ANNUAL DESCRIPTIVE REPORT OF THEW
FLORIDA STATE BOARD FOR
JULY 1, 1960 JUNE 30, 1961
of Vocational and Adult Education
TE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
Thomas D. Bailey, Superintendent
37' ^ ?76-Q Tallahassee, Florida
ANNUAL DESCRIPTIVE REPORT
THE FLORIDA STATE BOARD FOR VOCATIONAL EDUCATION
JULY 1, 1960 JUNE 30, 1961
STATE BOARD FOR VOCATIONAL EDUCATION
Hon. Farris Bryant, Governor, President of the Board
Hon. Tom Adams, Secretary of State
Hon. Richard W. Erwin, Attorney General
Hon. J. Edwin Larson, State Treasurer
Hon. Thomas D. Bailey, State Superintendent of Public Instruction,
Secretary, and Executive Officer of the Board
STATE OF FLORIDA
IETTR SCHOOLS BUtD
A STRONGER AMERICA
m- DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
. BAILEY TALLAHASSEE I
Honorable Thomas D. Bailey
State Board for Vocational Education
Dear Superintendent Bailey:
Attached herewith is the Annual Descriptive Report of the Florida
State Board for Vocational Education for the period beginning July 1,
1960 and ending June 30, 1961.
This Bulletin, submitted for approval and transmittal to the United
States Office of Education, highlights the activities of the vocational
services as requested in May by the Assistant Commissioner for
Vocational Education, Office of Education, United States Department
of Health, Education, and Welfare, Washington, D. C.
The composite report includes: Section I, Work of Over-all Nature
in State Director's Office; Section II, Agricultural Education;
Section III, Distributive Education; Section IV, Home Economics
Education; Section V, Trade and Industrial Education; Section VI,
Practical Nurse Education; Section VII, Vocational Guidance (not
applicable); Section VIII, Area Vocational Education Programs;
and the annual financial and statistical report.
Re spectfully submitted,
Walter R. Williams, Jr., ,i sector
Vocational and Adult Educ ti n
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DIVISION- WIDE ACTIVITIES
A. ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF YEAR 1960-61
1. Work of State Director
The duties and responsibilities of the state director together with the
composition of his supporting professional staff remained unchanged
during the year.
2. Studies, Surveys, and Research
Cooperative state and local surveys of the organizational structure
and operation of vocational education, including plans for further
development, were conducted in Escambia, Hillsborough, and Osceola
In addition, a survey was made of the growth of vocational education
in Florida between 1950 and 1960. It was found that enrollment in
vocational classes more than doubled during the decade, jumping
from 83, 700 to 169, 000. Hence, the rate of growth was considerably
over that of population increase.
In meeting the needs which appear to be developing, it is believed
that (1) additional training opportunities must be provided together
with a greater variety of programs and courses and adequate labora-
tories, (2) guidance and counseling services must be improved to
aid in student selection, (3) preparatory and in-service training pro-
grams for teachers must be modified, (4) more terminal vocational
programs should be offered in junior colleges, and (5) objective
measures should be used in evaluating outcomes and determining
3. Cooperation With Interested Groups and Use of Advisory Committees
In addition to working with other sections and divisions of the State
Department of Education, with county and local school people, and
industrial personnel, the State Director and representatives of the
respective sections cooperated with a large number of organizations
only indirectly associated with the schools. Among these were the
Sears-Roebuck Foundation, a variety of agricultural organizations,
the Florida Bankers' Association, Hotel and Restaurant Association,
the Central Florida Wholesalers' Organization, wholesale and retail
furniture associations and other wholesale organizations, the Evapo-
rated Milk Association, and the State Board of Nursing.
Among the state and national governmental agencies with which the
sections worked were the Florida State Board of Health, the Florida
Industrial Commission, the Florida State Employment Service, the Florida
Development Commission, the Florida Apprenticeship Council, the Florida
Department of Apprenticeship, the Veterans Administration, the Bureau of
Apprenticeship and Training, and the Vocational Rehabilitation Division.
Sixty-seven authorized local advisory committees for vocational agricul-
ture were functioning and the importance of forming additional advisory
groups was emphasized. The Advisory Committee for Distributive Educa-
tion was reorganized during the year. Committee members attended the
organizational meeting and participated in the Leadership Conference in
Additional local general advisory and craft committees in industrial educa-
tion and affiliated areas such as supervisory and management training were
formed with the aid of state staff members. One meeting of the State Advi-
sory Committee on Practical Nurse Education was held and it was noted
that county advisory committees were more active. The State Advisory
Committee for Technical Education met twice to review program develop-
ments while local committees continued to be of much help in establishing
and enlarging programs.
4. Teacher Training
No changes were made in professional agricultural education courses, but
a number of revisions occurred in the technical agricultural areas and
steps were taken to improve student teaching.
Professional education courses for distributive education teachers were
provided by Florida State and Florida A & M Universities. However, con-
siderable progress was made in establishing a teacher-education program
in distributive education at the University of South Florida. The institu-
tion has been approved by the State Board and applicants for the position
of teacher educator are presently being screened.
Teacher training in home economics education was given by Florida State
and Florida A & M Universities and the University of Miami. Florida
State also grants a Master of Science degree in home economics and a
combination program leading to a Doctor of Philosophy degree in Home
Institutional teacher training in industrial education will continue to be
largely a campus and extension credit program of Florida State and
Florida A & M Universities and of the University of South Florida since
the latter has been approved by the State Board as an industrial education
teacher-training institution. Non-credit in-service teacher training is
conducted by the State Coordinator of Instructional Problems in local
Florida State and Florida A & M Universities and the University of Miami
provide teacher-training courses for practical nurse instructors. The
program consists of three-to six-week summer sessions, extension courses,
and a pre-service apprenticeship program. In addition, a non-credit appren.
ticeship is being planned for beginning teachers who are unable to enroll for
regular college courses to meet certification requirements.
No provision has yet been made for a teacher-education program designed
specifically for technical instructors.
5. Changes in State Staff Organization
A new divisional services unit was organized consisting of an Assistant
Director for Program Coordination, the Educational Materials Specialist,
and the Vocational Research Specialist.
These individuals work cooperatively with the respective sections in
advancing the total program.
B. PLANS FOR DEVELOPMENT
1. Records and Reports
All record and report forms in the division will be carefully examined to
eliminate duplication of requests for information from counties and commurni-
ties. It is planned to condense records and simplify reporting procedures
so that all data can be processed by machines.
One section has already begun collecting information on IBM cards; it is
hoped the others will be in a position to adopt similar procedures by the
end of the year.
C. ADDITIONAL SIGNIFICANT INFORMATION
The key to the challenges and opportunities in vocational education in Florida
is people. People visiting the state, people settling in the state, long-time
residents have generated a sharply growing demand for products and services.
This demand can only be met by trained men and women. Hence, as the economy
becomes more complex, the number and variety of offerings must grow.
According to 1960 census data, the state's population jumped almost 80 per
cent over the-1950 total, the largest increase in the nation. During the decade,
the ratio of the laboring force employed in basic industries such as agriculture,
construction, and manufacturing dropped from one in three to slightly over one
in four, while that in service industries such as trade, finance, and government
increased proportionately. During the same period, the ratio of the population
under twenty-one and over sixty-five years of age grew, while the proportion
in the intermediate group declined from 56 per cent to approximately one in
two. Program development in the respective sections has reflected these trends.
1. Review of the Program
Though the proportion of people employed in agriculture declined during the
decade, the size of farms increased and the value of the product continued
to climb. Thus, one of the factors influencing Florida agriculture last
year was hurricane Donna. In spite of severe damage to citrus and vege-
table crops, however, the gross income of farmers exceeded $825 million,
the highest on record.
During the year, efforts were made to improve agricultural instruction
by (a) promoting the operating efficiency of multi-teacher departments,
(b) teaching through problem solving, (c) organizing departments for
efficient operation, (d) teaching farm mechanics effectively, (e) using the
F.F.A. for the purpose intended, (f) stressing the value of local advisory
committees, (g) planning the summer work of the agriculture teacher, and
(h) using the awarding of Star Chapter Farmer certificates as a motivating
Enrollment increased by 418 students and five departments were added,
but there is need for a greater number of Adult Farmer and Young Farmer
classes. To stimulate enrollment and instructional improvement at all
levels, a long-range developmental program, including yearly attainment
goals, will be developed during the annual staff conference.
Fifty-nine teachers were active in the Civil Defense Adult Education pro-
gram and the number is expected to grow. Pilot programs in operation
include a full-time instructor for adult farmers in one county, a program
at the state prison, a department for retarded boys in which training for
work in nurseries is emphasized, a part-time work program with place-
ments concentrated in dairies, and a special adult vocational agriculture
class in marketing. The pilot program with Young Farmer classes will
be completed this year.
