ANNUAL DESCRIPTIVE REPORT OF THE
FLORIDA STATE BOARD FOR
JULY 1, 1961 JUNE 30, 1962
Division of Vocational and Adult Education
THE STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
Thomas D. Bailey, Superintendent
37,-0i4O9 Tallahassee, Florida
no. 70 E- 7
ANNUAL DESCRIPTIVE REPORT
THE FLORIDA STATE BOARD FOR VOCATIONAL EDUCATION
JULY 1, 1961 JUNE 30, 1962
STATE BOARD FOR VOCATIONAL EDUCATION
Hon. Farris Bryant, Governor, President of the Board
Hon. Tom Adams, Secretary of State
Hon. Richard W. Ervin, Attorney General
Hon. J. Edwin Larson, State Treasurer
Hon. Thomas D. Bailey, State Superintendent of Public Instruction,
Secretary, and Executive Officer of the Board
STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
THOMAS D. BAILEY TALLAHASSEE BETTER SCHOOLS BUILD
SUPERINTENDENT August, 1962 A STRONGER AMERICA
Honorable Thomas D. Bailey
State Board for Vocational Education
Dear Superintendent Bailey:
Attached herewith is the Annual Descriptive Report of the Florida
State Boardfor Vocational Education for the period beginning July 1,
1961 and ending June 30, 1962.
This bulletin, submitted for approval and transmittal to the United
States Office of Education, highlights the activities of the vocational
services as requested by the Assistant Commissionerfor Vocational
Education, Office of Education, United States Department of Health,
Education, and Welfare, Washington, D. C.
The composite report includes: Section I, Work of Over-All Nature
in State Director's Office; Section II, Agricultural Education; Sec-
tion III, Distributive Education; Section IV, Home Economics Edu-
cation; Section V, Trade and Industrial Education; Section VI, Prac-
tical Nurse Education; Section VII, Vocational Guidance (not appli-
cable); Section VIII, Area Vocational Education Programs; and the
financial and statistical report.
Walter R. Williams, Jr., Di e tor
'i Vocational and Adult Educati
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A. ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF YEAR 1961-62
1. Work of state director
The duties and responsibilities of the state director together with
the composition of his supporting professional staff remained un-
changed during the year.
2. Studies, surveys, and research
A re-analysis of data involving Orange, Osceola, and Seminole
counties was made in further assessing the need for a vocational-
technical center in Orange County and to assist local school authori-
ties in deciding upon a suitable site. Hillsborough County school
authorities were also helped to identify specialized technician
training needs having implications for the establishment of new
The survey showing the growth of vocational and related education
in Florida between 1950 and 1960 was duplicated and distributed to
county superintendents, local directors, and other interested indi-
viduals. A two-color brochure summarizing the study was developed
and widely distributed. Recipients included teachers, principals,
guidance counselors, junior college and university personnel, PTA
officers, and civic and service clubs.
The instruments for carrying on a companion study are being de-
veloped. The purpose is to determine the current status of high
school vocational programs in the state. Among the areas to be ex-
plored are (l. student guidance, (2) teacher experience and pro-
fessional qualifications, (3) planning and instruction, (4) ade-
quacy of facilities and equipment, and (5) placement and follow-up.
It is hoped that a pilot study may be conducted in a selected county
3. Cooperation with interested groups
In addition to working with other sections and divisions of the
State Department of Education, with county and local school people,
and industrial representatives, the State Director anrrepresenta-
tives of the respective sections cooperated with a large number of
organizations only indirectly associated with the schools. Among
these were a variety of agricultural organizations, the Florida
Bankers' Association, the Retail Furniture Dealers Association,
state and national wholesalers associations, sales and marketing
executive clubs, the Allied Gasoline Retailers Association, the
Florida Retail Federation, the Florida Laundry and Dry Cleaners
Association, the Hotel and Restaurant Association, and several local
boards of realtors.
Among the state and national governmental agencies with which the
sections worked were the Small Business Administration, the Department
of Commerce, the Florida State Board of Health, the Florida In-
dustrial Commission, the Florida State Employment Service, the Florida
Development Commission, the -Florida Apprenticeship Council, the
Florida Department of Apprenticeship, the Veterans Administration, the
Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training, and the Vocational Rehabili-
4. Selected experimental and pilot programs
Among the programs continuing to show considerable promise is the
Chipola Area Education Project which is designed to assist in the
economic and educational development of a seven-county area in north-
Through surveying and testing of high school students in the seven
counties, a number of training areas, particularly in industrial-
technical education, were identified. Electronic Technology is now
being offered by the one junior college in the area, Drafting and
Design Technology will soon be taught, but the introduction of Auto-
motive Mechanics is being delayed by lack of funds. A way must also
be found to provide additional vocational training opportunities for
boys and girls in the high schools of the area who will not attend
the junior college.
Courses which are not readily classifiable as industrial arts or
vocational-technical education, but having distinct vocational impli-
cations, are offered in a number of Dade County high schools having
appropriate instructional facilities. These are elective pre-
industrial or pre-technical courses designed for tenth grade students
who are not yet eligible for industrial, technical, or cooperative
education. Their primary purpose is to develop basic competencies
in areas such as Cabinet and Millwork, Cooking and Baking, Dry
Cleaning and Laundry, Electronics, Machine Shop, Printing, Radio and
TV Repair, Tailoring, and Trowel Trades to which they provide an
introduction, permitting faster student progress in later vocational
Though hardly an experiment any longer, the Dade County adult vo-
cational guidance program nevertheless involves considerable test-
ing and experimentation to determine the aptness of applicants for
entry into specific training programs. Minimum standards have been
established for admission to training in every trade taught. Test
batteries, varying by occupations, have been identified to screen
students and to determine their probable success in the vocations
for which they wish to train.
The two-year technical education center under construction in Pinellas
County is an innovation among Florida institutions providing technical
education. When completed, it will contain facilities for offering
technical preparatory, extension, and supervisory courses specifically
reflecting immediate industrial requirements in the Tampa Bay area.
It will give high school graduates with technical training a chance
to continue their technical education and will make available concen-
trated instruction in specific technical fields without the necessity
of meeting the general educational requirements established for an
A pilot program in vocational agriculture is in its third year of
operation at Pinellas Park, St. Petersburg. The program is designed
to benefit slow learners. Although a longer training period is
required, it is the belief of people closely associated with the
project that placements in agriculture or related occupations will
continue to grow because the students are proving to be good employees.
The experiment in distributive education currently in progress in
three Pinellas County high schools is being well received. In these
programs, students are taking one hour of related instruction each
year for two years. If the experiment continues to meet with success,
consideration will be given to future modification of the State Plan
to permit more general application of the procedure.
A Scope and Sequence Guide in Home Economics education has been de-
veloped for use by teachers during the next several years. The result
has been a series of semester courses which are being offered for the
first time by secondary school homemaking departments. It was recog-
nized that teachers would need help in conducting the new semester
courses so experimentation in Home Management, Family Finance and
Consumer Education is being carried on to identify experiences which
will be helpful to others. Outcomes are evaluated in terms of changes
in student behavior with respect to management practices and under-
5. Teacher training
Among the changes in technical agriculture courses in the pre-service
training program was the provision of a course in Animal Husbandry,
revision of farm mechanics content, and the introduction of a gradu-
ate problems course in Agronomy. Recruitment of teachers is be-
coming an increasingly pressing problem because of salary compe-
tition with agribusiness enterprises. The state staff has enlisted
the aid of in-service teachers in recruiting potential agricultural
education majors, and state universities having agriculture colleges
are also emphasizing teacher recruitment.
Eight additional hours of technical content subjects are now required
for certification in distributive education. A special methods course
has.been introduced at Florida State University, but plans for de-
veloping a teacher education program at the University of South
Florida did not materialize because a satisfactory person for the
position could not be obtained.
All home economics interns were placed in centers having vocational
programs and active chapters of FHA or NHA. The annual conferences
for in-service teachers were devoted primarily to curriculum study
with particular emphasis being given to the new Scope and Sequence
College credit extension courses in industrial.education were held
in thirteen centers by itinerant teachers from the universities of
Florida and Miami and Florida A. & M. University. Non-credit teacher
apprenticeships were conducted by the State Board for Vocational Edu-
cation in five counties and the General Motors Corporation and Philco
Corporation held teacher institutes in automotive mechanics and
electronics at Jacksonville and Daytona Beach. A follow-up study was
also initiated to determine the effectiveness of a teacher self-
evaluation instrument developed by the State Coordinator of In-
Teacher training for practical nursing instructors was carried on by
Florida State and Florida A. & M. universities and the University of
Miami. It consisted of extension and summer campus courses and a non-
credit apprenticeship plan for beginning teachers unable to enroll
for course work. State-wide teachers' conferences were concerned
with the problem of student evaluation.
Summer courses in principles of technical education and methods of
teaching technical subjects were offered for instructors and adminis-
trators of technical programs. It is anticipated that an itinerant
technical education teacher will be appointed who will be responsible
for in-service training of technical instructors.
6. Area Redevelopment and Manpower Development and Training acts
The Area Redevelopment Act and the Manpower Development and Training
Act are designed to provide further training opportunities for the
unemployed and underemployed.
Two areas have been declared eligible for aid under the Redevelopment
Act. One, in northwest Florida, includes Franklin, Holmes, Jackson,
Liberty, Walton, and Washington counties. The other, in north Florida,
consists of Jefferson, lafayette, and Suwannee counties.
The Florida Development Commission, in conjuction with the Industrial
Commission and the State Employment Service, has been designated by
the Governor to coordinate the Area Redevelopment program. The State
Department of Education, through the Division of Vocational and Adult
Education, provides the training in institutions having appropriate
facilities which are under public supervision and control. A program
for clerk-typists, with twenty-eight enrollees, has been approved and
another proposed for training employees for a sportswear factory.
