July 1, 1970
Carl W. Proehl, Director
DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
FLOYD T. CHRISTIAN, Commissioner
ANNUAL DESCRIPTIVE REPORT
THE FLORIDA STATE BOARD FOR VOCATIONAL EDUCATION
VOCATIONAL EDUCATION PROGRAM ACTIVITIES AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS
JULY 1, 1970 JUNE 30, 1971
STATE BOARD FOR VOCATIONAL EDUCATION
Hon. Reubin O'DI Askew, Governor, President of the Board
Hon. Doyle Conner, Commissioner of Agriculture
Hon. Fred 0. Dickinson, Jr., Comptroller
Hon. Thomas D. O'Malley, State Treasurer
Hon. Robert L. Shevin, Attorney General
Hon. Richard Stone, Secretary of State
Hon. Floyd T. Christian, Commissioner of Education,
Secretary, and Executive Officer of the Board
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1. STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
FLOYDT CHRISTIAN TALLAHASSEE 32304
November 5, 1971
Hon. Floyd T. Christian, Commissioner of Education and
S Executive Officer
State Board for Vocational Education
Tallahassee, Florida 32304
Dear Commissioner Christian:
Attached is the Annual Descriptive Report of the Florida State Board for
Vocational Education for the period beginning July 1, 1970 and ending June
30, 1971. The report has been written in terms of objective evaluations
and how well the Division has met goals established for Fiscal Year 1971
in Parts II and III of the Florida State Plan.
This report, submitted for approval and to be transmitted to the United
< States Office of Education, highlights the activities 6f the:vocational
services as requested by the Assistant Commissioner for Vocational
Education, Office of Education, United States Department of Health,
3 Education and Welfare, Washington, D. C. The report will provide the
Commissioner of Education with information needed for the annual report
Sto the Congress and the nation.
o..- Included in this manuscript are many details regarding the activities
of Florida's sixty-seven district school boards and twenty-eight com-
munity college boards of trustees to expand and strengthen local pro-
grams of vocational and technical education.
Division of Vocational,
Technical and Adult Education
TABLE OF CONTENTS
REGULAR PROGRAMS Part B of the Act................................... 7
1. Accomplishments for Each of the Five Categories of Persons Set.
Forth in Part III of the State Plan................................ 7
Program Development and Accomplishments in Agricultural Education.. 13
Program Development and Accomplishments in Distributive Education.. 14
Program Development and Accomplishments in Diversified Cooperative
Training and Work Experience...................................... 17
Program Development and Accomplishments in Health Related
Occupations Education.............................................. 18
Program Development and Accomplishments in Home Economics
Education................................ ........................ 21
Program Development and Accomplishments in Business and Office
Program Development and Accomplishments in Technical Education..... 26
Program Development and Accomplishments in Trades and Industrial
Education.................................... ...............*...... 30
2. Accomplishments in Terms of the Geographical Distribution of
Allocations of Funds for Vocational Education...................... 32
3. Accomplishments of Objectives or Activities as Shown in Part
III of the Annual Program Plan for Programs Under Contract;
Vocational Guidance and Counseling; Construction of Area Schools;
Ancillary Services and Activities; and State Programs for Dis-
advantaged Persons Under Section 102 (b) (3)....................... 36
SPECIAL PROGRAMS As Related to Part III, Annual Program Plan......... 43
Part C Research................................................................. 43
Part D Exemplary Programs........................................
Part E Residential Schools....................................... 45
Part F Consumer and Homemaking Education......................... 45
Part G Cooperative Education..................................... 46
Part H Work Study................................................ 46
Other Information Requested
(1) Highlights of Exceptional or Model Programs.............. 48
(2) Vocational Youth Organizations........................... 50
(3) Findings Regarding Vocational Education Needs not Being
Adequately Provided ..................................... 54
SUMMARY OF GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS ................................ 58
All education is career education, or should be. And all our efforts as
educators must be bent on preparing students either to become properly,
usefully employed immediately upon graduation from high school or to go
on to further formal education. Anything else is dangerous nonsense. I
propose that a universal goal of American education, starting now, be this;
that every person completing our school programs at grade 12 be ready to
enter higher education or to enter useful and rewarding employment.
"Career Education Now," an address by
Sidney P. Marland, Jr.
U. S. Commissioner of Education
PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS
This annual report of the Division of Vocational, Technical and Adult
Education for FY 1971 reviews major activities and accomplishments and
presents a broad assessment of the results of vocational education pro-
grams and services offered to the people of Florida. It reports acti-
vities to provide all citizens opportunities for self-help through
vocational education programs at the secondary, post-secondary and adult
levels. The report describes accomplishments, or the lack of accomplish-
ments, of objectives set forth in Parts II and III of the Florida State
Plan prepared for FY 1971.
The Division worked intensively to expand and strengthen vocational edu-
cation and to promote the comprehensive aspects of the whole program as
defined by the 1970 Florida Legislature in eight bills, known as the
"Vocational Education Package." The latter bills broadened the definition
of vocational education, mandated that the State Board of Education adopt
minimum standards for a comprehensive vocational education program,
established new funding formulas, mandated evaluation of the output of
programs, increased vocational counseling services through the employment
of occupational specialists, placed responsibility on school boards for
the vocational training of youth under 19 years of age whether or not
they are still in school, required the employment of a local director of
vocational education to give leadership to the program in each school
district and junior college with a department designated an area voca-
tional school, and established the Vocational Improvement Fund. Subse-
quent to the above, legislation was passed which clarified the definitions
of vocational education and area schools and provided some adjustments to
Planning continued for the comprehensive vocational education program as
established by the State Board of Education for regular students and those
classified disadvantaged or handicapped. The complete program will be
offered in instructional components, organized to introduce youngsters
in grades 1-6 to the world of work; present occupational exploration ex-
periences to students in grades 7-9; and offer job preparatory training
to secondary students in grades 7-12, and to students at the post-secondary
and adult levels. The comprehensive program will also provide supplemental
training for adults.
Research and development activities, innovative practices, cooperative and
work-study programs, and exemplary and pilot programs are reviewed in this
report. Model programs, illustrative of development in the state are re-
viewed in a separate section.
An outstanding feature of the vocational education program in Florida is
the state-wide support of the plans, programs and ideals involved in the
comprehensive plan of service to citizens of all ages who want, are quali-
fied for, and can benefit from vocational education. Legislators; state
line and staff personnel; community college personnel; students at the
secondary, post-secondary and adult levels; and other citizens of the
state including the State Advisory Council for Vocational Education have
responded to the call for strengthened and expanded programs of voca-
Education is having and will continue to have increasing impact for social,
economic and educational development as needs of citizens are met through
All students shall acquire a knowledge and understanding of the opportuni-
ties open to them for preparing a productive life, and shall develop those
skills and abilities which will enable them to take full advantage of
those opportunities including a positive attitude toward work and re-
spect for the dignity of all honorable occupations.
"Goals for Education in Florida"
in Vocational Education, FY 1971
Home Economics Ed.
Total Home Ec.
Business & Off.
Trades & Ind. Ed.
18,326 33,196 77,546
69,634 167,437 461,539
Number of Enrollments in Vocational Education,
all Vocational Services, all Levels, Selected Years
Health Related Occupations
Home Economics Education
Business and Office Occupations
Trades and Industrial Education
Diversified Cooperative Education
and Work Experience
*Reporting procedures were improved in FY 1971 to provide more complete and
accurate enrollments. It is believed enrollments in FY 1971 increased and
that enrollments in FY 1970 were somewhat inflated.
Total Vocational Education Errollments
by Vocational Service, Fiscal Year 1971
Work Experience 1
Diversified Coop. Training 1
Home Economics Education for
Gainful Employment 2.7%6
(Part B of the Vocational Education Amendments of 1968)
1. Accomplishments for Each of the Five Categories of Persons Set Forth
in Part III of the State Plan
Secondary enrollments* totaled approximately 224,400, (including below 9th
grade enrollments) in FY 1971, up from 186,000 the prior year. Projections
in the annual plan were 189,000 enrollments at the secondary level and ap-
proximately 56,000 disadvantaged and handicapped students. The latter would
be enrolled mainly in secondary classes.
As predicted, gains were made in enrollments at the secondary level in
agricultural education, health related occupations education, business and
office occupations education and technical education. Although some voca-
tional services did not show a gain in enrollments in FY 1971, it is thought
that inaccuracies in reporting in FY 1970 inflated some enrollments and
that actually gains were registered in each vocational service.
The following charts report total enrollments, and the enrollments at the
secondary level, on a percentage basis according to enrollments by each
*In all discussions and illustrations in this report enrollments of dis-
advantaged and handicapped persons are included in total actual enroll-
ments reported at the secondary, post-secondary and adult levels for FY
1970 and FY 1971. Actual enrollments of disadvantaged and handicapped
persons totaled about 60,000 in FY 1971. They are summarized separately
but are included in actual enrollments at the three levels in each year
Secondary Vocational Education Enrollments
by Vocational Service, Fiscal Year 1971
Diversified Coop. Training
Technical Education .7%
Health Related Occ. Ed...8%
Home Economics Education for
Gainful Employment 2.4%
Post-secondary enrollments totaled 69, 600 in FY 1971 including disadvan-
taged and handicapped persons, down from 118,000 in the previous year.
It is thought that enrollments actually increased and that enrollments
reported in FY 1970 were inflated. It is believed that improved and more
accurate reporting accounts for the reported decline in enrollments. In-
creases were recorded in health related occupations education, up from
7000 to 9300; and in technical education up from 17,000 to 23,000.
Each vocational service offered work at the post-secondary level including
agriculture,(7) major occupational fields or programs, distribution (11),
health (16), home-economics (11), office (10), technical (14), and trades
and industry (34). Each of the vocational services offered miscellaneous
programs, included above, under the caption "other." Total enrollments
at the post-secondary level were divided into percentages as follows.
Post-Secondary Vocational Education Enrollments
by Vocational Service, Fiscal Year 1971
H-ome Economics Education for
Gainful Employment .4),
Enrollments at the adult level totaled 167,400 in FY 1971 slightly under
the 170,000 in FY 1970. Projections had been estimated to reach 180,000
(excluding disadvantaged and handicapped persons) in the annual program
plan for FY 1971. As projected in the plan, gains were made in enroll-
ments, (illustrative) in agricultural education, distribution, health
related occupations education, and home economics education.
The following chart reports total enrollments recorded in FY 1971 appor-
tioned by vocational service.
Adult Vocational Education Enrollments
by Vocational Service, Fiscal Year 1971
Agricultural Education .7%
Enrollments of disadvantaged persons in vocational education programs
totaled 54,000 in FY 1971, up from 31,000 in 1970. Projections of such
students had totaled 52,000 in the annual plan. Students were served
in agricultural, distributive, health related occupations, home economics,
office, technical and trades and industrial education.