The pilot program in distributive education has been moderately success-
ful in demonstrating an alternative plan for providing cooperative distri-
butive education. However, it will be thoroughly evaluated before the
plan is more widely adopted. An experimental high school program with
placements entirely in wholesaling is being planned in cooperation with
the Central Florida Wholesalers' Organization. Other courses under
consideration include executive housekeeping, designed to offer a new
career to middle-aged women, and apost-high school program in res-
Additional emphasis was placed upon career objectives in high school
programs, and course materials for related study classes were developed
in marketing and in factors affecting distribution.
Coordinators participated in a follow-up study of 1960 graduates. It is
believed the survey will provide information of considerable worth in
evaluating high school programs.
In the area of homemaking education, it was believed that all textbook
adoptions should be reviewed and that out-of-date texts should be re-
placed by current materials. Criteria were developed for use by the
State Textbook Committee in selecting appropriate books for adoption.
A total of 353 FHA and NHA chapters having a combined membership of
16, 425 students were in operation during the year.
The high school enrollment in vocational homemaking classes numbered
41, 127, an increase of almost 4, 400 over last year. Attendance in adult
classes also rose by almost 3,300 over the 17,800 enrolled in 1959-60
while twenty-six vocational programs were added to last year's total.
Over 112, 000 home projects were completed, six in ten in the areas
of clothing and textiles, food and nutrition, and housing.
During the year, emphasis was again placed upon improving the quality
of the adult program. Beginning with the 1961 summer workshop, how-
ever, greater attention will be directed to curriculum revision, to work-
ing with guidance personnel directly and through individual teachers, to
participation in research activities, and to promoting AVA membership.
Increased interest in high school vocational industrial preparatory
programs was demonstrated. Bay, Brevard, Broward, Dade, Duval,
Jackson, Manatee, Pinellas, Polk, and Sarasota Counties are among
those in which new comprehensive high school programs were developed
or are being considered.
Evening trade extension classes in commercial food preparation, school
bus driver and -maintenance training, -and vocational -techiTca.l educa-
tion grew rapidly while those in commercial vehicle driver training,
supervisory training, and peace officers' training registered normal
Adult preparatory programs, R. E. A. job and safety training, and
training classes for the fishing industry continued at about last year's
level, but a decided decrease in classes and enrollment occurred in
apprentice related instruction, in-plant training, and railroad training.
During the past year, it was almost impossible to expand the total pro-
gram because of the legislative "freeze" on state monies for most adult
vocational classes. However, that restriction was relaxed somewhat
by the 1961 legislature and it is believed sufficient funds will be avail-
able to meet the needs of industrial education next year.
Additional emphasis will be placed upon apprenticeship related instruction,
basic electronics and mechanical drafting, supervisory training, training
for trades in which minority groups can find employment, and for occupa-
tions providing jobs for girls and women.
Recruitment of good teachers in the building, electrical, and mechanical
trades and in certain service occupations continues to be a problem. A
comprehensive survey of the educational status of all full-time industrial
education teachers was completed which will enable the State Department
and the teacher-training institutions to provide a more effective program
of teacher preparation.
An agreement between a hospital and school concerning the use of hospital
facilities and resources for the training of practical nurses should be a
legal contract. This was the opinion of the consultants, an assistant
attorney general and the deputy director of the Florida Industrial Commis-
sion, at a special meeting of hospital and vocational school administrators
called to discuss the liability of schools, teachers, students, and hospitals
or other agencies involved in the training of practical nurses.
An instructional handbook for beginning teachers in practical nursing is
in preparation. It will contain certain fundamentals of instruction as
applied to practical nursing, a description of the organization and adminis-
tration of vocational education at the state and county levels, recommended
minimum standards for practical nursing programs, and sample report
The public vocational school system is operating twenty-one preparatory
practical nursing programs in fourteen counties. One is a high school
program and the balance are day programs for adults. Forty-two full-
time registered nurse instructors, including a teacher-coordinator, are
employed by the counties. With the opening of two new programs in
September and the expansion of existing programs, the faculty will have
doubled in six years, rising from twenty-three to forty-six. During the
same period, the number of programs will have risen from twelve to
twenty-three. Well over six in ten of the teachers have been in the
program from three to nine years and approximately half have a bacca-
Program expansion is occurring in two ways, namely, by increasing the
number of classes annually and by admitting more students to each class
and employing an additional teacher. However, the recent action of the
legislature requiring the achievement of a minimum score of 500 on the
National Teacher Examination or its equivalent before any but a tempor-
ary or provisional teaching certificate is issued may affect teacher
Sixteen school centers provided thirty-six technical curricula during
the year. Eight of these, with twelve curricula, were high schools and
the remainder were junior colleges. In addition, a post-high school
technical center offering preparatory and extension training was established
at Ft. Lauderdale. A number of vocational schools have enlarged their pro-
grams to include technical training, particularly as part of their evening
extension work. One section of the state has developed a school providing
specialized vocational-technical training for secondary students and adults
of a seven-county area.
Most trainees are enrolled in electricity; electronics; machine drafting;
civil, chemical, mechanical, and missile technology; aeronautics; and
instrumentation. The development of common objectives, curriculum
content, instructional organization, and extension services would be of
great assistance in enlarging programs.
Every effort will be made to obtain experienced instructors and supervisors,
particularly for the post-high school program, and more extension or short
courses will be provided.
A number of additional junior colleges may introduce technical programs
during the coming year and new courses will probably be offered by those
already providing programs. Preparatory work in technical electronics
will also be offered for the first time at the new adult technical center
in St. Petersburg. It is believed that other centers will soon consider
the provision of such services.
2. Significant Legislation
The 1959 state legislature seriously restricted the growth of vocational
education for adults by "freezing" the number of Minimum Foundation
Program special instructional units available for adult classes at the
March, 1959, level. All services except Vocational Agriculture were
The 1961 legislature was more liberal in its stipulations. Unit increases
in industrial-technical education and distributive-cooperative education
were authorized for the 1961-62 school year, but were "frozen" at that
level for the second year of the biennium. However, units for adult
classes in vocational agriculture and vocational home economics were
"frozen" at the 1960-61 level although no restrictions were placed upon
the expansion of high school programs. Hence, there is provision for
some growth in all sections.
Another law, becoming effective July 1, provides that only a provisional
or a temporary teaching certificate may be issued to any full-time
teacher making a score of less than 500 on the National Teacher Examina-
tion or an equivalent comprehensive examinationapproved by the State
Board of Education.
Until this requirement is met, a teacher will not receive the full salary
to which he is entitled by his educational preparation and experience. As
a result, the recruiting of able teachers may be further complicated.
However, in spite of temporary reverses, vocational education in Florida
will continue to grow. The influx of people, the expansion of agriculture
and industry, the demand for distributive and related services create a
growing need for this -kind of training, the importance of which is being
increasingly recognized by the community.
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A. ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF YEAR 1960-61
The composition, duties, and responsibilities of the staff remained the
same during the year. Accomplishments are described in detail in the
four copies of the Future Farmer magazine and the twelve issues of the
monthly Agricultural Newsletter. Copies of these publications have been
sent to the U. S. Office of Education and to the State Director's office.
However, the following summarize some of the most significant achieve-
ments of the year.
1. Areas of Emphasis in the 1960-61 Program of Work
During the agricultural staff meeting in August, 1960, it was decided
that particular attention should be given to improving the following
aspects of instruction.
a. Promote the operating efficiency of multi-teacher departments.
Twenty-nine multi-teacher departments were in operation in 1960-61,
and the number will increase to thirty-five in 1961-62. In such depart-
ments, emphasis has been placed upon assigning definite duties to
each instructor, but delegating major responsibilities to one. The
Program Standards bulletin identifies a number of desirable factors,
conditions, and qualities which are essential for the success of multi-
teacher departments. Several personnel shifts resulted from the
inability of two teachers to work cooperatively. This, however,
remains a problem.
b. Teach vocational agriculture through problem solving.
The guide for developing courses of instruction was revised by a
group of agriculture teachers attending a 1960 summer school work-
shop conducted by Mr. W. T. Loften. A five-year development
plan for New Port Richey was organized by Mr. Dean Griffin, the
agriculture teacher of that community. Objectives were established
for each section and a four-year schedule of jobs to be taught each
class each month was developed for achieving these purposes.
Copies of the plan have been duplicated and distributed to all agri-
culture teachers. It will be used as a basis for discussion at the
September planning conferences.
The Rural Development Program was emphasized as a source to
which teachers should turn in identifying problems and establish-
ing objectives reflecting specific community needs.
c. Organize departments and facilities for efficient operation.