Additional proposals being considered will include approximately five
hundred people in training programs for state institutional workers,
waitresses and maids, clerk typists, and power sewing machine oper-
Training under the Manpower Development and Training Act will depend
upon federal appropriations and the agreement formalized between the
respective states and the departments of Health, Education, and Welfare
and of labor. It is anticipated, however, that approximately twenty-
four hundred qualified applicants may be enrolled during the coming
year. Preliminary surveys have been made by the Florida State Employ-
ment Service to determine occupations in which there is an excellent
chance for immediate employment upon the completion of training,.and
proposals for training programs in office and selected service
occupations have been initiated by school officials in five large
B. PIANS FOR DEVELOPMENT
Two sections are presently collecting financial and enrollment infor-
mation on IBM cards to facilitate machine processing of data. Work will
continue with the remaining sections until all have adopted mechanized
A comprehensive survey of vocational and technical education in Dade
County will be made during the year. It is anticipated that guidelines
for general program expansion and improvement will be developed and that
the respective local services will identify areas of difficulty and co-
operatively evolve workable solutions.
Plans for the coming year developed by the respective sections include
1. Agricultural Education
a. Emphasizing marketing information and promoting Adult
Farmer classes in farm marketing problems
b. Giving further attention to the development of a long-
range program of work and establishing annual goals to
achieve projected progress levels
co Working with FFA chapters to increase the number achiev-
ing superior recognition.
2. Distributive Education
a. Securing the appointment of a teacher educator to develop
a teacher training program in distributive education
b. Revising certification requirements
c. Developing mid-management training programs at several
d. Securing additional personnel to provide leadership in
the development of specialized adult programs.
3. Home Economics Education
a. Emphasizing Management and Family Finance through indi-
vidual and group conferences
b. Encouraging teachers to use the Scope and Sequence Guide
c. Promoting the program of FHA and NBA as an integral part
of home economics
d. Emphasizing the FHA State Degree of Achievement.
4. Industrial Education
a. Promoting new programs such as apprenticeship related in-
struction in smaller centers; training for lower-level
technicians; supervisory training; training for minority
groups, girls and women, handicapped persons, slow learners
and potential school dropouts
b. Providing more on-the-job, in-service teacher training of
a non-credit, non-scheduled type
c. Emphasizing technical extension courses
d. Reviewing and evaluating the technical education program
and making recommendations for further expansion and
C. ADDITIONAL SIGNIFICANT INFORMATION
1. Review of selected program accomplishments
Among the accomplishments reflected in improved instruction in
agricultural education were the following: (a) more land laboratories
were used properly, (b) farm shops were used more effectively, (c)
more prospective agricultural education majors are being recruited,
and (d) progress was made in developing a common course of study
and revising teaching plans. It is also significant that the enroll-
ment and number of Young and Adult Farmer classes increased as did
enrollment in high school classes.
The development of post-high school programs is the most important
change occurring in the organizational pattern of distributive edu-
cation. It is anticipated that new programs will be in operation in
several junior colleges during the coming year. A number of pilot and
experimental programs in wholesaling are functioning in selected high
schools. The section has also been cooperating with interested
agencies and institutions in offering appropriate programs of inter-
est to the tourist industry.
Perhaps most attention in home economics education this year was
given to explaining and encouraging the use of the Scope and Sequence
Guide developed recently. It has resulted in the offering of semester
courses and will require further study and implementation. Super-
visory emphasis, for the most part, was concentrated upon integrating
FRA and NHA activities with classroom instruction and home experiences.
Industrial education reflected a number of factors such as continued
growth in the number of comprehensive high schools, sustained or in-
creasing interest in evening and part-time preparatory programs and
in technical education, and the difficulty of recruiting capable
teachers in certain trades and service occupations. Several new pre-
paratory programs were introduced in new and existing comprehensive
high schools, certain evening trade extension courses grew markedly,
while apprenticeship training, needle trades training, printing, and
railroad training showed an appreciable decline.
A new curriculum guide in practical nurse education is being developed
to replace the outline which has been in use in public school programs
for the past several years. It defines the two roles of the practical
nurse and includes information essential to an understanding of the
nursing action required to meet patient needs within the scope of these
roles. The responsibilities of the state coordinator have now been
broadened and the title of the position changed to State Consultant,
Health Occupations Education.
In technical education, a survey was conducted to determine the in-
structional areas to be included in post-high school electronic
technician training programs. However, the need remains to develop
common agreement on basic objectives of technical education, particu-
larly at the post-high school level. Securing competent teachers is
another continuing area of concern. Technical education in Florida
will probably not continue to grow as rapidly as it has in the past,
but numerous opportunities remain for expanding the extension program.
2. Effects of legislation
The 1961 Florida legislature permitted program expansion in industrial-
technical education and distributive-cooperative education during the
past year, but imposed a unit "freeze" at that level for the coming
year. Units for adult classes in agriculture and home economics,
however, were "frozen" at the 1960-61 figure although no restrictions
were placed upon high school programs. Program expansion, therefore,
will continue to be retarded, but it is hoped that the "freeze" will
be completely eliminated during the next regular session of the legis-
It is interesting to note that the legislative provision requiring
teachers to take the National Teacher Examination or an approved
equivalent for initial certification has been waived by the State
Board of Education for experienced teachers because of problems en-
countered in teacher recruitment.
Vocational education, however, continues to enjoy the confidence and respect
of Florida citizens. This is amply demonstrated by the total increase of
14 per cent in financial support accorded to the program last year from all
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A. WORK OF THE STATE SUPERVISORY AND TEACHER TRAINING STAFFS
1. Supervision of programs
a. Procedures for insuring that State Plan requirements are met
Reimbursable programs in vocational agriculture are conducted in
accordance with provisions of the Florida State Plan for Vo-
cational Education. No new procedures have been initiated for
insuring that conditions of the Plan are met, but existing pro-
cedures have been strengthened and refined, including those pro-
viding for supervised farming programs and their supervision.
Briefly, these include:
(1) Student enrollment requirements
(2) Use of a standards bulletin outlining desirable qualities
of a good supervised farming program
(3) Emphasis upon the use of school farm and laboratory plots
for demonstrations and boys' projects
(4) Livestock shows and fairs which promote high quality projects
(5) Review of record books and student visitations by area super-
visors in company with local teachers
(6) Conference programs on the development of human and natural
resources in rural areas, stimulating teacher surveys which
have revealed additional opportunities resulting from the
establishment of more practical and effective supervised
(7) Award programs for recognizing and rewarding outstanding
accomplishments in supervised farming
(8) Good working relationships with other agricultural services
and agencies and with agribusinesses and industry
(9) Periodic staff meetings in which problems growing out of
supervised farming programs are discussed
(10) Supervisors' review of teacher travel budgets and of hours
spent in individual instruction on farms.
Evidence that conditions of the State Plan are being met is secured by
area supervisors through evaluations of each department. Reports and group
conferences are among the media through which requirements are publicized
and made operative. In addition, monthly newsletters are often used to
disseminate information concerning desirable qualities, requirements, and
specifications affecting vocational agriculture. Monthly descriptive
reports, prepared by all supervisors and other staff members, show the
findings and recommendations resulting from each departmental or teacher
b. Changes in reimbursement policy
There were no changes in reimbursement policies affecting Day-
school or Young Farmer and Adult Farmer programs.
c. Other significant developments
(1) Procedures for improving instructional programs
(a) More land laboratories were used properly.
Areas emphasized so that land laboratories were used
properly included (1) demonstration of improved
practices, introduction of new varieties of fruits and
vegetables, and encouragement of new enterprises;
(2) instruction in the making of good managerial
decisions; and (3) utilization of the land laboratory
for supervised farming programs.
According to the reports of Area Supervisors and the
Negro Program Specialist, land laboratories were used
more effectively during the year. The number of orna-
mental nurseries and certified budwood citrus nurseries
increased, registered beef cattle herds grew in size,
new varieties of fruits and vegetables were introduced,
and several departments grew sugar cane for the first
time. In the Negro program, general improvement was
noted in ornametal horticulture and in citrus and hog
production. Facilities were also expanded and improved.
However, much remains to be done and this aspect of the
program is constantly emphasized in contacts with indi-
vidual teachers, in conferences, and in the Newsletter.
(b) Farm shops were used more effectively.
Substantial improvement in the use of farm shops was
made during the year. Some resulted from the arc welding
classes, taught through the cooperation of the Lincoln
Arc Welding Company, which brought farmers into the shops,
enabling a number of teachers to have their first suc-
cessful Adult Farmer classes. Increased use of the shops
by All-day students was a further by-product since they
received the same intensive course offered to adult
farmers. But farm electrification courses and better
organization in the teaching of mechanical skills
were also instrumental in renewing interest in shop
Adequate facilities and equipment are indispensable
if farm shops are to be used effectively. Two new
shops have recently been constructed and equipped in
Area I while six in Area II have been remodeled or
provided with additional space. Fifty departments
in Area III have satisfactory shops and the area
supervisor is now stressing the importance of a more
effective farm mechanics program on the occasion of
each visit to a teacher.
Substantial improvement in the Negro farm shop pro-
gram also resulted from the arc welding classes
taught last year in a post-conference clinic. In
one community, the teacher, his high school students,
and some Adult Farmer class members constructed a
lime spreader and repaired other pieces of farm
equipment. The Program Specialist has emphasized
daily use of shop facilities as well as proper
maintenance and storage of tools
Dr. M. Co Gaar gave both the white and Negro teachers
a number of good ideas for daily utilization of the
shop and for making it a more effective community
facility. However, this is a problem requiring con-
stant exploration and careful follow-up to see that
recommendations are implemented.
(c) More prospective agricultural education majors are
A major problem in vocational agriculture is that of
finding capable graduates in agricultural education
for employment in communities needing them. Many
graduates can obtain better salaries in agribusiness
than in teaching. The same is true of experienced
teachers who often resign in favor of better-paying
jobs. Some counties are combating this problem by
raising the salaries of agriculture teachers, but
those not doing so are continuing to lose good per-
Hence, teacher recruitment was established by the
state staff as an objective of major importance. It
was a primary topic of discussion in the various
district and group conferences in 1961-62 with,
it is believed, gratifying results.