Fifty-eight hundred handicapped persons were enrolled in educational
programs in FY 1971, up from 2700 in the prior year. Actual enrollments
exceeded the number projected in the annual plan (4100) by about 41 per-
cent. Handicapped persons were served in each vocational service with
most enrollments in agricultural education (800), home economics educa-
tion (2000), business and office occupations education (500) and trades
and industrial education (1700).
Studies involving student contact hours for Fiscal Year 1971 indicate
that the average school time, or load, in vocational education is equal
to 24 percent of a five period secondary school day, 36 percent of a post-
secondary course load, and 60 clock hours per year for adult classes.
Goals of education can be conceived in terms of the life activities of
human adults in modern society. These activities may generally be placed
in three categories: occupational, citizenship, and self-fulfillment.
"Goals for Education in Florida"
PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS IN AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION
Five new programs were begun and 12 on-going programs were expanded.
Specialized occupational cluster offerings increased as enrollments and
multiple teacher departments increased. Cluster offerings increased
particularly in ornamental horticulture, agricultural mechanics and
Enrollments at the secondary level totaled about 23,500, up from 19,800
in FY 1970 and over the number projected in the annual program plan.
Gains in enrollments were recorded in forestry, ornamental horticulture,
and agricultural mechanics, among others.
Four new programs, including pest-control technology at Broward Community
College, (Cocoa), the only such program in the state, were begun at the
post-secondary level. New facilities were provided for eight programs,
including one at Lake City to house five programs.
Enrollments totaled about 800 in FY 1971, down from 1700 in the previous
year. The annual plan reported 1000 enrollments projected for FY 1971
exclusive of persons designated disadvantaged or handicapped.
Enrollment attthe adult level increased from 870 in FY 1970 to 1100 in
FY 1971 or an increase of 13 percent. It is anticipated that adult en-
rollments will increase substantially in 1971-72 due to the expected
demand from veterans for instruction in agriculture and to plans to be-
gin a program of instruction for young farmers and businessmen who are
active in selling agricultural supplies or products.
Eight new programs were activated in secondary schools and 4800 enroll-
ments were reported, up from 2100 in FY 1970. Almost 3900 enrollments
had been projected in the annual plan and actual enrollments exceeded the
projection by about 23 percent. Programs were offered in ornamental
horticulture, forestry, production agriculture, and agricultural mechanics
Five new programs were activated at the secondary level. Enrollments
totaled 800, up from 270 in FY 1970 and above the 340 projected in the
annual plan. Programs were offered in ornamental horticulture, produc-
tion agriculture, and agricultural mechanics among others.
PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS IN DISTRIBUTIVE EDUCATION
In FY 1971, distributive education programs were operated in 116 high
schools in 34 districts throughout the state. The teaching staff totaled
174 teacher-coordinators. This represented an increase of 52 teaching
units over the previous year. Enrollments for the year totaled 68003
above the 4700 projected in the state plan exclusive of disadvantaged and
handicapped persons. Approximately 40 percent of the secondary programs
were extended to three years. Over 5200 enrollments were recorded in
programs in general merchandising.
Distributive education programs were offered in 25 community college dis-
tricts on 31 community college campuses. Programs were also provided in
18 area vocational-technical facilities, exclusive of centers which are
designated as departments of community colleges.
In addition to the two-year associate degree programs offered in market-
ing and distribution, hotel-motel management, restaurant management, and
insurance, one-year certificate programs were also initiated in retail
merchandising, real estate, and hotel-motel training.
Greater accuracy was achieved in student reporting with the elimination
of duplication. Enrollments for the fiscal year totaled 6600, slightly
under the 7600 projected to be served. Enrollments included program
majors in addition to students seeking electives or course requirements
for other programs. Illustrative increases in enrollments over the prior
year were reported in general merchandising, up from 1000 to 3100; and
real estate, up from 210 to 1100.
During the year 17 districts, and community colleges provided distributive
education offerings to 25,500 adults up from 24,300 in FY 1970 but under the
approximately 29,000 projected in the plan. A program of small business
management, or entrepreneurship, was developed for negroes in Broward County.
Additional programs were established in various districts in the state in
cashiering, fleet management, the prevention of shoplifting, insurance sales
and agency management, and advertising. Large increases were recorded in
real estate, up from 5400 to 8400, and in retail trade, and finance and
An objective for FY 1971, which was achieved, was to establish additional
programs in districts designated depressed or with high unemployment. Nine
aaaitional programs were activated in four districts. Enrollments totaled
about 3,000 for the year, over the 1,800 projected to be served.
The state staff continued to work with other agencies concerned with pro-
grams for handicapped persons including the Division of Vocational
Rehabilitation, Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services; the
Dozier School for Boys; and Goodwill Industries. Enrollment of students
classified as handicapped totaled 130 over the 120 served in FY 1970
but below the 310 anticipated in the plan.
Criteria to be used in evaluating the effectiveness of distributive educa-
tion programs to determine accreditation status were completed and incor-
porated into the AdBreditation Standards for Florida Schools, adopted in
A five-year follow-up of the distributive education graduates of 1966 was
begun. The study includes graduates' current employment status, current
salary range, additional educational achievements, and their assessment of
the instructional programs at the time of their enrollment.
The state staff worked closely with the Florida Distributive Education
Advisory Committee in the development of official rules and regulations
governing the committee's organizational structure, role, and purposes.
Among purposes identified were the following:
(1) To evaluate distributive education programs and make recommen-
dations for improvement
(2) To assume the responsibility of keeping the Department of
Education informed regarding occupational needs and programs in
different industries throughout the state.
Additional efforts were made to evaluate program effectiveness through
expanded staff visitations to local districts and schools.
Guidelines for the development and evaluation of teacher education pro-
grams in distributive education- were completed. Guidelines include the
identification of the specific knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed
Curriculum development progressed and the organizational and operational
guide, Distributive Education Programs in Florida's Junior Colleges, was
revised and sent to all distributive education personnel in the state.
Major revisions included increased emphasis of the one-year certificate
programs at the post-secondary level, and the initiation of additional
specialized programs within the marketing and distribution classification.
A three-day seminar was held for selected secondary teachers and county
supervisors for the purpose of identifying the role and purpose of dis-
tributive education at the middle school level. Based on the objectives
identified by the seminar participants, two-week workshops were held to
develop instructional materials for use in pilot programs. A six-week
unit of instruction entitled "Orientation to Careers in Marketing" was
developed for inclusion in a year-long comprehensive course in vocational
education. In addition, three one-semester units were developed to pro-
vide exploratory experiences in the distributive occupations in the eight
and ninth grades. The units include "Careers in Retailing," "Careers
in Wholesaling," and "Careers in Marketing Service Institutions." Each
unit includes identified competencies, competencies stated in behavioral
terms, concepts, learning experiences, and evaluation instruments for
assessing student performance.
PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS IN DIVERSIFIED COOPERATIVE TRAINING
-AND WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMS
Enrollments in diversified cooperative training programs in FY 1971 totaled
4400, an increase of about 425 students, about 10 percent, and 17 additional
programs over FY 1970. Failure to meet projected growth to 5100 was the
result of a lack of qualified teacher-coordinators and shortage of instruc-
Over 7600 enrollments were recorded in work experience programs in FY 1971,
considerably over the 3900 projected in the annual plan.
Six hundred students in the disadvantaged category were encouraged to enter,
and were accepted, in DCT programs during FY 1971.
The overall goals and objectives of the work experience program were geared
to serving the potential school leaver. Target populations served were
given extensive opportunities to gain skills and attitudes to help young
people become employable. Enrollments in work experience programs increased
to nearly 7300 in 1970-71.
Growth in service through work experience programs, which enrolled nearly
100 students, was again, as in previous years, recorded in both rural and
urban districts. Some growth was due to articulation of the work experience
program with another program utilizing the cooperative method of education.
New certification standards, to become effective in September 1972, were
developed for DCT teachers and submitted for approval by the state. Plans
were made to develop and fill a teacher-educator position at the University
of South Florida early in FY 1972. The latter will help produce, along
with new certification standards, more well-qualified teaching personnel.
A new handbook for DCT teacher-coordinators was prepared and state-wide
distribution is scheduled for early in FY 1972. A new curriculum guide
was also contracted for distribution.
Through joint efforts with personnel from the Research and Evaluation
function of the Division, and in cooperation with the University of South
Florida, a project to develop five student-centered learning packets for
DCT students was undertaken. Thirty units were completed during one work-
shop and distribution was made for field-testing and evaluation. Rewriting,
refining, and further development was planned for the new year.
PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS IN
HEALTH RELATED OCCUPATIONS EDUCATION
Growth in health related occupations education programs continued in the
high schools of the state to reach about 1700 enrollments, up from 600 in
FY 1970 and over the 1100, (exclusive of disadvantaged and handicapped per-
sons) projected in the State Plan. Twenty new programs were added to the
twenty-six programs of the previous year. Two programs were discontinued.
New programs offered for high school students were health service aide
(12); cooperative health occupations (5); and nurse aide (3). All districts
inaugurating new programs were visited several times by the state staff.
Special consultative services were provided Franklin County in the develop-
ment of a mobile unit designed to serve students county-wide in grades
seven through twelve with an introductory program for health occupations
All proposals requesting federal or state funds for health occupations
training programs in secondary schools were reviewed and judgements and
recommendations were made by the state staff.
Community interest and cooperation from the health agencies, where pro-
grams exist, has been exemplary.
Enrollments at the post-secondary level reached 9300 in FY 1971, an in-
crease of about 33 percent over the prior year and about 2400 over the
number projected in the annual plan.
Community interest continued throughout the year at a high level in
establishing training programs for dental auxiliary workers. A new pro-
gram of dental hygiene training was initiated at Miami-Dade Junior College.
Gulf Coast Community College (Panama City), began a dental assisting
program and preliminary work was completed to start a program at Santa
Fe Junior College (Gainesville), in the fall of 1971. Early planning for
a dental hygiene program for Florfda Junior College at Jacksonville was
underway and preliminary exploration of the feasibility of a similar
program for Tallahassee Community College was completed.
One or more visits were made and consultative services were provided to
most institutions where health occupations training programs were in
existence or were being planned. Local personnel were advised regarding
standards for programs and ways to gain additional community cooperation
Four nurse aide and two ward clerk programs were added in the past year.
One operating room technician program was suspended (Lee County),. because
of the lack of job opportunities in the area. One medical assisting pro-
gram was begun in Dade County and another in Sarasota County.
Inhalation therapy at Valencia Community College (Orlando), was expanded
from part-time to full-time to secure approval by the American Medical
Association and the capacity of the nuclear medicine program at Hillsborough
Community College (Tampa), was doubled to provide for 30 students. One
program was encouraged to be phased out at Florida Junior College at
Jacksonville (optahlmic dispensing) due to its indefinite description
and lack of acceptance by the professional community.
All proposals and projects pertinent to health occupations education pro-
grams were reviewed and appropriate comments and recommendations made.
Enrollments at the adult level totaled 4100 in FY 1971 up from 3200 in the
previous year and about 10 percent under the number projected in the an-
In keeping with goals for service, including the maintenance and improve-
ment of the health care delivery system, emphasis was given to programs
for upgrading skills of persons who have already entered the labor market.
