THE SECOND ANNUAL
VOCATIONAL, TECHNICAL AND ADULT EDUCATORS' CONFERENCE
Department of EdUdation
Florida Vocational Association
Florida Adult Education Association
Miami Beach, Florida
August 10-15, 1969
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DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION:
Floyd T. Christian
DIVISION OF VOCATIONAL, TECHNICAL AND ADULT EDUCATION
Carl W. Proehl
E. A. Emmelhainz
J. H. Fling, Director
Adult and Veteran Education
C. M. Lawrence, Director
T. J. Bailey, Director
C. R. Crumpton, Director
Manpower Development and Training
J. R. Barkley, Director T. W. Strickland, Director
Business and Distributive Education Technical & Health Occupations Education
Frances Champion, Director
Home Economics Education
G. W. Neubauer, Director
VOCATIONAL, TECHNICAL AND ADULT EDUCATORS' CONFERENCE
Department of Education
C. R. Crumpton, General Conference Chairman
Carl W. Proehl
J. P. McClellan
Division of Vocational Technical and Adult Education
Adult and Veteran Education . . . . . ... .Rex Wright
Agricultural Education . . . . . . ... G. C. Norman
Business and Distributive Education . . . . . J. A. Davis
Home Economics Education. . . . . . . ... Virginia Leslie
Industrial Education. ............... .John Sojat
Manpower Development and Training . . . . ... .M. J. Tankersley
Program Services. . . . . . . . . ... Rod Dugger
Technical and Health Occupations Education . . .. .Dick Ray
Florida Adult Education Association
L. L. Bethea
D. E. Williams
F. M. Peters
Florida Vocational Association
J. W. Turner
F. C. Murray
Conference Recorder Rod Dugger
The Second Annual Vocational, Technical and Adult Educators' Conference was
held in Miami Beach, August 10-15, 1969.
The Conference Headquarters was the Fontainebleau Hotel; Sectional Programs
were located as follows:
Adult and Veteran Education
Business and Distributive Education
Home Economics Education
Manpower Development and Training
Technical and Health Occupations Education
Eden Roc Hotel
Eden Roc Hotel
Fontainebleau and Eden Roc Hotels
Conference Theme: "PEOPLE, EDUCATION, BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY -
PARTNERS FOR EXCELLENCE WITH
EMPHASIS ON COMMUNICATIONS"
Appreciation is expressed for the services and contributions of those who
planned and participated in the Conference, to the recorders of the various
meetings, and to staff personnel and secretaries who assisted in making this
TABLE OF CONTENTS
GENERAL CONFERENCE PROGRAM
FIRST GENERAL SESSION - - - - - - - - - - - - 1
SECOND GENERAL SESSION - - - - - - - - - - - - 5
ADULT AND VETERAN EDUCATION - - - - - - - - - - - 20
AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION- - - - - - - - - - - - - 39
BUSINESS, DISTRIBUTIVE, AND COOPERATIVE EDUCATION - - - - - 54
HOME ECONOMICS EDUCATION- - - - - - - - - - - - 100
INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION - - - - - - - - - - - - 122
MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT TND TRAINING - - - -- - - - - - - 130
PROGRAM SERVICES- - - - - - - - - - - - - - 141
TECHNICAL AND HEALTH OCCUPATIONS EDUCATION - - - - - - - 155
FLORIDA ADULT EDUCATION ASSOCIATION
FLORIDA ADULT EDUCATION ASSOCIATION - - - - - - - - - 188
FLORIDA VOCATIONAL ASSOCIATION BUSINESS MEETING
FLORIDA VOCATIONAL ASSOCIATION- - - - - - - - - - - 191
EDUCATIONAL EXHIBITORS' ASSOCIATION - - - - - - - - - 194
GENERAL CONFERENCE PROGRAM
FIRST GENERAL SESSION
Monday, August 11 Presiding Dr. Carl W. Proehl
2:00 p.m. Assistant Commissioner
and Adult Education
The Second Annual Vocational, Technical and Adult Educators' Conference
was opened with greetings and words of welcome by Dr. Carl W. Proehl.
Dr. Proehl reviewed the present challenge to vocational, technical and adult
educators of providing high quality educational programs in sufficient
variety to meet the needs of the people of Florida. He asked that we all
study what we are and are not now doing and that we combine all forces for
progress. Dr. Proehl stated, "The provision of sufficient high quality
vocational, technical and adult education for the people of Florida is my
challenge and your challenge. Let's work together to get the job done."
The invocation was given by Rabbi Solomon Schiff, Executive Vice President
and Director of Chaplaincy of the Congregation Bethel of Miami.
Dr. Edward L. Whigham, Superintendent of Schools, Dade County, welcomed
the conference group and extended best wishes for a pleasant and successful
meeting. He mentioned the present as being the space age and emphasized
the need for well-trained people if Florida is to meet her destiny in this
Dr. Proehl introduced Dr. Thomas R. Bennett, II, Professor of Administration
and Director of Graduate Studies, George Williams College.
The following is an abstract of Dr. Bennett's speech.
EFFECTIVE CHANGE THROUGH COMMUNICATIONS
Dr. Thomas R. Bennett, II "For successful change we
Professor of Administration and must keep our minds open to
Director of Graduate Studies the change process, and we
George Williams College must act for the benefit of
Donners Grove, Illinois the whole team."
The framework for much of what we do was laid out over 100 years ago.
The design of our universities, colleges, and other schools was born in a
basically agrarian society. But obsolescence must be recognized. It is
an issue of paramount importance. Obsolescence must not be allowed to
restrain change necessary to build for the world of today and tomorrow.
Much knowledge and many skills common today were unknown 35 years ago, or
even 10 years ago. We must dedicate ourselves to lifelong learning to keep
abreast of change. We must accept change. Only a few years ago the Model
A Duesenberg automobile represented man's highest achievement in automobile
engineering, design, and beauty. But today the car is obsolete, though
still beautiful and much sought after by collectors. Engineering advance-
ment in engines, in roads, and changes in peoples' tastes reflect total
change which make yesterday's masterpiece obsolete. Our knowledge and skills
must keep abreast of change.
We are concerned today about communications needed to facilitate change.
We must understand the verbal environment in which people work if we are
to facilitate effective change, and we must realize that people resist
change because of built-in fears that they may not be able to adjust to
the change. Often we who inaugurate change must adjust our methods and
techniques (we must accept change ourselves) to successfully introduce change
to our colleagues and students. Skill bases can disolve rapidly, and change
completely as technology develops.
The primary objective of human beings is to produce a verbal environment.
We have years of living, experience, observations, and a particular ex-
perience called education. These things affect and actually determine
our behavior. But we all react differently to our experiences because of
our built-in filters and individual feelings. Thus the speech we are
listening to may not come through as the speaker sends it, but as we hear
it. Some people may be too far away to see, and some may be too close to
see. Our attitudes, filters, and experiences may reject the ideas and
ideals reviewed in these remarks. But we must strive to rise above our
built-in filters and individual feelings and accept necessary and useful
In order to communicate effectively we need to feel that we are heard. We
need to feel that we are being supported and that our audience believes in
us. We need to feel that people are listening. Change may be in structure,
i.e., how a class and a curriculum is organized; in skills, i.e., help
people acquire adequate and useful skills; or in attitude as we help people
acquire the proper outlook or attitude for successful job and life experience.
A value change is the most difficult and is an operation in which we help
people acquire new judgements, recognize and use new values.
Resistence to change, which proposes to design the future differently from
what we now experience, is most troublesome. All change produces anxiety -
fear for life fear of incompetency fear we cannot function fear of
being dismissed. (The fundamental reaction to change is resistance.)
Resistence may be due to vested interests. Our future, as we desire it,
must be like that with which we are familiar. Our resistance is probably
due to conflicts of interests. But we should recognize all these barriers
to change and strive to overcome them.
When I initiate change I must have clear objectives, understand values,
and understand other people's values and viewpoints. Change is easier
when persons affected can help and explain their thoughts. Thus I who
initiate change must also be prepared to accept change and be ready also
to adapt my thinking as necessary.
For successful change we must keep our minds open to the change process.
We must act for the benefit of all. To be successful we must act for the
Dr. Proehl introduced Dr. John H. Furbay, Director, Trans World Airlines.
The following is an abstract of Dr. Furbay's speech.
EDUCATION COMMUNICATES WITH INDUSTRY
Dr. John H. Furbay "Vocational-technical training,
Director of Personnel such as is carried on in Florida,
Trans World Airlines will help prepare people in all
Forest Hills, New York nations for the world of work.
It will help us live together
successfully and understand
each others'problems involved
People of the world are alike. Some have more knowledge, more skills,
more capital to work with, and a higher standard of living. But basically
they are alike and have the same potential for achievement and for ex-
cellence. People of the world, to achieve, must never cease to learn new
things. We are dealing with the world of tomorrow, not the world of today
or yesterday. The world of tomorrow, not the world of today or yesterday.
The world today is not a sick world. Opportunities exist as never before
and a positive outlook is needed in education as in all facets of life.
Our age is identified with revolutionary change. Change has been and con-
tinues to be revolutionary in the field of aviation, in medicine, in agri-
culture, in transportation, in religion, in education, and in many other
ways. Economic development and the resulting competition for jobs is now
forcing tremendous spectacular change in Africa. People are being trained
for, and are successfully holding jobs as airline pilots. One African
company has a 100% safety record since operations began. Vocational -
technical training, such as is carried on in Florida,will help prepare
people in all nations for the world of work. It will help us live together
successfully and understand each others' problems as involved in change.
To be creative we must learn from each other. Business and industry must
learn from educational organizations and the latter must use the ideas
developed by the former. Industry works continually to devise ways to use
waste profitably. Industry and educators must work together to help
people who are on the wrong track, in the wrong job, or in no job, to pre-
pare for and enter employment which suits their talents and training and
in which they may reach their full potential.
Persons who have experienced poverty often are our leaders in professions.
People who are college trained, or vocationally trained and who have skills,
do accept responsibility and are contributors to economic and social develop-
People should have a vocational choice, and a vocational goal. All people
of the world should have these ideas and ideals and training to find
employment and success. Vocational education enables people to meet and
Civilization has progressed in three great bursts in history, and each
advance has been related to man's ability to move around and exchange ideas
and merchandise. Man's three great discoveries were the power of the wind
to move ships over waterways, the ease of movement by means of wheels over
roads, and the moving of persons and merchandise rapidly through the air
and over vast distances never before possible. These discoveries were made
possible because of problems. Problems today can and should be used as
implements for progress. Actually we often act because of habit until we
are forced to change. When we overcome a problem we often discover new
additional problems have arisen. But this is good because it leads to
change and progress for a better life for more people. The biggest problem
with us now, and one which will continue always, is how to stimulate
Business and industry and education complement one another. They are
mutually stimulating. We have institutions for culture including univer-
sities, colleges, and libraries, wherever we have trade and industry.
People who have skills because of vocational and technical training contri-
bute vastly to economic development with the result that leisure time is
available for cultural development.
Today man must accept change, use creative thinking and not listen to the
doubters. Man must search for ideas to promote trade and cultural develop-
ment. Man has searched for and has used ideas for solving problems -
ideas such as a ship on water, the wheel on a road, the airplane in the
air. Many more minds are in contact now as a result of creative thinking
which developed as a result of the three great bursts in the development
of our civilization Minds must continue to work together to solve new
problems involved in development and change in the world. All people
have roughly the same intelligence and all need vocational training.
Ideas, human relations, and jobs have to change to meet new world conditions.
The world is becoming a better place for all people because more people are
engaged in creative thinking, and are becoming better prepared vocationally,
as they learn to accept and adapt to change.
SECOND GENERAL SESSION
Tuesday, August 12 Presiding Mr. E. A. Emmelhainz
9:00 a.m. Executive Director
Division of Vocational,
Technical and Adult
The invocation for the second general session was given by the Reverened
J. C. Rubba of Providence College. The session featured three speakers:
The Honorable Floyd T. Christian, Mr. Lowell A. Burkett, and Dr. Carl W.
The following is a summary of Mr. Christian's speech.
FLORIDA LEADER IN EDUCATION
Honorable Floyd T. Christian "Vocational Education may
Commissioner of Education very well hold in its hands
State of Florida the destiny of the United
Vocational education becomes increasingly more important to the United
States with each passing year. I do not foresee any decline in this
vital phase of the total educational program. Vocational education may,
in fact, represent the balance of power for the United States in its
economic competition with other nations. More and more of this country's
work force is expecting vocational education to provide initial training,
updating skills and retraining for emerging occupations.
The latest figure shows that 80 percent of our population does not finish
four years of college. What happens, from an educational standpoint, to
that 80 percent of our young people is equally as important to me as the
20 percent who secure a college education.
I like to think that the one thing which cannot be removed or taken away
is education perhaps, experience is a better term. Vocational educators
should be more aware than other people in the field of education that
book learning cannot replace work experience. Theories learned in the
classroom can be useful tools, but are they more valuable than on-the-job
A college education, vocational training, or work experience are of little
value unless there are job opportunities. Therefore, our educational and
vocational programs must be geared to meet the needs of the individual,
and to prepare the individual for existing jobs. We must also consider
the men and women serving in the armed forces who will be returning to
civilian life. They, too, will need assistance to find employment in our
The majority of each group will look to the field of education, whether it
be a college or a university, a junior college, or a vocational-technical
school. This raises the question, "Are our public schools what they ought
to be? .If not, how can they be improved?"
Our first thought, when we talk about improving our schools, is that we
need more money. Permit me to add at this point that I am not one of
those persons who believes that the dollar is the only answer to our school
problems, because it is not. The point I wish to emphasize is that our
public schools are going to need additional financing for construction
purposes and for staffing institutions with the "right kind" of instructors.
By "right kind" of instructors, I am referring to those persons who are
technically certified to teach and who have a working knowledge of their
subjects with the know-how to teach it those, teachers iwho have. love
for students and those teachers who never lose their thirst for knowledge.
We can improve our schools, I believe, in ways other than just allocating
more money for them. The best place to begin is in the community in which
an institution is located. We have been somewhat remiss in asking the
various communities to assist in the solving of our educational problems.
Each community has a wealth of knowledge and assistance we have not called
upon to help us improve our present schools and to establish better ones.
We should put into use the technology available to us or which could be
available to us by inviting business and industry leaders to become a
working part of our educational program.
I am not only suggesting that we involve the community in the acquisition
of land and construction of facilities. It is my hope that we can utilize
local personnel and resources to help keep our instructional staff updated,
and to secure appropriate equipment and maintaince.
This leads me to another point to which I have given considerable thought
within the past few months. The Department of Education has established
certain requirements for certifying a teacher before he or she can be
employed for a classroom assignment. However, I am prompted to raise the
question, "What are we doing about retraining our teachers and helping
them to keep updated in the subjects they teach?" Many teachers perhaps
the majority of them at present were educated in schools that are
quite different from the institutions in which they are now employed. We
must not neglect our classroom teachers. To do so, is to neglect our
It is most important, I believe, that Florida's educational system prepares
students to successfully meet today's problems and overcome tomorrow's
crises. To do this, we must make needed changes in our educational programs.
We must make needed changes in our teaching techniques.
It is my hope that as vocational and adult educators you will establish and
maintain effective personal communication with your students. This is not
always an easy task, but it can be accomplished if you strive for more
patience in working with students and acquire a better understanding and
appreciation of students as individuals.
The United States Bureau of Labor statistics has estimated that 89 million
persons will be gainfully employed in 1975, an increase of some 13 million
over 1968. This represents a gain of about 1.6 million employed persons
a year. We will have to create additional job opportunities through tech-
nological improvements which increase efficiency and production with a
reduced work force.
Vocational educators will agree with me that a large proportion of public
funds and attention have been directed toward colleges and universities.
The allocation of monies and increased interest of the public in our
institutions of higher learning have continued to steal the spotlight from
the tremendous job our vocational education programs have been and are
continuing to accomplish.
As I think about the crowded conditions on our campuses today, I am confronted
with the recurring question, "Is a college education necessary for every
child?" My personal response has been and still is a resounding "No."
It is most important, I believe, that the parents of today must face the
fact that not all high school graduates are college-oriented. Many of
these young people do not wish to go to college their interests lie
elsewhere. More and more of our youth during the next decade will need
training in numerous occupational skills.
One report reveals that the largest single age group competing for jobs will
be in the 25-to 34-year age category. Numbers in this group will in-
crease twice as fast as the labor force within the next decade. These
students must have an opportunity to take to their jobs more education than
any other generation of Americans.
Three-fourths of that group will have high school diplomas, one-fourth will
have bachelors degrees, and many more students will go on to earn masters
The anticipated increase in educational level of the population is encour-
aging; yet, we cannot afford to overlook the group that will remain un-
prepared for employment. U. S. Department of Labor officials indicate
that education will have to become a life-time process for each person if
he is to keep abreast of the continuing knowledge explosion.
There can be no doubt that we, in Florida, are growing, learning, developing,
and improving. In this respect, I believe vocational education should be
commended for the major role it has played and will continue to play in the
State of Florida; I want to assure you of my personal interest in vocational
and adult education.
Vocational education is going to be faced with its greatest challenge in the
decade just a few months away. Tens of thousands of teen-agers will need
the services of vocational education to prepare them for initial gainful
Vocational education can play a vital role in the lives of millions of
people by training them to become productive persons, and perhaps most
important of all by providing them with a sense of dignity because they
are making their own way in the world rather than existing on a "handout"
from the state government or the federal government.
I hope you dame to this conference to listen. I hope you came to this con-
ference to speak. By doing one at a time, you will return to your job,
not only refreshed, but having the feeling of being energized or recharged.
Therefore, it is my hope that during this conference we will keep the
following points in mind. First, we are human, we have frailities. We have
short-comings and one is that we do not have the answers to all questions.
