• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Foreword
 Preface
 Acknowledgement
 The basic course
 Public speaking
 Discussion, or small-group...
 Debate
 Parliamentary procedure
 Mass communication
 Oral interpretation of literat...
 Drama
 Appendix
 Back Cover














Group Title: Bulletin Florida Dept. of Education
Title: Oral communication
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00080856/00001
 Material Information
Title: Oral communication
Series Title: Bulletin Florida Dept. of Education
Physical Description: vi, 88 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Dept. of Education
Publisher: The Dept.,
The Dept.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 1972
Copyright Date: 1972
 Subjects
Subject: Speech -- Study and teaching -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Statement of Responsibility: Division of Elementary & Secondary Education, Dept. of Education, 1972?.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00080856
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - AHR2842
oclc - 08524013
alephbibnum - 001637953

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page i
    Table of Contents
        Page ii
        Page iii
    Foreword
        Page iv
    Preface
        Page v
    Acknowledgement
        Page vi
    The basic course
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Public speaking
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Discussion, or small-group communication
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
    Debate
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
    Parliamentary procedure
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
    Mass communication
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
    Oral interpretation of literature
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
    Drama
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
    Appendix
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
    Back Cover
        Page 89
        Page 90
Full Text
























ORAL COMMUNICATION

BULLETIN 721





















ORAL COMMUNICATION





BULLETIN 721


DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
DIVISION OF ELEMENTARY & SECONDARY EDUCATION
SHELLEY S. BOONE DIRECTOR
FLOYD T. CHRISTIAN COMMISSIONER








3 7 o5 00o 77-5
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*, ...





TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Foreword ..................................... ........ iv
Preface ............... ... ... ................... ... ........... v
Acknowledgements ................... . . . . . . . .. vi

The Basic Course ..... .... .................. .. ........ 1
Philosophy and Objectives
Unit I: Introduction to Speech Communication
Unit II: Communication Models and Roles
Unit III: Audience Analysis and Adaptation
Unit IV: Research and Data Gathering
Unit V: Support Material Use and Evaluation of Evidence
Unit VI: Organization
Unit VII: Oral Language Style and Semantics
Unit VIII: Delivery Voice and Nonverbal Communication
Unit IX: Listening Comprehension Development
Unit X: Ethical Concerns in Oral Language Situations
Bibliography

Public Speaking ............... .... ............................ 18
Philosophy and Objectives
Unit I: Review of Fundamental Skills and Introduction to Public Speaking
Unit II: Exposition
Unit III: Persuasion Through Logic
Unit IV: Persuasion Through Extra-Logical Appeals
Unit V: Special Occasion Speaking
Bibliography

Discussion, or Small-Group Communication ........... . . . . . . . .... 27
Philosophy and Objectives
Unit I: Review of Fundamental Skills and Introduction to Small-
Group Communication
Unit II: The Process of Discussion
Unit III: Group Interaction
Unit IV: Problem-Solving
Bibliography

Debate . . . . . . . . . .. . ... .. . .. .. ........ . . . .... 36
Philosophy and Objectives
Unit I: Review of Fundamental Skills and Introduction to Debate
Unit II: Conceptual Elements of Argumentation
Unit III: Support for the Case
Unit IV: Organization of Case
Unit V: Formats
Bibliography



















Parliamentary Procedure .................. ....... .. ........ . ....43
Philosophy and Objectives
Unit I: Review of Fundamental Skills and Introduction to Parliamentary
Procedure


Unit II:
Unit III:
Unit IV:
Bibliography


Motions
Organizing a Permanent Society
Implementation of a Permanent Society


Mass Comm unication ........................ ...... ... ......... 53
Philosophy and Objectives
Unit I: Print
Unit II: Broadcasting
Unit III: Film
Bibliography

Interpretation . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Philosophy and Objectives
Unit I: Review of Fundamental Skills and Introduction to Interpretation
Unit II: Selection and Analysis of Material
Unit III: Individual Interpretation and Techniques of Preparation
Unit IV: Group Interpretation and Techniques of Preparation
Bibliography


D ram a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Philosophy and Objectives
Unit I: Review of Fundamental Skills and Introduction to Drama
Unit II: History of the Theatre
Unit III: Dramatic Literature
Unit IV: Pantomime
Unit V: Acting
Unit VI: Costumes and Make-up
Unit VII: Stagecraft
Unit VIII: Directing
Unit IX: Theatre Business Practice
Bibliography


. . .. . . 74


Appendix ................... ................................ 85
Position Paper Concerning Speech in Florida Secondary Schools



















FOREWORD


This resource bulletin is addressed to those persons who would bring about change in their teaching
of oral communication. It is necessary that local change occur chiefly as the result of local, individual
action. It is the purpose of this publication then, to offer direction for such action.

