U. OF F. LIBRARIES
DIVISION OF VOCATIONAL
TECHNICAL AND ADULT EDUCATION
U. OF F. LIBRARIES
ANNUAL DESCRIPTIVE REPORT
THE FLORIDA STATE BOARD FOR VOCATIONAL EDUCATION
VOCATIONAL EDUCATION PROGRAM ACTIVITIES AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS
JULY 1, 1971 JUNE 30, 1972
ENROLLMENTS IN FLORIDA
STATE BOARD FOR VOCATIONAL EDUCATION
Hon. Reubin O'D. Askew, Governor, President of the Board
Hon. Doyle Conner, Commissioner of Agriculture
Hon. Fred 0. Dickinson, Jr., Comptroller
Hon. Thomas D. O'Malley, State Treasurer
Hon. Robert L. Shevin, Attorney General
Hon. Richard Stone, Secretary of State
Hon. Floyd T. Christian, Commissioner of Education,
Secretary, and Executive Officer of the Board
c1 6 C 7'
\ STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
FLOYD T. CHRISTIAN JOD. MILLS
COMMISSIONER TALLAHASSEE 32304 OIRaCTOR
DIVISION OF VOCATIONAL, TECHNICAL
AND ADULT EDUCATION
Hon. Floyd T. Christian
Commissioner of Education and
r State Board for Vocational Education
Tallahassee, Florida 32304
Dear Commissioner Christian:
Herewith is the Annual Descriptive Report of the Florida State Board
for Vocational Education for the period beginning July 1, 1971 and
T ending June 30, 1972. The report has been written in terms of
objective evaluations and to what extent the Division has met goals
established for fiscal year 1972 in the Florida State Plan for the
Administration of Vocational Education under the Vocational Education
Amendments of 1968.
This report, submitted for approval and transmittal to the Assistant
Commissioner for Vocational Education, Office of Education, United
States Department of Health, Education and Welfare, highlights the
activities of the vocational services and provides the Commissioner
( of Education with information needed for the annual report to the
-. Congress and the Nation.
r Included in this manuscript are many details regarding the activities
of Florida's sixty-seven district school boards and twenty-eight
Community college boards of trustees to expand and strengthen local
programs of vocational and technical education.
oe D. Mills, Director
vision of Vocational,
chnical and Adult Education
TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION..................................... ........... ............ 1
REGULAR PROGRAMS Part B of the Act.................................. 7
1. Accomplishments for Each of the Five Categories of Persons Set
Forth in Part III of the State Plan.............................. 7
Secondary.......................... ................ .... .. .. 7
Adult ........................................................ 10
Program Development and Accomplishments in Agricultural Education.. 13
Program Development and Accomplishments in Business and Office
Program Development and Accomplishments in Distributive Education.. 18
Program Development and Accomplishments in Diversified Cooperative
Education.............................. ............................ 21
Program Development and Accomplishments in Health Related
Occupations Education............................................. 22
Program Development and Accomplishments in Home Economics
Program Development and Accomplishments in Technical Education..... 30
Program Development and Accomplishments in Trades and Industrial
Program Development and Accomplishments in Work Experience......... 37
2. Accomplishments in Terms of the Geographical Distribution of
Allocation of Funds for Vocational Education ...................... 38
3. Accomplishments of Objectives or Activities as Shown in Part
III of the Annual Program Plan for Programs Under Contract;
Vocational Guidance and Counseling; Construction of Area Schools;
Ancillary Services and Activities; and State Programs for Dis-
advantaged Persons Under Section 102 (b) (3)...................... 43
SPECIAL PROGRAMS As Related to Part III, Annual Program Plan......... 47
Part C Research and Training..................................... 47
Part D Exemplary Programs....................................... 48
Part E Residential Schools...................................... 49
Part F Consumer and Homemaking Education........................ 49
Part G Cooperative Education.................................... 50
Part H Work Study ............................................... 50
STAFF DEVELOPMENT, Occupational Specialists and the Educational
Professional Development Act Part F.................................. 51
Other Information Requested
(1) Highlights of Exceptional or Model Programs............... 53
(2) Vocational Youth Organizations............................ 55
(3) Findings Regarding Vocational Education Needs not Being
Adequately Provided........................................ 60
SUMMARY OF GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS................................... 63
Particular emphasis has been placed by the Vocational Education Amend-
ments of 1968 upon service to socially, economically, and educationally
disadvantaged persons and to mentally and physically handicapped persons.
Emphasis is also placed upon expansion of vocational education programs
for post-secondary students. More services and a greater variety of
service will be provided for these groups and also for all other youth
and adults with the need and interest to benefit from vocational instruc-
tion and the vocational guidance and job placement services supportive
to vocational education. In this manner vocational education and the
services which it provides will assist in giving meaning and direction
to the educational goals of the majority of Florida's citizens, both
young and old alike.
The Florida State Plan for the
Administration of Vocational
Education under the Vocational
Education Amendments of 1968
(Statement by Floyd T. Christian,
Commissioner of Education)
PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS
This annual report of the Division of Vocational, Technical and Adult-
Education for FY 1972 reviews major activities and accomplishments and
presents a broad assessment of the results of vocational education pro-
grams and services offered to the people of Florida. It reports activ-
ities to provide all citizen opportunities for self-help through
vocational education programs at the secondary, post-secondary and adult
levels. The report describes accomplishments, or the lack of accomplish-
ments, of objectives set forth in Parts II, III, and IV of the Florida
State Plan prepared for FY 1972.
The Division continued work to expand and strengthen vocational edu-
cation and to promote the comprehensive aspects of the whole program as
defined by the 1970 Florida Legislature in eight bills, known as the
"Vocational Education Package." The latter broadened the definition
of vocational education, mandated that the State Board of Education adopt
minimum standards for a comprehensive vocational education program,
established new funding formulas, mandated evaluation of the output of
programs, increased vocational counseling services through the employment
of occupational specialists, placed responsibility on school boards for
the vocational training of youth under 19 years of age whether or not
they are still in school, required the employment of a local director of
vocational education to give leadership to the program in each school
district and junior college with a department designated an area voca-
tional school, and established the Vocational Improvement Fund. Subse-
quent to the above, legislation was passed which clarified the definitions
of vocational education and area schools and provided some adjustments to
Planning continued for the comprehensive vocational education program as
established by the State Board of Education for regular students and those
classified disadvantaged or handicapped. The complete program will be
offered in instructional components, organized to introduce youngsters
in grades 1-6 to the world of work; present occupational exploration ex-
periences to students in grades 7-9; and offer job preparatory training
to secondary students in grades 7-12, and to students at the post-secondary
and adult levels. The comprehensive program will also provide supplemental
training for adults.
Research and development activities, innovative practices, cooperative and
work-study programs, and exemplary and pilot programs are reviewed in this
report. Model programs, illustrative of development in the state are re-
viewed in a separate section.
An outstanding feature of the vocational education program in Florida is
the state-wide support of the plans, programs and ideals involved in the
comprehensive plan of service to citizens of all ages who want, are quali-
fied for, and can benefit from vocational education. Legislators, state
line and staff personnel, community college personnel, students at the
secondary, post-secondary and adult levels, and other citizens of the
state, including the State Advisory Council for Vocational Education, have
responded to the call for strengthened and expanded programs of vocational
Education is having and will continue to have increasing impact for social,
economic and educational development as needs of citizens are met through
This nation's commitment to public education is based upon the conviction
that the political and social institutions of free men cannot flourish with-
out a literate and informed electorate. Today every major nation recognizes
that education is the key to self-fulfillment, economic growth and stability,
and to survival in a world of accelerating change. The mission of the
Department of Education is to be responsive to, and responsible for, improved
educational policy at the federal, state, and local levels.
The Mission of the Department of
Total Enrollments in Vocational Education, FY 1972
Business & Off.
Home Economics Ed.
Total Home Ec.
Trades & Ind. Ed.
75,173 177,118 604,878
Number of Enrollments in Vocational Education
all Vocational Services, all Levels, Selected Years
Business & Office
Health Related Occupations
Home Economies Education
Trades and Industrial
Diversified Cooperative Education
49,591 86,001 94,280 130,308
(In above) 12,080
309,572 474,010 461,539
Total Vocational Education Enrollments
by Vocational Service, Fiscal Year 1972
(Part B of the Vocational Education Amendments of 1968)
1. Accomplishments for Each of the Five Categories of Persons Set Forth
in Part III of the State Plan
Secondary enrollments* totaled approximately 352,400, (including below
9th grade enrollments) in FY 1972, up from 244,400 the prior year and
far above projections in the annual plan totaling 223,000 enrollments.
Gains were made in enrollments at the secondary level in all vocational
services and in work experience.
The following chart reports total enrollments, and the enrollments at the
secondary level on a percentage basis according to enrollments by each
*In all discussions and illustrations in this report enrollments of dis-
advantaged and handicapped persons are included in total actual enroll-
ments reported at the secondary, post-secondary and adult levels for FY
1971 apd FY 1972. Actual enrollments of disadvantaged and handicapped
persons totaled about 104,500 in FY 1972. They are summarized separately
but are included in actual enrollments at the three levels in each year
Secondary Vocational Education Enrollments
by Vocational Service, Fiscal Year 1972
Post-secondary enrollments totaled 75,100 in FY 1972 including disadvan-
taged and handicapped persons, up from 69,000 in the previous year and
over the 72,000 projected in the State Plan. Increases were reported in
agricultural education up from 800 to 1700; business and office education
up from 18,300 to 20,000; distributive education, up from 6600 to 9800;
health related occupations education, up from 9300 to 10,400; and home
economics education, up from 2300 to 3600.
Each vocational service offered work at the post-secondary level including
agriculture, (13) major occupational fields or programs, distribution.(21),
health (36), home economics (16), business and office (30), technical (30),
and trades and industry (77). Each of the vocational education services
offered miscellaneous programs, included above, under the caption "other."
Total enrollments at the post-secondary level were divided into percentages
Post-Secondary Vocational Education Enrollments
by Vocational Service, Fiscal Year 1972
Enrollments at the adult level totaled 177,100 in FY 1972, over the 167,400
in FY 1971. As projected in the State Plan, enrollments in certain voca-
tional services did increase: agricultural education from 1100 to 2300;
distributive education from 25,500 to 27,000; health related occupations
education from 4100 to 6500; business and office education from 33,200 to
42,800; and technical education from 3900 to 5400.
The following chart reports total enrollments recorded in FY 1972 appor-
tioned by vocational service.
Adult Vocational Education Enrollments
by Vocational Service, Fiscal Year 1972
Enrollments of disadvantaged persons in vocational education programs
totaled 95,000 in FY 1972, up from 54,000, in 1971. Projections of such
students had totaled 76,600 in the annual plan. Students were served
in each vocational service. Of the total number of disadvantaged students
served, 8850 were enrolled in public community colleges.
Ninety-five hundred handicapped persons were enrolled in educational pro-
grams in FY 1972, up from 5800 in the prior year. Actual enrollments -
exceeded the number projected in the annual plan (7800) by about 22 percent.
Handicapped persons were served in each vocational service with most
enrollments in agricultural education (1000), home economics education
(3500), business and office occupations education (1000) and trades and
industrial education (2900). Of total enrollments, about 1000 were served
in the public community colleges.
Studies involving student contact hours for fiscal year 1972 indicate
that the average school time, or load, in vocational education is equal
to 24 percent of a five period secondary school day, 36 percent of a
post-secondary course load, and 60 clock hours per year for adult classes.
All students shall acquire a knowledge and understanding of the oppor-
tunities open to them for preparing for a productive life, and shall
develop those skills and abilities which will enable them to take full
advantage of those opportunities -- including a positive attitude toward
work and respect for the dignity of all honorable occupations.
Goals for Education in Florida
PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT AND ACCOMPLISHED
IN AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION
Twenty-two programs were begun and twenty-one on-going programs were
expanded. Specialized occupational cluster offerings increased as enroll-
ments and multiple teacher departments increased. Cluster offerings
increased particularly in ornamental horticulture, agricultural mechanics
Enrollments at the secondary level totaled about 30,800, up from 23,500
in FY 1971 and over the 23,400 projected in the annual program plan.
Gains in enrollments were recorded in forestry, ornamental horticulture,
agricultural mechanics, agricultural resources, and agricultural supplies.
A follow-up study of enrollees in agricultural education in Florida re-
vealed that over 60 percent of the graduates were placed in agricultural
and related occupations.
