Front Cover
 Title Page
 Letter of transmittal
 Work of over-all nature in state...
 Agriculture education
 Distributive education
 Home economics education
 Trade and industrial education
 Practical nurse education
 Vocational guidance (not appli...
 Area vocational education program...

Group Title: Annual descriptive report of the Florida State Board for Vocational Education
Title: Annual descriptive report, the Florida State Board for Vocational Education ..
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00080860/00001
 Material Information
Title: Annual descriptive report, the Florida State Board for Vocational Education ..
Series Title: Bulletin
Alternate Title: Annual descriptive report, the Florida State Board for Vocational Education, vocational education program activities and accomplishments
Annual descriptive report of the Florida State Board for Vocatinal Education of vocation education program activities and accomplishments
Physical Description: v. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- State Board for Vocational Education
Florida -- Division of Vocational, Technical, and Adult Education
Florida -- Division of Vocational Education
Publisher: Division of Vocational, Technical, and Adult Education, the State Dept. of Education
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 1959-1960
Frequency: annual
Subject: Vocational education -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: 19-
Issuing Body: Some volumes issued by the division under its later name: Florida. Division of Vocational Education.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00080860
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - ALW7522
oclc - 22198026
alephbibnum - 002362953

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
    Letter of transmittal
        Page i
        Page ii
    Work of over-all nature in state director's office
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 13a
    Agriculture education
        Page 13b
        Page 13c
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 30a
    Distributive education
        Page 30b
        Page 30c
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 35a
    Home economics education
        Page 35b
        Page 35c
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 48a
    Trade and industrial education
        Page 48b
        Page 48c
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 55a
    Practical nurse education
        Page 55b
        Page 55c
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 64a
    Vocational guidance (not applicable)
        Page 64b
        Page 64c
        Page 65
        Page 65a
    Area vocational education program (technical education)
        Page 65b
        Page 65c
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
Full Text

Bulletin 70E-4

JULY 1, 1959 JUNE 30, 1960

*on of Vocational and Adult Education
Thomas D. Bailey, Superintendent
3 7,. 0r 97 Tallahassee, Florida

-no. 70 4-
c.z ^

August, 1960



Bulletin 70E-4

August, 1960




JULY 1, 1959 JUNE 30, 1960


Hon. LeRoy Collins, Governor, President of the Board

Hon. R. A. Gray, Secretary of State

Hon. Richard W. Ervin, Attorney General

Hon. J. Edwin Larson, State Treasurer

Hon. Thomas D. Bailey, State Superintendent of Public Instruction,
Secretary, and Executive Officer of the Board



August, 1960

Honorable Thomas D. Bailey
Executive Officer
State Board for Vocational Education
Tallahassee, Florida

Dear Superintendent Bailey:

Attached herewith is the Annual Descriptive Report of the Florida
State Board for Vocational Education for the period beginning July 1,
1959 and ending June 30, 1960.

This Bulletin, submitted for approval and transmittal to the United
States Office of Education, highlights the activities of the vocational
services as requested under the date of May 23, 1960 by Mr. James
H. Pearson, Assistant Commissioner for Vocational Education,
Office of Education, United States Department of Health, Education,
and Welfare, Washington, D. C.

The composite report includes: Section I, Work of Over-all Nature
in State Director's Office; Section II, Agricultural Education;
Section III, Distributive Education; Section IV, Home Economics
( Education; Section V, Trade and Industrial Education; Section VI,
S Practical Nurse Education; Section VII, Vocational Guidance (not
applicable); Section VIII, Area Vocational Education Programs; and
the annual financial and statistical report.

Respectfully submitted,

( Walter R. Williams, Jr., Dire or
Vocational and Adult Education


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Tourism, agriculture, timber, minerals, federal expenditures, construc-
tion, trade, and finance-insurance-real estate activities have been the
principal sources of income and employment for Florida's citizens during
the past decade. In a study of Florida's economic structure conducted for
Governor LeRoy Collins and commissioned by the Florida Development
Commission, it was indicated that these segments of the economy would
probably continue to enjoy a healthy growth, but at a declining rate.
Hence, other facets of the economy can be expected to increase in signifi-
cance and to absorb larger proportions of the growing labor force.

Review of the Program

Recent developments in vocational education have reflected these trends.
In accord with current population concentration and projected areas of
growth, comprehensive high schools have been established or are under
consideration in a number of new centers in Bay, Brevard, Dade, Duval,
Hillsborough, Manatee, Pinellas, Polk, St. Lucie, and Volusia Counties.
Included in the curricula of these schools are preparatory and extension
industrial-technical offerings primarily in the areas of electronics, auto-
motive mechanics, and drafting which will help to alleviate the demand
for industrial employees required by the state's growing industries and
related services.

It appears that one of the most serious problems confronting Florida in
the immediate future is that of expanding the industrial base to provide
employment and income for its growing population. In 1958, 8. 6 per
cent of the state's total income was derived from manufacturing. The
metal trades, machinery, transportation equipment, instruments, elec-
tronics, and chemicals were the industries showing greatest growth. In
1959, the proportion of the state's non-agricultural employment pro-
vided by manufacturing was 16 per cent as compared to a national aver-
age of 31 per cent and a Southeastern average of 30 per cent. However,
that industry is moving to Florida is evident from the fact that the state
led all others in the number of major industrial plants established
during the last business year.

During the past year a sharp increase was noted in high school day trade
programs and in in-plant training as well as in certain evening trade ex-
tension classes such as peace officers' training and supervisory train-
ing. Normal growth was experienced in apprenticeship related instruc-
tion, commercial vehicle driver training, and school bus driver and

maintenance training, while there were no increases in adult prepara-
tory programs, R.E.A. Job and Safety Training, or in training programs
for the fishing industries. Decreases in classes and enrollment oc-
curred in railroad training and in particular service occupations. Some
growth was evident in evening and part-time trade extension classes in
the Miami, Ft. Lauderdale, Daytona Beach, and St. Petersburg areas,
all of which are experiencing a significant increase in the size of the
labor market. With adequate legislative support and competent local su-
pervisory personnel, the industrial education program may be expected
to grow at an annual rate of approximately 10 per cent.

Close liaison was maintained with the State Development Commission
and the Employment Service in developing plans for alleviating the man-
power shortage of the coming decade and for meeting the training needs
of new industries which are moving into the state.

Provision will be made in the coming year for further apprenticeship re-
lated instruction in smaller centers and for additional offerings in basic
electronics and mechanical drafting to meet the demand for lower-level
technicians in these areas. Additional supervisory training will be
offered and instruction in aircraft mechanics emphasized. Training op-
portunities in particular service trades such as cosmetology, barbering,
dry cleaning and laundering, the food trades, shoe repair, and the hotel
trades will be multiplied to improve employment opportunities for cer-
tain minority groups.

A trade school serving a seven-county area may be established in
Marianna. The region has a declining population and is attempting to
attract industry to bolster a marginal economy. If the effort succeeds,
additional trade and technical education will be required.

Technical preparatory courses below college grade are provided by six
secondary schools, three vocational schools, and eight junior colleges,
while ten vocational schools and three junior colleges offer extension
classes for technicians or technician trainees. Included among the areas
of instruction are electronics, electricity, engineering drafting, ma-
chine drafting, engineering aide technology, chemical technology, aero-
nautics, instrumentation, and missile technology.

Eleven new centers serving single and multiple-county areas will pro-
vide a total of twenty-seven technical curricula during the coming year.
Significant growth in technical education is expected to occur in the
southern counties of the state. Though most vocational-technical schools
serve individual counties, students from outside the county may attend.
A number of community junior colleges, on the other hand, serve
multiple-county areas.

A number of problems have been identified which must be solved before
the technical education program is able to function most effectively.
Among these is the difficulty of obtaining satisfactory instructional per-
sonnel because of the rigorous salary competition with industry.
Another is the need to use laboratories designed for preparatory pro-
grams in conducting extension and short courses. Still another is that
of achieving flexibility in course content to keep offerings abreast of
industrial developments. The degree of progress in solving these and
similar problems will be critically examined during the coming year
when most post-high school technical offerings will be evaluated in
conformance with state accreditation practices.

It is hoped that assistance in curriculum development will be provided
by the U. S. Office of Education through dissemination of technician
job descriptions and suggested techniques for determining courses of
study. A guide for planning and equipping technical laboratories would
also be desirable together with criteria for evaluating technical edu-
cation programs. Identification of essential elements in the in-service
training of technical instructors is a third area of program development
in which assistance might well be provided.

Florida has an urgent need for more doctors, nurses, hospital beds,
nursing homes, and facilities for the mentally ill. It appears that a
comparable situation exists in the area of practical nursing, if the lack
of a placement problem and the demands of hospital administrators are
any indication.

A recent follow-up survey1 revealed that most practical nurse graduates
are employed in general hospitals and that under one in ten is engaged
in private-duty nursing. It was also noted that the median monthly sal-
ary obtained by those employed in general hospitals was approximately
$206 and that a larger proportion is receiving employment in doctors'
offices. The latter development is probably accounted for by the
higher prevailing salaries. Low salaries also appear to be the princi-
pal source of difficulty encountered in recruiting a class of male
"trained orderlies". Approximately one per cent of the practical nurs-
ing enrollees are men.

At present, twenty-one LPN preparatory programs are included in the
public vocational school program. All are adult day programs except
for that in the Pensacola Technical High School which is for twelfth
grade students and which includes eight months of clinical experience

1G. W. Neubauer, The Florida Graduate Practical Nurse, Division
of Vocational and Adult Education, State Department of Education,
Tallahassee, Florida, 1960.


following graduation. Two programs are under the administrative
jurisdiction of community junior colleges, but the courses are of the
non-credit variety and are below college grade. Two experimental pro-
grams have been introduced in rural areas. Students obtain experience
in two small separate hospitals with the instructor spending alternate
weeks in each hospital. During the periods the instructor is not present,
students are under the supervision of a member of the hospital staff.

Extension courses were provided in ten counties for 452 LPN's, but
similar courses for "upgrading" nurses' aides have been discontinued.
Three full-time one-year preparatory programs for dental assistants
are operating in Jacksonville, Miami, and Tampa. These, however, are
not under the supervision of the State Coordinator of Practical Nurse

New programs may be provided for white trainees in Orlando and West
Palm Beach while another for Negro students may be introduced at Ft.
Lauderdale. In addition, the Jacksonville Hospital Council has requested
an enlargement of the program in that city.

At the present time, half the programs are functioning without student
stipends with no noticeable effect upon recruitment which remains a
problem varying in seriousness by sections of the state. Student poli-
cies, except for those of one school, provide for a 40-hour week during
the clinical period although provision is made for a few supervised
week-end assignments near the conclusion of the course.

All schools use standardized aptitude pre-admission tests in student
selection, but more emphasis is to be placed upon the screening of po-
tential trainees. Slightly over one in five (21. 6%) of all beginning
students do not complete the course, but the highest attrition rate oc-
curred in the high school program where eight of ten did not finish.

The program has been evaluated by the Adult and Veteran Education
Section of the State Department of Education. Recommendations were
approved to allow high school credit for adults without a diploma who
complete the course. In another curricular development, the State
Curriculum Committee voiced the feeling that instead of theory-the
LPN's should receive more experience in the areas taught in the basic
program, and that extension courses should emphasize basic skills
and understandings.

To provide hospital and other nursing personnel with better understanding
of What the practical nurse is prepared to do and how she functions in
relation to other groups sharing in patient care, four regional confer-
ences will be held in the fall of 1960.

Citrus and truck farmers, those with cattle and other livestock, and
dairies have shown considerable growth. Farmers and farm laborers
realized an aggregate income in 1958 which was equal to more than 5 per
cent of the state's total income. In addition, they required services and
furnished raw materials for food processing, the state's most important
single category of manufacturing, which added greatly to state income.
The program of vocational agriculture reflects these emphases.

The past year's receipts of state farmers, the highest on record, showed
a gross income of $800,000, 000. A part of these assets can undoubtedly
be attributed to the livestock improvement program being conducted in
cooperation with the Sears Foundation. Excellent results have been ob-
tained, with animals being exhibited at many fairs and livestock shows
throughout the state.

During the past year, emphasis was placed upon the following aspects
of the instructional program: (1) better classroom teaching, (2) enrich-
ing instruction through the FFA and NFA programs, (3) proper budgeting
of teaching time, (4) better record keeping, (5) developing better stand-
ards for multiple-teacher departments, and (6) strengthening marginal

In working toward the achievement of these goals, a special evaluation
was made of the vocational agriculture departments in three of the six
districts to discover strengths and deficiencies, enabling teachers and
administrators to make needed improvements. A comparable evalua-
tion of departments in the remaining districts will occur during the
coming year. The Negro departments were also evaluated and the need
determined for additional instructional units.

Clinics were held in arc welding, electric motors, irrigation, and farm
building construction. To facilitate instruction in arc welding, the
Lincoln Arc Welding Co. sponsored the attendance of eighteen selected
agriculture teachers at a special training program in arc welding at the
Agriculture Engineering Department of the University of Florida. It
is intended that these individuals will, in turn, instruct the remaining
teachers in their districts and that all will conduct five-week Adult
Farmer classes in arc welding.