The discussions made more agriculture teachers aware
of the problem and they are making an effort to re-
cruit graduating seniors into college agricultural
education courses. In Area II, for example, twelve
graduating seniors plan to attend agricultural colleges
and four have expressed a preference for agricultural
education. In addition, teachers are cooperating
with the College of Agriculture in supplying informa-
tion relative to graduating seniors who have completed
vocational agriculture courses in high school. Hold-
ing the 1962 Agricultural Conference in the College
of Agriculture facilities at the University of Florida
may also help to attract new personnel.
(d) A reference material and filing systems bulletin has
Mr. G. C. Norman, Program Specialist with the State
Department of Education, has completed and distributed
State Department of Education Bulletin 72F-3 contain-
ing an outline and explanation of several different
filing systems. The bulletin was distributed to
teachers at the September, 1961, group conferences
and resulted in considerable revision of filing systems.
Further emphasis will be placed upon this activity
during the coming year by the Area Supervisors and
(e) Progress was made in developing a common course of
study and revising teaching plans.
Two state staff meetings during the year were devoted
to the development of basic units to be included in
a common course of study for vocational agriculture
education in Florida.
Revision of their teaching programs and the development
of systematic filing plans for each unit or job was
identified as a pressing need by numerous teachers.
Among the references to which they were directed was a
suggested guide and teaching program prepared by a
successful teacher. It was also suggested that emphasis
be placed upon broadening the program to include such
studies as ornamental horticulture.
Several groups of teachers have completed a revision
of their teaching programs while others are in process
of doing soo Still others are attending the
current summer session at the University of Florida
to accomplish this purpose.
According to reports of the Negro Program Specialist,
teachers in seven communities made new teaching pro-
grams during the year or revised existing programs.
In most instances, some phase of ornamental horti-
culture was included in the new programs. The outline
for Basic Horticulture Jobs in Botany. prepared by the
Program Specialist, was used by most teachers and is
recommended for all who are teaching horticulture.
(2) Evidences of FFA leadership training
(a) Indications are that several new Florida legislators
will be former Future Farmer members. One of these
was State FFA President in 1937. Interestingly, the
congressional race in Florida's new 9th District re-
sulted in a run-off between two former State FFA
Presidents, one of whom was also National Vice-presi-
dent of the FFA in 1950-51. This is further indi-
cation that the leadership training provided by the
FFA is becoming increasingly effective.
(b) The entire state is proud of Victor Butler of Havana,
the new National President of the FFA, His contacts
and appearances on programs throughout the state and
nation provide valuable publicity for Floridao
(c) The State Commissioner of Agriculture, Doyle Conner,
is proving to be a very active, popular, and efficient
State Cabinet member He is a firm supporter of youth
organizations in their public relations programs and
attributes much of his success in politics to the leader-
ship training which he received as a Future Farmer.
(3) Future Farmer Degree applicants
The 2 per cent quota of candidates for the Future Farmer
Degree was 93.2 per cent accomplished with the 177 approved
applicants representing approximately one-half of the chap-
ters. Districts I and VI reached or surpassed their goal of
2 per cent entitlement, but the other four districts did not.
The total labor income of the approved applicants was
$388,701.45, averaging $2,196.11 each.
(4) Annual staff meeting
It is anticipated that a staff meeting will be held August
28-31 to develop further the practical State Program of
Work begun during the 1961 annual staff meeting.
(5) Work with Rural Area Development Commission
The State Supervisor continues to be an active member
of the State Steering Committee of the Rural Area
Development Commission which now has responsibilities
in approximately fifteen counties.
2. Teacher training
a. Recruitment of trainees
In recruiting potential vocational agriculture teachers, the
following are among the most common procedures employed at
both the University of Florida and Florida A. & M. University:
(1) Distribution of pamphlets and other explanatory materials
together with counseling of senior high school students
by in-service teachers of vocational agriculture.
(2) Visitations by over three hundred boys to the College of
Agriculture of the University of Florida during Agri-
culture Career Day in which Department of Agricultural
Education personnel also participated
(3) Meetings with Juniors and seniors in several high schools
by staff members of the Department of Agricultural Edu-
cation and Technology of Florida A. & M. University
(4) Presentation of exhibits on careers and opportunities in
agriculture at the University of Florida College of
Agriculture Fair and in the lobby of the Agriculture
Building, Florida A. & M. University
(5) Visitations to local departments of vocational agriculture
throughout the state and talks to Junior and senior
classes on careers in agriculture by recruitment committees
of both universities
(6) Participation in the State FFA and NFA conventions, re-
spectively, by staff members of both universities where
they counseled with delegates on careers in agricultural
b. Placement of graduates
Nine graduates of the College of Agriculture, University of
Florida, and eight from Florida A. & M. University were placed.
c. Changes in technical and professional courses
A number of changes in professional and technical courses at
the University of Florida occurred during the year. Included
were the following:
(1) A three-semester hour course in Animal Husbandry was de-
veloped in cooperation with Animal Husbandry Department
personnel specifically to meet the needs of pre-service
teachers of vocational agriculture
(2) The course content in farm mechanics for pre-service
teachers was reviewed and revised to reflect emerging
(3) A graduate problems course in Agronomy was provided for
(4) A general education course, The Secondary Schools Today,
was revised to include more content applicable to agri-
cultural education students; during the second semester
a special section was organized for them and for other
No new courses in vocational agriculture were added at the Florida
A. & M. University during the year, but the Dean of the School of
Agriculture and Home Economics appointed a committee to develop an
evaluation instrument for Juniors and seniors in agriculture and
Joint committees have been appointed by the deans of the colleges
of Agriculture and of Education to study and make recommendations
for improving the teacher training curriculum in vocational agri-
d. Improvement of student teaching
Student teachers at the University of Florida were required to
spend more time in the department during the year, the number
of full teaching days during internship being increased from
eight to ten. The supervisory teacher was also given more re-
sponsibility for counseling trainees while they were interning.
In the Negro program, the supervising teacher in agricultural
education was given complete responsibility for the internship
program in agricultural education.
e. In-service training provided
In-service training of teachers included the provision of:
(1) Six graduate professional courses annually at the University
of Florida, including two courses each semester and a
three-week and an eight-week course during the summer,
and of two graduate professional courses during the
summer at the Florida Ao & M. University
(2) Two problems courses in technical agriculture each
semester at the University of Florida together with a
three-week graduate course during the summer term, and
two summer session technical courses at the Florida A. &
(3) A series of half-day clinics in horticulture and welding
during the summer at the University of Florida, and a
three-day summer clinic in arc welding at the Florida A.
& M. University.
3. Titles and authors of publications
There were no new publications in vocational agriculture in 1961-
62. The Future Farmers magazine and the monthly Agricultural
Newsletter were published as usual and in the same quantities.
However, numerous research papers in various aspects of vocational
agricultural education were prepared by graduate students to meet
course and degree requirements.
4. Special studies relating to vocational agriculture
No special studies were completed by staff members during the year.
5. Pilot programs
A number of pilot programs have been in operation during the past
year to meet the needs of special groups. Following is a brief
description of these programs and a preliminary assessment of their
a. An ornamental horticulture class, enrolling fourteen students,
was introduced at Leon High School in Tallahassee. Prior to
the opening of school, the teacher developed a complete course
outline and secured an ample supply of reference materials.
During the first semester a plastic covered greenhouse was
built and used in plant propagation. Rooting of cuttings is
done in a mist spray propagation bed,
The course also included the growing of vegetables, fruits, and
nuts. All students were required to meet State Plan provisions
with regard to supervised practice work. Most projects were
concerned with plant propagation, landscaping, or home beautifi-
Another class is scheduled for the next school term. Further
expansion of laboratory facilities on the land plot is planned
to take care of plants which are rooted and potted in the green-
house. Interested students and faculty members requested this
class and it appears that some of the students will become self-
employed or will find jobs in nurseries.
b. Pilot programs being conducted as land laboratory activities
include foliage plant production at Apopka, a fernery at
Pierson, and the oyster-growing project carried on by the Crystal
River department in the Gulf of Mexico which has received national
c. The success of the placement for farm experience program in
Manatee County has prompted the introduction of a similar program
in Polk County.
As the result of a series of special studies and surveys in
Alachua County, a special unit has been approved for the five
centers in that county. A comparable program is also being
considered for Orange County during the coming year and a study
is now in progress to determine if it can be justified for
d. The training program in the Parkland School at Pinellas Park,
St. Petersburg, continues to function satisfactorily. After three
years of operation, it is the feeling of people closely associated
with the project that the percentage of boys finding jobs in
agriculture or related vocations will increase annually. The
students are slow learners and this type of program appears to
interest them more than academic subjects. It requires somewhat
more time to develop the necessary habits and skills for success-
ful vocational placement, but the boys perform satisfactorily
when they are employed. An example is a severely retarded
mongoloid who now has a full-time job in a plant nursery potting
plants, weeding, fertilizing and, upon occasion, helping to land-
scape property for construction companies. According to his
employer, he is a very satisfactory worker.
B. FACTORS AMD/OR TRENDS INFLUENCING IEVEIOPMET OF THE PROGRAM
1. Adult Farmer and Young Farmer classes
The number of and the enrollment in Adult Farmer and Young Farmer
classes increased beyond expectations. It is felt that because of
the precise way in which the area supervisors are working, the quality
of the program is improving each year.
As shown in the following table, a total of 126 adult classes were
taught in 1960-61 for which reimbursement was granted. This contrasts
with 148 applications approved for 1961-62. The application form,
however, is a preliminary report. Budgets for reimbursement of
Adult and Young Farmer classes are established in August and pay-
ments made in January after receipt of final reports showing that
instructional requirements established in the State Plan have been
No. of No. of
Classes Enrollment Classes Enrollment
Adult Vocational Agriculture 12 248 10 156
Adult Farmer 81 1048 106 1531
Young Farmer 385 32 405
Totals 126 1681 148 2092
2. New departments and teacher turnover
All applications for new departments were approved where surveys indi-
cated Justification for the program. It is estimated that approxi-
mately ten additional units will be approved in 1962-63.