Second, as humans, we have the ability to learn, to retain and to respond
and interact. Third, we should listen to the conference speakers and con-
sultants to become better vocational education teachers, coordinators and
Education is a wonderful possession. As vocational educators, you have the
opportunity to share your knowledge with those people who need it most.
Again I say that vocational education may very well hold in its hands the
destiny of the United States. And, as I view this group today, I feel
assured I feel confident that the destiny of this nation is in good
THE NATION LOOKS TO VOCATIONAL EDUCATION
Mr. Lowell A. Burkett "The Vocational Education
Executive Director Amendments of 1968 made com-
American Vocational Association prehensive planning mandatory
Washington, D. C. at the local, state and national
levels. How well vocational
education officials do the job
of planning and setting priorities
will be a key to the future of
vocational education in the
public school system."
The following is a summary of Mr. Burkett's speech.
National Manpower policy is of prime importance and should be of great
concern to you as vocational educators. How the policy evolved and what
constitutes the policy will affect you and your program in the years ahead.
I contend that this nation has never really had a manpower policy. We have
had bits and pieces from time to time arising out of some social or economic
crisis. However, a policy has been evolving slowly since the Morrill Act of
the 1860's. Vocational education has taken part in the evolutionary process
and has played a key role in the development of our human resources. I am
not sure that we are in the No. 1. spot today or that we will win the race.
It is a battle to the finish.
The Vocational Education Act of 1963 was one indication of a new state in
U. S. economic and social life.
It was part of a growing recognition that the primary source of income and
wealth in the world's most advanced and complex economy was no longer the
ownership of real property as it had been in the nation's first century or
native wit and brawn as it was through most of the second. In the years
since the Second World War, a profound change has taken place making formerly
developed individual talents and skills an almost indispensable requirement
for successful participation in the labor market.
The focus of the 1963 Act was on serving the occupational education and
training needs of all people. There are two phrases in the stated purpose
of the Vocational Education Act of 1963 and again in the Vocational
Education Amendments of 1968 that make the job of providing vocational
education very complex and challenging. The phrase "realistic in light
of actual or anticipated opportunities for employment" indicates that our
vocational education programs must be geared to the needs of the labor
market. In order that this be done it will require much data concerning the
present labor market and forecasting of future employment opportunities.
This information must come from some source that will put it in a form to
be used for program planning. The U. S. Department of Labor has been
assigned this responsibility and perhaps has the greatest capacity and
capability for the task. The job of developing education and training
programs that will be responsive to the labor market needs is the respon-
sibility of the vocational educator working in cooperation with employers
and employees who are the beneficiaries of vocational technical education.
The task of adequate program planning is far more complicated than most of
The Vocational Education Amendments of 1968 made comprehensive planning
mandatory at the local, state and national levels. How well vocational
education officials do the job of planning and setting priorities will be
a key to the future of vocational education in the public school system.
Programs must serve both the needs of all people and the demands of the
Another difficult task assigned to vocational education in both the
Vocational Education Act of 1963 and the Vocational Education Amendments
of 1968 is to develop programs "suited to the needs, interests and abilities"
of all people. The interests and more particularly the abilities of all
people don't match the needs of the labor market. Educationally dis-
advantaged, physically and emotionally handicapped and culturally deprived
people constitute a large percentage of our population. How can the
schools provide the education, training and related services needed by this
segment of our society in order that they can obtain and hold jobs?
The schools, in general, have not assumed responsibility for this group of
individuals. The Manpower Development and Training Act of 1962 and the
Economic Opportunity Act addressed themselves to the needs of this group.
Many concepts have developed into meaningful and worthwhile programs while
others have failed dismally. In all these myriad program concepts,
education and occupational preparation were the main base of the program.
Certainly we have learned enough from these programs to put into immediate
practice in our schools the programs and services to serve disadvantaged
individuals. I believe we must take on this responsibility or else the
Nation will soon be forced to set up another delivery system for education
and training outside of schools. If we do establish a dual system of
education, we can be sure that one will be for those who are academically
talented and another for vocational education. This will promote a
caste system in our society.
Another mandate of the 1963 Act and the 1968 Amendments was that programs
must be of high quality. Quality of vocational education can'come only
from occupationally competent and professionally trained teachers. I
keep hearing about the vocational educator who knows everything about
every occupation. I wish some one would introduce me to one of these
"superhuman individuals." The administrator of a vocational education
program must have a sound basic philosophy of vocational education which is
acquired through experience and depth in some one occupation. He must have
a general understanding of all fields of service in vocational education
as well as administrative ability. The trained administrator with no
knowledge of the program of vocational education is like the hospital
administrator trying to operate on a patient. Somehow the concept of
administration for administration's sake has gotten into vocational
education and threatens to destroy the program. If such a concept works
for vocational education then we should start employing vice presidents and
presidents of companies as school administrators. It would not be necessary
for them to have any professional training and experience in education. I
see evidence every day that quality is being sacrificed and is sometimes non-
existent because those in administrative and supervisory positions do not
know what is expected in vocational education, let alone how to achieve it.
You would assume from what I have said thus far that the vocational education
acts, especially the 1963 Act and the 1968 Amendments, are the basis for a
national manpower policy. I contend that the blueprint for a national man-
power policy is contained in the Vocational Education Amendments of 1968.
It calls for gearing programs to manpower needs. It asks for all persons
of all ages to be served and it seeks for quality that makes people employ-
During the past eight years the Congress has enacted a number of pieces of
legislation to fill the voids that education has left in developing our
human resources. Such Acts as the Manpower Development and Training Act,
and the Economic Opportunity Act were devised as corrective measures.
Some claimed that they were to be only temporary until education could get
its house in order. It was quite obvious from where I sat that these were
the trial balloons to see if some other agency outside the school could do
a better job of manpower development. Those people in the Federal Govern-
ment as well as labor economists who have as their chief concern the Nation's
manpower resources, have become disenchanted with the school's ability to
produce programs to meet the needs of certain individuals and the needs of
the labor market. I am convinced that the MDTA and EOA were merely steps
to preempt the schools and to devise a different delivery system for
I have made speeches and written articles predicting that vocational education
would be removed from the public schools unless something was done soon by
public education to greatly expand and improve the effectiveness of the
programs. The Vocational Education Amendments of 1968 was enacted unani-
mously by Congress. It was designed to force certain responsibilities such
as comprehensive planning, serving all people and quality programs upon the
school system, and it greatly increased the authorization to provide the
The U. S. -House of Representatives has increased the appropriations for
vocational education for fiscal 1970 by $209,400,000 and we expect the
Senate to concur. The stage has been set, the players have been chosen,
the show has been booked and we're hoping for good reviews that will
ensure a long and successful engagement.
Just over the horizon looms a new show waiting to see how well the vocational
education show turns out. A mediocre performance will probably be encouragement
enough for this show to book in beside vocational education. I am speaking
of the proposed Comprehensive Manpower Act of 1969. A number of bills
have been.introduced in Congress this year which have as their major purpose
the coordination of programs and activities that make up a delivery system
to provide an opportunity for every American who is seeking work with the
education andi training needed to qualify for employment which is consistent
with his highest potential and capabilities. Some educators and even
vocational educators would agree that the proposed legislation should not
include vocational education for full-time in-school youth. Those that
agree would be willing to give up the responsibility for educating and
training out-of-school youth and adults. If you are one of these, you are
not willing to accept the challenge and the responsibility given to you
in the 1963 Act or the Vocational Education Amendments of 1968. If
vocational education should give up the responsibility for these groups in
our society,we have failed those whom we can best serve. I implore you to
fulfill your responsibility to these groups of individuals and carry out
your mission in the total educational program.
One can not deny the fact that there is a need to consolidate the myriad
of manpower programs currently in force as the result of federal legislation.
One of the stated objectives of the proposed Comprehensive Manpower Act
of 1969 is to consolidate these programs for efficiency and economy. To
place overlapping and sometimes conflicting programs under a single roof
will not solve problems of interagency conflict or proliferation of funding
sources. The 1968 Amendments provide nearly as broad authority to
accomplish this purpose as could hopefully be accomplished.
What I am going to say to you now will shock you. But before you throw
me out permit me to explain what I mean.
With the inability of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare to
provide leadership, service and financial resources for state and local
communities to conduct programs of vocational education, perhaps we are
closer to the identification of another agency at the national level to
deliver vocational education than we realize or would be willing to admit.
Please note that I did not say what agency or agencies. Frankly I am not
sure. I do know that the commitment, leadership and delivery system under
the old Federal Board for Vocational Education was far more effective than
H.E.W.'s. Perhaps a separate office directly under the President of the
United States or the re-establishment of the Federal Board for Vocational
Education with all agencies of the Federal Government represented who have
an interest and commitment to human resources development will evolve as
the delivery system. I don't know and I don't think anyone else does. I
do know this will be a heated subject of debate soon in Congress.
Currently vocational education is divided into divisions of a bureau of
an office within the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. If
you're observant, you can find it in an organized chart. Certain aspects
of the program of vocational education are not administered by the Bureau
which houses vocational education but assigned to another bureau or
another office. Policies are being made and programs are being planned
by unqualified people who have no knowledge of the program of vocational
education. It is indeed a deplorable situation which will not be tolerated
long and will not stand up in future evaluations. It is time that the
laws of nature indeed the laws of the social and democratic process be
applied. When a vacuum occurs something must rush in to fill the vacuum.
We don't necessarily have a vaccuum but certainly there is some "bad air."
The proposed Comprehensive Manpower Act of 1969 is a recognition of the
condition and proposed solution to the problem. Certainly we as edu-
cators don't agree and will oppose the concept of the Secretary of Labor
setting policies to govern vocational education. Perhaps there is a way
for us to get out of our dilemma! I hope that we will be intelligent
and politically astute enough to resolve this serious matter. Your
careful thought and consideration is needed. Vocational educators must
find the solution. I don't have the answer. The answer must come from
you the members of AVA.
On the one hand, the opportunities for expanding vocational education have
never been brighter yet, on the other hand, the roadblocks for delivering
a quality program have never been more perplexing. One thing I am quite
confident of is that vocational education will greatly expand in the
years ahead. Who does it and how it is administered stands in the balance.
This is the challenge facing us today.
THE IMPORTANCE OF PERSONAL GROWTH
Dr. Carl W. Proehl "Who will shape the world of tomorrow?
Assistant Commissioner The trained mind and creative imagi-
Division of Vocational, nation will shape the world of
Technical and Adult Education tomorrow. The future will be made
State Department of Education by those who dream, those who have
Tallahassee, Florida vision today. . Every forward
step taken by mankind every ad-
vance by humanity toward the ultimate
goal has been led by some valiant
dreamer whose eyes were fixed upon
The following is a summary of Dr. Proehl's speech.
As Nazi destruction raged across Europe, Anne Frank wrote in her diary:
"I know what I want, I have a goal, an opinion,
I have a religion and love. Let me be myself
and then I am satisfied. I know that I'm a
woman, a woman with inward strength and plenty
of courage. If God lets me live, . I shall
not remain insignificant. I shall work in the
world and for mankind."
In the words of this brief but powerful quotation from the Diary of a
Young Girl, lies, in essence, the full answer to "The Importance of
Personal Growth." Indeed, it could well be the single most powerful
motivating factor in our individual efforts to capture that goal which
each of us has set for himself.
The human urge to self-realization and social responsibility has never
been erased by time or place or circumstance. Civilization has endured
through the ages simply because there have always been enough individuals
who in living their lives, have done so with purpose, with confidence,
with a concern for others and real determination to make a contribution
to society, no matter how small.
As we live our lives, the time allotted to us is divided into three days;
yesterday, today, and tomorrow. Life is such that we may face any direction -
the choice is ours and the direction we choose to face largely determines
our philosophy of life and the kind of world in which we live. Some
people live in the past, some in the present, and some in the future.
Where we are living in respect to time, influences not only our own lives
but the lives of others as well.
Yesterday is gone; it is only a memory. We cannot recall it; there is
nothing whatever that anyone can do to make what has happened not to have
happened. Therefore, though we must certainly take lessons from the past,
we cannot relive it today; as we live we must face what is right at hand,
taking one step at a time. Today is the day of opportunity.
What we do today determines tomorrow and, if we choose wisely today, we
shall be able to cope with the demands of tomorrow.
Who will shape the world of tomorrow? The trained mind and creative
imagination will shape the world of tomorrow. The future will be made
by those who think, those who dream, those who have vision today. Surely,
we can never realize all our dreams, but "a dream turning to ashes is
better than no dream at all."
This is a changing world. How often have we heard these words? But it
has always been a changing world. As someone has observed, Adam probably
said to Eve as they.left the Garden of Eden, "My dear, we live in a ;-
changing world." Change itself is not new; only the rate of change is
different such an incredible rate that the impact of one change is
scarely absorbed before another is upon us. In other words, the world of
thinking. In the 20th century the past 68 years there have been more
changes than in all other centuries put together. Even in the space of
20 years our world has altered almost beyond recognition, and in the past
decade alone we have seen greater changes than our ancestors saw in a life-
The need to adjust to change is not new. This has always been a part of
the job of living and surviving. Flexibility is our only hope. Change,
challenge, and choice are the key words in today's living. Change brings
challenge and challenge demands choice. New occasions bring new obli-
gations; new experiences make new demands; change calls for new attitudes.
We must become aware, therefore, of what those changes mean to us.
Many of the changes we have gladly accepted as beneficial; others we have been
slower to accept, especially in regard to altering social patterns. Our
responsibility as educated persons is to be aware of changes and be
willing to accept and contribute our efforts for those that are needed to
give a better and happier life for all. Recognizing that not all change
is good, we must all maintain high standards and fight against evils
threatening our society such as immorality, racism, intolerance, fear and
Whatever the future brings us will depend largely upon the way we meet
the problems of today, the outlook we have toward them, and the faith with
which we respond to them. There is great value in looking forward.
From Socrates to Jonas Salk to space exploration scientists, every forward
step taken by mankind every advance by humanity toward the ultimate
goal has been led by some valiant dreamer whose eyes were fixed upon
the future. Moses followed a pillar of smoke by day and fire by night
that led the way to the Promised Land; the radiance of an eternal star led
the three wise mentor Bethlehem; Columbus pinned his faith on what he was
convinced lay beyond the horizon each looked far ahead and into the
future, each was exemplary in leading to change.
Occasionally it is good to stop and ask ourselves, "What do I value?" A
look through our cancelled checks may give some clues. Mixed in among the
checks for taxes, rent, food do we find some for a new book, a ticket
for a lecture, the theater, a concert? How about some plants for the
garden, a travel guide for some dreaming and planning, a contribution to
our church, to a community project, the cancer fund, the United Nations?
What about a look at our appointment calendar? Among all of our activities
did we leave time for a dinner with friends, a trip with the family to the
mountains or the shore? Time for thinking, reading, a civic meeting or
the PTA? Time to explore a new idea or just to be quietly alone for
a few minutes?
Since we shall not be passing this way again, and cannot relive this day,
perhaps we must assign some priorities to the hours we do have and our
choices will somehow reflect our conscious or unconscious philosophy of
What are your values, your philosophy of life? Would they permit you to:
1. Encourage by example or word, one well-qualified young man or woman
to enter our profession or one mature man or woman to return to
2. Give a word of encouragement and an offer of assistance to one young
person who might thereby be saved to the profession?
3. Spur on one person and it might be yourself to pursue further
training or other educational experience to make him more efficient
4. Try to eliminate one evidence of discrimination, thereby opening
opportunities for others to assume higher positions of leadership, for
employment or members of a minority group in your area, for equal
pay for equal work?
5. Read a professional journal or magazine to become more aware of the
new trends and developments in your profession?
6. Write a letter to a legislator commending his support of a sound
program of social legislation or support of educational programs?
7. Read a book or magazine article on current affairs to become more
understanding of the ideological conflicts between East and West,
the struggle of emerging nations in Africa as they seek their places
in the world, the tensions in Southeast Asia and Latin America?
Socrates once said, "The life which is unexamined is not worth living."
How long has it been since you and I took stock of ourselves and our
lives? This has to be done. We cannot just evaluate ourselves once as
we start out on a career, and then not think about it again. This must
be done periodically, and evaluating ourselves does not mean that we will
say, "Well, I guess that's just the way I am, I can't help it." We can
help it. The intelligent person knows his limitations, but also knows his
strengths and potential for growth and uses these to achieve his goals.
If what we are doing now does not fit into what we see as our strengths
and our desires for our lives, let us change. This is the hardest thing
in the world for us to do. We are brave we have all kinds of courage
when facing danger, but sometimes the courage that is hardest of all to
achieve is the courage to change.
Too often we bow to a security that seems to have taken hold of us all.
Are we, in the name of security, so symbol-fixated that we have become
dependent upon established rituals, certain types of social behavior, club
memberships, material possessions, clothing with the right brand names?
Could we, perhaps, be so engrossed in our own little world, our own
personal interests and concerns that we would miss the real happenings or
the major events that will have meaning beyond just this moment of time
within our own little world? We need then to look at our self-evaluations
from time to time to see where we are and where we are going and to plan
Having looked briefly at the importance of change, personal values, and
self-evaluation, it follows that one must consider a fourth and final aspect
in the series contributing to the importance of personal growth: "What
does it mean to be educated?"
In today's world no one can complete an education. We must be preparing
continually for the next phase. The president of the American Banking
Institute said recently, "If you graduate today and quit studying
tomorrow, you become uneducated day after tomorrow."
Education is a means of finding oneself, discovering beliefs, establishing
standards. Continuing education is necessary in order to become aware of
the needs of the world and to put more life into living. Well-informed,
educated persons can provide a sense of continuity from the past through
the present and into the future.
