of no
concern to us. Some are called Resource Development committees; others
Rural Areas Development committees, and so on. There are 21 counties
which have received assistance under the Area Redevelopment Act, two
more than we have RAD b6mimtta&s in. These i; two .oounties are Franklin
and St. Lucie.
We have over 1100 county committee members in the 19 RAD counties,
and over 600 people are on subcommittees. Area committees are function-
ing in two broad areas of the state, one in the Suwannee Riivr Valley
area and one in the western part of the state. There are sane 60 area com-
Some 20 counties have completed an overall economic 'development
plan for their respective counties. Seventeen more are in the process
of working on such a plan so you see that overall economic development
is being worked on in some counties where there is no overall planning
organization. At thelast report, some 52 projects in the RAD counties
- 53 -
were in the planning stage. Some 100 projects were being developed as
the result of resource development committee activities. At the present
time some 45 projects are in the process of being implemented. Some
97 projects have been completed since July 1961. I think we could say
that success in terms of meeting original objectives had ranged from
excellent to fair.
Quickly let's look at some of the new developments which are taking
place which are of direct concern to Rural Areas Development and the
philosophy of broad planning for resource development through some
organized approach to problem solving.
The Civil Rights Act reminds that all groups in a county should
be represented including minority groups. Very recently at the national
level the Rural Community Development Service was established. This
Service replaced the old office of Rural Areas Development in the De-
partment of Agriculture and the new Service is designed to plan for bet-
ter coordinated and more closely integrated programs. The objective is
to provide more comprehensive solutions to the problems of rural people
in rural communities. The thought is that package programs combining
the services of not only all USDA agencies, but other branches of the
Federal Government as well, would be designed to deal in a very compre-
hensive fashion with problems of rural citizens in rural communities.
The objective here is that through coordination, the varibuseservices
and programswill reinforce each other. The result will be a multipi!y--
ing effect beyond what could be expected from the same efforts if each
were working in a different manner on the same problem. The new head
of the Rural Community Development Service in Washington is Mr. Robert
Lewis, who was 'formerly with the ASCS. It is planned that theiSdrvi*e
will have representation in the various states, and the major objective
will be an attempt to have within the hands of one individual complete
information on all programs which could provide an impact on any given
problem. This person in each state would be an implementor. We would
be able to not only point to a source of help but also provide contact
with that help.
Developments -ith respect to the Economic Opportunity Act are of
considerable significance. Several of the Rural Areas Development
counties were proceeding to incorporate their county RAD committees so
that these committees could receive funds and disburse them in carrying
out a community action program designed to speed up the economy of a
community. A ruling by the Office of Economic Opportunity recently in
effect said that counties with less than 25,000 population would need
to combine with one or more other counties to bring the total number of
people involved up to the 25,000 minimum before funding could be pro-
vided. Those counties that were in the process of incorporating are
now having to back up and take a look at the possibility of combining
with others. One such combination has already been effected. Washing-
ton, Holmes and Walton counties have organized what they call Walco,
Incorporated. Their separate proposals for funding under the Economic
Opportunity Act have been combined into one. In the Suwannee County
area discussion is now underway on the possible combination into two
groups of about eight counties. In the Walco, Incorporated, area of
Holmes, Walton and Washington, I understand that plans are well under-
way to employ personnel who will devote full time to this planning job.
The local people will be responsible for hiring and supervising these
The State Rural Areas Development Committee now includes some 39
different members. It recently added Dean C. E. Walker of Florida A&M
University; Dr. S. E. Hand of the Division of Economic Opportunity;
Governor's Office; Mr. Charles H. Olgilvie of the Industrial Development
Corporation of Florida; and Mr. Robert H. Doyle of the East Central
Florida Regional Planning Council to its membership. A meeting this
fall is now being planned by the steering committee.
An organization for planning in urban areas has been difficult to
develop. In those counties where there is no Rural Areas Development
committee, we are now working intensively with county agents on the set-
ting up of an overall planning committee which would deal with problems
involving agricultural rural resources. The DARE effort which Provo st
York initiated here in Florida, and which incidentally has the wide
support of both rural and urban groups, will fit into this development
very nicely, as we project to 1975 the agricultural development of each
county of Florida.
