Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Conference proceedings
 Speeches included for reference...
 Reports of work groups
 Back Cover

Group Title: Agriculture education, summary of the Annual State Conference for teachers of vocational agriculture
Title: Summary of the annual State Conference
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00080862/00001
 Material Information
Title: Summary of the annual State Conference 1963-
Series Title: Florida. State Dept of Education
Physical Description: v. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: State Conference for Teachers of Vocational Agriculture
Florida -- Division of Vocational, Technical, and Adult Education
Publisher: Division of Vocational, Technical, and Adult Education, Agricultural Education Section.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 1964
Subject: Agricultural education -- Congresses -- Florida   ( lcsh )
General Note: Conferences began 1925.
General Note: Procedings not published before 1963.
General Note: Library has: For holdings see Documents.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00080862
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - AHQ5987
oclc - 21390800
alephbibnum - 001631193

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
        Page i
        Page i-a
    Table of Contents
        Page ii
        Page ii-a
        Page iii
        Page iii-a
    Conference proceedings
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
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        Page 12
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        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Speeches included for reference purposes
        Page 30
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        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
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        Page 37
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        Page 40
    Reports of work groups
        Page 41
        Page 42
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    Back Cover
        Page 52
        Page 53
Full Text

375.oo97 V
P636 6
ic 7E -5



Bulletin 72E-5

August, 1964



Division of Vocational, Technical, and Adult Education
Walter R. Williams, Jr., Director

Agricultural Education Section
Harry E. Wood, Supervisor

3 75: 00 7 57

-, 72 E -5
c, Z


The 1964 Annual State Conference for Teachers of Vocational Agri-
culture was held at the Cherry Plaza Hotel in Orlando, Florida, July 6
through July 10, 1964.

A Program Committee, consisting of the Executive Committee of the
Florida Vocational Agriculture Teachers' Association and the staff,
planned the conference program and selected the theme for the confer-
ence "Meeting the Challenge in Agricultural Education".

A summary of the proceedings of the conference was organized and
arranged by personnel of the Agricultural Education Department of the
University of Florida, and duplicated by the Division of Vocational,
Technical,and Adult Education of the State Department of Education at
Tallahassee, Florida.

In addition to a general summary of the conference, papers: pre-
pared by the following men are included in this report:

Mr. Floyd Johnson, Vice President,American Vocational Association
representing Agriculture, and Conference Consultant

Mr. L. A. (Luke) Thomas, Executive Secretary, Florida Council of
Farmer Cooperatives

SMr. Edward Turlington, Alachua County Instructor in Placement for
Farm Experience

Mr. Robert Hargrave, Teacher of Vocational Agriculture, Howard
Bishop Junior High School, Gainesville, Florida

The paper given by Mr. C. Huxley Coulter, State Forester, Talla-
hassee, was duplicated by his department and copies were later given to
all vocational agriculture teachers in the state.

A summary of the recommendations of the twelve conference "Work
Groups" is included as a part of this report.

Acknowledgment and appreciation are hereby expressed for the very
valuable services and contributions of those who planned and partici-
q9 pated in this program and to the secretaries, and office personnel and
state staff members who have made this report possible.

It is hoped that the teachers of vocational agriculture in the
state will review and study the valuable information as presented at
the conference and use the ideas presented to improve their educational

W. T. Loften
Conference Secretary




Foreword ...................................... ............. i
Table of Contents ................................. ........... ii

SECTION I CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS ..........................1
Monday, July 6
Changes in Our Program Philosphy ................. 2
Using a County-Wide Agricultural Committee ....... 2
Operation DARE .................................... 2
Identifying and Locating Occupational Opportunities 3
Reactor Panel .................................... 4
Tuesday, July 7
Implementing In-School Programs A Panel ........ 4
Implementing Programs for Students with Special
Needs A Panel .............................. 6
Implementing Programs in Post-High Training -
A Panel ..................................... 7
Agriculture Business in a Changing Economy ....... 11
What Can State Farmers Markets Do .............. 11
Why Florida Vo-Ag Teachers Should Promote Florida
Agricultural Products ....................... 11
Opportunities in Market Service Work ............. 13
New Directions in Florida Agricultural Economy ... 15
Agriculture and Agri-Business in Orange County ... 15
Job Opportunities in Agricultural Occupations -
A Panel ....................................... 16
Opportunities in Dairying ........................ 16
Opportunities -iBeef Cattle ...................... 17
Opportunities in Citrus .......................... 17
Opportunities in Agricultural Engineering ........ 18
Opportunities in Farm Electrification ............ 19
Wednesday, July 8
Opportunities in Horticulture .................... 19
Opportunities in Forestry ........................ 20
Opportunities in Conservation Programs ........... 20
Opportunities Connected with Agricultural Chemicals 21
Safe Use of Agricultural Chemicals ............... 21
Placement for Experience ......................... 22
Teaching Agri-Business Through Cooperation with DE
and DCT .................................... 22
Reactor Panel ..................................... 23
Thursday, July 9
Follow-Up of Former Students ..................... 25
Work Group Meetings .............................. 25
FVATA Meeting .................................... 26
Friday, July 10
Exchange of Ideas Contenst ....................... 26
Reports of Work Groups ........................... 26
Summary of Conference ................,........... 26

Friday, July 10 (Continued)
Announcements and Closing Remarks .................
General Conference Information .........................
Contributions ..........................................

The Future Farmer of Today, by L. A. Thomas ............
Implications of the 1963 Vocational Education Act
to Agriculture, by Floyd Johnson ..................
Fallouts, Dropouts, and Pushouts, by Robert Hargrave ...
Teacher Guidance in Placement for Farm Experience, by
E. B. Turlington ..................................


Work Group

Work Group

Work Group
Work Group

Work Group



Work Group 1
Work Group 1

Work Group 1

1. Suggestions and Criteria for Supervised
Practice Programs ......................
2. Working Relationships With Other
Vocational Programs ....................
3. Dealing With Individual Differences ....
4. Post High School Training Programs in
Agriculture ............................
5. Agricultural Production Training Programs,
Adult Classes ..........................
6. Off-Farm Occupations Training Programs
7. Programs for Drop-Outs .................
8. Research Needs .........................
9. Setting Up An Active Public Information
Program ...............................
0. Do We Need Changes in the F.F.A. Program
.1. How Can Work Opportunities in Agricultural
Occupations Be Identified in Each County?
.2. College Career Day Activities ..........


Monday.morning, July 6

Chairman H. W. Suggs, Branford; Secretary W. S. Fletcher, Arcadia

The first session of the conference opened with an invocation by
W. T. Loften, followed by greetings and welcomes from Orange County
Superintendent of Public Instruction, Mr. Earl Kipp; Orlando Mayor,
Honorable Robert S. Carr; and Mr. Joel Moore, Manager of the Cherry
Plaza Hotel. Mr. Kipp expressed his convictions regarding the import-
ance of agriculture and the excellent work of vocational agriculture

President-Elect Herbert Henley introduced other guests of the
conference, and Mr. Loften presented the new teachers of vocational

Our State Supervisor, Mr. H. E. Wood, introduced Mr. A-,L. (Luke)
Thomas, Executive Secretary of the Florida Council of Farmer Cooper-
atives, who gave an illustrated talk on the place of cooperatives in
connection with the FFA members. This talk is included in Section II
of these proceedings.

Mr. H. E. Wood then gave "plans for the conference". He commented
on the extreme importance of "Meeting the Challenge in Agricultural
Education", and the importance of research on the local level in co-
operation with "all agricultural services aid interested lay personnel"
in order to determine what needs to be done.

Mr. Wood quoted an excerpt from the book, "Man,Education and Work'
as follows:

"VOCATIONAL AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION have recently assumed a new
importance in this country. The dramatic rise in youth unemployment
and underemployment, the shortage of badly needed personnel in many
technical, semiprofessional, and skilled occupations, the retraining
and continuing education needs of workers displaced by automation, and
the rising demand for new educational opportunities both at the second-
ary and post-secondary levels have forced a re-examination of this
nation's long-standing neglect of occupational education.

Passage of the Vocational Education Act of 1963 was one outcome
of that re-examination. Its provisions assure adequate funds for the
necessary expansion that lies ahead. (But more occupational education
does not necessarily mean better occupational education, and one is as
important as the other)."

Mr. Wood then commented on our good fortune in having with us
Mr. Floyd Johnson, "one of the best qualified men in the nation to
serve as our consultant."

- 1 -

A brief resume of the plans for the conference activities fol-

Changes in Our Program Philosophy
Dr. W. R. Williams, Jr., State Director, Vocational, Technical,
and Adult Education, State Department of Education,
Tallahassee, Florida

Dr. Williams emphasized the nature and importance of :a good
philosophy, using as an example the results in the life of John D.
Rockefeller, of the change in philosophy from that of making as much
money as possible to that of assisting others with what he had. Dr.
Williams explained the relation of the federal program for vocational
education to the problems of vocational agricultural education.

Using a County-Wide Agricultural Committee to Meet New Challenges
Dr. M. O. Watkins, State Director, Agricultural Extension Service,
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida

Dr. Watkins discussed the place of county-wide agricultural com-
mittees in meeting new challenges through county-wide planning with
organized groups working on the attainment of designated specific
goals for their communities. He stated that there are nineteen counties
now organized for the purpose of developing community resources. Dr.
Watkins expressed his desire that the Agricultural Extension Service
cooperate in any way possible with our vocational agricultural groups,
and requested that our teachers participate as much as possible in the
activities of county agricultural committees.

Operation DARE
Dr. E. T. York, Jr., Provost of Agriculture
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida

Dr. York discussed "OPERATION DARE",voicing his interest of long-
standing in vocational agricultural education; and his confidence in
the progress of agriculture in Florida. He noted (1) changing demands,
(2) population changes, (3) increase in "purchasing power", (4) growth
of agricultural production in Florida as compared with other parts of
the nation, (5) comparative advantages in Florida as to climate and
other natural resources.

Dr. York explained the DARE procedures of using large and ef-
ficient committees to study and analyze, on a state-wide basis, the
various problems of different segments of the agriculture complex. He
emphasized the need for county groups to study local conditions and
determine what actions need to be taken to best provide the needed
programs for agriculture.

Dr. York then briefly mentioned some of the findings of the DARE

- 2 -

Committees for various production groups, and stated that in the next
few months these finding would be provided in written form for inter-
ested persons.

Monday afternoon, July 6

Chairman Marion Bishop, Gainesville Secretary Glenn Wade, Jr.,
Haines City

Our Consultant Mr. Floyd Johnson, the teacher of vocational agri-
culture in York, S.C., former President of the N.V.A.T.A., and a member
of the National Panel of Consultants of Vocational Education, presented
an excellent discussion of the Implications of the 1963 VocationalEdu-
cation Act to Vocational Agriculture. This discussion will be found
in Section II of these proceedings.

Identifying and Locating Occupational Opportunities in Agriculture
Ralph Moss, Chief of Farm Plcement
Florida Industrial Commission, Tallahassee, Florida

Mr. Moss discussed briefly the organization, duties and responsi-
bilities of this department. Below is given an outline of his discus-
sion regarding needs for agricultural workers.


1. 85,000 seasonal workers at peak (mostly harvest)
2. 10,000 year-round workers
3. Skilled agricultural workers (tractor drivers, equipment
operators, supervisors, field foremen, etc.)


1. Sources

(a) Florida based (E.S.) workers (mostly negro) 4,500
(b) S. E. States workers, exchange 10,000
(c) Puerto Ricans 3,000
(d) Texas Mexican 3,000
(e) Supplemental foreign workers 13,000
(f) Local workers 11,000

C. OUTLOOK -"DARE" Predictions

1. Increases in crop production of sugar cane, citrus, vegetables
2. Increase in labor needs of 40,000 by 1970
3. No increases discernible in labor supply


- 3 -

1. (a) Bean harvester; (b) Citrus picker; (c) Sugar cane cutter;
2. Break-through to date mostly in pre-harvest machines
3. Much good work is now being done by the Agricultural Engineer-
ing Departments in our universities.