The need will be stressed of making more effective use of FFA Founda-
tion Awards by using them as incentives to improve the supervised
farming program. A number of chapters have purebred and commercial
herds of beef cattle, and two outstanding livestock shows were held with
the support and cooperation of the local Chambers of Commerce.


Upon the basis of preliminary reports, total enrollment in All-Day,
Adult Farmer, and Young Farmer classes was 13, 563. Of this number,
9296 were white students and 4267 were Negroes. A comparison of se-
lected aspects of the program in 1958-59 and 1959-60 is provided in the
following table.

Aspect of Program 1958-59 1959-60

Total Number of Departments 196 195

Total Enrollment 13,547 13,563

Total Number of Teachers 227 226

New Agriculture Buildings 9 6

Nine new departments were opened and one additional teacher was em-
ployed in an existing facility. It will be noted that a very slight enroll-
ment increase occurred in spite of the loss of one program.

Following is a summary of the financial results of the supervised farming
program conducted during 1958-59 and reported to the State Office by
December 31, 1959.

Total Number of Indi- Productive
diduals Completing Placement for Enterprises
Type of Class Projects Farm Experiences Students' Share

All-Day 11,070 $ 75, 300. 08* $ 1, 701, 183.64

Young Farmer 307 492,992.21

Totals 11,377 $ 75, 300.08* $ 2, 194, 175.85

*Does not include the figure for Negroes.

Ten special adult vocational agriculture classes were approved last year
under the Minimum Foundation Program, a figure which will probably
double in 1960-61. It should be noted that all applications for new depart-
ments were approved where a need for such instruction was demonstrated.

It is the feeling of the state staff that only those students should be enrolled
who need and who can profit by the instruction. That such a policy is wise
appears to be demonstrated by a letter received by the State Superintendent
of Public Instruction from the Director of the Animal Disease Eradication


Division, Agricultural Research Service, U.S.D.A., Washington,
D. C., commending the teachers of vocational agriculture and the FFA
for their efforts in eradicating livestock screwworms in the state.

During the year, the Vocational Division lost a long-time friend and
staunch advocate in the death of the Hon. Nathan Mayo who had served as
Commissioner of Agriculture for approximately thirty-five years. He
will be replaced by Mr. Doyle Connor, past state and national president
of FFA.

Retail sales in Florida between 1954 and 1958 increased by 41 per cent,
a figure over twice that achieved by states in the South Atlantic Region
and well over the national gain of 27 per cent. It also appears that whole-
saling should experience a growth rate above the national average. Com-
petition for the tourist dollar is increasing, but the stimulus to travel
should reflect in an expanding market for the Florida tourist and resort
industry. The combination of these demands with the requirements of
other business and related services indicates considerable need for an
extension of distributive and cooperative education.

The importance of close contact with business groups and organizations
in the development of an effective program is recognized. Good working
relationships have been established with hotel, restaurant, wholesale,
and real estate organizations, and personnel of the Small Business Ad-
ministration have been of great assistance in organizing management
classes in three centers this year. Several additional counties are
planning comparable classes neKt year, and it is anticipated that more
area meetings involving school and business people will be held.

Because of the "freeze" upon Minimum Foundation Program special
instructional units imposed by the 1959 legislature, to be discussed
later, emphasis during the past year has been placed upon instruction-
al quality rather than program promotion. General educational course
content in related study classes is being adapted to vocational ends, but
continuing need remains for instructional materials designed specifi-
cally for distributive education. The importance of constant evaluation
by instructors and coordinators has also been stressed. The recruit-
ment of teacher-coordinators continues to present considerable diffi-

The diversified cooperative training program in Florida includes many
secondary students who are receiving training in distributive fields.
These programs are not federally reimbursable but are operated with
Minimum Foundation Program and local funds. State staff members
work with the coordinators of these programs in planning related study


for the distributive occupations represented. At the present time, no
training in distributive fishery occupations is being offered nor is a dis-
tributive education program for veterans in operation.

Some progress was made in evaluating related study experiences. A
pilot study for Pinellas County was approved in which an alternative plan
for cooperative distributive programs will be attempted. The experi-
ment will be closely observed and, if successful, a similar plan or
some appropriate modification will be adopted in other cooperative dis-
tributive education programs in 1961-62.

As the result of a study in Duval County in which the staff participated,
it was recommended that a full-time distributive education supervisor
be appointed to coordinate adult classes in that area. The position has
been created, but an appointee has not yet been named.

Between 1950 and 1958 the state experienced a population growth rate
exceeding 60 per cent. Such increase implies many' new homes,
families, and children and creates problems of feeding, clothing, and
housing the newcomers and easing the inevitable adjustments which
must be made within families, schools, and neighborhoods. One of the
purposes of homemaking education is to facilitate home and community

The state staff was active in the Urban Renewal Program of the Sears-
Roebuck Foundation which is dedicated to developing student responsi-
bility for school, home, and community health, cleanliness, and

One of the area supervisors served as consultant to the Junior High
School Facilities Conference sponsored by the Florida Association of
Architects, the School Facilities Council, and the State Department
of Education. The committee on homemaking education was composed
of area and county supervisors of homemaking education and archi-
tects. It was concerned with developing criteria to be used in planning
and designing new departments and in remodeling existing facilities.
Other activities of a comparable nature in which staff members en-
gaged included buying equipment for or planning four new departments
and remodeling five others.

Homemaking education may be offered for its general educational
values in the junior or senior high school and may also be provided as
a vocational subject beginning at the ninth grade level. During the last
school year, sixteen new programs were added to the state total,
bringing the number of vocational and non-vocational departments to


480. Most programs, whether of the vocational or non-vocational vari-
ety, include FHA or NHA chapters and the number of County Councils
and county or area leadership conferences is increasing annually.

FHA districts in the respective supervisory areas have been increased
from two to three in an effort to reduce the size of district meetings
and to decrease the distance traveled. Two of the districts cooperated
in holding a highly successful leadership conference which resulted in
more teachers requesting assistance with FHA activities and the for-
mation of a single council by four of the more sparsely-populated

A number of representative aspects of the state program are summar-
ized in the following table.

Aspects of the Program Number

Number of Schools (Vocational) 319

Number of Schools (Non-Vocational) 161

Number of High School Teachers (Vocational) 574

Number of High School Teachers (Non-Vocational) 300

Number of Pupils (Vocational) 36,749

Number of Pupils (Non-Vocational) 40,893

Number of Adult Teachers 125

Number of Adults Enrolled 17,740

A decline of approximately 2 per cent was noted in overall enrollment.
Vocational enrollments dropped by 10 per cent, a decrease at least par-
tially accounted for by the elimination of some of the most popular adult
courses and the uncertainties in scheduling resulting from the unit
"freeze". The decline in secondary vocational enrollments may also
be attributed to scheduling conflicts involving other course offerings.
However, the total loss was almost offset by an increase of 11 per cent
in non-vocational enrollments. Over ninety thousand directed home
projects applying skills and understandings acquired in the homemaking
laboratory were completed.

A curriculum guide to assist junior college instructional and adminis-
trative personnel in organizing programs of homemaking education was


completed, and outlines in the areas of Clothing and Textiles and Food
and Nutrition were prepared.

Emphasis was placed upon improving the quality of offerings and in-
struction in the adult program, all of which is vocationally oriented.
In the coming year an effort will be made to determine why some stud-
ents elect homemaking courses in addition to the year of homemaking
required of all girls while others do not. The homemaking education
program in the junior high school will also be studied to ascertain those
aspects in need of revision.

A total of 440 instructional units were approved last year, but the num-
ber of requests for the coming year has far surpassed that figure.
Though the total allocated to the Section has been increased, the gain is
not sufficient to satisfy all requirements.

Somewhat the same situation will obtain in the adult homemaking program
in which units have been frozen at last year's level. A number of units
approved last year by the Adult Division will not be available. Hence, it
would appear that adult offerings during the coming school year will be
seriously restricted. To meet anticipated demand, the adult portion
of the homemaking program will require sixteen to twenty additional in-
structional units.

Evidence of the growth occurring in homemaking education during the
past decade is provided by the following table.

Area of Growth 1949-50 1959-60

Number of Vocational Units 183.3 440.0

Number of Vocational Programs 198 319

Number of Vocational Teachers 252 474

Number of Vocational Students 16,413 36,749

Number of FHA Chapters 117 228

Number of FHA Members 4,120 10,128

Number of NHA Chapters 77 100

Number of NHA Members 2,517 4,302


Number of Adult Teachers

Number of Adult Students 8, 684 17, 740

Teacher Training

Undergraduate and graduate vocational teacher-training programs are
offered by the respective state universities and the University of Miami
as are college credit extension courses. In addition, the University
of Miami has initiated an industrial education teacher-training program.
The possibility is also being investigated of introducing a pre-service
degree teacher-training program for distributive education coordinators
in one of the state universities. It is believed that a full-time teacher
educator could assist with the in-service training of teachers and be
responsible for the preparation of instructional material in distributive

A course for auto mechanics instructors was sponsored by General
Motors Corporation.

Efforts are being made to obtain comparable types of in-service tech-
nical preparation from other corporations. More emphasis is to be
placed upon non-credit, in-service training in industrial-technical edu-
cation. In implementing this aspect of,the program, the State Coordi-
nator of Instructional Problems works with local supervisors in im-
proving teaching methods and developing courses of study.

In distributive education, a number of meetings have been held with
local supervisors to explore their responsibilities in assisting teachers
to improve the quality of their instruction. It is hoped that a guide can
be developed which will be of help to local supervisors in training part-
time instructors for adult classes and that a plan may be organized
whereby teaching materials may be circulated among local supervisory
and instructional personnel.

Advisory Committees

A marked increase in the formation and use of local general advisory
and craft committees was noted in industrial education. A State Ad-
visory Committee for Technical Education was appointed which reviewed
local requests for funds and made recommendations regarding their
distribution. Local technical education advisory committees were also
appointed. These assisted in the conduct of surveys, the identification


of pertinent instructional areas, and the selection of laboratory equip-
ment. The State Advisory Committee for Practical Nursing met twice
during the school year, and several local advisory committees were
established to assist in planning new practical nursing education programs.

A number of new local advisory committees were established in voca-
tional agriculture. The State Advisory Committee for Vocational Agri-
culture was reorganized. Seven new members were appointed and five
remain to be selected. A State Advisory Committee for Home Econom-
ics Education was appointed by the State Superintendent of Public
Instruction. The committee consists of public school officials, lay citi-
zens, and university personnel. Local advisory committees for distrib-
utive education continued to be effective in both adult and secondary
distributive education programs.

Surveys and Research

A number of special studies were conducted by the respective vocational
services during the past year. A cooperative state and local survey of
the organizational structure for vocational education in Duval County was
completed and plans for future program development were made. Another
survey including seven rural counties of northwest Florida was conducted
to determine if there is a need to establish an area vocational-technical
program at Marianna. Upon the basis of the evidence, it appears that
such a need exists and further steps are now being planned. A revised
edition of the job guide for young workers, Your Career in the Florida
Sun, was issued in cooperation with the Florida Industrial Commission.

A survey, Technicians for Florida Industries, conducted jointly by the
State Department of Education, the Florida Development Commission,
and the Florida State Employment Service, revealed that approximately
15, 000 new technicians will be required in selected counties of the state
during the next three years.

In agriculture, the national study of Young Farmer classes is being con-
tinued for another two years with nine classes in nine centers partici-
pating. A study of land ownership among Negro farmers in the
Southeastern states was made by the Specialist for Negro Schools in co-
operation with the Head of the Agricultural Economics Department of
Tuskegee Institute. The college-credit programs in distributive educa-
tion which are functioning in the colleges and universities of other states
will continue to be studied in the hope that comparable curricula may be
introduced into Florida institutions in the near future.


Other Influences

Perhaps the single most important influence affecting the program devel-
opment of the respective vocational services was the "freeze" upon
Minimum Foundation Program special instructional units imposed by the
1959 state legislature as an economy measure. All adult programs,
except for Vocational Agriculture which experienced no curtailment of
units, were affected.

The restriction was not so serious in 1959-60 for it resulted in needed
reanalysis, adjustment, and improvement of adult offerings. However,
it is feared that the effects during the coming fiscal year will be more
pronounced. The evidence appears to indicate that, although growth is
not uniform, all aspects of the Florida economy are expanding. Yet, at
a time of great state growth, the adult vocational program is in the pecu-
lier position of being restricted in its efforts to keep pace with expanding
educational needs. It is hoped that federal and local funds will be availa-
ble to meet some of the interim demand and that the 1961 legislative
appropriation will be adequate to meet the requirements of the next bi-

As a result of the "freeze" all adult courses were carefully analyzed and
a bulletin, Adult Offerings Under Minimum Foundation Program Support,
July 1, 1960 June 30, 1961, was developed. This release lists adult
offerings in the respective vocational services for which Minimum
Foundation Program special instructional units will be made available
during the next fiscal year.