Teacher turnover continues to be a serious problem with anywhere
from fifteen to twenty-five required annually since 1947. It is
anticipated, for example, that approximately twenty new teachers will
be needed during the coming year to fill vacancies caused by resig-
nations and transfers. To fill the gap it has been necessary to
employ out-of-state graduates. Last year seven out-of-state replace-
ments were employed and indications are that in 1962-63 approximately
twice that number will be needed.
3. Shift in instructional personnel1at the4University.of Florida
Dr. E. W. Garris, Head Teacher Trainer in Vocational Agricultural
Education at the University of Florida, retired June 30 after thirty-
five years of service in this position. He will be succeeded by
Mr. Travis Loften, formerly Assistant Teacher Trainer. Mr. Leon Sims,
a graduate student and former vocational agriculture teacher, will
assume Mr. Loften's previous position.
C. STATE LEGISLATION AFFECTING VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE
The Florida legislature meets only biennially, the last session occurring
in the spring of 1961. Hence, there has been no new legislation affecting
the program during the past year. However, it should be added that the
section operated under no handicap such as curtailment of units. The
number of vocational units allocated for Adult Vocational Agriculture
classes is believed to be sufficient for the next fiscal year. The
program was adequately financed, and it is felt that specifications and
requirements established in the State Plan have been met in each case
where reimbursement was made.
D. AREAS OF THE PROGRAM TO BE EMPHASIZED AND PLAIM FOR IMPIEMENTATION
1. 1962 annual conference
The theme of the 1962 annual conference is "Planning Programs of
Instruction to Meet Changing Needs in Agriculture". One feature
of the conference will be a one-day clinic on marketing to acquaint
agriculture teachers with the kinds of educational information
needed by farmers to cope with the problems of marketing their
products. It is hoped that as a result of the clinic a number of
Adult Farmer classes will be organized during the 1962-63 school
year in which marketing problems are emphasized.
2. Annual staff meeting
At the annual staff meeting in September, further attention will be
directed to developing a long range program of work and establishing
annual goals contributing to the progress level which should be at-
tained by 1970. An objective target showing desirable yearly im-
provement goals will also be developed.
3. Adult Farmer classes
The welding clinics conducted by the Lincoln Arc Welding Company
were completed in the summer of 1961. Seventy adult classes in farm
welding have been held throughout Florida as a result of the pro-
gram; it is anticipated that interest will not abate during the
coming year. It has been customary to conduct a five-week agricultu-
ral welding course followed by five additional meetings devoted to
current and seasonal problems common to agriculture in the community.
It is hoped that during the coming year emphasis will be placed upon
marketing problems in the second group of five classes which may be
distributed over a period of several months.
4. Superior FFA chapters
Of the 162 FFA chapters, 103, or 63 per cent, were cited for Superior
recognition at the 1962 annual State FFA Convention. Efforts will be
made to increase this number during the next fiscal year.
Following is a summary of current data on the continuing follow-up study
of former All-day students.
STATUS OF FORMER ALL-DAY STUDENTS FROM THE STATE AS A WHOLE
WHITE NEGRO TOTAL
1. Number at home with definite allowance 961 821 1782
2. Number of farm laborers with specific wages
a. At home 524 778 1302
b. Away from home 835 755 1590
3. Number at home with income from one or more
enterprises 774 641 1415
4. Number partners in a farm business
a. At home 1218 256 1474
b. Away from home 251 143 394
5. Number renting and operating farm 422 192 614
6. Number owning and operating farm 1422 191 1613
7. Number managing farm of another party 372 135 507
8. Number in other farming status 1669 812 2481
9. Number in occupations related to farming 4263 1526 5789
10. Number in occupations not related to farming 16210 1936 18146
11. Number moved out of community and not
accounted for 4558 535 5093
12. Number now in agricultural colleges 552 225 777
13. Number now in all other colleges and other
institutions 1367 683 2050
14. Number deceased 1037 163 1200
15. Number impossible to account for(not
included in item 11) 4686 458 5144
16. Total number of former students 41,121 10,250 51,371
17. Number of new cases this year 1,964
ADDITIONS TO ANNUAL STATISTICAL REPORT
1. General Information
a. Total number approved departments for the fii
((1) to (4) inclusive)
(1) Number with day programs, only 90
(2) Number with day and young farmer
programs, only 1
(3) Number with day and adult farmer
programs, only (include young
and adult farmer classes here) 48
(4) Number with day, young farmer
and adult farmer programs 10
b. Number of multiple teacher departments
c. Number of departments that used a formally
organized consulting or advisory committee
which met at least twice during the year
d. Number of teachers with:
scal year White Negro
(Non-Prorated) (Prorated)* (Total)
W N W N W N
(1) Day Classes, only 109 22 3 112 22
(2) Day, young farmer and/or
adult farmer classes 65 37 0 66 37
(3) Young farmer and/or adult
farmer classes, only 0 0 0 0 0 0
(4) Total (a) 174 59(b) 4 0 (c )78 59
e. Number of prorated teachers (item d. (4) (b) above) who:
(1) Devoted 75 percent or more of total time W N
to vocational agriculture 3
(2) Devoted 50-74per cent of total time to
vocational agriculture 1 0
(3) Devoted less than 50 per cent of total
time to vocational agriculture 0 0
See Pol. Bul. No 1. 102.42 (b)
fo Number of teachers who taught vocational agriculture
for the first time this year regardless of when
g. Number of teachers (item do (4) (c) above) who quit
teaching vocational agriculture
2. Day School Program
ao Number enrolled during current school year who
are in theirs W
(1) First year of vocational agriculture
(2) Second year of vocational agriculture
3 Third year of vocational agriculture
SFourth year of vocational agriculture
b. Previous school year
(1) Enrollment reported last school year
2) Number of enrollees (b. (1) above) who
completed supervised farming programs
(3) Total labor-income of students completing
supervised farming programs (student's
(4) Total investment in farming of students
completing supervised farming programs
(5) Average number of supervisory visits per
student enrolled (b. (1) above)
(Total number of visits by all teachers
divided by total number of students)
3. Young and Adult Farmer Programs
a. Number of classes (not sessions) conducted 15
b. Number enrolled (attended three or more
Includes 10 Adult Vocational Agriculture classes enrolling
c. Farming status of enrollees (re-
port an individual only once and
under most appropriate category)
(1) Number of owner operators
(own some land)
(2) Number of renter operators
(own no land)
(3) Number in partnership
(4) Number of farm managers
(5) Number of farm employees
d. Average number of supervisory
visits per enrollee (use same
procedure as 2 b. (5))
Young Farmer Adult Farmer
W N W N
79 71 590 431
31 31 36 51
49 79 35 29
3 2 16 6
9 22 80 22
3.0 2.5 3.52 3.4
4. Supervision and Teacher Training during Fiscal Year
a. Number of different approved departments visited
(irrespective of duplicate visits) by:
Supervisors W 149; Teacher Trainers W 60
N 44 N 34
b. Number of new teachers qualified W 1
c. Number of teachers enrolled for in-service
training. (If enrolled, a teacher may be
counted in several categories, but only
once in each)
(1) At least one course for college
credit provided by an approved
teacher training institution
(a) On campus .....................
(b) Off campus ....................
(2) At least one non-credit course, clinic
or workshop (do not include routine
conferences or meetings)
(a) On campus..........o.........
(b) Off campus....*..*......*..*...
W N W N
45 0 12 1
0 0 0 0
O 0 0 24
0 0 110 0
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7 Rex C. ~oilltm&w. State Suprin.-
A. PROGRAM STATUS
1. Goals for current year
a. Teacher education
Plans for developing a teacher education program in distributive
education did not materialize during the year because a satis-
factory person could not be obtained for the position. Numerous
people were contacted and transportation to the University of
South Florida for interviews was arranged for three candidates,
but agreement could not be reached and the position remains un-
filled. Efforts will be continued during the coming year to launch
b. Evaluation of the high school cooperative program
The follow-up study of 1960 cooperative education graduates was
completed and a graphic summary of the findings is attached to
this report (pp. 31-35).
c. Improvement of relationships with business groups
Among the associations and federations with which cooperative re-
lationships have been newly established are the Florida Society of
Association Executives, the Retail Furniture Dealers Association,
the Allied Gasoline Retailers Association, and the Florida Retail
d. New and additional kinds of courses offered
The experimental high school cooperative program in wholesaling
was introduced and met with considerable success. The course in
Executive Housekeeping was well received in Daytona Beach, is now
being offered at St. Petersburg, and will be introduced in other
sections of the state. The post-high school program in Restaurant
Management planned for Dade County, however, did not develop.
2. Comparative enrollments
A comparison of enrollments in the high school cooperative and adult
programs for the past two fiscal years is shown below.
High School 532 560
Adult 11,271 14,322
Totals 11,803 14,882
3. Expansion of the high school cooperative program
New high school cooperative programs were established in three centers
during the past year, namely, Melbourne High School; Southeast High
School, Bradenton; and Lyman High School, Longwood. Surveys in a
number of communities reveal that further program expansion may be
expected next year. In addition, several new teacher-coordinators
were employed in existing programs.
4. Developments in high school cooperative programs for specified
The specialized program in wholesaling at Edgewater High School,
Orlando, was highly successful. Plans are maturing to introduce a
new program in the hotel and restaurant field at the predominantly
Negro high school in Sarasota next year.
5. Developments in organized post-high school programs
A new post-high school program will be offered at Brevard Junior
College this year.
6. Growth and new developments in the adult program
The supervisorship of adult distributive education in Orange County
was changed from a part-time to a full-time position.
In cooperation with the hospitality education program at Florida
State University, the first restaurant management institute was
offered at Sarasota. A new program for the training of waitresses
was also initiated at Tampa in cooperation with the local restaurant
Considerable state-wide interest was evidenced in a course in export
trade training developed in Jacksonville. The services of a foreign
trade specialist were employed in developing a guide in this area
which will be published next year.
7. Effectiveness of pilot program
The pilot program involving three high schools in Pinellas County
completed its second year of operation. In this experiment, two-year
students are receiving one hour of related instruction each year for
two years. Participants appear to be pleased with the results and it
is anticipated that the State Plan will be modified in the future to
permit more general application of the procedure.