1. Skilled workers needed:

(a) Equipment operators (c) Supervision
(b) Equipment repairmen (d) Farm management

2. Improvements needed:

(a) Improve the "image" of the nature of farm work
(b) Better work vs. employer attitudes
(c) Better living conditions
(d) Competitive wages
(e) "Selling" agriculture in all communities

Reactor Panel
W. T. Loften Moderator

Following this discussion a panel commented on the talks given by
speakers during the day. The panel complimented the speakers' remarks.
Mr. Duff noted the need for more schools to determine and implement a
philosophy as necessary in situations where education is changing and
where even formal education is becoming a continuous process. Mr. Vin-
cent Jones stressed the need for cooperation with all other agricultur-
al interests in our communities and emphasized the need for youth to
learn to WORK. Mr. Nifong noted the teachers' problem in attending
meetings of local committees often held during school hours. He sug-
gested that teachers may well encourage others to work with these com-

Mr. Jeffries and Mr. Busby commented on the importance of oper-
ation DARE in our local communities and the need for teachers keeping
informed and assisting as they can in the further local action related
to it. Mr. Busby emphasized the fact that education is the key to
"Operation DARE" and that our instructional program should be con-
cerned with its findings and recommendations.

Tuesday morning, July 7

Chairman G. C. Norman, Tallahassee Secretary Geo. N. Busby,

Implementing In-School Programs A Panel
T. L. Barrineau Moderator

In introducing this discussion Mr. Barrineau stressed the following:


1. The vocational agriculture program is an integral part of the
high school program
2. Vocational agriculture departments should develop their philo-
sophy and objectives
3. Our program must challenge students to the maximum depth of
their understanding
4. We are going to be called upon to show that (a) students'needs
are being met; (b) enrollees have benefited from their train-
ing; and (c) the training has resulted in gainful employment
5. Quality instruction is required and changes must be made from
time to time.

Mr. Barrineau also gave some of the trends reported by various
states at the 1964 Southern Regional Conference of Supervisors and
Teacher Trainers in Agricultural Education. These were'trends toward:

1. Establishing an instructional program for the first two years
in vocational agriculture including guidance, orientation, and
2. Organizing the instructional program around the teaching of
larger units
3. Determining through surveys, the needs and opportunities in
agriculture businesses related to farming
4. Assisting students with limited or no facilities for farming
programs to find opportunities for placement on farms or in
related agriculture businesses,

The following priorities for Supervised Practice Programs were
agreed upon at this Southern Regional Conference:

1. Supervised farming program for the students with suitable situ-
ations or for whom suitable situations can be provided
2. Placement on a farm
3. Placement in a closely related agriculture business or profes-

Mr. Barrineau stated that "a good local program is the best so-
lution to all our problems."

Panelist H. W. Suggs, Branford

1. Made a survey of non-farming agri-businesses in his community.
2. Surveyed prospective students to determine their interests.
3. Arranged a meeting of interested businessL men, interested
students and school officials to determine a satisfactory pay
scale, working hours, etc.
4. Followed practices given below:
(a) Students were excused from school at 2:15 P.M.
(b) The vocational agriculture teacher assisted in supervis-
ing and evaluating the students' work
(c) Students received one credit for their work
(d) Students worked a minimum of ten hours per week while
school was not in session.

- 5 -

(e) The pay scale ranges from 50 to $1.25 per hour
(f) If during the year, students proved unsatisfactory in
their work, they were to receive no partial credit for
work done.

Mr. Suggs concluded that he felt that he is "helping boys with
on-the-job instruction and that they are receiving skills that they
could not get completely at the school."

Panelist Paul Cade, Pierson

1. Questionnaire completed by senior students regarding possible
new crops
2. Special instruction in unusual requirements in the production
of leatherleaf and other ferns
3. Satisfactory production of Arizona Cypress Christmas trees
with a good local demand and satisfactory profit
4. Beginning program in production of new varieties of plums and

Panelist Perry Sistrunk, Miami

Mr. Sistrunk discussed and showed slides of the four high school
vocational agriculture programs at Miami and the program at South Dade
High School. These showed how students use the school farm facilities
for intense production of
3. Poultry
1. Ornamentals 4. Strawberries
2. Beef steers 5. Potatoes and vegetables

The farm mechanics and leadership programs were also stressed.

Implementing Programs for Students with Special Needs A Panel
D. A. Storms, Sr., Moderator

In introducing this discussion Mr. Storms gave the following

1. One-third (1/3) of the nation's young people drop out of school
before high school graduation
2. This "creates a big challenge to education, not only to offer
the kind of training that will hold our students, but to pre-
pare them for gainful employment after graduation, and inspire
the capable of continuing in higher education to be qualified
for that job that will pay twice as much as high school gradu-
ate can expect."
3. Some causes leading to dropping out of school were listed as
(a) Indifference and apathy on the part of parents
(b) Lack of counseling and inspiration in the lower grades,
as well as in high school, by teachers
(c) Uninteresting teaching methods


(d) Unfavorable school environment
(e) Not enough time given to slow learners in reading, spel-
ling and writing
(f) Not tieing in vocational training experiences with academic
(g) Not sufficient testing program to determine students' capa-
bilities and interests.

Panelist Robert Hargrave, Gainesville

(See Section II for this discussion on "Fallouts, Dropouts, and

Panelist Paul B. Stephens, Jr., Coordinator, Special Education, Pinel-
las County, Clearwater

Mr. Stephens gave an interesting discussion of the programs being
used in his county to help the children who are sub-norma, particular-
ly in the special schools and classes, and for the lower grades. He
praised very highly the work being done by Mr. Prinz in the agricultural
program at Parkland School.

Panelist William Prinz, Pinellas Park

Mr. Prinz showed and commented on approximately eighty (80) slides
about the activities of the mentally retarded children in his school.

1. The children were classed as (a) trainable (I. Q. range of 25 to
50) and educable (I.Q. range of 50 to 80)
2. The children could do simple jobs commendably and were satis-
fied to do the same kind of a job over and over
3. Pupils received much satisfaction from doing a job commendably.
4. After receiving professional assistance a few pupils could be
transferred to a regular school program
5. A few pupils could be trained to earn a living in agriculture
especially in phases of nursery work) and some were so,'doing
at the present time
6. Pupils were interested in the F.F.A. program.

Implementing Programs in Post High Training A Panel
C. M. Lawrence, Moderator

In introducing this subject, Mr. Lawrence stated:

1. High school programs can (a) provide understanding and orien-
tation regarding the many occupations requiring knowledge and
skill in agriculture; (b) provide basic educationin agricultur-
al science common to most occupations in agriculture,both farm
and non-farm; and (c) provide terminal education for both farm
and non-farm occupations requiring a minimum of knowledge and
skill in agriculture which can be secured through our coopera-
tive or placement programs.

- 7 -

2. Farming is becoming so scientific and complicated in nature
that high schools cannot now, or in the future, provide all
specialized andadvanced courses needed by farmers or prospec-
tive farmers, because: (a) most student bodies are of insuffi-
cient size to make needed course offerings economically feas-
ible,-(b) teachers have a full-time job providing basic educa-
tion in agricultural science common to most agricultural occu-
pations, and (c) most high school students are not ready for
specialization. Therefore, it is believed that specialized
and advanced agriculture courses must be provided in post-high
school institutions.

3. Much research and study remain tobe accomplished to (a) identi-
fy the off-farm occupations which require knowledge and skill
in agriculture; (b) determine the amount and kinds ofknowledge
and skills required to perform successfully in these occupations;
(c) develop curricula to meet these needs; (d) inform prospec-
tive students about training opportunities, and (e) recruit and
train teachers to do the instructing.

Panelist Dr. M. A. Brooker, Dean, College of Agriculture, University
of Florida, Gainesville

Dr. Brooker discussed the place of the college of agriculture in
post-high school education. He stressed the following:

1. The technological explosion in agriculture and the rapid ex-
pansion of the off-farm phase of the agricultural industry have
brought about an increasing need for both professional and
semi-professional workers.

2. A part of this demand can be supplied by those with less than
college degree, but with a year or two of quality vocational
education beyond their basic high school education.

3. We are concerned, however, not only with quality vocational
education programs, but with university parallel programs, and
the development of professional workers.

4. There is a desire to encourage the transfer of junior college
graduates to the senior universities,and to make this transfer
as simple and easy as possible.

5. The regular university parallel programs of the junior colleges
represent noparticular concern for the college of agriculture.
The concern is only that there be good basic preparation dur-
ing the freshman and sophomore years, including such courses
as chemistry, botany, zoology, mathematics,English, economics,
the humanities, and other work in general education and the
basic sciences.

6. We believe that several of the junior colleges have the capa-
bility of giving a limited number of agriculture courses that
will be acceptable for transfer when the student is admitted

- 8 -

to the college of agriculture. To make certain, however, that
these courses will be acceptable and that there will be no
disappointment on the part of the student, we suggest the fol-
(a) The courses should be limited in number
(b) In general they should be courses that do not have pre-
(c) They should be taught by properly certified teachers, ie.
those who have at least Master's Degree with major in the
subject area of the course offered
(d) If a course requires laboratory instruction,then adequate
laboratory facilities should be available
(e) Adequate instructional and reference material should be
(f) In order to obtain some uniformity in course content, the
junior college teacher of the proposed course should con-
sult with the department of the college of Agriculture
that offers the comparable course.

7. We have established a committee of faculty members of the
college of agriculture that will have among its iregponsibili-
ties the following:
(a) Evaluate agricultural courses offered in junior colleges
for transfer credit to the college of agriculture
(b) Through the university-wide Jpnior College Advisory Com-
mittee, offer guidance and counsel to junior colleges
regarding course offerings in agriculture and pre-agri-
culture curricula
(c) Study and devise suitable means for informing junior col-
lege students regarding training and career opportunities
in agriculture.

We invite the junior colleges to make use of this committee, to
the benefit of both the junior colleges and the college of agriculture,
and more importantly, to the advantage of the students concerned.

8. For comparable time spent in college, graduates in agriculture
have opportunities equal to the best.

It has been observed that the greatest demand is for those with
strong academic records, and many employees are by-passing new gradu-
ates and looking ;for those with advanced degrees.

Panelist H. E. Phillips, President of Lake City Junior College,
Lake City, Florida

1. Ninety percent (90%) of the jobs a decade from now do not now
2. The world's store of knowledge is doubling every decade.
3. Of all the scientists in the world from the beginning of time
52% are now living.
4. Agriculture is faced with the problem of producing 23% more
food with 27% fewer workers on 4 ,000 fewer acres.

- 9 -

5. More education is needed than is available in the high school.

Mr. Phillips stated that he believes thatin regard to agriculture
the junior college should:

1. Have a minimum of courses of a general nature (students with
acceptable high school agriculture courses would be excused
from this requirement)
2. Provide a terminal program, although there often should be the
possibility of a college transfer credit,as this may encourage
the better students to go on.
3. Consider the market for graduates of agri-business courses
4. Provide for educating technicians who have a specialty in
5. When possible, provide actual work experience.

Panelist L. W. Harrell, Winter Haven

1. There is a need for increased emphasis for the young farmer

2. Close coordination and cooperation should exist between the
college staff and the various agricultural departments in the
college service area to the extent of securing students, con-
ducting surveys as to needs, and sharing facilities.

3. For various reasons, not all students need a 4-year degree and
many desirable positions can be filled by students prepared
for less than this time. To determine the various positions
in Polk County, we used several methods. We developed Flow
Charts for Citrus Production, Citrus Nursery Production, and
Ornamental Production as to job responsibility. Then Job De-
scriptions were written for each position. In conference with
leaders in each field,a curriculum was developed in each area.
We also cooperated with the junior college staff in organizing
craft committees to determine the needs for trained technicians
in various agricultural fields.