However, in spite of temporary reverses, it is increasingly apparent
that vocational education is coming to be accepted as a vital segment of
the total educational program. With the growth of the comprehensive
high school and the additional educational opportunities afforded to youth
and adults by a flexible curriculum and more comprehensive facilities,
the vocational services will be in an increasingly better position to meet
the training needs of a rapidly growing population.


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The work and accomplishments of the state supervisory staff are
reflected in the four copies of the Future Farmer magazine and the
twelve issues of the monthly Agricultural Newsletter. These were
published during the year and copies have been sent to the Office of
Education in Washington.

The following comments are submitted relative to accomplishments
during the year.

1. Items to be Stressed in the 1959-60 Program of Work

During the agricultural staff conference, September 1-3, 1959,
agreement was reached upon the need for stressing certain
phases of the program including the following:

a. Better classroom teaching

b. Vitalizing instruction through the FFA program

c. Proper budgeting of teaching time

d. Better record keeping

e. Better standards for multiple teacher departments

f. Strengthening borderline departments.

The subdivisions under each of the above are included in the
October, 1959, newsletter. The degree of accomplishment
concerning each item is reflected in the Program of Work and
Accomplishments of the Area Supervisors, shown subsequent-
ly in this report. Another indication that progress has been
made is found in the results of supervised farming programs
and participation in various other activities.

Significant new developments or those in which improvement
was reported over the previous year include the following.

Nine new departments were opened and one additional teacher
was employed in a previously established department. Six


new vocational agriculture buildings were constructed and put
into use. Several new local advisory committees were or-
ganized and the State Advisory Committee for Vocational Agri-
culture was reorganized with seven new members.

A state Land Appreciation School and Judging Contest was held
at Gainesville with twelve chapters from Wauchula to Vernon
being represented. The winning tefm from Mayo represented
Florida in the international contest at Oklahoma City in April.

The national study of Young Farmer classes which was started
last year is being continued for another two years with nine
classes (6 white and 3 Negro) in as many centers participating.

A special evaluation has been made of vocational agriculture
departments in three of the six districts in Florida this year.
The purpose of this evaluation was to discover weaknesses in
local programs and assist teachers and local administrators
in making improvements. The other three districts will be eval-
uated during the 1960-61 school year. Clinics for small groups
of agriculture teachers were held at several local centers to
keep the teachers abreast of new developments in arc welding,
electric motors, irrigation, and construction of small farm

The livestock improvement program (beef cattle and swine),
being carried out in cooperation with the Sears Foundation,
continues to show excellent results. FFA members exhibited
animals at many fairs and livestock shows. Throughout the
state there are many young farmers who are now well estab-
lished in the livestock business who became interested in and
received their start through incentives provided by the Sears

One-fifth of the conservation awards given out at the annual
Governor's Banquet, sponsored by the Florida Wildlife Fed-
eration, weritto vocational agriculture teachers or to mem-
bers of the FFA. Fifty per cent of the fourteen-county
"Outstanding Farm Family" awards for 1959 went to former
FFA members. These awards are given annually by the
Tallahassee Chamber of Commerce. Sixteen county superin-
tendents of public instruction were former vocational agricul-
ture teachers, veterans' agriculture teachers, or FFA
members, or they possessed a combination of the foregoing


Again this year, four high school principals having FFA
members receiving the American Farmer Degree attended
the national FFA convention in Kansas City.

2. Work of the Executive Secretary, F.F.A.

a. Assisted the area supervisors and Program Specialist in
six county fairs, the North Florida Fair, the West Coast
Dairy Show, the Florida State Fair, the West Florida Fat
Cattle Show and Sale, and the F.F.A. and 4-H Coopera-
tive Livestock Show and Sale.

b. Assisted in publishing twelve monthly newsletters, the
chapter reporter's guide for news articles, and edited the
quarterly Future Farmer magazine.

c. Prepared stories and news releases for newspapers and
magazines. This year the vocational agricultural program
received better coverage in both as indicated by articles
and pictures in the following magazines: American Farm
Youth, Farm and Ranch, Florida Grower and Rancher,
Progressive Farmer, National Future Farmer, Agricul-
tural Education, and Day by Day.

d. Reviewed and secured a number of pertinent publications
for distribution to teachers at the conference.

e. Assisted in collecting data for compiling numerous an-
nual reports and work summaries.

f. Served as secretary to the executive board of the Florida
association at five meetings, conducted a four-day
Leadership Training Conference for new officers, con-
ducted chapter officers' leadership meetings, assisted with
the national leadership meeting for FFA officers, and as-
sisted in conducting the Good Will Tour of state officers.

g. Planned and coordinated the activities of the Florida asso-
ciation at the National FFA Convention. Approximately
150 Florida members attended with nine members re-
ceiving the American Farmer Degree.

h. Assisted officers in planning the FFA Day program at the
Florida State Fair and the state convention program.
Both had increased attendance and participation.


i. Reviewed 189 State Farmer applications (170 received
the degree) and sixteen American Farmer applications
(nine were recommended for the degree).

j. Members and chapters participating in the Future Far-
mers of America Foundation Program were as follows:

Public Speaking 111 chapters

Farm Mechanics 59 applications from 47 chap-
ters in 41 counties

Farm Electrification 44 applications from 39
chapters in 31 counties

Soil and Water Management 28 applications from
27 chapters in 23 counties

Farm Safety 19 applications from 19 chapters in
12 counties

Dairy Farming 16 applications from 16 chapters
in 12 counties

3. Work of Program Specialist

a. Under the direction of the state supervisor, the Program
Specialist coordinated and supervised the Negro program in
vocational agriculture, directing the work of the Negro
Specialist in Agricultural Education, receiving and re-
viewing all reports from Negro teachers, and visiting de-
partments for the purpose of reviewing accomplishments of
selected schools. Attended, directed, and participated in
all state and group conferences as well as the FFA conven-
tion and the Interregional Conference.

b. The livestock program in Florida, including beef cattle
and hogs, is improving each year under the Sears-Roebuck
Foundation program.

The improved breeding program, sponsored by the Sears-
Roebuck Foundation, has continued to improve the quality
of beef cattle as demonstrated by the State Beef Cattle Show
held during the Florida State Fair. Based upon the annual
report of the chapters, 1, 287 cows were bred by Sears-


Roebuck bulls on 190 different farms. This year at the
annual dinner for teachers having chapters with bulls, a
report was made to the group of selected chapters by
means of colored slides showing feeding programs, herds
developed, and cross-bred offspring.

Sears-Roebuck provided $940.00 in awards for the improved
breeding contest. Out of these funds, four $200.00 heifers
were purchased for the chapters having the four best rec-
ords. The other $140.00 was given in the form of cash
awards to the chapters placing fifth to tenth.

The pig chain program did not expand during the fiscal year,
1959-60. However, the two regional shows were held, one
at Pensacola and one at Tallahassee. Teachers seem to ex-
perience some difficulty in getting the females bred at a
time that they would farrow between February 12 and March

c. Coordinated the in-service training of teachers in the area
of farm mechanics by organizing clinics in welding and farm

d. Reviewed filmstrips, slides, other visual aid materials,
bulletins, books, and industrial publications, and ordered
and distributed applicable and needed materials to agri-
culture teachers.

e. This year an effort was made to have a special evaluation
of each Negro vocational agriculture department in the state.
It was the responsibility of the Program Specialist to eval-
uate twelve of these departments. In addition, surveys
were made to determine the need for additional units in vo-
cational agriculture, and the state supervisor was assisted
on special problems from time to time.

f. Served as consultant to the state approval agency for the
Institutional On-Farm Training Program, approving the
training programs of prospective trainees prepared by tea-
chers of agriculture.

On June 30, 1960, thirty-five trainees were enrolled in
the Institutional On-Farm Training Program under Public
Law 550.


4. Program of Work and Accomplishments of Area Supervisors
in Agricultural Education



1. Assist the State Supervisor
of Agricultural Education in
planning and carrying out the
program by performing du-
ties assigned by him

2. Formulate area-wide pro-
grams and objectives to be
carried out. Stress the fol-

a. Functioning official local
advisory committees
b. Departments with ap-
proved schedules
c. Teachers attend work-
shops and/or clinics
d. Departments with satis-
factory land laboratory
e. Teachers giving effec-
tive individual instruc-
(a) Average number of

visits per teacher
per year 287
(b) Average number of
hours per teacher
per year 360

3. Work with teachers of agri-
culture, high school princi-
pals, appropriate county
vocational directors, and/or
supervisors, county superin-
tendents, and county boards
of education in carrying out
the program.

Unit of
III Measure

18 12 Assignments

40 42 Committees

100% 100% 100% Departments

35 60 Teachers

48 48 Departments

360 259

400 308




a. Confer with principals
b. Confer with county
school personnel other
than principals
c. Participate in confer-
ences of organizations
connected or cooperat-
ing closely with the
agriculture education

4. Provide in-service training
to teachers of agriculture
through individual visits,
group, district, and state

a. Visit teachers of voca-
tional agriculture
b. Hold or assist with con-
ferences of agriculture
c. Hold or assist with
workshops (or clinics)

5. Evaluate local programs of
vocational agriculture dur-
ing individual visits and make
recommendations for im-
provement where needed

a. Evaluate programs of
teachers of vocation-
al agriculture
b. Make recommenda-
tions for improvement
of programs to teachers
and principals
c. Evaluate teachers' use
of time as reported on
monthly reports

6. Interpret the needs and re-
port the progress of local
departments of vocational
agriculture through written
reports and individual con-
ferences to the state super-
visor, agricultural education

46 Conferences

19 14 Conferences

12 Conferences

90 66 Visits

10 14 Conferences

8 5


61 59 Programs

Sets of Recom-
74 59 mendations

61 62 Teachers


a. Monthly reports to the
state supervisor
b. Special reports to the
state supervisor as

7. Attend staff conferences
called by the supervisor and
out-of-state conferences
when requested

Staff conferences
Out-of-state confer-

8. Check reports from teachers
of agriculture to determine
if minimum standards are
being met

9. Make surveys to determine
whether or not vocational
agriculture departments
should be established in com-
munities making applications
for such departments

10. Confer with local authori-
ties regarding the construc-
tion of new vocational
agricultural buildings, addi-
tions to existing buildings,
and the purchase of farm
mechanics equipment for
vocational agricultural shops

11. Check and recommend for
approval and review plans
for Adult Farmer and/or
Young Farmer classes to be
organized and conducted by
teachers of agriculture

12 12 Reports

7 Reports

12 9 Conferences

1 Conferences

61 62 Teachers

3 Surveys

2 11 Conferences

a. Check applications

30 25



b. Assist teachers with
planning and/or conduc-
ting classes 16

12. Visit the home farms of vo-
cational agricultural students
to determine whether or not
adequate supervised farming
programs are being operated
to meet the requirements of
the state plan 105

13. Promote good working re-
lationships between voca-
tional agriculture and other
departments of the schools 20

14. Serve as area adviser to the
Future Farmers of America
and New Farmers of Ameri-
ca organizations, assisting
the local chapter advisers in
conducting leadership
training conferences for chap-
ter officers, carrying out an
effective program of work,
and participate in subdistrict,
district, area, state and
national contests and awards

a. Participate in local meet-
ings (including banquets)
of chapters 14
b. Participate in state
officers' meeting 5
c. Participate in leader-
ship training meetings
for chapter officers 6
d. Participate in activities
of subdistrict, district,
and area contests 2
e. Assist in selecting win-
ners in various state
awards and contests 22

11 18 Teachers




32 22 Conferences

19 15 Meetings

4 5 Meetings

5 6 Meetings

3 Meetings

12 23 Awards


15. Assist the state super-
visor and staff members
in conducting the annual
state conventions of FFA
and NFA

16. Supervise FFA partici-
pation in local, area, and
state livestock shows and

17. Assist the state supervi-
sor in conducting state con-
ferences; prepare annual
reports; prepare and send
out newsletters and teach-
ing aids to teachers of vo-
cational agriculture

a. Assist with state
b. Make area supervisor's
section of annual de-
scriptive report
c. Prepare newsletter
d. Assist teachers in se-
curing and using new
teaching aids


State Shows
Local Shows
Area Shows


1 Reports

4 Items

18 65 Different
Teaching Aids

5. Work of the Specialist for Negro Schools

a. Assisted with district conferences and the annual state con-
ference of Negro teachers of vOcational agriculture.

b. Held conferences with the Program Specialist and attended
meetings of agricultural and related organizations.

c. Assisted teachers in single- and multiple-teacher depart-
ments in improving working conditions and school relation-
ships, and in evaluating and upgrading instruction.

d. Issued a newsletter for Negro agriculture teachers at two-
month intervals.


e. Assisted in the organization of local advisory committees
for vocational agriculture.

f. Assisted in improving the quality of on-the-farm instruc-
tion and project supervision, and emphasized the impor-
tande.of using school farms to promote better supervised
farming programs.

g. Served as state adviser of NFA, encouraging activities
which would promote more participation of chapter members
in the Future Farmer Foundation program and in NFA
contests on various levels. The home farms of three
Superior Farmer Degree applicants and sixty-six Modern
Farmer Degree applicants were visited for certification
purposes. NFA state officers' leadership training meetings
were attended, and help was given in planning and conducting
Youth Achievement Day and NFA judging at the Florida State

h. Assisted in preparing for shows and exhibits, including a
livestock show.

i. Prepared monthly reports of activities and accomplish-
ments for the State Supervisor of Agricultural Education,
and cooperated with the head of the Agricultural Econom-
ics Department, Tuskegee Institute, in making a study of
land ownership among Negro farmers in the Southeastern

j. Assisted with the one-day district conference for in-
service teachers in each of the three districts,,held for pur-
poses of promoting technical and professional improvement.

k. Cooperated with Florida A & M University in holding
seventeen one-day tractor clinics in different centers of
the state. These were attended by 1, 706 individuals, in-
cluding thirty-six adults and 1, 670 boys.