Consultative services provided by state personnel to programs included
suggestions for upgrading the skills of ambulance attendants, emergency
room attendants, and policemen and firemen whose duties require medical
emergency training. Supplementary training programs for upgrading the
skills of health workers were conducted in Broward, Dade, Collier, Pinellas,
Hillsborough, Pasco, Leon, Escambia, and Palm Beach counties.
Consultative assistance was provided in the development of a training pro-
gram for nursing home administrators and medical laboratory personnel of-
fered jointly by Miami-Dade and St. Petersburg Community colleges.
Disadvantaged and Handicapped
The state staff continued work to develop programs to teach selected skills
for potential health workers who have physical and/or mental handicaps
and nearly 2500 enrollments were recorded. Programs were offered in Broward,
Escambia, Indian River, and DeSota counties. These programs are for adults
and also individuals of high school age who have been designated as persons
with special needs.
At present, no state university is formally approved by the Department of
Education to offer teacher-education programs for certification as health
related occupations education teachers. During the year, programs did
exist at Florida State University (Tallahassee), and the University of
Florida (Gainesville), in accordance with provisions of the state "Master
Plan." A similar program has been recommended for establishment at the
University of South Florida (Tampa), in 1973.
Extensive efforts of the state staff furthered health related occupations
education teachers' understanding of guidance as a service to students.
In workshops and through personal contacts teachers were made aware of
opportunities to help students plan careers.
The state staff was active to assist local personnel in curriculum modi-
fication to achieve improved articulation with other related levels of
PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS IN HOME ECONOMICS EDUCATION
Enrollments in vocational home economics at the secondary level decreased
from 119,000 in FY 1970 to 116,000 in FY 1971. Including disadvantaged
and handicapped students, enrollments had been estimated to total 140,000
in the annual plan. It is believed that more accurate reporting resulted
in an apparent decrease in enrollment. Wage-earning programs to prepare
students for gainful employment in home economics related occupations in-
creased in the same period from 70 to 127 with over 5000 students enrolled.
Programs in clothing management, production and services; and food manage-
ment, production and services enrolled over 1000 each to train for gainful
Enrollments at the post-secondary level exceeded the projection of 1800.
with a final count in excess of 2200. Programs were developed to insure
compatability with labor market needs and student interests. Offerings
at Okaloosa-Walton Junior College (Niceville), were expanded with the
implementation of a two-year program in child care, guidance and services.
Expanded offerings at Florida Junior College at Jacksonville included
programs in child care, guidance and services; and food services. Programs
in clothing services and food services were initiated and expanded at
Indian River Community College (Ft. Pierce). Programs in child care ser-
vices were introduced at Central Florida Junior College (Ocala), and Lake
City Junior College.
Six new programs to train child care workers were added and several more
are in the planning stage. Enrollments totaled 52,000 in FY 1971, up
from 48,000 in FY 1970 and over the 48,000 projected. Seven of the larger
districts in the state expanded all offerings at the adult level. Major
program emphases included identification of job opportunities and prepara-
tion for gainful employment, consumer education, and meeting the special
needs of disadvantaged persons.
A mobile unit was used successfully in Broward County to take home
economics programs to disadvantaged persons in different areas of the
district. A program has currently been implemented at the Florida School
for Girls in Ocala. Programs in home economics education served over
20,000 disadvantaged students.
In the year under review, programs were provided which enrolled about 2000
handicapped students for wage-earning and homemaking. Enrollments in the
prior year totaled 1300. Enrollments in FY 1971 exceeded the 1200 projected
in the annual plan..
Home economics programs served 489 girls in the Dorothy Thomas School for
children who are held in detention in Hillsborough County.
State staff, teacher educators, teachers and supervisors cooperatively
participated in the development, dissemination and evaluation of program
charts and K-12 continuums of performance objectives designed to im-
prove program interpretation and instruction throughout the state. Dis-
trict and area conferences were planned and conducted for assessing
programs and materials.
Personnel engaged in the development of programs and materials to improve
the quality and the image of vocational home economics education. Such
research and development activities involved state staff, county personnel
and teacher educators. Emphases were on preparation of teachers, develop-
ment of curriculum and materials, and improved communication between state
and local levels. Inservice training was provided for approximately 500
teachers who attended 10 drive-in consumer education conferences. Ap-
proximately 50 local supervisors, administrators and state staff partici-
pated in an in-service education workshop in the cooperative method of
vocational home economic education.
Plans and arrangements were made for five curriculum development workshops
involving five universities, local administrators, workshop directors,
teachers and consultants. The 1970 Annual Vocational, Technical and Adult
Educators' Conference in Miami Beach emphasized consumer education and
plans were formulated for the 1971 conference using human development as
the program theme.
A newsletter from the state staff informed teachers and supervisors of
activities, materials, and equipment and directives available for program
PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS IN BUSINESS AND OFFICE EDUCATION
Vocational business and office education served in excess of 25,000 stu-
dents at the secondary level during FY 1971 as reported by districts and
community colleges, up from 8000 in FY 1970.and over the 21,000 estimated
in the annual plan. Courses were offered in 59 of the 67 state districts.
Reports from many districts indicated an increase in job placements over
the previous years. Although offerings are primarily for seniors, several
districts provided experimental programs for students in the eleventh
grade. This innovation provided additional training for students prior
to their final year.
Business and office education courses and programs were offered at each
of the 27 community colleges throughout the state and also in each of the
22 area vocational-technical centers operated by district school boards.
Total enrollments were approximately 18,000 in FY 1971. Courses and pro-
grams ranged from certificate offerings to the regular two-year associate
degree in secretarial science. Programs in accounting, secretarial prac-
tice, office machines, clerical office practice, typewriting, and office
management were among the most popular offerings.
Enrollments at the adult level, as reported by districts and community
colleges in the state totaled approximately 33,000 in FY 1971, down from
39,000 in the previous year and under the number projected in the annual
plan. It is believed that improved reporting accounted for the apparent
decrease in enrollments and that enrollments actually increased over
Offerings were provided in most districts of the state in evening classes
in many high school facilities, as well as in day and night programs in
area vocational-technical centers. Adults enrolled for training for job
entry, job upgrading, and professional skills development.
Popular programs which enrolled over 2000 students were accounting and
computing (3000); filing, office machines (5000); stenography (9300) and
Several districts provided special programs for disadvantaged students in
secretarial-clerical occupations, recordkeeping, and general typewriting
among others. These programs included grades nine through twelve and en-
rollments were approximately 6500, up from 2000 in FY 1970 and over the
5200 projected in the annual plan. Among special schools providing courses
in office education for disadvantaged students were the Beggs Education
Center (Pensacola); Booker T. Washington Junior High School (Miami);
Career Education Center (Jacksonville); and George Washington Junior High
The state staff worked with agencies including the Division of Vocational
Rehabilitation, Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services; the
Arthus G. Dozier School for Boys; and the Lowell School for Girls to pro-
vide suitable special course offerings for disadvantaged persons.
Enrollments in courses for handicapped persons were approximately 500, up
from 200 in FY 1970, and several districts expanded offerings. Courses
were offered in recordkeeping, typewriting, office machines and unit data
recording devices, among others.
Through visits by state specialists, help in seminars, and by other means
the state staff continued work in districts to evaluate programs. During
the year they prepared an evaluation instrument for typewriting communi-
cation skills. The device was designed to measure the typing skills of
secondary school students to determine their competencies for employment.
The following was also accomplished to advance evaluation techniques and
1. Goals and objectives were defined. The data collected above through
analyses of sample documents were used to establish criteria which
set forth tasks which an entry level employee should master. Four-
teen objectives were arranged under six larger categories designated
2. A testing instrument was developed. In light of the needs, goals,
and objectives developed, a testing instrument was constructed
whereby students' skills could be measured.
3. The instrument was field tested. The test instrument was admini-
stered to twenty-one high-school classes in nineteen schools.
Information gained during these trials resulted in simplification
of the instrument and fewer complications in administration and
4. Criteria were developed to describe standards for employment.
Sample typed business documents containing poor or irregular typing
were reviewed and evaluated by groups composed of business educators
and members of commercial and professional groups from throughout
the state. Groups were asked to indicate whether and to what ex-
tent materials would be mailablee" had they originated in their
respective offices or classrooms. Plans are underway to continue
field testing and updating this instrument to accomplish the goals
for which it was designed.
The state staff continued work with universities in expanding and strength-
ening teacher training programs. The staff provided assistance to univer-
sities in organizing workshops for the purpose of upgrading teacher
competencies and serving more teacher educators statewide.
Work was begun in curriculum development in writing sequential course
offerings in lower grade levels. The project is designed to broaden
students' vocational knowledge earlier at the introductory level. This,
in turn, will better prepare students for job-entry programs at the senior
level. Workshops were also held in data processing and office simulation
procedures. Curriculum materials from workshops above were distributed
to districts for use in office education.
PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS IN TECHNICAL EDUCATION
Enrollments at the secondary level increased to 1500,from 800 in FY 1970.
Actual enrollments were over the 1300 projected in the annual program plan.
Illustrative of new technical education programs begun were technical
electronics at Lyman High School (Longwood), and drafting and design at
Seminole High School (Sanford). In the latter a one-hour course was pro-
vided at the tenth grade to introduce students to occupations and an
innovative science-mathematics course was introduced for 12th grade stu-
dents. Illustrative of equipment added was the Wang digital computer at
Seminole High School.
Other new programs included drafting and design at Robinson High School
(Tampa); radio and television production at Gibbs Comprehensive High School
(St. Petersburg); and planning was underway for a pre-technology program
in Cocoa Beach High School. Additional laboratory equipment was made
available to practically all high school technical programs through the
Vocational Improvement Fund and additional equipment was also made available
through grants from federal funds.
Illustrative of new or expanded or strengthened programs at the secondary
level are the following.
1. Washington-Holmes Vocational-Technical Center (Chipley)
A new program was added in data processing, which enrolled 24
2. Bradford-Union Vocational-Technical Center (Starke)
Electronics and data processing programs were given additional
3. George Stone Vocational-Technical Center (Pensacola)
Drafting and design technology was improved through the addition
of a printer and two electric calculators.
4. Lewis M. Lively Area Vocational-Technical Center (Tallahassee)
Planning was undertaken to activate a pre-vocational program in
mathematics for high school students. The high school program
at the center was upgraded by leasing an 1130 computer.
The state staff reviewed high school programs to aid local personnel in
strengthening instruction. Advisory committees were used increasingly to
aid district personnel.
Enrollments in technical education at the post-secondary level totaled
22,700, up about 32 percent over the 17,200 enrollments in FY 1970 but
under the number projected in the Florida State Plan.
Technical education was expanded and or strengthened in the state through
new programs, new equipment, refurbished equipment, the addition of ad-
ministrative personnel, new facilities, and the help of state personnel
in program development. Illustrative of gains are the following.