4. The Polk Junior College plans to offer tracts in Citrus, Citrus
Nursery, Ornamental Production Management, Livestock Manage-
ment, and Agri-Business this fall. Two-year programs will be
designed to train a Field-Oriented Technician in one of these
selected areas. This program could result in receiving an
Associate of Science Degree from the training institution.

5. Students may also attend the college one semester or one year
with a goal of becoming proficient in a particular job.

6. Courses in agriculture that are deemed necessary as determined
by the craft committees, agriculture teachers, or other re-
source media can be offered at night for upgrading persons now
gainfully employed.

- 10 -

Tuesday afternoon, July 7

Chairman D. E. Ryals, Altha Secretary J. L. Dunaway, Jasper

Agriculture Business in a Changing Economy
Allen Poole, Marketing Specialist, State
Department of Agriculture, Tallahassee, Florida, Moderator

Mr. Poole had distributed a brochure which outlined the objectives
of the Division of Marketing as:

1. To assist agricultural groups by keeping them abreast of chan-
ges in demand
2, To improve the farmers' market power through soundly developed
marketing programs
3. To assist the producer in providing the consumers wttithi'ihi-4er
quality products at reasonable prices
4. To relfect Mrs. Housewife's demands back to the producer,

Mr. Poole also emphasized the objectives of the panel's presenta-
tion, "To Acquaint Vocational Agriculture Teachers with Future Trends
in Marketing Opportunitiies for Young Men who Cannot Go to College." He
commented on the importance in our community life of persons who pro-
vide such consumer services to producers and consumers.

What Can State Farmers Markets Do for the Vocational
Agriculture Teachers and His Young Men
Mr. Frank Conner, Florida State Farmers Markets,
State Department of Agriculture, Tallahassee, Florida

1. All of us are parts of one very big team which is working for
a healthy, prosperous, agricultural industry
2. We need to establish better communications between the market-
ing agencies and the vocational agriculture teachers
3. The success of marketing programs will depend to a great degree
on the understanding and cooperation of the farmers and "bud-
ding" farmers
4. Market managers may give valuable advice as to buyers, best
marketing times and procedures, use of market facilities, etc.,
and are more than willing to help.

Why Vocational Agriculture Teachers Should Promote Florida
Agricultural Products
Carroll Lamb, Production Chief, Market Expansion,
State Department of Agriculture, Tallahassee, Florida

1. As part of Commissioner Conner's aggressive marketing program,
the Market Expansion-Promotion Section b e g an operating in
December 1961. This section is charged with the over-all res-
posibility of promoting Florida agricultural products in and
outside the state.

- 11 -

2. We have concentrated most of our efforts toward setting up an
effective merchandising program.

3. Mrs. Housewife is the boss ... She demands first and foremost:
convenience ... pre-cooked, pre-packed, processed, frozen,
mixed, dehydrated, powdered, concentrated. We live in a day
of missiles, can openers, instant coffee and ... TV dinners.

4. Mrs. Housewife spends an average of 27 minutes buying her week's
supply of food and only five minutes of this time is devoted
to the store's produce department where fresh Florida farm
products are squarely on the line.

5. Shopping for quality is sometimes a secondary or subconscious
consideration for the average consumer. It is up to us in os
motion to create the right atmosphere to prompt the consumer
to buy quality Florida quality.

6. Food processors got a tremendous jump on fresh suppliers in
preparing printed messages to the consumer. For years, this
has been done on labels and with other point-of-sale materials
in and on the grocery shelves.

7. Other competition for produce cropped up in the form of all
sorts of non-grocery items--everything from bobby pins to
basket-balls are now sold in supermarkets carrying up to 6,000
distinct items competing for the shopper's dollar and part of
her attention during that 7-minute stroll through the market.
In 1940, there were only about 1,000 items offered in the store.
Even barely 10 years ago one-third of the items offered didn't
even exist. Seven new items are introduced a week, four are

8. During the 30 months that we have been operating, we have been
responsible for setting up 420,583 "in-store" promotions in
over 50,000 supermarkets promoting Florida farm products. These
markets, located in 40 states and 3 foreign countries have
used 4,711,608 pieces of the material designed and distributed
by us.

9. By appealing effectively to key executives in 128 firms, we
can hope for participation by stores representing 64 percent
of all the food business. In short, our four men, making food
chain headquarters calls, can accomplish infinitely more than
by attempting to make the rounds store by store, city by city,
state by state. (Some of these foods executives control as many
as 3,000 stores' promotional policies.)

10. The supermarkets over-all mark-up is about 20 percent. But in
the produce department, this mark-up is 31 percent. So when
we offer assistance in moving a heavier volume of the 'Ihigh-
mark-up items of produce, we get a good reception. We have
tried to develop a wholesome relationship with these industry

- 12 -

leaders, and we ask them sincerely: What can we do to help you
sell more Florida products?

11. It has been one of our most important functions to let the
farmer know of the consumer's changing tastes so that the farmer
can adjust to the changes ahead of or at least conincide with
his competition.

12. A SunFLAvor Act was passed by the 1963 Legislature and gives
the Department of Agriculture specific authority forLsupertis-
ing, and promoting the program-- which includes fines for mis-
use of the seal.

13. The American consumer, through the SunFLAvor seal, will be
able to identify Florida's finest agricultural products.

14. Producers will be able to capitalize and in effect promote
their own premium product nationally--through SunFLAvor. Thus
they will benefit from thousands of dollars spent in advertis-
ing--something that would be impossible for them alone.

15. The farmer must promote his product the same as any merchant
on Main Street, and it is our job to help him do so.

Opportunities in Market Service Work
John Stiles, Chief, Marketing Bureau Section, Division
of Marketing, State Department of Agriculture, Jacksonville, Florida

1. Market service work includes:
(a) Maintaining and improving quality
(b) Expanding market outlets through the use of new ideas,
and new markets
(c) Reducing costs through improving efficiency of marketing
facilities and operations (especially in packing houses)
(d) Providing basic data and market information as to:
(1) Quality of products available, where, and when
(2) Quality (according to standard grades and packaging)
of available products
(3) Market information (supply, daily prices, and move-
ment of product)
(4) Market outlets available in state and out-of-state.

Mr. Stiles discussed the Tel-O-Auction system by which as many as
ten buyers may bid by telephone. Each one is given a certain identi-
fying number. During the auction the buyers are connected by phone
with the auctioneer. When a buyer desires to bid he calls his identi-
fying number over the phone, the auctioneer accepts his bid letting
the other buyers know whether the bid was in the barn or by telephone.
Such a system would, for example, make it possible for buyers in Miami
to bid from their offices on pigs being sold in Gainesville when the
pigs are officially graded.

- 13

Mr. Stiles discussed the following market service work now being
done or planned:

1. Grading slaughter hogs by unbiased graders using U.S. 1, U.S.2,
etc., grades

2. Feeder calf sales of field inspected animals of medium or bet-
ter grade, weighing between 300 and 600 pounds, and auctioned
off in uniform lots. (Mr. Stiles stated that corn belt feeders
are interested in purchasing Florida calves and want to know
quality, weight, availability, gentleness of animals, and sel-
ling price.)

3. Do-ability of Florida calves has proven good and is being pro-

4. Graded replacement heifer sales to auction field inspected
heifers meeting health requirements, in lots uniform as to
weight and grade.

5. Dairy replacement heifer sales may be developed in which per-
formance, pedigree, and health of animals is officially veri-

6. Marketing eggs
(a) An egg exchange or clearing house was set up in ':Tampa to
help sell our eggs that are surplus when few tourists are
in Florida
(b) Assistance was given in bringing into the state 2.!break-
ing plants"
(c) Tel-0-Auction system may be developed.

7. Watermelons For sound marketing we need:
(a) A quality control (Sun-FLAvor) program
(b) Modern system of assembling and shipping
(c) Efficient grading programs (belt grader desirable)
(d) To advise buyers of availability of markets
(e) Tel-0-Auction for selling
(f) To establish necessary promotional and retail service pro-

8. Our Tupelo honey should be given organized promotion.

9. Have a program which will provide forestry marketing inform-
ation and include the current price of various timbers by their
species, sizes, and locations.

10. Our fruits and vegetables marketing would be assisted through
promotion,and by improving the efficiency of operations in the
packing houses and grading sheds.

- 14 -

New Directions in Florida Agricultural Economy
Honorable Doyle Conner, Commissioner of Agriculture, State
Department of Agriculture, Tallahassee, Florida

1. Urban expansionis adding to the competition for use of Florida
land and causing an increase in value of 10% as opposed to a
national average increase of 6%.

2. Florida's excellent climate makes possible the growing of many
products and new crops are continuously being introduced and
successfully produced (approximately 2,000 acres of new varie-
ties of peaches in Florida).

3. Florida must move toward a more realistic price structure for
land use.

4. Florida's production has increased tremendouslyin the-past few
years in comparison with national averages.

5. The immensely increased production of sugarcane (to approxi-
mately 170,000 acres) has resulted in the establishment of
about 8 sugar mills in addition to the 3 or 4 that existed in
Florida in 1960.

6. In 1975, there will be in Florida a need for twice the present
supply to farmers of fertilizers, pesticides, etc.

7. There will be an increased spread between prices paid by con-
sumers and those received byfarmers. Florida agriculture must
be very alert to the needs of its tremendously increased urban
population, and to the demand for additional services in pro-
cessing, packaging, and retailing products.

8. Labor problems must be overcome by increased mechanization in

9. Our workers must become better trained in their technical
knowledge and agricultural skills in order to successfully
function in the changing agriculture.

Agriculture and Agri-Business in Orange County
Henry Swanson, Agricultural Extension Agent
Orange County, Orlando, Florida

1. In 1959, there were approximately 74.5 million dollars worth
of agricultural products sold in Orange County.

2. Orange County was 21st in 3,069 counties in the nation and 2nd
in Florida in relation to the value of agricultural products

3. In 1964,there were approximately three acres average land area

- 15 -

per individual in Orange County. It was estimated that this
would drop to an average of 2-1/2 acres per individual in 1975,
and 1.6 acres per person in the year 2000.

4. Agri-business in Orange County included:
(a) Many retail businesses for selling feed, seed, fertilizer,
pesticides, etc.
(b) Organizations for selling agricultural products
(c) Nurserymen
(d) Production managers and caretakers
(e) Packing houses
(f) Concentrate and chilled juice plants
(g) Express fruit shippers
(h) Can and container producing companies
(i) Tractor and machinery companies
(j) Chemical manufacturing plants and wholesalers
(k) Fertilizer manufacturing plants and wholesalers
(1) Federal and state agricultural agencies
(m) Crop reporting services
(n) Credit agencies for agriculture
(o) Consultant services for agricultural producers and home
(p) Agencies for transportation for agriculture.

Job Opportunities in Agricultural Occupations A Panel
H. E. Wood, Moderator

Mr. Wood introduced the panel members, commenting briefly on their
agricultural and FFA backgrounds. He expressed the appreciation of our
group for their assistance during the year, and for their participation
in our conference program.