To be educated is not necessarily a station to be achieved, a diploma to
be awarded, a degree to be earned. Erich Fromm, the psychoanalyst, has
indicated, that to be educated is a process a process of searching for
that kind of behavior which is best suited to unify, harmonize and strengthen
the individual. It is a process which promotes a meaningful relationship
between people in learning how to live. If this is true, then we in this
country have a great deal of educating to do and a long way to go in
bringing our people to learning how to live, not only with themselves,
but with others as well.
James Michener in his novel Hawaii ably describes the job of living in
For this is the journey that men make to find them-
selves. If they fail in this, it doesn't matter
much what else they find . money, position,
fame, many loves, revenge all are of little
consequence when the tickets are collected at the
end of the ride, if they are tossed into a bin
marked failure. But if a man learns why he lives,
if he knows what he can be depended upon to do,
the limits of his courage, the position from
which he will no longer retreat, the secret reser-
voirs of his determination, the extent of his
dedication, the depth, of his feeling, his honest
and unpostured goals, both for himself and others -
then he has found a mansion which he can inhabit
with dignity all the days of his life.
How can the individual be genuinely involved in what happens to others,
so that he can become a real person, and not a prejudiced, conceited,
diplomaholding, moneymad, power-hungry bigot? It is not logic, not
right facts, nor "the best," that keeps people sane, but a real aware-
ness and E-nuir-ccrncern for others. These are the goals of world harmony,
the pillars of inner peace, the marks of an educated man.
What is the "Importance of Personal Growth?" It is interwoven and inter-
related with change and our ability to cope with it effectively; with
personal values and the kinds of judgments which they permit or prompt
us to make. Personal growth is interwoven and inter-related with self-
evaluation and what we do about such self-assessment; with the meaning of
education and the degree to which we have learned how to live effective
lives. To reach these goals of personal growth, it is necessary that
time to think it is the source of all power
time to play it is the secret of perpetual
time to read -
time to pray -
Take time to love -
Take time to
Take time to
Take time to
it is the fountain of wisdom
prayer is the greatest power
and inspiration on earth
love is the essence of compassion;
the world needs a great deal of
be a friend friendship is the road to
laugh it is music to the soul
live really give of all of these
things to every person whose
life you touch
This is the importance of personal growth.
ADULT AND VETERAN EDUCATION
Wednesday, August 13
Mr. Low L. Bethea, Coordinator of Adult Education for Lake County, served
as chairman of this session. Mr. Floyd N. Peters, Director of General
Adult Education for Dade County welcomed the participants; and Mr. James
H. Fling, Director of Adult and Veterans Education, Department of Education,
Tallahassee, made the introductions.
Dr. Malcolm S. Knowles "Adult Education:
Professor of Education New Dimension and New
Boston University Directions"
Dr. Knowles explained that his presentation would be in the form of a
conversation or dialogue pertaining to the new dimensions and directions
in Adult Education.
He said in his 34 years in the field of Adult Education there had been
enormous growth in the field, not only in the numbers of people serving
in the administrative field but also in the number of students. The
movement of Adult Education has been from the periphery to the center of
education. Adult Education is truly becoming a part of the national policy
to promote life-long education. We are pioneers in a field that is on
the threshold of revolution- cultural as well as social.
For the first time in history the time span of cultural change takes
place in less than a lifetime of an individual. Up until World War II,
cultural changes took longer than the lifetime of an individual. The
world remained the same, and as long as this was so, education could be
defined as a function of youth.
It has been appropriate to define education as a process of transmitting
information or the culture, therefore we could define a teacher as a
transmitter of knowledge. By and large this is how the educational system
has been working.
Now we get into a new set of assumptions on education. It is no longer a
function of youth but rather a lifelong process. The greatest threat to
the stability of society is the impending obsolescence of human beings.
Education is no longer the transmission of knowledge but a continuing
process of inquiry.
Once it was appropriate to teach children facts, now we must teach them
how to get new facts. University students who have not learned this,
still cannot ask question that can be answered by the process on inquiry
but can only ask questions that can be answered by authority or faith.
They should be taught beginning in kindergarten how to use this process
The purpose of education must be to develop skills for self-directed in-
quiry. Adult Education must now be engaged in remedial education because
adults need to learn how to do this. After this process is taught, adult
education can get to its "thing"- helping adults learn new facts. Liberal
education will eventually be mainly for adults, since childhood education
will be taken up with teaching the techniques of learning the "how" of
The role of the teacher will be redefined to serve as.a guide and resource
person for those working in self-directed inquiry. In the process of
redefining, the purpose of education is schooling versus Adult Education.
Another new diminsion that is entering the picture is that for the first
time we are in the process of developing a comprehensive theory of adult
learning versus childhood education. Most of what we know about teaching
we took from the science of teaching children, known as pedagogy. My new
book is entitled The Modern Practice of Adult Education: Andragogy Versus
Pedagogy. Andragogy is the art and science of teaching adults.
Four critical points of difference between adults and youth are:
1. The change in self-concept that occurs with maturation. The concept
of dependency as a baby moves toward autonomy before a child is in
kindergarten, but pedagogy continues to force dependency on youngsters.
Our culture restrains children from moving to independency, and I feel
this is the heart of student revolt.
The definition of adulthood is the achievement of self-direction. A
psychological change in self-concept is the need to be acknowledged
as a self-directed individual. We must establish a climate to deal
with adults. Let them help plan their own program, diagnose their
own needs for learning, use adult learners to teach each other, and
involve them in evaluation.
2. Another characteristic of the adult learner is the importance of his
accumulated experience. He sees himself in terms of his experience.
This is a major resource for learning. The shift is away from one-
way transmittal toward experiential or participatory learning, through
such things as role play, lab techniques, and field trips. All these
tap into the experience of adults.
3. There is a difference in the readiness to learn. The child learns
primarily because of biological development and pressure from parents
and teachers. The childhood system consists of people telling him
when it is time to learn. Learning in an adult stems from the re-
quirements to perform various roles that are important to him in a
social context. Childhood learning may be on a fairly predictable
biological development, but in adults it is a lot more complicated.
It must be timed according to the role the adult needs to perform at
4. There is also a difference in time perspective. The youth sees most
of what he learns as something for use later. Since it is a reservior,
the orientation is subject-centered. In the adult, learning is for
the immediate application of knowledge, and hence is problem-centered.
Adults tend to say, "I am learning to make more money" or "to get a
better job." The problem is to organize the curriculum around life
problems instead of subjects.
This has led to the emergence of a curriculum of adult education that
is different from the youth curriculum. A study of the titles of
evening courses reveals that they used to be the same as those listed
for day school, such as composition I, II, III. Now this may be
called Business Letter Writing or Writing for Fun and Profit. New
categories have been set, such as Education for the Aging, or Better
use of Leisure Time.
Other directions in Adult Education are:
1. Increased professionalism in the field of Adult Education with its own
body of knowledge.
2. Increasing financial support from society for Adult Education. This
is especially true from business, which not only supports courses for
management and employees but also for their families.
3. Adult Education is moving from a middle class movement out to all
people, as exemplified by the War on Poverty.
4. The mission of adult educators is away from organizing courses for
individual programs and toward acting as consultants to industry,
government and "the system." The adult educator is acting in the
capacity of an agent of change for society.
5. Rapid growth of a body of knowledge about the adult as a learner.
This is the most adventurous era in all of history in education, and
particularly Adult Education. We have to be good because the adults
come to us as volunteer learners. The new ideas and new techniques
of Adult Education put us on the threshold of a true revolution in
Round Table Reactions
Ques. 1. How is a model of instruction arrived at if we are to have
individual self-directed inquiry?
Ans. 1. I hope there isn't a perfect answer, since we need to experiment.
With my classes I try to get them acquainted in small groups so
they can exchange ideas on why they have come to class and to
find out what kind of experiences they bring with them. Then
I give them the books relevant to the content and ask them to
report back on their weakest and strongest points. A master
list is compiled of what they say they need to get out of the
course, and as a teacher I suggest what I think they should get.
Eventually composite list is made. Units of instruction are
based on similar needs. There are two kinds of instructional
units-universal and special interests. The universal or basic
needs of the majority of the students are taken up with the
group, but other days are used in self-inquiry by students on
specific needs and I act as a consultant or in a tutorial role
at those times.
Ques. 2. What has been done in the area of textbooks for adults working
toward a diploma?
Ans. 2. This is a real desert. We have completed the first year under
a grant at Boston University and have compiled a listing of adult
basic education materials. I can send a list of these upon re-
quest, but it will be next year before the secondary list is
Ques. 3. How can you handle English courses for credit and how can you
break down old concepts of dialogue English and reteach this in
a correct manner?
Ans. 3. You have to find what area of their lives they are most concerned
with such as, "in writing to my children I am ashamed of my
letters" or "in writing orders and memos in my work I need
better Business English." You have to develop a series of
problem situations and organize instructional units around these.
Ques. 4. One of our serious problems is lack of teacher-training. Would
you be available to come back for workshops with us?
Ans. 4. Emphasis should be placed on teacher-training. You have given
me an idea that I might work out.seme pilot programs on a video
tape so I don't have to be present for workshops.
Ques. 5. How directive are you when you get problem-centered students
Ans. 5. Well, I might give a lecturette, but I usually just give out
answers at a point where the students ask for them. I try and
plan field trips and use students as teachers and let them
share their experiences. -I am very directive about the process,
but they can decide on the content.
Ques. 6. Should there be grooming and dress requirements?
Ans. 6. In any environment there are certain "givens." IBM corporation,
for instance, requires ties and white shirts in the plant at
all times. It is possible to try to change these "givens"; they
might not be as permanent as they seem. I would suggest that
you could experiment with ignoring them when possible.
The classroom instructor must not only be a top teacher but
also a guidance counselor, and they can help adults understand
Ques. 7. How can we justify our long-range goals to the public in terms
of dollars and cents?
Ans. 7. The ultimate product of education takes a long time to be
visible. Industrial trainers tried to construct devices to
measure results, but these devices are still so primitive that
you have much greater success with the idea that education takes
faith.. It is just impossible to prove what single units can
Ques. 8. What is your feeling about behavioral objectives for adults?
I used to be a proponent of behavioral objectives, then the
idea of terminal objectives came along. Now I have had a
reversal in my thinking. The idea of terminal objectives has
ruined the notion of behavioral education objectives. I would
much rather define our objectives as continuing education or
helping people along in a direction of growth.
Ques. 9. How can you use the individual approach and still have measur-
We have to first ask what is learning and who is the judge of
it. Learning is strictly within the learner. It depends on
what the learner sees as a need for learning. The only eval-
uation, with any r'&l meaning is self-evaluation. The teacher
can help the learner become more objective. Grades are the
most anti-educational device ever invented. One of the only
ways that you can truly evaluate education is the basis of
rehabilitation and performance.
Wednesday, August 13
Administration and Supervision
1. The group recommended that the Adult Accreditation Standards be
discarded as standards for adult programs, and that an adult oriented
set of standards be written by adult educators in cooperation with
the staff from certification and accreditation sections. Recommend
further that State Adult Advisory Committee be consulted frequently
in the writing of these standards.
12. The group suggested that certification requirements be changed to
S allow adult education the chance to be certified in adult supervision.
3. The group discussed communication from The Department of Education to
the field. They would like to be kept informed on matters of impor-
tance. They hoped that the Department of Education could find a way
to speed up the communication process. We need a clearing house on
a state-wide basis.
4. The group discussed the differences between county and J. C. Adult
Education programs, financing, and conflicts.
5. The group would like to schedule two meetings each year for Adult
Education Administrators. They feel our Adult Education meetings
were very beneficial.
6. The/group felt that Veterans taking elementary courses should have
the same benefits as those taking High School Work.
Recruiting and Retention
1. The Adult Program should be on a par with the K-12 Program- pay,
working conditions, prestige, recognition, etc.
2. Bring more men into the Adult Program.
3. Discourage school systems from placing its unsuccessful teachers in
the Adult Program.
4. Provide more in-service training (makes a better adult teacher and
gives him confidence).
5. Sell prospective .teacher on the idea of the many and more immediate
personal rewards in teaching adults.
6. A good teacher helps to recruit students, and satisfied adult students
tend to tell others about the Program.
7. All types of mass media help to bring in students, but innovative ideas
are necessary. Use slides, film, overlays, and posters for talks to
8. Locate the power structure in a community and ask their help to make
9. Field workers of other State Agencies are in a position to help pro-
mote the recruitment of students.
10. The Adult Program should offer courses for all- the young, the old,
the cultured and the uncultured, the impoverished and the well-to-do.
11. Programs should be flexible so that hardship cases who have to drop
may return and continue at their own rate.
12. Provide individual instruction. Know and understand the student.
Provide adequate guidance, and help him with his personal problems
13. Set up baby-sitting services by the family of each student.
14. Provide free or inexpensive transportation.
15. Each teacher should know the problems cf his community and become
involved in the solutions.
The first question pertained to legal requirements for and methods of
offering Americanism vs. Communism. Some misunderstandings were caused
by the fact that some counties offered this as a full length credit course,
while other counties offered the minimum of 30 hours as a unit in some
social studies course. Mr. Floyd Jaggears clarified the point as to the
legal requirements that a minimum of 30 hours of instruction be given
to any person who enrolls in a public school in Florida.
Discussion centered around curricula material such as teacher-made
exercises, study sheets and so forth. Various types of programmed materials
were also discussed with questions asked as to whether these materials
could be purchased. In discussing both teacher-developed and programmed
materials, the question came up as to whether or not we served two types
of persons and whether or not we need different standards or curricula
for each type. The types referred to are the teenage dropouts on the
one hand and mature adults on the other. Some counties do have dual
standards, dual curricula and actually some classes segregated by age.
Mrs. Eloise Berry gave an informative report of her experience in the
First National Computer Assisted Instruction-Program Instruction Institute
for Adults recently held in Raleigh, North Carolina. The group expressed
a keen interest in this subject.
1. There is a great need for guidance counseling as almost every adult
that comes to our schools has a problem whether it be social,
economical or vocational.
2. Counselors must be available to students for guidance in all phases
of counseling as well as educational.
3. There is a need for Adult Education guidance offerings in our colleges.
4. There were as many that thought a guidance counselor should be a
teacher first as there were who did not think this was necessary.
5. Guidance Counselors and teachers should grow to understand each
others'situations or problems.
6. Feed-back should be given to the teacher after guidance sessions.
7. Communication is necessary between all involved if guidance is to be
8. The Guidance Counselor must help the student diagnose what his
educational needs are and help him place them in the proper sequence.
1. The universities are unable to meet the total need for staff develop-
ment since they are credit oriented. Local requirements dictate the
need for non-credit staff development.
2. The group did not suggest a specific formula or pattern for a funct-
ional in-service training program for staff development. They gave
two reasons for this position:
(a) It should be peculiar and applicable to the county being served.
(b) Characteristics of an in-service training program should reflect
the philosophy of the county or institution.
3. Staff development should be a continuous objective, and the mechanics
for development should be an on-going process.
4. Staff improvement techniques must be skillfully planned and enthusias-
5. It was pointed out that an in-service training program should meet the
needs of both small and large groups.
6. An effective in-service training program should develop a professional
attitude for adult teaching. In this connection, at what point can
we say a teacher is a professional adult teacher? What competencies
does that teacher possess?
7. Constant evaluation is imperative if we are to maintain an effective
staff development program.
8. Some administrators indicated that they would welcome assistance for
structuring a program of professional development for teaching adults
in their county.
Thursday, August 14
Mr. James H. Fling, State Director of Adult and Veteran Education, served
as chairman for this session.
Paul Delker, Director "A New Look at Old Problems"
Division of Adult Education
At the beginning of this space age, the world requires a new look at old
problems. Few people can predict the consequences or the human benefits
that ensue in this universal age. Many problems lie in space, but certainly
many may also be solved as by products of our accelerated technology.
Some people say that our priorities are wrong--that there are more urgent
problems and more immediate human needs. The space-age Apollo program
has cost approximately $23 billion. A study by USOE found that in order
to bring all adults up to a 8th grade level inside of 20 years time, it
would cost less than $4 billion, or to a high school level at $10 billion.
Mankind in the years 2,000 might be more advanced if we had not gone to the
moon but had spent the money on adult education.
What distinguishes this program from all the others, all 32 of them, is
that Adult Basic Education is education in the total sense. Human values
and the realization of these come within its mission. Development of the
person as worker, family head, and the'citizen participant as well as his
clearly personal development, are all included in the Adult Education Act
of 1966. The other 32 programs include education as a component of
specified social problems, unemployability or underemployability being
the most frequently targeted one. None of these programs can offer the
challenge which Adult Basic Education offers, but some of them appear to
be meeting their part of the challenge more effectively than we are. So
again I ask Why?
Well, I think it is because the challenge of adult basic education is
really a challenge to our total education system. Now this system is
the best in the world, but it is a system which was designed to serve a
majority of our citizens, not all our citizens. It was created within an
economy that required unskilled labor and in terms that a percentage of
its citizens did not require formal or full education. But universal
need has changed this.
More than five years ago Secretary of Labor Willard Wirtz stated that the
average machine produced at that time had equivalent skills of a high
school graduate. So the Adult Education Act says to our school system,
change, go back and pick up those we have forgotten, or I should say
rejected. Educate them for full participation in society. But the
system has worked so well for us, for me and you, we have again fallen
into the trap and we think the problem is not the system but the person
it has rejected. What is required is that we build a new system, new
capacities within the old, that will extend education to every person in
Our biggest impediment is the beautiful system we built before the uni-
versal age. What are some of the imperatives of this new extended
system? One is for the teacher to accept the adult in his total com-
plexity and define education in participation in society and in terms of
Then he needs to go where the problems are. We must change the system so
that there is new emphasis on the value of teaching. This, of course, is
one level primarily in higher education that produces our teachers. Bad
research can be put in the waste basket. Poor teaching aggravates and
multiplies the problem. We must change the reward system to reflect the
value of teaching.