6. District, Group,and State Conferences

During September and January of each year, district and group
conferences are scheduled throughout Florida. A District IV
Conference was held at Leesburg on September 12, 1959, which
was attended by twenty-seven teachers and all staff members.
The following week, each area supervisor held group conferences


using the same agenda followed at the initial district confer-
ence. A total of fifteen conferences was held with all 171
white teachers attending the one to which he was assigned.

The same procedure was followed in January, 1960, with the
District VI Conference held in Belle Glade which twenty-two
teachers attended. For detailed information concerning the
general agenda and schedule, see the September and
December, 1959, newsletters. These conferences were called
by the state supervisor to provide professional and technical
information needed by teachers during the current school year.
The state supervisor and other staff members rotate each year
in accompanying the area supervisors and helping them con-
duct their respective conferences.

7. Publications of the Department

No new publications concerning vocational agriculture were
developed during the 1959-60 fiscal year. The Future Farmer
magazine and the monthly newsletter were published as usual
and in the same quantities.

8. Special Studies Relating to Agricultural Education

A number of special studies relating to agricultural education
were completed by graduate students at the University of
Florida under the direction of the Head Teacher Trainer.


1. Features of the Program to be Added or Re-emphasized

a. All departments of vocational agriculture in Districts
II, IV, and VI will be throughly evaluated by the area super-
visors during 1960-61.

b. Committee recommendations growing out of the 1960 state
teachers' conference will be published in the September
newsletter. These recommendations conform to the
general theme of the conference, "Gearing Vocational Agri-
culture to Changing Times".

c. Interest in vocational agriculture and the FFA is being
manifested to a greater degree each year by men in busi-
ness, industry, farm organizations, and other


agricultural agencies. Resolutions of the annual teachers'
conference and the annual FFA convention indicate the
many friends and cooperators with whom work is carried on to
mutual advantage.

d. The state advisory committee has not had a meeting during
1960. It is planned to replace approximately five former
members, since this procedure helps to better acquaint
other very important men with the program and objectives
of vocational agriculture.

e. The need for teachers to make better use of FFA Founda-
tion awards by utilizing this incentive to improve super-
vised farming programs and give due recognition to friends
and donors in business and industry will continue to be

f. The Lincoln Arc Welding Company inaugurated a program
whereby eighteen selected agricultural teachers through-
out the state were given special training in arc welding
at the Agricultural Engineering Department of the Uni-
versity of Florida. It is planned that these teachers will
provide special instruction for other teachers in their
districts, and that all will then conduct five-week Adult
Farmer classes in arc welding. The College of Agricul-
ture, Agricultural Experiment Station, and equipment
agencies have all been very cooperative in assisting area
supervisors to conduct various clinics throughout the state.

g. Recommendations made by Mr. R. E. Naugher during his
March, 1960, visit to Florida will be stressed in the
state supervisor's program of work for 1960-61.

2. Other New Developments

a. Enrollment in vocational agricultural classes varies con-
siderably over the state. Based on preliminary reports
received from all teachers, the enrollment in All-Day,
Adult Farmer and Young Farmer classes totaled 13,563
individuals of which 9, 296 were white students and 4, 267
were Negroes. This indicates a slight increase over the
previous year with one less department. The state staff
feels that only those who need it and who can benefit from
the instruction should be enrolled in vocational agriculture.
The following statistics indicate the number of white and

Negro students and departments meeting supervised
farming requirements during the past two fiscal years.

1958-59 1959-60

Total Number of Departments 196 195

Total Enrollment 13,547 13,563

Total Number of Teachers 227 226

New Agricultural Buildings 9 6

b. The statistics on 1960 State Farmers are to be found in the
July, 1960, newsletter. One hundred per cent of the State
Farmer quota was filled. It is to be noted that the Star
State Farmer for 1960 is Victor Butler of Havana. His
labor income over a four-year period was $47, 860. 43.
This young man also won the public speaking contest and
was elected president of the Florida association, FFA,
for 1960-61.

c. A number of FFA chapters have purebred and commercial
herds of beef cattle which are proving profitable and serving
as excellent demonstrations of FFA activities in their re-
spective communities. The results are being published
through the newsletters.and at the annual summer conference.
Two outstanding FFA livestock shows were held at Live Oak
and Gainesville respectively where excellent support and
cooperation was received from the local Chambers of
Commerce. Approximately ninety per cent of the FFA chap-
ters in the state hold banquets each year, honoring parents
of the members.

d. The Florida Bankers' Association has long been interested
in the Future Farmers organization as well as in individual
FFA boys. During the past year, it made available to each
chapter adviser in Florida a very attractive Star Chapter
Farmer certificate to be presented by the local banker at
each FFA chapter banquet. In a number of cases, the
local banker also presented a $25.00 Savings Bond with the

e. Mr. R. J. Anderson, Director of the Animal Disease Eradi-
cation Division, Agricultural Research Service, U.S.D.A.,


Washington, D. C., wrote a letter to the State Superin-
tendent of Public Instruction commending the teachers of
vocational agriculture and the FFA on their work in
helping to eradicate the livestock screwworn in Florida.
This letter reflected much credit upon the schools of the
state of Florida.

f. The Spring, 1960, issue of the Florida Future Farmer
magazine included a special tribute to the Honorable
Nathan Mayo, Commissioner of Agriculture, who died on
April 14, 1960, at the age of eighty-three. He had been
state commissioner for approximately thirty-five years.
He was the first man in Florida to receive the honorary
State Farmer Degree which was conferred in 1929 at the
first state FFA convention. He always wore his FFA
emblem and was a great admirer and loyal friend of the
youth of Florida. He received the honorary American
Farmer Degree in 1955.

g. Doyle Conner, past state and national FFA president, was
elected by the people of Florida to succeed Mr. Mayo and
will take office in January, 1961.


1. The state is in much better financial condition than it was a year
ago. The past year's farm receipts showed a gross income ex-
ceeding $800, 000, 000 from various products. This is the
highest on record.

2. The Vocational Agriculture Section operated throughout the
past twelve months under no handicap such as a curtailment of
units by the state legislature. All budgetary commitments to
the counties for vocational agriculture were fully met. In ad-
dition, a number of counties received further funds at the close
of the year. These special requests contained justification of
the need for additional money to improve local programs of
vocational agriculture.

3. Ten special Adult Vocational Agriculture classes were approved
last year under the Minimum Foundation Program. It is antici-
pated that this number will double during the 1960-61 school


4. All applications for new departments were approved if a
survey indicated the need for a program in the community.
The turnover of agriculture teachers was not as great as in
the previous year. Approximately ten new teachers were em-
ployed during the year to fill vacancies caused by resignations
and transfers. One agriculture teacher, Mr. J. E. Harris
of Apopka, died as the result of an automobile accident oc-
curring last November.

5. Nearly all agricultural instructional personnel were trained
at the University of Florida. However, applications are on file
from qualified teachers in other states.

6. Working relationships with school administrators was very good
throughout the past year. The same may be said regarding the
State Board of Education, members of Congress, the state
legislature, and personnel of other agricultural agencies and

7. During the annual staff conference, a joint meeting was held
with the Agricultural Extension staff in which matters of
mutual interest were discussed. The meeting was later pub-
licized in an article appearing in several publications and also
in a national magazine.

8. The State Supervisor of Vocational Agriculture, the Head
Teacher Trainer, the Area I Supervisor, three vocational agri-
culture teachers, and two county coordinators attended the
1959 AVA meeting in Chicago.

9. The state supervisor, two area supervisors, and the Associate
Teacher Trainer attended the 1960 Southern Regional Conf-
erence in Oklahoma City. They brought back information from
each meeting which was used very effectively in the 1960
State Conference for Vocational Agriculture Teachers.


Day Classes Young Farmers Adult Farmers
Items White Negro White Negro White Negro

1. Number of individuals
enrolled 8404 3523 184 209 708 544


2. Number of individuals
beginning farming pro-
grams previous year

3. Number of above indi-
viduals completing

4. Average labor income
per pupil

5. Average investment
in farming per pupil

6. Average number of
improvement projects
per pupil or class

7. Average number of
farm visits to each
pupil or class member







173 642 506

173 582 506

$ 176.22 $ 150.46

$ 272.00 $ 141.39



3.35 5.22

4.03 3.1

4 5.2

6.54 3.2

8. Average number of sup-
plementary farm jobs
per pupil

9. Number placed for farm





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1. Work of Staff

The state professional staff in distributive education includes
a state supervisor and two area supervisors. Major respon-
sibilities of the staff include developing local leadership,
assisting instructional personnel, planning for educational
conferences involving teachers and students, and working
with educational and business organizations throughout the
state. Members of the staff make frequent visits to local vo-
cational centers and schools, conferring at every opportunity
with supervisory and teaching personnel. They attend many
meetings of local boards, county staffs, and professional or-
ganizations. The staff is represented at all major national,
regional, and state professional conventions and conferences.
In each instance the staff member attending reports back to
the rest of the group regarding emerging trends and philoso-
phies of the distributive program. Regular state staff meetings
are held during the year. Many problems are dealt with at
these sessions with major emphasis being placed on improve-
ment of the services to people working at the local level.

2. Veteran Training

No distributive education training for veterans was conducted
in Florida this year.

3. Teacher Training

Some groundwork was laid by the staff this year on the im-
provement of in-service teacher-training to be conducted at
the local level on a non-credit basis. Several conferences
were held with local supervisors regarding their responsibili-
ties in assisting teachers in the improvement of instruction.
It is hoped that during the next year a guide will be developed
which will be of assistance to local supervisors in the training
of part-time instructors for adult classes.

Instructional training for teachers on a credit basis was con-
ducted this year by Florida State University, The University


of Florida, and Florida Agricultural and Mechanical Uni-
versity. Several extension courses were also offered through-
out the state.

Plans for next year include investigating the feasibility of a
pre-service degree teacher-training program for distributive
education coordinators. The possibility of making some ar-
rangement with a state-operated university will be studied.
A full-time teacher-educator for distributive education em-
ployed in this capacity could also be assigned responsibility
for in-service training and the preparation of instructional
materials for distributive education.

4. Important Studies or Investigations

The staff this year has made some progress in studying the
Florida program for related study classes in cooperative
distributive education. As a result, a pilot program has been
approved for Pinellas County which will allow this county to
follow an alternate plan for the cooperative distributive pro-
grams next year. Close attention will be given to this program
by the state staff. If it is successful, the plan or some modi-
fication of the plan will be adopted in all cooperative distrib-
utive education programs in 1961-62.

The staff participated in a study made in Duval County the
past year and made recommendations for the employment of
a full-time distributive education supervisor to coordinate
adult classes in that area.

5, Use of Advisory Committees

No meeting of the state-wide Advisory Committee for Distrib-
utive Education was held this year for budgetary reasons.
It is planned to revitalize this committee next year, however,
and have at least one meeting of the entire group. Advisory
committees continue to be used effectively at the local centers
by both adult and high school distributive education programs.


1. Changes in Emphasis, Nature, or Scope of Program

Due to the "freeze" placed upon distributive education Mini-
mum Foundation units by the legislature for the current


biennium, emphasis during the past year was of necessity
placed upon quality of programs rather than quantity. This will
continue to be the policy during the next fiscal year.

Emphasis in course content of the related study classes is
being slanted from general education material into more tech-
nical courses with definite vocational objectives. There is a
need for developing materials designed specifically for the dis-
tributive education coordinator which will be of assistance in
achieving this goal.

A study of post-high school programs will be continued with
the hope of establishing some programs of this type during the
next year. Several phases of the adult distributive education
program would also benefit by the development of a definite

2. Teacher-Training

A greater percentage of time will be allotted by the supervisory
staff next year to in-service training and the development of
materials which would be helpful in achieving instructional
improvement. Plans are being developed to encourage the
circulation of instructional materials from the state office to
supervisory and instructional personnel in the field.

3. Evaluation of State and Local Programs

Continued emphasis will be placed on self-evaluation by in-
structors and coordinators rather than evaluation by state
supervisory personnel. Staff members will continue to par-
ticipate in vocational surveys, studies, and school evalua-
tions whenever the opportunity presents itself. The need for
research in getting evaluative information is recognized.
Plans for next year in this regard are now underway.

4. Improvement of Relations with Business Groups and Schools

Members of the staff recognize that close contact with busi-
ness organizations and groups is essential to the development
of an effective program. Working relationships have been
established with hotel, restaurant, wholesale, and real es-
tate organizations. An effort will be made next year to im-
prove these relationships as well as to develop new associa-
tions with other similar groups.