Opportunities in Dairying
T. G. Lee and David Frey

Mr. David Frey presented a paper prepared by Mr. T. G. Lee, -an
Orlando dairyman, who sent his regrets he could not be present because
of an emergency call in relation to the state dairy industry. His
paper pointed out:

1. In 1925, it required $2,000 to $4,000 to establish a dairy
business. Now it takes $50,000 to $75,000.

2. Production workers need knowledge about (a) proper carecfcows,
(b) breeding principles, (c) symptoms of illness, and proce-
dures for treating animals, (d) production of feed, roughages,
etc., (e) irrigation, (f) operation of mechanical feeding

3. Workers in processing and distribution must know how to (a)
operate pasteurizers, homogenizers, clarifiers, sseparators,

- 16 -

etc., (b) properly 'use ,costly bottle washers, milk fillers,
case selectors, destackers and washers, stackers and in-floor
conveyors, etc., (c) repair andmaintain delicate and expensive

4. Alert observation and study of an employer's procedures are
extremely valuable.

5. Production managers, veterinarians, and plant managers should
have a college or specialized education.

Opportunities Beef Cattle
Gilbert Tucker, Manager, A. Duda and Sons, Inc., Cocoa

1. Florida produces only about 20% of the beef grading standard
and above that it consumes,and produces more of the low quali-
ty beef than it uses.

2. By 1975, there will be probably about 46% increase in total
numbers of beef cattle in Florida with an estimated production
of 700 million pounds worth 133 million dollars.

3. It is assumed that approximately the same acreage as'a present
(7,425,000) will continue to be used for grazing purposes.
Pasture land taken out of production will be concentrated by
land developed from present "forest and woodland" areas.

4. A good cattleman should know cattle and cattle production,
record keeping, care and use of equipment, general engineering,
soils and fertilizers, grasses, marketing, and how to getalong
with others.

5. College graduates are increasingly in demand and have excellent
opportunities in all agriculture including cattle production.

6. To be successful in agriculture, one must be intelligent, hard-
working and honest.

Opportunities in Citrus
R. V. (Red) Phillipd, General Manager
Haines City Citrus Growers Association, Haines City

1. Florida citrus is a big industry consisting of 64% of the
world's grapefruit and 23% of the world's oranges, packing
over 95% of the world's orange concentrate and approximately
80% of the world's processed citrus products. There are in
Florida 696,800 acres of citrus. Citrus growers employ approxi-
mately 75,000 persons and half as many more are employed as a
result of business which the citrus industry generates.

2. It is assumed that one production manager or assistant pro-

- 17 -

duction manager is needed for each 1,500 acres of citrus. Ap-
proximately 25 new production managers will beneeded each year.

3. Two foremen or working foremen (in direct charge of wotking
crews) is needed for each 1,000 acres of citrus. A net increase
of 220 such foreman will be needed in the next 10 years.

4. All junior colleges should take a good hard look at adequate
training for students in agriculture including those who plan
to complete only a junior college education.

5. The pay scale for good production managers and supervisors
should continuously increase.

Opportunities in Agricultural Engineering
C. J. Rogers, Assistant Professor, Agricultural Engineering
Department, University df Florida

1. Because of favorable and long growing seasons, equipment .is
operated in Florida more hours than for the averageof the rest
of the country.

2. Machines represent major investments in Florida Agriculture.
They should be efficient for their intended task.

3. Since mechanization is becoming more elaborate and complex,
the procurement, operation, maintenance and management of
equipment will require more skill, training, and intelligence
than is required with our present equipment.

4. Agricultural engineers will beincreasingly required to provide
for these mechanization needs. It is estimated that there are
approximately 100 agricultural engineers in Florida and that
an additional 450 such persons are needed now.

Professor Rogers gave some of the opportunities for agricultural
engineers as follows:

1. Agricultural production units:
(a) Selection of buildings and equipment for size and function
(b) Layout of buildings and equipment
(c) Design and supervision of water control systems
(d) Modifying environment (water, animals, plants)

2. Supply industries (on the staff of firms that manufacture and
distribute supplies to the agricultural industries):
(a) Machinery (e) Chemical applications
(b) Irrigation equipment (f) Fertilizer and seed
(c) Building materials suppliers
(d) Processing equipment (g) Animal feeds

3. Service industries (advisers to management and on the staff of

- 18 -

utility corporations):
(a) Electric companies
(b) Gas and fuel supply
(c) Technical reporters and writers for agricultural periodicals
(d) Contracting

4. Government:
(a) Teaching (d) Soil Conservation Service
(b) Extension (e) U. S. Geological Survey
(c) Research

5. Food Processing:
(a) Design of processing plants
(b) Plant operation and management

Opportunities in Farm Electrification
Don Adams, Director, Agricultural Development,
Florida Power and Light Company, Palatka, Florida

1. There are so many things done by electricity in agri-business
that there are many types of occupational opportunities.

2. More and more work will be done by machinery operated by elec-
tricity and fuels. This will require more persons for:
(a) Properly operating, and maintaining this equipment
(b) Selling equipment
(c) Servicing and repairing

3. Advanced education in engineering for agriculture has uflim-
ited possibilities.

Wednesday morning, July 8

Chairman O. T. Stoutamire, Sebring Secretary W. C. McElroy

Our esteemed Consultant, Mr. Floyd Johnson, introduced the panel
members for a continuation of the discussion of job opportunities in

Opportunities in Horticulture
James Mahaffey, Apopka, Florida

Mr. James Mahaffey, a very successful ornamental nurseryman from
Apopka, discussed the opportunities in that phase of agriculture. He
emphasized the need for an excellent education, hard work and continu-
ous study in order to succeed in the-ornamental plant industry. He
observed that young men often failed to see the prospects for a suc-
cessful and enjoyable vocation in this field, or, in fact, in agri-
cultural vocations in general. Mr. Mahaffey noted the need in this

- 19 -

industry for knowledge of disease controls, fertilization, packaging
and marketing.

Opportunities in Forestry
C. Huxley Coulter, State Forester, Tallahassee, Florida

Mr. Coulter gave an excellent discussion of possibilities in
vocations in forestry, which he has had duplicated and which is to be
given to teachers at the September group conferences.

Opportunities in Conservation Programs
J. W. Hammett, State Soil Conservationist,
U. S. Department of Agriculture, Gainesville, Florida

1. The following federal agencies need persons especially pre-
pared in the fiedd of soil and water conservation:
(a) Soil Conservation Service
(b) Forest Service
(c) Agricultural Research Service (Farm Research)
(d) Farm Agricultural Service
(e) Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service
(f) Department of Interior (Bureau of Land Management)
(g) Fish and Wildlife Service
(h) Bureau of Outdoor Recreation

2. Private industry needs men for this type of work:
(a) Production coprorations such as Minute Maid
(b) Fertilizer companies
(c) Farm equipment companies
(d) Manufacturers of tile for drainage, etc.

3. The Soil Conservation Service and a number of government
agencies use a "student trainee" approach, which provides,
after satisfactory completion of one year of college work,
employment during summer and at intervals during college train-
ing. Increasing pay scales are provided during training and
the trainee is automatically employed by Soil Conserva tion
Service upon graduation, provided, he has.madedsatisfactory

4. Specialties in the field of conservation include:
(a) Soil Scientists employed by SCS, ARS, FS, Bureau of
Land Management
(b) Soil Conservationists employed by SCS primarily (SCS
employs about 125 annually)
(c) Range Conservationists employed by SCS and the Forest
Service. (SCS employs 65 per year)
(d) Engineers SCS (about 220); Forest Service (200);
REA (30); ARS (15)
(e) Woodland Conservationists (Foresters) Approximately 450
are employed annually under Civil Service in USDA.

- 20 -

5. Students graduating in the following may qualify for the Soil
Conservationist position: Soil Science, Range Conservation,
Agronomy, Biology, Agricultural Economics, Forestry, and Vo-
cational Agriculture major.

Opportunities Connected With Agricultural Chemicals
Clifford Sutton, California Ortho Chemical Company
Orlando, Florida

Mr. Sutton gave an informative discussion of opportunities in the-
agricultural chemicals industries. He gave an outline of the organi-
zation of Standard Oil Company of California and its subsidiaries which
include his own company. The magnitude of this chemical industry was
shown by the fact that his company alone has 47 branches, 7 major pro-
duction facilities in the United States, 33 other liquid and dust
formulating plants scattered throughout the nationaddrd31largeeapeti-
mental farms.

Job opportunities exist in all of the above mentioned operations
as well as in sales to agricultural producers and to garden and home

Mr. Sutton stressed the greater opportunities for college gradu-
ates specializing in Entomology, Agronomy, Plant Pathology, Horticulture,
Pest and Insect Control and other related sciences. Openings include
those in administration, research and development, manufacturing,agri-
cultural science and engineering, as well as in sales promotion.

Mr. Sutton urged teachers to get acquainted with persons in their
community who are concerned with the use of agricultural chemicals
and secure from them the special information and assistance needed by
their students.

Safe Use of Agricultural Chemicals
Dr. F. E. Myers, Assistant Director, Agriculturo
Extension Service, University of Florida, Gainesville

Dr. Myers gave each teacher a kit which contained numerous very
valuable aids in teaching safety with agricultural chemicals. He
stressed the following points:

1. We must teach safety andwe must live it to really reach people.

2. Any misuse of chemicals, even around the home,reflects against
agriculture in general in the minds of the public.

3. As key people in agriculture, we hope you will make it your
personal responsibility to help in the total pesticide edu-
cation effort. You could do a great service by helping to
inform and assist the home economist in getting this story
across to future homemakers. You can make it your business to

- 21 -

get the story told to your civic groups, parent organizations,
and others with whom you are in contact.

In doing so, you can do very much for the image of agriculture,
you can do much to assure the public on the quality of the
food supply and you can do much to insure proper use, help
prevent accidents and help save lives.

4. We have much better record with pesticides than do medicines
or common household items. Latest data from the Accident Pre-
vention Program, Florida State Board of Health shows 4,985
poisonings in Florida last year. Pesticides accounted for 117,
medicines 61% (aspirin and other salicylates alone accounted
for 20%). Household items 21% (cleaners, kerosene, cosmetics,
etc.); plants 87. and 4% for other.

5. We in Extension want to help and we sincerely hope the "safety
kit" is a contribution to your efforts to teach safety.

Placement for Experience
E. B. Turlington, Alachua County Instructor
in "Placement" for Farm Experience

This paper outlined many valuable suggestions for teachers who
are working out programs in this important phase of our work. It has,
therefore, been included in its entirety in Section II.

Teaching Agri-Business Through Cooperation
With Distributive Education and Distributive Cooperative Training
Rex Toothman, Assistant Director for Distributive, Cooperative
and Business Education, State Department of Education
Tallahassee, Florida

1. The State Department of Agriculture reported that there were
last year in Florida 15,000 retail businesses selling princi-
pally products from agriculture and forestry.

2. More than one-third of the 375,000 people employed in either
farming or agri-business in Florida (about 40% of the total
employment in Florida at the time of the last business census)
were in wholesale and retail businesses classified as agri-

3. The work of our complicated civilization requires an increas-
inly competent work force.

4. There is an educational gap for persons who have previously
been filling unskilled jobs which are no longer available in
an economy dominated by automation and computers.

5. There is much need for distributive education programs:

- 22 -

(a) The operation of distributive businesses is becoming more
and more complex
(b) Starting occupational changes requiring special"product-
knowledge" or skills are taking place in the field of
(c) Service businesses are steadily increasing in importance.

6. Occupational mixes (occupations which require competencies,
which overlap normally accepted areas of vocational education)
are rapidly developing in the current employment pattern.

7. The real problem is to organize vocational education programs
that will provide the competencies needed for these "occupa-
tional mixes".
(a) Curricula should be developed cooperatively by different
"services" concerned
(b) Programs should be developed for high school and for
junior colleges.

8. Research is needed to know:
(a) The characteristics of employment in agri-business
(b) Occupational goals for these educational programs
(c) What should be taught, by whom, and to what end?
(d) What competencies are needed: What can be best taught in
school and what on the job
(e) What kinds of experiences should suppement the classroom

Reactor Panel
Leon Sims, Gainesville, Florida, Moderator

1. Mr. Winter An Advisory Committee has been very effective for
determining job opportunities in his school area.

2. Mr. Millican (a) The hardest job is to get boys to see the
value of real work; (b) is working on a survey to determine
what jobs are available in his area.