A third imperative is that we must look at our system as a total system,
even if it isn't one in any model sense. We must extend our public
school system in concert with community colleges and 4-year colleges and
universities to provide full community educational opportunities for all
citizens, and of course we must have federal aid to do this. I don't
think it is too many years off, judging from the Comprehensive Community
College Act and other pieces of legislation that have either been
introduced or are being discussed. In order to do this, we will have
to have sharply defined missions by institutions of higher education as
well as community colleges and public school systems, and I think we
have a variety of missions from state to state and locality to locality,
but they must be looked at in relationship to one another. Of course
we must have constant experimentation and demonstration programs which
build and design new models for lifelong-learning, for we have not developed
models for lifelong-learning with sufficient skills and sophistication to
really achieve the objective I am speaking for.
I know the problems are old, and it is rather easy to stand here and to
philosophize. The question is how do you do it and who does it, and
say if we really believe these things, how to change the system, how to
make it work.
Panel Discussion on Case Studies
Moderator: Dr. Paul Delker, Director
Division of Adult Education
Panel: Mr. Adam Zawada, Director
of Planning Vocational Rehabilitation
Mr. Gerald Gaucher, Coordinator
Mrs. Linton Brown, Teacher
Mr. Don Williams, Coordinator
Mr. Don Cammaratta, Director of
Adult Education Programs
I. The first case is Gayle Brown, an educated unemployable Negro 23
years of age. She has lived in a small town in Florida all of her
life, and received her high school diploma from the local Negro
high school. Since graduation she has applied for and been inter-
viewed for numerous job situations but each time she had not achieved
a job or has done unsufficently well on it to hold the job. Finally
the local FSES administered a series of tests to her, and they found
that her reading was at fifth grade level; her computational skills
were at sixth grade level, and her other scores were comparable -
yet she was not found to be mentally deficient. What can our
program do to help this young woman realize her aspirations?
Zawada: As a result of the 1965 Amendment of the Vocational
Rehabilitation Act, Vocational Rehabilitation can now serve those
determined eligible who have come up with a diagnosis of behav-
oristic disorders as a result of cultural, economic or educational
deprivations. Now that has to be identified by medical or psychological
examinations but this does open the door for vocational rehabilitation
to serve the disadvantaged. I don't think we can ask her to go
back to school until we can find out the vocational direction she wants
to take. She already has a high school diploma and I think we are
going to deflate her ego by asking her to go back and build up her
academic skill, but if you can find out her vocational choice, you
can relate the subject matter to her and probably get her interested.
Williams: This is a great opportunity to do what adult basic edu-
cation classes are supposed to be doing, teaching basic skills,
which she does need because she is not functioning even at an
eighth grade level, but teaching her in such a manner will help
her in her vocational choice.
Audience: This is being done in Jacksonville, below high school
level in reading, comprehension or mathematics, these steps are
being taken for the specific purpose of passing tests for employment.
Delker: President Nixon's Manpower Message went to Congress two
days ago. As far as the message itself goes, it calls for massive
coordination of the Department of Labor Prograr Manpower Program.
As far as behind the scenes strategy, I think you will see a real
struggle between the Department of Labor and OEO and HEW to put all
manpower type programs into the Department of Labor. This merger
of employment and education in the dimensions of manpower is very
definitely going to come about. Now I think it behooves us to take
the initiative in bringing it about so that education is an equal
partner and not the person to whom manpower orientated programs
come and ask for services.
Audience: Can she be legally enrolled?
Delker: Any adult over 16 who has less than eighth grade capability,
no matter how many years of schooling the person might have completed,
I think we should point out to this young lady that she is not alone.
Many people like her are going back to school for such courses.
Let's not think that this is a rural Florida Negro high school problem.
It is not; it is a national problem. Of the high school graduates
in the Newark school system 50% were found to be illiterates.
Cammaratta: We ought to get together with agencies on the role of
how to treat this type person. What employers expect from employees,
II. I would like to turn to another situation here that involves two
ladies, a Mrs. Rasputin and Miss Tinkerbell, secondary school
teachers at a regular day school, who were overheard talking about
what a shame the Adult Education program is. The students don't
have to go nine months per subject or take all the tests, so how can
they get a real education? What can the director and teachers of
adults do to overcome such an erroneous understanding of the program?
Brown: Adult Education faculty should be part of the total faculty
and meet to discuss our programs.
Cammaratta: I think another thing we might do with Mrs. Rasputin
and Miss Tinkerbell is to try and get them involved in the adult
program as teachers and instructors. I find that frequently until
people really get involved in these adult programs they don't know
much about it, they don't know what it is and perhaps we can do a
little in-service training.
Williams: All education isn't a lock-step thing. Education is really
taking people where they are and moving them toward their goal, and
we try to do this on an individual basis to move people as quickly
as we can.
Cammaratta: The real hang-up is that in the first place a lot of
our own people in the school system are not aware of what adult
education really is and we have a big job of orientating everybody
in the school system. All counselors need to be made aware of
what this program does or what it might do. I think that the people
need to be made aware of what you are doing. You can get to
parents through elementary children.
Gaucher: I thin this is a matter of public relations also, we need
to let the community know what kind of product we're putting out.
We have a student right now who graduated from our school who is
studying for a doctorate at FSU. Of the top three students in the
graduating class of Pensacola JC, one of them was a graduate of the
adult high school program.
III. Emma Lou was an ABE student attending classes in a small country
church. With the advent of the new Vocational Area School, all
adult classes were moved into the center. Emma Lou doesn't feel
right in that building. Besides she has to pay a friend to drive
her to classes. What can be done to keep her from dropping out of
Williams: I think it's a mistake to move all classes to a vocational
area school. I think part of the function of adult education is to
provide classes where people are. Secondly, about her hang-up of
attending classes in a building where she doesn't feel right, so
many people we are dealing with have had bad experiences in school
and prefer to attend classes in churches.
Cammaratta: Those who need transportation most can't afford it.
You just have to improvise. We got a bus in Tampa.
Audience: Why can't you use county buses?
Cammaratta: Counties are usually strapped financially. It would
mean paying a driver, etc., but it can be done. St. Johns County
has provided transportation this year to adult students.
Audience: Aren't there stipends for these students?
Delker: No stipends for ABE students.
IV. Herbert is 16 and a dropout at regular day school. He has been
assigned to class at Adult High School, but continues to be a
problem child. The other students are all over 20 and fed up
with his antics. What do you do about this situation?
Cammaratta: The teacher or counselor may suggest to him that a good
way to get recognition from adult students is to be a good achiever.
Audience: What if you talk to him and he still doesn't straighten
Zawada: Psychological and maybe psychiatric exams are in order.
Then we can get a better idea of what we can expect.
Cammaratta: This requires "education by prescription," a one to
one relationship. The individual needs to feel you're really
Williams: All the talking and testing may not change Herbert- the
individual cannot be more important than the group. Ask him to
work on individual directed study. Don't sacrifice the class. All
individuals cannot profit by the same type of instruction.
Gaucher: Programmed instruction shows success for short-term
Cammaratta: We have to have ADA to have the program. Teachers
have to be adept to cope with this. Let the pupil sit and talk with
the principal. It helps to let him know he can communicate at
Audience: Let the student help run AV machines to give him a feeling
Delker: Almost all our disadvantaged students are dropouts with
problems. You can't turn your head. We must try to meet these
problems. Adult Education can look forward to more of this with
the age lowered to 16.
Mr. N. E. Fenn, Jr. "ABE Movie"
Coordinator, Adult Basic Education
Department of Education, Tallahassee
Mr. Fenn presented an Adult Basic Education public information project
which was developed by the Adult Education Section and is a first of its
kind in the nation. The project consists of a 10 minute, 16mm color
film with an accompanying brochure to tell the story of ABE in Florida;
three different TV announcements on color film; and five radio spot
The film is suggested for use on programs for civic and church groups and
is available to the counties on a loan basis from the Adult Education
Section or may be purchased from the producer, Peter J. Barton, 510 N.
The TV and radio spots will be distributed to stations throughout Florida
for their use as public service announcements and will serve as recruiting
devices as well.. as public information.
Thursday, August 14
Mr. Floyd Jaggears, Area Supervisor, Adult and Veterans
Education,presided over the session.
Dr. Irwin Jahns, Assistant Professor Movie: "How to Teach Adults"
Florida State University
We have quite a schedule to look at two films. One of the films is
supposedly for showing you the wrong way to teach adult basic education
and the other film shows the proper way to teach. They were developed
in North Carolina using real live students in one film and real live
teachers role playing students in the other.
Now one film, The Wrong Way to Teach, is focused on an elementary unit
of instruction centered around the English letter "I". The other film
is comparable in developing basic education but has somewhat of a different
structure. It starts off with a citizenship session and then it moves
into different kinds of work groups. The basic purpose of these films
is to get you to react to what you see, positively or negatively.
One of the ends that we are trying to achieve in any instruction is to
foster subject matter competency on the part of the students. The
second objective, one that is related to this but is somewhat different,
is concerned with the student after he leaves the classroom situation.
No matter what his competence might be in recitation period, it is use-
less unless the student will use the subject matter when he leaves the
There are stimulus variation techniques that a teacher can use with even
boring content to make it more palatable. The teacher in the second film
has done a lot of things that the teacher in the first didn't do. She
was quite lavish with praise; some of the more capable students helped
the other students who were having a hard time with the work.
We saw a number of techniques in the second film that are trying for
individualization, trying to involve more students in subjects and
more oriented for developing an attitude favorable for subject matters in
classroom institutions and education in general and more particularly in
the use of subject matter that the student reads.
Mr. Cecil Yarbrough "The I's Have It: Sight,
Regional Representative, USOE Involvement, Implementation"
Mr. Yarbrough took the negative side and spoke on "Ignorance, Indifference,
and Indecision" using a tongue-in-check approach to point up some of the
wrong attitudes to the Adult Education program.
Mr. James Dorland "The Three I's"
National Association for Public School Adult Education
I would like to speak about the three "I's." I would like to speak in
two parts and very briefly: I served three years as a local director of
adult education. I know that you people are operating at a local level
as teachers and administrators for the most part. If I had a chance to
do it over again, I'm wondering what changes I might have made, how I
might have applied these three "I's" to operation and teaching.
Insight is just another way of saying that when you approach anything
you have to use analysis and prescription. When you analyze and prescribe
I don't see how it's possible to have insight without establishing some
objectives and goals. I was in such a hurry all the time to get out
the brochure, get the peoplecin class that I don't think it really
occurred to me what were the goals of our program.
I was enthralled by that film this morning, and I know that it is going
to be used a lot. 'My question is how is it going to be used and for
what purpose? If I were going to use it at a local level for what reason
would I use it? for public relations, recruiting, selling the School
Board on funds?
The middle "I"- involvement, is simply marshalling all the resources at
your command. What about using advisory committees at a local level?
The middle "I" is nothing more than an approach to achieving our
objectives but using all the resources we can. We talk about the
teacher as the center, the chief resource person' in the instructional
process. I was appalled to hear a national leader of adult education
say that the typical adult basic education, claes and teacher in the
United States consists of a tired teacher, teaching tired students, in
ways that haven't changed much in the last 20 years, without using
technology and going it alone. If this is true, then we just haven't
done a good enough job in involving our people to train our teachers and
to marshall our resources.
The third, implementation, is establishing some sort of program and
actually doing it to meet the objective you have set in the first place.
To get more money for the program or get more students or whatever, and
that is just developing the strategy and carrying it out by agreeing that
you've got to have built-in evaluations and assessments.
I'm just fascinated by words. It's the systematic approach to education.
I was at a community education workshop in Minnesota and I heard it
being told that we have tothange-the total ecology of adults. We're
in a learning industry. Achieve things by setting strategies, by
marshalling, by analyzing. I know that Cecil made that point in reverse,
now I'm just making my claim to change the system as Paul Delker ::says
we have to do it, and that approach of insight, involvement, and imple-
mentation is not too bad.
The second half of my remarks I'm going to speak to you as a guy who
works full time for NAPSAE, which is the National Association for Public
School Education. Obviously the FAEA has long been one of the leading
state associations. Our professional associations are pretty contro-
versial organizations sometimes, realizing what NEA has been in Florida.
Now, I heard some people say that NEA kicked NAPSAE out. This is not
true. Those of us at NAPSAE had some decisions to make relative to
affiliation with NEA.
We chose a middle road which means we still have offices in the NEA
building. It requires that our NAPSAE officers are still required to
belong to the NEA. No changes whatsoever in that respect. The only
change that came was a reduction in subsidy to us -$35,000 instead of
$67,000 last year.
I think all of us in Adult Education are committed to the goals, we
want to make as much impact as we can. I suspect that with this new
arrangement we have a chance to make some additional impacts.
Our most recent publication is Administration of Continuing Education
which was just published and is all new and all written by practitioners.
We have a new NAPSAE publication which describes all our services and
all our memberships and all our publications, etc.
The more of us that are involved in this partnership, the more difference
we're going to make. Paul Delker alluded this morning that there is
going to be a struggle in Washington which essentially means that they
will try to take a lot of educational matters away from educators. A
professional association is only as strong as you make it. I'm convinced
that the magnitude of our task is so great that if we waste our resources
we're going to be in trouble. I'm always glad to be with you. I think
you're doing some of the most exciting things in the United States here
Dr. Robert Palmer, Assistant.Director, Adult and Veterans Education
Section, Tallahassee, summarized the Adult and Veteran Education
Program as follows:
Key words seem to recall the various messages we have heard here.
Some of these are: Creativity: Pedagogy vs. Androgogy; communication;
listening; process of inquiry; stimulus variation techniques; training;
resources and value system. Others we might well remember are: Change;
obsolescence; problems; and systems. All of these should signal special
meaning to you, particularly in terms of information presented and
discussed at this conference.
Tuesday, August 12
Mr. C. M. Lawrence, Director of Agricultural Education, Department of
Education, Tallahassee, served as chairman for the afternoon session.
Mr. Lawrence discussed plans for the conference and introduced the
following guest speakers:
Lowell A. Burkett "The 1968 Amendments and Their
AVA Executive Director Effect on Vocational Agriculture
The following is a summary of Mr. Lowell A. Burkett's speech:
The Vocational Education Amendments of 1968 were inevitable if vocational
education is to function effectively in the public schools of this
nation. In order that the vocational training needs of our economy could
be met during these periods, funds were earmarked for the various programs
of vocational education. As a result of rapidly developing technology,
the changing job structure, and the development of a social consciousness,
the panel of consultants appointed by President Kennedy recommended that
emphasis of the Federal Acts should be placed on the occupational train-
ing needs of all people of all ages, in all communities of the States.
This implies that vocational education must serve all people and not a
highly selected group. Programs must be geared to employment opportunities,
and must be structured to meet the needs, interests and abilities of
everyone who wants or needs it.
The National Advisory Committee and the State Advisory Committee were
written into the Acts to help in implementing the program. Congress was
concerned that vocational education was not serving the culturally,
physically, and economically disadvantaged and funds were earmarked for
More than half of our students trained for occupations in agriculture
in 1966, were enrolled in high school, and more than 40% were adults.
Vocational agriculture has been one of our strongest vocational education
programs, and the agricultural productivity of our nation attests to this.
It is true that vocational agriculture no longer has earmarked funds.
Comprehensive planning to meet the needs of people will be the base
from which programs will be planned and supported in the years ahead.
Becoming a part of the total plan for vocational programs carries with
it certain responsibilities and an increased amount of activity. Your
responsibility will be to serve the whole agricultural industry; you
will be required to justify the needs of the program. The new Act pro-
vides the framework to carry out this mission.
Gert Schmidt, President "The Miracle of the Space Age -
Florida Tractor Corporation Achievement of the Soil"
The following is a summary of Mr. Schmidt's speech:
I salute all of you in this room, because in your life's work of
teaching, you propagate the philosophy of the tillers of the soil and
pass on to succeeding generations the great heritage of our productive
and much envied method of agriculture. We are the most successful
country when it comes to agriculture. Each day we have 10,000 new
Americans being fed and clothed by less and less farmers. The most
astounding statistics of all is that our farmers here in America feed
themselves and 37 others.
The task for all of us is to build a better image for agriculture. Let
us sell the growth and the dramatic development, and the automation and
the progress of agriculture. We are the lifeblood of the nation. With-
out our product, life cannot exist.
To be a good executive, teacher, salesman, or administrator, you must
make it a cardinal rule in your life to use both the conscious and sub-
conscious mind. What you think and store in your subconscious mind is
what you are. Learn to change your thoughts and you change your life.
"Think big" is not an idle phrase. There is one more priceless ingred-
ient that every successful person must develop in his other life and
that's faith. Set yourself some goals for your teaching profession and
your personal life in the years ahead. Plan to reach those goals and
have an indomitable faith that you can reach them.
There are some formulas that are concerned with the techniques of selling,
but the one I like best is Ai[. D AT` It is the name of a famous opera by
Guiseppi Verdi Aida, meaning: A = Attention, I = Interest, D = Desire,
A = Action. A I D A are the steps to a successful sale. You, as
teacher, must use this four point step in selling agriculture and selling
your program to youth in any effective and meaningful manner.
You, in your chosen careers have many opportunities and challenges.
Modern agriculture particularly as we know it in our State is not a
home concocted, do-it-yourself project. On the contrary, it is an
exciting science that depends on continual research, and the orderly
pursuit of knowledge, and in you and your work, we place our confidence -
to teach our young men the great art of producing food and fiber for the
use of all mankind. Yours is a continual challenge to improve on
yesterday's methods so that the tomorrows of our nation will be more
abundant and more productive and richer. Working together with industry
and all levels of our school system, you can successfully prepare and
train the youth of today so that future Americans will reap the benefits
of the bounty of our land.
Wednesday, August 13
This session was chaired by Mr. W. T. Loften, Teacher Trainer, University
C. M. Lawrence, Director "A New Look in Florida's Agricultural
Agricultural Education Education Program'!"