8. Change in organizational pattern
The most significant change in organizational pattern is the development
of post-high school programs. A meeting has been scheduled in which
the structure will be discussed with junior college presidents and
it is anticipated that several new programs will be operating next
year. Preliminary planning has already begun at the Pensacola, Gulf
Coast, Dade, and Broward junior colleges.
9. Improvement of physical facilities
Training facilities in the restaurant and hotel programs have been
improved in Hillsborough, Pinellas, and Broward counties.
A waitress training laboratory has been equipped in Tampa, and NCR
equipment for hotel training has been purchased in Fort Lauderdale
and St. Petersburg.
B. PROGRAM IMPACT
1. Meeting special socio-economic needs
Through the efforts of the Florida Hotel and Restaurant Commission,
a Coordinator for Hospitality Education has been appointed to the
staff of the Florida State University in an effort to interest the
tourist industry in participating more fully in existing educational
programs. The Distributive Education Section has cooperated in the
program and believes that considerable progress has been made. Be-
cause of the importance of the industry, it is felt that cooperative
endeavors of this type will contribute most significantly to the
economic development of the state.
C. INVOLVEMENT OF OTHERS
1. Contribution of the DECA program
The DECA contest area has been found by teacher-coordinators to present
a valuable teaching method. Substantial information has been provided
through memoranda, visitations, and state and national conferences
relative to improving teaching skills by using the contest method.
2. Public interest and legislative direction
It is felt that public interest in distributive education is growing
steadily and that the current "freeze" which is hampering program ex-
pansion will be removed at the next regular session of the legislature.
3. New and continuing cooperative relationships with governmental agencies
Cooperation is continuing with the Small Business Administration in the
development of management clinics. Assistance was also received from
the Department of Commerce in preparing courses and producing the
forthcoming publication in export trade training. In addition, much
closer working relationships with the Department of Labor appear to
be indicated as a result of recent developments in the Manpower
Development and Training Act.
4. Projects of state professional distributive education groups
The executive committee of the distributive education coordinators
professional group served as a planning committee for DECA activities
during the past year.
5. New uses of advisory committees
State advisory committee members served as judges at the State Leader-
ship Conference and also assisted in soliciting state contest sponsors.
6. Activities conducted jointly with other vocational services
A special conference emphasizing supervisory training was conducted in
cooperation with the Industrial Education Section, stimulating much
new interest and expanding supervisory training activities.
7. New developments in relationships with guidance services
Few new developments occurred, but additional efforts will be ex-
pended in this direction next year.
8. Regional conference
A regional conference of business and educational leaders was held in
West Florida to determine the need for distributive education in that
area. Other state agencies cooperated with the Distributive Education
Section in conducting the conference.
D. IMPROVEMENT OF INSTRUCTION
1. New developments in institutional teacher education
A campus course in special methods in distributive education was intro-
duced at the Florida State University by Harold Wallace of the University
of Minnesota. Florida State University staff members also taught
courses in the organization and coordination of distributive education
at Tallahassee and Jacksonville.
2. New approaches to in-service teacher education
Considerable time was devoted to the presentation and discussion of
D-5, Evaluation of the High School Distributive Education Program, at
the annual summer conference. A special one-week workshop was
conducted at the University of South Florida for fourteen dis-
tributive education coordinators. One objective was to develop
a special coordinator's handbook, a preliminary draft of which will
be presented to the coordinators for their reactions at the 1962
3. Sources of teacher-coordinators
Most teacher-coordinators (a) are attracted to the program by present
coordinators and are recruited frem general education teaching fields,
or (b) are experienced coordinators who came to Florida freo other
4. Technical training provided in pre-service and in-service teacher
Eight additional hours of technical content subjects are now being
required for certification in the special area of distributive edu-
5. Instructional materials
No new instructional materials were distributed during the past year,
but two publications have been developed for dissemination this year.
6. Work with non-reimbursable programs in distributive education
Considerable time was spent in working with distributive education
_placements in the state's diversified cooperative training program.
Coordinators of these programs are invited to participate in teacher
education activities which are applicable to the field of distri-
T' Additional information
During the past year, the state supervisor was chairman of the State
Steering Committee on Economic Education.
E. PROGRAM PROMOTION
1. High points in public information program
New brochures highlighting cooperative and adult distributive edu-
cation were developed and distributed throughout the state. In
addition, the Florida Retail Furniture Dealers Association produced
a brochure on cooperative distributive education for distribution
to its membership.
A new Florida IECA Newsletter was developed and distributed and ex-
tensive publicity was given to participation in state and national
leadership conferences. Courses in hospitality education have also
been emphasized throughout the state.
2. Special cooperative relationships established
Cooperative relationships have been established with the Retail
Furniture Dealers Association, state and national wholesalers
associations, sales and marketing executive clubs, the Allied
Gasoline Retailers Association, the Florida Retail Federation, the
Florida Society of Association Executives, the Florida laundry and
Dry Cleaners Association, and several local boards of realtors.
3. Professional activities of state supervisory staff
Professional activities of the staff included working with the Florida
Vocational Association and the Florida Education Association, at-
tending the American Vocational Association Convention in Kansas City
and other state and national leadership conferences, participating
in the Southern Regional Conference in Charleston, and serving on a
number of school plant survey and school evaluation teams.
One staff member was executive secretary of the Florida Vocational
Association, and during the coming year the state supervisor will
represent the Southern Region on NASDE and will also serve on the
program planning committee for the Southern Regional Conference.
F. GOALS FOR NEXT YEAR
During the coming year, attention will be centered upon:
a. Securing the appointment of a teacher educator in distributive
education at the University of South Florida
b. Revising certification requirements for distributive education
c. Developing mid-management programs in distributive education at
several Junior colleges
d. Adding staff personnel to provide further leadership and to
assist in the development of specialized adult programs in manage-
ment, hospitality, real estate, and insurance
e. Publishing the Florida Distributive Education Coordinator's
f. Publishing the guide for export trade training
g. Instituting data processing procedures for collecting and
reporting distributive education enrollment data.
COOPERATIVE EDUCATION LEADS TO JOBS
1. Classification of Respondents.
Per Cent Legend
El No Information
50 pS Unemployed
u S U
Housewife Student Military Other
CLASSIFICATION OF RESPONDENTS
Phase of the Cooperative Program in Which Students Were Enrolled.
Number Per Cent
200 122 10
DCT CBE DE No
TYPE OF PROGRAM
3. Occupations in Which Students Were Trained in the Cooperative Program.
A Mm......... ... ...l l1 11 11 1 1 1 .ii iii ii.. .
Office Distributive Industrial
Occupations Occupations Occupations
OCCUPATIONAL TRAINING CLASSIFICATION
4. Employment Status of Respondents.
',',, ,,,., ,,,,,,,,:i:
..., ... .. .,.. ,,
..'..... ,.-.... .........j..,
, .... ., ,.....
.. .,,........, ,.....
,..,..........*,..., .....-, ,.,
.. . .. . .
... ... ... ... ...
...... ...... .....
...... ...... .....
.... .... .... ....
... 0 ...............
EXTENT OF EMPLOYMENT
M Part Time
5. Present Occupations of Respondents.
V1 L IJU
Distributive Industrial Health &
is Occupations Occupations Related Oc
6. Employment by Training Agencies in Which Students Were Trained.
S Employed at One Time
I?.. Presently Employed
tfl Not Employed or Unknown
EMPLOYMENT BY TRAINING AGENCY
7. Gainful Full-Time Employment in the Occupations in Which Students Received
Over 1 Year
Under 6 Months
6 Months to 1 Yea
Yes No No
FULL-TIME JOBS AND LENGTH OF EMPLOYMENT
8. Methods of Obtaining First Full-Time Employment After Completing Cooperative
Frequency of Use
0 100 200 300 400 500
SOURCES OF HELP IN GETTING FIRST JOB
1 2 ~
9. Phase of Related Study Programs Which Was Most Helpful on the Job.
a. Topics related specifically to the particular job in which the
student is being trained (specific related units)
b. Business education units and classes
c. Topics dealing with employment generally and with problems of
securing and advancing in a job (general related units)
d. Development of appropriate job attitudes and work habits
e. Personality development, grooming, and etiquette
f. Sensitivity to the importance of good public relations
g. Budgeting, banking, and personal finance.
10. Suggested Ways in Which the Cooperative Education Program Could have
Better Prepared Students foi Employment.
a. Direct more attention to developing appropriate job attitudes,
improve job orientation, and stress employer-employee relationships
b. Improve instructional materials
c. Give more attention to the student's personal development
d. Improve job placements
e. Teach additional business skills
f. Stress specific job theory.
On the basis of information provided by the inventory, several conclusions may
be drawn. (1) More emphasis should be placed upon cooperative business edu-
cation and distributive education in communities able to support more than one
program. (2) More attention should be given to providing instruction directly
related to the occupation in which the student is receiving on-the-job train-
ing. (3) Efforts should be concentrated upon providing or developing current
and attractive instructional materials.
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HOME ECONOMICS EDUCATION
A. ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF THE YEAR
The following areas of program emphasis for 1961-62 were established by
the state supervisor, area supervisors, county supervisors, and teacher
a. Incorporation of ideas on curriculum revision in the home
economics education workshop
b. Cooperation with state and local guidance personnel and
providing assistance to home economics teachers in working
with guidance people.
c. Involvement in action research giving direction to the pro-
d. Promotion of AVA membership.
That considerable progress has been made in achieving these goals is demon-
strated by a review of the following aspects of the program.
1. Instructional programs
Approximately three hundred delegates representing youth and adults,
four county supervisors, three area supervisors, the state super-
visor, and the state advisor of the Florida Association of New Home-
makers of America attended the spring meeting of that organization at
the Florida A. & M. University at which the four objectives of the
organization were emphasized.
The Sixteenth Annual Convention of the Florida Association, Future
Homemakers of America was held at Clearwater. Between seven hundred
and eight hundred members and advisors attended the meeting which
was highlighted by the appearance of the national president. At the
awards night program which was started this year, three FHA scholar-
ships and one Florida Bankers Scholarship were presented, the State
Degree of Achievement was conferred upon forty FHA members, and thirty-
six chapters received Honor Roll recognition.