1. Through grants from the Vocational Improvement Fund or federal
funds data processing programs were improved with new equipment
at Daytona Beach Community College, Seminole Junior College
(Sanford), Edison Junior College (Ft. Myers), Hillsborough
Community College (Tampa), St. Petersburg Junior College, and
Valencia Community College (Orlando) among others.
2. A two-year program in electro-mechanics was established at
Pinellas County Education Center (Clearwater). Chemical tech-
nology, media technology, aviation technology and air traffic
control were begun at the Polk Community College (Winter Haven).
Additional equipment was acquired for the data processing tech-
nology program, new programs were added and several old programs
were expanded in the Hillsborough Community College (Tampa).
Equipment was added and the program was expanded in marine science
technology at the Miami-Dade Junior College (Miami).
3. New programs were added in data processing and educational tech-
nology at the Gulf Coast Community College (Panama City), and data
processing was added at the Washington-Holmes Area Vocational-
Technical Center (Chipley). The Santa Fe Junior College (Gainesville)
added pre-engineering technology and fire science technology. At
the Florida Junior College at Jacksonville programs in technology
were moved to new facilities on the new campus.
Adult enrollments totaled 3900, down from 5800 in FY 1970. The annual plan
reported 7400 projected to be served in FY 1971.
Supplemental adult offerings were provided in almost every technical edu-
cation program area for persons who have already entered the labor market.
Local personnel, advisory committees, and representatives of local industry
worked together to provide instruction necessary to upgrade technical
In several area centers and community colleges emphasis was placed upon
upgrading persons in the areas of police science and fire science tech-
nology. An extensive program was underway at Brevard Community College
(Cocoa) to provide retraining for unemployed aerospace technicians. In
addition, a new program in environmental pollution control trained approxi-
mately 30 aerospace technicians to enable them to enter this new field.
Similar adult education programs were in the planning stages at other
In summary, most junior colleges and area centers which offer technical
education had parallel evening programs for employed adults. These
schools offered specialized and supplemental courses which enabled employed
technicians to update their knowledge and remain current with their techni-
cal speciality. Many of the courses were taught by the regular institutional
staff while other highly specialized offerings were taught by professional
engineers employed by industries located in the community. In some instances
employed adults arranged their working hours to attend the regular day pro-
grams on either a full-time or a part-time basis.
Enrollments of disadvantaged persons totaled 500 in FY 1971, up from 200
in FY 1970.
Attention was given to developing and initiating pre-technical post-secondary
education courses for poorly prepared high school graduates. Programs were
developed which will hold students' interests while preparing them in mathe-
matics, science, and English which are pertinent to particular technical
programs. Brevard Community College (Cocoa) is illustrative of planning
programs which will provide remedial work in mathematics and science.
It is correct to state that practically all post-secondary institutions
offered non-credit remedial work on an individualized basis in order to
enable capable but academically deficient students to meet the technical
The nature of certain technical occupations such as drafting and design,
architecture, electronics technology, and other reasonable sedentary fields
makes them excellent sources of potential employment for capable but physi-
cally handicapped persons. Enrollment in these programs is encouraged,
and 144 enrollments were recorded in technical occupations in FY 1971, the
same number as in the prior year.
Each technical education program in the state was visited at least one
time by a consultant for the purpose of program review and assessment.
Visitation reports were prepared of evaluations of programs visited.
During the past year a document titled "Guidelines for Establishing and
Evaluating Programs to Prepare Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant
Operators" was developed. In addition, "Guidelines for Establishing and
Evaluating Programs to Prepare Environmental Pollution Control Technicians"
The Department of Education has approved technical teacher education pro-
grams at the University of West Florida and at the University of South
Florida. In addition, the Division of Vocational, Technical and Adult
Education provided a grant to fund the salary and related expenses for a
technical teacher educator at the Florida Technological University. In
accordance with the "Master Plan for Vocational and Adult Teacher Ecucation,"
the Florida Technological University will be eligible for formal approval
by the Department of Education in compliance with State Board of Education
Lake-Sumter Community College (Leesburg) began a revision of the curriculum
in technical education offerings which will provide students with opportu-
nities to become familiar with data processing procedures as they pertain
to the technology for which they are training. Curriculum revision is also
taking place at Daytona Beach Community College and Brevard Community
College (Cocoa) where mini-computers are used in engineering technology
programs. Pinellas County Education Center (Clearwater) conducted a sum-
mer workshop for instructors to revise and update curricula for different
After visits to industry, study of other programs, meetings with advisory
committees, and visits by technical consultants many curricula in Areas I and
II were updated.
Several area centers, including Pinellas County Education Center (Clearwater),
Sarasota County Vocational-Technical Center (Sarasota), Polk County Voca-
tional-Technical Center (Bartow), Lindsey Hopkins Education Center (Miami)
and others have formed and are using advisory committees consisting of com-
petent representatives of industry to evaluate curricula and advise on
PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS IN TRADES AND INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION
Enrollments totaled about 37,000, up from 26,000 in FY 1969-70 and over
the 22,000 projected in the annual plan. Increases were recorded in air
conditioning, auto mechanics, aviation occupations, masonry, electronics,
metal working occupations, and small engine repair among others. Over
500 enrollments were recorded in air conditioning (857), body and fender
repairs (964), auto mechanics (5065), aviation occupations (1458), com-
mercial art occupations (596), carpentry (865), masonry (1776), construc-
tion and maintenance (738), custodial services (544), drafting (1271),
electronics occupations (2168), graphic arts (744), metalworking (2389),
cosmetology (1245), and small engine repairs (1666) among others.
During the year 9700 students were enrolled, down from 11,600 in the prior
year. New programs were developed in truck driving in Polk and Dade
counties and a program in industrial truck mechanics was activated in
Bradford County. Commercial cooking and baking, electronic mechanics and
assembly, plumbing and pipefitting, drafting, carpentry and air condition-
ing were among additional programs activated. Over 500 enrollments were
recorded in air conditioning (977), auto mechanics (1057), electronics
(1116), metalworking (547), and cosmetology (1278).
Enrollments totaled about 47,300, down from 48,500 in the prior year.
Illustrative enrollment increases were in apprenticeship programs in air
conditioning, plumbing and pipefitting, and other construction. Over
500 enrollments were recorded in apprenticeship programs in air condition-
ing (744), carpentry (2175), electricity (2009), plumbing and pipefitting
(1382), other construction and maintenance (1312), and metalworking (824).
Additional emphasis was placed on service to disadvantaged persons and 9400
were enrolled. The latter figure may be compared to the 10,100 enrolled in
the prior year. Again, improvements in the reporting system to.provide
more accurate figures resulted in some decreases in enrollments. It is
believed some FY 1970 figures were overstated. Emphasis was given to the
establishment of programs in Dade, Pinellas, Hillsborough, Duval, and
Escambia counties. Most programs for specific occupations included dis-
advantaged persons in enrollments.
Over 200 enrollments were recorded in programs in body and fender (228),
auto mechanics (748), aviation occupations (221), carpentry (376), masonry
(606), construction and maintenance (226), custodial services (292), elec-
tronics (783), metalworking (438), cosmetoloty (211), quantity food
operations (219), small engine repair (731), textile production and fabri-
cation (543), and upholstering (275).
Special emphasis has been given to the development of industrial education
programs designed for the disadvantaged in the following schools:
1. Booker T. Washington Junior High School
1200 Northwest Sixth Avenue
2. Beggs Education Center
Post Office Box 12068
3. Career Education Center
4. George Washington Junior High
2704 Highland Avenue
5. Walton Vocational Training Center
De Funiak Springs, Florida
About 1700 enrollments were recorded for handicapped persons in FY 1971,
up from 500 in the prior year and over the number projected in the Florida
State Plan. Handicapped persons were served in certain remedial programs
to the extent that they might successfully pursue the training.
During fiscal year 1970-71 industrial education programs were operated in
255 Senior High Schools, 22 area vocational technical centers, 16 community
colleges and 7 specialized public schools or institutions. Handicapped
persons were enrolled in air conditioning, auto mechanics, custodial ser-
vices, electronics, metalworking, small engine repair and in many other
2. Accomplishments in Terms of the Geographical Distribution
of Funds for Vocational Education
HIGH POPULATION DENSITY AREAS IN THE FIVE SUPERVISORY AREAS
l High Population Density Areas
DO E SOTO
Districts Area Number
Santa Rosa I 243,07
ECONOMICALLY DEPRESSED AREAS
ECONOMICALLY DEPRESSED AREAS
Depressed areas are areas having high rates of
unemployment, low family incomes, and high student
Z Designated by the U. S. Department of Commerce as
redevelopment districts. These are sparsely
Designated by the State CAMPS Committee as
having the above characteristics. These are
densely populated areas.
Districts and Densely POPULATION FEDERAL
Populated Areas With Percent of
Pockets of Total in
Poverty Area Number Sup. Area Amount
*These percent report the above districts' portion of state totals.
Programs in agricultural education were operated in all districts desig-
nated in the Florida State Plan as economically depressed and/or with high
Financial units of support for distributive education were approved on an
experimental basis for two area vocational-technical schools located in
districts designated economically depressed, or with high youth unemploy-
ment. Special efforts were made by state and local personnel to expand
offerings. The following is illustrative of accomplishments:
Number of Distributive Education Programs in Districts
Designated Economically Depressed and/or with High Youth Employment
S PS A**
S PS A**
2 -- X
1 -- --
12 -- X
14 4 X
10 1 X
15 9 x
* Served through area vocational-technical centers.
**Includes a wide variety of courses offered primarily
as supplementary training for adults who are already
on a part-time basis
Of the districts above, offerings were provided in FY 1971 in six at the
secondary, or post-secondary, or adult levels of instruction. This service
represents an increase over the previous year in one additional district
and expanded programs in four districts.
Number of Distributive Education Programs in Districts
Designated as High Population Density Areas
4 2 X
2 1 X
-2 -- X
2 1 X
)3 9 X
-0 1 X
-4 '4 X
.1 2 X
.9 4 x
-5 9 x
**Includes a wide variety of courses offered primarily on a part-time basis
as supplementary training for adults who are already employed.
Of the 21 districts above, programs were provided in 10 at the secondary,
or post-secondary, and/or adult levels of instruction. This represents
a significant program expansion in nine of the ten districts served.
Special efforts were made by personnel concerned with office education to
serve depressed, or high youth unemployment areas designated in the State
Plan. The following shows the number of vocational units provided for
instruction in these districts.
Units of Financial Support Provided
Districts 1969-70 1970-71
* This district was served through an area center.
Eight .f the nine districts above offered, or were served by office educa-
tion programs. The unit increase over FY 1970 was 47.91. Courses were
provided at the secondary, post-secondary, and/or adult levels. (Units
above were for all business and office education programs.)
Business and office education programs, at the secondary, post-secondary,
and/or adult levels were offered in each of the districts designated high
population density areas in the State Plan. The unit increase FY 1971 over
FY 1970, detailed below, was 85.38.