Enrollment totaled 1700, over the 800 recorded in 1971 and over the 850
projected in the State Plan.
New programs added were one in landscaping and one in veterinary tech-
nology. New facilities were provided for agricultural programs at the
Tom P. Haney Area Vocational-Technical Center (Panama City); North
Technical Education Center (Palm Beach); and at the Suwannee-Hamilton
Vocational-Technical Center (Live Oak).
Enrollments in Golfcourse and Landscape Operations at Lake City Community
College increased and all persons who completed training were placed in
jobs in the landscape and turfgrass industry. The veterinary technology
program is the first recognized in Florida under the direction of the
Florida Veterinary Medical Association. A statewide needs survey, conducted
jointly by the Association and the state, was begun to provide direction
for development of the veterinary technology program.
Enrollment at the adult level increased from 1100 in FY 1971 to 2300 in
FY 1972 or an increase over 100 percent and over the 200 projected in
the State Plan. It is anticipated that adult enrollment will increase
substantially in 1972-73 due to increased demand of veterans for instruc-
tion in agriculture and to plans to expand the program of instruction for
young farmers, and businessmen who are active in selling agricultural
supplies or products. Several local young farmers and agri-businessmen
clubs have been formed and it is planned to organize a state association
Six new programs were implemented in secondary schools and 5800 enroll-
ments were reported, up from 4800 in FY 1971. About 7100 enrollments had
been projected in the annual plan and actual enrollments were under the
Three new programs were implemented at the secondary level. Enrollments
totaled 1000, up from 800 in FY 1971 and over the 980 projected in the
annual plan. Programs were offered in ornamental horticulture, produc-
tion agriculture, and agricultural mechanics among others.
The rapid shift which agricultural education has made from emphasis on
the production phase of agriculture to a broadening of the program to
include many off-farm agricultural occupations has brought increased
demand from teachers for curriculum materials. Teacher workshops were
held in Gainesville, Orlando, and Chipley in the summer of 1971, during
which time curricula were developed for 32 occupations. At Chipley,
teaching-learning activities were developed.
Florida Project Agriculture, a research project being funded by the agri-
cultural education section through the University of Florida and which
was initiated last year, was continued with emphasis on the survey phase
of the project. School districts cooperated by having the teachers
survey farms and agricultural businesses to determine manpower needs and
data secured are being analyzed by the project staff.
Curricula will continue to be revised to enable training programs to
meet the needs of industry.
In the year under review, the demand for MFP units of financial support
for new and expanded programs in agricultural education exceeded by 50
the units which were available.
In trying to secure teachers for new and expanding programs, school dis-
tricts were made aware of the nation-wide shortage of agriculture teach-
ers, particularly in some of the specialized fields such as horticulture
and agricultural mechanics. This situation mandates a redoubling of
state efforts to increase the output of the teacher education institu-
tions in Florida.
PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS
IN BUSINESS AND OFFICE EDUCATION
Business and office education served in excess of 40,000 students at
the secondary level during FY 1972 as reported by districts and com-
munity colleges throughout the state. This number is in excess of the
26,000 in FY 1971 and substantially over the 13,400 estimated in the
1972 State Plan. Courses were offered in 59 of the 67 districts of
the state. Reports from many districts continued to indicate an increase
in job placements over previous years. Offerings are being expanded to
include more students for job preparation in grades 10 and 11. Districts
reported higher student interest and larger enrollments due to the latter
Each of the 27 community colleges continued to offer programs in busi-
ness and office education and approximately 20,000 students were served
in FY 1972. This figure represented an increase of 2000 students
over FY 1971. Each of the 22 area vocational-technical centers operated
by district school boards continued to provide programs for business and
office education students. Courses and programs ranged from certificate
offerings to the regular two-year associate degree in secretarial science.
Programs in accounting, secretarial practice, office machines, clerical
office practice, typewriting and office management continued to be the
most popular offerings.
Enrollments at the adult level, as reported by districts and community
colleges throughout the state totaled approximately 42,800 in FY 1972, an
increase of 10,000 over FY 1971.
Of the 59 districts providing course offerings in business and office
education, at least 34 offered programs at the adult level. These
offerings were provided in evening classes in high school facilities
as well as day and night programs in area vocational-technical centers.
Adults enrolled for training for job entry, job upgrading, and profes-
sional skills development. A least three area centers provided experi-
mental programs for students in cooperative business education.
Popular programs at the adult level continued to be in the areas of
accounting and computing; filing; office machines; stenography and type-
writing. Combined enrollments in these areas were approximately 34,000
in FY 1972.
At least 15 districts provided course offerings specifically designed
to assist students in business and office education identified as being
disadvantaged. These programs included enrollments in grades 9-12. The
offerings provided a wide range of experiences in the areas of secre-
tarial-clerical occupations, record keeping and business communications.
Enrollments totaled approximately 14,000 students in FY 1972. This
represents an increase of 7000 students over FY 1971 and over the 8900
projected in the State Plan.
At least three districts offered specially designed programs at the 9th
grade level for disadvantaged persons. The latter were designed to
provide employability skills in business and office occupations for
students who may be potential dropouts after the 9th grade. The districts
reported much student interest in these specially designed programs.
Special schools that continued to provide courses in business and office
education were the Beggs Education Center (Pensacola); Booker T. Washing-
ton Junior High School (Miami); Career Education Center (Jacksonville);
and George Washington Junior High School (Tampa).
The state staff worked with agencies including the Division of Vocational
Rehabilitation; the Arthur G. Dozier School for Boys (Marianna), and the
Lowell School for Girls (Ocala), to provide suitable special course offer-
ings for disadvantaged persons.
Enrollments in courses for handicapped students were approximately 1100,
up from 500 in FY 1971 and almost exactly the number projected in the
State Plan. Courses offered by districts for handicapped persons
included typewriting, record keeping, office machines, filing, and
clerical office practice, among others.
Through visits by area supervisors, participation in staff development,
and by other means, work continued in districts to evaluate programs.
During the year the state staff made accreditation visitations, partici-
pated on regional accreditation committees, and engaged in workshop
activities to revise existing guides for which instructional packets were
developed. The latter include pre- and post-test instruments to evaluate
certain levels of competency attained in programs for which they were
The state staff participated in statewide sessions designed to teach
approximately 120 business education teachers how to use evaluation
instruments developed in the Typewriting Communications project and
to develop similar instruments for other instructional areas in busi-
ness education. The following were also accomplished to advance evalu-
ation techniques and studies:
1. Test instruments were revised. In light of the objectives
of Phase II of the project, test instruments were revised and
placed in order of increasing levels of difficulty to perform.
2. Instruments were field tested. Instruments were field tested
a third time by administering them to office employees in state
government, on university campuses, and in the private business
sector who perform typewriting tasks in over fifty percent
of their work assignments.
3. Field testing and dissemination efforts were monitored.
The state staff and the technical assistance adviser
monitored two or more of these sessions.
4. Computer analyses were executed to determine results. An
analysis of covariance was run to determine various degrees of
performance among different participating groups, and their
performance on each of the test items in the evaluation instru-
ment. A frequency distribution was run on each of the classi-
fiable errors categorized in the mailability criteria which
5. Objectives were revised and cataloged. Following the third
field testing of the evaluation instrument, it was found
advisable to revise some of the performance objectives before
6. The final report of the project was submitted and accepted.
The state staff continued work with universities to expand and strengthen
teacher training programs. Assistance was provided in organizing work-
shops for the purpose of upgrading teacher competencies and serving more
teachers statewide in inservice training programs.
A model for career development was prepared which reflects sequential
instruction for the total program of business education in K through 14
grades. A manual to assist districts in planning for business education
in the "wheel approach" in middle schools was developed, and the guides
for cooperative business education and vocational office education were
revised. In addition, a handbook for Future Business Leaders of America
and a television commercial portraying career opportunities in the office
occupations were developed.
Workshops were held in office simulation, touch shorthand, guide
revision, instructional materials development, and a national Gregg
Methods Conference for Business Education was held on the campus of
the University of South Florida. Curriculum materials from these
workshops were distributed to school districts and universities.
PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS
IN DISTRIBUTIVE EDUCATION
In FY 1971-72, distributive education programs were operated in 139 high
schools in 36 districts throughout the state. This represented an in-
crease of 23 high schools and 56 teaching units over the previous year.
Secondary enrollments totaled 15,800, including enrollments in grades 7-9,
which exceeded the projection for the year by almost 9000 students, and
marked a 131 percent increase over the previous year. About 1600 students
were enrolled in 18 pilot exploratory programs at the middle and/or junior
high school level.
Programs were offered in 25 community college districts on 31 community
college campuses and enrolled over 910 students. Programs were also
provided in 18 area vocational-technical facilities, exclusive of centers
which are designated as department of-community colleges. Enrollments
in districts totaled approximately 600.
One year certificate programs and two year associate degree programs
were offered in such areas as banking, insurance, real estate, restaurant
management, hotel-motel management, fashion merchandising, and auto parts
counterman training, in addition to the general area of marketing and
distribution. Enrollment for the year totaled 9755, an increase of 47 per-
cent over the previous year. The largest enrollments were recorded in real
estate followed by general merchandising.
During the year, 18 school districts and 25 community colleges provided
distributive education offerings to 27,034 adults, an increase of 6 percent
over the previous year. Of total enrollments, 10,600 were in community
colleges. The course offerings reflecting the highest enrollments included
Real Estate License, Supervisory Training for Distributive Workers, Hotel-
Motel Management, Banking, and Cashiering for Sales People.
An Adult Distributive Education Seminar was held in May for the purpose of
identifying problems and solutions in the organization, promotion, and
administration of distributive education programs for adults offered by
the school districts and community colleges. The two-day seminar was
attended by community college instructors, coordinators, department chair-
men, and deans of instruction as well as by adult instructors, coordina-
tors, and supervisors from the school districts. A need was expressed
for a higher degree of articulation and coordination of program offerings
in order to avoid unnecessary duplication. It was believed this could
be achieved more effectively if objectives at the adult level were clearly
defined in relation to the role of the various participating institutions.
Distributive education programs were offered in nine of the fourteen
economically depressed and high unemployment areas of the state
designated by the United States Secretary of Commerce and the CAMPS
Committee. Of the 35 districts so identified by the Florida Department
of Education, offerings at the secondary, post-secondary, and adult
levels of instruction were provided in 23 districts. Enrollment of per-
sons identified as being disadvantaged totaled 5611, an increase of 87
percent over the previous year and over the 3900 projected in the annual
The state staff continued to work with other agencies concerned with
programs for handicapped persons including the Division of Vocationl
Rehabilitation, Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, and
Goodwill Industries. Enrollments of students classified as handicapped
totaled 193, a 48 percent increase over 1970-71.
A five-year follow-up of the distributive education graduates of 1966
was completed. The study showed that 98 percent of the graduates who
wanted work were gainfully employed. The largest category of graduates
employed in a distributive field were found to be in food distribution
followed by general merchandising. Over 81 percent of the graduates are
still Florida residents. In 1966, the highest percentage of graduates
was earning between $25 and $50 weekly. By 1972, earnings had increased
to better than $150 per week for the majority of the graduates.
A survey was conducted to identify distributive teacher education needs
in Florida. It was found that the majority of the personnel have definite
career goals to achieve in progressive stages through a preconceived ca-
reer ladder. Vertical mobility may be anticipated as a significant number
of teachers prepared to progress to advanced levels of instructional pro-
grams, program supervision, and/or teacher education.
The study also revealed that the number of prospective teachers and
supervisors completing certification requirements annually is far below
actual needs. Projections of personnel needs for five years hence have
already proven too conservative and there is an acute shortage of quali-
fied distributive education teachers and supervisors in the state.
The first phase of a ten-state research consortium study designed to
develop a catalog of performance objectives and test items with which
to assess student achievement and needs was completed. The objectives
and instruments developed will be field-tested during the 1972-73 fiscal
The distributive education program was expanded downward into the middle
and/or junior high school level of instruction to provide exploratory
offerings to students whereby they may have a more objective basis for
determining career choices. Escambia, Duval, St. Johns, Pinellas, and
Broward counties participated in pilot programs in 18 school centers
during the second semester of the school year. Exploratory experiences
were provided to 1594 students in retailing, wholesaling, and market-
ing service occupations.
PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS
IN DIVERSIFIED COOPERATIVE TRAINING
Almost 18,000 students made application to enroll in DCT programs and
about 6300 were accepted. Enrollments were over the 4500 served in
FY 1971 and over the 5500 projected in the State Plan. The lack of
programs and teacher-coordinators limited service to students. Classes
averaged 28.4 students each.
About 1900 students classified "disadvantaged" were accepted and taught
in regular programs.
Certification standards for DCT teachers were enacted and a full-time
teacher-educator position was established at the University of South
Student learning packets were evaluated and one, "The Development of a
Positive Self-Concept;' was approved and is ready for distribution.
Other packets were studied and revised and made ready for final editing
and distribution. Drafts of handbooks for administrators, employers,
students, and teachers were prepared and will be distributed after final
editing and printing.
During the year, DCT coordinators participated in three inservice experi-
mental workshops sponsored by the Panhandle Area Educational Cooperative
(PAEC). The objectives of the meetings were to share information about
certification requirements, duties and responsibilities of coordinators,
developing evaluation techniques to determine program success, the use
of advisory committees, child labor laws, classroom management and
PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS
IN HEALTH OCCUPATIONS EDUCATION
Health occupations education programs in high schools increased
significantly in numbers. Twenty new programs were initiated in 13
separate districts. Of these, 18 were health service aide programs.
The other two were a nurse aide program and an introductory health
occupations program for junior high school students. A total of 66
programs were conducted during the year and enrollment reached 3500,
an increase of 106 percent over the previous year and far above the
2100 projected in the State Plan.
Consultative visits were made to most of the districts offering health
occupations education programs, at the secondary level, for the purpose
of providing assistance with program planning, program initiation,
program evaluation, or program improvement.
Special assistance was given to the mobile health occupations education
unit serving Franklin County. Planning is under way to increase the
effectiveness of the unit by arranging for visits to appropriate clin-
ical facilities and scheduling lectures for members of the various
health professions. In addition, advanced courses are planned to pro-
vide opportunities for increased specialization by students.
In several areas, staff consultants assisted in exploring the feasi-
bility and practicability of utilizing community health facilities to
provide clinical experiences for students enrolled in high school
health occupations programs.
Assistance in curriculum development and teaching strategies was pro-
vided to a number of teachers newly assigned to high school programs.
Visits were made to four districts by consultants on assignment by the
Commissioner to provide guidance and assistance with accreditation
All proposals and projects for health occupations programs were reviewed
by the state staff and appropriate recommendations were made.
Enrollment in health occupations education programs during the fiscal
year was 10,300, an increase of 11 percent over the previous year, and
over the 7400 projected in the State Plan.
Requests for information and consultative services relating to health
occupations ednuation programs were received from throughout the state
in increased numbers during the year. Community interest in expanding
the number of programs in this area continues to accelerate.
Twenty-five of twenty-eight community colleges offered educational
programs in health occupations, as did most of the area vocational
centers in the state. A total 209 educational programs were conducted
Involving training for 31 different categories of health occupations.
Of these programs, 143 were beyond high school level.
New practical nursing programs were initiated at Washington-Holmes
Area Center (Chipley), and Brevard Junior College (Cocoa).
An evening class in practical nursing was started at Lindsey Hopkins
Education Center (Miami), to provide special opportunities for students
unable to attend day classes because of work or child care responsibil-
Palm Beach Junior College began a new program for surgical technicians.
Miami-Dade Junior College gained the approval of the Florida State
Board of Nursing and initiated a program designed to permit licensed
practical nurses to become registered nurses within one year.
Planning for medical laboratory technician programs was advanced at
St. Petersburg Junior College and Broward Community College (Ft.
Lauderdale). The program at Broward Community College is unique in
design, enrolling only second year students to provide career oppor-
tunities for certified laboratory assistants,
Florida Junior College at Jacksonville and Tallahassee Community College
continued planning of dental hygiene programs.
Valencia Junior College (Orlando), began new programs in associate
degree nursing and inhalation therapy.
Indian River Community College (Ft. Pierce), continued planning for
the initiation of a radiological technology program to meet community
needs following the expected phasing out of local hospital based
Gulf Coast Community College (Panama City), initiated an associate
degree program for mental health technicians.
A medical assistant program and a medical records transcriptionist
program were established at Sarasota Vocational-Technical Center.
Emergency medical technician programs were developed at Tallahassee
Community College, Sarasota Vocational-Technical Center, and Okaloosa-
Walton Junior College (Niceville). In response to a developing national
trend, an additional number of institutions are exploring the feasibility
and need for similar programs.
Planning for the first physicians' assistant program in the state reached
final stages at Santa Fe Junior College (Gainesville). It is expected
that students will be enrolled in the fall of 1972.
Health occupations education consultants made 103 visits to provide
assistance with programs at the secondary level. Tmh trend toward
increased program expansion at this level continued throughout the
All projects and proposals related to secondary health occupations
education programs were reviewed and appropriate recommendations made.
Programs of supplemental education for persons already in the labor
market were conducted at many locations, providing opportunities to
upgrade skills for health workers in most program areas. Enrollments
at the adult level totaled 6505 for the year, reflecting an annual
increase of 60 percent and over the 5000 projected in the annual plan.
Special emphasis continues to be placed on the provision of skill
improvement opportunities for health occupations workers engaged in a
rapidly changing health care delivery system.
Chipola Junior College (Marianna), provided supplementary education
for professional and paraprofessional health workers who had need of
improvement in supervisory and administrative skills. In addition,
a course in advanced first aid was provided for ambulance attendants
and other hospital workers.
Consultative assistance was provided in the development and implemen-
tation of an education program to prepare nursing home administrators
for licensure examination.
Other consultative services were provided for supplemental education
programs for health workers in Broward, Dade, Collier, Pinellas,
Hillsborough, Pasco, Leon, Escambia, Volusia, Orange, and Palm Beach
Disadvantaged and Handicapped
Increased efforts were made to provide opportunities for disadvantaged
and handicapped persons to acquire skills in the health occupations.
An enrollment of 3818 was recorded in programs designed for students
with special needs, an increase of 53 percent over the previous year,
and over the 3200 projected to be served.
A part-time program in practical nursing was continued at Miami-Dade
A pre-vocational health occupations class for handicapped students
was conducted at Indian River Middle School (Gifford).
Southwest Miami Senior High School initiated a new nurses aide program.
Wymore Vocational-Technical Center (Eatonville), established a health
service aide program for students with special needs.
A remedial program at Santa Fe Junior College (Gainesville), is avail-
able for students who wish to enroll in health occupations programs,
but who may not be adequately prepared to do so.
A mini-workshop was held in Orange County to assist teachers in
secondary health occupations programs with the development of more
effective instructional procedures for classroom use.
Five new cooperative health occupations education programs were
initiated. These were located at Miami Beach Senior High School,
Chamberlain High School (Tampa), Hillsborough High School (Tampa),
and Palm Beach Gardens High School.
A total of 21 high schools offered cooperative health occupations
education programs. Numerous inquiries and expressions of interest
in starting new programs were received, indicating that further
increase in these programs should be anticipated.
PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS
IN HOME ECONOMICS EDUCATION
Enrollments in vocational home economics at the secondary level increased
from 116,000 in FY 1971 to 163,000 in FY 1972. Including disadvantaged
and handicapped students enrollments had been estimated to total 121,000
in the annual plan. The number of programs to prepare students for gain-
ful employment in home economics related occupations increased in the
same period from 127 to 366 with over 16,600 students enrolled.
The number of enrollments in consumer and homemaking education increased
from 110,300 in FY 1971 to 146,500 in FY 1972.
Enrollments at the post-secondary level increased from 2250 in FY 1971
to 3600, exceeding the 2650 projected in the State Plan.
Programs were developed to insure compatibility with labor market needs
and student interests. With the opening of a new wing at Mid-Florida
Technical Institute (Orlando), programs were established in child care
guidance and services; clothing management, production and services;
home furnishings, equipment and services; and consumer and homemaking
education. Although equipment installation was not completed until
February, enrollments have steadily increased in this high population
density and depressed area.
Plans were formulated and a laboratory equipped to establish a fashion
merchandising program at Florida Junior College in Jacksonville. Programs
in child care guidance and services; food management, production and ser-
vices; and clothing management, production and services have also been
increased at the Jacksonville institution.
Three home economic wage earning programs were initiated at Seminole
Junior College (Sanford).
Enrollments, including disadvantaged persons, decreased from 52,300 in
FY 1971 to 50,400 in FY 1972, below the 51,200 projected in the State
Plan. Seven of the larger counties in the state expanded home economics
offerings at the adult level. Major program emphases included identifi-
cation of job opportunities and preparation for gainful employment, con-
sumer education and meeting the special needs of disadvantaged persons.
Orange County added a coordinator of home economics programs for adults and
a supervisor of adult home economics education in Broward County was
one of five top contenders for the H. B. Meek "Educator of the Year"
award in food services.
Enrollment figures for disadvantaged students increased from 19,900 in FY
1971 to 32,800 in FY 1972, below the 34,000 projected in the State Plan.
Workshops were held in Escambia County to develop individualized materials
to be used in the new school year.
Conferences were held in the Howell E. Lancaster Youth Development Center
(Trenton), for delinquents and in the Florida School for the Deaf and the
Blind (Augustine), and plans were made.to initate occupationally-oriented
Seamstress training was provided to inmates of the city jail in Jackson-
ville to enable them to work in the home furnishings trade or in dress-
making occupations after their release. An occupational training program
for pregnant girls was also provided.
A special cooperative program in institutional services was offered for
potential dropouts in the ninth grade at Crooms High in Seminole City.
Fourteen girls received training and decided to remain in school.
Programs for teenage parents were developed in five districts and improv-
ments were made in facilities, materials and curricula for existing pro-
Classes in home and apartment management and consumer and homemaking were
established in an apartment complex for disadvantaged persons in Orange
A federal project, administered by Polk County, provided an itinerant
teacher to devote full time to plan, conduct and supervise on-the-job
training for migrant farm laborers to prepare to staff and operate child
care centers for migrant children. This was a coordinated effort with
the Food Division of the Coca-Cola Company, which provided excellent child
care facilities and salaries for the trainers. A center in Indiantown
and another in Frostproof were activated. Indian River Junior College
(Ft. Pierce), cooperated in this effort by providing instructors for one
two-week workshop and Saturday workshops.
Through the efforts of the President of Okaloosa-Walton Junior College
(Niceville), HUD financed a facility for adult education for disadvan-
taged people in Walton County. Federal projects provided equipment for
a child care center, food service laboratory, an institutional and home
management laboratory and a clothing laboratory.
Illustrative of programs serving handicapped persons are homemaking,
clothing and textiles, institutional home management and home economics
occupations. There were 3450 persons enrolled in FY 1972. Okaloosa
County initiated five home economics programs for handicapped students
and provided inservice training for the teachers. New programs in insti-
tutional and home services have been initiated in Orange, Seminole, Flagler,
Brevard, Taylor, Osceola, Walton and Pinellas counties. Curriculum
materials were developed in Pinellas County to fit the needs of handi-
In a number of areas in the state, new facilities were constructed specifi-
cally to serve handicapped persons.
Personnel have been engaged in the development of programs and materials
that improve the quality and better reflect the image of vocational home
economics education. Such research and development activities have in-
volved state staff, county personnel and teacher educators. Emphases
have been on preparation of teachers, development of curriculum and mate-
rials and improved communication between the state and local levels.
A Program Planning Guide for Vocational Home Economics Education in Florida
was developed by the state staff and teachers and supervisors from through-
out the state. The publication included two major components: program
planning materials and teacher handbook materials. Approximately 2000
copies have been distributed to appropriate persons in Florida and to
state supervisors of home economics in other states.
Five K-12 resource guides in human development, management and family
economics, food and nutrition, housing and home furnishings and textiles
and clothing were developed by approximately 75 teachers in workshops
conducted in five universities in Florida. Materials were edited by
teachers, supervisors, students and consultants and were prepared for
publication. An orientation conference was held for district home eco-
nomics supervisors and local directors of vocational education. In-depth
explanations of the guides, complete with transparencies, were provided
to persons interpreting the guides at the local level.
Plans were made for developing individualized materials for student use
based on the objectives in the program planning and resource guides. The
workshops were to be held in 1972.
A Source List of Educational Media for Home Economics Education was
developed by Escambia County and utilized in the selection of materials
suggested for individualized instruction.