In closing, let me urge those of you in RAD counties to continue
your active support and assistance to this overall planning effort there
for the development of your community. Those of you in counties not
presently organized will be hearing about the overall planning effort
within the next few weeks if you have not already done so. I would hope
that you would give this your complete support for without it we can
certainly not accomplish nearly as much.
Thank you for the opportunity of being with you, and best wishes
for a successful meeting.
- 55 -
REPORTS OF WORK GROUPS
Reports of the nine work groups follow. The reports were consid-
ered by the total teacher group on Friday morning, and except as indi-
cated in the several reports, all recommendations given were approved.
Work Group 1. What Should be the Pattern of
Chairman Carl Rehwinkel, Ocala; Secretary J.L. Simmons, Plant City
Consultants W. T. Loften and M. C. Gaar
1. Explore agriculture in 8th,9th and 10th grades as in agricultural
science study, and develop interest so that the student might be
prepared to specialize in the llth and 12th grades, Ag. I Basic
agricultural sciences; Ag II Basic agricultural sciences.
2. llth and 12th grades options of specialization
3. Schedules double period classes should be scheduled for the 3rd
and 4th year
4. One policy when specialization begins get specialized iistruzc-
tors (three teacher department have two specialize).
5. Vocational agriculture teachers should be more conscientious and
increase public relations with parents
6. No agricultural course should be made compulsory by the adminis-
tration only an elective course
7. Laboratory facilities will depend upon type of department where
located, etc. cities supervised experiences
8. Equip departments with proper teaching devices thattlend thhm-
selves to educational uses
9. Serious thought should be given to class exroLlment (15 mini -
mum per class)
10. A copy of agriculture teacher's course of study should be presented
to guidance counselors in high school
11. Research teachers should survey the needs and opportunities in
the community. (Each department single out a study or area for
study and help have students to help)
12. Students Those who want and can profit by the instruction.
- 56 -
Do not lower the standards of the course keep your course on a high
Committee members not shown above:
J. B. Green
Andrew W. Brown, Jr.
Edward P. Ealy
Herman D. Melvin
Floyd J. Ledbetter
A. G. Driggers
Alton A. Harrison
William C. Prinz
Richard L. Gavin
George H. Brown
James E. Strickland, Jr.
L. H. Terrell
J. L. Simmons
R. E. Jones
Work Group 2. Guidelines for Programs in
Agri-Business and Agricultural Occupations
Chairman Robert Hargrave, Gainesville; Secretary George Busby,
Consultant Dean Gaiser
In developing guidelines for program in agri-business and agricul-
tural occupations, we feel that attention must be given to the follow-
ing aspects of program development.
A. Thoughtful attention should be given to the selection of the
students to be served by the program. This involves a thor-
ough understanding of the agriculture world of work and needed
B. In addition, attention must be given to how people learn, grow
II. The experiences selected to prepare students to enter and advance
in agri-business and related agricultural occupations should be
determined by and related to the identified objectives for the
III. Emphasis must be placed upon an organizational structure which
will take into consideration all aspects of the total schoolccur-
riculum and its relationship to the students occupational goals
in agri-business and related agricultural occupations.
IV. It should be recognized that the value of a program is determined
in a great measure by the effectiveness of a continuous process
- 57 -
It was the feeling of the committee that the program developed
will be effective as those who work in the program come to understand
in depth the relationships that exist between and among the areas
Committee members not shown above:
W. E. Priest
J. R. Meeks
S. L. Brothers
John St. Martin
Julius G. Peterson
Elvin B. Williams
John D. White
Eddie S. Johnson
Ernest 0. Washington
H. A. Henley
L. Warren Harrell
Jack E. Russell
Wm. R. Holbrook
Glenn Wade, Jr.