Units of Financial Support Provided
Districts 1969-70 1970-71
Escambia 11.15 13.20
Santa Rosa 1.00 1.60
Leon 12.83 16.00
Duval 18.00 33.40
Seminole 5.14 2.00
Orange 25.09 43.00
Hillsborough 48.73 58.60
Pinellas 38.79 53.10
Palm Beach 8.82 14.40
Broward 29.23 39.20
Dade 66.90 73.16
Totals 274.28 359.66
Of districts designated economically depressed or with high youth unemploy-
ment, by the Department of Commerce or the CAMPS Committee, work experience
programs were provided, along with some funding, for seven. Although
finance may have been insufficient, funds were used carefully to meet many
of the needs of target groups.
Based upon need and increased enrollments, an additional 23 MFP units of
financial support were allocated and home economics programs were offered
in districts designated economically depressed and with high youth unem-
ployment. Sumter, Hillsborough, Duval and Dade Counties implemented wage-
earning programs to serve these target groups.
Resource units for home economics education were developed and reproduced
by the Department of Education in an effort to upgrade instruction for dis-
advantaged persons. At least one-third of the federal funds received were
spent for programs for disadvantaged persons at all levels.
The above show disbursements of federal funds under provisions of the Voca-
tional Education Amendments of 1968 to districts classified a high population
density areas or economically depressed areas. The data show only a few
districts receiving a higher percent of federal funds available than the
districts' relation to total state or area population, (see pages 32, 33).
3. Accomplishments of Objectives or Activities as Shown in Part III of the
Annual Program for Programs Under Contract; Vocational Guidance and
Counseling; Construction of Area Schools; Ancillary Services and Activ-
ities; and State Programs for Disadvantaged Persons Under Section 102
Programs Under Contract
No vocational-technical education programs were operated under contract with
Vocational Guidance and Counseling
Guidance and counseling services, as projected in the State Plan, were an
integral part of vocational education in FY 1971. Funds were used to enable
the State Consultant for Vocational Guidance to exert leadership state-
wide. The consultant organized and participated in workshops for district
and junior college guidance personnel and provided individual consultation
for local vocational counselors, administrators and other concerned persons.
The consultant participated with a number of area schools, including those
in Bay, Escambia, Leon, Broward, Polk, Washington, Suwannee, Jackson, Lee,
and Lake counties in sponsoring "Vo-Tech Days" to bring together employers
and students who seek employment compatible with their training. The con-
sultant participated closely with the Pupil Personnel Services Section of
the Division of Elementary and Secondary Education to present the vocational
education aspects of counseling in state contacts and meetings.
Work was continued to update the Directory of Post-Secondary and Adult
Occupations Curriculums. The directory contains a list of nearly 300 oc-
cupational fields in which instruction is provided at the post-secondary
and adult levels. Along with each program and course are listed publicly
supported institutions in the state offering training.
The State Consultant met with legislative committees and with local educa-
tional agencies to facilitate plans for the use of occupational specialists.
The latter, authorized by the 1970 Legislature, will aid professional
counselors through assignments which may include identifying and counseling
potential dropouts and their parents, and counseling regular students,
teachers, and administrators concerning job and career opportunities.
The Division was active in preparing guidelines for the operation of the
entire program to use occupational specialists and in aiding district per-
sonnel in making final plans, which must be approved by the state, for the
Agricultural education provided major input in the Alachua County pre-
vocational exploratory program designed to furnish intensive guidance and
career orientation experiences in the Mebane and Springhill middle schools.
The team planning and teaching approach was used, involving agriculture,
home economics, industrial arts and regular academic teachers.
Though not considered in the guidance function as such, diversified coopera-
tive training teacher-coordinators were encouraged to work very closely
with guidance services and to assist in placement of students.
To comply with the Vocational Education Amendments of 1968 and goals enu-
merated in the Florida State Plan increased emphasis was given to improve
and extend guidance services to technical education students. For example,
a meeting was held with Gadsden County guidance personnel to provide infor-
mation and guidelines for service relating to technical education. Technical
education personnel at the Pinellas County Education Center (Clearwater),
and the Polk County Vocational-Technical Center (Bartow), and others worked
with guidance counselors, secondary teachers and secondary students on
problems involving counseling and guidance.
Construction of Area Schools
Contracts were awarded for new construction at five area vocational-technical
education schools during FY 1971. These contracts expanded existing faci-
lities at centers located in Bradford, Hillsborough, Lee, and Washington
counties and at Florida Keys Community College (Key West).
The amounts expended for construction at the locations above totaled
$1,827,000. Included in the new facilities were 400 vocational, technical
and adult general education student work stations and supportive spaces
such as classrooms, libraries, offices, student service areas, outdoor
service areas, parking areas, and access drives.
Planning for further expansion was begun for area centers located in Citrus,
Lake, Manatee, Pinellas, Polk, Sarasota, and Suwannee counties and for
community college departments located in Okaloosa and Columbia counties.
A second area center was approved for Broward County and is in the architec-
tural planning stage.
Second centers were also approved for Dade, Palm Beach, and Pinellas
counties. At the close of FY 1971, the latter were in site-selection or
Ancillary Services and Activities
The Third Annual Vocational, Technical and Adult Educators' Conference,
attended by approximately 3000 persons, was held in Miami Beach in August
1970. The meeting was sponsored by the Department of Education, the Florida
Vocational Association, and the Florida Adult Education Association. The
theme of the conference was "1970's Dynamic Decade." State specialists
from each vocational service participated in sectional meetings and con-
sultants from throughout the state participated in discussions relating to
problems and practices in vocational-technical and adult general education.
During the year the need for vocational education teachers for each voca-
tional service was again studied in-depth. The formal report of the study
was delivered to the Board of Regents' Office for Continuing Education -
which had requested the study and was incorporated into the Board's long-
range projections of requirements of Florida's publicly supported universi-
ties to provide sufficient teachers to FY 1977. The need for industrial
arts and adult general education teachers was again included in the study.
Projections were based upon present productivity of publicly supported
universities, inservice training offered, projected enrollments in secon-
dary schools, projections of the size of the labor force of the state and
the geographical location of teachers presently employed. Recommendations
included plans for new and expanded institutional vocational and adult
general teacher education programs and suggestions for improving existing
programs and services.
Intensive work was done in FY 1971 to plan the comprehensive vocational
education program which will be organized as follows;
(1) Instruction in grades 1 through 6 to familiarize pupils with the
world of work. Emphasis at this level is placed on the relation-
ship of the world of work to the on-going instructional program.
(2) Instruction in grades 7 through 9 to pupils as follows:
(a) to provide occupational exploratory experiences, including
industrial arts and vocationally orientated home economics
(b) to provide direct job related instruction for potential
school leavers and others if essential in meeting their
(3) Instruction in grades 10 through 12 to pupils as follows:
(a) to provide direct job related instruction for pupils planning
to graduate and for pupils who may leave school before
(b) to provide pre-technical vocational education instruction
including technically oriented industrial arts for those
planning to enroll in an advanced or highly skilled vocation-
al or technical program at the post-secondary level
(c) to provide instruction in vocationally oriented home econom-
(d) to provide special courses for disadvantaged or handicapped
(e) to provide activities for pupils in vocational youth organi-
ations included as an integral part of the instruction
(4) Instruction at the post-secondary level to provide youth under 19
years of age, who have completed high school or left school before
high school graduation, who are unemployed and underemployed, with
organized programs of instruction to prepare them for gainful em-
(5) Instruction at the post-secondary level to provide persons 19 years
of age and older, who have completed high school or left school be-
fore high school graduation, with organized programs of instruction
leading to a certificate or an associate degree in a community
college to prepare them for gainful employment.
(6) Instruction at the adult level to provide training or retraining
to insure stability or advancement in employment to adults who
have already entered the labor market and who are employed or
seeking employment, or vccationally oriented home economics de-
signed to prepare adults for the role of homemaker, or to con-
tribute to the employability of such adults in the dual role of
homemaker or wage earner.
In consultation with teacher educators; local vocational personnel; advisory
committees; representatives of the Teacher Education Section, Bureau of
Teacher Education, Certification and Accreditation, Department of Education
"Teacher Education Guidelines for Vocational and Adult Teacher Education"
were developed by representatives of the respective program sections of the
Division of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education. The guidelines re-
port desired student behavior and salient factors to be considered by
teacher education institutions and local educational agencies in planning,
implementing, and evaluating preservice and inservice vocational (and adult
general) teacher education programs.
In developing performance-based goals for criteria established for vocation-
al education students, teacher trainees, or practicing teachers, no attempt
was made to specifically differentiate between the contributions of general
education and vocational education. The "Guidelines" reported the objectives
of each vocational service, a definition of the specialty and recommendations
to achieve the following criteria:
1. Identification of desired student qualifications
2. Identification of knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed by a
teacher to help students
3. Identification of courses needed to prepare teachers to teach
4. Evaluation of prospective preservice and inservice teacher edu-
5. Followup procedures to determine the effectiveness of teachers.
As projected in the State Plan, Part III, (2.41) area chairmen were appointed
for the remaining two state administrative geographic areas. Additional
personnel were appointed to develop vocational services and faster and more
continuous service was provided to local educational agencies and other
public and private agencies in relating vocational education to educational,
community and business-industry needs.
State Programs for Disadvantaged Persons Under Section 102 (b) (3)
Federal funds for disadvantaged persons, reported in Table 1 of Part III of
the State Plan, were spent to provide programs at the secondary and post-
secondary levels for academicallyand socioeconomically handicapped persons,
including dropouts, minority groups, and women preparing to reenter the la-
bor force. Each vocational service ih=the Division provided service to dis-
Through continuation and expansion of existing instructional programs and
the addition of new programs in FY 1971, as reported in Tables 2 and 3 of
Part III, about 54,000 disadvantaged persons, up from about 31,000 in FY
1970 and approximately the number projected in the Florida State Plan re-
ceived instruction in a broad range of offerings. Occupational fields or
programs with enrollments over 100 included agricultural production (1080),
agricultural mechanics (268), ornamental horticulture (653), general mer-
chandise (1353), hotel and lodging (184), practical nurse (58), nurse aide
(460), clothing and textiles (145), housing and home furnishings (251),
care and guidance of children (476), clothing services (356), food manage-
ment (953), home management (348), accounting (633), office machines
(1918), stenography (1202), typing (1670), misc. technology (272), air
conditioning (154), appliance repair (159), auto mechanics (748), avia-
tion occupations (221), carpentry (376), masonry (606), custodial services
(292), electrical occupations (783), metalworking (438), cosmetology (211),
small engine repair (731), and many others.
The following table reports estimates of the type of handicapping condition
of the people being served and the percent of enrollment by type of handi-
cap. Data are for secondary, post-secondary and adult levels.
Trainable mentally retarded 5.8%
Educable mentally retarded 79.0
Emotionally disturbed 2.2
Hearing impaired and physically handicapped 3.0
Socially maladjusted 10.0
Each vocational service offered training to handicapped persons and en-
rollments totaled nearly 6,000, up from about 2700 in FY 1970 and in ex-
cess of the 4100 projected in the Florida State Plan.