Resource Units for Employment Opportunities in Home Economics Related
Occupations were developed in Escambia County and reproduced and distri-
buted throughout the state by the Department of Education.
Projects for the revision of six home economics wage earning curriculum
guides were sponsored by Florida Atlantic University. Writers were
selected and the revisions are in progress.
Consultative assistance was provided to potential home economics education
teachers and graduate students specializing in teacher preparation and
research projects. Support was given to the testing of research materials.
State staff, teacher educators, teachers and supervisors cooperatively
participated in the development, dissemination and evaluation of program
charts and K-12 continuums of performance objectives designed to improve
program interpretation and instruction throughout the state. District and
area conferences were planned and conducted for assessing programs and
Personnel engaged in the development of programs and materials to improve
the quality and the image of vocational home economics education. Such
research and development activities involved state staff, county personnel
and teacher educators. Emphases were on preparation of teachers, develop-
ment of curriculum and materials, and improved communication between state
and local levels. Inservice training was provided for approximately 500
teachers who attended 10 drive-in consumer education conferences. Approx-
imately 50 local supervisors, administrators and state staff participated
in an inservice education workshop in the cooperative method of vocational
home economic education.
Plans and arrangements were made for five curriculum development workshops
involving five universities, local administrators, workshop directors,
teachers and consultants. The 1970 Annual Vocational, Technical and Adult
Educators' Conference in Miami Beach emphasized consumer education and
plans were formulated for the 1971 conference using human development as
the program theme.
A newsletter from the state staff informed teachers and supervisors of
activities, materials, and equipment and directives available for program
PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS
IN TECHNICAL EDUCATION
Enrollments at the secondary level increased in FY 1972 to 2500 from 1500
the previous year and over the 1500 projected in the State Plan.
The Seminole High School (Sanford), Drafting and Design Technology pro-
gram purchased, through a federal grant, a Wang programmable calculator
to enable the instructor to broaden the curriculum to better prepare
students for employment.
A pre-technical education program was initiated at Cocoa Beach High School
to enable students to enter the program at grade ten and receive instruc-
tion in both electronics and drafting through grade eleven. During grade
twelve, students select either drafting or electronics as areas of concen-
tration. The goals of the program were designed to enable graduates to
obtain skills that would prepare for employment or continue in a technical
education program at the post-secondary level.
A pre-technical introduction to data processing was also begun at
Seminole High School. The program is exploratory in nature and involves
the use of programmable calculators.
Plans were made for a new pre-technical drafting and design technology
program for Seabreeze High School (Daytona Beach), in Volusia County.
A charrette was conducted in Brevard County to plan facilities for new
vocational education programs to be initiated at Cocoa High School. Pre-
technical courses relating to drafting and design, architectural, mechan-
ical, electronics, and aeronautical technology were considered.
Increased coordination was achieved between the districts and community
colleges with an accompanying improvement of articulation.
Discussions were held to explore the possibility of starting a pre-tech-
nical program at Woodham High School (Pensacola), in Escambia County.
This program would be patterned after the one at Cocoa Beach High School.
Monroe County continued the electronics technology program at Key West
High school and expanded the program to include Marathon High School.
Plans are being made to include a similar program at Coral Shores High
School (Tavernier), during FY 1973.
Dade County continued emphasis upon Data Processing Technology in five
separate locations. Also, the Electro-Mechanical Technology program at
Miami Central High School was expanded.
Indian River County added new equipment and relocated the drafting and
design technology laboratory to strengthen the program at Vero Beach
Enrollments in technical education at the post-secondary level totaled
Broward Community College (Ft. Lauderdale), occupied new facilities at its
North Campus and plans are progressing to offer a broad program in tech-
Florida Keys Community College (Key West), expanded its data processing
technology program with the installation of a new IBM computer, and has
considerably strengthened its marine propulsion technology program with
the addition of demonstration and test equipment. In addition, the pro-
gram is now housed in permanent buildings on campus rather than in tem-
Miami-Dade Junior College's Marine Science Technology program acquired and
placed into operation a research vessel. Active support by the advisory
committee for this program is attempting to provide site facilities on
Police science technology programs expanded in South Florida with planning
and/or actual start of construction of facilities including crime labor-
atories on the campuses of Palm Beach Junior College, Broward Community
College (Central Campus) and Miami-Dade Junior College (North Campus).
Several technical education program directors explored the possibility
of expanding the use of computers in engineering technology programs.
Pensacola Junior College initiated a survey to evaluate its associate
degree technical education programs and investigated recommendations con-
cerning improvements which would strengthen the programs.
Lake City Community College and Santa Fe Community College (Gainesville),
purchased IBM 1130 computers to offer data processing technology programs.
This has provided the students with opportunities to have "hands on"
experience with computers.
Gulf Coast Community College (Panama City), purchased a research vessel
for its Marine Science Technology program to expand "on the water" acti-
vities which were not formerly possible.
Planning sessions were held and preliminary plans were developed for a new
building at Central Florida Community College (Ocala), which will house
the police science technology and corrections programs.
Okaloosa-Walton Junior College (Niceville), has concentrated on program
improvement by adding new equipment and by up-dating curricula.
A drafting and design technology program was begun. at Valencia Community
College (Orlando), at mid-year in temporary facilities. The program has
since moved into a laboratory in one of the new buildings. In addition,
the college investigated the need for several new programs including
architectural, building construction, civil and electro-mechanical tech-
nology as well as a program in industrial security.
Surveying courses have been added to the Drafting and Design Technology
program at Seminole Community College (Sanford), thus broadening the
options provided for students.
A biomedical equipment technology program was developed to be instituted
at Brevard Community College (Cocoa), during FY 1973 at the request of
hospitals and medical equipment manufacturers. This will be the first
such program in Florida and one of the few in the nation. It will pro-
vide students skills in design, installation, maintenance, repair, modi-
fication, operation, and sale of this special purpose electrical and
Adult enrollments in technical education programs totaled 5420, an increase
of 1520 over FY 1971.
Supplemental offerings in every area of technical education were provided
for persons who have already entered the labor market. Working with advi-
sory committees and local industry, local personnel have attempted to
offer programs necessary to upgrade technicians.
Special emphasis is being placed upon upgrading training for persons in
the areas of police science and fire science technology in several area
centers and community colleges.
An extensive program is under way at Brevard Community College to provide
retraining for unemployed aerospace technicians. In addition, a new
program in environmental pollution control is retraining approximately
thirty aerospace technicians to enable them to enter this new career
field. Similar adult education programs are in the planning stages at
In summary, most junior colleges and area centers offering technical educa-
tion programs have parallel evening programs for employed adults who wish
to improve their skills within their present occupation or learn new
skills to improve their earning potential. These schools also offer
specialized and supplemental courses which enable employed technicians
to up-date their knowledge and remain current with their technical special-
ty. Many of these courses are taught by the regular staff while other
highly specialized offerings are taught by professional engineers employed
by industries located in the community. Adults tend to take full advan-
tage of these educational opportunities.
In some instances, employed adults arrange their working hours so that
they can attend the regular day programs on either a full-time or part-
Enrollments of disadvantaged persons totaled 1600 in FY 1972, up from
500 in FY 1971 and only slightly over the 1560 projected in the State
Central Florida Community College has continued to concentrate on educa-
tionally disadvantaged students who wish to enter technical education
programs. Plans have been made to provide additional items of equipment
to supplement the computer used in technical education programs and for
an individual study lab which will be equipped to help the students
It is correct to state that practically all post-secondary institutions
have made special efforts to offer non-credit remedial work on an indi-
vidualized basis in order to enable potentially capable but academically
deficient students to meet the technical education curriculum require-
The nature of certain technical occupations such as drafting and design,
architecture, electronics technology, and other reasonably sedentary
fields makes them excellent sources of potential employment for capable,
but physically handicapped persons. Enrollment in these programs is
encouraged and special efforts are being made to assist physically hand-
icapped students desiring to participate.
Several institutions are utilizing the cooperative type of study for
technical education students. For example, Gulf Coast Community College,
Manatee Junior College (Bradenton), Broward Community College and Pine-
llas Vocational-Technical Center (Clearwater), are providing opportunities
for students to secure part-time employment relating to their chosen pro-
Every two years a statewide technician manpower survey is conducted to
determine the number of technicians presently employed and the additional
number of technicians needed in the major technical occupations. This
survey involves approximately 10,000 business and industry employers of
technicians. Information obtained through the survey is used in the
decision making process that lends direction to the total statewide
program in Florida. Plans are being made to conduct the next survey in
In addition to the statewide survey, local surveys are conducted as needed
throughout the year by the school districts and community colleges.
Teacher education courses are being provided for technical education teach-
ers by Florida Technological University (Orlando), University of South
Florida (Tampa), University of West Florida (Pensacola), Florida Inter-
national University (Miami), and the University of Florida (Gainesville).
In addition, these institutions provide counseling services to these
teachers as requested.
Close working relationships with several state agencies and professional
societies were maintained in order to seek advice and assistance in the
development and expansion of technical education programs. Various
agencies and societies were involved in committee operations.
Cooperation with state agencies included the Florida Department of
Pollution Control; Bureau of Employment Services, Florida Department
of Commerce; Florida Department of Transportation; Florida Department
of Natural Resources; and the Division of Corrections, Department of
Health and Rehabilitative Services.
Cooperation with professional societies or boards included the Florida
Engineering Society, American Society of Civil Engineers, the Florida
Society of Professional Land Surveyors, Florida Pollution Control Asso-
ciation, Florida Water and Pollution Control Operators Association,
Florida Section-American Water Works Association and the Florida Section-
Air Pollution Control Association. Illustrative of related involvements
include the following activities:
1. Conducted a seminar at St. Petersburg Junior College involving
some 45 instructors of engineering technology programs and data
processing technology programs to explore the desirability of
using computers as a mathematical tool in engineering related
2. Conducted a program evaluation survey at Pensacola Junior College.
3. Participated in "Tech Days" programs and in other institutional
career promotion programs such as "Voco Expo 71" at Central
Florida Community College.
4. Assisted in several meetings with school personnel at which
the new management information system was discussed including
the role the system will play in placement and follow up of
5. Developed a summer workshop for electronics technology instructors
which concentrated on teaching methods as well as updating the
electronics curriculum in the areas of solid state devices and
6. Served on an advisory committee for the Duval County Pre-Technical
Curricul3nms Planning Project.
7. Participated in several Division and area committee conferences
and meetings dealing with career education.
8. Participated in two meetings at Wymore Tech in Eatonville and in
several area committee meetings dealing with the special USOE
project in career education being conducted at Wymore.
9. Participated with representatives of the local school systems
and representatives of other vocational education sections in
charrettes in Brevard and Volusia counties. These charrettes
were held to develop educational specifications for new high
school vocational education facilities.
10. Attended professional meetings of the Florida Engineering Society,
American Society of Civil Engineers, Florida Society for Profes-
sional Land Surveyors, Air Pollution Control Association, and
Florida Pollution Control Association.
PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS
IN TRADES AND INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION
Enrollments totaled about 78,800 in FY 1972, (including grades 7-9) up
from 37,600 in FY 1971 and well over the 43,000 projected in the State
Plan. Large increases were recorded in drafting, carpentry, small engine
repair and air conditioning, heating and refrigeration. Enrollments of
over 1000 were recorded in drafting (2873), graphic arts (1799), air
conditioning, heating and refrigeration (1712), automotive mechanics
(6366), carpentry (1699), masonry (1328), industrial electronics (1689),
cosmetology (1130), and small engine repair (2172). In addition to these,
there were nine programs with enrollments between 500 and 1000.
During FY 1972 there were about 9000 students enrolled in the post-secondary
programs. This is a slight decrease from the 9700 enrolled during the
previous year. New programs in heavy equipment operator and heavy equip-
ment mechanics were developed at the Washington-Holmes Area Vocational-
Technical Center (Chipley). A new plumbing program was also instituted
in Jackson County at Chipola Junior College (Marianna). Enrollments of
over 500 students were recorded in air conditioning, heating and refrig-
eration (1042), automotive body and fender repair (838), automotive
mechanics (931), cosmetology (642), and law enforcement (533).
Enrollment in the adult program totaled about 42,600, down from the 47,300
in the prior year. Revised and improved reporting procedures instituted
throughout the state may have resulted in this lower figure being recorded.
Once the new reporting system is fully implemented throughout the state,
figures should stabilize and provide more accurate enrollment figures.