Criteria for determining the effectiveness of departmental operation
have been established cooperatively by the staff. These criteria are
included in the yearly program of work of each teacher.
d. Teach farm mechanics effectively.
The importance of all areas of farm mechanics was emphasized. A
four-year instructional program has been developed and distributed
to teachers to help them budget theiO teaching time more effectively.
The importance of making farm surveys in keeping farm mechanics
instruction practical was constantly emphasized and a simple survey
form has been distributed to achieve this purpose.
Teachers are being urged to encourage each student to develop a farm
mechanics calendar of projects to be completed annually, based upon
an analysis of the farm survey.
Twelve clinics in agricultural welding and ornamental horticulture
were held during the summer of 1961. There appears to be increas-
ing interest in this type of training for in-service teachers.
e. Use the F.F.A, for the purpose intended.
Every student must have a satisfactory farming program to partici-
pate in the various activities for which awards are given. In Florida,
approximately fifty different awards for outstanding accomplishment
in various phases of the instructional program are listed in the
"Awards Bulletin". Record keeping is required for participation
in Fat Stock Shows and to be eligible for advanced degrees.
Reports from six different teachers on six sections of the Record
Book were presented at the annual summer conference. These
stimulated much interest among teachers and the discussions will
be continued in district conferences in September and January.
f. Continue to stress the value of local advisory committees.
Sixty-seven local advisory committees, authorized by county school
boards, are functioning. The principal and a local school board
representative are consultant members of the committee which has
no administrative prerogatives. However, such committees have
been very helpful in improving program effectiveness. In several
instances the program has grown to such an extent that an additional
teacher will be needed in 1961-62. On the other hand, some cases of
dissatisfaction with the teacher have developed in communities not
having advisory committees.
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g. Planned summer work of the agriculture teacher.
It is recommended by the area supervisors that the summer program
of teachers be carefully planned and that copies of the plan be sub-
mitted to the principal and county superintendent. There is little
evidence that teachers generally are doing this, although Mr. Ed.
Raikes at Fort Pierce annually presents an excellent accomplish-
ment report to his principal and school board.
h. Use the awarding of Star Chapter Farmer certificates by the Florida
Bankers' Association Agriculture Committee as a motivating device.
It is intended that this award will be made by the local banker at
the annual F.F.A. Banquet. This gives special recognition to
the outstanding Chapter Farmer and is an incentive to other boys
to have high quality supervised farming programs. Sixty certi-
ficates were awarded by local bankers last year at the annual
banquets. In some cases award winners were also presented with
a savings account.
2. Other Developments, Accomplishments, and Problems
a. Based on preliminary reports received from all teachers, the
enrollment in All-Day, Adult Farmer, and Young Farmer
classes totaled 14, 285 of which 9, 817 were white students and
4, -468 were Negroes. Hence, there was an increase of 418
over the previous year. The following data show the number of
students and departments meeting supervised farming require-
ments during the past fiscal year.
Total Number of Departments 200
Total Enrollment 14, 285
Total Number of Teachers 231
New Agricultural Buildings and/or Classrooms 14
b. The department at Callahan in Nassau County was discontinued.
c. The Speaker as well as the Speaker pro tern of the House of Repre-
sentatives of the 1961 Florida Legislature were former vocational
d. The 2 per cent quota of candidates for the State Farmer degree
was reached and it was necessary to reduce the total number of
applications to 171. Forty-seven per cent of all chapters sub-
mitted acceptable applications and only one district failed to
reach or exceed its quota. The total labor income of the State
Farmer candidates was $427, 879.89. Statistics on the State Farmer
candidates are shown on page 4 of the July, 1961, Newsletter.
e, Agriculture teachers are required to follow State Plan regulations
in enrolling eighth grade students.
f. Teachers are continuing to improve in their use of laboratory plots
and school farms in teaching students approved farm management
practices and in providing them with opportunities to make mana-
gerial decisions. Land laboratories are also being used to supple-
ment the individual farming programs of pupils.
g. In the placement of students for farm experience, the educational
benefits to be derived are increasingly emphasized.
h. It is anticipated that a practical State Program of Work will be
formulated at the annual meeting of the state staff to be held
August 30 September 1.
For example, there is need for a greater number of Adult Farmer
and Young Farmer classes. It is believed that a series of targets
for annual increases in these enrollments can be established which
will result in a long-term program of expansion. A paper descrih-
ing this plan for yearly and cumulative. iniprovement has already .
been submitted to the State Director.
However, if goals are to be reached, additional effort will be needed
to achieve the following:
(1) Instilling greater faith and dedication in teachers and making
them more aware of the importance of vocational education
in agriculture so that they will exercise more imagination
and initiative in the training of high quality future citizens
(2) Recruiting students who need and can benefit from voca-
tional agriculture and developing a better and more sympa-
thetic understanding of the purposes of agricultural educa-
tion on the part of guidance counselors
(3) Developing complete programs of vocational agriculture
for each community and organizing instruction in terms
of human and natural community needs.
Frequently the program of instruction has a tendency to be more
academic than vocational. Problems in the redevelopment of human
and natural resources must be recognized in their proper setting
as challenges to do constructive work rather than as obstacles
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3. Teacher Training
a. In recruiting potential vocational agriculture teachers, the follow-
ing are among the most common procedures employed:
(1) Visits to high schools by members of the teacher-training
and supervisory staff to make talks to seniors in agriculture
in which emphasis is placed upon opportunities in the teach-
ing of vocational agriculture and upon other agricultural
(2) Conferences with teachers of vocational agriculture on how
to counsel with high school boys regarding opportunities
in teaching vocational agriculture.
(3) Meeting with State Farmer applicants during the State F.F.A.
(4) Encouraging students in agricultural education at the Uni-
versity of Florida to appear before high school groups to
discuss opportunities in vocational agriculture and in
other agricultural occupations as part of the service pro-
vided by the Student Speaker's Bureau of the College of
(5) Securing the names of Future Farmers when they register
in the freshman year, following up these students by inviting
them to Collegiate Chapter meetings, and counseling with
them on problems
(6) Participation in the annual College of Agriculture Fresh-
man Barbeque by a member of the Collegiate F.F.A.
(7) Participation in the Career Day of the College of Agricul-
ture by Collegiate Chapter members and staff personnel.
b. All graduates in agricultural education are placed in teaching
positions, in other types of work, or they enroll for graduate
c. No changes were made in professional agricultural education
courses, but considerable revision was made in the technical
areas. The following outline for both the University College
(which includes the freshman and sophomore years) and the
College of Agriculture (including the junior and senior years)
shows the changes in technical agriculture courses.
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Basic Curriculum--Freshman and Sophomore Years
Courses First Semester
Reading, Speaking &
Military Science &
Electives in Agriculture
Credits Courses Second Semester
4 C-12 American Institutions
C-32 Reading, Speaking &
4 BLY 181 General Zoology
3 CY 217 General Chemistry &
3 Qualitative Analysis
4 C- 42 Fundamental
4 C-52 Humanities
3-4 AS 201 Prin. of Ag. Econ.
Total Credits 64
1One hour must be taken each semester.
*Elective courses must have the approval of the Dean of the College of Agriculture.
The following courses have been approved as suitable electives in Agriculture:
ACY 208, AS 306 or 308, AG 306, AY 221, AL 309, BCY 300, BTY 211 or 280,
DY 211, EY 203, 307, EDF 245, FY 313, FT 201, FC 201, OH 203 or 217, PT 321,
PY 201, SLS 310-311, VC 212.
Curriculum--College of Agriculture--68 Credits
Core Requirements--20 Credits
Areas of Study
SCH 201 or equivalent
EH 255, JM 420, Mod. Lang. or equivalent
AXT 301, SY 201, PSY 206, ES 201 or equivalent
MS 325, 105, or equivalent
PS 109-110, or 201-207, or equivalent
CY 218 or equivalent
*Vo-Ag majors, see Head of Department for appropriate substitutions.
**Substitutions for chemistry may be from the Biological, Physical & Social
Sciences or Mathematics areas for students majoring in Agricultural Econ. (AS),
Ag. Engineering (AG), or Ag. Business Specialization. Students who have
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Other Requirements and Electives--48 Credits
Requirements and electives in student's major department Min. 15--max. 26
Requirements or electives selected from at least five
agricultural departments other than student's major 15
Free and approved electives 7-15
Total Credits 68
d. To improve student teaching, the following has been done:
(1) Workshops for supervising teachers are held on methods and pro-
cedures for directing student teachers in local departments
(2) The program for supervising student teachers in local departments
is changed as new needs and requirements develop
(3) Student teachers spend more time in local departments of vocational
agriculture participating in the total program
(4) Students are required to spend more time visiting boys and helping
them with their supervised farming programs
(5) More time is spent with student teachers in helping them plan for
e. In-service training consists of:
(1) Visits to all first-year men once or twice during the year to follow
up the pre-service training
(2) Clinics in various subject areas
(3) The provision of four graduate courses annually consisting of a
single course each semester and a three-week and an eight-week
course during the summer
(4) The preparation and distribution of teaching materials.