The (Florida) Department of Education shall insure that instructional strate-
gies developed for use in the state system of public education are designed
to maximize the probability that all students will achieve appropriate edu-
"Goals of Education in Florida"
(Related to Part III, Annual Program Plan)
Part C Research
The following are illustrative of activities enumerated in the Florida
State Plan for the Research Coordinating Unit for ongoing research,
training and pilot programs active during the year under review.
1. About 1400 completed research studies were distributed through
Florida's Educational Resources Information Center and its 40
2. Four programs were field-tested to determine their value before
broad distribution was made throughout the state.
3. Five projects were begun to develop instruments to collect in-
formation as a basis for making judgements regarding the degree
of student achievement as related to stated program objectives.
4. About 11,000 studies were identified, collected, screened, ab-
stracted, cataloged, stored, and upon request retrieved, packaged
5. Proposals for financial aid were received from district schools,
junior colleges, colleges and universities and recommendations
were made for inviting projects.
6. Inservice training programs were planned and conducted to acquaint
potential users of research with completed studies.
In agricultural education a major research project was begun to conduct a
state-wide agricultural occupations study. The planning phase has been
completed and the demand data collection phase is in progress. This is a
joint effort involving the Agricultural Education Section, the RCU, the
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, the Florida Department of
Agriculture and Consumer Services and facets of the agriculture industry.
A home economics curriculum development research project, funded by the
Department of Education and conducted in Broward County, was completed.
Information and recommendations are being used in planning the development
and modification of home economics programs and courses throughout the
Consumer education learning activity packages were developed for home
economics education and field tested by graduate students at the Florida
State University in cooperation with the Department of Education and local
teachers and supervisors. Phase I of the project, in which over 40 teachers
and 5000 students were involved, was completed and plans were made for
implementing Phase II.
Part D Exemplary Programs
Four exemplary programs for disadvantaged students were planned, conducted,
and evaluated in FY 1971. Schools involved were the Beggs Education Center
(Pensacola), Booker T. Washington Junior High School (Miami), Career
Education Center (Jacksonville), and George Washington Junior High School
(Tampa). These schools served about 1500 students. In comparison with
control groups evaluation showed these students achieved the following:
1. Acquired more job entry skills
2. Demonstrated more positive attitudes about self, school and
3. Received more guidance and counseling
4. Achieved equally well in academic courses
5. Profited by specialized teaching techniques in the classroom
6. Remained in school longer.
Illustrative of exemplary aspects of the above programs is the Beggs Center
at Pensacola which is directed to encouraging boys and girls who lack
interest and motivation in conventional school programs, and who are almost
certain to become dropouts, to-find new goals. Each of the 600 pupils is
enrolled because he and his parents approved his participation in the
special training. All students are from low level social and economic
backgrounds. Students in the program are among their peers and do not
have to compete with and feel rejection by students who come from "average
middle class groups." Students in the Beggs Center ordinarily have an
aversion to traditional academic programs and there is an attempt to out-
line broad areas of work and study to provide wide experiences. The entire
program is ungraded in order to give students confidence and encourage-
ment to progress in educational programs. At the completion of training
students are encouraged to continue in educational programs.
Plans were made for a fifth exemplary program to be established at Wymore
Vocational School (Eatonville). The model implemented at this center will
expand exemplary program objectives to include a comprehensive K-12 voca-
tional program. At the elementary level, students will be oriented to the
world of work and at the junior high school level will explore clusters of
occupations. At the senior high school level students will prepare to
enter jobs or continue their education.
Other innovative aspects of an exemplary program are related to inservice
teacher education and vocational counseling components. The inservice
teacher education program is designed to develop techniques for working
with disadvantaged students using individualized, prescriptive, self-
pacing learning packages. The counseling component is designed to assist
in realistic career choice and occupational skill development and provide
around-the-clock counseling service to help students with home or juvenile
Another component of the Florida exemplary program is the greater use of
community resources and involvement with constructive community activities.
Three of four programs are located in designated Model Cities areas. Co-
operative relationships have been established and are being maintained
between the programs and community action groups.
The expected outcomes of this innovative approach to service for disadvan-
taged youth are: (1) career relevant and self fulfilling educational
programs; (2) decrease in absenteeism and drop-out rates; (3) decrease in
conflicts with law enforcement and other social agencies; (4) more positive
social behavior modes; and (5) greater involvement in constructive
Agricultural education was included in exemplary programs for disadvantaged
persons in Escambia and Hillsborough counties.
Exemplary programs in vocational home economics for disadvantaged persons
with special needs were conducted in the four schools above. Plans were
made for the implementation of an exemplary K-12 comprehensive vocational
education program involving six elementary schools, three junior high
schools and one senior high school in Orlando. Eight home economics
teachers and more than five hundred students were involved in exemplary
home economic programs and ten more teachers were involved in exemplary
program planning. Disadvantaged persons with special needs were the tar-
get group to serve.
Part E Residential Schools
No residential schools were operated by public agencies during the year
Part F Consumer and Homemaking Education
Individual instruction materials were developed in at least five school
districts. Materials for a K-12 comprehensive vocational home economics
program, including a program model, and five conceptual flow charts and
five continuums of performance objectives were implemented in all districts
through drive-in conferences and newsletters. Program emphases included
the identification of vocational home economics programs with two goals -
wage earning and consumer and homemaking education. Additional emphases
included program development to serve both male and female students; pre-
paration for the dual role of homemaker and wage earner; unique methods
for serving the disadvantaged; and skills for employment of all persons in
the world of work. A Housing and Home Furnishings Curriculum Guide and
five working copy subject-matter resource guides were produced and distri-
buted throughout the state. A Handbook for Florida Home Economics Wage
Earning Programs was developed and published for statewide use. Plans
and arrangements were made for curriculum development workshops in the
University of South Florida and Florida Atlantic University for the de-
velopment of K-12 resource guides in the five subject-matter areas of home
Part G Cooperative Education
The cooperative education method was used in instructing selected indivi-
duals in many regular secondary and post-secondary agricultural programs.
Seventeen programs enrolling 215 students at the secondary level and 51
st5&d r,- t e-yaseezeja-erel were offered.
Cooperative office education offerings increased by approximately 30 pro-
grams in FY 1971. The number of persons served was approximately 900.
During the year sixteen high schools operated health occupations programs
using the cooperative method. These programs were concentrated in densely
populated areas with 13 located in Miami area communities where total stu-
dent enrollments include a significant percentage of underprivileged
Approximately fifty district administrators and supervisors joined forces
with the state staff in an inservice education workshop in the cooperative
method of vocational home economics education. Cooperative programs were
conducted in two districts and plans were made for additional use of the
During FY 1971 the number of industrial education programs utilizing the
school industry education (SIE) cooperative method expanded. It is
presently anticipated that this method of teaching industrial education
will increase substantially during the next few years.
Reports of enrollments under Part G of the Act showed a number of programs
enrolling over 100 students including agricultural production (114);
general merchandising (1510); hotel and lodging (650); miscellaneous
health programs (776); occupational preparation in home economics (171);
filing, office machines (234); stenography (167); miscellaneous technical
education offerings (129); auto mechanics (152); metalworking (104); and
small engine repairs (130) among others. Over 1000 enrollments were
reported in diversified cooperative training programs under Part G and
about 3100 enrollments were also reported in work experience under this
part of the Act.
Part H Work Study
After having been suspended fora year, federal vocational work-study funds
were made available in time for program operation to begin in June 1970.
Summer programs were established in 15 districts and four junior colleges
serving economically-deprived secondary and post-secondary in-school youth.
Approximately 197 students were employed by public education agencies for
office work in transportation departments and to help with building and
grounds maintenance and equipment repairs. The summer phase of the program
was concluded August 31, 1970.
Reports from local educational agencies indicate that work-study programs
aid in recruiting students into vocational-technical education programs
and that they also reduce the necessity for students to withdraw from
school to seek work or economic relief. To reduce unemployment and
idleness, work-study programs were combined with other state and federal
programs to provide summer employment for youth with severe economic
OTHER INFORMATION REQUESTED
Highlights of Exceptional or Model Programs
1. Goodwill Industries
Miami, Florida 33132
Goodwill Industries of South Florida is dedicated to providing
training and job opportunities for handicapped individuals. The
program includes the operation of 12 retail stores to sell mer-
chandise produced or repaired by handicapped persons.
The Adult Distributive Education Department of the Dade County
Public Schools (Miami), established a merchandising and cash
register training program at the downtown central office store
to train handicapped persons to become competent employees in
retailing. A full-time teacher was employed and the program pro-
vided both classroom and on-the-job training in Goodwill stores.
The ultimate goal is to place trained students in other retail
stores in the community.
Handicapped persons referred to Goodwill are evaluated by counse-
lors and assigned to training according to their background,
interests, and the nature of their handicaps. Only persons
capable of benefiting from retail training are assigned to the
class. The majority-of students had I. Q.'s between 70 and 90,
but have proven capable of performing many of the sales and
stockkeeping duties of the typical retail store.
The class was begun in February 1971 and class size has been main-
tained between 10 and 13 students. Instruction is individualized
to fit student needs, and the length of the course varies accord-
ing to student progress. New students are added to the class as
others graduate. Four graduates are already working in retail
stores and follow-up investigation has indicated a high degree of
2. The Division of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education
The State Department of Education
Tallahassee, Florida 33304
A Management Information System is under development due to the
increased emphasis being placed by the Legislature and Congress
upon data management, accountability, and evaluation. The greater
demands for timely and accurate information for administrative
decision-making require more detailed and better coordinated in-
formation for managing the statewide program of vocational,
technical and adult education. The completely mechanized system
will assist the Division and local agencies by performing numerous
data reporting and consolidation tasks presently required of
individual teachers and administrators. Duplication of efforts
in data generation and processing will be reduced.
The information system will involve several sub-systems or data
bases. These sub-systems will include data files on personnel,
students, courses, programs, space-facility utilization and fis-
Enrollment is the first phase of the mechanized system with
initial implementation in area vocational centers and Pinnellas
County beginning July 1, 1971, with expansion to remaining in-
stitutions by July 1, 1972. In addition to providing timely and
accurate information about students, instructors, courses and
programs, the system will help to eliminate duplication of data
requests to local education agencies.
3. The Pasco Comprehensive High School
1204 State Road 52
Dade City, Florida 33525
The Agricultural Education Section, in cooperation with district
school officials, selected the Pasco Comprehensive High School
Agricultural Education Department to develop a model comprehen-
sive program. In its first year the program moved into new
facilities and the instructional staff increased from four to
seven. Team teaching and modular scheduling were used to offer
a wide variety of courses. Innovation in curriculum design and
teaching methods was used.