During the fall of 1961, semester courses in various areas of home
economics were included in the programs of Florida secondary schools
having homemaking education departments. One suggested semester
course was "Home Management, Family Finance, and Consumer Education".
This course, together with other curricular changes, reflected
suggestions contained in the new "Scope and Sequence Guide in Home
Economics Education for Junior-Senior High School" developed and
made available during the summer of 1961.
During the past year, emphasis has again been placed upon improving
the quality of the adult program, all of which is vocational.
2. Teacher training
All interns were placed in centers having vocational home economics
programs and active chapters of FRA or NHA. They managed class-
room and laboratory activities, worked with student and department-
al reports, guided home projects and home practice, made home
visitations, worked with FHA or NBA chapters, and attended district
and annual meetings of the respective associations. In addition,
they participated in adult classes where there was opportunity
and entered into a variety of community activities.
A workshop for directing teachers was held June 19 July 7, 1961,
at Florida A. & M. University to develop better teacher understand-
ing of the internship program and the role of the directing teach-
er. Five home economics teachers participated in the program.
Florida State University, Florida A. & M. University, and the Uni-
versity of Miami graduated twenty-eight students majoring in home
b. Graduate program
Four graduate students at Florida State University completed the
requirements for the Master's degree.
3. Supervision and in-service teacher education
The annual conference for teachers of home economics education was
held at the Florida State University. The program was devoted to the
home economics curriculum with particular emphasis upon the Scope and
Sequence Guide which was discussed in group meetings.
The purpose of the annual conference for teachers of home economics
education in Negro schools was also to acquaint them with the Scope
and Sequence Guide and to focus attention upon some of the problems
confronting the high schools of today.
The supervisors contacted 349 teachers through short visits to schools,
conferences, and meetings. Forty-seven group meetings were planned
during the year for teachers and county supervisors and 128 teachers
were visited by the supervisors. They spent at least one class period
with each teacher followed by a conference period. In addition, con-
tacts with junior colleges were made by four staff members. Super-
visory emphasis this year was placed upon integrating Future Homemakers
of America and New Homemakers of America activities with classroom
instruction and home experiences. In addition, housing and home
furnishings, management and family finance, and state accreditation
received considerable attention.
The supervisors assisted with the planning of six new home economics
departments and the renovation of three.
4. Research, special studies, experimental programs
Recognizing that teachers would need help in conducting the new
semester courses, an area and a county supervisor suggested that
experimentation by a select group of teachers could provide ex-
periences which would be helpful to others. The experiment involved
the teaching of a one-semester course in Home Management, Family
Finance and Consumer Education. Outcomes were evaluated in terms
of changes in student behavior with respect to:
ao Quality of decisions in the use of personal resources
b. Selected personal management practices
c. Patterning of reasons for good management
d. Understanding of selected principles and terms used in
management, family finance and consumer education
e. Ability to use the management process in assuming home
5. Curriculum study and cooperation with other groups
a. Curriculum study
A three-week Home Economics Education Curriculum Workshop was
held at the Florida State University last year in which thirty-one
teachers, three county supervisors, three area supervisors, the
state supervisor, and three consultants participated. This group
developed the Scope and Sequence Guide which was made available
to teachers during the pre-school conferences for use during the
school years 1961-63. Instructional areas consist of (a) child
development; (b) personal, family, and social relations; (c) cloth-
ing and textiles; (d) food and nutrition; and (e) housing and home
Since it appears that families often experience difficulties in
management and finance, it seemed desirable to include as much
material as possible on these two subjects in all areas. It was
also believed that information on health, consumer education, safety,
home care of the sick, and mother and baby care might well be in-
corporated with any area. The units are intended to be flexible
both with respect to the content included and the amount of
time devoted to each.
Because of the short duration of the workshop, no attempt was
made to suggest instructional content for the eighth grade nor
was Modern Family Living reviewed. Instead, it is suggested
that Bulletin No. 23 be consulted for content in these areas.
There is need for strengthening the home economics programs
offered during the eleventh and twelfth months
State staff members attended a variety of local, state, and
national meetings, workshops, and clinics. Included were pre-
school planning conferences in eighteen counties, the orientation
conference for new supervisors and the seventeenth annual super-
visors' conference, FEA district meetings, a nutrition conference,
career days, a TV program conference, a county fashion council,
a leadership institute for local directors of vocational and
adult education, a technical education conference, and the Southern
Agricultural Workers' Conference.
b. Cooperation with other groups
Staff members cooperated with the Assistant Division Director
of Health, Physical Education and Recreation and the Supervisor
of the School Lunch Program in promoting a school health program.
The Mid-South Nutrition representative for the American Institute
of Baking conducted workshops in fourteen Florida counties.
The state supervisor attended the Southern Agricultural WorkerA'
Conference and was a member of the symposium which discussed nu-
trition problems of teenagers.
One area supervisor participated in the conference on aging held
at the University of Florida.
B. PLAN FOR DEVELOPMENT
The staff of the Home Economics Education Section is well aware of the
implications for the home economics curriculum of social changes as re-
flected in family and school responsibilities and opportunities. To meet
these challenges, they have established the following goals for the year:
a. To further emphasize Management and Family Finance through in-
dividual and group conferences
b. To further encourage teachers to use the Scope and Sequence Guide
in planning programs for their schools
c. To further promote the program of the FHA and the NHA as an
integral part of home economics
d. To place additional emphasis upon the FHA State Degree of
C. ADDITIONAL SIGNIFICANT INFORMATION
1. Human interest stories
"A student from Cuba had a great deal of difficulty getting along
with her younger sister. She presented her problems to the class and
with their suggestions worked on her project of better understanding
and relations with her sister and family."
2. Descriptions of ways in which the goals of FHA and NHA are being
"FA has helped one of our seniors to get practical experience which
will be helpful in the career she wishes to enter. She has a very
strong interest in journalism, so she undertook the job of report-
ingthe main facts concerning FHA to be distributed at the Home
Economics booth at the Strawberry Festival, Junior Agricultural Fair.
She was also serving as Vice-president of Public Relations for the
County Council and was responsible for writing a monthly newsletter
concerning activities of the chapters. These accomplishments have
furthered her desire to major in journalism when she enters college
"When officers of the NHA were elected for the term very likable
but shy girl was chosen for president. She was unable to express
herself, was fidgety while talking, and her enunciation was poor. My
first impulse was to maneuver her into a lesser position, but I de-
cided to see if she could be helped. The vice-president was an ex-
cellent leader. I had several private conferences with the president
and helped her with parliamentary procedures. We worked on her word
enunciation by stopping her each time she made an error. What I
thought was a permanent speech impediment disappeared completely.
Today she has overcome her shyness to a large extent and has improved
greatly in other respects."
3. Data relating to growth and development of the program
Most high school programs have FHA or NHA chapters. Following is a
summary of their membership and activities.
Activities FHA NHA
Number of Chapters 271 115
Number of Members 14,120
Number of District Meetings 9
Number Attending State Convention 778
Number Attending National Convention 19
Number of Magazine Issues 1
Number of County Councils 13
Number of Executive Council Meetings 3
Number of Scholarships Awarded 3
Number of Degrees Awarded 40
Number of Honor Roll Chapters 36
Home projects were conducted in the following areas
Project Area Girls
Child Care and Development 7,513
Consumer Buying 4,605
Personal, Social and Family
Health, Home Safety and Home Care
of the Sick 3,569
Personal Improvement 9,964
Home Management 5,055
Food and Nutrition 31,085
Clothing and Textiles 29,689
Gardening (Flowers and Vegetables) 3,682
by the number of
Project Area Girls Boys
Other 3,924 109
Totals 10.9,871 1,480
Following is a summary of additional pertinent data concerning schools,
instructional personnel, and secondary and adult enrollments.
Aspect of Program Total
Number of Schools (Vocational) 365
Number of Schools (Non-vocational) 137
Number of High School Teachers (Vocational) 581
Number of High School Teachers (Non-vocational) 273
Number of Pupils (Vocational) 46,967
Number of Pupils (Non-vocational) 44,197
Number of Adult Teachers 203
Number of Adults Enrolled 23,981
4. Same successful instructional ideas reported by teachers
In the area of Food and Nutrition, "it was found that class emphasis
on the cost of food resulted in several home experiences concerned
with buying food for the family. Some students brought only meat
while others prepared complete meals. In each instance, planned use
of left-overs to. ave both time and money was demonstrated. Changing
times demand changes in living patterns. The class compared the econo-
mies in time and effort resulting from meals served in different ways
such as on plates in the kitchen as compared to the use of serving
dishes at the table."
"Kitchen Detective was an interesting game enjoyed by eighth graders
which emphasized the importance of home safety. Fifteen common safety
hazards were displayed in six unit kitchens. The girls went in pairs
to observe for four minutes, then returned to their seats to list the
hazards they had detected. A composite list was formulated and en-
larged as interest grew. The game concluded with instruction on
means of correcting common hazards."
"This unit tin Housing] was approached realistically as if the girls
were actually renting, buying, or building a home, Numerous field
trips were included. One check list was developed by the class for
use in evaluating three furnished apartments while another was used
to evaluate a new house. One house under construction was visited
in company with the DCT coordinator who explained many of the con-
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JUNE 30, 1962
iADE ANDi,TNONUTRIAL lUGATIOWiN
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TRADE AND INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION
A. ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF YEAR 1961-62
1. Work of staff
Professional staff personnel and their duties, responsibilities, and
work procedures remained virtually unchanged during the year. Staff
members attended national, regional, and state conventions in which
policy changes, program trends, philosophies, and professional issues
were reviewed. Attention was also given to state activities and
problems of operation in periodic staff conferences.
2. Operation of schools and classes
A marked increase occurred in practically all industrial education
programs. Certain evening trade extension classes such as air con-
ditioning and refrigeration, aircraft mechanics, cosmetology,
commercial vehicle driver training, drafting, fire fighting, Jan-
itorial and custodial service, police training, and supervisory
training made spectacular gains. Normal growth was experienced in
cement finishing, commercial art, electrical lineman training, radio
and television servicing, and shoe repair.