4. Publications of the Section
One new publication was developed and published during the 1960-61 fiscal
year. The title of this bulletin is Filing Systems for Local Vocational
Agriculture Departments, Bulletin 72F-3. It will be distributed to all
vocational agriculture teachers and discussed at the 1961 fall conferences.
The Future Farmer magazine and the monthly Newsletter were published
as usual and in the same quantities.
previously completed the minimum requirements listed for a specific area
of the curriculum core may make appropriate substitutions within the area;
or they may substitute other electives approved by their counselors.
5. Special Studies Relating to Agricultural Education
A number of special studies were completed by graduate students at the
University of Florida under the direction of the head teacher trainer.
The pilot program with Young Farmer classes, established as a two-
year research program, will be completed this year. It is directed
by Mr. G. C. Norman and Mr. W. T. Loften.
6. Pilot Programs
A number of pilot programs have been established to serve specialized
a. In Lafayette County a teacher has been employed who devotes his
entire time to providing instruction for adult farmers.
b. An instructional program has been developed at the Raiford State
Prison to assist in rehabilitating prisoners who are interested
c. A department for retarded boys has been established in Pinellas
County in which training for work in nurseries is emphasized.
d. A special program in which students are placed primarily on
dairies for farm experience has been established in Manatee
County. The pupils spend the morning in school, as in a DCT
program, and work in dairies in the afternoon under the special
supervision of the teacher of agriculture.
e. A special adult vocational agriculture course in marketing at
Trenton has been very successful and plans have been developed
for providing similar instruction to other groups in the state.
B. PLANS FOR DEVELOPMENT
1. Features :of the Prograrm io.be Added or Re-emphasized
a. All departments of vocational agriculture in Districts I, III, and
V will be evaluated by the area supervisors in 1961-62.
The programs in half the districts are evaluated each year. A
list of recommendations is submitted whenever the, supervisor
visits the teacher and a copy is given to the school principal. On
each occasion the supervisor discusses the recommendations with
the principal if he is available for a conference.
b. Proceedings of the 1961 state teachers' conference will be published
and distributed to the vocational agriculture teachers. The theme
of the conference was "Vocational Agriculture in the Sixties. "
c. Ninety-three of 155 chapters, or 60 per cent, were cited for recogni-
tion as Superior F. F. A. Chapters at the 1961 annual State F. F. A.
Convention. Efforts will be made to increase this number during the
next fiscal year.
d. Along-range program of work indicating the stage of development
which should be reached by 1970 will be established during the
annual staff conference. An objective chart showing desirable
yearly improvement goals will also be developed.
e. The clinics begun by the Lincoln Arc Welding Company in the summer
of 1960 will be completed this summer. It is anticipated that approxi-
mately half the teachers will conduct a five-week Adult Farmer class
in arc welding as applied to agriculture.
f. The success of the adult class in marketing has demonstrated the
value of placing more emphasis upon this important phase of agri-
culture. It is proposed that extension classes be organized by
districts so that teachers can obtain the additional training needed
for the job.
Commissioner of Agriculture, Doyle Conner, and Agriculture Exten-
sion Director, Marshall Watkins, are urging all agricultural agencies
to concentrate upon helping farmers to market their products more
g. Agriculture teachers were very active in the civil defense program
last year. It is anticipated that this interest will not only continue
but grow. A letter from Mr. George Davis, CDAE Consultant,
contains the following statement:
During the current fiscal year, the Civil Defense Adult Educa-
tion program has been introduced into 41 counties.... All of
this year's counties were either medium-sized or small
counties, with the majority being the latter.
Due to the complete cooperation and assistance of your
staff, local agricultural teachers, local agricultural
agents, local home demonstration agents, and local soil
conservation directors, only one county rejected the pro-
gram during the current year. Incidentally, 59 vocational
agricultural teachers have been trained and certified to
teach local classes.
In applying what they had learned, a number of local F. F. A. chapters
built demonstration fallout shelters at county fairs and expositions.
C. ADDITIONAL SIGNIFICANT INFORMATION RELATING TO VOCATIONAL
1, Hurricane Donna greatly affected Florida agriculture during the past
year. Approximately a third to 40 per cent of the grapefruit crop and
6 to 10 per cent of the orange crop were lost. In addition, between 15
and 20 per cent of the citrus trees sustained injury. Damage to young
vegetables in the path of the storm was extensive. About one-third
of the fall tomato crop was destroyed and the planting of fall and winter
vegetables was greatly retarded. Cattle, however, were hardly affected.
But in spite of the ravages of nature, farm receipts showed a gros
income exceeding $825 million, the highest on record.
2. During the past fiscal year, the Vocational Agriculture Section operated
under no handicap such as curtailment of units by the state legislature.
All budgetary commitments to counties were fully met and, where cir-
cumstances warranted, some received additional funds for local pro-
However, for the next biennium the number of units available for adult
classes has been frozen at the 1960-61 level, but no restriction was
placed upon units for use in grades 1-12. Hence, that number will grow
as the need increases.
3. Sixteen special Adult Vocational Agriculture classes were approved
last year under the Minimum Foundation Program. No increase in
number is anticipated during the 1961-62 school year.
4. All applications for new departments were approved if a survey indi-
cated a need for the program in a community. The turnover of teachers
was about as great as in previous years. Approximately twenty new
teachers were employed to fill vacancies caused by resignations and
5. The state supervisor and all staff personnel, including teacher-
trainers attended the 1961 Southern Regional Conference in Mobile,
Alabama. The information acquired was used in the 1961 State Con-
ference for Vocational Agriculture Teachers.
6. One area supervisor, three vocational agriculture teachers, and one
county coordinator attended the 1960 AVA meeting in Los Angeles.
- 18 -
Information on Supervised Farming 1960-61
Items White Negro
1. Number of individuals
2. Number of individuals
beginning farming pro-
grams previous year
3. Number of above indi-
4. Average labor income
5. Average investment in
farming per pupil
6. Average number of
per pupil or class
7. Average number of
farm visits to each
pupil or class
8. Average number of
jobs per pupil
9. Number placed for
$278. 05 $120. 20
Status of Former
All-Day Students for the State as a Whole
- 19 -
1. Number at home with definite allowance
2. Number of farm laborers with specific wages
a. At home
b. Away from home
3. Number at home with income from one or more
4. Number partners in a farm business
a. At home
b. Away from home
5. Nuijnber rentitig and operating farm
6. Number owning and operating farm
7. Number managing farm of another party
8. Number in other farming status
9. Number in occupations related to farming
10. Number in occupations not related to farming
11' Number deceased
12. Number moved out of community and not accounted
13. Number now in agricultural colleges
14. Number now in all other colleges and other
15. Number impossible to account for (not included
in item 12)
16. Total number of former students
17. Number of new cases this year
- 20 -
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A. ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF YEAR 1960-61
1. Work of Staff
The state professional staff in distributive education continues to
include the state supervisor and two area supervisors. Major
responsibilities of the staff are basically the same as outlined in
previous reports. During the past year the staff was represented
at all national, regional, and state conferences. Regular state
staff meetings were held during the year at which current problems
were dealt with and points of emphasis in program development
2. Veteran Training
No distributive education program for veterans was conducted in
Florida this year.
3. Teacher Training
Professional education courses for teachers of distributive educa-
tion were offered.by Florida State University and Florida A & M
University. Considerable progress has been made in establishing
a teacher education program for distributive education at the Uni-
versity of South Florida, Tampa. Necessary arrangements have
been made with university officials and the institution has been
approved by the State Board. New provision has been made in the
1961-62 budget for financial assistance to the university in under-
writing the salary of a teacher educator. Applications are being
screened and it is hoped that the position will be filled by early
fall. The new position will constitute a joint appointment involv-
ing the School of Business and the School of Education. The individ-
ual selected. will be responsible for developing an undergraduate
program for future distributive education coordinators, offering
in-service courses for coordinators and instructors already
employed, developing materials suitable for classroom use, and
directing needed research.
4. Important Studies or Investigations
The pilot program approved for Pinellas County high schools last
year was moderately successful in providing an alternate plan for
cooperative distributive programs. The staff decided to continue
the study for another year before determining the feasibility of
adopting the new plan for state-wide use.
Members of the staff participated in studies and surveys of dis-
tributive education program development in Duval, Escambia, and
5. Use of Advisory Committees
The Advisory Committee for Distributive Education was reorganized
during the year. An organizational meeting was held in conjunction
with the Leadership Conference in Orlando. In addition, committee
members served as judges and consultants during the conference.