Rather than as a course of study, this bulletin is to be considered a suggested route to follow in
traveling from a "status quo" to an altered situation. Varied influences which have prevailed in recent
years, are questioning programs of curriculum and instruction in speech/communications. Not all of
these voices agree in content, method, or direction. Teachers are confronted by diverse pressures to
make choices as the basis for local goals and local capabilities. It is hoped that after having
familiarized themselves with many alternatives, some of which are presented here, teachers will be in
an improved decision-making position.

While preparing this resource book for teachers of oral communication in the secondary schools, the
state-wide committee found it necessary to re-examine its own assumptions about the nature and
function of oral communication as well as the purpose of instruction in its related fields. The
committee assumes that local individuals and groups will realize a similar need and will benefit from
such a task. Only by identifying fundamental assumptions can we determine and establish relevant
goals and objectives by which instruction may be measured.

This publication, then, attempts to clarify those possibilities and directions which the committee feels
compelled to present as a result of agreement on fundamental assumptions.












Floyd T. Christian
Commissioner



















PREFACE


Although such a discussion might be very worthwhile, there is no intent that this document be a
thoroughgoing discussion of the principles of oral communication as perceived by scholars in the
field. It is instead, a considered statement regarding the planning of courses and activities within a
total curriculum of speech and drama. As a planning statement, it presupposes on the part of the
teacher a comprehension of and appreciation for principles of oral communication, both in concept
and in practice, and dedication to be alert to changes and to new directions in the thinking and
practices of the speech profession.

This bulletin is designed to implement the Position Paper on Speech published by the Department
of Education of the State of Florida in 1970. It also attempts to bridge the gap between the
traditional curriculum guide and current efforts to describe and measure behavioral change. No claim
is made that each objective stated herein contains all the elements required for behavioral objectives,
but these materials do strongly suggest teacher responsibility in refining the statements and in
defining speech behaviors. A general objective stated for each unit and under student activities are
more specific concerning behavior and evaluation of that behavior.

The units of each course are divided into four parts: Objective, Considerations, Alternative
Activities, and Evaluation. The Objective is an effort to describe the complex behavior to be attained
by the end of the unit; the Considerations identify some of the major concepts and ideas to be
developed with the students during the unit; Alternative Activities is an effort to isolate simpler
behaviors which are a part of the larger complex objective; and the Evaluation describes the criterion
by which the behavior will be measured. The teacher is encouraged to tailor each course and its units
to meet his students' needs. He may choose to use the course per se, rearrange the order of units, or
use only parts of the course. He is further encouraged to create additional activities and to modify
those in the bulletin as he sees fit. Just as the content of this resource bulletin has been influenced by
the training and experience of the people working on it, so will the teacher's specific course be
influenced by his training and experience.

This bulletin will contribute most significantly in those teaching programs in which it supplements
the teacher's fundamental grasp of oral communication principles; if an attempt is made to force it to
stand in lieu of that grasp, it cannot serve well. Bibliographies are provided at the end of each course
as direction for the teacher who wants further information about the considerations of the unit.


















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


The preparation of a Florida curriculum bulletin requires the concentrated effort and diligent labor of
a team of educators. This bulletin could not have been accomplished without the contributions of
classroom teachers, county supervisors, school principals and university personnel.

Upon the recommendation of the Courses of Study Council a special curriculum committee was
authorized to develop guidelines for teachers working in the area of oral communication. During the
period the committee was active, membership changed a number of times and involved an unusually
effective cross-section of Florida educators.

The Department of Education expresses sincere appreciation to the following persons whose
conscientious efforts made possible the production of this bulletin: Mrs. Mina Cubbon; Mr. Watson B.
Duncan, III; Dr. Richard G. Fallon; Mrs. Gloria J. Lane; Dr. Wayne C. Minnick; Mrs. Hazel T. Morgan;
Mr. C.W. Hubbard; Dr. Alma J. Sarett; Mrs. Bess C. Knowles; Miss Mabel Talmage; Mr. Roger Van
Gorder; Mrs. Lorna S. Werner; Dr. Donald E. Williams; Mrs. Kathryn Zinn; and Mrs. Angeline Welty.

Special gratitude is expressed to Dr. John I. Sisco and Mrs. Sylvia Sarrett who accomplished the final
compiling and editing of the bulletin.

Department of Education staff members who have assisted this committee through the years include:
Mrs. Kittie Mae Taylor, Dr. Joseph Crenshaw, Mr. Rodney Smith, Mr. Paul Jacobs, Mr. Tom Culton,
Mrs. Cynthia Perkins, and Mr. Gary Carroll.



















THE BASIC COURSE
Philosophy and Objectives


This course is designed for the student's first exposure to the
study of oral communication. It is also designed to provide
fundamental skills for any oral communication situation, and
is a prerequisite to all other courses in this guide. Each
subsequent course has a two week time allotment to review
selected fundamental skills presented here and to apply them
to the specific form of communication being studied in the
advanced courses.


Planned as a one semester course, the basic course provides an
indication of time to be allotted for each unit. However, the
course may be scheduled for two semesters depending on the
students' ability to accomplish the suggested and/or other
objectives. In some cases, junior high school curricula will
allow for division of this semester course into three separate
segments; one segment accomplished in each of the three years
in the junior high school.