Department of Education
The following are excerpts from Mr. Lawrence's presentation Vocational
and Technical Education in Florida
Our.-Task: "Provide Vocational and Technical Education in any occupation
involving knowledge and skills in agricultural subjects"
Any measure of success of our Agricultural Education Program
in Florida must be in terms of its Enhancement of Human Capa-
Objectives for Vocational and Technical Education in Agri-
Premise: Vocational and Technical Education in Agriculture is an
essential part of a well balanced vocational education program,
which in turn is part of a total comprehensive school program.
Common Purpose: Development of the ability to think.
Who Is To Be Served?
It is the individual who is to be educated. Groups of
individuals to be served are:
1. Secondary Students
2. Post-Secondary Students
3. Working Youth and Adults
4. Youth and Adults Who Need Special Attention.
1. To contribute to the educational objectives of American
2. To contribute to the controlling purpose of vocational
education, which is to "fit persons for gainful employment."
3. To provide training and retraining for youth and adults which
is realistic in light of actual or anticipated opportunities
Specific Program Objectives for Vocational and Technical Education in
1. To develop competencies in production agriculture
2. To develop competencies in non-farming agricultural occupations
3. To develop understanding of career opportunities in agriculture
4. To secure satisfactory placement and to advance in agriculture
5. To develop human relations abilities
6. To develop abilities for effective leadership FFA
Overlays were used to show the different level of vocational agriculture
in Florida and how the program is designed to be articulated from kinder-
garten through college, leading to placement in one of the following:
Production Agriculture, Professional Off-Farm Occupations, or Technical
Agricultural Education Programs in Middle Schools, Junior High Schools,
or Elementary Schools.
Pre-Vocational Programs and Special Needs Programs
1. Jr. High or Middle School 6-12 weeks exploratory in agriculture.
2. Units of instruction in agriculture in grades K-5.
Pre-Vocational Agricultural Education Programs in Florida
1. Two innovative or experimental programs
a. Clearwater Comprehensive Jr. High
b. Palatka Junior High
2. Approximately fifteen (15) Junior High or Middle School
Programs, 12 weeks
3. Summer workshop to develop 12 weeks curriculum
4. Elementary units of instruction in the area of conservation
Agricultural Education Programs in High School and/or Area Vocational
1. Basic Agricultural Science
2. Supportive Education Courses
3. Special Programs
One or Two Year Programs in Advanced Agriculture llth and 12th Grades
1. Production Agriculture Programs
2. Specialized Occupational Programs
3. Cluster Occupational Programs
Secondary Agricultural Education Programs in Florida
1. Disadvantaged and Handicapped
Number Programs 35
2. Ninth and Tenth grades (Basic Agricultural Science)
Number Schools 221
Number counties 63
3. Eleventh and Twelfth Grades (Advanced Agricultural Occupational
Number Schools 221
Number Counties 63
Agricultural Education Programs in Junior Colleges and/or Area Vocational
Specialization in Agriculture Cluster Occupations and Specific Occupations
1. Short term specialized training
2. Specialized programs for in-service training
3. Two year Technical Program
4. College transfer Program
Post Secondary Agricultural Education Programs in Florida
1. Area Vocational Technical Schools
Agriculture Mechanics 7 Programs
Ornamental Horticulture 8 Programs
Forestry 2 Programs
Citrus 2 Programs
Total Enrollment 382
2. Junior Colleges
Ornamental Horticulture 5 Programs
Turf Grass 1 Program
Forest Ranger 1 Program
Park Management 1 Program
Timber Harvesting 1 Program
Agri-Business 2 Programs
Citrus Technology 2 Programs
Total Enrollment 315
Supervised Occupational Experience Program
Types of Experiences
1. Individualized Productive Enterprises
2. On-the-job Placement
a. On Farm
3. School Farm Experiences
4. Land Laboratory Experiences
5. Agriculture Shop Experiences
6. Preparation of Exhibits
7. Preparation of Demonstrations
8. Field Trips or Educational Iburs
Things We Must Do
1. Develop common objectives and goals
2. Identify agricultural occupations and kinds of know-
ledge and skills needed
3. Revise curriculum for high school
4. Develop new programs
5. Improve guidance and counseling service
6. Recruit teachers
7. Improve pre-service and in-service training for teachers
8. Improve existing facilities
9. Develop new types of facilities for Jr. Colleges and Area
10. Develop methods of evaluating programs
11. Conduct research as it applies to all of the above
12. Provide improved leadership training experiences through the
13. Develop a commitment to an improved educational program through
A Symposium "Multi-Level Agricultural Education Programs"
Jr. High School Robert Hargraves
Special Needs E. B. Williams
Senior High Tom Cochrane
Area School Wayne Sanders
Junior College Warren McMillian
Senior College Ernest Smerdon
Each participant on the symposium made brief statements concerning the
organizational structure of programs in their particular area. Points
were made with reference to planning programs in such ways that progres-
sion and articulation take place from one level to another. In developing
programs using the multi-level approach, personnel from the various levels
should be involved to prevent a duplication of efforts, and at the same
time provide for articulation of the program from Junior High through
four year college. Members pointed out that each.level has a unique re-
ponsibility in functioning in a total multi-level agricultural education
Wednesday, August 13
Symposium "Innovative Approaches to
Elton L. Hinton
University of Florida
H. Dean Griffin
Director, Vocational, Technical and Adult Education
South Florida Junior College
Teacher,Comprehensive Junior High School
Coordinator, Agricultural Education
Palm Beach County
North Technical Educational Center
West Palm Beach, Florida
Elton Hinton discussed the program in Hillsborough County as being
developed to meet the needs of people interested in any phase of agri-
culture, from the exceptional child to the regular high school, post-
high school, and those interested in pursuing a higher education. He
gave the procedure for selecting an advisory committee representing
every phase of agriculture that could be identified. He pointed out
that the advisory committee was successful in helping to set up training
classes for adults; one an operation and maintenance of diesel tractors
and-the other one a dairy farm trainee class. Dr. Carl E. Beeman made
remarks concerning use of teaching material in the instructional program
and how to secure these materials from the University of Florida and
other resource centers. Brochures and guides were made available.
H. Dean Griffin presented a cooperative plan developed by South Florida
Junior College and Highlands County secondary schools in Vocational
Agriculture. The program components are designed to be adapted to the
secondary school; secondary school and South Florida Junior College; or
South Florida Junior College. Vocational Agriculture I and II are
taught in the secondary schools; Advanced Agriculture is taught in the
secondary schools and South Florida Junior College; post-secondary
programs and programs leading directly to employment are taught in the
South Florida Junior College.
Troy McRee presented an outline of the Pre-Secondary Exploratory
Program, Clearwater Comprehensive Junior High School. The outline is
composed of the following:
Determining the Need for the Program
a. Number of drop-outs; occupational experiences available, and
dichotomy between industrial and academic areas
Program Planning Procedure
a. Formulate schedule of modules and clusters
b. Develop exploratory units
c. Schedule to allow student to evaluate his own progress
a. To keep the student in school
b. To aid student in making wise occupational choices
c. To assist the student in becoming aware of job opportunities
a. Slide presentation
a. A large percentage of students will be an asset to the communities
b. A greater percentage of students will acquire a saleable skill
Charles Tucker gave a brief description of the Special Needs students.
Physically they approximate normal students in height, weight, and
motor coordination. Frequently, they come from substandard homes lacking
in intellectual environment. They lack the basic skills of reading and
In 1968, the North Technical Education Center of Palm Beach County pro-
vided three new courses for training of Special Needs students. These
1. Toolroom Management
2. Building Services and Maintenance
3. Ornamental Horticulture
Some of the problems encountered in the Ornamental Horticulture Program
1. Lack of Textbooks
2. Insufficient Visual Aids
3. Stigma of the Program
4. Misinformed Counselors
5. Facility Inadequate
Thur day, August 14
The session was chaired by Mr. Warren Harrell.
L. W. Harrell'-- "The Thrust, 'US' in Bridging
Area Supervisor.; Agricultural Education the Gap- Btween School :Train-
Department of Education ing and the World of Work."
Major points emphasized in Mr. Harrell's Presentation
Levels of Vocational Agricultural Programs
I. Junior High Including Exploratory and Enrichment
II. Basic Secondary Courses, grades 9-10
III. Advanced Secondary Clusters, grades 11-12
IV. Area Vocational Schools
V. Community Junior Colleges
A. Each teacher views his program in terms of value judgements
as to its effectiveness in curriculum, evaluation, etc.,|in
a total multi-level approach to agricultural education.
B. Each teacher to recognize the need to participate in coordinated
efforts towards an articulated total program in the future.
Group meetings were held as follows:
I. Special Needs and Physically Handicapped
II. Junior High, Including Exploratory and Enrichment
III. Basic Secondary Courses, grades 9-10
IV. Advanced Secondary Clusters
V. Area Vocational Schools
VI. Community Junior Colleges
Questions suggested for group discussion.
1. What are the multi-level relationships?
2. Is it concerned with occupational clusters, or fragmented?
3. Is there a progression of teaching-learning experiences, or
what is the course sequence at all levels?
4. Are realistic supervised experience programs implemented
out-of-class for all students to compliment the course
5. Is a comprehensive program of vitual leadership and community
service included in the program for all students?
B. Evaluation and follow-up
1. What is happening to those completing our program?
2. Do we have accurate date to indicate how well we are bridging
3. If we are not getting results, why?
4. Based on present knowledge, what will the offering be
like five years from now?
C. Statements for group reaction
1. A knowledge of program offerings is essential.
2. Program titles should reflect the actual content and intent
of the training.
3. Programs should have clearly defined job titles or families
of jobs which graduates expect to enter.
4. Qualifications for entry into the educational program should
be spelled out in detail.
5. A check list of skills and abilities needed by beginning
workers in the specific job titles should be available.
6. Curriculums and course offerings must be continually
evaluated and up-dated.
Thursday, August 12
Mr. C. M. Lawrence, Director, Agricultural Education, Department of
Education, Tallahassee, chaired the session.
W. T. Loften, Teacher Trainer "Certification of Teachers and
Agricultural and Extension Education Extension of Certificates."
University of Florida; Mr. John
Staples and Mrs. Ola Joyce, Department
of Education, Tallahassee
This is a summary of statements given by Mr. Loften.
1. One must take all of the prescribed educational courses before
he qualifies for a regular teacher's certificate in Vocational
2. Teachers may participate in in-service training programs to
3. Classes in agriculture are available during the 1969-70
school year (A list of vocational offerings in agriculture
4. Courses taught at Agricultural Experiment Station may be taken
for residential credits.
This is a summary of remarks made by Mr. Staples
Changes in certification requirements. TEAC membership (54) represent-
ing all senior institutions and all levels of instruction in the public
schools. Some are appointed by the State Commissioner. Senior insti-
tution designate their own representative. Task force meets twice per
year to study recommendations for changes in certification. Persons
interested in changing regulation may submit request to executive
This is a summary of the speech given by Mrs. Ola Joyce
Section 2, of VTAE, Accreditation Procedure Handbook indicates course
titles, codes, and certification required for each subject taught in
vocational agriculture. These are shown in section 40 of the Accredita-
tion Procedure Handbook. A graduate with a Bachelor's Degree covering
General Agriculture must satisfy the practical experience in teaching
for three years and complete at least twenty semester hours in special-
ization and professional preparation. These courses must be taken from
an institution approved to train teachers of vocational agriculture.
The only institutions in Florida that are approved are the University of
Florida and Florida A & M University.
Certification may be given to a non-degree applicant who has had six
years of occupational experience in a specific field. He would be
issued a temporary certificate shown in section 42 under standard
certificate. The following areas qualify for certification on a non-
degree non-academic basis.
Agricultural Management Agricultural Supplies
Agricultural Mechanics Horticulture
Agricultural Resources Forestry
Section 44 of the certification handbook gives the requirements for the
Director of Vocational Education. Only graduate credit is used to satisfy
this requirement. Other requirements are necessary to become certified
in Administration and Supervision. An applicant must have three years
of successful teaching experience as a teacher of vocational agriculture
and must have met the professional educational and occupational experience
requirements in at least one vocational service. State Board Regulation:
In 1968, it was determined that vocational agriculture and home economics
would be considered as vocational services in the same manner as dis-
tributive and industrial occupational fields in which "professional
education and occupational experience" would be accepted as satisfying
one of the prerequisites for certification as "local director or county
supervisor of vocational education."
Some helpful pointers in contacting the certification office are:
1. Give the receptionist your Department of Education number
before asking to speak with a specialist. Correspond by
mail insofar as possible. File CT-2 form as soon as you
have completed the required hours, rather than wait until
the summer months. Applications for extension may be held
on file for at least one year before the fee is forfeited.
2. Florida Rank IA, Special Post Graduate Certificate may be
issued to applicants meeting the requirements specified in
section 130-4.07-130-04.361 State Board of Education Regulation,
(Section 7-36, Florida Requirements for Teacher Certification)
as follows: has met the recency of credit requirement as
described in Section 2 (12), Florida Requirements for Teacher
Certification; holds a 6th year degree (i.e., Specialist in
Education degree); or has completed at least 30 hours of
graduate credit in a planned doctoral program from a standard
institution of higher learning to include unconditional
admission to candidacy for the Doctor's degree.
Don Wakeman, Professor "The Modern Meat-Type Steer"
Department of Animal Science
University of Florida
The following is a summary of Mr. Wakeman's Presentation:
The"modern-meat type" steer is a phrase which has received a lot of
publicity the last few years. Possibly a more appropriate name would be
"the high-profit" steer. This modern steer must make a profit for all
facets of the beef industry.
This steer should have at least a daily gain of 1.4 pounds of carcass
per day of life or about 2.3 pounds of daily gain in total body weight.
The retail demand today is for minimal U. S. Choice quality. The general
structure or shape of a steer with these qualities will not be the same
as that of a typical U. S. Prime steer that we have in the back of our
minds as an ideal.
The following are areas of conformation that express or indicate "white"
rather than "red" meat areas:
1. Large, full brisket, extreme depth of body, depth and fullness
of the fore and rear flanks, and fullness behind the shoulders
2. Depth and fullness of the twist, squareness of the rump, and
broad, flat back.
The concept of the ideal conformation of the beef steer has changed in
the past twenty years. In many instances these changes have come much
too slowly. To keep up with these consumer changes, we as livestock
people, need to change our concepts and livestock vocabulary of desired
traits. The following are traits that were once considered as desired
traits, but they are traits that reduce the true carcass value of the
1. More uniform width 6. Wider, squarer top
2. More uniform depth 7. Smoother and fuller behind the
3. Deeper twist shoulders.
4. Straighter underline 8. Deeper and fuller in the chest
5. Deeper flank floor
9. Shorter-legged, more compact
10. Deeper middle
These should be replaced with modern livestock terms such as the following:
1. Stands wide behind
2. Trimmer middle, flank, and brisket
3. Thicker, more muscular round
4. More muscular shoulders
5. Longer lion and rump
6. Thicker through the stifle
7. Thicker through the middle and lower round
8. Thicker, meatier turn down the top
9. More structurally correct
10. More correct amount of finish over back and ribs
Thursday, August 14
Top honors in the Annual Future Farmers of America (FFA) School
Forestry Chapter Award Contest were captured this year by the Walnut Hill
FFA Chapter of the Ernest Ward High School of Escambia County.
The St. Regis Paper Company presented the winning chapter a check for
$250.00. The Leon High School Chapter in Tallahassee (Area I), the
Palatka High School Chapter (Area II), and the Brooksville FFA Chapter
(Area III), each were awarded $75.00 for placing first in their respective
Announcement of the winners were made at the annual banquet for agricul-
tural education teachers sponsored by the St. Regis Paper Company,
Florida Power Corporation, Florida Power and Light Company, Gulf Power
Company, and Tampa Electric Company.
The "Teacher of Teachers Awards" were presented to those teachers who had
former students teaching vocational agriculture. Bronze awards were pre-
sented to those teachers who have one or two former students who have
taught agriculture for one or more years; Silver awards were presented
to those teachers who have three of four former students who have taught
agriculture for one or more years; and Gold awards were presented to the
teacher who has five former students who have taught agriculture for one
or more years.
Recipients of the Bronze award were Henry Hewitt, Bradenton; David Wyche,
Greenville; Herbert A. Henley, Orlando; Wayne Trawick, Orlando; R. V. Hill,
Tampa; Paul E. Cade, Pierson; and T. C. Campbell, Perry. Recipients of
the Silver awards were: W. R. Miller, Ocala; G. H. Brown, Tallahassee;
Harry M. Lydick, Gainesville; Ray 0. Arrington, Plant City; T. P. Winter,
Bradenton; Wilson Suggs, Live Oak; Fred A. Shaw, Bronson; Richard L. Gavin,
Bartow. Recipient of the Gold award was E. M. Kinsler, Summerfield.
The Owl's Club, an organization sponsored by the Florida Vocational Agri-
culture Teachers and comprised of teachers who have taught agriculture
for ten or more years, honored a number of its members too. Ten and
twenty years service pins were awarded to those members qualifying.
The organization presented the Harvestore and New Holland Young Teacher
Award to Lamar Simmons, Newberry, Florida.
BUSINESS, DISTRIBUTIVE, DIVERSIFIED AND
JUNIOR HIGH WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMS
Wednesday, August 13
State Officers of Student
Organizations Sponsored by Section
The program of the opening general session consisted of a panel
presentation by the state officers of the student organizations
sponsored by.the section.
Panel: Bowen, Terry L.
Florida Altantic University
Burakowski, Edward J.
National Phi Beta Lambda President
University of West Florida
Rose, Cynthia T.