Illustrative enrollment increases were noted in business machine mainte-
nance in the preparatory and supplemental programs, and drafting occupations
in the supplemental and apprenticeship programs. Enrollments of over 500
were recorded in the apprenticeship programs in air conditioning, heating
and refrigeration (650), carpentry (1261), electricity (1949), and plumb-
ing and pipefitting (1067).
Great emphasis was again placed on this service area and this is defi-
nitely reflected in enrollment figures which show about 18,600 students
were served in FY 1972 compared to 9400 in the prior year. Note should
be made that many of the specific occupations included disadvantaged
students in enrollments.
Programs which recorded enrollment over 500 included graphic arts (592),
automotive mechanics (1333), masonry (621), custodial services (565), small
engine repair (629) and millworking and cabinet making (551).
Enrollment of handicapped persons again recorded a large increase from
about 1700 in FY 1971 to about 2900 in FY 1972. This figure was again
over the number projected in the Florida State Plan. Handicapped persons
were enrolled in 55 industrial education courses such as: air condition-
ing, heating and refrigeration; appliance repair; automotive body and
fender repair; automotive mechanics; business machine maintenance; masonry;
construction trades; custodial service; electronics; welding; small engine
repair; and millwork and cabinet making.
During FY 1972 there were about 275 senior high schools, 22 area vocational-
technical centers, 16 community colleges and 7 specialized public schools
or institutions which offered industrial education programs.
There were a number of research projects undertaken in the industrial
education field during the year, two of which should be mentioned. The
INSTEP project (Institute for New Studies in Teacher Education Prepara-
tion) was conducted in the PAEC area (Panhandle Area Education Cooperative)
of northwest Florida. This is an innovative approach to preparing newly
hired teachers for the standard, Rank III Certificate through a six week
summer program of intensive study at the University of West Florida plus
in-classroom, on-the-job evaluations for the first school year. New teachers
who successfully completed the program became eligible for a standard
The second project involved the development of performance-based pre-objec-
tives and from these, performance objectives for the automotive mechanics
program were selected. This project was undertaken by the University of
South Florida and will be completed in December 1972 and will provide one
of the most useful and informative sources for course planning and opera-
tion in the automotive mechanics program.
To comply with recent state legislation which provided that certain indus-
trial arts would be considered vocational, when the curriculum was occupa-
tionally oriented, pre-vocational industrial arts programs were begun in
21 school districts. Curricula which were developed and designed to be
occupationally oriented were: (1) the world of construction, (2) manufac-
turing, (3) graphic communications, (4) power and transportation, and
(5) introduction to American industry. The programs were offered in
junior high schools in grades 7-9.
Plans are being made to rapidly expand programs to include all school
districts and an increasing number of schools. It is estimated that 251
programs will be offered in FY 1973.
PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS
IN WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMS
The number of students served increased from 7600 in FY 1971 to nearly
11,300 in FY 1972, substantially over the 6600 projected in the State
Plan. MFP financial support of programs increased and the number of
programs increased by 34 percent from 286 to 383 in FY 1972.
MFP units increased from two in FY 1971 to four in FY 1972 and about 150
students were served in the latter year.
Of 14 areas designated economically depressed and/or with high unem-
ployment by the Department of Commerce or the CAMPS Committee, work
experience programs and some funding were provided in nine of the
A catalogue of objectives and devices for measuring the degree of student
achievement in the stated objectives was developed in the area of employ-
ability skills. The catalogue and devices will be useful to all teachers
in each occupational area of specialization.
2. Accomplishments in Terms of the Geographic Distribution of Alloca-
tions of Funds for Vocational Education
Economically depressed and high unemployment areas of the state as
designated by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce, the state CAMPS Commit-
tee, and the Florida Department of Education were singled out for
special attention in the State Plan. Included were Indian reservations
and high population density areas of the state. Districts in the upper
quartile of need as determined by the number of families with annual
incomes of less than $3000, number of unemployed, number receiving public
assistance, and the number of adults 25 years of age and over with less
than a fifth grade education were factors used in identifying districts
and areas for special attention in the awarding of financial assistance
and special help by state personnel. Districts with average household
income 25 percent or more below the state average were also included in
the 35 districts for special attention.
The charts below show that most districts classified "disadvantaged,"
and/or "with high unemployment" received a higher percent of federal
funds for vocational education than their percent of total vocational
enrollments. The data are reported for each area of the state.
Percent of Federal
Percent of Total Voc. Ed. Funds
District Voc. Ed. Enrollment Allocated in State
Calhoun .12% .15%
Dixie .07 .12
Escambia 3.43 2.32
Franklin .07 .49
Gadsden .32 .11
Holmes .15 .26
Jefferson .13 .13
Lafayette .02 .13
Liberty .04 .16
Madiscn .43 .44
Wakulla .08 .34
Walton .21 .13
Washington .35 1.62
Alachua 1.83% 2.09%
Duval 8.83 7.54
Gilchrist .08 .11
Hamilton .17 .15
Levy .16 .07
Marion 1.51 1.52
Suwannee .33 .28
Percent of Total
Voc. Ed. Enrollment
Percent of Federal
Voc. Ed. Funds
Allocated in State
Some Characteristics of Total Vocational Enrollments and Dis-
advantaged Enrollments and Thirty-five School Districts Des-
ignated Depressed and/or High Unemployment Areas of the State
Characteristics of the State
1. Eighty-three percent of the state total vocational enrollments are
in the 35 designated districts.
2. Eighty-five percent of the state disadvantaged enrollments are in
the 35 designated districts.
3. Sixteen percent of the vocational enrollments in the 35 designated
districts are disadvantaged.
4. Sixteen percent of the state total vocational enrollments are
5. Fifteen percent of the total vocational enrollments in the 32
non-designated districts are disadvantaged.
Special efforts by the vocational education sections in providing help
to designated districts are reviewed below.
7 7 r7
Programs in Agricultural Education were increased in the following dis-
tricts designated in the Florida State Plan as economically depressed
and/or with high youth unemployment.
DISTRICT 1970 71 1971 72
Gilchrist 2 4
Duval 5 6
Pinellas 10 12
Hillsborough 30 33
Sumter 4 5
Illustrative of special efforts to provide programs in economically depressed
and high unemployment areas for students in business and office education
are the following districts:
Vocational Instructional Units
1970 71 1971 72 Increase
Alachua 5.80 9.00 3.20
Duval 33.40 53.80 20.40
Pinellas 53.10 64.30 11.20
Hillsborough 58.60 63.77 5.17
Dade 73.16 87.00 13.84
Escambia 13.20 14.50 1.30
Orange 43.00 49.00 6.00
Brevard 12.00 14.00 2.00
Palm Beach 14.40 18.60 4.20
Broward 39.20 50.60 1.40
Totals 345.86 424.57 78.71
Program offerings covered a wide range of business and office education
experiences including typewriting, clerical office practice, secre-
tarial office practice, bookkeeping, cooperative business education, and
office machines. Instructional levels covered included junior high -
exploratory, secondary, post-secondary and adult.
Home Economics programs were offered in each district designated as eco-
nomically depressed and/or with h~gh youth unemployment as reported in
the State Plan. At least one-third of the federal funds received were
spent for programs for disadvantaged persons. Resource units for home
economics education were developed and reproduced by the Department of
Education in an effort to upgrade instruction for the disadvantaged.
Modified programs in industrial education were offered to meet the needs
of disadvantaged persons. Industrial education classes with special
methods and a sensitivity for the needs of disadvantaged persons were also
initiated. Technical subject matter was taught at a level in keeping
with the mental capacity of the students and classes were kept well below
normal size to provide adequate individual assistance. Classes were taught
in the shop area by persons specially trained to instruct these persons.
Programs of highly specialized nature taught over a relatively short period
of time were also implemented. Special attention was given to training
in areas that would provide an adequate income upon completion. An example
is the heavy equipment operators course at Washington-Holmes Area Voca-
tional-Technical Center (Chipley). Basic skills classes to prepare people
for entry into industrial education classes were also initiated on a pilot
Continued attention was given to developing and initiating pre-technical
post-secondary education courses for poorly prepared high school graduates.
Programs are being developed which will hold the students' interest while
preparing them in mathematics, science, and English relating to their chosen
Handicapped students were admitted to established regular health occupations
programs on an individual basis in increased numbers.
The curriculum of an existing nurse aide program at Manatee Area Vocational-
Technical Center was modified to include a child care unit to increase employ-
ability of students.
3. Accomplishments of Objectives or Activities as Shown in Part III
of the Annual Program for Programs Under Contract; Vocational
Guidance and Counseling; Construction of Area Schools; Ancillary
Services and Activities; and State Programs for Disadvantaged
Persons Under Section 102 (b) (3).
Programs Under Contract
No vocational-technical education programs were operated under contract
with the state.
Vocational Guidance and Counseling
Guidance and counseling services, as projected in the State Plan, were
an integral part of vocational education in FY 1972. Funds were used
to enable the State Consultant for Vocational Guidance to exert lead-
ership state-wide. The consultant organized and participated in work-
shops for district and junior college guidance personnel and provided
individual consultation to local vocational counselors, administrators
and other concerned persons. The consultant participated with 14 area
schools and six community colleges in sponsoring "Vo-Tech Days" to
bring together employers and students who seek employment compatible
with their training. The consultant participated closely with the Pupil
Personnel Services Section of the Division of Elementary and Secondary
Education to present the vocational education aspects of counseling in
state contacts and meetings.
"Florida Vo-Tech Days, Suggested Guidelines," an outline to provide
systematic and organized procedures to enable Florida employers to
interview area center graduates was produced and distributed. The
publication is divided into sections including "the need," which sum-
marizes purposes of the program; "the means," which suggests arrangements
for cooperative efforts of local and state staff and representatives of
business and industry; "a tentative agenda for the statewide coordinator,"
which traces month by month activities of state and local personnel to
organize, promote and publicize the program; "general procedures for con-
ducting Vo-Tech Days," and "evaluation." Sample letters to use in making
contacts with employers, outlines for seminars, and a sample of an eval-
uation form are among other sample materials included in the booklet.
The Directory of Vocational Programs in Florida was published. The
Directory contains a listing of job preparatory programs being offered
at the secondary and post-secondary levels in both public and private
institutibas in the state. It contains an alphabetical listing of the
job preparatory programs offered by each of the vocational services and
the names and addresses of the institutions offering the programs.
The State Consultant met with legislative committees and with local
educational agencies to facilitate plans for the use of occupational
specialists. The latter, authorized by the 1970 Legislature, will aid
professional counselors through assignments which may include identi-
fying and counseling potential dropouts and their parents, and counsel-
ing regular students, teachers and administrators concerning job and
The Division was active in preparing guidelines for the operation of
the entire program to use occupational specialists. It aided district
personnel in making final plans, which must be approved by the state,
for the program. "Occupational Specialists, a Suggested Training
Program" was prepared and issued to districts throughout the state to
use in training specialists to meet district established qualifications.
Occupational guidance has been emphasized in training using the DCT
method. A course in counseling has been incorporated in certification
standards for DCT coordinators.
Construction of Area Schools
Construction of new facilities was initiated at area centers located in
Broward, Pinellas, Suwannee, Lake, Polk, Manatee, Citrus, and Sarasota
counties, and at Okaloosa-Walton and Lake City Comunity Colleges. The
Broward project was the first phase development of a second area center.
Construction contracts totaled $3,756,336 for the fiscal period.
Dade County has acquired the site for the second area center which is in
the architectural planning stage of development.
Ancillary Services and Activities
The Fourth Annual Vocational, Technical and Adult Educators' Conference,
attended by approximately 3000 persons, was held in Miami Beach in
August, 1971. The meeting was sponsored by the Department of Education,
the Florida Vocational Association, and the Florida Adult Education
Association. The theme of the conference was "The Now Plan....For
Tomorrow." State specialists from each vocational service participated
in sectional meetings and consultants from throughout the state parti-
cipated in discussions relating to problems and practices in vocational-
technical and adult general education.
A "Curriculum Guide in Occupational Preparation for Disadvantaged and
Handicapped Persons," funded by VEA and ESEA Title I funds, was devel-
oped in a summer workshop. The "Guide" reviews characteristics, desired
outcomes, behaviorally stated objectives, and suggested activities for
five levels of instruction: pre-primary; primary; intermediate; and
junior and senior high school. Topics reviewed in the publication
include: "preparing for work"; "choosing and getting a job;"and "responsi-
bilities, rights and benefits of the worker," These topics are also
reviewed in behavioral terms relating to attitudes and skills needed by
disadvantaged and handicapped persons to qualify for and achieve success-
ful employment. In addition to ideas and suggested techniques for
teaching, the publication contains a bibliography of books and guides
available to aid in teaching disadvantaged and handicapped persons.