Personnel of the Small Business Administration have been co-
operative in assisting with the organization of management
classes in three centers in the state this year. Several other
counties plan courses for business management next year.
Area supervisors are making plans to hold more area meetings
next year involving both school and business people.

5. New or Additional Kinds of Courses or Groups to be Trained

A state publication listing courses which can be approved for
adult distributive education classes has been published. This
bulletin has been circulated state-wide to encourage uniformity
of offerings and to prevent the development of any questionable
classes. More emphasis will be given next year to spreading
present offerings to a broader geographical area rather than to
offering additional courses.


As an economy measure, the 1959 Florida Legislature placed a
"freeze" on the appropriation for distributive education along with
general adult education and industrial education. The effect of the
freeze on the program for last year was not entirely detrimental;
in fact, it resulted in some adjustment and improvement in current
offerings. The effect during the next school year will be more pro-
nounced. It is hoped, however, that the 1961 legislature will
institute a "thaw" and increase the appropriation for distributive
education to provide for expansion of the program to meet the needs
of a rapidly growing state. Florida continues to develop industrially
and population-wise at an astonishing rate. Tourists continue to
come to Florida each year in ever-increasing numbers. These fac-
tors point up the need for expanding the distributive education pro-

The recruitment of teachers for cooperative programs continues to
be a problem with considerable difficulty being experienced this
year in securing adequately trained teacher-coordinators.

There is considerable evidence that high school vocational programs
are becoming an accepted part of the curriculum. With continued
development of the comprehensive high school in Florida there will
be greater demand for specialized cooperative programs in dis-
tributive education.



No training was offered in distributive fishery occupations.


The diversified cooperative training programs in Florida include
many high school students who are training in the distributive
fields. This program is operated under Minimum Foundation state
and local funds. Members of the staff work with coordinators of
these programs in planning related study for the distributive oc-



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1. Work of the Staff

The staff of the Home Economics Section of the State Depart-
ment of Education consists of the state supervisor, three
area supervisors, and a specialist in homemaking education for
Negro schools. The state is divided into three areas, each
under the direction of an area supervisor. The areas, in turn,
are divided into three districts for purposes of conducting
chapter activities of the Future Homemakers of America and
the New Homemakers of America. The state supervisor serves
as state FHA adviser while the specialist in homemaking edu-
cation serves as state NHA adviser.

The state staff works very closely with county and local per-
sonnel, including the eight county supervisors and the five
county coordinators of homemaking education. Four of the
five county coordinators are concerned exclusively with the
adult program while the fifth also serves as supervisor of the
secondary program in her county.

State staff members attended a variety of local, state, and
national conferences, meetings, workshops, and clinics where
they served in numerous capacities. Included among these
were pre-school planning conferences in several counties and
professional workshops. Approximately 470 teachers at-
tended the state conferences for white and Negro teachers of
homemaking education. The state supervisor worked very
closely with the respective home economics staff members
who are responsible for the conferences.

The FHA state convention was the primary responsibility of
one area supervisor while the state NHA conference was con-
ducted by the state NHA adviser. The state supervisor was
responsible for three FHA Executive Council meetings and
for the accompanying releases which were sent to the respec-
tive chapters. She also attended two NHA district meetings,
participated in the two NHA Executive Council :meetings, and
attended the state and national conventions. In addition, she
attended state and district meetings of the Florida Home
Economics Association, the American Vocational Association


Convention, the annual conference for Local Directors of
Vocational and Adult Education, the Florida Vocational Asso-
ciation Executive Council meeting, and the Delta Kappa (Gamma
meeting, and she also participated in four state accreditation
committee meetings.

A Junior High School Facilities Conference was sponsored by
the Florida Association of Architects, the School Facilities
Council, and the State Department of Education. The commit-
tee concentrating upon homemaking education consisted of
area and county supervisors of homemaking education and
architects. This group was concerned with the definition of
homemaking, with objectives of the program, and the scope of
instructional content. All of these factors were considered in
the development of criteria to be used in the planning and de-
sign of new departments and in the remodeling of existing

The area supervisors worked closely with homemaking teach-
ers in their respective areas during the regular school year
and while summer programs were in progress. They also
participated in pre-school planning conferences and in FHA
district meetings. They met with the State Advisory Com-
mittee for Homemaking Education and worked with advisers
and state officers during FHA Executive Council and Advisory
Board meetings. They took part in the FHA and :NHA state
conventions and in the white and Negro conferences for
teachers of homemaking education. The theme of the white
teachers' conference was "Achieving and Maintaining a
Quality Program in Home Economics Education", while that
of the Negro meeting was "Home Economics--New Directions".
They were represented at the annual conference of state super-
visors and participated in the annual conference of Local
Directors of Vocational and Adult Education. They attended
the annual conference of the Florida Education Association and
the Florida Vocational Association, held concurrently, and
met with other committees concerned with improving the
quality of instruction and scholarship in homemaking education.
They participated in campaigns such as that sponsored by the
Sears-Roebuck Foundation whose Urban Renewal Program was
dedicated to the development of student responsibility for
school, home, and community health, cleanliness, and ap-

The specialist for homemaking education in Negro schools par-
ticipated in the NHA state convention and in the annual


conference for Negro teachers of homemaking education at
Florida A & M University. The purpose of the meeting was
to provide professional in-service training for Negro home-
making teachers. The specialist also attended the national
NHA convention in which delegates of the state association

A highly successful activity in which ten counties in two FHA
districts took part was an FHA Leadership Training Conference.
The conference was planned to assist girls in carrying out
their duties as FHA officers and chapter members. It was al-
so intended to help them in planning a schedule of work oriented
to the national program. As a result of the conference it was
noted that more teachers asked for help with FHA activities,
a greater number attended district meetings, and all but two
of the vocational programs had chapter affiliates. The success
of the meeting led to heightened interest in FHA, with the re-
sult that leadership training conferences have been planned in
three other districts of the state. Interest in county councils
was stimulated to the degree that four of the more sparsely-
populated counties combined to form a single council which has
been highly instrumental in furthering the aims of FHA in that

One staff member assisted in the preparation of two issues of
the Florida Future Homemaker magazine and served as con-
sultant at the Junior High School Facilities Conference, while
another worked with county supervisory and administrative
personnel, architects, and teachers in purchasing equipment
for or in planning four new homemaking departments and in
remodeling five others.

2. Current Status of the Program

Homemaking education may be offered as a general educational
subject in the junior or senior high school curriculum and it
may also be provided as a vocational subject beginning at the
ninth grade level.

During the past year emphasis has been placed upon improving
the quality of offerings and instruction in the adult program,
all of which is vocational. Sixteen new homemaking depart-
ments were added to the state total, raising the number of vo-
cational and non-vocational departments to 480.


Both FHA and NHA are considered to be vital parts of the in-
structional program. Most of the homemaking programs,
whether of a vocational or non-vocational nature, include an
FHA or NHA chapter, and the number of FHA County Councils
and county or area leadership conferences is increasing an-
nually. It should also be noted that the number of FHA districts
in the supervisory areas has been increased from two to three
to reduce the size of district meetings and to decrease the dis-
tance traveled by advisers and members to district meetings.
The following analysis of chapters and activities provides a
summary of the services performed by these valuable adjuncts
of the program.

Activities FHA NHA

Number of Chapters 228 100

Number of Members 10, 128 4,302

Number of District Meetings 9 9

Number Attending State Convention 625 200

Number Attending National Convention 47 27

Number of Magazine Issues 2 1

Number of County Councils 8 1

Number of Executive Council Meetings 4 2

Number of Scholarships Awarded 23 0

Number of Honor Roll Chapters 19 2

Home projects furnish the student with the opportunity to prac-
tice in the home the skills and understandings acquired in the
homemaking laboratory. All pupils enrolled in the vocational
program are required to carry on directed home experiences re-
lating to classroom instruction. Students in the numbers indica-
ted engaged in home projects in the following areas during the
school year.


Project Area

Child Care & Development

Consumer Buying

Personal, Social, & Family

Health, Home Safety, & Home
Care of the Sick


Personal Improveme nt

Home Management

Food and Nutrition

Clothing and Textiles

Gardening (Flowers &


.4, 595


3, 952


















Vegetables) 2, 148 150 850 132

Other 2,348 204 164 13

Totals 79,409 852 9,560 1,09C

Following is a summary of additional pertinent data concerning
schools, instructional personnel, and secondary and adult enrollments.

Aspect of Program White Negro

Number of Schools (Vocational) 231 88

Number of Schools (Non-Vocational) 113 48

Number of High School Teachers (Vocational) 343 131

Number of High School Teachers
(Non- Vocational) 228 72



Girls Boys

567 94

457 52

745 149

555 29

2,081 162

871 140

473 19

1,322 161

1,475 139

Number of Pupils (Vocational)

Number of Pupils (Non-Vocational) 33, 289 7, 604

Number of Adult Teachers 91 43

Number of Adults Enrolled 13, 404 4, 407

In addition to promoting and supervising program development, the
state staff prepared a curriculum guide for home economics edu-
cation (Bulletin 75H-1, June, 1960) to provide assistance to in-
structional and administrative personnel in organizing and
conducting home economics education programs in community
junior colleges.

Essentially, the guide is a description of the program, defining
the broad areas of home economics, identifying purposes served,
presenting typical curricula, outlining teacher qualifications,
and describing the minimum facilities required for effective in-

A workshop was held to prepare a one-page outline in the areas
of Clothing and Textiles and Food and Nutrition for use in the
adult homemaking program. Outstanding teachers from the
four counties with large adult enrollments were invited to work
with the county supervisors and members of the home econom-
ics staff in preparing the outlines. These will be included in
a later release of the Division of Vocational and Adult Educa-
tion. A similar workshop will be held in August for the purpose
of preparing comparable outlines in the areas of Child Care
and Development; Health, Home Safety, and Home Care of the
Sick; Housing; and Personal, Social, and Family Relationships.
Teachers for the initial workshop were chosen because of their
interest in and knowledge of the areas under discussion.
Comparable criteria were used in selecting personnel for par-
ticipation in the one to follow.

The state supervisor met with county officials of Dade,
Hillsborough, and Pinellas Counties to discuss changes in the
adult program growing out of revisions prompted by action of
the 1959 legislature described below.

The state staff spent considerable time in preparing releases
for the eleventh- and twelfth-month program. In addition,
Form C -- Application for Instructional Units for Vocational


26,857 9,892

Education in Homemaking -- was revised as were the instruc-
tions concerning approval of vocational units in home econom-
ics education. Policies to be observed by district FHA and
NHA advisers were reviewed and, where necessary, revised,
and a number of minor changes were incorporated in the home
economics section of the State Plan for the Extension and
Improvement of Vocational Education.

3. Teacher Preparation and In-Service Training of Teachers

The home economics teacher-training staff at Florida State
University consists of four individuals. One of these is a
half-time instructor and another holds a graduate teaching as-
sistantship. Thirty-three students majoring in home econom-
ics education were graduated during the fiscal year 1959-60.

Instruction at the undergraduate level was primarily concerned
with providing experiences enabling the prospective home-
making teacher (1) to gain an appreciation of her role in the
school, home, and community, (2) to clarify educational goals
and processes and to acquire skill in their implementation,
(3) to understand the needs of adolescents, and (4) to become
proficient in the use of methods, techniques, and resources
which make learning experiences more meaningful. A total of
twenty-nine interns were placed in twenty-two teaching cen-
ters under the supervision of twenty-seven directing teachers.

The graduate program has been limited because of the
shortage of instructional personnel. However, six graduate
students were enrolled during the past year.

In addition to their instructional responsibilities, university
staff members participated in a number of activities designed
to improve the quality of homemaking education in Florida.
They served as consultants to secondary students in selected
counties in meetings concerned with careers in home econom-
ics and they participated in other career-day activities.
They also served as consultants for homemaking teachers in
two high schools which were to be evaluated for accreditation,
and they counseled with a number of first-year homemaking
teacher graduates of the university.

Particular attention was directed in the undergraduate home-
making program at Florida A & M University to selecting,
assigning, supervising, and evaluating home projects. Interns


gained experience in integrating NHA activities with classroom
instruction by assisting their respective directing teachers in
supervising NHA activities. Ten individuals, under the super-
vision of nine directing teachers, received their internship
experiences in nine teaching centers.

The graduate program leading to an M. Ed. degree in Home
Economics at Florida A & M University usually consists of
thirty-six semester hours of work equally divided between home
economics and education. Programs are interdepartmental
in character and are planned jointly by advisers from the School
of Education and the Department of Home Economics.

In addition to periodic school and teacher visitations and con-
sultations with local and county school officials, the state staff
participated in many in-service teacher-training activities
which have already been described. The state supervisor also
worked closely with the two teacher-training institutions,
holding numerous conferences with the dean of the School of
Home Economics at Florida State University, and assisting with
workshops at the two universities.

4. Cooperation With Other Groups and Organizations

Staff members were present at the annual meeting of the Florida
Federation of Fairs, representing the FHA as a participating
organization. Four youth groups took part in the program, pro-
viding suggestions for improving the quality and increasing the
number of educational exhibits at local and county fairs and at
the state exposition.