Robert C. Holley
DeWitt C. Crawford
Clarence W. Walker
George W. Busby
L. A. Sims
L. Warren Harrell
Work Group 3. What Should be the Guidelines for
Agricultural Patterns of Instruction to
Young Farmers, Adult Farmers, and Post-High School Students
Chairman Vincent Jones, Live Oak; Secretary John Wetmore, Ft.g~rce
Consultants Owen Lee, H. E. Wood, Larry Sutton
It was first decided to classify the various types of adult classes
to be taught in agriculture. They are:
1. Adult classes for pre-employment as well as in-service training
2. Young Farmer Classes
3. A. V. A. Classes and
4. Post-school, which would include junior college training
The objectives discussed for Adult Classes are:
1. To meet the needs for individual improvement
2. To improve the image of vocational agriculture in the communi-
3. To improve the standards of living.
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It was generally felt that one of the greatest needs for :.instvuc-
tioq was in Farm Management. Mr. Bobby Bennett of Farm Blreanustated
that his office would be glad to schedule Adult Classes and assist in
this area. He reiterated that it would probably pay for a farmer gros-
sing $14,000 to use the electronic data processing which Farm Bureau
The committee discussed various ways of making surveys in order to
discover problems and to recruit members. Various types of news media
and questionnaires were talked about and all helpful, but it was gen-
erally agreed that personal contact was the most important way to mak-
ing a survey.
Mr. Wood reminded the committee that excellent Adult Classes could
and had been set up by using specialists through the AgriculturalEx-
tension Service. Chairman Jones emphasized that length of meetings were
important in holding students that women liked shorter class times
than did men.
Reference was made to the Summary Observations of National Young
Farmer Study, found in the February Newsletter.
Work Group 4. Evaluating Local Programs
Chairman Quentin Duff, Miami; Secretary J. W. Brown, Sneads
Coordinator G. C. Norman; Consultant E. C. Eikman
I. The Objectives
A. To study and analyze local programs of Vocational Agriculture
B. To discover basic problems in local programs
C. To recommend and suggest ways and means of making local pro-
grams more effective
D. To make evaluation a continuing process
II. We recommend that the state staff develop criteria or guidelines
or instruments along the following lines:
A. Present facilities
1. Classroom 4. Land laboratory
2. Shop 5. Other facilities
B. Course of Study (including leadership training in F.F.A.)
C. Student teacher ratio
D. Attitude of administration
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E. Instructional materials (on hand or available)
F. Follow-up records
G. Condition of facilities
H. Use made of facilities
I. Local policies
J. Class schedule (including size of each)
K. Teacher preparation
L. Groups to reach secondary school, post-high school, adults,
disadvantaged youth, drop-outs
M. F.F.A. program
N. Summaries of recent surveys to
determine current needs and
Members not shown above:
L. A. Potts
Frank D. Humphrey
E. C. George
J. H. Elkins, Jr.
J. A. Lawson, Jr.
0. R. Farish
Donald E. Hurst
0. Z. Revell
Roger J. Ussery
Jacques D. Waller
J. W. Brown
H. Q. Duff
E. C. Eikman
G. C. Norman
Work Group 5. What Qualification Patterns
Should be Set Up for Occupation Teachers on Grants
in Regards to Recruitment, In-Service Training, and Certification
Chairman John Stephens, Bushnell; Secretary Kenneth Lee, Alachua
Consultants Dr. Nielsen, L. A. Potts, B. B. Archer, Dr. K. Eaddy
The question directed to group five (Agricultural Education Re-
search) was, "What qualification patterns should be set up for oocupa-
tion teachers on grants in regard to recruitment, in-service training
We interpret this question to mean that we should devote our atten-
tion to a consideration of some criteria to be used in the recruitment,
certification (or pre-service training) and the in-service educational
programs for teachers of agriculturally related occupations.
The committee, under the chairmanship of Mr. John Stephens; and
the consultative services of Dr. Nielsen, Dr. Eaddy, Mr. L. A. Potts,
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and Mr. B, B. Archer, deliberated at length upon three areas; namely
(1) recruitment of teachers, (2) pre-service training programs, and
(3) inrservice programs.