A large decrease was noted in apprenticeship training, needle trades
training, printing, and railroad training. No part-time general con-
tinuation or part-time trade preparatory classes were operated.
Increased interest in high school preparatory programs was demonstrated
by the development of several new comprehensive high school courses
in a number of new and existing centers. Alachua, Brevard, Dade,
Leon, Manatee, Pinellas, St. Lucie, and Sarasota counties are among
those in which new high school programs were established.
3. Work in training of teachers
College credit extension courses were again held in thirteen centers
during the year by itinerant teacher trainers from Florida A. & M.
University, Florida State University, and the University of Miami.
In addition, the State Board for Vocational Education conducted non-
credit teacher apprenticeships in five counties. Summer school
sessions were conducted at Florida State and Florida A. & M. Universi-
The General Motors Corporation offered a course for teachers of auto-
motive mechanics at its training center in Jacksonville. A similar
institute for electronics teachers was conducted by Philco Corporation
at Daytona Beach.
The State Coordinator of Instructional Problems is primarily
responsible for in-service teacher training of a non-credit type.
The teacher self-evaluation instrument which was developed last
year was introduced in a number of new centers. A follow-up
study was begun during the current year to determine its effective-
4. Cooperation with other groups and organizations
Particular mention should be made of the close association maintained
with the Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training, the Florida Apprentice-
ship Council,the Florida Department of Apprenticeship, the Florida
Development Commission, the Florida Industrial Commission, the Florida
State Employment Service, the Veterans' Administration, and the Vo-
cational Rehabilitation Division.
The state supervisor, an ex-officio member, and other staff personnel,
took part in all meetings of the State Apprenticeship Council during
5. Use of advisory committees
State advisory committees in trade and industrial education and in
affiliated areas such as commercial vehicle driver training, peace
officers' training, railroad training, R.E.A. Job training and safety,
and supervisory and management training continued to be active.
The emphasis upon increased use of local general advisory and craft
committees resulted in the formation of additional such lay groups.
State staff members continued to provide much assistance to the
counties in this endeavor.
6. Special studies
All special studies involving industrial education were conducted by
the Research and Survey office of Divisional Services and are de-
scribed in Section I of this report.
B. PLANS FOR EEVEIDPMENT
1. Expansion of existing programs
Existing programs at the Dan McCarty High School (Fort Pierce),
Lincoln High School (Gainesville), Lincoln High School (Tallahassee),
Miami Central High School, Palatka High School, and Titusville High
School, were enlarged. Auto mechanics, cosmetology, drafting, and
electronics were the most prominent areas of expansion.
Evening trade extension classes grew at a normal rate, as did Type C
day trade courses.
A large proportion of the federal appropriation was used to reimburse
counties for the salaries of teachers where new classes were developed
in large numbers.
2. New programs to be promoted
Additional emphasis will be placed upon the following types of programs:
a. Apprenticeship related instruction in smaller population
b. Basic electronics and mechanical drafting to assist trainees
in obtaining employment as lower-level technicians
c. Supervisory training
d. Training for trades such as barbering, commercial and in-
dustrial type landscaping,; cosmetology, dry cleaning and
laundering, food preparation, hotel trades, and shoe repair
in which minority groups, can find ready employment
e. Training for occupations in which girls and women may get
f. Training for handicapped persons
g. Training in semi-skilled and operative jobs for slow learners
and potential school drop-outs.
3. Supervision for training of veterans
Supervision of veterans' training is a special function of the State
Supervisor of Adult and Veteran Education. However, the Industrial
Education Section works closely with this office and the Veterans'
Administration in revising courses approved for veterans and in re-
evaluating their institutional training,
4. Improvement of teacher training service
More on-the-job, in-service teacher training of a non-credit, non-
scheduled type will be provided in close conjunction with local
supervision of instruction.
Institutional teacher training will continue to be largely a campus
and extension credit program for securing and upgrading teaching
certificates and obtaining baccalaureate and graduate degrees. These
courses will be offered by Florida A. & M. University, Florida State
University, and the University of Miami.
5. Area trade schools
Only one vocational school serves as a multi-county center. The
remainder are operated by individual counties. There are no
municipal or township school districts in Florida, so all vocational
schools are considered area schools.
6. Vocational technical schools
Seven high schools, four vocational schools, and ten junior colleges
provide technical preparatory courses below college grade. In
addition, eleven vocational schools and four junior colleges con-
duct extension courses for employed technicians or technician
The most prominent areas of training are electricity; electronics;
mechanical design; civil, chemical, mechanical, and missile tech-
nology; aeronautics;,and data processing.
C. ADDITIONAL SIGNIFICANT INFORMATION
1. The 1961 legislature relaxed the "freeze" imposed on vocational edu-
cation by the 1959 legislature, and granted an increased state ap-
propriation for 1962 which was adequate to meet the needs of in-
dustrial education for this year. There is no doubt that this
financial assistance was the chief reason for the large increase in
the program during the past year.
2. Census figures for 1960 demonstrate Florida's phenomenal population
growth and the accelerated industrial trend in Bay, Brevard, Broward,
Charlotte, Dade, Duval, Escambia, Hillsborough, Manatee, Okaloosa,
Orange, Palm Beach, Pinellas, Polk, Sarasota, St. Lucie, Seminole,
and Volusia counties.
3. More student placements and greater use of advisory and craft committees
show that labor and management approve of the training being given.
4. Among the trends which are influencing industrial education in Florida
are the following:
a. Comprehensive high school programs are growing in number
b. Technical education is continuing to develop
c. Interest in adult preparatory training is increasing
d. Veterans' training is declining
e. Evening and part-time preparatory programs are growing normally
f. Recruitment of good teachers continues to be a problem, particular-
ly in the building, electrical, medical, and mechanical trades, and
in certain service occupations.
5. As a result, it is believed that the total program of industrial edu-
cation can be expected to grow at an annual rate of approximately
seven per cent. However, since there will be no increase next year
in the state appropriation, the industrial education program will be
greatly handicapped in meeting individual and industrial needs.
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PRACTICAL NURSE EDUCATION
A. ACCOMPLISHMENT OF THE YEAR 1961-62
1. Work of state and local staff, including workshops and institutes,
studies, research, etc.
On January 1, 1962, the State Department of Education employed a pro-
fessional nurse-educator on a temporary full-time basis to work on a
new curriculum guide to replace the state adopted course of study out-
line used in all public school programs for the past several years.
The person working on the curriculum study was selected because of her
interest in research, depth of formal preparation, and breadth of pro-
fessional experience. Her background includes preparation and experi-
ence as a guidance counselor and nurse-teacher in an elementary school
system, together with four years of experience on a guidance research
project in the elementary school. She has taught in a practical
nursing program in Florida and holds a Master's Degree in Education.
This person has worked closely with practical nursing educators, the
Educational Director of the State Board of Nursing, and the State
Coordinator of Practical Nurse Education. She has been guided by
a state curriculum committee which includes vocational, professional,
and practical nursing educators. National and state consultants have
also been called in for their counsel and advice.
The curriculum guide delineates the two roles of the practical nurse.
It includes the facts and principles essential to an understanding of
nursing action required in meeting the needs of patients within these
roles, and provides for continuity and sequence of learning experiences
ranging from the simple to the more complex.
The state brochure Public School Practical Nursing Programs in Florida
has been revised and is ready to be printed.
2. Results based on evaluative procedures
No special evaluation studies were made this year.
3. Curriculum improvement, coordination of theory and practice, new
courses, course integration and experimental programs
Closer and earlier correlation of classroom instruction and hospital
experience is being effected in many of the programs.
A curriculum improvement project is reported under A. 1. above,
4, Testing; selection and performance of students; student policies
All schools continue to employ standardized aptitude tests; in
almost all instances testing is part of the pre-admission procedure.
The U. S. Employment Service tests are used by the majority of
schools, primarily to keep student costs nominal. However, there
appears to be a trend toward supplementing or completely eliminating
these in favor of the California Achievement series.
During 1961 and the first half of 1962, 605 new graduates took the
state licensing examination. Ninety-seven per cent of the white
graduates and 85.5 per cent of the Negroes successfully passed the
examination the first time it was taken.
One program has established a new policy on maternity leave.
Students withdraw from the program when pregnancy is diagnosed
unless completion of the course comes before the end of the fifth
month of pregnancy. In that event, the student provides the school
with written permission from her physician to continue.
The trend toward discontinuing the paying of stipends during the
clinical period has continued. One practical nursing program
stopped paying stipends this year; another has announced that
it will do likewise with the admission of the September class.
5. Types of programs offered in high schools, Junior colleges, and
other types of schools
There are no day preparatory programs for practical nurses in the
high school curriculum. However, three programs are administered
by junior colleges, namely, Daytona Beach Junior College; North
Florida Junior College, Madison; and Volusia County Community
College, Daytona Beach.
New day preparatory programs were started at Fort Lauderdale and
West Palm Beach in the fall of 1961. In Orlando and Winter Haven,
two programs have enlarged by admitting an additional class.
The public school system is operating a total of twenty-three prac-
tical nursing programs in sixteen counties.
6. Staff or faculty reorganization and expansion
Fifty full-time professional nurse instructors are employed by county
school systems in the day preparatory programs, an increase of
eight during the year. In addition, two counties employ a coordi-
nator for the program.
Thirteen new teachers entered the program this year, six as replace-
ments and seven in new or expanding programs. The problem of securing
well qualified nurses meeting teaching requirements is becoming
greater each year as the program grows.
7. Extension and in-service courses
Upgrading courses were offered in ten counties to 281 licensed
practical nurses by thirteen R.N.'s during 937 hours of instruction.
There has been a marked decrease this year in requests for extension
courses for practical nurses who have not had formal education for
No post-graduate courses were offered.
8. Teacher training
Teacher training was made available to practical nursing instructors
through two state universities and one private institution. These
include Florida A. & M. University, Florida State University, and the
University of Miami.