Clubs of Florida
Florida A & M University
St. Petersburg Junior College
Each panel member stressed the importance of youth organizations and
described his respective organization and its stated purpose, objectives,
The following purposes and creeds were also presented by the students:
The DECA Creed,
I believe in the future which I am planning for myself in the
field of distribution, and in the opportunities which vocation
I believe in fulfilling the highest measure of service to my
vocation, my fellow beings, my country and my God that by so doing,
I will,be rewarded with personal satisfaction and material wealth.
I believe in the democratic philosophies of private enterprise
and competition, and.in the freedoms of this nation-that these
philosophies allow for the fullest development of my individual
I believe that by doing my best to live according to these 'high
principles,.I will be of greater service to both myself and to
The FBLA Purposes:
1. Create interest and understanding in the intelligent choice of
business and office occupations.
2. Develop competent, aggressive business leadership.
3. Strengthen the confidence of young men and women in them-
selves and prepare them for entrance into the world of work.
4. Assist members in the development of individual projects
which will aid in establishing themselves in business and
5. Encourage members to improve the home and community.
6. Participate in worthy undertakings for the improvement of
business and the community.
7. Participate in cooperative effort.
8. Develop character, prepare for useful citizenship, and foster
9. Encourage and practice thrift.
10. EncoUrage improvement in scholarship and promote school loyalty.
11. Provide and encourage development of organized recreational
12. Improve and establish standards for entrance into store and
The CECF Creed:
I believe in the eternal light of knowledge, for knowledge is a
never ceasing process . it's light shines eternal.
I believe in the olive branch which represents success and achieve-
ment, in moving up in the world into leadership to my school, my
home, my community, my chosen vocation, and my fellow man.
I believe in the book of learning, the contents of which depends
upon my desire to learn and the ambitions within me.
I believe in the writing of wisdom, composed by men of all times,
and carried out by tradition. It depends upon my generation to
carry on these traditions.
Tuesday, August 12
Phil Maechling "Where Are We Going?
South-Western Publishing Company How Should We Get There?"
5101 Madison Road
Cincinnati, Ohio 45227
You know every speaker starts out with the statement, "It is a pleasure
to be here." It's a pleasure to be here. That's euphemism that means,
"I'm scared"to death. I hope I can make it through the next hour."
And it's a prayer; a prayer that says, "Lord, let me say something.
Put some wisdom in my mouth today so that I can leave these people with
a thought. A thought that will help them in their work in the classroom."
Our title today is WHERE ARE WE GOING? HOW SHOULD WE GET THERE? I want
you to look with me at the opportunities available to us. We hear of
problems, the thousands of problems in our world of business education,
we hear of problems of poverty, problems regarding hunger, problems
regarding housing, and all up North, you know, we have group against
group and class against class, and race against race, and we have people
who are accused of not working harmoniously, people who are accused of
not giving people a chance to work. And, those who think about this
come up with one idea that can help solve these problems, and that one
idea which I am going to say in one word is EDUCATION.
The world exists these days on paper. In fact, all scientific achieve-
ment here in America is limited by the ability of stenographers and
clerks to process the information into useful form, to take the product
of the minds of our scientists and using the skills that you and I
teach, make that information available to other scientists, to other
businessmen, and to the general public.
You and I, as teachers of clerical skills,have a unique opportunity to
aid people. Clerical jobs, and I am using that to cover the overall
range of office occupations, provide a clean and honorable employment
under generally pleasant working conditions. It's a job, if my last
comments are valid, that will always be available. A person who possesses
these skills has something that is sold regardless of the blows that
life may send his way. So you see your teaching, what you are teaching,
is providing these people with a means to honorable employment through-
out their whole lives, regardless what fate may send their way. So
we have the responsibility to do this job to the best of our ability
and hence the topic for today, WHERE ARE WE GOING? HOW SHOULD WE GET
Robert Mager has written a rather interesting book. Mr. Mager suggests
three questions that we should ask ourselves: "What is it that I want
to teach?" and let's get it clearly defined, "How will I know when I
have taught it?" and "What instructional methods and procedures will
work better in helping me teach what I wish to teach?" Now Bob Mager
says that part of the problem in preparing our instructional objectives
is that we work with words that are vague and that are open to too many
interpretations. He says what does it really mean when we write the
course objective, "We want our student to know" or "to understand" or "to
really understand" or "to appreciate" or "enjoy" or "believe in" and
"have faith in" or whatever we write. So he suggests to us that we
ought to be a bit more specific, that when we start thinking about our
objectives, we ought to choose from specific works, such as, "We want our
student to be able to type" or "write" or "recite" or "identify" or
differentiatet" or "compare" or "contrast," or any of the specific
things that say when this student finishes my course what do I want him
to be able to do. Again, isn't it a lot more specific to say, "I want
the student to contrast the causes of World War II to those of World
War I" than it is to say that "I want him to know." See it isn't just a
semantic difference, but rather a meaningful one.
Now Bob Mager has said that these are the steps that one should go
through in preparing instructional objectives. First, we must identify
the terminal behavior by name. In other words, spell out exactly what
we want the student to do, something that if he understands- there I go.
I slopped in a vague word just as all of us do if he knows what we
want him to know, we have spelled out the kind of performance we want.
Then he says let us have the student define the desired behavior further
by describing the important conditions under which the behavior will be
expected to occur. And finally, specify the criteria of acceptable per-
formance by describing how well the learner must perform to be considered
Now if we look at educational objectives in this fashion, we see that
there is quite a difference between this approach and what we find in the
Now I would like to turn to a program which may offer you a little bit of
a challenge, or may stimulate you to think about your own program and
your own objectives and encourage you to see if these thoughts are
applicable in your own community. We use to call it the "spin-off
approach." This "spin-off approach" that we are going to discuss with you
came as a result of the emphasis of the Vocational Education Act of 1963
on entry job training for business in job cluster areas. In other words,
certain jobs tend to have the same basic skills. So what we have then is
certain commonalities between jobs, certain skills which are common to
everyone working in this general clerical area.
This is a rather simplified approach to how we do it. To develop a spin-
off program, you have to start with a community survey. This community
survey and I am going to do a dirty trick to you -is a little different
from the traditional community survey in which you go out and ask the
businessman what he wants from your graduates. I think this difference
is essential to the success of the program. You are suddenly getting
from him his minimum job requirements. He wants more, to be sure, but
he will accept less. Okay, then you have to take a look at your students.
And before we go on, I should make one other point about this and that is,
these requirements must be for jobs that the employer has available.
You notice that I am trying to get the finest job expectations of the
You have to get from him what he really will accept as the minimum for
an opening that he has if you gave him the student. You will find the
spin-off concept by arranging the jobs in your community from the simplest
to the most difficult.
You would establish your performance objectives in behavioral terms- the
behavioral terms part is so important here- so that you can intelligently
help your students progress from one job level to the next. You would
determine the appropriate teaching method, equipment, instructional
materials. You would determine the appropriate kinds of requirements
for each part of the spin-off program, and believe me, I have listed that
because you have to have some guidelines. You will find that many
students will, when they know exactly what is required of them, race
ahead far beyond your expectations.
You have heard the first part, the part about the unique opportunity you
have to serve. Now I want to remind you of a phase of your obligation
and responsibility. In order to serve well, the students you have in
your classes, you must serve with respect. You must serve your students
with Love. You must serve them with the commitment and value judgement
which you were given. I said LOVE. That's right. I want you to teach
for success, not for failure. You are working with students who have
problems. It's no time to teach them how little they know. They need to
know first of all how much they know.
Notice, on purpose I didn't say let them leave knowing very little. I
said teach them success. Respect your students, encourage them; be
positive about your students, be positive about your school, about your
program, be positive about your administration. Avoid fraternizing
with the people on your staff who are the complainers, the negatives,
those who are the destroyers rather than the creators. And if you find
yourself in so unfortunate a state as to have more in common with the
negative thinkers, with the destroyers and the complainers than you have in
common with the doers, now ladies and gentlemen, it's time for you to
move on to other pastures and to find other kinds of employment because
YOU AND YOUR STUDENTS DESERVE MORE.
You care! You came to a meeting. You try to improve yourself. This
meeting shows that you have enthusiasm, that you have a respect and love
for your students. I want you to go home and try to generate those same
feelings in your associates who didn't come. Have a good meeting, go home
to your students inspired, and make this the best year ever.
Wednesday, August 13
Kathleen M. Herschelmann "Developing Behavioral
Wayne State University Objectives- NOBELS* Style"
Detroit, Michigan 48202
The following is a summary of Mrs. Herschelmann's speech.
Moonshot NOELS NOBELS plus several years in the making has brought us
to the present stage of developing behavioral objectives for students in
business education as collected from actual jobs in the business world.
Just as other projects such as ES'70 (Educational Systems for the 70's)
were spawned as a result of the innovative idea of an organic curriculum,
NOBELS is also an approach to individualized learning as well as teaching
through the use of behavioral objectives(performance goals). What makes
NOBELS different and fascinating is that the student performance goals are
generated from worker office tasks captured nationwide through interviews
with employees and their employers.
NOBELS is headquartered in Detroit, Michigan at Wayne State University
under the principal investigatorship of Dr. Frank Lanham. Four other
areas and their respective directors are: The University of Georgia,
Dr. Calfrey Calhoun (including The University of Tennessee, Dr. George
Wagoner); The University of Minnesota, Dr. Ray Price; The State University
of New York at Albany, Dr. Herbert Tonne; and The University of
California at Los Angeles, Dr. Larry Erickson.
Data collection teams at these universities are interviewing workers
between the ages of 16-24, having less than a bachelor's degree, at a
*New Office and Business Education Learning System.
ratio of four female employees to each male employee. Census data of
actual population centers and types of companies which employ these
workers are used as criteria in selection of the companies which are asked
to participate in our 1,000 interviews. Since the final performance
goals written in NOBELS are to be used in training at the high school and
junior college levels, the entry jobs, emerging occupations, and industries
expecting the highest rise in employment in the near future are taken also
In addition to normative data from each company and employee basic task
information, the data collector elicits both job and interaction critical
incidents from the supervisor. These specific events in the business
lives of office workers will be used as measurements of success or failure
in performing business tasks in the classroom. The play by play job task
information is furnished the data collector by the employee himself.
After citing a task as basic (among the most difficult, most time con-
suming and requiring the most responsibility and constituting the central
purpose of the job), the employee lists for the data collector: (1)
Summary or background behind the task; (2) The task itself using an action
verb and the object upon which it acts; (3) The steps necessary to
complete the task; (4) The criteria used for measurement.
These task sheets are then read by area reading teams for clarity and
completeness and sent on to Detroit where we code and punch them. One
of the features of NOBELS in not using a pre-cast mold is a classifi-
cation by function, so that for instance, secretarial jobs in accounting,
personnel, production, etc., will retain their distinctiveness. A second
feature is a list of about a hundred verbs used in the task steps from
the area data collections, defined, examples given of actual steps in
which the verbs occur and hopefully will be made available to business
teachers in the United States at the end of the NOBELS Project this
From the task sheet data, flow charts are being made which show the actual
performance of office jobs from beginning to end. By using these flow
charts and writing final student performance goals for individual needs,
both NOBELS and business teachers all over the country can write performance
goals which will give the students a realistic experience of what he will
encounter or expect to encounter on the job.
Orientation and Group Meetings
Jackie Colson "Directing Time"
Business Education Supervisor
Business Education Supervisor
The first session was an orientation session for new teachers and was
presented by Mrs. Jackie Colson, Hillsborough County, Business Education
Supervisor. Mrs. Colson presented an hour of information with overhead
illustrations giving the new teachers a complete overview of directing-
time program activities. Special emphasis was placed on new innovations
to offer the students maximum counseling and guidance.
The second session for new and former directing-time teachers was held as
an open discussion with Mrs. Pat Allen presiding. Some 30 directing-
time teachers participated in this round table discussion of their programs
and exchanged ideas to better their programs.
Some suggestions were to have:
1. Room or office for privacy when counseling with students
2. Close working relationships with the guidance department and
business education teachers
3. Administrators and faculty understand and support program
4. An accurate file on each student in the program with a written state-
ment as to their career objective
5. Follow-up of students from three to five years.
6. Start recruiting students from the middle school for pre-vocational
training in business
7. A directing-time program before initialing a block program.
Wednesday, August 13
Marion Wood "New Methods and
Educational Counsultant Media in Business
IBM Corporation Education"
The following is a summary of Dr. Wood's speech.
Dr. Wood emphasized individualized instruction and stated that we have
handled it differently in the last few years, instead of just grouping
Group dynamics was stressed as a teaching method. We are ready to do
it, and. she hopes that we will do it. Every lesson we plan should take
the same kind of consideration for group dynamics. Our students should
feel a part of the group and at ease. You will build a system of learning.
In group dynamics, pacing means everything.
Record Management Class was mentioned as a new and better way of handling
Programmed instruction was stressed, and Dr. Wood says that programmed
filing works very well.
The Buddy System works with two students as a team checking each other's
work. Tele-lecture by telephone is an excellent way to reach students
when the instructor or lecturer is in another part of the city or country.
Work smarter, not harder was her philosophy.
Other hints for secretarial classes:
Have a filing manual
Set up agendas for super executives
Call the library for information
Desk area must be kept clear
Set up a tickler file by months
Know type styles
Code materials for filing
Importance of team work
Dr. Wood stressed we should divide our day into three parts:
1. What you must do
2. What you do
3. What you ought not to do
In regard to visual and audio media, Dr. Wood thinks we need to use video
to enhance and not to intimidate. Technical aids should be used as a
supplement to our own teaching. If only a portion of a film is valuable
for the class, then use only that part.
She emphasized teaching by simulation on the keyboard of the typewriter
for the key punch machine.later. Ten lessons in simulation on the type-
writer will give location of the key punch machine for another twenty
Use the audio system for recording good points of students' work and of
ways to improve. Students like this method of evaluation of their work.
Team teaching can become tired teachers; use a fresh approach. Breaking
the class down into groups is another approach to learning.
As teachers, when you work with these aids in teaching, you become a
better planner and a better evaluator; you make better use of your
auxiliary services. You will be teaching with more aids in the next
Today the typist must be a creative typist and not a copyist.
Every teaching situation, regardless of what teaching media you use,
depends on three things:
1. You the teacher
2. The student
3. The media or tools you select
Use your creativity and be very innovative in your teaching, Dr. Wood
Group I Cooperative Business Education
Kathleen M. Herschelmann "How to Write Performance
Research Assistant Goals"
Wayne State University
Detroit, Michigan 48202
PURPOSE: How to write performance goals (Behavioral Objectives),
specifically relating to what co-op students are doing on
I. Co-op in Michigan only group using materials from NOBELS
A. --- coordinators deal with employers directly, thus have the
opportunity to take tasks (supplied by NOBELS) and pull out
critical incidents for particular need of student.
B. --- coordinator can know what employer may need; prepare student;
make it meaningful and job-related.
C. --- coordinators' performance goals should show students how
they can branch out after high school (no end of the line in
II. Writing Performance Goals
A. --- student must know what he will have learned at the end of
the course (the performance goal must be defined so that it is
understandable to everyone).
B. --- teacher must know what he wishes and needs to teach (use a
C. --- the physical goal must be a part of the goal.
D. --- every student step must be significant in itself.
E. --- student must know how he is to be tested.
F. --- at the end of the course the student should have developed
a pattern where he does not need the teacher anymore.
III. Contingencies or Alternatives
A. --- an incentive type of thing; something that makes the task a
bit different; motivation for the top students.
A. --- to write the final data sheet for a performance goal, the
following questions should be answered:
1. How do you know when this task is to be performed?
2. What does the employee do in performing this task?
3. What tools, special supplies, or reference materials are
necessary for performing this task?
4. How do you know when you have completed the task?
5. What kinds and levels of special skills are required for this
6. What are the standards or criteria necessary for successful
7. Special requirements for performance: Decision Making?
Technical Vocabulary? Pressures (coping)? Consequences of
not performing satisfactorily?
Group II Vocational Office Education (Block)
In establishing objectives, the greatest thing is imagination. The
vocational educator must consider what the student plans to do when he
leaves the classroom. Train the student to get a position to match
Each student must be worked with individually rather than constant
lecturing. If a student cannot reach a certain goal, the teacher must
help him reach another acceptable goal. Set the goals for each student
individually rather than for the entire class.
When considering content, the teacher should supplement the textbook.
USE IMAGINATION! Make the content relevant to the community and the job
opportunities. Students must be able to learn how to do a new job or
Teaching methods must be individual using everything possible to put
across an idea. Tell the student WHY everything is done. It is
important that the student know WHY he is asked to do each thing.
Assignments must be made that relate to the field of work. Do not make
assignments to be making assignments. Every student does not need the
same assignment. Give a student an assignment to help him understand a
problem. It is better to help students in the classroom where machines
can be used and the teacher can help the student.
Relationship between teacher and student must be confidential while still
Classroom materials must bring into the classroom the business world
matched to the individual student's ability and goal in life. Get the
equipment necessary for students to get a job in your community. Equip-
ment should be the same as that which is used in the business world in
your community. The teacher must have a "vocationalized attitude."
A question and answer period followed stressing standards.
Thursday, August 14
Edward D. Miller "Future Business Leaders
Chairman of America and Phi Beta
State FBLA-Phi Beta Lambda Committee Lambda Programs"
An hour and one-half program was presented by the State Future
Business Leaders of America and Phi Beta Lambda Chairman, assisted by
Frances Singletary,.FBLA State President, and Ed Burakowski, Phi Beta
Lambda State and National President.
Mr. Miller discussed the impact of youth activities in the new vocational-
business education classes and of the many avenues that are open to
vocational teachers in reaching students through youth activities. He
elaborated on FBLA being the official youth organization in Florida for
vocational business education students and discussed the benefits
afforded the student membership.
President Singletary discussed the influence her active participation
has had in preparing her for a business career and related to the group
the many activities and projects a FBLA. chapter can carry out.