The Directory of Vocational Programs in Florida was developed by the
Division in response to many requests from both in- and out-of-state
residents for this information. A grant from the U. S. Office of
Education provided funds for the project. The book will be useful
to students in making decisions regarding career choices because it
contains a listing of job preparatory programs being offered at the
secondary and post-secondary levels in both public and private insti-
tutions in the state. The book contains an alphabetical listing of
the job preparatory programs offered by each of the vocational services
and the names and addresses of the institutions offering the programs.
Local surveys of specific health manpower needs were made by schools
and concerned professional groups as part of the initial phase in plan-
ning new health occupations programs. Recognition was given to the fact
that surveys of health manpower needs are complex and difficult to
conduct. Initial steps have been taken to establish cooperative working
relationships with the Bureau of Comprehensive Health Planning, Florida
Hospital Association, Florida Regional Medical Program, and other groups
and agencies concerned with gathering health manpower information. In-
formation concerning the number and types of health workers being
trained in the community junior colleges and area vocational centers was
provided to the Florida Bureau of Comprehensive Health Planning for use
in preparing the annual Health Manpower Report of that agency. In turn,
information pertinent to statewide health manpower needs was shared with
the Technical and Health Occupations Education Section.
Three workshops were held to assist health occupations education teachers
in the areas of comprehensive career education, evaluation of student
performance, student selection, performance objectives, and program de*
velopment. Two additional summer workshops for teachers were planned in
the areas of curriculum development and updating of skills in complex
clinical procedures. More than one hundred and twenty-five teachers
attended the workshops held and forty-six applicants registered to attend
the workshops planned for mid-summer.
State staff continued work developing new guidelines for establishing
and conducting health occupations education programs. Efforts were made
to update guidelines for establishing physical therapy assistants pro-
grams and work was completed on guidelines prepared for teaching health
occupations education programs in high schools.
A pilot program in practical nursing education in Broward County continued
to develop and revise instructional materials for use in shortened train-
Health occupations education staff consultants increased emphasis on the
importance of providing students with adequate career guidance informa-
Educational program directors were urged to gather demand data and to
develop placement and follow-up systems for their programs.
Consultative assistance was provided by the state staff to assist the
dental profession in developing a sequence of procedures and a suitable
curriculum for use in implementing a new amendment to the dental prac-
tice law which provided for a broad expansion of duties to be performed
by dental auxiliaries.
State Programs for Disadvantaged Persons Under Section 102 (b) (3)
Federal funds for disadvantaged persons, reported in Table I of Part III
of the State Plan, were spent to provide programs at the secondary and
post-secondary levels for academically and socioeconomically handicapped
persons, including dropouts, minority groups, and women preparing to
reenter the labor force. Each vocational service in the Division pro-
vided service to disadvantaged persons. Through continuation and
expansion of existing programs, and the addition of new programs, almost
95,000 disadvantaged persons were reported, up from 54,000 in 1971, and
over the 76,600 projected in the annual plan. Home economics education
led in enrollments (32,700), followed by industrial education (18,600),
business education (13,900), and work experience (11,300). Occupational
fields with enrollments over 100 included ornamental horticulture (1002),
bookkeeping (1030), general office clerical (2800), typing (1300), general
merchandising (1330), comprehensive home economics (1500), clothing man-
agement (1100), nursing (1017), and auto mechanics (1240). Large enroll-
ments of disadvantaged persons were recorded in diversified programs and
over 11,000 persons were enrolled in work experience programs.
The following table reports estimates of the type of handicapping
condition of the people being served and the percent of enrollment
by type of handicap. Data are for secondary, post-secondary and
Special learning disability 2.56%
Trainable mentally retarded 6.04
Educable mentally retarded 83.20
Emotioaly disturbed 1.34
Hearing impaired and physically handicapped 2.71
Socially maladjusted 4.00
Each vocational service offered training to handicapped persons and
enrollments totaled over 9500, up from about 6000 in FY 1971 and in
excess of the 7800 projected in the Florida State Plan.
(Related to Part III, Annual Program Plan)
Part C Research and Training
The following are illustrative of activities enumerated in the Florida
State Plan for the Research Coordinating Unit for ongoing research,
training and pilot programs active during the year under review.
1. Programs were initiated to plan career education models in
Broward, Brevard and Pinellas school districts. Components
of the program include: (1) familiarization of elementary
students with the world of work; (2) exploratory activities
in job clusters for junior high students; (3) development of
job skills for students in secondary and post-secondary
schools; (4) guidance and counseling; (5) cooperative voca-
tional education programs, and (6) inservice training of
2. Instruments and guidelines were developed and field tested as
part of a statewide follow-up system for assessing the effective-
ness of vocational programs.
3. Performance objectives and criterion referenced instruments
were developed in typewriting communication, employability
skills, ornamental horticulture, auto mechanics and distributive
education as components of the statewide evaluation system.
4. Studies were supported to determine cost factors for all
post-secondary vocational programs to support requests for
5. A program was continued to develop, test, and distribute
realistic curricula needed to implement career education
programs at elementary, junior, and senior high school levels.
Two examples are LOOM and FAIS.
6. Conferences were conducted on a scheduled basis with project
directors, curriculum developers, and evaluators to plan and
implement comprehensive programs of career education.
7. Support of Florida Educational Resources Information Centers
(FERIC) was continued throughout the state as a means of dis-
tributing research and related information needed to plan
8. Grants were awarded to provide funding support for specific
programs needed to improve a comprehensive program of voca-
tional education for career development in the state. Examples
include, but are not limited to: Closing the Middle Manpower
Utilization Gap; Vital Information for Education and Work; and
Individualized Manpower Training.
In agricultural education a major research project was continued to con-
duct a study of agricultural occupations. The data collection phase was
completed. This is a joint statewide agricultural occupations study
involving the agricultural education section, the RCU, the Institute of
Food and Agricultural Sciences, the Florida Department of Agriculture
and Consumer Services and facets of the agriculture industry.
Consumer education learning activity packages were developed for home
economics education and field tested by graduate students at the Florida
State University in cooperation with the Department of Education and
local teachers and supervisors. Phase II of the project, in which over
40 teachers and 5000 students were involved, was completed and plans
were made for implementing Phase III.
Part D Exemplary Programs
Four exemplary programs for disadvantaged students were planned, con-
ducted, and evaluated in FY 1972. Schools involved were the Beggs
Education Center (Pensacola), Booker T. Washington Junior High School
(Miami), Career Education Center (Jacksonville), and George Washington
Junior High School (Tampa). These schools served about 2000 students.
In comparison with control groups evaluation showed these students
achieved the following:
1. Acquired more job entry skills
2. Demonstrated more positive attitudes about self, school and
3. Received more guidance and counseling
4. Achieved equally well in academic courses
5. Profited by specialized teaching techniques in the classroom
6. Remained in school longer.
Illustrative of exemplary aspects of the above programs is the Beggs
Center at Pensacola which is directed to encouraging boys and girls who
lack interest and motivation in conventional school programs, and who
are almost certain to become dropouts. Each of the 600 pupils is enrolled
because he and his parents approved his participation in the special
training. All students are from low-level social and economic backgrounds.
Students in the program are among their peers and do not have to compete
with and feel rejection by students who come from "average middle class
groups." Students in the Beggs Center ordinarily have an aversion to
traditional academic programs and there is an attempt to outline broad
areas of work and study to provide wide experiences. The entire program
is ungraded in order to give students confidence and encouragement to
progress in educational programs. At the completion of training, students
are encouraged to continue in educational programs.
The expected outcomes of this innovative approach to service for disad-
vantaged youth are: (1) career relevant and self fulfilling educational
programs; (2) decrease in absenteeism and drop-out rates; (3) decrease
in conflicts with law enforcement and other social agencies; (4) more
positive social behavior modes; and (5) greater involvement in construc-
tive community activities.
A fifth exemplary program was established to serve 8000 students in 10
schools in Orange County with the secondary program located at Wymore
Vocational School (Eatonville). The model implemented in this district
will expand exemplary program objectives to include a comprehensive K-12
vocational program. At the elementary level, students will be oriented
to the world of work and at the junior high school level will explore
clusters of occupations. At the senior high school level students will
prepare to enter jobs or continue their education.
Other innovative aspects of an exemplary program are related to inservice
teacher education and vocational counseling components. The inservice
teacher education program is designed to develop techniques for working
with students using individualized, prescriptive, self-pacing learning
packages. The counseling component is designed to assist in realistic
career choice and occupational skill development and provide around-
the-clock counseling service to help students with home or juvenile court
Another component of the Florida exemplary program is the greater use of
community resources and involvement with constructive community activities.
Three of four programs are located in designated Model Cities areas.
Cooperative relationships have been established and are being maintained
between the programs and community action groups.
Part E Residential Schools
No residential schools were operated by public agencies during the year
Part F Consumer and Homemaking Education
Enrollments in consumer and homemaking education totaled 190,000 in 1972,
far above the number estimated in the State Plan. Of total enrollments,
8987 were in community colleges. Of the total, 28,000 were disadvantaged
persons and 2100 were handicapped. Enrollments in 1971 totaled 158,000
which resulted in a growth of 20 percent in 1972 over 1971.
Extensive efforts were begun to provide home economics educators through-
out the state with plans for career education and direction for emphases
unique to vocational home economics. Consultive assistance was provided
to districts emphasizing leadership in career education development.
Efforts were directed toward retaining a unified program of vocational
home economics in Florida with emphasis on consumer and homemaking edu-
cation and wage earning home economics programs.
Parts B and G Cooperative Education
Cooperative programs under Parts B and G of the Act were offered by each
vocational service. Enrollments under provisions of Part G totaled
17,650, over the 9600 in FY 1971. Enrollments under Part B increased to
14,300, over the 11,800 in FY 1971. Enrollments under the aegis of
the work experience program led all vocational services with over
10,700 enrolled in both parts, up from about 6700 in FY 1971. Dis-
tributive education led all vocational services in enrollments under
Part G, (4700) followed by business education (1700), and industrial
education (1380). Under Part B, distributive education led with 3300
followed by business education (1433), and industrial education (777).
About 4900 enrollments were recorded under both parts in DCT programs.
Part H Work Study
During the year, federal vocational education work study funds, in
combination with matching funds of participating local educational
agencies, provided regular term and summer employment to 300 needy
vocational education students. Twenty-six school districts and three
community colleges participated in the work study program. Students
were employed mainly by public education insitituions in occupations
as: office buildings and grounds maintenance; portable building con-
struction; school bus maintenance; and as aides to teachers and
recreational directors. Where possible, students are placed in jobs
related to their vocational education training.
STAFF DEVELOPMENT, OCCUPATIONAL SPECIALISTS, AND
THE EDUCATIONAL PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT ACT-PART F
The Florida State Plan for the Administration of Vocational Education
under the Vocational Education Amendments of 1968, Part IV, made pro-
visions for professional personnel development in vocational education
using local, state and federal resources to meet state wide needs. The
system is administered through the Program Services Section of the
Division to coordinate provisions of the Education Professional Devel-
opment Act-Part F (EPDA-F) with other parts of the Vocational Education
Amendments of 1968 and other state and local resources and needs. Spe-
cifically, state personnel participated in program planning; aided in
determining program priorities; helped organize and kept abreat of all
ongoing local, state and federally funded staff development programs;
and made recommendations for programs improvements.
The State Plan reports analyses of actual and projected demand for
vocational education personnel along with funds needed. In addition,
the "Master Plan for Vocational-Technical Teacher Education" and the
"District Master Plan for Inservice Staff Development" are effective
instruments and were also used in the Florida System. The following
reports some of the state's activities and contributions in professional
personnel development, with major emphasis on the operation of EPDA-.
The 1970 Florida Legislature enacted a "vocational education package"
which included a bill authorizing school districts to hire paraprofes-
sional occupational specialists. The latter are persons who work under
the supervision of certified counselors to help in-school students and
out-of-school unemployed youth make realistic occupational choices. The
intent of this legislation was to bring new people with expertise into
the mainstream of Florida education to act as a bridge between school
and the world of work. The only qualifications required for employment
were maturity, experience, and a demonstrated ability to relate to and
communicate with young people; age at least twenty years; and completion
of at least two years, or the equivalent, of full-time gainful work
The above posed training problems for school districts and provided oppor-
tunities for service for the state Education Professional Development
Act-Part F program.