4. The State Department of Education
Tallahassee, Florida 33304
Through cooperative efforts of the Division of Vocational,
Technical and Adult Education and the Division of Elementary and
Secondary Education "Guidelines for Graduation under Job Entry
Program" were issued to help district personnel develop job entry
programs for high school students. Under the provisions students
who meet certain requirements, including a minimum number of
high school credits, are over 16 years old, and have permission
of a parent or guardian may complete graduation requirements
through approved employment. For example, two hours of work in
approved employment may be substituted for one hour of formal
instruction. Guidelines include responsibilities and.or duties
of a local school board, supervision required of the program,
requirements regarding the placement of students, procedures for
awarding a diploma, and job and graduation requirements.
5. The Woodham High School
150 East Burgess Road
Pensacola, Florida 32503
New facilities are being constructed for home economics education
as part of the second phase building program. Since it was open-
ed five years ago, the department has grown from one to eight
teachers. In FY 1971 home economics courses included clothing
and textiles, clothing production and management, comprehensive
home economics, family economics and consumer education, housing
and home furnishings, and food and nutrition among other courses.
Child development courses were organized to meet the needs of
junior and senior students who will become homemakers as well as
for students who will become wage earners. Enrollments in the
home economics programs have grown to 671 in the five-year
Vocational Youth Organizations
The Future Farmers of America (FFA)
The Florida Future Farmers of America organization, with more than
12,000 members, served a very important function in the instructional
program in agricultural education. Incentive awards sponsored by
agricultural production and agri-business organizations, the FFA
Foundation, and the State Department of Agriculture stimulated the
highest level of participation in the association's history in a wide
variety of projects including leadership activities, production
enterprises, and placement for occupational experiences. During
FY 1971 FFA activities included the State Leadership Conference,
participation in the National Convention, regional and state leader-
ship schools, nine district and sub-district leadership schools, FFA
Day at the state fair and a two-weeks forestry training camp. These
events, attended by over 9000 students, teachers, and others were
directed by youth leaders with assistance of the state staff. Con-
tests and awards programs served as incentives to members having
skills in particular areas for emphasis. Awards and recognition
were furnished for outstanding achievements. Livestock and meats
judging, public speaking, parliamentary procedure, agricultural
electrification, forestry, and land judging were only a few of the
more than fifty activities in which members participated. In various
agricultural fairs members exhibited a variety of projects relating
to their particular interests in agriculture. The annual Goodwill
Tour by State FFA Officers was again sponsored by the Florida Retail
Federation and various agricultural industries. The outstanding
accomplishments of the FFA program are due to quality instructional
programs and well organized local chapters, as well as good working
relationships with and support from agri-business industries at the
local and state levels. The Florida Association of FFA is recog-
nized by the national organization as one of the best in the nation.
The Cooperative Education Clubs of Florida (CECF)
The Cooperative Education Clubs of Florida reported a growth in
FY 1971 to 5214 members, up from 4800 in FY 1970, and 241 clubs af-
filiated. Programs affiliated with CECF were comprised of students
in cooperative agriculture, cooperative home economics, cooperative
health related occupations education, cooperative business education,
cooperative distributive education, and diversified cooperative
Plans were developed to institute officer training workshops for
all local club officers and for more direct involvement of students
in leadership training activities.
A State Advisory Council, instituted during the year, is composed
of five business men and women representing the five major areas of
student training. These council members were to provide outside
counseling and recommendations to make club programs more closely
related to the needs of business and industry. The approach is in
keeping with efforts to bring about a definite correlation of club
activities as a major component of the program of instruction.
In addition to the annual State Leadership Conference, district
meetings were held and all students were encouraged to attend and
participate in events.
The Vocational Industrial Clubs of America (VICA)
Chapters of the Florida Vocational Industrial Clubs of America to-
taled 43 with 2283 members in FY 1971. Four area drive-in meetings
were held to discuss club business. About 400 members attended the
State Leadership Conference and 41 Florida members attended the
national conference in Indianapolis, Indiana. New state officers
were selected at the state meeting and five $100 cash awards were
given to outstanding VICA students. The number of clubs is expected
to increase to about 65 and the members to about 5000 in FY 1972.
Health Careers Clubs of Florida
At present no youth organization exists specifically for health re-
lated occupations education students. Organizations to which stu-
dents may belong through choice and personal interest include
Vocational Industrial Clubs of America, Cooperative Clubs of Florida
and Health Careers Clubs of Florida. During the year representatives
of all three groups received consultative service from state health
related occupations education personnel. Special information con-
cerning health occupations careers was prepared and edited by the
state staff for statewide dissemination and use by counselors,
advisors, administrators, and teachers working with youth and youth
The Future Homemakers of America (FHA)
Fourteen thousand members and four hundred chapters of Future Home-
makers of America in Florida were involved in activities of the
FY 1971 program of work emphases, "Our World A Growing Heritage"
and "Stable Home Stable Life." These emphases were the basis for
leadership and development opportunities above the chapter level in
10 districts, some city or county councils, and on the state and
One of the major expansions of the program involved the authorization
of two types of FHA chapters. These are (1) FHA chapters for all
students in vocationally oriented home economics, and (2) HERO FHA
chapters, an option available to chapters composed entirely of wage-
earning students in classes of home economics related occupations.
Activities and decisions made during the week of the June Leadership
Training Conference included the selection of the 1971-72 and 1972-
73 program of work emphases, revision of applications and forms, and
planning for the publication of the Florida Future Homemaker Magazine.
Planning scholarships were awarded. Applications and forms reviewed
included those used for awarding 29 level 3 degrees and the awarding
of 13 honor roll chapter certificates.
Opportunities for interpretation of the home economics and FHA pro-
grams, as well as cooperative and leadership programs, were provided
by numerous appearances of the state staff at meetings of both youth
and adult organizations.
The Junior Engineering Technical Society (JETS)
The Department of Education does not have a state approved vocational
youth organization specifically for the technical education students.
The Vocational Industrial Clubs of America (VICA) are available in
Florida for technical education students who wish to participate. In
addition, another youth organization to meet the needs of technical
education students is named the Junior Engineering Technical Society,
usually referred to as "JETS."
The Junior Engineering Technical Society is a non-profit educational
organization, founded in 1950, to sponsor extracurricular programs
for secondary and post-secondary school students interested in science,
engineering, and technology. JETS is endorsed by the major engineer-
ing societies and leading employers of technicians.
JETS' activities are designed to give students a preview of careers
in a wide range of professional fields. Students have opportunities
to apply classroom theories to actual technical projects, or indivi-
dual research, with the assistance of faculty and advisors from the
technical professions. The JETS experience with professional men
and women helps a student identify interests and abilities for pur-
suing a technical career.
JETS' members explore the fields of science and engineering through
extracurricular activities. They build projects, perform experiments
and conduct research. They visit local industries and discuss their
interests with engineers ard scientists. Most chapters hold at
least two meetings each month during the school year. These may in-
clude varied programs including speakers, films, projects, study,
research, and field trips.
JETS' state and area coordinating offices help chapters locate pro-
fessional personnel for speakers, provide project assistance, and
help with career days. They also sponsor regional programs including
student conferences, expositions, and summer workshops.
Many technical education students and potential students participate
in the JETS program. For example, in one county, (Leon) there is a
JETS chapter in Godby, Leon, and Rickards high schools.
The Future Business Leaders of America (FBLA) and Phi Beta Lambda (PBL)
Of many purposes guiding the development of Future Business Leaders
of America and Phi Beta Lambda, the two educational business leader-
ship organizations in Florida, the foremost is to develop business
leadership responsibility at an early age. The FBLA, (secondary) and
PBL (post-secondary) organizations are presently promoted in the
state through five districts. Each district has a director and a
student-elected vice president. These two key persons function in
the areas of new chapter development, membership promotion, and
publicity. In this manner, the entire state membership is kept in-
formed of developments in all other chapters.
During the year district, state, and national conferences were held
to promote youth leadership activities. District conferences were
held in February, and the State Conference was held in April. The
National Conference was held in June. Students were encouraged to
enter competitive events in all conferences. This procedure provides
excellent opportunities for the development of leadership qualities.
A special FBLA-PBL week was designated by the Governor and the State
Cabinet to highlight the outstanding interest of students and their
advisors in the free enterprise system. This special event was a
preliminary step leading to the annual State Leadership Conference
in the spring.
During 1970-71 there were 118 chapters functioning in both FBLA and
PBL activities. The combined state membership totaled nearly 2600
paid members. This represented an increase of nearly 1000 members
over the previous year. The combined FBLA-PBL delegations won 23
national awards including the Southern Vice-Presidency for Phi Beta
Lambda. Numbered among the total awards for Florida was the first
place national award for chartering the most new chapters in FBLA.
These accomplishments gained national recognition for Florida in
The Florida state chapter served as host for the 1971 National Leader-
ship Conference held at the Deauville Hotel, Miami Beach, June 16-21.
The Florida Associations of Distributive Education Clubs of America
(DECA), The Florida Associations of Managerial Education Clubs (FAME)
The Florida association of the Distributive Education Clubs of
America, high school division, reached 157 chapters with a member-
ship of 3637. This represented an increase of 43 chapters and 1027
members over the previous year. This increase ranked Florida fifth
in the nation in the number of chapters and seventh in total member-
ship for the high school division.
District leadership conferences were initiated for the first time.
The state was divided into 12 districts which afforded greater op-
portunities for all DECA members to participate in a leadership
conference including workshop sessions and competitive events.
Public recognition of student achievement was enhanced.
The Junior Collegiate Division of DECA, FAME, for post-secondary
students, also continued to grow. Membership totaled 386 in 18
chapters, an increase of 66 members and four new chapters over the
previous year. This growth ranked Florida fourth nationally in
number of chapters, and fifth in the nation in membership. The
competitive program in the junior collegiate division was expanded
to include eight events, and one member served as the national
vice president of the Southern Region.
The Florida Association of DECA served as host for the Second Annual
Southern Regional DECA Conference which includes 13 states and Puerto
Rico. Held in Tampa at the International Inn, the conference was
attended by approximately 200 students, advisors, and guests includ-
ing the national DECA president of the high school division, three
other national officers, and a national DECA ambassador.
Findings Regarding Vocational Education Not Being Adequately Provided:
New programs or services needed in agricultural education include the
1. There is a great need and demand for more introductory or explor-
2. Additional courses are needed for disadvantaged and handicapped
3. Accurate data are needed regarding training needed and employ-
ment opportunities for agricultural and agri-business occupations.
4. Additional teachers are needed because of the increased interest
in specialized courses.
Changes needed in the present program of agricultural education in-
clude more effective use of the cooperative method of education,
greater emphasis or the adult program, additional courses in off-
farm agricultural occupations and further work to develop curricu-
The following are needed:
1. More curriculum development is needed and additional instruc-
tional materials should be furnished local school districts to
meet the increasing growth of specialized programs.
2. Research activities, program assessment, evaluation and student
follow-up activities should be increased to support program
3. Additional expansion of pilot programs at the middle school
level is needed.