President Burakowski directed his remarks to the teachers informing
them of the important role they play in developing leadership. He
appealed to the audience not to overlook their responsibility in offering
students more than routine classroom instruction.
Mr. Miller concluded the session with remarks relative to the coming year's
activities and challenged the present and prospective sponsors to make
1970 their greatest year.
Marion Wood "The T's in Office
Educational Consultant Procedures"
The title "Office Procedures" is preferred to "Office Practice" in some
areas of the United States. Mrs. Wood feels this course is more subject
to change than any other in the curriculum. Pressures are upon teachers
to determine course content that will help prepare young people to be
dispensers of information. There are two kinds of information, that
which is primarily statistical in nature and related to data processing;
and that which has to do more with communication skills the processing
of words. Emphasis in the presentation was on the later process.
The three T's in Office Procedures are text, tools, and teacher. Teaching
materials should appeal to the ear as well as the eye. In teaching the
operation of "tools," learning materials should be presented in such
a way that fears are removed and students gain a "feeling" of the tool
they will be using. For example: In training on the proportional-
space typewriter, students with a mastery of electric keyboards can
learn proportional spacing in 10 hours. A recommended procedure is to
give students some simple drills to familiarize them with the keyboard.
Later some fun time, as with shadow-typing, gives them more confidence.
Next steps would include instructions on centering, making corrections,
letter locations, and tabulations. In Lesson 9 or 10, the teacher could
bring in unit count.
In addition to standard tools, there are several additional tools with
which Office Procedures students should be familiar. For example, if a
good typist is a creative worker, he should be familiar with a variety of
type styles and their uses. Many styles of type are available for the
Selectric typewriter so students can try more than the traditional
standard pica and elite.
Transcription is an important part of communications skills. It is the
fusion of many skills, knowledge, and problem-solving activities.
Workers should be able to transcribe from recorded media as well as
from direct dictation. The same principles apply. Mrs. Wood suggested
several standards: One letter per hour when one carbon copy is produced;
6 letters per hour satisfies businessmen; average lines per page, 15;
operators should produce 30 pages per day; 600 line count per day,
average; 800-900 letters well dictated can be transcribed from 1/2 to
2/3 the letter production rate. Factors affecting transcription rate
include: Failure to listen ahead of typing, pausing too long at the end
of each line, typing with poor rhythm. Teachers might well spend more
time in teaching listening skills and mechanics of transcription. We
need to provide more time for practice in the use of reference materials
and for development of other non-typing skills.
Perhaps one of our greatest imperatives is to provide experiences for
students to become more creative typists. Mrs. Wood demonstrated three
techniques with her platform class. (1) Oral or typewritten response to
a word, as "Flower" or "Color". (2) Dictate a wordy telegram and in-
struct students to edit it and make it as short as possible. Illustration:
"Please contact Jackson immediately in order to expedite delivery on the
contract. It is imperative we get the goods by November 10."
(3) Provide a short letter with a number of paragraphs that could be used
in reply and ask the students to select the paragraphs that should be used
for the best reply.
Technical typing should be included in the course: exercises in spacing,
spacing within equations, how to type equations on two lines, statistical
symbols (available on electric elements), report typing, and manuscript
typing. Some references are: Stafford and Culpepper, The Science Engi
neering Secretary by Prentice-Hall; Christianson of Newport, California,
Repro Technical Typing; and Margaret Kuntz of Colby College, New Hampshire
has written a good book on the subject. Students should have a background
in mathematics and science. The following adjuncts would be helpful for
technical typing instruction: 54-tooth ratchet for electric (free feature)
for hand spacing vertically, variety of elements, keyboard charts, tem-
plates for those symbols that cannot be typed, a technical vocabulary, and
a knowledge of reproduction systems.
Good teachers are IMAGINEERS: imagination plus engineering skills
Thursday, August 14
Group I Cooperative Business Education
Lucy Robinson "Explain Characteristics
Curriculum Specialist and Organization of CBE
Business Education Guide"
Department of Education
PURPOSE: Explain Characteristics and Organization of CBE Guide;
Functionalism of Guide -Who We Are and Where We Are Going.
Miss Robinson explained that the revised Cooperative Business Education
Guide was presented in May to a cross-section of business educators, and
then copies of the guide itself; draft copies of unit outlines and
compilations of Federal Regulations affecting on-the-job training were
mailed to all CBE Coordinators.
She pointed out that the 1965 guide strongly resembled the DCT guide but
that we now must be able to show that CBE has a part of the total Business
Education Program by evaluative processes. She added that there must be
an indication that funds are being expended wisely and that evaluation
cannot be done on last years alone. Projections are on a 5-year basis.
Last year there were 848 girls and 46 boys in CBE. She emphasized the need
to move coordinately in Business Education- a concerted effort leading to
a focal point. Also noted by Miss Robinson was the fact that Cooperative
Education is a method, not a specific discipline.
Many questions were raised from concerned CBE coordinators and specific
problems and desires mentioned; however, there was not enough time to
fully explore any particular area. Miss Robinson said she felt the need
had been expressed in this meeting for a meeting of all CBE coordinators
at a later date.
Group II Post-Secondary Business Education
Moderator: Kenneth A. Bragg, Director
Lake Area Vocational-Technical Center
Panelists: Robert Ochs, Chairman
Business Education Department
Miami-Dade Junior College, South Campus
William Morlang, Supervisor
Adult Business Education
Dr. Clinton Hamilton
Vice President and Dean of
Broward Junior College
Phil Maechling, Assistant Manager
South-Western Publishing Company
This meeting was a continuation of the same group on the previous day.
At the first meeting, the total group was divided into four discussion
groups. The topic was "Problems!-in the Adult, Post-Secondary, and
Junior College level of Business Education in Florida." Primarily, the
groups tried to identify problems with articulating the program of business
education at all levels in Florida. Questions were raised by discussion
groups and presented by the panelists through reacting statements.
Problems discussed centered around the following:
1. Handling advanced placement of students
2. Setting realistic performance criteria
3. Counteracting dropouts
4. Working with guidance personnel
5. The parallel-transfer program
6. An effective public relations program
7. Effective programs for handicapped students
8. Relating programs to community needs
9. Follow-up of students
10. ..:...,, the image of vocational education
In summarizing some of the statements presented by the panelist, Mr.
Maechling pointed out that, "An essential technique of advertising is
product differentiation determining those things that make your product
different from your competitors. In presenting the program, make the
public aware of the three distinct levels of the business education program.
Let it not be an imitation of the level above it. Avoid duplication."
Group III Vocational Office Education
Kathleen M. Herschelmann "Performance Goals for
Wayne State University VOE"
Detroit, Michigan 48202
Florida is out in front in VOE Directing and Block time for it provides
an ideal situation for developing behavioral objectives.
Performance goals are nothing new. The term is more apropos to student
learning situations than the term behavioral objective.
The teacher must decide what she wants the student to learn expressed in
teacher-terms and student-terms, both on the same frequency level. The
teacher will write performance goals with students in order that they
know what they wish to learn from the class. Knowing what she will test
the students on in advance is an advantage for the teacher.
NOBELS plan is designed to establish student performance goals for individ-
ual needs and tend to provide a realistic learning experience of what he
will encounter or expect to encounter.on the job.
Data collectors go into offices to secure information from which task
statements are designed. These are converted to teacher-student goals.
The goals are then used to create capsules of learning to be utilized
in classroom learning situation.
(The Performance of the Teacher or the Student)
1. Must contain a noun. (I Teacher Student Class Group)
2. Action verb (Something to demonstrate)
3. Object (The student will understand)
4. Criteria (What are they going to be measured by, by whose standards?
i.e., Mailable Acceptable Perfect)
To make a performance goal that will really work, one must pre-test so that
the student will learn what he does not know. He can then write down steps
to follow in learning. Performance goals must be specific.
The student learns best by using realistic material related to business,
i.e., snap-apart purchase orders, invoices, etc.)
Students learn, realistically, how to set performance goals they wish to
reach. In this way, he will learn to feel success, perhaps in small
amounts at first; he will not always be "the failure."
George Kolias "Business Speaks for
Account Manager-Education Business Education"
Office Products Division, IBM
Miami, Florida 33137
From a stone hammer and chisel used on a stone wall... to the IBM Magnetic
Tape "Selectric" typewriter has been a long journey. There have been
many steps along the way. For as man changed his way of life, he also
changed the tools he used to communicate the stories and ideas which made
up the fabrics of his life. Today, the requirements of modern living
demand that only the best and fastest means of communicating ideas be
used. Today, as an example, the average cost of a letter is $2.74. The
Miami Herald just recently, in an article, indicated that by next year
the price would be over $3.00. In 1956 the cost of a letter was $1.19.
The spiral increase in the cost of doing business in the modern day office
is simply unacceptable.
Better methods, better tools, and systemizing the flow of words had to
come about. What is happening out there today is a revolution. A new
idea is developing- it is Word Processing.
Of course, there are few people who still carve out their messages with
hammer and chisel, but some have not advanced-.as .far,;as..modern day technology
would permit them to go.
As words make their way from the mind of one person, onto paper, into
the hands of another-they are being processed. The procedures by which
they are handled include the laborious use of pencil and yellow pad on
which some ideas are captured-but where some are lost- and the shorthand
notes taken down by a secretary. The speed with which notes are taken
will vary widely, depending upon the secretary's skill with her pad and
pencil and outline forms. After spending whatever time is necessary to
capture the ideas being dictated, the secretary must take notes and trans-
cribe them. If some time has elapsed, the notes may have grown "cold"
and in some cases may be unusable. The time spent in the above situation
requires the expenditure of a great deal of effort on the part of two
people before a single idea has been satisfactorily committed to paper.
In the first instance Where notes are made by the orignator of an idea on
a yellow pad, there is a possibility the secretary will be unable to read
the scrawled notes and will have to interrupt another activity of her
boss so that he can translate the unreadable notes.
Word Processing is obviously not a product of the twentieth century. As
long as word existed, in some ways before, Word Processing has been
carried out by whatever means have been available. In modern terms,
Word Processing in the process of creating and changing various kinds of
documents. It begins with expression of an.ides and terminates in the
final document -a draft, letter, report, requisition or purchase order -
in the hands of the person for whom it was intended.
However, if existing staff is made more productive through new technology,
business can be more successful and profitable. More productive working
tools help absorb the amount of paperwork required and reduce the number
of people needed to complete the same amount of work. Routine paperwork
has increased, and the number of people required to process this work has
increased. Wages are rising, but productivity remains the same. It
would seem that the trend of the future would be to hire more people and
pay them more money while permitting productivity to remain about the same.
However, this trend is not inevitable. Years ago factories were forced
to develop better systems of production. For this reason, blue-collar
workers operate at 85% efficiency, while white-collar workers operate at
only 35% efficiency. This creates the ironic situation that the man is
hired to work with his hands has plenty of time to think, but the man who,
is hired to work with his mind in an office has very little time to think
because he is not given manual tools to work with. For this reason we are
running out of people to process words in the old fashioned way. Bob
Slaughter, Vice President of McGraw-Hill, many years ago said that if the
modern method of communication by the telephone had not developed to the
automatic switchboard and if we were using the old fashioned method of
"hello central, give me Sally", every woman over the age of 21 today would
be manning swithboards. Obviously, this would not have been a reality
since we could not afford the cost of operating this method. The ultimate
goal of modern Word Processing is a system which is more productive,
smooth, simple and easy. Described in the simplest terms, Word Processing
is a means by which the ideas of one person are set on paper and conveyed
to another. As been described, there are numerous ways in which this
can be done.
I recently conducted a study in an office where the pressures of their
present work load, method of working, and tools required that they hire
three additional people. Yet the stddy indicated that they had a surplus
of 4 1/2 people. It is quite obvious from this vivid example that by
going through an office and systematizing their input and output devices
more clerical, support, or typing time can be provided, that through the
method of attrition people need not be replaced and/or hired indiscriminately
without an in-depth study. It is my considered opinion that the technology
of the future will provide for more flexibility in systematizing the Word
Processing and Data Processing directions.
Robert Thomson, Manager "Industry's Indigents"
Florida Steel Corporation
I. Quantitatively we tend to measure today's youth by the college yardstick.
a. Everyone can attend an institute of higher learning
b. Everyone wants to attend an institute of higher learning
c. Ergo Everyone must be prepared to enter a college or
a. With inflation as a leveling agent many cannot afford a higher
education at least immediately after high school
b. Many have no real desire to enter college but may do so
because they are prepared for nothing else,
c. Many are not mentally or emotionally equipped to cope with
d. Result discontent drop out discouragement urban
overdevelopment rural egress.
II. If not college what then?
A. Today at this moment there are literally thousands of opening
in industry for secretaries; clerical personnel; mechanics of
every description; draftsmen; technicians, and in particular that
much demanded but seldom found person the good worker!
B. What happened to the "Good Worker"? He or she was never developed
in our primary and secondary schools. Along with reverence we have
neglected to develop the concepts of work as a means of self-
satisfaction, loyalty, diligence and self-discipline.
III. Who fills the gap?
A. You do. By continuing your efforts to prepare students to enter
the business world with the knowledge both of their skill or trade
and the need industry has for their service.
B. Industry does! By renewing the respect for teacher and student
alike engaged in the preparation for a tomorrow in industry.
C. We all do! By removing the stigma attached to the word "work".
IV. With a new measure of self respect. The business and vocational
school can rescue industry's indigents and return to our nation that
most needed natural resource the solid citizen!
Anne Ramsey "Business Speaks for
Administrative Assistant Business Education"
Are any of you struck by the irony of my serving on this committee and
speaking here today about business education -a vocationally oriented
curriculum? I represent the oldest institution of higher learning in
Florida an institution dedicated to the liberal arts tradition. Rollins
College does not have a major in business education. Yet here I am
with the blessings of my employer.
Why? From a personal standpoint, I am very business oriented and I know
that the professions, and educational institutions, require properly
trained office personnel. From personal experience I know these people
are very, very difficult to find.
From a college standpoint, President McKean's way of putting it is pro-
I have often heard him say: "I know more educated fools than any other
His statement means that not everyone ought to go to college; that there
are many roles to be filled in this country and that the best of all
possible worlds is to find the role for which you are particularly suited.
So here we are working full-time in the liberal arts tradition, and
spending some business time and a lot of personal time advocating the
cause of vocational education.
What will your students expect to find if they attempt an office job in
an educational institution? Jobs in junior colleges, all colleges and
universities -- both public and private. Many are clerical in nature,
rather than secretarial. They require an ability to type; they require
knowledge of office procedures; they require the ability to think. Very
often this is the way a young person secures a college education. A re-
duced tuition fee, or none at all, is a fringe benefit for employees.
Some persons working in a college are stimulated to learn more themselves,
and thus become permanent, part-time students, while holding down full-
The secretarial jobs require a secretary of unusual background. The
secretary needs a better than average knowledge of grammar and punctu-
ation. She needs to be literate -- literate about the world and the fields
of knowledge. I cannot count the times I have seen secretaries unable
to handle the dictation -- NOT because their shorthand was inadequate --
BUT because they just did not know the word or what it meant. Vocabulary
- Vocabulary Vocabulary. General education.
I suspect the educational world is not alone in this demand. It seems to
me any responsible executive would require a secretary who was sufficiently
literate to be able to handle any type of correspondence or report.
The secretary needs the ability to understand names and to have some idea
of how they are spelled. For a long time I thought this was a figment of
my imagination -- that I was expecting foo much of people. This problem
is very frequent in young workers. I have found them nearly useless on
the telephone because they cannot tell you who called. They have something
written down for a name, but it is usually far removed from actuality.
The problem carries over into the message. Again, the words seem to have
little meaning to them. Part of the problem could be inexperience in the
business world -- they are not at home with the language. But, they
ought to learn the language sometimelll! They need a facility with words
-- with how they look -- with how they are pronounced -- and with what
Mr. Byron M. Morris "Business Speaks for
Vice President Business Education'
Gulf Life Insurance Company
Life Insurance Companies probably offer the most complete employment
spectrum to the prospective applicant. Be it doctor, lawyer, merchant,
or chief, somewhere in the operations of a life insurance company there
exist opportunities for the qualified individual. Life insurance companies
in general offer positions and employment opportunities in extremely
varied fields. For example, in the more advanced areas: actuarial science,
underwriting, programming, secretarial, medical director, registered
nurse, personnel, investments, auditing, corporate planning, advertising,
public relations, market analysis and development, and librarian. In
the more general areas: clerical, mechanical (carpentry, plumbing, etc.),
training (LOMA, LUTC, CLU In company courses), multilith operators and
veritypists, keypunch operator, accounting, and switchboard operators.
Job standards, interviewing, and testing if the applicant is under age
18 a work permit must be submitted and, at Gulf Life Insurance Company,
the applicant must be a high school graduate or possess an equivalency
certificate. His character and reputation in the community must be
favorable; he must be a law abiding citizen with no criminal record; he
must meet the minimum qualification of health standards; as well as the
test qualifications for the job. Insofar as the tests themselves are
concerned, for other than the more advanced positions or for those positions
for which applicants most frequently apply, factored aptitude tests are
used which test the applicant's perception, judgement, fluency, memory,
knowledge of sales terms, typing, shorthand, etc. Specifically, some of
the tests used are: Industrial Psychological, Inc., Thurstone Test of
Mental Alertness (SRA), Science research associates typing skills tests,
J. P. Cleaver & Company self-description, and the Shurbert General
Ability Battery test. The typing and shorthand tests themselves are given
with tape recorders, where the individual is expected to take dictation
at from 52 to 99 words per minute and be able to type a minimum of 50
words per minute. Naturally, the tests administered would depend on the
type of job opening.
I would like to state that regardless of the thoroughness of any battery
of tests, psychological, written, oral, etc., that are given, there still
lies within each of us factors which will carry us to success and which
are difficult if not impossible to measure. Tests cannot predict either
ultimate success or ultimate failure on a certain job.