In regard to the three areas, the secretary in summarizing the num-
erous comments made by the group, identifies the following pertinent
1. In order to establish meaningful programs of related occupa-
tions, thhere;')shbdld beo/opovided qualified and certified
teachers to staff the program.
a. To secure an adequate staff of well-trained personnel,
the present teachers of Agricultural Education, Guidance
Counselors, Teacher Educators and others must accept, as a
challenge, the responsibility of guiding, informing, ac-
quainting and in.every way encouraging promising youth
with rural and/or urban background to pursue a college cur-
riculum leading toward full certification for teaching the
agriculturally related occupations.
b. We realize the urgency of obtaining personnel to fill the
immediate need of present and pending programs and recom-
mend thatcareful consideration be given to (1) the use of
individuals from business and the professions who are par-
tially certified to teach, work or advise in the needed
areas; (2) the use of student assistants in existing agri-
cultural classes --- 'through the use of student assistants
it is anticipated that their interest can be aroused to
prepare for the profession of teaching agriculturally re-
c. Interested teachers and others may be recruited to teach
agriculturally related occupation courses and fellowahhps,
scholarships and stipends could be used to help encourage
d. In the pre-service education phase of teacher preparation
critical thought and careful attention should be given to:
insure the inclusion of both technical agriculture and
professional education course work. The kind and extent
of the course work and other experiences are an extremely
important consideration. Much attention and emphasis 'has
been and will be placed upon the development of programs
founded upon research projects funded through the 1963 Vo-
cational Education Act. Teacher Educators, Administrative
and Supervisory Staff members should secure from the fol-
lowing sources available information to be used as guide-
lines in planning, developing, testing and evaluation of
proposed programs. (See attached list of programs.)
e. In-service programs of education should be provided to
keep teachers and other staff members professionally quali
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ified if programs of instruction are to be improved. De-
partments of teacher education should organize clinics,
workshops, courses of study and institutes thorughout the
state as a means of providing guidance and opportunity to
all vocational agricultural teachers, supervisors,,and ad-
ministrators to continually improve themselves profession-
In summary we would recommend that consideration be given to the
areas of recruitment, pre-service and in-service training programs. We
believe that creative thinking on the part of teachers, administrators,
supervisors and the lay-public coupled with information available from
pil9t, experimental and demonstration centers will aid in the develop-
ment of meaningful programs in the above mentioned areas; which in
turn, will enhance the development of effective programs of agricultur-
ally related occupations.
Work Group 6. Guidelines Challenges
Chairman Jack Millican, Umatilla; Secretary Curtis Marlowe, Starke
Coordinator C. M. Lawrence; Consultant Eddith Montgomery
Problem: What activities can we recommend to better inform all segments
of the public in regard to opportunities for employment through various
phases of agricultural instruction?
Before embarking upon the specific problem as stated, some general
statements concerning guidance shall be stated:
1. The public needs to be educated to the fact that all students
do not possess college capabilities or aptitudes.
2. Vocational and technical occupations play a major role in the
American way of life and are honorable occupations.
3. Guidance should meet the needs of the student rather than the
4. All educators are a party to guidance.
5. A quality program in agricultural education will attract qual-
With the foregoing statements in mind, recommendations as to the
specific problem follow:
Segments of the public which need to be informed and guided as to
the program offered in agricultural education are, in order of impor-
1. Agricultural education teachers
2. Other educators including administrators and guidance personnel
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4. John Q. Public
It is imperative that the agriculture education teachers keep
abreast of the rapid changes taking place in his program. Only by be-
ing well informed and competent can the teacher hope to impart the ad-
vantages of his program to others. Methods and activities by which the
teacher can become informed are:
1. Keeping abreast of agricultural occupation re quirements
through current publications.
2. By active participation in in-service programs of both pro-
fessional and technical mature.
3. By travel, observing agricultural businesses in operation and
visiting other teachers and departments.