3. Mr. Key Difficult problems arise in fitting the instruction
to the greatly varying needs of different students.

4. Mr. Sims The discussions have shown the need for careful
evaluation and study to determine:
(a) What we should include in our in-school program to best
contribute to the preparation of future employees of the
many and varied agricultural occupations.
(b) If we should have a basic course of study in high school,
which will be common to and fundamental for the various
occupations, and depend upon post-high school education
as needed for specific training?
(c) How we can build on the best in our present program to
meet the challenges for education for all kinds of :agri-

- 23 -

cultural vocations.
(d) How interested teachers with proper attitudes can inspire
attitudes, interest and motivation of students so they
will develop excellent personal qualities as well as needed
agricultural and academic knowledge and skills.

Wednesday afternoon, July 8
General Chairman H. A. Henley, Orlando
(Securing busses and drivers J. B. Johnson, Coordinator Vocational
and Adult Education, Orlando)

The Wednesday afternoon program was concerned with the tours as
shown in the Conference Program, Participants received valuable ex-
periences on these tours and appreciate the fine arrangements made for
them by the school officials and vocational agriculture personnelof
Orange County.

Wednesday evening, July 8

TESTS were held at the Cherry Plaza Hotel with Mr. Loften as Chairman.
State FFA President, Bud Riviere, assisted in an excellent manner with
the program.

Safety awards were presented by Mr. H. E. Wood in the FFA Safe
Corn Harvest Program and in the FFA Safe Farm Power Use Program.

Thursday morning, July 9

Chairman H. E. Wood, Tallahassee Secretary F. L. Northrop

After a devotional by Mr. Glynn Key, and the giving away of door
prizes, short talks were given to the group by:

1. Mr. Duke Stanley, promoting an FFA calendar and FFA mixed nuts
selling program

2. Mr. Thurlo M. Taylor, Florida State Manager, THE PROGRESSIVE

3. Mr. Spurlock, Representative of Interstate Publishing Company

Mr. Guyton Williams, former vocational agriculture teacher, and
now Chief of the Poultry and Egg Section, Florida Department of Agri-
culture, spoke brieflyof changes in the poultry industry. Mr. Williaps
had arranged for the donation of the broilers which were enjoyed at
the fried chicken dinner served to agriculture teachers and guests
Wednesday P.M.

- 24

Miss Cory spoke briefly in behalf of having our Annual Conference
in Jacksonville.

Follow-Up of Former Students

Many interesting comments were presented as to outstanding persons
who had taken vocational agriculture in high school. J. C. Waldron
provided a duplicated report for the Monticello-Aucilla Department.
This report was given to all teachers. A brief summary of reports
given by Mr. Waldron, Mr. Farish (Tate), Mr. Nifong (Plant City),
Mr. Kenneth Lee (Santa Fe), and Mr. C. A. Platt (Wauchula) is included.
with this report. Occupations followed by students include practically
all kinds and are not listed here. It is interesting to note that
Plant City reported a total of 67 State Farmers since 1950. Wauchula
reported a total of 47 State Farmers and three American Farmers todate.

Summary of Reports of Follow-Up on Former Students

I t e m cello- Plant Alachua-
Aucilla Tate City Santa Fe Wauchula

Year Department was
established .......... 1923 1916 1928 1956 1931 1/
Number of former students 754 818 998 407 786
Number impossible to
account for .......... 28 86 51 155 2/ 94
Number deceased ......... 36 30 2 16 *
Percent unemployed ...... 0 0 0 0 *
Percent in farming ...... 32.0 5.6 8.0 22.0 9.5
Percent in occupations
related to farming ... 9.6 4.6 2320 21.0 32.4
Percent in part-time
agriculture .......... 24.5 5.0 5.0 *

* Information not included in report
1/ Beginning date of Follow-up Records
2/ 102 of these had left the community

Work Group Meetings

Conference work group consultants from State Department of Educa-
tion were introduced and work group room assignments were made by
Mr. H. E. Wood.

The rest of the morning was devoted to a study of problems assigned
to these groups.

- 25 -

Thursday afternoon, July 9

Thursday afternoon short area meetings were held and such problems
were discussed as seemed necessary at that time.

FVATA Meeting

The FVATA business session included a discussion by Mr. Edwin
Walker, Regional Vice President of the NVATA. Minutes of this and
other FVATA sessions were included in our August 1964 newsletter.

Friday morning, July 10

Chairman H. A. Henley, Orlando Secretary D. E. Bennett, DeLand

Exchange of Ideas Contest

The following awards were made in this contest:

1. Demonstration of skills, and Grand Prize $10.00
C. A. Platt, Wauchula (exhibit of propagation of roses)

2. Farm Mechanics Teaching Aids $5.00
0. H. Neal, Leesburg (hoof-trimming table for cattle)

3. Classroom Teaching Aids $5.00
William Scruggs, Jr., Lake Weir High School (recording skills
learned by students).

Reports of Work Groups

Reports from Work Groups were received and some comments were
made. With reference to the report of the Work Group on "Do We Need
Change in the FFA", it was voted that we do not recommend deleting the
word "male" in the FFA constitution section dealing with membership.
Consultant Floyd Johnson discussed the value of the "FFA" initials and
suggested that some thought was being given to having these letters
stand for the name "Future Farmers and Agriculturists".

Recommendations and reports from the various work groups will be
found in Section III.

Summary of Conference
Floyd Johnson, York, South Carolina

Mr. Johnson:

1. Commended the appropriateness of the conference "theme".

2. Commended teachers for their courage and study in
(a) Facing problems

- 26 -

(b) Realizing modifications needed in our program

3. Emphasized the need for
(a) More persons trained in agriculture
(b) More post-high school education

4. Stated that it was believed the "target date" for the appropri-
ation of funds under the recent Public Law 88-210 is August

5. Stated that the future of Vocational Agricultural Education
seems good.

6. Emphasized the need for GOOD LOCAL PROGRAMS

7. Expressed his appreciation for the hospitality of our group
and his desire to again meet with the Florida teachers of
vocational agriculture.

Announcements and Closing Remarks
H. E. Wood

State Supervisor H. E. Wood requested Mr. Sims tohave distributed
the Summary of out-of-school classes, and stressed the need for more
such classes. He emphasized the value of Advisory Councils in this

In his closing remarks Mr. Wood:

1. Commended and thanked Mr. Floyd Johnson for his excellent
assistance as consultant.

2. Commended the teachers for their participation in the confer-

3. Discussed briefly possibilities for future summer conferences

4. Urged teachers to continue their efforts to improve the quality
of their work and do the planning and research necessary to
"Meet the Challenge in Agricultural Education".

- 27 -

General Conference Information

Registration: Lobby, Cherry Plaza Hotel July 5 (7:00 P.M. 9;00 P.M.)
July 6 (8:00 A.M. 9:00 A.M.)

Invocations: July 5 W. T. Loften, Gainesville
July 7 J. C. Lane, Lake Wales
July 8 John Maddox, Wauchula
July 9 Glynn C. Key, Jr., Walnut Hill
July 10 F. L. Northrop, Gainesville


July 6 Sears,- Roebuck Livestock Improvement Program Dinner
Hosts: Clyde D. Ware, Program Director, Sears-Roebuck Foundation,
Atlanta, Georgia
Clyde West, Manager, Sears-Roebuck Stores,
Orlando, Florida

July 7 Owl Club Dinner

July 8 Fried Chicken Dinner
Sponsored by: Florida Farm Bureau Federation
Florida Poultry Producers Association
(Chickens donated by Mr. P. C. Thames, Manager,
Florida Fryers, Inc., Gainesville, Florida and
Mr. Royal, Dixieland Poultry Comapny, Orlando, Florida)

July 9 Teachers' Banquet
Hosts: Maynard Stitt, Manager, Public Relations, St. Regis Company,
Pensacola, Florida
Donald Adams, Director, Agricultural Developnent, Florida
Power and Light Co., Palatka, Florida
Richard Potter, Agricultural and Commercial Sales Engineer,
Gulf Power Company, Pensacola, Florida
S, John Folks, Jr., Director of Rural Development, Govern-
mental Relations, Florida Power Corporation,
St. Petersburg, Florida
J. C. Carroll, Service Representative, Tampa Electric
Company, Tampa, Florida

F.V.A.T.A. Sessions.

July 6 General Meeting 3:45 P.M., followed by committee meetings
July 9 General Meeting 2:00 P.M. to 5:00 P.M.
(Officers and committees of the FVATA will be found in the
printed conference program.)

Exhibits by:

F.F.A. Fund Raising Projects R. W. "Duke" Stanley
Progressive Farmer Thurlo Taylor
Interstate Publishing Company Mr. Spurlock

- 28 -

Other Contributions:

Printed Programs for the Conference Florida Power Corporation
and S. John Folks, Jr.
Snacks during the breaks R. W. "Duke" Staniey, F.F.A. Fund
Raising Projects, P.O. Box 5129, Nashville, Tennessee
Door Prizes Progressive Farmer and Thurlo Taylor
Cash Contribution to general conference expenses Mrs. Turner E.
Smith, Atlanta, Georgia

- 29 -


The Future Farmer of Today
L. A. Thomas, Executive Secretary, Florida Council of
Farmer Cooperatives, Winter Haven, Florida

Chairman Suggs, distinguished guests -- creators of our Future
Farmers. In reviewing your program, one cannot help but be impressed
with the significant areas to be explored, and the explorers to guide
you. But during all these discussions, don't lose sight, for one mo-
ment, of the person these programs are designed to benefit our hope
for tomorrow the future farmers of today.

REMEMBER, today is the tomorrow you worried about yesterday.

It will be my purpose in the next few minutes to create before
your eyes a Future Farmers of America, the whole man, mind, spirit,
body, who he is, what he is, and what he needs to keep our nation the
number one agricultural producer of the world, and to help you keep
your eye on the ball and follow through. (At this point, Mr..Thomas
began to develop a 48" tall image of "the Future Farmer of Today" on a
flannelgraph. In the following statements, the underlined words indi-
cate the addition of another segment of the flannelgraph present tion.)

As the Sentinel stands ready at the chapter doorto greet the many
friends of the FFA and make them welcome, so must our future fanner
stand ready to meet the challenges of a changing agriculture (legs).
If you take a real close look at the opportunities presented in the
dynamic industry of today's agriculture, you will find thousands of
jobs in hundreds of careers, many of themunknown a few years ago. For
example research. The total agricultural industry needs at least
1500 new college graduates each year. Farming is now big business an
expanding enterprise requiring large amounts of capital and plenty of
technical knowledge. This sort of farming is dynamic and challenging
demanding young men and women with scientific knowledge, skill, ambi-
tion and healthy bodies.

This last requirement health imposes an obligation on us to
make sure that our future farmer participates in sufficient recreation-
al or athletic, activities to maintain his physical stamina, But in
order to adequately cope with this new challenge in agriculture he
needs two fundamental prerequisites knowledge and skills.

Over his left hand we have placed an owl, the time-honored emblem
of knowledge and wisdom. "Knowledge, properly weighed and digested,
brings wisdom. Without education we are handicapped."

Over his right hand we have placed a plow,the emblem of labor and
tillage of the soil. "Without labor neither knowledge nor wisdom can
accomplish much." Wisdom comes through education and experience. Ex-
perience may be a good teacher--but remember--experience givestheanswer
first and the lesson afterward.

- 30 -

Now, let's take a look at his educational needs. The basic aca-
demic requirements for a successful farmer are five: English, chemist-
ry, physics, mathematics, vocational agriculture.

As our future farmer enters college, his need for knowledge may
change and become more specialized. Depending on the specific area of
agri-business he intends to enter, these might include: economics,
management, science, research.