There still has not been devised tests that will successfully measure
that factor in certain individuals that leads them to greatness far ex-
ceeding any findings of tests of any type.
The importance of "Eyeball-To-Eyeball," in-depth interviews with the
individual is all important and I would suggest that these are much more
valuable than any tests used.
If you will see that in each and every class the students get the maximum
benefits from your efforts the real drippings of your sermon then
they are on their own. There is no easy way and the tests, interviews,
etc., will be passed in direct proportion to the degree with which the
lessons you teach them are accepted, understood, learned, and applied.
It is said that the distinguishing mark of a professional is that of one
who is constantly aspiring to perfection inspire your students to be
We have all heard "all are created equal." This is certainly not true.
Let us pray that we may help each other improve on our ability to be
equal to the tasks, problems, opportunities, and privileges that confront
each of us in our daily work.
Wednesday, August 13
John Frazier, Program Specialist
Business and Distributive Education
Department of Education
"The Distributive Education
Program: Present and Future"
This is the year when all eyes will be on us and the Distributive
Education Program as we lay the groundwork for implementing Commissioner
Christian's commitment to establish a separate section for Distributive
Education in the Division of Vocational Education on or before July 1,
For the school year 1968-69, Distributive Education recorded 108 programs
at the secondary level with an enrollment of 3100 students; 25 programs
at the junior college and post-secondary level with an enrollment of some
850 mid-management students and an additional 17,000 students who were
enrolled in various courses included in the mid-management curriculums;
and some 27,000 persons enrolled in adult distributive education programs
and classes throughout the state.
For the school year 1969-70 we project 131 programs at the secondary level
with an enrollment of 3700 students; 28 programs at the junior college
and post-secondary level with a total enrollment of,20,000 students; and
over 30,000 adults enrolled in adult distributive education classes.
Mr. Leonard Maiden
University of South Carolina
Columbia, South Carolina
"How to 'Sock It to Them' "
Mr. Ray Sifrit
McArthur High School
The following is a summary of Mr. Maiden's remarks:
It is not likely that any person in this room who is in the field of
education has remained unaffected by the continuing argument as to the
purposes of the American secondary school. We have heard national,
cultural, and many other purposes expressed; and, in most cases, the role
of the school is characterized as multi-purpose. We should attempt to
define our purposes but there is always the danger that we might
envisage some uniform product of our schools when we attempt to apply a
general goal to all students. In this nation where the worth and dignity
of each individual has been preached for centuries; and, in this time
when we have finally come to recognize that individual abilities are
virtually unlimited, it is time for us to recognize that our nation, our
culture, and society will benefit most as we zero in on the single purpose
of helping each individual person discover his interests and develop his
talents as effectively as possible.
Some years ago I heard a statement which contrasted education and training
as follows: Education maximizes individual differences; training
minimizes individual differences. True, there are times when our goal
is to train individuals to act in a prescribed manner or to follow some
set procedure- such as ringing a cash register or writing a sales ticket.
For the most part, however, we in distributive education are attempting
to develop individuals who are capable of acting intelligently when they
are faced with new and different situations. Regardless of what we call
this ability -evaluation of alternate choices, decision making, or problem
solving-it is an ability that can be learned, developed, and refined.
This is the essence of teaching- to help students learn, develop, and
refine their individual qualities and abilities which they might use in
meeting life's challenges. And education is the reason for having a
teacher in the classroom rather than a six-hundred dollar teaching machine.
Because the teacher, unlike the teaching machine, can anticipate, observe,
evaluate, motivate, cajole, correct, praise, argue, and react in hundreds
of other ways that can only be realized in an atmosphere of human encounter.
Through observation and evaluation, the teacher establishes learning
activities and objectives for the individual student and, in this manner,
the distributive education curriculum is born and lives only as it becomes
a part of an individual student's intellectual ability.
The teacher is the architect and the builder of the curriculum and
curriculum materials are just that- materials; materials with which the
teacher builds individual experiences following individually designed
programs. If we, as teachers, are anything less -perhaps we deserve to be
replaced by mechanical media. I, for one, would like to find cheaper
and more effective ways to facilitate the learning process but I am con-
vinced at this point that, in spite of all our technological advances,
the teacher remains the key figure in the teaching-learning drama. To
the teacher must go the major share of the credit for our successes in
education and, likewise, the teacher must bear the major burden for our
Marshall McLuhan, of "Medium is the Message" fame, has said that the youth
of today "want roles, not goals." They want to be actively involved in
the educational process, not just passive recipients of information. One
of the major guiding principles of distributive education has always been
that students will be involved in the learning process through the prac-
tical application of subject matter. But the roles must be realistic-
related to the interests and abilities of individual students. To
accomplish this, we must have truly dedicated professional teachers who
can identify needs, interests, and abilities and then provide meaningful
activities designed to meet the needs, enhance interests, and effect
growth in ability. We have this type of teacher in this room today next
year this time, let's have more of this type.
Following Mr. Maiden's presentation, Mr. Ray Sifrit then presented a
summary of innovations developed by himself and his teaching assistants.
Having become perplexed over the time spent in developing projects for
each individual student enrolled in Distributive Education, and realizing
that each project should be tailored to each individual student's need,
he began to study the "learning activity packets" utilized at Nova High
School. Seeing that the principle could be incorporated into the Distributive
Education Curriculum, they began to develop a series of "learning
activity packets" complete with a pre-test, project assignment outlined in
individual steps, reference materials to be studied in relation to the
activity, and a post-test. These have been developed for each unit of
instruction in the Distributive Education curriculum.
A student begins by taking the pre-test. Should he pass this examination,
that project activity is waived for that student and he advances to the
next activity. Should he need work in that area, however, he completes
the project assigned to him. If on taking the post-test, the instructor
finds that he needs additional work, the student is re-cycled through
that particular unit of study via a different learning activity packet.
In this manner, the student is able to advance at his own pace and
according to his own individual need and interest.
It is hoped that other teacher-coordinators will be motivated to approach
the Distributive Education curriculum as being "activity-centered" and
begin to develop similar types of "learning activity packets." Once
these have been refined, perhaps they can be made available on a state-
Thursday, August 14
Moderator: Mr. Donald Jaeschke "Adjustment to.Change"
University of South Florida
Panel: Mr. Boyd Leyburn
Group Personnel Manager
Sears, Roebuck and Company
Mr. James A. Davis
State Department of Education
Mr. Jaeschke set the stage for this panel discussion with a presentation
which is summarized as follows:
We have talked about the culturally disadvantaged, and we have talked
about the deprived, but James E. Russel in a book called Change and
Challenges in American Education, indicated the problem is greater than
that. The problem is basically this: what are we going to do about our
own underdeveloped people?
Who are our underdeveloped people? Russell says that they come from four
basic groups: (1) blacks from the rural South; (2) whites from hill lands
of the South; (3) a significant group of Puerto Ricans; and (4) Spanish
speaking people largely from the arid Southwest. They are migrating to
the cities at a time when the lack of education is becoming an increasing
Russell describes this as a cancer eating at the heart of the cities and
raises the question, "can the city survive?" He asks, if the cities can-
not survive, how can we as a country? It would appear to me that the
great part of the resolution of this problem, of course, is in education.
Yet we are spending more on crime control today than we are on education.
The Educational Policies Commission was asked to review all of the programs
for the disadvantaged and to come up with the characteristics of what
they termed successful programs. They said, after doing the review, that
the one common quality could be summed up in a single word -"respect."
Successful programs have that quality about them: they respect the
people with whom they are working.
Those of us who work with neolithic people have to have all the skills
and talents of our profession. We must understand our pupils. We need
smaller than normal classrooms, but most of all, each and every person
must have learned the deep truth that no matter what the handicaps,
whenever a child is born, born with him is the human promise of decency,
beauty, and goodness.
There is a certain misbelief that has occurred in this country because we
have divided our population into two distinct camps those who can be
educated, and those who can be trained. I abhor that kind of notion
because I feel that everyone can be educated unless he is abnormal. I
would like to annihilate this notion that there are some people in complete
possession of all their powers. I would like to see the gulf between
general and vocational education closed."
Mr. Davis then addressed himself to the question of "how to work most
effectively with minority groups and people with special needs." In
keeping with Mr. Jaeschke's remarks, the most important characteristic
a teacher, coordinator, counselor, or supervisor can exude is that of
sincerity. Forgetting suggested techniques, procedures, textbook theory,
and administrative guidelines, if a person is not sincere and if he does
not exemplify that sincerity, all effort will have been in vain.
Too, let us not forget that all Negroes are not disadvantaged, nor does
Negro suggest remedial. There are just as many vacancies in ability
among this group as exist among whites. We must first remember that all
students, all people are first of all human beings and we must accord
them this dignity.
Although we must exert every effort to identify the special needs that
may exist among all students, we must never take away the incentive to
work, the reason to try, for along with rights go responsibility.
Mr. Leyburn spoke to the question of how Sears Roebuck and Company is
working with the school system in providing work experience for dis-
advantaged students. The major factors which he stressed as being im-
perative to the success of the program are (1) a school administration that
is in whole-hearted support of the program and that understands the need
for it, and (2) flexibility in scheduling students for classes as well as
work experience. To the latter point he described various schedules
which have been devised in the Miami area including having the student
attend classes until 9:30 a.m. and then reporting to work for a full time
job; having the student attend classes full time for three days per week
and reporting to the job the remaining days. Each case must be handled
individually according to that particular student's need.
Gail Trapnell. "Defining Instructional
Curriculum Specialist Objectives"
Department of Education
The objectives of this session included:
The teacher will be able to:
1. Describe what is meant by the term "behavioral objective"
2. Relate the importance of defiftkg objectives in behavioral terms
3. Identify at least four of the five characteristics of a behavioral
objective as described by Mager
4. Discern between objectives which are stated in behavioral terms and
those which are stated in non-specific terms
5. List at least five of the six levels of learning as identified by
6. State an objective in behavioral terms
To achieve these objectives, the definition of the term "instructional
objective" was presented along with examples of objectives which were
written in behavioral and non-behavioral terms. An explanation of the
importance of this approach both to the student and the teacher was presented.
Following a brief testing period, the characteristics of objectives as
outlined by Mager were presented. Included in this and in relation to the
characteristic "level of performance", the concept of level of learning
outlined by Bloom in the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives was introduced.
Emphasis was placed on the need to develop a hierarchy of objectives
beginning with the "knowledge" level and advancing in sequence to the
"evaluation" level. Having developed this sequence of objectives, it is
then imperative that the teacher design his tests to correlate with the
level of learning required in the objective, i.e., don't test at the
"knowledge" level when the objective requires "application" of that know-
The session was concluded by dividing the audience into six groups for
the purpose of writing an objective stated in behavioral terms for a
particular unit of instruction and at an assigned level of learning. Each
objective was then reviewed individually for correctness, completeness,
and appropriateness in relation to the assigned task.
Thursday, August 14
"The DECA-FAME Program:
A Co-curricular Activity"
Panel: Miss Jane Shannon
DECA Ambassador and
1968-69 FAME President
Mr. Ivan Perkinson
Falls Church, Virginia
Mr. Theron Moss
Winn-Dixie Stores, Inc.
Miss Shannon began the panel discussion by relating what the DECA-FAME
program of youth activity can mean to a student provided the teacher
shares a sincere interest in the student and his future and provided the
teacher is aware of the course or pattern a student will probably follow
as he progresses in the curriculum and the co-curriculum youth activities.
These steps were outlined as follows:
1. "Spark" --
There must be a starting point, a point at which the teacher
"sparks" the interest of the student and motivates him to
-- Once the spark has been fired, the student develops a
greater interest and desire to advance. At this point,
the student needs the advance and guidance of his instructor
and guidance counselors.
3. "Winner" -- At this point the student is becoming proficient in certain
skills. If the instructor sees this enthusiasm and profi-
ciency increasing in a progressive manner, he should
encourage the student to participate in state and national
conference competitions. He becomes a winner not through
trophies but through more important things such as friend-
ship, knowledge, experience, and a little "growing up"
along the side.
4. Leadership Roles -- The DECA "winner" will then begin to lean towards
becoming an officer of DECA, but to do so, the student must
develop and assume a leadership role. This includes officer
responsibilities, setting programs for conferences, deter-
mining a program of work for a year and completing it, etc.
5. "Beliefs" -- Once he has become this involved, he then sets standards
for his own life- how he intends to live, what it means
to him and how others fit into his picture. He looks toward
many for the answers including his fellow man, his country,
his god- but he must find the answer in himself as he
alone can determine his beliefs.
6. "Goals" -- With these standards set, he looks ahead and sets goals.
They may be long range or short range, but they are definite.
-- Having established definite goals for himself and contin-
uing to work towards their achievement, he begins to ex-
perience the first real measure of success.
8. "Future" -- This is the pinnacle of achievement. The future of one
student may be the success of another-they are unique to
Mr. Perkinson addressed himself to the DECA program of youth activities
as viewed from the national headquarters. National DECA is composed of
52 state associations including Puerto Rico and the District of Columbia;
each state association is composed of individual school chapters which,
in turn,are made up of individual student membership. Thus DECA on the
local, state, and national level is YOU. Mr. Perkinson briefly described
the program of activities outlined in DECA including the CADET training
program for national officers, the National Officer's Training Conference
for all state presidents, national committee meetings in which national
officers will participate as members, plans for the National Leadership
Conference which will be held in Minneapolis, Minnesota in April, 1970,
and anticipated changes in the project competitions program.
Mr. Moss addressed the group from the vantage point of the businessman-
what he expects from the DECA member and how he views the responsibility
of the chapter advisor and/or teacher-coordinator. One of the major
responsibilities of the advisor is to make the students aware of the rules
and regulations governing all project competitions and ascertaining that
his students are prepared for the competition. The purpose should be to
learn, to contribute, not to enter for the sake of entering a competition.
A second major responsibility of the teacher-coordinator is to instruct
his student on the real meaning of the free-enterprise system and the need
for profit. Too often the student fails to comprehend the importance of
the profit motive in business and how the success of business affects
practically every aspect of his daily life. When a student fails, it
too often represents the failure of the teacher.
John Frazier "Problems and Solutions in
Program Specialist Adult Distributive Education
Business & Distributive Education
Department of Education
This session was devoted to a group discussion of the major problems
confronting the Adult Distributive Education program in the State of
Florida and possible solutions for their dissolution.
Problems outlined included:
1. The need to extend the adult distributive education program into
smaller counties and/or those counties which are not presently pro-
viding this type of program.
2. The need for additional staff at the state level whereby one person
can assume a leadership role in working with the adult program in
3. The need for teaching guides, course outlines, and the development of
Suggestions for improvement included:
1. Encourage the State Department of Education to employ an additional
person who can devote full-time work to the Adult Distributive
2. Conduct an approximate three-day workshop for Adult Distributive
Education personnel during the upcoming school year.
DIVERSIFIED COOPERATIVE TRAINING
Wednesday, August 13
Mr. Stiner L. Whitman, Consultant Diversified Programs, State Department
of Education, conducted a brief orientation for all new DCT Coordinators.
A temporary Coordinator's Handbook was distributed to those persons, and
policy forms and procedures were discussed with them. In addition, Mr.
Whitman provided them with numerous reference materials in order that
they might become familiar with materials needed for use in their program.
After the initial presentation a question and answer session was conducted.
Time did not permit thorough orientation. This session was continued
periodically during the two days of the conference. A firm recommendation
is that more time be set aside in the future for orientation of coordinators.
After the general session with all Business, Distributive, Diversified,
and Junior High Work Experience coordinators in attendance, the DCT
Coordinators met in a general session. The plan of the conference was
given at this time and a general discussion of policy and procedures for
this year was discussed. It was pointed out at this time that vocational
education is being observed very closely throughout the state, and that
we have enjoyed a certain amount of limited flexibility which must be
tightened up this year. At this session it was pointed out that two
highly important activities for which all coordinators must be prepared
will be a required follow-up of all students, and an annual evaluation of
each program. The area concept was explained, but in limited detail
since the reorganizational phase had not at this time been completed.
Other topics discussed during this session was the need to increase en-
rollment in many programs, to take a close look at placement of students
on a job to insure a bonafide training program, the necessity for every
program to have an active advisory committee, and the need for concerted
effort to maintain a higher education quality in the DCT program.
Highlights of the new accreditation standards were discussed, and additional
information will be provided for each coordinator during the first part
of the school year.
Mr. Whitman discussed the role of the area supervisor within the area
concept during this session. Mr. Whitman discussed the county planning
guide projects, and funding, and the area supervisor could work more
closely with programs in his area and be more aware of the needs within
his particular area.
Wednesday, August 13
The afternoon session began with a talk by Representative H. D. Elmore,
on "A Legislature Looks at Vocational Education." During his talk, Mr.
Elmore discussed the future and other legislative activities. At the
conclusion of his talk, Mr. Elmore opened the session for questions from
The remainder of the afternoon session was spent in group discussions of
approximately 15 persons per group. Certification Standards and specific
related study were discussed in each of the group sessions.
Thursday, August 14
The session opened with Mr. Shuttleworth presiding over a discussion of
plans and procedures for the Cooperative Education Clubs of Florida
activity program for this year. The new club manual and the Contest
and Awards manual was highlighted during this session. The remainder of
the morning activity consisted of a panel presentation presided over by
the Cooperative Education Association. The topics covered by the panel
were (1) the present student,(2) public relations,(3) advisory committees,
(4) practical coordination, and (5) local club programs.
Thursday, August 14
This session was devoted to an unlimited question and answer period during
which time coordinators asked questions about any facet of the program
they desired. Prior to this session coordinators were given the opportunity
to submit questions for discussion during this particular session.
The last part of the session was spent in explaining the background and
development of the new draft of the DCT Curriculum Guide. After a general