In addition to the above, the state has long been faced with the need
to develop innovative alternative methods of providing teacher education
for vocational teachers coming directly from business and industry to the
Florida, with the help of resources of the Education Professional Develop-
ment Act, is coordinating state and local efforts to develop a compre-
hensive statewide system for development of vocational education person-
nel in each of the above categories. Nine universities are now offering
preservice and inservice training, both on and off campus, in all pro-
gram areas and at the baccalaureate and advanced degree levels.
Staff and other development activities during the past year, using
state, local, and federal funds included: curriculum and instructional
materials development workshops; staff development institutes and semi-
nars; workshops planned and conducted in cooperation with industry to
update the occupational competencies of instructors; and an educational
leadership training program designed to train current and potential
school principals and vocational and junior college administrators.
Florida is pledged to a system of performance-based management objec-
tives. The Division, working with institutions of higher education and
local educational agencies, has developed a comprehensive set of per-
formance-based vocational teacher education guidelines. The latter
assist in staff evaluation criteria.
The Florida Educational Research and Development Program is deeply
involved with EPDA-Part F activities in developing teacher training
techniques and materials directed toward specific teaching competencies.
As described in the State Plan, the state efforts did upgrade the tech-
nical and professional competencies of employed personnel entering or
re-entering the profession and did provide experiences which equipped
occupationally competent persons with basic teaching competencies needed
to discharge their responsibilities.
For additional illustrations of the state's activities in personnel
development, see "Highlights of Exceptional or Model Programs" in this
To aid in the development of the program to use occupational specialists
to assist in the counseling function in district schools, under the
supervision of certified counselors, "Occupational Specialists, A Sug-
gested Training Program" was prepared. The training program outline was
the product of mutual efforts of state and district personnel. Some of
the topics included in the suggested program are: "Orientation--The
Role and Function of the Occupational Specialists"; "School Settings
and Operations and How to Function Within the Framework"; "Community
Structure, Community Agencies and Organizations, Business and Industry
and the Utilization of These Factors"; "Principles of Communicating
with Youth and Relating to Youth"; "Assisting Individuals in Making
Suitable Vocational Choices and Plans"; "Placement Procedures, Records,
Reports, Evaluation, and Accountability"; and "The Occupational Special-
ist and the Supervising Counselor." The publication reported in detail
materials and resources available and techniques for conducting training
programs for occupational specialists.
OTHER INFORMATION REQUESTED
Highlights of Exceptional or Model Programs
1. Dade County Schools
1410 N. E. Second Avenue
Miami, Florida 33132
Federal Education Professional Development Act-F, and local
funds were used to develop a training program for occupational
specialists. The program, which is continuing and places
strong emphasis on experimental versus didactic training,
serves as a model for other populous counties of the state.
Trainees are exposed to a maximum of on-the-job intern experi-
ences and a minimum of lectures.
The Dade program ran 24 weeks, (900) hours, beginning with a
two-week intensive orientation phase which was followed by
the internship period. The latter included 26 seminars; 18
individualized learning modules; 250 hours of visits to
schools, vocational centers, businesses, industries, and
community agencies; and 300 hours of working directly with
Learning modules produced by the project have been evaluated
by personnel in the Department of Education and the consensus
is that they are excellent examples of the management by ob-
jectives approach to learning. The modules are being
reproduced by the state and will be made available, upon
request, to schools and school personnel.
Progress reports and on-site evaluations by state personnel
indicate that the Dade program has been successful. Proof
of this is best attested by the acceptance of the trainees
in the district school system and that Dade County is con-
tinuing the training program, and is funding it from sources
other than EPDA-Part F.
2. The University of West Florida
Pensacola, Florida 32504
The Panhandle Area Educational Cooperative (PAEC) was awarded
an Education Professional Development Act-F grant, to experi-
ment with innovative programs to try to devise a solution to
the problem of instructors from business and industry who lack
teaching skills. A summer workshop was offered and was followed
by periodic meetings throughout the school year. On-the-job
supervision, designed to provide newly employed vocational
teachers theory and practice in areas of communication, in-
struction and classroom management was continued during the
Twenty-two participants, all currently employed in teaching
positions, from seven West Florida districts and from a state
school for delinquent boys, completed the training program.
All trainees were industrial education teachers with a minimum
of six years occupational experience. Each trainee received
300 hours of instructor contact time.
The objective of the training program was that trainees should
be able to:
a. Plan, identify and write objectives
b. Select and utilize instructional techniques
c. Organize and use materials successfully
d. Devise means to measure and evaluate the effectiveness
of programs and student performance.
The program was evaluated by trainees, a state team, and by
the supervisor of the program. Evaluation results indicated
a successful program and the state accepted the training in
lieu of 20 hours of university credit and issued a Rank III
teacher's certificate to all who completed the program.
3. The Jackson County Schools
Marianna, Florida 32446
School officials report that the work experience program, which
began in the fall at Sneads High School, is paying dividends.
Fifteen students in grades 7-10 enrolled in a program which
enabled them to earn money and learn an occupational skill
while continuing their education.
In a newspaper article, Jackson County School Superintendent
Robert E. Childs said the program is "designed to encourage
students to remain in school by providing relevant education.
The kinds of guidance and experience in school and on the job
that will allow for direction and aid in personal adjustment,
pupil motivation, and a desire to remain in school are em-
"'ear the end of the first semester there had been no dropouts
and overall attendance and grades of participants had improved,"
the program coordinator, Phil Action stated.
The program "received remarkable acceptance and cooperation in
the Sneads community," Superintendent Childs said. He concurred
with Sneads principal, Jack Sasser, who said "the work experi-
ence program has proven instrumental in keeping many student%,
who normally have problems adjusting, in school and has contri-
buted to the improvement of discipline in the school."
---The Tallahassee Democrat
January 17, 1972
Vocational Youth Organizations
The Future Farmers of America (FFA)
The Florida Association, Future Farmers of America, with more
than 12,000 members, served a very important function in the
instructional program in agricultural education. Incentive
awards sponsored by agricultural production and agri-business
organizations, the FFA Foundation, and the Florida Department
of Agriculture and Consumer Services stimulated the highest
level of participation in the association's history in a wide
variety of projects including leadership activities, production
enterprises, and placement for occupational experiences. During
FY 1972, FFA activities centered around the theme "Youth With a
Purpose" included the State Leadership Conference, participation
in the National Convention, regional and state leadership schools,
nine district and sub-district leadership schools, FFA day at the
State Fair and a two-week forestry training camp. These events,
attended by over 9000 students, teachers, and others were directed
by youth leaders with assistance of the state staff. Contests and
awards programs served as incentives to members having skills in
particular areas for emphasis. Awards and recognition were fur-
nished for outstanding achievements. Livestock and meat judging,
public speaking, parliamentary procedure, agricultural mechanics,
wildlife and game management, and forestry and land judging were
only a few of the more than fifty activities in which members
participated. In various agricultural fairs members exhibited
a variety of products relating to their particular interests in
agriculture. The outstanding accomplishments of the FFA program
are due to quality instructional programs and well-organized
local chapters as well as good working relationships with and
support from agri-business industries at the local and state
levels. The Florida Association, FFA is recognized by the
national organization as one of the best in the nation.
The Cooperative Education Clubs of Florida (CECF)
The Cooperative Education Clubs of Florida expanded from 241 clubs
with 5214 members in FT 1971 to 255 clubs and 5588 members in
FY 1972. Officer training workshops were conducted and proven
highly successful. Meetings of the State Advisory Council were
held to match objectives and activities of the youth program with
the activities of business and industry and the free enterprise
system. District meetings were held in 15 districts and the
largest state leadership conference in state history was sponsored.
The Future Business Leaders of America (FBLA) and Phi Beta Lambda
Of many purposes guiding the development of Future Business Leaders
of America and Phi Beta Lambda, the two educational business leader-
ship organizations in Florida, the foremost is to develop business
leadership responsibility at an early age. The FBLA, (secondary)
and PBL (post-secondary) organizations are presently promoted in
the state through five districts. Each district has a director
and a student-elected vice president. These two key persons
function in the areas of new chapter development, membership pro-
motion, and publicity. In this manner, the entire state member-
ship is kept informed of developments in all other chapters.
During the year district, state and national conferences were held
to promote youth leadership activities. District conferences were
held in February, and the state conference was held in April. The
national conference was held in June. Students were encouraged to
enter competitive events at all conferences. The latter provided
excellent opportunities for the development of leadership qualities.
A special FBLA-PBL week was designated by the Governor and the State
Cabinet to highlight the outstanding interest of students and their
advisors in the free enterprise system. This special event was a
preliminary step leading to the annual State Leadership Conference
in the spring.
During 1971-72 there were 144 chapters functioning in both FBLA and
PBL activities. The combined state membership totaled nearly 4000
paid members. This represented an increase of nearly 1400 members
over the previous year. The combined FBLA-PBL delegations won 21
national awards at the national conference in Houston this year.
The Florida Association of Distributive Education Clubs of America (DECA)
The Florida Association of DECA, high school division reached 188
chapters with a membership of 4781, an increase of 31.5 percent over
the previous fiscal year. Leadership conferences were held in 12 dis-
tricts which afforded greater opportunities for all DECA members to
participate in a leadership conference including workshop sessions
and competitive events.
The Junior Collegiate Division of DECA membership totaled 371 in
11 chapters. With the passage of a new Florida DECA constitution,
a new collegiate division was created to provide active membership
for students enrolled in teacher preparatory programs in distribu-
tive education. Collegiate chapters were initiated on the campuses
of the University of South Florida and Florida Atlantic University.
Florida students received honors at the National DECA Leadership
Conference held in Los Angeles, California. Two students were
elected to national offices including southern regional vice
president for the Junior Collegiate Division and national president
of the collegiate division. Six students were competitive event
finalists in the high school division, and the junior collegiate
division had eight finalists in national competitions.
Health Careers Clubs of Florida
No youth organizations specifically for health occupations education
groups exist at this time. The state staff has participated in
national efforts to organize such clubs. Interested students may
elect to join VICA, Cooperative Clubs of Florida, or local Health
Consultative services and career information were provided to a
number of Health Career Clubs in the state.
The Future Homemakers of America (FHA)
Ten thousand members and four hundred chapters of Future Homemakers
of America in Florida were involved in activities in FY 1972. The
program of work emphasis was called "Our Future as Homemakers."
This emphasis was the basis for leadership and development activities
above the chapter level in districts, cities, and at the state and
The new type chapter of Future Homemakers of America, authorized in
1971, is called HERO-FHA. The latter is an option available to
chapters composed entirely of wage-earning students in home economics.
There were 216 HERO-FHA members in FY 1972.
Local FHA and HERO chapters sponsored field trips to local businesses
to enable members to learn about job and career opportunities.
State activities included awarding seven Future Homemakers of America
scholarships under the state scholarship program; recognition of 19
Honor Roll Chapters; publication of the state magazine The Florida
Future Homemaker; awarding six state honorary memberships; planning
for the year ahead; and discussions of future homemakers and home
economics at meetings of youth and adult organizations.
The Junior Engineering Technical Society (JETS)
The Department of Education does not have an officially approved
state vocational youth organization specifically for technical
education students. The Vocational Industrial Clubs of America
(VICA) are available in Florida for technical education students
who wish to participate as a member.
In addition, there is another youth organization designated as the
Junior Engineering Technical Society, usually referred to as JETS,
that is appropriate to meet the needs of technical education students.
The Junior Engineering Technical Society is a non-profit educational
organization, founded in 1950. The society sponsors an extracurric-
ular program for secondary and post-secondary school students
interested in science, engineering and technology. JETS is endorsed
by the major engineering societies and leading employers of technical
JETS activities are designed to give students a preview of careers
in a wide range of professional fields. Students have opportunities
to apply classroom theories to actual technical projects of indivi-
dual research with the assistance of a faculty member and advisors
from technical professions. The JETS experience with professional
men and women enables students to appraise interests and abilities
for pursuing a technical career.
Any educational institution where there is a group of students with
an interest in engineering and science may form a JETS chapter.
Existing science and other school clubs may affiliate with JETS and
retain original identity.