Nowhlowdoes our future farmer put all this knowledge to work? He
does this by engaging in practical programs in school and-on the arm.
Basic to all agricultural production, distribution and utilization, is
the family type farm. Therefore, he should be skilled in sound farm-
ing practices.

But production alone is not enough. He must be able to evaluate
the results of his labor. This requires skill in keeping accurate
records of operations, sound soil conservation practices and use of
efficiency factors in short improved management practices.

Even though he may have the knowledge and skills to-produce2his
share of our food and fibre requirements, he needs capital and lots of
it, to acquire and maintain his plant and equipment and to finance his
day-to-day operations. I am told that the average farm investment in
Florida is $70,000. To give you some idea of capital requirements and
to illustrate the need for skill in financing, this is where the Co-
operative Farm Credit System comes into play through the Federal Land
Bank Associations and the Production Credit Associations.

These are cooperative credit corporations, specifically designed
to meet the financial requirements of a dynamic and expanding agri-
culture. Interestingly enough they are not financed by government
capital, but through the sale of bonds to the general public (city
money at work on the farm over two billion dollars worth of it),
During the last 50 years major emphasis in agriculture has been placed
on production to the extent that we are continually faced with the
problem of agricultural surpluses. Our ability to produce has far out-
stripped our ability to distribute. This points up the crucial need
for skills in marketing, and improved methods' of assembly, processing,
storage and distribution.

How can theindividual farmer cope with these perplexing problems?
By developing skills in working with other producers in mutual self-
help organizations Farmer Cooperatives.

Through these off-the-farm tools the individual producer can per-
form: many more of the functions vital to efficient production and dis-
tribution than he could even do alone. We have now provided our future
farmer with the basic knowledge and skills he needs to meet the chal-
lenge of a dynamic agriculture. Now all he:- needs to do is use his

But, there is one thing missing! Has anyone discovered whatit

- 31 -

is? It is the heart to do the job.

So, it's up to us, his teachers, his advisors and his friends to
give him the heart to do the job through wise and understanding coun-
seling and guidance and programs such as these.

(Mr. Thomas then introduced the real Clif, designer and creator
of this "Future Farmer" Clifton D. Lee, Sentinel, Winter Haven Chap-
ter, Future Farmers of America.)

Implications of the 1963 Vocational Education
Act to Agriculture
Floyd Johnson, Teacher of Vocational Agri-
Culture, York, South Carolina

In his first message to Congress on American Education, February
20, 1961, the Late President Kennedy proposed that an advisory body
study the Federal Vocational Education Act. "The basic purpose of our
Vocational Education effort is sound and, sufficiently broad to pro-
vide a basis for meeting future needs", he said. "However, the techn-
ological changes which have occurred in all occupations call for a re-
view and re-evaluation of these Acts with a view toward their modern-

On October 6, 1961, the Secretary of Health, Education, and Wel-
fare appointed the Banel of Consultantson Vocational Education,twenty-
five men and women representing agriculture, education, government,
management, labor, the teaching profession and the public. The Panel
held many meetings,commissioned numerous studies, and convened several
specialized conferences to carry out the charge of the President to
review and evaluate the Federal Vocational Education Act. The Panel
studied the impact on vocational education of automation, -technical
advance, population mobility, various discrimination, -urbanizafion,
and the relationships between local, state, and federal programs. The
Panel concluded its work on November 27, 1962, with the completion of
its report, "Education for Changing World of Work".

As most of you know the recommendations of the Panel report were
followed to a large degree by the Congress in the enactment of the
"Vocational Education Act of 1963". This Act was signed by President
Johnson on December 18, 1963.

General Implications of Act

What does the new Act mean to vocational education in general?
The Act authorizes a new permanent program of Federal assistance for
vocational education amounting eventually to $225 million for each
fiscal year. This authorization is in addition to funds available
under other acts.

These funds will be allowed among the states on the basis ofltwo

- 32 -

factors: population groups and per capital income. The new funds may
be expended for vocational education programs that will prepare people
for employment in any occupational field that does not require bacca-
laureate degree. Vocational programs may be conducted in comprehensive
or specialized high schools, area vocational education schools, junior
and community colleges,or universities that conduct terminal education

The Act provides vocational programs for persons in high schools,
those out of high school and available for full-time study,for persons
unemployed or underemployed and for those youth and adults with special
needs which prevent them from succeeding in the regular vocationalpro-

Funds may be used for supporting services to assure quality pro-
grams in vocational education. Examples of supporting services are
supervision and administration, teacher training, research, and pro-
gram evaluation.

Ten percent of each year's appropriation Will be reserved for
grants for research and pilot programs in vocational education.

The Act provides for experimental four-year programs for resi-
dential vocational schools and payments for student work programs.

In general, the Act requires that State and local 'expenditures-
continue at the current level of support for vocational education and
that matching on a 50-50 basis is required under theanew legislation.
Also, provisions are made for the transfer of funds from one field of
service to another.

Many leaders in the vocational field consider the Act as the most
comprehensive vocational measure that has become law in the history of
the program in our Nation. They feel that the Act will result in a
greatly expanded and improved vocational education program throughout
the Nation.

Implications of Act to Agriculture

What are the limitations of the Act to Vocational Education in
agriculture? The Act provides for more flexibility in the program. It
broadens the base of instruction in vocational agriculture. The early
Acts placed certain limitations on instruction in agriculture. The new
Act amends the Smith-Hughes and George-Barden Acts to permit instruc-
tion for occupations related to agriculture for which knowledge and
skill of agricultural subjects are involved. It states,' that "any
amounts allotted (or apportioned) under such titles, Act or Acts for
agriculture may be used for vocational education in any occupation in-
volving knowledge and skills in agricultural subjects, whether or not
such occupation involves work of the farm or of the farm home,and such
education be provided without directed ot supervised practice on a

- 33 -

This part of the Act does not eliminate any desirable features of
the program in vocational agriculture developed through the years. It
simply makes it possible to expand and improve the program in keeping
with current needs of agriculture.

Possible Objectives for Agriculture Under Act

What are some possible objectives for agriculture under the Act?
It would seem that a reasonable interpretation of the new legislation
should include the following as primary objectives for the program in
vocational agriculture during the years ahead.

... To develop agricultural competencies in those engaged in or
preparing to engage in production agriculture
... To develop needed competencies in those engaged in or prepar-
ing to engage in agricultural occupations other than produc-
tion agriculture
... To develop an understanding and appreciation of the career
opportunities in agriculture and of the preparation needed to
enter and progress in agricultural occupations
... To develop leadership and civic responsibilities through par-
ticipation in group activities of appropriate agricultural
organizations for youth and adults
... To develop desirable personality traits, attitudes and human
relation skills required for success in an agricultural
... To develop the ability to secure satisfactory placement and
to advance in agricultural occupation..

Of course, a number of secondary objectives would be necessary
for the attainment of each primary objective. No attempt will be made
in this presentation to list the contributory objectives.

Challenges Ahead for Agriculture

What are some challenges ahead for agriculture?
Although vocational agriculture is now taught in approximately
10,000 secondary schools in the United States, many schools do not now
provide vocational agriculture programs where they are needed andwant-
ed. In a six states study made in recent years, only 45 percent of
the secondary schools offered courses in vocational agriculture. This
is a serious challenge which must be met.

Since Congress approved the new legislation toexpand and strengthen
vocational education, supervisors, teacher trainers, vocational agri-
culture teachers, and administrators must turn their attention to the
following challenges:

... All workers..in vocational education in agriculture must join
hands with AVA, NVATA, their state vocational associations
and others in doing everything within their power to help
implement the provisions of the "Vocational Education Act for

- 34 -

... All workers in vocational education in agriculture must accept
the challenging opportunities the new legislation has provided
to expand and improve the program
... The high standards developed for vocational education in agri-
culture through the years must be maintained and applied to
the expanded and improved program
... All workers in vocational education in agriculture must join
hands to help improve the image of agriculture because our
program is an important part of agriculture
... Vocational agriculture courses must be continually evaluated
and updated in keeping with technological changes
... All leaders in the vo-ag field must assume the responsibility
to bring about desirable adjustments in the program in the
years ahead rather than to wait for pressure to be applied to
force changes
... The primary leadership for adjustments in the vo-ag program
should come from our own field
... Fear of what might happen to the vo-ag program if certain
adjustments are made must not be a dominating factor to hin-
der efforts to expand and improve the program in future years.
... Adjustments pertaining to requirements which would be met by
students who desire to enroll for vo-ag must be given careful
... Certain adjustments must be made in the Future Farmersof
America organization
... Pilot programs in vo-ag of an exploratory, orientation, and
guidance nature should be developed
... Cooperative programs involving agriculture and two or more
areas of vocational education must be created where these
would provide effective learning experiences in preparation
for agriculture or other areas of employment
... Those in positions 6f agricultural leadership may in some
cases need to take the initiative in combining: vo-ag instruc-
tion in certain departments with other fields of vocational
... The advisability of more multiple-teacher departments must be
given serious consideration
... Research in agricultural education must keep practices abreast
of scientific, economic, and social changes
... Teaching aids and instructional materials mustbe kept abreast
of technical advances in agriculture
... Program of teacher training and guidance and counseling must
be expanded and strengthened.
... High school and other programs in agricultural education must
serve a larger clientele. In addition to providing basic
training for the occupation of farming, the curriculum must
be diversified to prepare youth and adults for non-farm occu-
pations which require knowledge of agriculture
... Technical training must be developed to prepare high school
graduates to prepare for employment in agricultural service
occupations and businesses. These programs should be provided
in secondary schools, community colleges, and/or area schools.
... Programs must be strengthened for young farmers who are

- 35 -

striving to become established and for adult farmers who must
continue to increase their proficiency.

The "Vocational Education Act for 1963" includes provisions that
will make it possible to train people in vocational education in agri-
culture who have the need, the desire, and the ability to benefit from
such training.

Time limitations prevent giving many of the implications of the
new Act. It would seem desirable for every worker in vocational edu-
cation in agriculture to become thoroughly familiar with this important
legislation. A first step would seem to be to secure a copy of the
Act from your Congressman for further study. No one in our field can
afford to be less than completely informed about the program in vo-
cational education in agriculture in the years ahead.

In closing, as supervisors, teacher trainers, and as teachers of
agriculture we are educators. We must accept the fact that we occupy
a peculiar place in society. We have an important job to do. If more
is expected of other citizens, it is because we fill a greater need
and belong to a calling which requires extraordinary dedication. In
thinking about the future of our program, we must apply the full mean-
ing of Henry Brooks Adams' wor4s when he said, "a teacher affects
eternity; he can never tell where his influence stops." As leaders in
our field, you can never tell where your influence stops. The future
success of our great program in vocational education in agriculture
rests with you.

What will you do with the opportunity that is yours?

Fallouts, Dropouts, and Pushouts
Robert Hargrave, Teacher of Vocational Agriculture, Howard
Bishop Junior High School, Gainesville, Florida

Let me begin by giving you my definitions of "fallouts", "drop-
outs" and "pushouts". "Fallcouts" have a low I.Q. and'would fallout
of the regular school program because they are not mentally capable of
doing the work. They are often provided for in special education clas-
ses and schools. "Dropouts" are mentally capable of doing regular
school work but are not sold on the value of an education. They drop
out following path of least resistance or because of boredom. "Push-
outs" are mentally capable of doing regular school work and sometimes
have higher I.Q.'s than average but won't conform to our pattern of
education. They cause trouble and we kick them out of school.

Here is how it works I call it "Square Pegs in Round Holes". Our
regular school program or patterns is set up like a nice pattern of
round holes (hold up board with pattern of round holes) and most kids
fit into our pattern pretty well (put some round pegs, long and short,
into round holes in board). Some short, some long, but all fit into
our pattern rather nicely. Occasionally we have to ppund on one a

- 36 -

little to make him fit our pattern (pound one or two in holes prepared
with nails slanted in from the sides to cause peg to have to be driven
into hole with mallet). We take him to the Principal's office and let
him pound the student a little (pound on peg some more) and then he
will fit our pattern and everything goes along O.K.