4. More adequate funding is needed for adult offerings.
Diversified Cooperative Training and Work Experience
Child labor laws relate importantly to state and national provisions
for vocational education. These laws tend to sometimes retard the
national efforts, which were expanded in the 1968 Amendments, and
also hinder, in some ways, the state efforts to serve youth. The
quality, productivity, and effectiveness of programs could be greatly
improved if moderate changes were made in both state and federal
labor laws. It is recommended that efforts be made to update laws
regarding child labor to make these laws compatible with national
and state goals, ideals, and efforts in providing vocational
Health Occupations Education
To meet the need for labor market information, and in cooperation
with the State Dental Assocation, a survey of the need for dental
auxiliary workers was conducted. Information was solicited from
every dentist practicing in the state. Approximately 75 percent
responded and indicated a substantial unmet need and a heavy future
demand for trained dental assistants, dental technicians, and
dental hygienists. The survey information was utilized by the
dental profession and state health related occupations education
consultants to support development of new programs at Santa Fe
Junior College (Gainesville), Florida Junior College at Jacksonville,
and a dental hygiene program which has been proposed for Tallahassee
Community College. The following are needs.
1. There is need for additional area or regional workshops to assist
teachers with curriculum design, teaching methods, and program
2. Provisions should be made for more supplemental education pro-
grams for teachers of health related occupations education to
maintain or enhance specialized skills.
3. Efforts should be continued to increase interdigitation between
different levels of program training.
4. A policy for establishing new programs should be developed to
insure adequate lead time for program planning and development
prior to the enrollment of students.
5. There is need to accelerate the development of more effective
methods for evaluating health related occupations education pro-
grams and the competency of graduates.
6. There is need for additional contacts with administrators to
discuss newly emerging programs, changes in practice which bear
on the training of students; and factors relating to accredita-
tion, registration and licensure.
Home Economics Education
Almost no current data regarding local labor market information are
available for home economics occupations. In addition, there is a
great need for state legislation to regulate child care services.
There is a need for a more appropriate way to recruit, train, and
retrain teachers, supervisors and administrators. Additional
materials are needed for individualized instruction of special groups
and persons with special needs. Other concerns include:
1. There is a need for more extensive and effective evaluation of
home economics students, teachers, supervisors, facilities, and
2. In order to avoid program duplication, better coordination and
articulation of programs is needed at all levels.
3. Additional provisions should be made for information services
to communicate adequately with the public, members of the
Legislature, and other concerned groups.
Business and Office Education
The following are among needs.
1. A comprehensive curriculum should be planned and written for
business and office education in the K-12 grades and funds are
needed to provide personnel, printing costs, and distribution
expenses in this task.
2. Evaluation and assessment should be continued at an accelerated
rate and more funds are needed to reach more people.
3. The procedures for reporting vocational program participation
by districts should be improved and simplified.
The following are among needs:
1. Additional in-service training for technical education instructors
Even though instructors are able to keep abreast of changes in their
speciality through their own initiative, oftentimes often-times
2. Equipment needs are not so pressing as in the past; nevertheless,
emphasis on updating and providing new equipment should continue.
3. Efforts to recruit and guide students is necessary and should
be continued and expanded.
4. There is a need for greater dissemination of information to
elementary and secondary students and to the general public re-
garding opportunities in technical education programs and em-
5. There is a need for increased communication and cooperation be-
tween secondary schools, area centers, and community colleges
fcr further articulation and to avoid undesirable duplication of
training and programs.
6. Additional opportunities should be provided for instructors to
visit other institutions to discuss curricula, facility utili-
zation, instructional devices and techniques, and common
7. Summer workshops and weekend seminars should be developed and
offered in subject areas to permit technical teachers to main-
tain the specialized knowledge and skills required by industry.
8. There is a need to further expand the development of pre-technical
education programs in high schools and also at the post-secondary
9. Efforts should be made to coordinate the planning of post-
secondary technical education programs in program development.
SUMMARY OF GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS
The following recommendations are made to highlight areas of concern
needing attention. They are listed without consideration of priority
in relative importance.
1. Categorical aid should be continued; however, there is need to
provide greater flexibility in the transfer of dollars from one
category to another when a state is demonstrating that it is
meeting the intent of the Act but dollar transfers are essential
for the development of a comprehensive vocational education
program to meet the needs of all residents of the state.
The U. S. Commissioner of Education has blanket authority to
permit transfers, but criteria should be established in law for
guidance in implementing this authority and for the guidance
of state personnel in making requests.
A state may have state funds available which it can appropriate
for support of vocational education for certain target groups
and lesser amounts for others. Vocational education is an
inter-related federal-state-local program. The composite finan-
cial efforts, and results of efforts need to be considered in
2. Specific authorization should be provided for the use of funds
from any category for construction and renovation of facilities
to house programs.
Federal funds under the Act, basically, are operational in nature.
The thrust of federal dollars within categories is to broaden
vocational education programs, activities, and services for per-
sons in the categories.
The time is fast approaching when increased operational funds
may not be used effectively, either from a short range or long
range point of view, without specific authority to use federal
funds for construction of new facilities or major renovation of
existing facilities to house the additional programs. The need
for construction funds to appropriately and adequately house
programs for disadvantaged and handicapped students as well as
those at the secondary and post-secondary levels is most criti-
cal. The categorization of funds and the elimination of the
33 1/3 percent provisions of the 63 Act for construction was a
serious blow to the orderly development of a comprehensive vo-
cational education program in Florida.
3. Consideration should be given and funds provided, to authorize
State Boards for Vocational Education to contract with state
labor departments and others, if necessary, to provide labor
market information on a continuing basis.
The greatest single handicap to the orderly development of a
vocational education program within a state is the lack of up-
to-date labor market information on a continuing basis for use
in program planning and evaluation.
There is a philosophy which has been expressed from time to
time that the U. S. Department of Labor is the federal agency
responsible for the manpower of the nation. If such is a prime
responsibility of the U. S. Department of Labor, there has been
no appropriate definitive labor market data at state and local
levels which is usable in planning and evaluating vocational
education programs. This need has been pin-pointed by vocational
educators for a number of years. Too often, vocational education
has received criticism for not meeting manpower needs but there
have been no specific efforts other than that by vocational.
educators to determine the occupations for which training pro-
grams are justified.
4. Funds should be made available to states on a continuing basis
for the development and revision of curricula and course materials
for state programs.
An aggressive, effective vocational education program must have
the built-in capability of changing its instruction to meet the
needs of business, industry and students. A significant part of
that change is dependent upon up-dated and new curricula and
curriculum guides. Some limited activities in this area have
been undertaken by the U. S. Office of Education but this ap-
proach is not the complete answer to the problem.
The increasing breadth of a comprehensive vocational education
program, in terms of career development, indicates the demand
for curricula is staggering.
5. Federal funds and emphasis on service to disadvantaged and
handicapped persons through vocational education programs should
be accelerated and made more effective by increased and continu-
ing appropriations for the work study program.
There are many individuals, youngsters and adults, who need to
but cannot engage in vocational training without some financial
assistance on some firm base. Consideration should also be given
to making it possible for adults to earn amounts appropriate to
6. Greater "lead time" should be made available between the time
appropriations and allocations to states are made, and the time
money begins to flow to states.
Although much effort and staff time at the state and local levels
are expended in developing plans, both annual and long range, the
present time schedule for appropriations detracts considerably
from effective implementation of the planning effort.
7. EPDA programs should be expanded and sufficient funds should be
provided to implement efforts.
A rapidly expanding and changing vocational education program
demands increased emphasis upon the training and retraining of
personnel at all levels.
8. Efforts should be made to effect centralization of efforts to
provide a Management Information System. Effective coordina-
tion between the federal government and the states is needed as
well as among states, in the further development of a Management
An effective Management Information System at the state, district,
institution, and school levels is essential to decision making
in all education, and vocational education, in particular.
It is most difficult to coordinate state and local development
when efforts at the national level are not coordinated, either
among agencies and projects being operated, or between national
agencies and the states.
9. Greater stress should be placed on work experience and cooperative
training and on close cooperation between business and industry
The Florida State Board of Education has adopted regulations which,
under certain circumstances, permit high school seniors to work
full-time under a cooperative education agreement between schools
and employers. Experience will be accepted for credit normally
earned through academic studies in a particular year. With this
change in policy, as well as the emphasis already being given to
cooperative education in the senior high schools and work experience
education at the junior high school level, the legal structure
relating to the employment of youngsters 14 to 18 years of age,
as "learners" or "trainees", needs to be streamlined without for-
feiting the protection of law to minors.
There are three areas of primary concern: (a) elimination of the
"red tape" involved in obtaining "learner permits" from the U. S.
Department of Labor, (b) exemption of certain age groups such as
14 and 15 year olds, from the minimum wage requirements, and (c)
authorization for employers engaged in inter-state commerce to
employ youngsters, 14 and 15 years of age, in a work experience
or cooperative education program conducted under an agreement
with a school and under the general supervision of a representa-
tive of a school.
10. There should be greater stress upon introducing innovation into
the public school curriculum including concepts of a comprehen-
sive vocational education program for career development.
The concept of the "exemplary project" as a means of determining
the value of changes has been most significant. To diffuse ex-
emplary programs of proven value more broadly, there is need for
increased financial support to establish "demonstration projects"
in different areas of the state.
11. Each State Board for Vocational Education should have the authority
and financial capability to provide immediate training, tailor-
made for the needs of a single new or expanding industry.
In identifiable areas of a state there may be many individuals in
need of vocational education, but jobs are not available in such
Types of training might be limited to one year or less and be
geared to semi-skilled or skilled operator-type jobs. Flexibility
in approaches to providing training should be considered.
12. Emphasis similar to that being expended to introduce innovation
in vocational education programs, activities and services, should
be placed upon innovation in teacher training programs, parti-
cularly in the preservice and inservice training of teachers and
Support for innovation in teacher education compatible with new
directions set by federal and state legislation is needed.
13. The concept presently in law that research funds need to be re-
tained by the U. S. Commissioner should be reviewed.
Basic research has a place in vocational education and to the
extent necessary may need to be coordinated at the federal level.
Basic research, however significant as it may be, should not be
the major thrust in the use of research funds.
From the point of view of program improvement at the state and
local levels, basic research has little if any influence unless
the results can be translated from the theoretical into the
Emphasis in the use of research funds should be, at the state and
local levels, to apply the findings of basic research projects
already completed. Therefore, the U. S. Commissioner's share of
Part C Funds should be made available as part of the states'
allotment to financially support projects directly related to
the implementation of basic research rather than to conduct
basic research in itself.
14. As states and local school districts move into a comprehensive
vocational education program for career development, the follow-
ing four important functions should be emphasized:
a. The assessment of educational ouput. Assessment should be
primarily at the elementary, middle, and junior high school
b. The follow-up of all school dropouts. Investigations should
be made to determine the reasons for leaving school and
aggressive recruitment efforts should be made to bring drop-
outs into vocational training.
c. The establishment of school placement services.
d. The placement in employment of persons completing specialized
vocational training programs. A follow-up study with parti-
cular emphasis on satisfactory performance of students in
employment should be made.
Since these areas of concern have been neglected over the years, a sig-
nificant financial thrust is necessary to begin moving state and local
programs into this direction.