Another meeting will be held early in August to consider recommen-
dations being formulated by the distributive education coordinators
B. PLANS FOR DEVELOPMENT
1. Changes in Emphasis, Nature, or Scope of Program
Following the national pattern, additional emphasis is being placed
upon career objectives in high school programs. Course content
of the related study classes has been enriched through the develop-
ment of materials giving added emphasis to the broad area of market-
ing and to factors affecting distribution.
2. Teacher Training
It is anticipated that the appointment of a full-time teacher-trainer
will mean a year of progress in teacher training for distributive
education. Certification requirements for coordinators and instruc-
tors are being studied and recommendations will be made to
strengthen and revise some of the requirements in this field.
3. Evaluation of State and Local Programs
Coordinators throughout the state participated in a follow-up study
of 1960 graduates this spring. The data should provide information
of much worth in evaluating high school programs.
4. Improvement of Relations with Business Groups and Schools
Working relationships with various business and educational organi-
zations throughout the state have been strengthened. The state
supervisor has been appointed to an advisory committee selected
by the Hotel and Restaurant Commissioner to give direction to an
educational program being sponsored by the commission. The
furniture organizations in the state, both wholesale and retail,
have volunteered their assistance in promoting distributive edu-
cation. State and national wholesale organizations are also
offering their active support for the coming year. It is believed that
additional valuable contacts will be made through the newly-formed
5. New or Additional Kinds of Courses or Groups to be Trained
An experimental high school program is being planned in which place-
ments will be made entirely in the area of wholesaling. This program
will be organized at Edgewater High School, Orlando, and will involve
the close cooperation of the coordinator and the Central Florida Whole-
salers' Organization. A substantial financial contribution has been
made by the organization to promote the program.
A course in executive housekeeping is being considered which is
designed to offer a new career to middle-aged women. A post-high
school program in restaurant management is also being planned in
Dade County for the coming year.
C. ADDITIONAL SIGNIFICANT INFORMATION
The 1961 Florida Legislature lifted the "freeze" on appropriations for
distributive education. Consequently, some additional expansion will
be possible. All available units have been granted for the coming year
and five new high school programs have been approved.
Last year the first state DECA Leadership Conference was held. It
proved very successful. Participants in the national DECA Conference
included seven coordinators and fifteen students. These two conferences
stimulated much interest among both coordinators and students.
D. WORK IN TRAINING FOR DISTRIBUTIVE FISHERY OCCUPATIONS
No training was offered in distributive fishery occupations.
E. WORK WITH NON-REIMBURSABLE DISTRIBUTIVE PROGRAMS
The diversified cooperative training program in Florida includes many
high school students who are preparing for employment in distributive
fields. It is operated under Minimum Foundation Program state and
local funds. Members of the staff work with DCT coordinators in
planning related study for the distributive occupations.
- 23 -
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HOME ECONOMICS EDUCATION
A. ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF YEAR 1960-61
1. Work of Staff
The staff of the Home Economics Section and its duties and respon-
sibilities were much the same as in previous years.
State staff members attended a variety of local, state, and national
meetings, workshops, and clinics where they served in numerous
capacities. Included among these were pre-school planning confer-
ences in nineteen counties and several professional workshops.
Homemaking education teachers met for their annual convention at
Clearwater with 374 in attendance. A part of the meeting was devoted
to a symposium on the White House Conference on Children and Youth
and the implications of the findings for home economics education.
The state conference for teachers of homemaking education in Negro
schools vwas& held at Bethune-Cookman College, Daytona Beacih. The
conference theme, "The Role of Homemaking in the Total Educational
Program, was developed by several speakers for 126 teachers.
The theme of the 16th state convention of the Florida Association of
New Homemakers of America was "Home Economics The-iKey to
a Successful Home. The primary objectives were (a) to show the
basic educational value of home economics, (b) to encourage greater
respect for and deeper understanding of all peoples, (c) to emphasize
the role of NHA in developing better family membership, and (d) to
promote home economics as a foundation for the future. The con-
ference was attended by 170 delegates, eighty-five local advisors,
three county supervisors, three area supervisors and the state
The Florida Association of Future Homemakers of America had as
its theme "Launching YOur Values. The banquet was attended by
750 state, county and local educators. It featured an address by Dr.
Lawrence Derthick, Assistant Executive Secretary of the National
It was believed that all textbook adoptions in homemaking should be
reviewed and that up-to-date texts should be adopted by the State
Textbook Committee. At the request of the committee, the state
supervisor called a meeting of teachers and county and area super-
visors to develop criteria for use in selecting books for adoption.
Area supervisors participated in committees which reviewed existing
programs of vocational, adult, and related educational services in
Escambia and Hillsborough Counties and made recommendations for
needed improvements and expansion.
One staff member assisted with workshops in the areas of housing,
family nursing, food and nutrition, clothing construction, and FHA
activities. Additional workshops in other instructional areas have
been requested. Approval was granted by the Courses of Study
Committee for a comprehensive curriculum workshop to be held
during the summer of 1961.
Another staff member participated in a conference sponsored by the
Division of Instructional Services of the State Department of Edu-
cation in which the total educational program of one county was re-
Members of the staff have devoted much time to the accreditation
program which will be included in the revised bulletin, Standards for
Accreditation of Florida Schools. One member is on the state
committee and the state supervisor is serving as the consultant for
home economics education.
2. Current Status of the Program
During the past year, emphasis has again been placed upon improving
the quality of the adult program, all of which is vocational.
Most high school programs have FHA or NHA chapters. Following is
a summary of their membership and activities.
Activitie s FHA NHA
Number of Chapters 253 100
Number of Members 11,778 4, 647
Number of District Meetings 9 9
Number Attending State Convention 700 262
Number Attending National Convention 19 20
Number of Magazine Issues 1 1
Number of County Councils 14 4
Number of Executive Council Meetings 4 2
- 25 -
Activities s FHA NHA
Number of Scholarships Awarded 3 1
Number of Degrees Awarded 37 1
Number of Honor Roll Chapters 24 0
Home projects were conducted in the following areas by the number of
Project Area Girls Boys
Child Care and Development 7,7,,'4'60 47
Consumer Buying 4, 052 263
Personal, Social, and Family
Relationships 6, 924 167
Health, Home Safety, and Home Care
of the Sick 4,167 116
Housing 11, 623 287
Personal Improvement 9,872 216
Home Management 5,097 93
Food and Nutrition 26,776 z22
Clothing and Textiles 28, 397 144
Gardening (Flowers and Vegetables) 2,750 268
Other 3,031 105
Totals 110, 149 1, 928
Following is a summary of additional pertinent data concerning schools,
instructional personnel, and secondary and adult enrollments.
Aspect of Program Total
Number of Schools (Vocational) 345
Number of Schools (Non-vocational) 132
- 26 -
Aspect of Program Total
Number of High School Teachers (Vocational) 514
Number of High School Teachers (Non-vocational) 311
Number of Pupils (Vocational) 41, 127
Number of Pupils (Non-vocational) 42, 287
Number of Adult Teachers 167
Number of Adults Enrolled 21, 101
A workshop was held to prepare one-page outlines in the areas of
Child Care and Development; Health, Home Safety, and Home Care
of the Sick; Housing; and Personal, Social, and Family Relationships
for uso in the adult homemaidng program. Outstanding teachers
from four counties with large adult enrollments were invited to work
with the county supervisors and members of the staff in preparing
these outlines. Teachers were chosen because of their interest in
and knowledge of the areas under discussion.
At the request of the Dean of the School of Home Economics at Florida
A and M University, a cooperative study of the undergraduate program
in home economics was made. Assisting in the study was Miss Ata Lee,
Program Specialist, Home Economics Education Branch, U. S. Office
3. Teacher Preparation and In-service Training
The faculties at Florida State and Florida A & M Universities and the
University of Miami worked cooperatively in helping prospective
homemaking teachers to use classroom and laboratory school resources
effectively. A combined total of thirty-six students was graduated dur-
ing the fiscal year.
All interns were placed in centers having vocational programs and
active chapters of the FHA or NHA. The activities in which they
engaged included (a) classroom and laboratory management, (b) work-
ing with student and departmental reports, (c) making home visitations
and guiding home projects, (d) working with FHA and NHA chapters,
(e) attending district and annual meetings of these organizations,
(f) participating in adult classes and community activities, and (g)
visiting neighboring schools to observe space allotments, equipment,
- 27 -
furnishings, and program operation.
A Master of Science degree and a combination program leading to a
Doctor of Philospphy degree in Home Economics Education is offered
at Florida State University.
Miss Neriman Sapmaa teacher-educator from Turkey, enrollUd at the
Florida State University during the spring semester. She is taking
special courses to become acquainted with additional methods, tech-
niques, and resource materials for teaching home economics.