Then we hit that square peg individual. (Take one or two square
pegs out of bag). Now he won't fit our pattern at all. He won't dia-
gram sentences and he doesn't know the difference between Hamlet and
omelet, so we pound on him (pound on square peg). The Principal pounds
on him (pound on peg some more) but he still won't fit into our pat-
tern. He rebels and talks back, so we kick him out of school. (Push
square pegs off of table). These are our "pushouts".

Now what have we accomplished aside from a little relief? Unless
he can make his own way in the world we will wind up having to support
him by welfare, or worse, in jail.

There are two solutions to square peg children. We can, sometimes,
by hard work with them,whittle them (take knife and whittle square peg
to round) down until they fit our round hole program -- or -- we can
make some "square hole" programs. (Take out small board with square
holes.) Vocational education takes a big step in the direction of
providing square peg programs for square peg people. Round hole people
can also fit in the square hole program (demonstrate).

I am concerned about the number of "pushouts" from our schools. I
urge you men to use all your charmi-to get other teachers to provide
some square hole programs in their subjects. For example, some sections
of English and mathematics designed especiAlly to go along with vo-
cational education.

Above all, don't you be the cause of any "pushouts" or "dropouts"
this year!

Teacher Guidance in Placement for Farm Experience
E. B. Turlington, Alachua County Instructor
in "Placement for Farm Experience", Gainesville, Florida

The Program

Many young people need anoprofit from properly supervised employ-
ment. Learning how to work on the job seems to be as necessary today
as the learning achieved in the classroom. The ability to get along
with people, to take direction, to assume responsibility as well as the
recognition of the importance of neat appearance, need to be developed.
In addition, legibi6 handwriting, accuracy in the use of numbers, and
personal pride in the quality and quantity of the work accomplished,
are probably best developed under carefully supervised work experience

- 37 -

The placement for farm experience job makes school work more sig-
nificant. Many students remain in school, encouraged by the importance
of obtaining knowledge that will aid them in their job. The competency
gained in an occupation aids them tremendously in their adjustment to
the world of work and adulithood. Students should be seniors and con-
tinue this program one year after graduation.

Teachers should (1) interview prospective .:placement students,
(2) review school records of students,,(3X intetview prospective bos-
ses and best coordinate students and jobs,(4) require 720 minimum hours
on the job for credit.

The employer should be advised as to his (1) supervisory responsi-
bility, (2) responsibility for evaluating students' progress. Employers
must conform to all requirements of the State Child Labor Law and
Federal Wage and Hour Law.


Many farm boys need more experience in (1) meeting and working
with people and (2) increasing their accomplishments and versatility
at a job. The student may not like this type of lifetime work and
move to a more acceptable job. The boss may determine early that "here
is the man I need" and put more effort in the training program.


The new job may change habits of the student. This may be fine
The student should be impressed with his responsibility to (1) his
school, (2) his boss, (3) the placement teacher, (4) his parents. He
should also call and advise of any unusual change in his schedule.

School Credits

Students receive one school credit if he completes 720 hours on
the job. Students receive one regular credit for each periodofclass.
Students enrolled in the placement program should have completed two
years of agriculture and be currently enrolled in agriculture.

General Instruction

Students should be taught the following in a guidance classusing
open discussion:

1. Manners and responsibilities
2. Resourcefulness (finding work to do or cleaning up if assig-
ned work is completed)
3. Making himself indispensable on the job
4. Decision-making
5. Work habits
6. Self improvement
7. Safety
8. Legal phases of his work

- 38 -

9. To inform parents, school, boss and placement teacher of any
10. That notice of termination of job should be given by employer
or employee
11. Record keeping (keep phone numbers and mailing addresses in
12. Good personal habits
13. Organization of his work
14. Preparation of forms
15. How to get along with others
16. How to make suggestions to his boss and how to get a job done
17. Thrift and money management

Teacher's Responsibility in Placement

All subjects included in the related study classes should be in
connection with the employment and civic needs of the placement stu-
dents. The knowledge, attitudes and skills needed for -vocational
knowledge and civic intelligence in the occupations in which the stu-
dents are employed must determine both the content and the sequence
of the individual subjects taught.

Provision must be made for employment in a sequence of situations
during the placement training period and also for the direct .instruc-
tion related to the needs of the workers in each of these positions.

The teacher should:

1.. Maintain a minimum age requirement of 16 years
2. See that work permits are secured
3. Determine that students have sufficient units of required
4. Be sure the student is physically fit and mentally able to
advance in the occupation selected
5. See that the parents or guardian indicates his, or her,
interest and support
6. Assist students to secure employment desired
7. Assist employers to select students for employment

Teacher's Responsibilities for Placed Students

1. Prepare or obtain analysis of the various occupations in which
students are employed
2. Teach the related courses for students
3. Deal with employment problems
4. Arrange for definite training along specific occupational lines
for each student enrolled
5. Visit students while at work to check on their progress and on
the training given
6. Hold individual conferences with students for the purpose of
helping make adjustments to employment conditions
7. Consult parents about progress and problems of students

- 39 -

8. Arrange school schedules to meet the needs of individual
9. Keep up-to-date records about students and their progress
in school and on the job
10. Maintain placement and follow-up records of changes and
earnings for at least three years after graduation

Placement Files and Records

File should show:

1. 9th grade test results
2. 12th grade test results when available
3. 10th grade grades for each subject
4. llth grade grades for each subject
5. 12th grade grades by 6 weeks
6. Credits at the beginning of each year
7. Employer grade sheet (rating initialed by employer)
8. Financial report (from record book)
9. Training schedule memorandum executed
10. Daily Diary of Work Experience by months
11. Follow-up record sheet
12. Work permit when needed
13. Less than minimum wage form executed when needed
14. Other pertinent information:
(a) Supervised farming program for Ag.
(b) Job working hours
(c) Phone number and personal information sheet
(d) School year class schedule and homeroom
(e) Names of teachers
(f) Telephone number of business or job and manager's name

- 40 -


Reports of the twelve work groups follow. These reports were
considered by the total teacher group Friday morning, and except as
indicated in these reports, all recommendations given were approved.

Work Group 1. Suggestions and Criteria for Supervised
Practice Programs

Chairman Dean Griffin, Avon Park; Secretary L. M. Tucker, Live Oak
Consultant Floyd Johnson, York, S.C.

Floyd Johnson emphasized.that the Supervised Practice Program al-
ways has been and still is the "heart and soul" of Vocational Agri-
culture. He said the 1963 Vocational Education Act was not intended
in any way todo away with or lessen the importance of supervised prac-
tice. It merely broadens the base of it so that supervised practice can
include related occupations.

There was discussion among the teachers to arrive at a definition
of supervised practice. Some interpret it to refer mainly to produc-
tive projects owned by the individual students. Sam Lovell made the
point that farm placement can givea boy more experience in management,
developing skills and all-around farm experience than having a produc-
tive project of one steer or any other single student-owned productive

There seemed to be agreement on this point. The definition given
by John Stephens was "a full productive project po'gram'&pcked up by
improvement projects and supplementary farm jobs." Others iinsisted
that we include farm placement.

After much discussion a statement of agreement was made that a
supervised practice program should include productive project and/or
placement for farm experience, backed up by improvement projects and
supplementary farm jobs to help a student develop proficiency in farm-
ing, agricultural skills and/or skills in related occupations.

Since F.F.A. is an integral part of vocational agriculture we feel
that needed changes should be made in the FFA Awards Program to bring
it in line with the spirit and letter of the Vocational Education Act
of 1963 and a realistin view of a supervised practice program developed
to meet the needs of the students in our state.

Committee members not shown above:

Alvin Davis Sam Lovell Dan Ryals
Quentin Duff Walter Massey Fred Shaw
J. M. Everett W. R. Oelslager John Stephens

- 41 -

Work Group 2. Working Relationships With Other
Vocational Programs

Chairman James Edwards, Wildwood; Secretary Glynn Key, Walnut Hill
Consultants H. E. Wood, Thurman Bailey, T. W. Strickland,
C. R. Crumpton, all from Tallahassee

Mr. H. E. Wood discussed the new legislation regarding vocational
education and suggested that the committee define the problems invol-
ved in inter-relating the various vocational programs. Three problem
areas were defined as follows:

1. Overlapping of training areas

2. Counselors who do not understand problems of vocational

3. Revisions of the curriculum necessary to meet the needs
of students in courses in vocational education.

The committee believes that:

1. It is possible, under existing programs, to have desirable co-
operation between vocational agriculture and other vocational

2. There is need for a better understanding of the broad program
of vocational education

3. State Department personnel in vocational programs desire to:,
(a) Better understand all vocational educational programs
(b) Find ways to cooperate in better adapting their respec-
tive programs to meet students' needs.

4. There is need to determine what an agriculture "technician" is
and what education is desirable to qualify for such jobs

5. With the excellent spirit of cooperation existing between our
various sections of vocational education and the provisions of
the Public Law 88-210 broad areas of training can be developed
to better meet the needs of all our students.

6. There is a need for better "communication" between leaders of
vocational programs and leaders in so called "academic" edu-

Committee members not shown above:

Gordon Walther Freddie Garner Dwight Ellis
Lamar Jones Herbert Henley B. G. Cromer
O. Z. Revell Douglas Holmberg Joseph Moore
Vincent Jones Howard Renner Ronald Jones

- 42 -

Work Group 3. Dealing With Individual Differenpes

Chairman Jacques Waller, Pinecrest; Secretary O. H. Neal, Leesburg
Consultant D. A. Storms, Plant City

This committee met with all members present and made the follow-
ing observations and recommendations:

1. This is not a new problem in any school system and vocational
agriculture teachers have always made an effort to deal ef-
fectively with it

2. Vocational agriculture teachers must not sacrifice the oppor-
tunity to supply to our colleges suitable persons to fill the
need of leaders in vocational occupations; but we need to take
a new look at the opportunities to keep students interested in
school and in learning worthwhile skills

3. Teachers should work with principals and guidance departments
for a more effective program.

Committee members not shown above:

Jerome Carris T. A. Hughes Noma Norman
Darwin Bennett Paul Hutbhins Wm. C. Prinz
Rex Bishop Jack Ibach Ferris Rogers
O. R. Farish Jerry Mitchell O. T. Stoutamire
Richard Heath Fred Ward

Work Group 4. Post High School Training Programs In

Chairman J. D. Revell, Greensboro; Secretary Curtis Marlowe,Starke
Consultants C. M. Lawrence, Wauchula; Owen Lee Jr., Bartow;
L. W. Harrell, Winter Haven

The primary purpose of this work group was to assist agricultural
education workers in identifying and clarifying their leadership role
in the initiation, conduct, and evaluation of post high school train-
ing programs in agriculture. Specific areas identified andccon~ideied
by our group were:

1. Needs for post high school training program in agriculture
2. Objectives for such training programs
3. Curricular content determination
4. Student services selection, counseling, placement, follow-up
5. Staffing
6. Plant facilities and equipment
7. Financing
8. Relationships of such programs to other agencies and groups.

After considering information from many sources, we determined

- 43

that there is a need for post high school programs in agriculture to
fill the gap between the high school program and the four-year college
of agriculture program.

The following points were discussed as necessary for consideration
in order to give direction to this program.

1. The local teacher cannot carry out this program by himself;
however, he must accept the responsibility to assist in deter-
mining needs and planning for such programs.

2. In-school programs must be up-graded to prepare students to
take advantage of further education.

3. Courses must be offered where the students are: (a) high school,
(b) vocational schools, (c) junior or community cole ge s,
(d) colleges of agriculture, or (e) other places of need.