Training plans included summer campus courses of three and six weeks
duration and extension courses taught in local centers by four
itinerant teachers However, provision for pre-service training was
also made through a non-credit apprenticeship plan in the case of
new teachers who were unable to attend summer school or take ex-
State-wide conferences for all teachers were held in November, 1961,
with approximately 90 per cent attending. The conferences this year
stressed the why, when, and how of evaluation. Help was given on
how to measure behavior and abilities identified in the objectives,
and suggestions were offered on the development of an evaluation
form for use in the clinical area.
9. Training for health occupations other than practical nursing
Four full-time (one-year) preparatory programs for dental assistants
are currently being offered in Jacksonville Tampa, Miami, and
St. Petersburg, and one full-time (one-year) preparatory program for
dental technicians is operating in Miami. Student enrollment in the
dental assistant courses was 121 while in the dental technician course
it was 42.
10o Use of advisory committee
The State Advisory Committee on Practical Nurse Education met twice
during the year. The Manpower Development and Training Act of 1962
was reviewed at the last meeting and its implications for training
in health and related occupations were analyzed. The Statements
approved by the American Nurses' Association setting forth its
position in relation to the act included a statement on the"Training
and Use of Auxiliary Personnel in Nursing Services" which was dis-
cussed. In the committee's view, nurse's aide training should be
on-the-job training conducted by the hospital or employing agency,
in which case vocational education would not participate.
Other health occupations discussed included those of Medical Office
Assistant, Surgical Technical Aide, and Medical Laboratory Assistant
with the latter appearing to be in greatest demand. Since the
functions of the state advisory committee are being broadened to in-
clude other health occupations, the committee recommended that a
clinical pathologist and dentist be added to its membership.
B. PLANS FOR ANY OF THE ABOVE SUB-TOPICS, AS WELL AS:
There are no special plans for student recruitment.
2. Retention of students
The drop-out rate for thirty-five classes completing the course between June
1, 1961, and June 1, 1962, was 22.6 per cent. During that period,
a total of 648 students was enrolled and 461 graduated, the latter
an increase of 32 per cent over the preceding year. On June 1,
1962, 518 students were training in the program.
No problems in relation to placement have been reported.
4. Expansion of existing programs, and new programs in areas not now
Two new programs in Broward and Palm Beach counties admitted their
first classes in the fall of 1961.
Enrollments in Duval, Orange, Pinellas, Polk, and Volusia county
programs have been increased by admitting another class or by adding
students to existing classes; additional teachers have been employed
to take care of the expansion. Preliminary meetings have been held
with school officials in St. Augustine in reference to starting a
program, but there is some question as to whether it will materialize.
5. Accreditation by other than State Board for Vocational Education
The State Board of Nursing is the legal approving authority for all
nursing programs in the state. Approval is granted annually on the
basis of a survey visit to each school. No public school has sought
accreditation by any national accrediting agency.
C. ADDITIONAL SIGNIFICANT INFORMATION RELATIVE TO THE PROGRAM AS A WHOIE
1. Employment opportunities
The demand for practical nurses continues to exceed the supply.
2. Enrollment of men students
There has been no significant change.
3. Attitudinal relationship between affiliating agency and the school
Excellent relationships, with few exceptions, exist between the vo-
cational school staff and affiliating agencies.
4. Relationship between State Board for Vocational Education and State
Board of Nurse Examiners
There continues to be a very good, cooperative working relationship
with the State Board of Nursing. This year, for the first time,
the State Board of Nursing invited the State Coordinator of Practical
Nurse Education to attend the board's annual meeting at which the
practical nursing programs were discussed and approved for another
5.. Changes in teacher certification requirements
Practical nursing teachers, like other public school teachers,
have had to comply with the Teacher Education law passed at the
1961 session of the Florida Legislature and take either the National
Teacher's Examination (if they hold a bachelor's or higher degree)
or a Cooperative Test (for non-degree teachers) under the following
(a) if applying for initial certification
(b) if applying for a higher rank certificate
(c) if applying for a change in certificate within the rank
(d) if eligible for continuing contract beginning with the 1962-63
(e) if desiring to use the scores in meeting competency award re-
As of July i, 1962, the requirement for initial certification has been
waived for all experienced teachers because of problems encountered
in teacher recruitment.
6. Change in title and function
Effective July 1, 1962, the title of the position Coordinator,
Practical Nurse Education, State Department of Education, was
changed to State Consultant, Health Occupations Education. This
broadens the responsibilities of the position which previously had
been limited to practical nurse education.
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In Florida, funds other than those received under the federal vocational
acts are utilized in the state-wide programs of guidance.
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A. ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF THE YEAR 1961-62
1. Work of staff
The State Director of Vocational and Adult Education is responsible
for the state administration of the area vocational education pro-
gram in Florida. He is assisted by the state supervisors of the
four federally-reimbursed vocational programs and their staffs.
State supervision of the technical education aspects of the area
vocational education program, however, is primarily the responsi-
bility of the Consultant for Technical Education.
A number of conferences conducted by the Division of Vocational
and Adult Education included discussions related to the development,
organization, and administration of technical education programs.
The major conference concerned with technical education, however,was
the Fourth Annual Conference for Technical Education, held in West Palm
Beach. Considered were topics such as the implications of technical
manpower requirements during the decade, development of testing norms
for technical student selection, promising practices in technical edu-
cation programs, and new techniques and materials in industrial re-
search and development. Conference participants included technical
instructors and administrators, guidance personnel, industrial repre-
sentatives, and various members of the state staff.
The annual fall meeting of directors responsible for the supervision
of post-high school technical education programs was held in Tallahassee.
Basic program objectives were reviewed and common problems dealing
with evaluative criteria for technical programs and standards for
technical curriculum development were discussed.
2. Official actions
Several counties requested and were allocated grants-in-aid for
developing or expanding technical education programs under provisions
of the State Plan. Twenty-three school centers, serving both single
and multi-county areas, will provide fifty-five technical curricula
this year. The centers include twelve junior colleges with forty
technical majors and eleven secondary schools with fifteen technical
offerings. Other counties conducting technical preparatory and ex-
tension classes also utilized federal and/or state and local funds for
operating their programs.
3. Important studies
A state-wide advisory committee for electronics technology was appointed
and conducted a study to determine instructional areas to be included
in post-high school programs engaged in preparing electronic technicians.
4. Special problems
The need for developing common agreement upon basic objectives for
technical education programs, particularly at the post-high school
level, was considered very important.
Assisting local teachers and school officials to identify important
common objectives basic to the total technical education program was
a highly significant contribution of state staff members.
Another major problem has been that of securing competent technical
instructors. This will continue to be a primary concern because of
the availability of industrial jobs for skilled technicians and
engineers at salaries considerably higher than those obtained in
public school teaching positions.
Numerous opportunities remain for further development of extension
courses, utilizing technical laboratories designed for use in pre-
paratory programs. One technical program operating in a metropolitan
area served approximately tour:' hindred individuals, enrolled .inrtechnical
5. Experience with different kinds of institutions
Three types of institutions provide technical preparatory and ex-
tension classes. These are comprehensive high schools which include
technical subjects for high school youth in the eleventh and twelfth
grades, community junior colleges having technical divisions which
offer from one to six technical courses, and vocational industrial-
technical centers where preparatory and short courses in several
technical fields are provided.
Each of these institutions has developed a technical education program
conforming to criteria established in recommendations for technical
courses meeting requirements for the use of federal George-Barden
Title III funds.
One requirement frequently reviewed with administrators responsible
for the institutions described above, is the necessity of maintaining
flexibility so that each technical offering may remain abreast of
industrial growth and development.
6. Teacher training
During the past two summers, courses in principles of technical edu-
cation and methods of teaching technical subjects have been offered
for technical instructors and administrative personnel at one of the
state universities. It is anticipated that a full-time itinerant
technical teacher trainer will be employed to assume responsibility
for in-service technical teacher education.
7, Use of advisory committees
The State Advisory Committee for Technical Education met twice in
1961-62. It reviewed local requests for George-Barden Title III
funds and made recommendations to the state staff for possible
distribution of such funds. Committee members have been interested,
active, and of considerable assistance in the development of various
In each county offering technical education programs, local tech-
nical advisory groups were appointed and have assisted in atakin
surveys, identifying instructional areas, and selecting laboratory
Advisory committees at state and local levels will continue to be
utilized in the operation of this program.
B. PLANS FOR DEVELOPMENT
1. Program features
Technical education in Florida will probably not continue to grow
as rapidly as it has during the past two years. However, it appears
that existing school centers will improve current offerings and will
add other types of technical curricula not presently provided at
Most development during the next year is expected to occur in the
southern area of the state, especially in Broward, Dade, and Pinellas
In Pinellas County a new technical education center is under construction
which will include facilities for providing drafting design technical
illustration; civil, electronic, machine, and air conditioning and
It is expected that the-need for state-wide expansion of technical
extension offerings will also be reemphasized next year.
2. Evaluation of program
Programs were evaluated through state staff visitations to local
centers. Administrative, supervisory, and instructional procedures
were observed and necessary improvements recommended. All programs
utilizing federal and state matching funds conformed with the pro-
visions of the George-Barden Act, Title III, and the requirements
of the State Plan for Vocational Education.
Most technical offerings in post-high school programs will be evaluated
during the coming year in accordance with state accreditation practices
for secondary schools and community junior colleges.
3. Additions to plant and equipment
A new technical building was completed at Manatee Junior College
and another is under construction at Daytona Beach Junior College.
New technical laboratories have high priority at Central Florida,
Dade County, and Gulf Coast junior colleges.
Each new technical laboratory will be equipped with instructional
facilities carefully selected to implement the technical curricula
planned for the respective centers.
4. Enlargement of geographical areas to be served by schools
Vocational-technical schools serve individual counties, but no re-
strictions are placed upon students living outside the area who
wish to attend. A number of community junior colleges, on the other
hand,serve multi-county areas. A center in one section of the state,
for example, will provide specialized vocational-technical training
for both high school students and adults of a seven-county area.
C. ADDITIONAL SIGNIFICANT INFORMATION
It is currently planned to request a special committee of out-of-state
specialists in technical education to review Florida's program of technical
education and to make recommendations for further expansion and improve-
ment. A member of the U. S. Office of Education will be included on the