Florida State and Florida A & M Universities are conducting self-
studies which will be helpful to the Board of Control in charting
future developments at these institutions. The faculties of the School
of Home Economics in both universities are involved in this study.
4. Cooperation with Other Groups and Organizations
The State Supervisor of Home Economics Education, the Supervisor of
the School Lunch Program, the Coordinator of Physical Education,
Health, and Recreation, and the Florida State Board of Health cooperated
in getting reports from the counties which gave specific information
about the total school health program. A committee was appointed to
evaluate the reports. The Florida Citrus Commission entertained 200
persons at an annual award dinner at which two schools received awards
for their outstanding health programs.
When federal regulations relating to federal commodities for home
economics classes were released, a meeting was held which included
the Director of Commodities Distribution, the state supervisors of
home economics and of the school lunch program, and county and school
representatives of home economics and school lunch departments. The
program was discussed and explanatory material was prepared and
sent to teachers and other interested school personnel.
The Evaporated Milk Association extended an invitation to a two-day
meeting to representatives of six southern states. The purpose of
the meeting was (1) to review and evaluate the educational program
of the association, (2) to recommend areas of home economics edu-
cation that could be supported by the association, and (3) to discuss
problems and trends in home economics teaching which pertain to
food and nutrition. The state supervisor and one county supervisor
participated in the conference.
B. PLAN FOR DEVELOPMENT
According to the evaluation committee of the Southern Regional Con-
ference, the value of the meetings would be demonstrated by the
- 28 -
activities of participants when they returned to their respective states.
Consequently, the state supervisor, area supervisors, county super-
visors, and teacher-educators developed the following areas of emphasis
a. Incorporation of ideas on curriculum revision in the workshop
scheduled for June and July, 1961
b. Cooperation with state and local guidance personnel and pro-
viding assistance to home economics teachers in working with
c. Involvement in research studies giving direction to the program
d. Promotion of AVA membership.
C. ADDITIONAL SIGNIFICANT INFORMATION
1. Human Interest Stories
"Achievement in Family Relationships may be measured in a
number of ways. One area, Self-Understanding, is often particu-
larly challenging to teen-agers who are having problems in intra-
personal relationships, adjustments, conforming and the like.
Occasionally, quite unexpectedly, through the student, a friend
or parent, improvement in outlook, values, or understanding is
revealed which has benefited both the student and his family.
Following is an example of a dramatic experience in this field.
In class (a boy of above average intelligence) was often intense,
inquiring, skeptical, attentive. When assigned to write one of
a series of Logs (an activity designed for self-expression and
evaluation), he poured out his innermost problems. These
dealt with his lack of adjustment in school and also at home
where he felt he was overlooked, being the third of four boys,
misunderstood, and criticized. The result was a maladjusted,
confused boy having low grades who was an attention-seeker in
class and was unpopular with classmates and most of his teachers
because of his poor attitude.
"Several weeks later he invited me to his home for a visit. It
developed that his mother had found and read his Log and, though
upset at first, realized and for the first time fully understood and
was sympathetic with his problems. This resulted in a change in
family attitudes -- and a change in himj Now I see him occasion-
ally and his cynical expression has become happier and less-
pinched. And during the last six weeks he made the Honor Roll "
- 29 -
"One of our girls lost her mother in death. She and her father
were left alone and she found herself bewildered by household
responsibilities. We set to work and made out a time schedule
for her complete day. She and her father feel this has been a
tremendous aid to them. "
- 30 -
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TRADE AND INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION
A. ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF YEAR 1960-61
1. Work of Staff
Professional staff personnel and their duties, responsibilities, and
work procedures remained virtually unchanged during the year.
Staff members attended national, regional, and state conventions
in which program trends, philosophies, and issues were reviewed.
Attention was also given to state activities and problems in periodic
2. Operation of Schools and Classes
An increase occurred in high school day trade programs and in
certain evening trade extension classes such as commercial food
preparation, school bus driver and maintenance training, and
vocational-technical education. Normal growth was experienced
in commercial vehicle driver training, supervisory training and
peace officers' training.
No increase, but no large decrease, was noted in adult preparatory
programs, R. E. A. job and safety training, and in training for fish-
ing industries. However, definite decreases in classes and enroll-
ment were observed in apprentice related instruction, in-plant
training, and railroad training. No part-time general continuation
or part-time trade preparatory classes were operated.
Increased interest in high school preparatory programs was demon-
strated by the development of comprehensive high schools in several
additional centers. Bay, Brevard, Broward, Dade, Duval, Jackson,
Manatee, Pinellas, Polk, and Sarasota counties are among those in
which new high school programs were established or are being con-
3. Work in Training of Teachers
College credit extension courses were again held in thirteen centers
during the year, and summer school sessions were conducted at
Florida State and Florida A & M Universities.
The General Motors Corporation offered a course for teachers of
automotive mechanics at its training center in Jacksonville. Other
manufacturers contacted for similar types of technical instruction
include the Philco Corporation, the Lincoln-Mercury Division of the
Ford Motor Company, and the Chrysler Corporation.
- 31 -
The State Coordinator of Instructional Problems is primarily res-
ponsible for in-service teacher training of a non-credit type. A
teacher self-evaluation instrument was developed and introduced in
a number of centers during the year. Local school personnel were
oriented in its use by the State Coordinator in a series of faculty
meetings. A follow-up study to determine the effectiveness of the
instrument will be conducted next year.
4. Cooperation With Other Groups and Organizations
Particular mention should be made of the close association main-
tained with the Florida Industrial Commission, the Florida State
Employment Service, the Florida Development Commission, the
Florida Apprenticeship Council, the Florida Department of Appren-
ticeship, the Veterans' Administration, the Bureau of Apprentice-
ship and Training, and the Vocational Rehabilitation Division.
The state supervisor, as an ex-officio member, and other staff
personnel took part in all meetings of the State Apprenticeship
Council during the year.
5. Use of Advisory Committees
State advisory committees in trade and industrial education and
in affiliated areas such as supervisory and management training
continued to be active.
The emphasis upon increased use of local general advisory and
craft committees resulted in the formation of additional such lay
groups. State staff members provided much assistance to the
counties in this endeavor.
6. Special Studies
Among the surveys conducted during the year was a cooperative study
by state and local personnel of the administrative and supervisory
organization of vocational education in Escambia and Hillsborough
Counties, including the development of plans for program expansion.
A comprehensive survey was made of the educational status of
all full-time industrial education teachers. It is believed the data
will enable the State Department and teacher-training institutions
to provide a more effective program of teacher preparation.
- 32 -
B. PLANS FOR DEVELOPMENT
1. Expansion of Existing Programs
Two new vocational-technical high schools were completed during the
year. One was the Dillard High School at Fort Lauderdale and the
other the Dixie Hollins High School at St. Petersburg. Existing pro-
grams at the Titusville High School (Titusville) and the Palatka High
School (Palatka) were enlarged. Electronics, auto mechanics, and
drafting were the most prominent areas of expansion.
Evening trade extension classes grew at a normal, unspectacular
Any large expansion of the total program was almost impossible
because of the legislative "freeze" on state funds for most adult
vocational classes. A large proportion of the federal appropria-
tion was used to reimburse counties for the salaries of teachers
having new classes.
2. New Programs to be Promoted
Additional emphasis will be placed upon the following types of
a. Apprenticeship related instruction in smaller population
b. Basic electronics and mechanical drafting to assist trainees
in obtaining employment as lower-level technicians
c. Supervisory training
d. Training for trades such as food preparation, cosmetology,
barbering, dry cleaning and laundering, shoe repair, and the
hotel trades in which minority groups can find employment
e. Training for occupations in which girls and woman may get jobs.
3. Supervision for Training of Veterans
Supervision of veterans' training is a special function of the State
Supervisor of Adult and Veteran Education. However, the Industrial
Education Section works closely with this office and the Veterans
Administration in revising courses approved for veterans and in
re-evaluating their institutional training.
4. Improvement of Teacher Training Service
More on-the-job, in-service teacher training of a non-credit, non-
scheduled type will be provided in close conjunction with local super-
vision of instruction.
Institutional teacher training will continue to be largely a campus and
extension credit program for securing and upgrading teaching certi-
ficates and obtaining baccalaureate and graduate degrees. The Uni-
versity of South Florida has been approved by the State Board as an
industrial education teacher-training institution.
5. Area Trade Schools
Only one vocational school serves as a multi-county center. The
remainder are operated by individual counties.
6. Vocational Technical Schools
Six high schools, three vocational schools, and eight junior colleges
provide technical preparatory courses below college grade. In
addition, ten vocational schools and three junior colleges conduct
extension courses for employed technicians or technician trainees.