4. These coursessmust be designed to meet the agricultural and
occupational needs of the students

5. The length of courses should be determined by the needs of
students and the occupations involved

6. Sufficient specially qualified instructors should be recruited
and prepared to teach these courses

7. It is recommended that much research and study be done immedi-
ately to implement this program.

Committee members not shown above:

Lewis Brubaker W. R. Holbrook Perry Sistrunk
Manning Carter James Meeks John Wetmore
Henry Hewitt D. M. Nifong W. E. Whaley
R. N. O'Neil

Work Group 5. Agricultural Production Training Programs -
Adult Classes

Chairman Jack Millican, Umatilla; Secretary W. H. Cake, Gainesville
Consultant Floyd Northrop, Gainesville

The following recommendations were made by this committee:

1. Although it is recognized that there is a need for at least a
six-month follow-up period for adult classes, we recommend
that the regulations be changed to allow actual classes to run
for a shorter length of time than the present six months.

2. We recognize that a problem exists concerning high school
credit for young farmers enrolledin such classes and recommend

- 44 -

that this problem be studied by the state staff with state
school officials.

3. A definite need for research and instructional materials for
our changing adult programs is recognized. We recommend that
specialists in these two areas be added to the state staff and
that emphasis be placed on research and materials for adult

Committee members not shown above:

Ray Arrington Lonnie Sims W. R. Wentz
C. Bloodsworth Robert Roberson Terry White
Robert O'Berry Clyde Rodgers Orton Yearty
Jack Tison

Work Group 6. Off-Farm Occupations Training Programs

Chairman Paul Cade, Pierson; Secretary L. O. Baldwin, Melrose
Consultant G. C. Norman, Tallahassee

Agriculture is undergoing some of the most dramatic changes in
its history at a very rapid pace, and this has a great impact on vo-
cational agriculture. We feel that we should lead the way in keeping
our program in a position of meeting the needs of our times.

The new Vocational Education Act passed by the Federal Govern-
ment will have tremendous impact on our program.

We believe that the following recommendations of our committee
should be used as a start to meet some of these needs.

1. A state-wide study be made by vocational agriculture people to
determine the off-farm occupations with which vocational agri-
culture teachers should be concerned.

2. All vocational agriculture teachers familiarize themselves with
terminal training programs offered by junior colleges.

3. Information should be provided concerning applicable, avail-
able reference materials and equipment and where these can be

4. Further information should be given teachers as to the appli-
cable provisions of the Vocational Education Act, what it
implies, and how it applies to vocational agriculture teachers.

5. That a study be made of skills involved in each occupation
considered in our program.

6. After these surveys, if the need is found to be present, some
overall recommendations or method of procedure be recommended
from the state level, as to the instruction for these off-the-
farm occupations.

- 45 -

Committee members not shown above:

B. J. Collins
Jeff Daughtry
William Fish

Jack Haltiwanger
Elton Hinton
Jake Holland
Murray Langford

Harry Lydick
F. M. Shuler
J. M. Sylvia

Work Group 7. Programs for Drop-Outs

Chairman E. B. Turlington, Gainesville; Secretary L. E. Smith
Winter Haven
Consultant L. A. Sims, Gainesville

1. We are in a new vocational era and guidance is of paramount
importance. We suggest that all agriculture teachers make it
their personal business to sell the teachers and school ad-
ministration on the need for giving interested students guidance
into the vocational program and that they be advised that the
vocational training is not a dumping ground for uninterested

2. Our program can best overcome the drop-out situation by new
adaptations for our program in placement, land laboratory and
other areas.

3. The teacher should create inspirational techniques and new

4. New government programs are opening and we may include new
areas of interest. The Manpower Development and Training Act
and Public Law 88-210 are in this category.

5. The drop-out problem is large and will probably increase.

6. Vocational teachers should work more closely with students,
parents, and other teachers in giving guidance and understand-

7. The full impact of the drop-out may well not be felt until the
time when the drop-out of today will be the:citizen ofctomorrow.

Committee members not shown above:

Elmer Badger
Gilroy Brubaker
Ralph Carver
W. S. Fletcher
Dudley Heflin

J. C. Lane
Wayne Manning
Herman Melvin
W. E. Moore
Travis O'Bryan

W. M. Scruggs
Hugh Semmes
James Simmons
H. Terrell
J. C. Waldron

- 46 -

Work Group 8. Research Needs

Chairman James Dunaway, Jasper; Secretary W. C. Revell, Graceville
Consultant W. T. Loften, Gainesville

The Research Committee met at 10:45 A.M. in room 218. The meet-
ing was called to order by Chairman, James L. Dunaway.

A general discussion was held during which the following points
were emphasized:

1. It is felt that all of us realize the need for agricultural
research in our endeavor to perform our professional obli-
gations effectively and efficiently.

2. We believe the need for research in our particular field is
made imperative because of the many rapid inovatibns being
brought about in this highly specialized, technological society
in which we teach and live today.

3. We realize that significant research studies are being made in
many areas which would be relevant to our programs of vocational
agricultural education. We have not utilized many of the fid--
ings of these areas because of lack of time on our part, and
because of the scarcity of workers whose duty it would be to
summarize the findings of relevant research for our use.

4. The provisions of Public Law 88-210 (The Vocational Bill-1963)
have officially changed the functional aspects of our program
to include areas of concern not previously mentioned in the
vocational education bills.

In view of the above mentioned points of concern, this committee

That we, the Florida Vocational Agriculture Teachers, strongly
request that as soon as money is available from Public Law 88-210, a
full-time research specialist, and a subject matter specialist be em-
ployed to work under the direct supervision of the Agricultural Edu-
cation Department at the University of Florida.

Committee members not shown above:

Eugene Doss J. Peterson John St. Martin
Robert Jones Wm. E. Priest Wade Shivers
O. Lastinger Henry Reams T. P. Winter
C. A. Rice

- 47 -

Work Group 9. Setting Up An Active Public Information Program

Chairman George Busby, Jacksonville; Secretary Irving Roche,
Consultant Jack McAllister, Tallahassee Paxton

The work group was called to order by Chairman George Busby.
Through discussion of work group members and on the advice of our con-
sultant, it was pointed out that an overall goal or objective should
be set up. The group agreed that the overall goal or objective could
be the recruiting of more qualified students and the developing of a
program that would best suit the needs of students studying Vocational
Agriculture today and then inform the public of the program. This
could be done through newspapers, radio, television, and magazines.

Some problems that make it imperative that every Vocational Agri-
culture Department have an active public information program are as

1. The general public has the wrong image of the vocational agri-
culture program. In other words, they think that we ate still
training all students to become farmers

2. Many good local programs are not being publicized.

Both state and local areas should be considered in setting up an
active public information program. With this in mind, the work group
wishes to make the following recommendations:

State Level

1. That a public relations man be added to the state staff to aid
teachers in getting information to the public

2. Since the name of "farmer" creates in the minds of a majority
of the public an image of doing row crop general farming only,
this group recommends that consideration be given to the pos-
sibility of setting up a committee made up of vocational agri-
culture teachers, teacher training people, and state staff on
the advisability of boradening the name of F.F.A. to include
the whole field of agriculture. We of the work group feel that
this is in keeping with the theme of this conference, "Meeting
the Challenge in Agricultural Education".

Local Level

1. Each agriculture teacher have a good local program

2. Have communications clinics set up to train teachers in getting
out news articles, and television and radio programs

3. Place FFA magazines in waiting rooms of doctors, barber shops,
beauty shops, etc.

- 48 -

General Recommendation:

That Mr. Jack McAllister, Chief, Agricultural Information, State
Department of Agriculture, Tallahassee,be asked to serve as Consultant
again next year.

Committee members not shown above:

S. D. Bateman
Fred L. Body
R. C. Brown
Bob Croft

John Dennis
R. A. Gunson
Bob Hargrave
W. C. McElroy
Nathaniel Storm

Floyd Philmon
C. A. Platt
Carl Rehwinkel
David B. Smith

Work Group 10. Do We Need Changes in the F.F.A. Program?

Chairman S. L. Brothers, Pinetta; Secretary John Maddox, Wauchula
Consultants A. R. Cox, Tallahassee; J. K. Privett, Vartow


1. That requirements for State and American Farmer Degree be inter-
preted to include boys An agricultural placement

2. Change wording in F.F.A. Manual from "supervised farming pvo-
gram" to "supervised experience program".

3. That the word "male" be deleted from Article IV, Section 3 of
the F.F.A. Constitution

4. Eliminate minimum age requirements for F.F.A. membership.

In the discussion of the recommendations by the whole group of
teachers at the conference, recommendations 1, 2, and 4 above were ap-
proved and recommendation 3 was not approved.

Committee members not shown above:

T. C. Campbell
T. L. Cannon
Troy Caruthers
Omar H. Ergle, Jr.

Albert T. Ford
F. M. Foster
Richard Kelly
Ernest Long

Lloyd Stalvey
Roger J. Ussery
Gharod Whttfield
Chas. A. Williams

Work Group 11. How Can Work Opportunities in Agricultural Occupations
Be Identified in Each County?

Chairman R. L. Narmore, Bradenton; Secretary D. H. Farrens, Sanford
Consultant T. L. Barrineau, Tallahassee

In view of the changing situation in agriculture, placement of
vocational agriculture students in agricultural occupations takes on

- 49 -

increased importance. The new Vocational Act (Public Law 88-210) makes
it feasible for the program to offer different types of training not
previously included.

Many departments are not now taking advantage of placement oppor-

This committee has sought to identify certain problems and solu-
tions to these problems. We hope that these may be of benefit to some
of you in establishing a placement program.



1. How do we find the
jobs that are

2. Sources of

1. (a) Through mail-out survey forms
(b) Through surveys with personal contacts
(c) Inquiries by other persons directed by
the teacher

2. (a) News articles
Contact of former students, including
(b) Civic club agricultural committee
(d) County Extension Service
(e) Local advisory committee
(f) State Employment Service
(g) Other agriculture services
(h) Inquiries of interested personnel

3. Sources of Survey Samples
(a) State Department of Agricultural Education
(b) Manatee County Vocational Director, Mr. Raymond Lee, Bradenton
(c) Polk County Agricultural Education Coordinator, Mr. J. K,
Privett, Bartow
(d) Alachua County Vocational Director, Mr. Marion Bishop, Gaines-

Committee members not shown above:

R. H. Ford
H. M. Folsom
E. G. Hendry

R. V. Hill
Kenneth Lee
R. L. Rogers
Wilson Suggs

Glenn Wade, Jr.
H. H. Woolley
E. S. Young

Work Group 12. College Career Day Activities

Chairman V. T. Sewell, Trenton; Secretary W.R.Jeffries, Zephyrhills
Consultant C. J. Rogers, Gainesville

The following recommendations are made

1. That it be held in conjunction with
Fair or some other similar event

regarding the Career Day

the College of Agriculture

- 50 -

2. That it be an all-day event

3. That a general introductory program be held at the beginning
of the Career Day session to acquaint students with the bh-ad
field of agriculture; and that if possible a series of colored
slides be shown of the areas of work in connection with agri-
culture at the university

4. That students be allowed to select specific areas of interest;
and, after a general tour of research facilities, be allowed
to visit these areas of special interest

5. That information be sent to teachers explaining the program,
and that brochures be distributed at the time so teachers may
go over them with students prior to the Career Day Program

6. That the program be limited to high school students, ,prefer-
ably in grades 9-12 inclusive.

7. That a date be set, which will not serioulsy conflict with
events scheduled in the Florida High School Activities Calen-
dar (such as State Basketball Tournament)

8. That all junior college students who are interested in agri-
culture be invited to attend this program.

Committee members not shown above:

N. R. Barrow James Culligan James Knight
J. W. Brown George R. Drummond Wayne Trawick
D. C. Crawford Doyle Jones Ray Pigott

- 51 -


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