Members also met with students and educators from foreign
countries. The state supervisor discussed the state program
of homemaking education with three members of the Office of
Education in Indonesia and showed the homemaking education
film to the group. On another occasion she met with an FSU
graduate student from Indonesia and explained the program to
that individual. One of the area supervisors spoke to a group
of visiting educators from Turkey on the topic, "Interpreting
the Program of Homemaking Education in Florida. "

The state supervisor served as consultant for the Home Safety
Division of the Twenty-first Annual Southern Safety Conference
Exposition, a program which included the participation of two
state FHA officers. She also attended a number of accreditation


meetings, and one of the area supervisors served as a member
of the State Accreditation Committee.

Staff members were included in several survey teams concerned
with evaluating various aspects of the instructional program or
with the adequacy of physical facilities. They served as chair-
men of the home economics and activities committees in a
number of high schools which were being evaluated prior to ac-
creditation by the Southern Association of Secondary Schools
and Colleges. The staff was also represented on a team which
evaluated county-wide school facilities in a particular county
requesting that service, recommending additions and improve-
ments. Such a survey must be completed before approval is
obtained from the State Department of Education for construction
with state funds.

5. Appointment of a State Advisory Board Committee for Home Eco-
nomics Education

The State Superintendent of Public Instruction, upon the recom-
mendation of the State Director of Vocational and Adult Education
and the State Supervisor of Home Economics Education, ap-
pointed a State Advisory Committee for Home Economics Educa-
tion. The committee consists of a county superintendent, a
principal, a supervisor of instruction, three homemakers, the
President of the Florida Congress of Parents and Teachers, and
the Dean of the School of Home Economics at Florida State Uni-
versity. Need for the counsel and advice of leading people in
the rapidly expanding public school program of homemaking edu-
cation had become increasingly apparent, and it is believed the
board will be of invaluable assistance in promoting the program
and pointing the direction of further development. The State
Director of Vocational and Adult Education together with the
three area supervisors of home economics education were invited
to attend the initial committee meeting.


1. Projected Emphases

It was indicated above that emphasis during the past year was
placed upon improvement in the quality of offerings and instruc-
tion in the adult program.


For the coming year (1960-61) program goals include the

1. To determine why some students elect homemaking courses
in addition to the year of homemaking required of all girls
while others do not

2. To study and evaluate the program of homemaking educa-
tion in the junior high school to determine the need for
curricular revision.

2. Additional Considerations

Because of the "freeze" on instructional units allocated to
various vocational services, including the adult portion of the
homemaking program, resulting from action of the 1959 legisla-
ture, considerable attention was directed to evaluating the adult
program and to making plans for changes. It was necessary to
carefully study and to consolidate all state-wide offerings and
to identify each by course title and description. The county
supervisors of homemaking education met with the state staff to
determine criteria for revising adult offerings in homemaking.
It was necessary to reach agreement on the courses to be ap-
proved and to develop a brief description of each offering. All
courses were painstakingly analyzed and a preliminary draft of
those meeting the criteria was submitted to the respective county
superintendents, to secretaries of the boards of public instruc-
tion, to school administrators, to local directors of vocational
and adult education, to state and local advisory committee mem-
bers, and to selected laymen. Ultimately, Bulletin 70H-1,
Adult Offerings Under Minimum Foundation Program Support,
July 1, 1960 June 30, 1961, was prepared and distributed. It
contains a list of adult offerings in the respective vocational
services for which Minimum Foundation Program special in-
structional units will be made available during the ensuing year.

For the year 1959-60, a total of 440 instructional units was ap-
proved. Requests for 1960-61 reached a figure of 528, but only
483 have been allocated to the section. Hence, home economics
could use forty-five more units than have been allotted. The
number of units available in the adult homemaking program
was frozen at 63. 4. Last year the Adult Division approved six-
teen units for homemaking which will not be available during
the coming school year. As a result, it appears that the home
economics program for adults will be rather seriously


restricted. To meet future demands, the Home Economics
Section will require an increase of approximately $80, 000 for
the adult program, or from sixteen to twenty additional instruc-
tional units.

There is great need for an increase in the state staff. As indi-
cated in the following table, the number of teachers and programs
has doubled within the past ten years, but no additional staff
members have been added.

Selected Aspects of Growth During the Past Decade

Area of Growth 1949-50 1959-60

Vocational Units 183.3 440.0

Vocational Programs 189 319

Vocational Teachers 252 474

Vocational Enrollment 16, 413 36,749

FHA Chapters 117 228

FHA Members 4, 120 10, 128

NHA Chapters 77 100

NHA Members 2, 517 4,302

Adult Teachers 63 134

Adult Enrollment 8,684 17,811

Amongthe principal achievements of the program and factors
influencing its operation during the past fiscal year were the

1. The legislative "freeze" of Minimum Foundation Program
special instructional units resulted in a re-analysis of
adult homemaking courses and will probably result in the
restriction of such offerings.

2. Sixteen new departments were added to the program


3. In the three supervisory areas the number of FHA dis-
tricts has been increased from two to three to reduce the
size of district meetings and to facilitate district adminis-

4. State staff members have continued to work closely with
county and local school personnel and related groups
at all instructional levels to further promote program

5. A State Advisory Committee for Home Economics Edu-
cation was appointed

6. A decline of approximately two per cent was noted in the
overall enrollment in homemaking education. Vocational
enrollments dropped by ten per cent, a decrease at least
partially accounted for by the elimination of some of the
most popular adult courses and the uncertainties in
scheduling resulting from the unit "freeze". The decline
in secondary school vocational enrollments may also be
attributed to scheduling conflicts involving other course
offerings. The total loss was almost offset, however,
by an increase of eleven per cent in non-vocational

3. Achievement of Homemaking Goals

An indication that the homemaking program, including FHA,
is achieving its purposes may be obtained from the following
two illustrations.

"One girl who had been separated from her mother since
infancy and now had been reunited with her mother and new
step-father found that there were many adjustments which
needed to be made. After studying the benefits of family
councils in family life education, this student proposed a coun-
cil to the step-father who accepted the idea eagerly. Now
weekly councils are held and better understandings are being
developed. "

"Jessica is a talented girl from a family with a limited in-
come. She assumed that upon completing high school she
would become employed as a secretary. Since the ninth grade
she has been a faithful and hardworking officer in FHA. Last
year she was elected president of her chapter. In the capacity


of president she assumed a great deal of responsibility at our
county leadership training camp. It was as a result of discus.
sions at camp on careers in Home Economics that she devel-
oped an intense desire to major in that subject. This whole
year has been spent in planning to make her dream come true.
She received the newly established Home Economics Scholar-
ship and another scholarship given on Senior Recognition Day
which will go a long way in helping her to realize her dream.
She has full-time work for the summer and has applied for
work assistance at Alabama College where she has already
registered as a major in Home Economics. Her secretarial
work will come in handy to help finance her college training.
She gives all the credit for this wonderful experience to
FHA. "


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1. Work of Staff

The state professional staff in industrial education, consisting
of a state supervisor, three area supervisors, two consultants,
nine special coordinators, and two specialists, worked
closely with local administrative, supervisory, and instruc-
tional personnel during the year. Major responsibilities in-
cluded development of local leadership, improvement of in-
struction, cooperation with advisory and craft committees,
and determining training needs. This service and working
relationship between state and local personnel was accom-
plished by frequent visits of state staff to vocational centers,
conferences with county and school personnel, and attendance
at county board, county staff, and advisory committee meetings.

The staff attended several national, regional, and state-wide
professional conventions and conferences. Particular attention
was paid at these meetings to changing philosophies, important
trends, legal aspects of program operation, and common
problems pertaining to industrial education.

Periodic conferences were held among state staff members
during the year. These meetings dealt primarily with prob-
lems relating to the overall program with special attention
being given to the activities being carried on in each geo-
graphical area and type of program. Also discussed were
methods of improving service and state-county relationships.

2. Operation of Schools and Classes

Some significant changes in the operation of schools and classes
were noted during the year. There was a marked increase in
high school day trade programs, in-plant training, and certain
evening trade extension classes, particularly peace officers'
and supervisory training. Normal increases were experienced
in apprenticeship related instruction, commercial vehicle
driver training, school bus driver and maintenance training,
and vocational-technical education. No increase, but no large
decrease, was noted in adult preparatory programs, R.E.A.
job and safety training, and fishing industries training.


Decreases in classes and enrollment were definitely noted in
railroad training and certain service occupations. No part-
time general continuation or part-time trade preparatory classes
were operated.

Of significance is the increased interest in high school pre-
paratory programs and the development of several comprehen-
sive high schools in centers not previously served by this
type of training. Bay, Brevard, Dade, Duval, Hillsborough,
Manatee, Pinellas, Polk, St. Lucie, and Volusia counties es-
tablished new high school programs during the year or are in the
process of considering such a development in the near future.

3. Work in Training of Teachers

Teacher training continues to be of prime concern to the In-
dustrial Education Section. During the year college credit ex-
tension courses were held in thirteen centers. In addition, full
summer school sessions were held at the Florida State
University and Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University.
One new development in teacher training was the decision of
the University of Miami to initiate an industrial teacher-
training baccalaureate degree program. Until this year it had
limited its classes to extension courses at the Lindsey Hopkins
Education Center.

One course for automotive mechanics instructors was offered
by the General Motors Corporation at its training center in
Jacksonville. This type of technical training for instructors
is being further explored with Philco Corporation, the Lincoln-
Mercury Division of the Ford Motor Company, and other

Increased emphasis was placed by the State Department of Edu-
cation upon in-service teacher training of a non-credit type.
This was handled primarily by the State Coordinator of Instruc-
tional Problems and was geared strictly to the improvement
of instruction. Sessions with local supervisors were held
concerning their responsibilities for assisting teachers in
improving methods of teaching and course construction.

4. Cooperation with Groups or Organizations

During the year work continued on a cooperative basis with other
governmental agencies, lay groups, and industrial organizations.


Particular mention should be made of the close association with
the Florida State Employment Service, the Florida Development
Commission, the Florida Apprenticeship Council, the Veterans'
Administration, and the Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training.

Conferences and group discussions were held with the State
Employment Service concerning implications and courses of
action to meet the critical manpower situation of the 1960's and
to exploring their significance for vocational training. The
Veterans' Administration cooperated with the State Department
of Education in reconstructing and readjusting course outlines
for veterans' training. Emphasis was placed on streamlining,
elimination of long courses, and re-evaluation of course ob-
jectives. Work with the Development Commission involved
presenting plans for new industry training and assisting in the
coordination of state and local industrial committees in seeking
new industry. As an ex-officio member of the State Appren-
ticeship Council, the state supervisor and various other mem-
bers of his staff attended and participated in all meetings of
the council during the year. Work with this group involved
finding itinerant apprenticeship instructors for smaller centers,
developing state-wide uniform related instruction courses of
study for each craft, and the use of Title III funds in appren-
ticeship training.

5. Use of Advisory Committees

Active participation by state advisory committees in trade and
industrial education, peace officers' training, commercial
vehicle driver training, railroad training, R. E.A. job and
safety training, technical education, labor education, and prac-
tical nursing education was continued during the year.

At the local level there was a marked increase in the forma-
tion and use of general advisory committees and craft com-
mittees. This was spearheaded by the increased emphasis
the State Department of Education placed on this phase of indus-
trial education and active assistance by state staff members in
aiding counties to organize such lay groups.

6. Special Studies

Several studies and surveys were conducted during the year.
These included a cooperative study by state and local personnel
of the administrative and supervisory organization of


vocational education in Duval County, along with planning of
future programs. Also of importance was a survey conducted
in a seven-county area of northwest rural Florida on the need for
and advisability of establishing an area vocational-technical
program at Marianna. The study revealed an interest in such
a program and steps are being taken to establish it.

In co-sponsorship with the Florida Industrial Commission, a
job guide for young workers was revised and a new edition
issued entitled, Your Career in the Florida Sun.


1. Expansion of Existing Program

Two new vocational-technical comprehensive high schools
were completed and opened during the year. These were
Miami Central High School (Miami) and Dixie Hollins High
School (St. Petersburg). Existing high school programs which
were enlarged included Cocoa High School (Cocoa), Melbourne
High School (Melbourne), McCarty High School (Et. Pierce),
Southwestern High School (Miami), North Miami High School
(Miami), Pensacola Technical High School (Pensacola),
Sarasota High School (Sarasota), and Palatka High School
(Palatka). Most program enlargement occurred in the areas
of electronics, auto mechanics, and drafting.

The increase in evening trade extension classes was at a nor-
mal, unspectacular rate. The same can be said for part-
time trade extension. Particular growth in these areas was
noted at Lindsey Hopkins Education Center (Miami), Broward
County Vocational School (Ft. Lauderdale), Mary Karl
Vocational School (Daytona Beach), and Tomlinson Education
Center (St. Petersburg).

Actually, any large expansion of the total trade and indus-
trial education program in the state was handicapped by a
"freeze" of funds from state sources. A large proportion of
federal funds this year was used in the reimbursement of
teachers' salaries for new classes.