The most prominent areas of training are electricity; electronics;
machine drafting; civil, chemical, mechanical, and missile tech-
nology; aeronautics; and instrumentation.
C. ADDITIONAL SIGNIFICANT INFORMATION
1. In the name of economy and because of the critical attitude of some
legislators toward the use of state funds for training adults, the 1959
Florida Legislature froze appropriations for most adult vocational
services at the 1959 level for the biennium. This was tantamount
to an appropriation cut. As a result, a large part of the total pro-
gram was severely handicapped during the past year.
It is estimated that the loss to industrial education was approximately
$285, 000 in state funds and it was necessary to use federal and local
monies to bridge this gap. Fortunately the 1961 legislature relaxed
the "freeze" and provided an increased state appropriation adequate to
meet the needs of industrial education for the next year.
2. Census figures for 1960 demonstrate Florida's phenomenal population
growth and the accelerated industrial trend in Bay, Brevard, Broward,
Charlotte, Dade, Duval, Escambia, Hillsborough, Manatee, Okaloosa,
- 34 -
Orange, Palm Beach, Pinellas, Polk, Sarasota, and Volusia Counties.
3. More student placements and greater use of advisory and craft committees
show that labor and management approve of the training being given.
4. Among the trends which are influencing industrial education in Florida
are the following:
a. Comprehensive high school programs are growing in number
b. Technical education is continuing to develop
c. The status of adult preparatory training is unchanged
d. Veterans' training is declining
e. Evening and part-time trade extension programs are growing
f. Recruitment of good teachers continues to be a problem, parti-
cularly in the building, electrical, and mechanical trades, and
in certain service occupations.
5. As a result, it is believed that the total program of industrial
education can be expected to grow at an annual rate of approxi-
mately seven per cent.
- 35 -
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PRACTICAL NURSE EDUCATION
A. ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF YEAR 1960-61
1. Work of State and Local Staffs
Five regional conferences on the "Effective Use of the Practical
Nurse Through Understanding" were held in the state. The con-
ferences were organized to promote a greater understanding among
hospital and nursing personnel of what the practical nurse is pre-
pared to do and how she functions in relation to other groups
sharing in patient care. They were developed with the help of a
state planning committee representing seven allied medical and
nursing groups concerned with the problem and with the assistance
of the Coordinator of Supervisory and Leadership Training of the
State Department of Education. Consultants for the conferences
were Vivian Culver, Executive Secretary, North Carolina State
Board of Nursing; Adele Butts, Instructor, Durham Industrial
Center, Durham, North Carolina; and Marion McKenna, Educa-
tional Director, Florida State Board of Nursing. A total of 327
"A Position Description for the Licensed Practical Nurse" was
developed by the state coordinator and used at the regional con-
ferences. Copies have been distributed to instructors and supplied
to many others from whom requests were received.
A special committee of hospital and vocational school administra-
tors was appointed by the chairman of the State Advisory Committee
on Practical Nurse Education to discuss various aspects of the liabil-
ity, of schools, teachers, students, and hospitals or other agencies
as they relate to the training of practical nurses. Consultants for
the meeting were an assistant attorney general and the deputy direc-
tor of the Florida Industrial Commission. In the opinion of the con-
sultants, the agreement between hospital and school regarding the
use of hospital facilities and resources for educational purposes
should be a legal contract. A sample agreement defining responsi-
bilities of the school and hospital has been prepared as a guide for
the use of schools.
The film WANTED: TRAINED PRACTICAL NURSES had a more
limited circulation this year. However, the General Extension
Division of Florida reports a continued demand. In 1960-61 there
were thirty-three bookings and fifty-eight showings for a total
attendance of 2, 076. Twenty-two prints of the film have been
purchased, practically all by other states.
- 36 -
Under provisions of the State Scholarship Loan Program for Nursing
Education, Florida provides fifty $300 scholarship loans each year
for students attending approved schools of practical nursing. Since
this law Lbecame effective in 1955, 296 awards have been made.
An instructional handbook for beginning teachers is being prepared.
It includes an introduction to vocational teaching, characteristics of
education for practical nursing, organization and administration of
vocational programs at the state and county levels, and recommended
minimum standards for practical nursing programs. The appendix
contains sample forms of a type needed by schools in conducting the
2. Results Based on Evaluation Procedures
No special evaluative studies were made this year.
3. Curriculum Improvement, Coordination of Theory and Practice, New
Courses, Course Integration, and Experimental Programs
Faculties in all schools have been making progress in correlating
theory and practice earlier in the course and in employing more patient-
4. Testing and Selection of Students
All schools employ standardized aptitude tests and, in most instances,
they are administered as part of the pre-admission procedure. The
Florida State Employment Service tests are the ones most frequently
used by the schools although they are not considered entirely satis-
factory. Four schools also use supplementary tests such as the Cali-
fornia Achievement Test or the Henmon-Nelson tests of mental ability.
Two schools use the following battery: the Otis QS Mental Ability, Kuder
Preference, Bennett Test of Mechanical Comprehension, G. A. T. Read-
ing and Arithmetic Achievement, Gilford Martin Personnel Inventory,
and the Mooney Problem Check List.
Florida State Employment Service tests are used primarily because
there is no cost to the applicant.
A number of schools used achievement tests to determine the appli-
cant's educational level instead of relying upon a high school diploma
as a measure of the candidate's qualifications.
In most instances, students are selected by an admissionsccommittee
composed of the faculty, the local director of vocational education,
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the director of nursing of the cooperating hospital, and a physician
or a licensed practical nurse who is a member of the advisory
All new programs are started with the educational versus service
objective being stressed with the affiliating agency, thus eliminating
the need for partial maintenance in any form.
5. Types of Programs Offered in High Schools, Junior Colleges, and Other
Types of Schools
Pensacola Technical High School, the only high school program in the
state, started its second class at the beginning of the regular fall
term in 1960 with four students. The advisability of continuing a
high school program with such a small enrollment is open to question,
but local school authorities feel it will take some time to establish
interest and urged that it be continued for the present. It is too
early to evaluate the graduates of this program.
One new program was started in Orlando at the Orange County Voca-
tional School in the fall of 1960.
The two programs under community junior college administration
(the North Florida Junior College at Madison and the Volusia County
Community Junior College at Daytona Beach) have each graduated one
Twenty-one practical nursing preparatory programs are being operated
in fourteen counties by the public vocational school system of Florida.
All, except the one high school program, are adult day programs.
6. Staff or Faculty Reorganization and Expansions
The counties employ forty-two full-time registered nurse instructors,
an increase of four during the year. In addition, one county employs
a full-time coordinator and another a teacher-coordinator. The latter
is included in the forty-two. All clinical instructors are employed
by the public school system.
It is anticipated that with the opening of two new programs in Septem-
ber and the expansion being planned in other programs, the faculty
will have doubled in six years, rising from twenty-three to forty-six.
During the same period, the number of programs will have risen
from twelve to twenty-three,
There has been marked stability within the faculties of most s schools.
In terins of years of experience,' sixtyfoiur per .cent of the teachers
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have been in the program from three to nine years, Approximately
fifty per cent have a baccalaureate degree.
7. Extension and In-Service Courses
Extension courses were given in thirteen counties to 534 licensed
practical nurses. Eighteen registered nurses gave 830 hours of
instruction to this group.
8. Teacher Training
Teacher training for practical nurse instructors was provided by
two state universities and one private institution, namely,
Florida State and Florida A & M lUniversities and the University
The training was accomplished by three-to six-week summer sessions,
extension courses taught by itinerant teachers, and a pre-service
Two-day conferences for instructors were held in February and
Marah, 1961, to give assistance in teaching the principles of
nutrition. Consultants for the first conference were the director-
nutritionist of the Dairy Council and a regional consultant from the
State Board of Health. The consultant for the second was the head
of the Home Economics Department, Florida A & M University.
Thirty-four instructors attended one of the regional conferences on
the "Effective Use of the Practical Nurse Through Understanding".
Nine instructors attended the conference on Curriculum Development
in Practical Nurse _Education sponsored by the U. S. Office of Educa-
tion in cooperation with the National League for Nursing in Miami
Beach, May 9-13, 1961.'
Plans have been completed for a non-college credit teacher appren-
ticeship leading to certification for beginning teachers who are unable
to enroll and complete a regularly approved college course to satisfy
certification requirements. The apprenticeship period will be two
weeks in length with the time divided between the classroom and
hospital. An outline of material to be covered has been prepared to
guide both the directing and the beginning teacher.
9. Training for Health Occupations Other Than Practical Nursing
Full-time one-year preparatory programs for dental assistants were
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operated in Jacksonville, Tampa, Miami, and St. Petersburg. The
instructors were graduate and experienced dentists. A total of 117
persons were enrolled in these courses.
No other "health occupation" courses were offered.