Other educators, including administrators and guidance personnel,
must be informed as to the agricultural education program and its im-
portant contribution to the overall educational curriculum if students
that would benefit from the agriculture program are to be guided into
it. Specific methods for informing this group include:
1. Improving the image of agriculture instruction through accept-
able dress and professional attitudes of the agriculture
2. By having a quality instructional program.
3. By showing an interest in other areas of instruction in the
school and cooperation with fellow teachers in the total
4. By inviting teachers of other subject matter to agriculture
classes in session and providing open house affair for entire
5. By sharing information concerning students that would be of
mutual benefit to other teachers.
Students must have a knowledge of the offerings in the agriculture
program and the occupational opportunities that they might be better
qualified for if they are to seek enrollment in the program. Sugges-
tions as to how the information can be imparted to students are:
1. Providing an exploratory program in agriculture at the junior
high school level.
2. Placing in possession of prospective students a course of
3. Sponsoring group orientation programs prior to enrollment.
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4. By personal contact with prospective students and home visita-
The fourth segment of the populace that needs to be informed con-
cerning the agriculture education program is John Q. Public. For any
program to succeed, the general public must believe init and accept it.
After all, Johnny's parents exercise considerable influence in his
choice of course selections.
Among the activities to inform the public are:
1. An active citizen's Advisory Committee.
2. Improving the personal and professional image of the instruc-
3. Presenting public programs stressing agriculture program,
rather than stresAigg F.F.A.
4. Sponsoring informal functions such as open house, fish fry,
5. Expanding home visitation program.
6. Provide information concerning agriculture program to news
media; newspapers, radio, TV, etc.
7. By working through agriculture committees of civic clubs.
8. By using community resource people in the agriculture pro-
Finally, any activity which favorably publicizes the agriculture
education program and its contributions to the welfare of the indi-
vidual, the community, the state and the nation will assist in guiding
more quality students into the program.
The committee wishes to express its appreciation to Miss Eddith
Montgomery and Mr. C. M. Lawrence for their valuable contributions as
consultants to this report.
Work Group 7-A. What F.F.A. Activities and Calendar)Of
Events Implicating Merger Will Occur During 19659#6
Chairman Richard F. Kelly, Inverness; Secretary H. D. Hudson,
The committee makes the following two recommendations relative to
our committee title and job:
1. That all fairs have a current mailing list of those teachers
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of Vocational Agriculture within their participation areas, so
as to insure that rules and regulations are available to all
2. That the Florida Federation of Fairs through its various pub-
lications inform their Fair Managers and Advisory Committees
that all participation by F. F. A. Chapters is subject to the
provisions of the 1963 Civil Rights Act, and be furthermore
informed that all N. F.'A. Chapters have been re-designated as
F. F. A. Chapters.
The meeting was adjourned by Chairman Kelly at 3:40 P.M.
Committee members not shown above:
F. D. McCormick
O. M. Johnson
Richard A. Cobb
John C. Woods
Everett L. Pearcey
Paul E. Cade
Nathaniel L. Storms
J. C. Waldron
W. Carroll McElroy
Work Group 7-B. What Responsibilities are Involved-Which
Necessitate Guidelines Acceptable to Both Groups?
Chairman John Maddox, Wauchula;
Secretary Robert Ford, Orlando
1. A member holding a degree in the N. F. A. should start working to-
ward the next higher corresponding F. F. A. degree, with no penalty
2. State N. F. A. money, now in the Treasury, other than scholarship
money, be used to purchase F. F. A. paraphernalia for the N. F. A.
Chapters being changed to F. F. A.
Committee members not shown above:
Wm. B. West
R. E. Jones
M. A. Tucker
Wm. R. Miller
Fred L. Body
Hugh R. Mills
Work Group 7-C. What Provisions Should be Made for Fair and
Equitable Participation in Contests, Awards, Dues, Scholarships, and
Chairman James Edwards, Wildwood;
Secretary Irving Roche, Vernon
Possible problems of integration in merging FFA and NFA events.
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Sub-district and District Contests biggest area of discussion. No
problems on other events.
1. Determine location of Sub-district and District Contests wise-
ly at January Conference.
2. Teachers use discretion in choosing participants in Sfhbdis-
trict contests and other contests.