2. New Programs to Be Promoted

a. Apprenticeship related instruction for smaller centers
where no instruction is now available to apprentices.


b. Basic electronics and mechanical drafting, since indus-
try has indicated trainees with this preparation can get
lower-level technician positions.

c. Supervisory training.

d. Service trades, particularly food trades, cosmetology,
barbering, dry cleaning and laundering, shoe repair, and
hotel trades. There are particularly good opportunities
for Negroes and Puerto Ricans in these fields.

e. Aircraft mechanics.

3. Supervision for Training of Veterans

Supervision of the training of veterans is a special function
of the State Supervisor of Adult and Veteran Education. How-
ever, the Industrial Education Section is working closely with
this office and the Veterans' Administration in revising approved
courses for veterans' training and re-evaluating much veter-
ans' institutional training.

4. Improvement of Teacher Training Service

Definite plans have been inaugurated to provide more on-the-
job, in-service teacher training of a non-credit, non-scheduled
type. This is to be closely coordinated with local supervision
of instruction. The State Coordinator of Instructional Prob-
lems will devote practically all of his time to this program
during the coming year.

Institutional teacher training will remain basically a campus
and extension credit program, offered primarily to provide the
necessary courses for securing and up-grading teaching certifi-
cates and to make baccalaureate and graduate-degree programs
available to those wishing to pursue the same. The University
of Miami, which has limited its activities to extension courses
only in the Miami area, will initiate a baccalaureate-degree
program in industrial education for the first time next year.

5. Area Trade Schools

The possibility of an area trade school in Marianna to serve a
seven-county northwest Florida area is being studied. This
is basically a rural area which is declining in population.


However, considerable effort is being made to secure indus-
trial establishments. If and when these locate in the area, there
will be a definite need for trade and technical training.

6. Vocational Technical Schools

At present Florida has six high schools, three vocational
schools, and eight junior colleges offering below college grade
technical preparatory courses. In addition, ten vocational
schools and three junior colleges are conducting extension
classes for technicians or would-be technicians. This program
in all probability will increase considerably next year.

The most prominent areas of training are electronics, electri-
city, engineering drawing, machine drafting, engineering aide
technology, chemical technology, aeronautics, instrumenta-
tion, and missile technology.


1. The 1959 Florida Legislature exacted an appropriation for
the biennium July 1, 1959 through June 30, 1961, equal to that
of the previous biennium. This was done in the name of econo-
my and because of a critical attitude of some legislators
toward state funds being used for training adults. At the time
of the committee hearings on the appropriation, it was pointed
out that a "freeze" would, in effect, be tantamount to an appro-
priation cut in a growing program such as that of industrial
education. The effect of this limited allocation of funds for 1960
was not overly acute. Only a small portion of the total program
was handicapped. It was an opportunity for some needed ad-
justed and improvement in offerings. However, the forecast
for the year 1961 is somewhat more serious. It is estimated
that the "freeze" will result in an amount of some $285, 000
of unavailable state funds needed to finance the expanded pro-
gram. It is hoped that local and federal funds will be able to
bridge this gap. The prospect for an easing of the financial
limitation by the 1961 legislature is bright. Support seems to
be strong for an increased state appropriation adequate enough
to meet the needs of industrial education for the next biennium.

2. Florida continues to experience a phenomenal growth, both in
population and industry. This is definitely substantiated by
the 1960 census figures. Exceptional growth in the industrial
labor market is being experienced in Bay, Brevard, Broward,


Charlotte, Dade, Duval, Escambia, Hillsborough, Manatee,
Okaloosa, Orange, Palm Beach, Pinellas, Polk, Sarasota, and
Volusia Counties.

3. Vocational school relations with labor and management con-
tinue to be good. That there is wide acceptance by both groups
of the training being conducted is evidenced by more active
use and participation of advisory and craft committees and in-
creased placement of students who successfully finish the

4. In concluding this report it is significant to point out certain
definite trends in industrial education in Florida.

a. Comprehensive high school programs are increasing.

b. Technical education is developing rapidly in the State.

c. Adult preparatory training is decreasing in some areas,
holding its own in others, and slightly increasing in

d. Veterans' training is definitely decreasing.

e. Normal growth is being experienced in evening trade ex-
tension and part-time trade extension training.

f. There is smaller turnover among vocational teachers,
but recruitment of good teachers in some areas is diffi-
cult. The latter is particularly true in the building trades,
electrical trades, and certain service trades.

g. The total industrial education program can be expected to
grow at an annual rate of approximately 10 per cent.

h. There is greater acceptance of vocational education as an
integral part of the total educational program by other
professional educators.


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1. Work of State and Local Staffs, Including Workshops and
Institutes, Studies, Research, etc.

A follow-up study on the graduates of the approved public school
programs and one private school program in the state was
initiated and conducted by the State Coordinator of Practical
Nurse Education with the assistance of the State Supervisor
of Industrial Education and other members of the state staff.
The study covered the period from 1950 (the inception of
practical nurse education in Florida) through 1958. The primary
purposes of the study were: (1) to determine the general em-
ployment status and working conditions of graduates of these
programs, (2) to determine the relative employment stability
of the graduates of these programs, and (3) to determine the pro-
portion of graduates who are practicing in the occupation and
to ascertain why the remainder are inactive or have sought other
employment. The Florida State Board of Nursing served in a
consultative capacity in the development of the survey instru-
ment which was prepared by the state coordinator with the
assistance of personnel from the State Department of Education.
The study is based on 1540 graduates from whom a 78. 4 per cent
response was received. The interpretation of the data was done
by Dr. G. W. Neubauer, Research and Survey Specialist in the
Industrial Education Section, with the assistance of the state
coordinator. A report of the study has been prepared by the
research specialist and will be published soon.

On recommendation of the state advisory committee, a uniform
insignia to be worn by graduates of Florida's public school pro-
grams was adopted. The insignia is woven in blue and gold and
is to be worn on the left front of the white uniform. It identi-
fies the nurse as a graduate of a vocational school program.
The insignias were distributed from the state office to all grad-
uates who also received a covering letter explaining the policy.
In the future, schools will handle the purchasing and distribu-
tion. Reports to date are that the insignia has been well re-
ceived by graduates and directors of nursing services throughout
the state.

The educational program for the preparation of practical nurses
has been evaluated by the Adult and Veteran Education Section


of the State Department of Education, and it has made recom-
mendations regarding high school credit which may be granted
to those individuals with less than a high school diploma who
complete this program. Recommendations were as follows:
(1) individuals must meet local minimum requirements for
graduation, (2) a total of 7 credits toward high school gradu-
ation will be allowed upon completion of the year's training
program and after successfully passing the state licensing
examination, 4 of these credits to be allowed for the founda-
tion period and 3 for the clinical period, and (3) those persons
establishing tenth grade equivalency by standardized testing
will need to have the results of those tests further evaluated
in terms of subject matter deficiencies to satisfy certain sub-
ject area requirements. The advisory committee approved
these recommendations. The policy provides an opportunity
for those with less than a high school education to acquire a
diploma with a minimum of additional study, and it is hoped
that many will be encouraged to raise their educational level
and so raise the level within the state.

Plans have been completed for four regional conferences to be
held in the fall of 1960. These will deal with the "Effective Use
of the Practical Nurse Through Understanding". A state plan-
ning committee representing hospital, medical,and nursing
interests, both professional and practical, met twice to dis-
cuss needs in relation to the program and the plans for the
conferences. These conferences are organized to promote a
greater understanding among hospital and nursing personnel
concerning what the practical nurse is prepared to do and how
she functions in relation to other groups sharing in patient care.
An out-of-state consultant has been engaged to assist with the

Thefilm "Wanted: Trained Practical Nurse" has had wide dis-
tribution and use not only throughout Florida, but nationally.
The demand for the film has been so great that the General Ex-
tension Division of the University of Florida was unable to meet
the requests for showing and a fourth print was purchased for
general circulation. Fifteen states have purchased a print of
the film, and the General Extension Division reports there have
been 54 bookings and 104 showings with an approximate attend-
ance of 4270.


2. Results Based on Evaluative Procedures

Data taken from the study referred to in A-1 above indicate
that 76. 8 per cent of the total graduate group responding were
employed in general hospitals, 11.4 per cent were employed in
doctors' offices or as dental assistants, while 4. 6 per cent were
working in nursing homes. Special hospitals, such as tubercu-
losis and mental institutions, accounted for another 4. 4 per
cent. Less than 10 per cent of the graduates were engaged in
private practice nursing. It appears from the data that a con-
siderably larger proportion than formerly is obtaining work in
doctors' offices, a trend which has undoubtedly been accelerated
by salary differentials and conditions of employment. The
median salary for graduates was found to be $206 per month.
Eight in ten of those doing private duty received a fee of $12. 00
for an eight-hour shift. Placement of the practical nurse does
not appear to be a problem in this state.

3. Curriculum Improvement, Coordination of Theory and Prac-
tice, New Courses, Course Integration and Experimental

The State Curriculum Committee met and discussed continuing
education courses for graduates of the practical nursing pro-
grams. The committee expressed the opinion that LPN's need
additional experience in the areas taught in the basic program
rather than more theory, and that extension courses should
provide for the extension of basic understandings and skills
rather than for post-graduate credit leading to a certificate.

Faculties in all schools have been making progress in coordi-
nating theory and practice earlier in the course.

4. Testing, Selection and Performance of Students, Student Policies

All schools use standardized aptitude pre-admission tests to
aid in the selection of students. The majority of schools use
the U. S. Employment Service aptitude tests and several use
additional tests. Still others use achievement tests to deter-
mine educational level rather than high school graduation for
admission to the program.

Two schools (Sarasota Vocational School and Pensacola Tech-
nical High School) discontinued stipends during the clinical
phase of the program, and one (Daytona Beach Junior College)


has reduced the stipend being paid. Fifty per cent of the pro-
grams in operation are now being conducted without student
stipends. Recruitment of students does not appear to have been
affected by the reduction or discontinuance of these gratuities
although many students have financial problems which the schools
are trying to meet through loan and scholarship funds.

With the exception of one school, student policies now provide
for a straight forty-hour week (Monday through Friday) during
the clinical period, except for planned educational experiences
with adequate supervision for a limited number of weekends
late in the course. This has made for improved supervision.

5. Types of Programs Offered in High Schools, Junior Colleges,
and Other Types of Schools

One high school (Pensacola Technical High School) opened a
practical nursing course for twelfth grade students in the fall
of 1959. Students were scheduled for three periods daily in
practical nursing and three periods in required subjects for
graduation. Upon graduation from high school, the student will
receive eight months of clinical experience. The attrition rate
from this class at the end of the school year was very high
(80%). This is the only high school program in the state.

Three new programs have been opened, two of which are under
community junior college administration (North Florida Junior
College at Madison and Volusia County Community Junior
College at Daytona Beach). These programs are both non-
credit and below college level. In one instance, physical fa-
cilities have been provided by the community college; in the
other, by one of the affiliating hospitals through an agreement
with the college. In the latter instance, the cost of renovating
the space was borne jointly by the college and the hospital.
The third new program to open was the Jackson County program
at Marianna. In this situation, the Chipola Community Junior
College has provided classroom space, but the program is
under the administration and supervision of the Adult Education
Division of the county.

The programs at Madison and Marianna represent a departure
from the usual pattern in several respects. It is the first
time a program has been tried in a small rural area. The
curriculum has been planned for two eight-week periods during
the foundation preparation, divided by six weeks of full-time


clinical practice. Because students are receiving experience
in two small hospitals thirty miles apart, the instructor spends
alternating weeks in each hospital and the students are under
the supervision of a member of the hospital staff during the
time the instructor is in the other hospital. In all three new
programs, counties were reimbursed for teachers' salaries
from Title II funds.

Practical nurse preparatory programs being operated by the
public vocational school system of Florida now number twenty-
one. All are adult day programs, except for the one high
school program previously mentioned.

6. Staff or Faculty Reorganization and Expansion

The counties employed thirty-eight full-time registered nurse
instructors to teach and supervise the students. This repre-
sents an increase of five instructors over last year. There is
one registered nurse coordinator, exclusive of the thirty-eight,
who is employed by Dade County to supervise the white and
Negro programs in that county. One registered nurse is in-
cluded in the thirty-eight whose status has changed from a full-
time instructor to that of teacher-coordinator (Escambia
County). This was done to improve clinical supervision and
provide for greater coordination within the program.

7. Extension and In-Service Courses

Extension courses were given in ten counties to 452 licensed
practical nurses. Sixteen registered nurses gave 1100 hours
of instruction to this group.

No in-service hospital courses have been given under the
county boards of public instruction.

8. Teacher Training

Teacher training was provided practical nurse instructors by
the two state universities and one private institution including:

a. Florida Agriculture and Mechanical University

b. Florida State University

c. University of Miami


This training was accomplished through a three-fold program:

a. Summer sessions on campus of three to six weeks

b. Extension courses in local centers taught by itinerant
teacher trainers

c. Pre-service training by a teacher apprenticeship plan.