A JETS chapter may be formed at a high school or junior college and
regular meetings may be held with the supervision of a faculty
advisor. Engineers, scientists, and technicians in the community
often volunteer to work with a chapter. Chapter members explore the
fields of science and engineering through extracurricular activities.
They build projects, perform experiments, and conduct research; they
visit local industries and discuss their interests with engineers
and scientists. Most chapters hold at least two meetings each month
during the school year. These can be scheduled to include a varied
program of speakers, films, project work, study, research, and field
trips. JETS' state and area coordinating offices help chapters
locate professional personnel for speakers, project assistance, and
career days. They also sponsor regional programs including student
conferences, expositions and summer workshops.
The Florida Engineering Society on a statewide basis continues to
support pre-engineering and technical education programs in the
community colleges by sponsoring student chapters, referred to as
Delta Chapters, in schools which desire to participate. Many
technical education students are members of the student chapters
The Vocational Industrial Clubs of America (VICA)
Chapters of the Florida Vocational Industrial Clubs of America
increased from 43 in FY 1971 to 59 in FY 1972. Total membership
increased from 2283 to 2427 in the same period. Four area drive-
in meetings were held to conduct club business, and competitive
contests were held in approximately twenty-four training areas to
determine winners eligible to attend and enter competitive activ-
ities at the State Conference. About 625 students attended these
The State Leadership Conference was held in May and was attended
by about 550 members. Competition in various areas of industrial
education was held to determine winners to represent the State of
Florida at the National Leadership Conference. The latter was held
in Roanoke, Virginia, and Florida was represented by 53 delegates.
Three Florida VICA members placed second in the National Conference
in public speaking, air conditioning and refrigeration, and club
display competitive events.
It is anticipated that the number of clubs will increase to about
75, and the total membership will increase to about 3100 in FY
Activities of the Florida VICA are sponsored by a number of the
state's industries, illustrative of which are the Florida Automobile
Dealers Association, the Southern Brick & Tile Manufacturers Asso-
ciation, and the D. C. Jaeger Electronics Corporation which gave
outstanding support to the VICA clubs this year.
Findings Regarding Vocational Education Not Being Adequately Provided:
1. There is a great need and demand for more introductory or explor-
2. Additional courses are needed for disadvantaged and handicapped
3. Accurate data are needed regarding training needed and employ-
ment opportunities in agricultural and agri-business occupations.
4. Additional teachers are needed because of the increased interest
in specialized courses.
Changes needed in the present program of agricultural education in-
clude more effective use of the cooperative method of education,
greater emphasis on the adult program, additional courses in off-
farm agricultural occupations and further work to develop curriculum
Business and Office Education
1. Career education packets should be developed for middle schools
utilizing the wheel approach. Funds should be provided for per-
sonnel, printing, and distribution.
2. Evaluation and assessment should be continued at an accelerated
rate and involve more teachers in the development of instruments
designed to measure student performance.
3. Funds need to be provided to conduct five inservice sessions in
different sections of the state to train additional teachers
in the development of assessment instruments.
4. Teacher competencies for preservice and inservice business
teacher preparation and upgrading need to be identified. Funds
are needed for a continuing project to include personnel, travel,
supplies, materials, consultants, coordinators, and printing to
meet this need.
5. Additional components need to be added to the state's management
information system to help provide additional information, more
1. An evaluation and follow-up study of the distributive education
offerings piloted at the middle and/or junior high school level
is needed. The degree of student achievement in meeting objec-
tives, and an assessment of the curriculum materials and revision
where necessary, and the degree of articulation between middle
school offerings and the secondary distributive education pro-
gram should all be evaluated.
2. A more succinct identification of the objectives of the adult
distributive education program and a clearer delineation of the
individual roles of the local school districts and the community
colleges in meeting objectives is needed.
3. An assessment should be made of the curriculum needs for special-
ized programs at the senior high school and post-secondary levels
4. An assessment of facility, equipment, and material needs for
specialized distributive education programs is needed.
Child labor laws relate importantly to state and national provisions
for vocational education. These laws tend to sometimes retard the
national efforts, which were expanded in the 1968 Amendments, and
also hinder, in some ways, the state efforts to serve youth. The
quality, productivity, and effectiveness of programs would be greatly
improved if moderate changes were made in both state and federal
labor laws. It is recommended that efforts be made to update laws
regarding child labor to make these laws compatible with national
and state goals, ideals, and efforts in providing vocational education.
Health Related Occupations Education
1. Rapid changes in the skills required of health workers in the
modern health care industry emphasizes the growing need for
more frequent and effective communication between employers
and educational institutions.
2. There is existing need to improve systems of assessing the de-
mand for all types of health workers.
3. Need exists to explore the feasibility of designing a modular
or core curriculum to assist high school students contemplating
careers in or requiring further study in the health technologies
atithe post secondary level.
4. Additional preservice and inservice education to assist teachers
in improving instructional skills, and in maintaining a current
level of competence in their own professional areas of expertise
5. A coordinated system of program planning should be developed on
a regional or statewide basis.
6. More effective methods are needed for evaluation of programs and
the effectiveness of graduates.
1. There is a need to provide increased inservice training activities
for technical education instructors. Even though instructors
are able to keep abreast of changes in their speciality by their
own initiative, additional opportunities can be provided through
a coordinated effort by the Department of Education.
2. Equipment needs are not so pressing as in the past; nevertheless,
continued emphasis on updating and providing new equipment is
3. Continued effort in the areas of guidance and recruitment of
students is necessary. In many instances, classes could accom-
modate more students than are presently enrolled.
4. There is a need for greater dissemination of information to
elementary and secondary students and to the general public on
the availability of technical education programs.
5. Increased communication and cooperation is desirable between
secondary schools, area centers, and community colleges to enhance
articulation and to avoid undesirable duplication of training
6. Additional opportunities should be provided for instructors to
visit other technical education programs in other institutions
to discuss curriculum, facility utilization, instructional
devices and techniques, and common problems.
7. Summer workshops and weekend seminars should be developed and
offered in subject areas to permit technical education teachers
to maintain the specialized knowledge and skills required by
8. Increased emphasis should be placed upon providing pre-technical
post-secondary education programs for poorly prepared high
9. There is a need to further expand the development of pre-technical
education programs in the high schools.
10. Increasing efforts should be made to encourage post-secondary
personnel to plan cooperatively in program development.
SUMMARY OF GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS
The following recommendations are made to highlight areas of concern
needing attention. They are listed without consideration of priority
in relative importance.
1. Categorical aid should be continued; however, there is need to
provide greater flexibility in the transfer of dollars from one
category to another when a state is demonstrating that it is
meeting the intent of the Act but dollar transfers are essential
for the development of a comprehensive vocational education
program to meet the needs of all residents of the state.
The U. S. Commissioner of Education has blanket authority to
permit transfers, but criteria should be established in law for
guidance in implementing this authority and for the guidance of
state personnel in making requests.
A state may have state funds available which it can appropriate
for support of vocational education for certain target groups
and lesser amounts for others. Vocational education is an
inter-related federal-state-local program. The composite finan-
cial efforts, and results of efforts need to be considered in
2. Specific authorization should be provided for the use of funds
from any category for construction and renovation of facilities
to house programs.
Federal funds under the Act, basically, are operational in nature.
The thrust of federal dollars within categories is to broaden
vocational education programs, activities, and services for per-
sons in the categories.
The time is fast approaching when increased operational funds
may not be used effectively, either from a short range or long
range point of view, without specific authority to use federal
funds for construction of new facilities or major renovation of
existing facilities to house the additional programs. The need
for construction funds to appropriately and adequately house
programs for disadvantaged and handicapped students as well as
those at the secondary and post-secondary levels is most criti-
cal. The categorization of funds, and the elimination of the
33 1/3 percent provisions of the 63 Act for construction was a
serious blow to the orderly development of a comprehensive vo-
cational education program in Florida.
3. Consideration should be.given and funds provided, to authorize
state boards of vocational education to contract with state
labor departments and others, if necessary, to provide labor
market information on a continuing basis.
The greatest single handicap to the orderly development of a
vocational education program within a state is the lack of up-
to-date labor market information on a continuing basis for use
in program planning and evaluation.
There is a philosophy which has been expressed from time to
time that the U. S. Department of Labor is the federal agency
responsible for the manpower of the nation. If such is a prime
responsibility of the U. S. Department of Labor, there has been
no appropriate definitive labor market data at state and local
levels which is usable in planning and evaluating vocational
education programs. This need has been pin-pointed by vocational
educators for a number of years. Too often, vocational education
has received criticism for not meeting manpower needs but there
have been no specific efforts other than that by vocational edu-
cators to determine the occupations for which training programs
4. Funds should be made available to states on a continuing basis
for the development and revision of curricula and course materials
for state programs.
An aggressive, effective vocational education program must have
the built-in capability of changing its instruction to meet the
needs of business, industry and students. A significant part of
that change is dependent upon up-dated and new curricula and
curriculum guides. Some limited activities in this area have
been undertaken by the U. S. Office of Education but this ap-
proach is not the complete answer to the problem.
The increasing breadth of a comprehensive vocational education
program, in terms of career development, indicates the demand
for curricula is staggering.
5. Federal funds and emphasis on service to disadvantaged and
handicapped persons through vocational education programs should
be accelerated and made more effective by increased and continu-
ing appropriations for the work study program.
There are many individuals, youngsters and adults, who need
but cannot engage in vocational training without some financial
assistance on some firm basis. Consideration should also be given
to making it possible for adults to earn amounts appropriate to
6. The emphasis placed upon leadership training should be continued
and expanded through increased funding support of EPDA projects
Vocational education is engaged in a catch-up operation in which
training for innovative and dynamic leadership is of vital
7. Efforts should be made to effect centralization of efforts to
provide a Management Information System. Effective coordina-
tion between the federal government and the states is needed as
well as among states, in the further development of a Management
An effective Management Information System at the state, district,
institution, and school levels is essential to decision making
in all education, and vocational education, in particular.
It is most difficult to coordinate state and local development
when efforts at the national level are not coordinated, either
among agencies and projects being operated, or between national
agencies and the states.
8. There should be greater stress upon introducing innovation into
the public school curriculum including concepts of a comprehen-
sive vocational education program for career development.
The concept of the "exemplary project" as a means of determining
the value of changes has been most significant. To diffuse ex-
emplary programs of proven value more broadly, there is need for
increased financial support to establish "demonstration projects"
in different areas of the state.
9. Each state board for vocational education should have the authority
and financial capability to provide immediate training, tailor-
made for the needs of a single new or expanding industry.
In identifiable areas of a state many individuals may be in
need of vocational education, but jobs are not available in such
Types of training might be limited to one year or less and be
geared to semi-skilled or skilled operator-type jobs. Flexibility
in approaches to providing training should be considered.
10. There should be increased stress on the introduction of innova-
tive methods in teacher training and counselor education programs.
Many innovative practices have been developed, but they require
aggressive sponsorship if they are to effectively change tradi-
tional methods of teacher and counselor education.
11. The concept presently in law that research funds need to be re-
tained by the U. S. Commissioner should be reviewed.
Basic research has a place in vocational education and to the
extent necessary may need to be coordinated at the federal level.
Basic research, however significant as it may be, should not be
the major thrust in the use of research funds.
From the point of view of program improvement at the state and
local levels, basic research has little if any influence unless
the results can be translated from the theoretical into the
Emphasis in the use of research funds should be, at the state and
local levels, to apply the findings of basic research projects
already completed. Therefore, the U. S. Commissioner's share of
Part C Funds should be made available as part of the states'
allotment to financially support projects directly related to
the implementation of basic research rather than to conduct
basic research in itself.
12. As states and local school districts move into a comprehensive
vocational education program for career development, the follow-
ing four important functions should be emphasized:
a. The assessment of educational output. Assessment should be
primarily at the elementary, middle, and junior high school
b. The follow-up of all school dropouts. Investigations should
be made to determine the reasons for leaving school and
aggressive recruitment efforts should be made to bring drop-
outs into vocational training.
c. The establishment of school placement services.
d. The placement in employment of persons completing specialized
vocational training programs. A follow-up study with partic-
ular emphasis on satisfactory performance of students in
employment should be made.
Since these areas of concern have been neglected over the years, a sig-
nificant financial thrust is necessary to begin moving state and local
programs into this direction.
U. OF F. LIBRARIES
STATE OF FLORIDA
Department of Education
TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA 32304
FLOYD T. CHRISTIAN COMMISSIONER