10. Use of Advisory Committees
One meeting of the State Advisory Committee on Practical Nurse Educa-
tion was held at which the revised minimum standards for schools of
practical nursing were discussed by a member of the State Board of
Nursing. The survey report on "Florida's Graduate Practical Nurse"
was reviewed by the research and survey specialist of the State Depart-
ment of Education. In addition a discussion was held on the implica-
tions of affiliation agreements with hospitals, particularly those in
which students do not receive a partial maintenance allowance.
County advisory committees have been more active this year than in
B. PLANS FOR ANY OF THE ABOVE SUB-TOPICS
No special plans have been developed
2. Retention of Students
The drop-out rate for twenty-eight classes completing the course
during the year was 24. 4 per cent. A total of 506 students was en-
rolled in all schools on June 1, 1961.
Placement of practical nurses is not a problem. The demand for
their services exceeds the supply.
4. Expansion of Existing Programs and New Programs in Areas Not Now
Expansion of existing programs is occurring in two ways, namely, by
an increase in the number of classes admitted annually from one to
two and by enlarging the size of the class to permit the employment
of an additional instructor.
Students will be admitted to two new programs in September. One
of these is at Ft. Lauderdale in Broward County. Although classroom
- 40 -
facilities will be located in a comprehensive high school, the program
is intended for adults. The other program is in Palm Beach County
at West Palm Beach. This county plans to use classroom facilities
located in the affiliating agency which have been made available on a
fee basis by the discontinuance of the professional nurse school formerly
conducted by this hospital.
5, Accreditation by Other Than State Board for Vocational Education
There has been no change in accreditation requirements or procedures.
No public school in the state has sought accreditation by the National
Association for Practical Nurse Education and Services.
C. ADDITIONAL SIGNIFICANT INFORMATION RELATING TO THE PROGRAM
AS A WHOLE
1, Employment Opportunities
No new information of significance is available.
2. Enrollment of Men Students
There has been no marked change.
3. Attitudinal Relationships Between Affiliating Agency and the School
Hospital administrators and nursing personnel cooperating with the
public schools are very complimentary in assessing student perfor-
mance. Their chief complaint is lack of students. With but few
exceptions, excellent relationships exist between affiliating agencies
and the schools.
4. Relationship Between State Board for Vocational Education and State
Board of Nurse Examiners
The State Department of Education and, through it, the State Board
for Vocational Education enjoy excellent working relationships with
the State Board of Nursing. The most recent example of this is the
revision of the semi-annual report form used by the State Board of
Nursing for reporting statistical data and changes in the schools.
The State Coordinator for Practical Nurse Education worked with
the State Board of Nursing in revising this form to include information
desired by both agencies.
The licensing examination administered by the State Board of Nursing
- 41 -
(National Test Pool Examination) was given to 264 graduates during
the period covered by this report and approximately 88 per cent passed
5. Changes in Teacher Certification Requirements
Legislation passed during the 1961 session of the State Legislature
affects all public school teachers. The law which becomes effective
July 1, states!
No certificate other than a provisional or temporary
certificate shall be issued.., to an applicant who has
not made a score of at least five hundred (500)... on
the common examination of the National Teacher
Examinations or on a comprehensive examination
approved by the state board of education as at least
It is expected that vocational teachers will take the equivalent exami-
nation when it is made available. Until the teacher meets the above
requirement she will not receive the full salary to which she would
be entitled by her educational background and experience. It is anti-
cipated that this legislation may affect teacher recruitment.
- 42 -
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In Florida, funds other than those received under the federal voca-
tional acts are utilized in the state-wide programs of guidance.
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A. ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF YEAR 1960-61
1. Work of Staff
There has been no change in the procedure for administering and
a supervising the area vocational education program in Florida.
The Third Annual Conference for Technical Education, held in Miami,
was the major conference of the year. It was primarily concerned
with the role and responsibility of the technical teacher. Group
meetings for instructional personnel were organized in terms of the
specialized areas which they taught. These included (1) civil, con-
struction, drafting design, and machine technologies; (2) electronics,
industrial electricity, instrumentation, and data processing; and
(3) aeronautical, industrial, mechanical, and metallurgical tech-
A meeting of supervisory personnel responsible for technical educa-
tion was held to review criteria for evaluating post-high school pro-
grams. Other items discussed were technical extension programs,
teacher training, and expansion of services.
2. Official Actions
Sixteen school centers, serving both single- and multiple-county
areas, provided thirty-six technical curricula this year. Of this
number, eight were high schools which included a total of twelve
curricula in their programs for eleventh and twelfth graders. The
remainder were community junior colleges offering a total of twenty-
four technical sequences.
In addition, a post-high school technical center was established at
Ft. Lauderdale. The part-time preparatory and extension services
provided by this center have been so satisfactory that others of a
comparable type are being planned.
The offerings of many older vocational schools in the state have been
enlarged to include technical training, particularly as a part of the
evening extension program.
3. Important Studies
No studies were conducted this year.
- 44 -
4. Special Problems
To facilitate further program expansion, there is a need to develop
common objectives, curriculum content, instructional organization,
and extension services.
Increased attention will be given to the employment of experienced
technical teachers and supervisors, particularly in the post-high
school program. t
Additional opportunities will be sought for providing technical extension
or short courses. These will remain an extremely important part of
the state-wide program of technical education.
5. Experience with Different Kinds of Institutions
Three types of institutions continue to offer technical preparatory and
extension courses. These are comprehensive high schools, community
junior colleges, and vocational industrial-technical centers. The pro-
grams of each meet the criteria making them eligible for George-
Barden Title III funds.
The importance of program flexibility is frequently discussed with
school administrators. If these programs are to be successful,
instructional content must be appropriate and must be directed to
basic preparation for specific technical occupations.
6. Teacher Training
Considerable thought has been given to the need for a teacher-educa-
tion program designed specifically for technical instructors, but no
provision has yet been made for this service. However, a three-
week workshop for technical teachers will be held at the University
of Miami this summer.
7. Use of Advisory Committees
The State Advisory Committee for Technical Education held two meet-
ings this year to review program developments and make suggestions
for improving and expanding services.
The following positions and industries are represented on the advisory
'committee: President, Barfield Instrument Corporation, Miami;
Engineer, Research and In-Service Training, State Road Department,
Gainesville; Manager, Technical Services, Minneapolis-Honeywell
Regulator Corporation, St. Petersburg; General Manager, Vitro
- 45 -
Laboratories, Eglin Air Force Base; Manager, Education and Manage.
ment Development Department, The Martin Company, Orlando; Manager,
Technical Training, R. C. A. Service Company, Missile Test Project,
Patrick Air Force Base; Supervisor, Intermediate Process Improve-
ment, Chemstrand Corporation, Pensacola; Personnel Director, Pratt
and Whitney Aircraft, West Palm Beach.
S. Local advisory committees have been of much help in making surveys,
identifying instructional areas, and selecting laboratory equipment,
and they will continue to be used in planning further program develop-
B. PLANS FOR DEVELOPMENT
1. Features of the Program
The rate of program growth will probably decline, but current offerings
should improve and additional curricula will be introduced at existing
Several additional junior colleges may initiate programs during the
coming year. Included among these are Chipola Junior College,
Marianna; Gulf Coast Junior College, Panama City; and North
Florida Junior College, Madison. In addition, new courses will
probably be offered at junior college centers already conducting
technical education programs.
A new adult technical center in St. Petersburg will introduce a
technical electronics preparatory program this fall. It is antici-
pated that other centers will also consider the provision of such
services. A technical electronics laboratory for part-time pre-
paratory and technical extension students may soon be established
at West Palm Beach.
2. Program Evaluation
Evaluation procedures were the same as those used last year.
3. Additions to Plant and Equipment
New facilities or renovated laboratories have been provided for
new courses at Bradenton, Ft. Lauderdale, Miami, St. Petersburg,
Marianna, Panama City, Palatka, and Sarasota.
Each laboratory is equipped with instructional facilities which have
been carefully selected to implement the technical curriculum to be
- 46 -
4. Enlargement of Geographic Areas to be Served by Schools
Vocational-technical schools are supported by individual counties, but
students living outside the county may also attend. Community junior
colleges usually serve multi-county areas. However, one section of
the state has developed a school for secondary students and adults of
seven counties who wish to take specialized vocational-technical train-
C. ADDITIONAL SIGNIFICANT INFORMATION
1. Problems Requiring Assistance from the Office of Education
Assistance is needed in resolving the following problems:
a. Developing additional bulletins containing job descriptions and
suggested techniques for determining courses of study.
b. Developing technical laboratory facility planning guides in
basic instructional areas
c. Indentifying criteria for evaluating technical programs
d. Determining elements which are essential to an effective in-
service training program for technical instructors.