A two-day workshop for instructors was held in November, 1959,
at which the revised educational standards proposed by the State
Board of Nursing were presented by the board and discussed by
the faculties of the schools. Instructors also considered the
selection of learning experiences and the abilities to be derived

9. Training for Health Occupations Other Than Practical Nursing

Thinking that it is a responsibility which should be assumed by
the hospital, extension courses for "upgrading" hospital nurses'
aides have been discontinued. Three full-time, one-year
preparatory programs for dental assistants were operated in
JacKsonville, Miami, and Tampa. These were instructed by
graduate and experienced licensed dentists. Practical training
in the county dental clinics was an integral and major part of
each course. The State Coordinator for Practical Nurse Edu-
cation is not responsible for the supervision of these courses.

10. Use of Advisory Committees

The State Advisory Committee for Practical Nurse Education
met twice during the year (September 1959 and February 1960)
and has been of help in recommending policies for the develop-
ment and conduct of the state's program.

The state coordinator, with the help of the area supervisors,
has given assistance to local school authorities in setting up
local advisory committees in the initial planning stages for a
program. From time to time the state coordinator has met
with local committees to give assistance as requested.


1. Recruitment remains somewhat of a problem throughout the


state, although it is much more of a problem in some areas
than in others. Counties will continue to use all types of media
in an effort to recruit adequate numbers.

2. Retention of Students

Greater emphasis is being laid on careful screening before
admission to eliminate withdrawals and drop-outs from prevent-
able causes. Several classes have graduated with the same
number originally admitted. The highest withdrawals occurred
in the high school class. The attrition rate for the state this
year is 21.6 per cent.

3. Placement

With the state's rapidly growing population and continued hos-
pital expansion, there is no placement problem; in fact,
hospital administrators in several areas have requested that
more practical nurses be trained.

4. Expansion of Existing Programs, and New Programs in Areas
Not Now Served

Plans are being made to start new programs in Orlando and
Ft. Lauderdale, the latter for Negroes. There is also a possi-
bility of a program in West Palm Beach, although it will
probably not begin before the fall of 1961.

The Jacksonville Hospital Council has requested that the pro-
gram in that city be expanded. An additional instructor is being
employed, effective July 1, to strengthen the present program
and take care of increased enrollments.

5. Accreditation by Other Than the State Board for Vocational Edu-

All schools in the state are accredited by the State Board of
Nursing. They are required by law to apply to the board and
submit evidence that they are prepared to give a program ap-
proved by the board which will meet the standards prescribed
by this board for the preparation of practical nurses. Accredi-
tation is for one year, and annual surveys of all schools are
made by a representative of the board who prepares and supplies
both the school and the State Department of Education with a
written evaluation, including recommendations for improvement.


There are no public school programs in Florida accredited by
the National Association for Practical Nurse Education, nor is
there an apparent trend in that direction.


1. Employment Opportunities

There is no significant additional information relating to employ-
ment opportunities.

2. Enrollment of Men Students

A large teaching hospital recently requested that a male class
be recruited to meet the need for "trained orderlies", a need
which this administrator felt was not being met anywhere in the
country. Although an effort will be made to meet the request,
doubt was expressed concerning the possibility of recruiting a
sufficient number for a class because of the low pay practical
nurses receive after graduation.

Present enrollment of men students remains at approximately
the one per cent level.

3. Attitudinal Relationships Between Affiliating Agency and the

In general, but with a few exceptions, the relationship between
affiliating agencies and the schools is very good. Hospitals
are high in their praise of the product.

4. Relationship Between State Board for Vocational Education and
the State Board of Nurse Examiners

The State Department of Education enjoys an unusually fine and
close working relationship with the State Board of Nursing. On
all preliminary surveys for new programs, the state coordina-
tor accompanies the educational director who makes the sur-
ve y. In the recent revision of the educational standards for
schools of practical nursing, the state coordinator gave assist-
ance to the Board of Nursing, and the proposed standards were
presented by the board to the faculties of the schools at their
state conference before these were adopted. Because of the
flexibility of these new standards, each school will be free to


develop within its own framework of philosophy and objectives,
and may continuously evaluate and improve its program in
practical nurse education. The standards are a departure from
the old rigid policies and represent progressive thinking on the
part of the board and respect for the sound educational bases
on which the practical nursing programs have been established.

The licensing examination administered by the State Board of
Nursing (National Test Pool Examination) was given to 396
graduates in 1959. All but three schools (fourteen out of
seventeen) whose graduates took the examination received scores
above the National Standard Score Means. The mean standard
score of Florida candidates was above the national mean in all
categories of abilities tested except in the area of Nutrition and
Diet Therapy. Florida ranks fifteenth in the nation of forty-nine
jurisdictions taking the examination according to a report re-
leased to state boards of nursing by the National League for
Nursing Test Services.

5. Changes in Teacher Certification Requirements

There have been no changes in teacher certification requirements
affecting practical nursing instructors in the past year.

6. State Legislation

There were no changes made in the Nurse Practice Act at the
last legislature and, as far as is known, none are contemplated
for the coming session.


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1. Work of Staff

The State Director of Vocational and Adult Education is re-
sponsible for the state administration of the area vocational
education program in Florida. He is ably assisted by the state
supervisors of the four federally-reimbursed vocational pro-
grams and their staffs. State supervision of the technical edu-
cation aspects of the area vocational education program is
handled primarily by a Consultant for Technical Education.

In addition to the above staff members, two clerical personnel
are employed. These are a secretary and a part-time clerk-

A number of conferences conducted by the Division of Vocational
and Adult Education included discussions relating to the develop-
ment, organization, and administration of technical education
programs. The major conference during the year was the
Second Annual Conference for Technical Education, held in
Jacksonville. This conference was planned to include discus-
sions covering such topics as organizing technical curricula,
planning technical laboratories, and selecting instructional equip-
ment and materials. Conference participants included techni-
cal instructors and administrators, guidance personnel, indus-
trial representatives, and various members of the state staff.
Also present were representatives from Connecticut, Georgia,
Michigan, Mississippi, North Carolina, and Puerto Rico.

A meeting of directors responsible for the supervision of post-
high school technical programs was held in Tallahassee where
basic program objectives were reviewed and common problems
discussed. Some of the items reviewed by the group were re-
quirements for courses other than technical laboratory of-
ferings, preparatory and extension programs, in-service
training of instructional personnel, accreditation and evalua-
tion of technical curricula, reporting procedures, and placement
of technical students.

2. Official Actions

The State Board for Vocational Education adopted a State Plan


for Area Vocational Education programs in November, 1958,
and the plan was approved by the U. S. Office of Education on
November 28, 1958.

Several counties requested and were allocated grants-in-aid for
developing or expanding technical programs under provisions
of the state plan. Eleven new school centers will provide
twenty-seven technical curricula this year. These centers
serve both single- and multiple-county areas. Other counties
conducting technical preparatory and extension classes utilized
federal and/or state and local funds for operating their pro-

3. Important Studies

A survey was made during 1958-59 to determine the current
status and future need for technicians in Florida industries.
The final report, entitled Technicians for Florida Industries,
was printed and distributed this year to assist local adminis-
trators in planning for the development and expansion of tech-
nical education.

The survey involved approximately forty types of industries,
services, wholesale and trade establishments, governmental
agencies, and military installations in seventeen counties. It
was revealed that over 15, 000 technicians will be needed in
Florida during the next three years in addition to the nearly
12, 000 who are presently employed. This represents an in-
crease of approximately 125 per cent by 1963.

The areaof greatest need was in the electronics industry where
nearly 4, 400 technicians are employed and in which another
4, 800 will be required by 1963. Other general work areas
showing a great demand were drafting and design, mechanics,
electrical power, construction, aeronautics, chemistry, metal-
lurgy, civil technology, and instrumentation.

The survey was conducted by the State Department of Education
in cooperation with the Florida Development Commission and
the Florida State Employment Service.

4. Special Problems

The need for developing common agreement upon basic objec-
tives for technical program organization and operation,


particularly at the post-high school level, was considered very

Assisting local individuals to identify important common ob-
jectives basic to the entire technical program was a major con-
tribution achieved by members of the state staff in consultation
with local school officials.

A major problem during the year has been the employment of
competent individuals as technical instructors. This will con-
tinue to be a major concern because of the availability of
industrial jobs for skilled technicians and engineers at salaries
considerably more than those available in public school
teaching positions.

There are numerous opportunities for the continued development
of extension courses, utilizing technical laboratories designed
for use in preparatory programs. As the program develops,
technical extension classes will grow accordingly and the need
for short courses to upgrade employed technicians will receive
appropriate consideration.

5. Experience with Different Kinds of Institutions

Three types of institutions provide for technical preparatory and
extension classes. These are selected comprehensive high
schools which include technical subjects for high school youth
at the eleventh and twelfth grade levels, community junior col-
leges having technical divisions which offer from one to six
technical courses, and vocational industrial-technical centers
where preparatory and short courses in several technical fields
are provided.

Each of these institutions has developed a technical education
program conforming to the criteria set forth in recommendations
for technical courses that meet the requirements for the use of
federal George-Barden Title III funds.

One concern frequently reviewed with administrators responsi-
ble for the institutions described above, is the necessity of
maintaining flexibility so that each technical offering may re-
main abreast of industrial growth and development.


6. Teacher Training

No specific teacher training for technical instructors has thus
far been provided in Florida. However, some current courses
for industrial education teachers are of value to new teachers
entering this field. As area programs develop and the number
of teachers increase, teacher training of a more specialized
nature will be provided for technical education instructors.
Plans for a technical teacher-education program may be initi-
ated during 1960-61.

7. Advisory Committees

A state Advisory Committee for Technical Education was ap-
pointed by the chief school executive officer upon the recom-
mendation of the state director and his staff during the year.
The services of this committee have been of great value in the
development of technical education in the state. This commit-
tee has reviewed requests for the use of George-Barden,
Title III, funds. The positions and industries represented on
the committee are the following: Engineer, Research and In-
Services, Minneapolis-Honeywell Regulator Corporation;
Manager, Education and Management Development Department,
The Martin Company; aeronautics; Manager, Technical
Training, R.C.A. Service Company; Engineer, Engineering
Department, Vitro Laboratories; Personnel Director, Gulf
Power Company; and Personnel Director, Pratt Whitney Company.

The state advisory committee met twice during the year. It
reviewed local requests for Title III funds and made recommenda-
tions to the state staff for possible distribution of such funds.
Committee members have been interested, active, and of con-
siderable assistance in the development of various technical

In each county where technical courses were developed, local
technical advisory groups have been appointed and used in
making surveys, identifying instructional areas, and assisting
in the selection of laboratory equipment.

Advisory committees at state and local levels will continue to
be utilized in the future development of this program.



1. Program Features

Technical education in Florida will probably not continue to grow
as rapidly as it has during the past two years. However, it
appears that existing school centers will improve current of-
ferings and will add other types of technical curricula not pres-
ently provided at some centers.

The greatest development during the next year is expected to be
in the southern area of the state, especially in Broward, Dade,
and Pinellas counties. Dade County will initiate five new post-
high school technical offerings at the Dade County Junior
College, including aviation technology, civil engineering tech-
nology, electronic technology, machine drafting and design,
and mechanical technology. A new high school technical elec-
tronics course will be offered for the first time next year at
Miami Beach High School. Broward County (Fort Lauderdale)
will organize a post-high school technical electronics program
during the coming year. Consideration will also be given to the
inclusion of a technical division in the new junior college of
Broward County. In Pinellas County a new comprehensive high
school will include a drafting technology course in addition to
the technical electronics course initiated this year. It is ex-
pected that considerable emphasis next year will be placed upon
the expansion of state-wide offerings in technical extension short

2. Evaluation of Program

Programs were evaluated through visitations of the state staff
to local centers. Administrative, supervisory, and instruction-
al procedures were observed and recommendations made for
the improvement of supervision and instruction.

Most of the technical offerings in post-high school programs
will be evaluated during the coming year in accordance with
state accreditation practices for secondary schools and commu-
hityjunior colleges. All programs utilizing federal and state
matching funds conformed with the provisions of the George-
Barden Act, Title III, and the requirements of the State Plan
for Vocational Education.


Date Due

3. Additions to Plant and Equipment

New facilities or renovated laboratories have been provided
for courses being developed in Bradenton, Fort Lauderdale,
Miami, Ocala, St. Petersburg, and Tampa.

Each new technical laboratory will be equipped with instruc-
tional facilities carefully selected to implement the technical
curricula that have been planned for each school center.

4. Enlargement of Geographical Areas to be Served by Schools

Vocational-technical schools serve individual counties, but there
are no limitations on students living outside the area who wish
to attend. Several of the community junior colleges serve
multiple-county areas. In one section of the state a seven-county
area school program is planned which will serve both high school
students and adults desiring specialized vocational-technical


1, Problems on Which Assistance From the Office of Education Is

a. Curriculum development. Additional bulletins containing
job descriptions and suggested techniques for determining
courses of study in vocational education programs are

b. Facilities. Technical laboratory facility planning guides
for some of the basic technical areas would be desirable.

c. Evaluation. Identification of criteria essential for techni-
cal program evaluation should be developed.

d. Teacher Education. Essential elements of in-service
training for technical instructors should be determined.


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