3. Take only participants to contests.
4. Eliminate Sweetheart Contest, Softball Contest and Horseshoe
5. The Quiz Contest from N. F. A. be added to F. F. A. Contests.
6. A study to be made by an appointed committee of agriculture
teachers to work out a way to combine the N. F. A. Talent Con-
test with the F. F. A. Musical Contests.
Work Group 7-D. What Procedures Should be Followed at September Con-
fdrendds ta Implement Recommendations Accepted by
the Summer Conference Teachers?
Chairman Dwight Nifong; Plant City; Secretary W. R. Jeffries,Zephyrr
Consultant A. R. Cox hills
1. That the Scrapbook Contest, Vegetable Judging, Grading, Identifica-
tion and Demonstration Contest, Delegates and Advisers Luncheon,
Fish Fry, and Band Shell Program be continued.
2. That in the Parliamentary Procedure Contest the terminology be the
same as used in Stewart's Handbook on Parliamentary Procedure in
all contests from sub-district through State and that someone give
the correct answers and procedures to questions and abilities fol-
lowing the conclusion of the State Contest.
3. That the Florida Farm Bureau continue to sponsor the Parliamentary
Procedure Contest, and that Mid-States Steel and Wire Company con-
tinue to award the special certificates and $5.00 check to State
Farmer recipients, and Florida Production Credit Association ,pre-
sent the keys to State Farmers.
4. That the maintenance record requirement for the Tractor Driving
Contest be eliminated.
5. That the F. F. A. N. F. A. Scholarship funds be combined and
scholarships be awarded to University of Florida and Florida A & M
Education majors going into teaching and given upon graduation.
(Total teacher group moved to refer the recommendation to a commit-
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tee composed of: Carl Rehwinkel, Chairman; Bruce Howell, D.H.
Hudson, and E. R. Scott, and Manning Carter. The committee has in-
structed to meet as soon as possible.)
6. That we accept the action taken by State Convention delegates oon
String Band, allowing any kind of drums, and recommend that in the
Quartet Contest they may be accompanied by one instrument.
7. That the committee work assignments at the State Convention be set
up the same as this year.
Work Group 8. Responsibilities and Plans for A. V. A.
and N. V. A. T. A. Convention; Combined Agricultural Groups
Chairman Perry Sistrunk, Miami; Secretary O.T. Stoutamire, Sebring
Coordinators Floyd Johnson and Elvin Walker
Consultant L. A. Marshall
Recommended that the September Conferences designate representa-
tives to theAVA-NVATA Convention at Miami Beach, December 4-10, 1965.
Recommended that State Supervisor write County Superintendent and
principals requesting selected delegates and representatives be allowed
to attend AVA NVATA Convention, and if possible, to pay per diem and
Recommended that a poll of agriculture teachers at this conference
be taken to determine who would like to go to AVA NVATA convention,
and give these names to Mr. W. T. Loften to use in helping with plans
Recommended that Perry Sistrunk represent this committee in ex-
plaining committee recommendations to the FVATA, here this week, take
the poll and work with Mr. Loften in using the poll results for plan-
ning work that needs to be accomplished for AVA NVATA convention.
Work Group 9. Agricultural Mechanics Competencies
Needed to Qualify Prospective Employees
Chairman Glynn Key, Walnut Hill; Secretary Donald Farrens, Sanford
Coordinator Clarence Rogers; Consultant J.K. Privett
1. In order to identify these competencies, a study should be made in
the individual community or area.
2. Data should be gathered through prospective employers, and by study
of professional literature on these topics to determine those com-
petencies needed both locally and thorughout the state.
3. Guidance should be provided by the State iDepartment in helping to
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set up programs to fit the problems that are identified though
4. The committee feels that individual problems in advanced skills will
have to be determined as stated above. But that continuation of
basic Agricultural Mechanics skills in the early years of Vocational
Agriculture should always be emphasized. Especially pertinent
is the area of preventive maintenance.
5. The state suggested teaching program is an excellent guideline for
teaching the above skills.
6. Careful study of pilot programs should be observed by all interested
departments in order that feasible programs can be implemented into
working order whenever possible.
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