The ultimate goal is that every 'public school student be
required to have a minimum of one semester of a basic course
in speech by the time he finishes the 12th grade. The course is
essential not only to make the citizen more competent as an
oral communicator, but, perhaps more importantly, to give
him that essential understanding of the process of communi-
cation so that he may become an effective evaluator and
consumer of oral communication.


Each unit provides performance objectives, considerations,
multiple student activities, an evaluation, i.e., the major graded
student project of the unit in which he demonstrates accom-
plishment of the objective. In some instances alternative
"evaluations" are provided.



Measurement of accomplishment of the objective should be
based on performance by each student in the evaluation.
Although each communication is a total experience, that is, it
involves all elements to be studied in this basic course, the
objectives and evaluations allow for specific evaluation of the
student's progress in relation to the element being considered
in each specific unit.



















UNIT I: INTRODUCTION TO SPEECH COMMUNICATION


A. Objective:
Upon completion of introductory activity including the
considerations and activities listed below, the student will
be able to identify major course objectives and will present
an oral assignment to serve as diagnostic measure of needs
and abilities.















D. Evaluation:
The student will:
listen to an audio-recording of a message, directed to a
student audience, which contains ten items of possible
communication breakdown involving the basic skills; list in
writing as many of these as he can discover. These papers
will be used for diagnosis of student needs and for setting
additional objectives;
and/or
make a 3-5 minute oral presentation in which he
identifies himself to the class, provides information about
his favorite political figure, and tells what he considers the
most significant domestic problem facing the U.S. The
results of the evaluation will be used for diagnosis by the
teacher and for setting additional objectives.


B. Considerations:
Functions of oral communication in our society
Types of communication situations
Review of skills to be developed
Possible student objectives
Teacher expectations
Procedure of evaluation
Description of individual needs


C. Alternative Activities:
Following a discussion describing the role of oral communica
tion in U.S. society, the student will name and describe on
paper ten different life situations in which oral communica-
tion plays a significant role.
Following a discussion of possible objectives to be attained in
a secondary school basic speech course, the student will
select ten appropriate objectives for himself during the
semester.
Following a discussion, each student will establish and record
the procedure by which his accomplishment of the pre-
viously selected ten objectives will be determined.
Following several days of lecture/discussion and an oral
presentation by the student and evaluation for diagnosis by
the teacher, the student will rewrite selected personal
objectives for the course.



















UNIT II: COMMUNICATION MODELS AND ROLES


A. Objective:
Upon completion of a study of different communication
models and a description of possible roles within the
process including the considerations and activities listed
below, the student will draw a schematic of the process and
explain its parts to a group of four classmates (See
evaluation).


B. Considerations:
Communication as a process
Elements of the process: context, sender and receiver,
message, channel, feedback, noise
Encoding and decoding
Models



C. Alternative Activities:
Following a lecture/discussion of each communication as
process, the student will identify in writing six different
communication contexts.

Following a lecture/discussion and examination of several
different communication models, and given 20 minutes,
each student will reproduce on paper three models of
source, and label the elements.

Following lectures/discussions on the communication
process, each student will demonstrate an understanding
of "feedback" by observing a "staged" two-party com-
munication and describing in a brief paragraph moments
when receiver-sender roles changed and when one person
functioned in both roles.


D. Evaluation:
The student will:

Within 30 minutes draw a schematic of the communication
process. Each schematic must include each of the elements
of the process, labeled and within a model of his own
creation;
and/or
use his own schematic, to describe his model to the class in
a two-minute oral presentation. His message and model
must account for each of the elements of the process.




















UNIT III: AUDIENCE ANALYSIS AND ADAPTATION


A. Objective:
Upon completion of a study of audience analysis and
adaptation, including the considerations and activities listed
below, each student will in a 30 minute written quiz state
and define the considerations in audience analysis and
adaptation and will, in a 3-5 minute oral communication,
apply those considerations to the specific class audience
(See evaluation).

B. Considerations:
Definition of "audience"
General characteristics of audience: bases of motivation;
logical, emotional, ethical appeals; values
Particular characteristics of audience: attitude; specific
beliefs and values; sex, age, education, etc.
Factors of attention

C. Alternative Activities:
Following a lecture/discussion of the characteristics of
audience in particular and given a specific communi-
cative objective (e.g., to borrow $50), the student will
state orally adaptations necessary when the target is
parent, loan company officer, classmate, brother or
sister.
Following a lecture/discussion of attention factors, the
student will, with the class as an audience, read the
dictionary, and use as many of the factors of attention
as possible. Members of the class will list those factors
observed.
Following lectures/discussions of motivation, students will
reproduce in 15 minutes the Maslow pyramid of
pre-potent motives.
Following lectures/discussions of motivation and given a list
of persuasive objectives and a specific audience, the
student will select a principal motive for appeal and give
an explanation for his choice.
Following a lecture/discussion of attitudes, beliefs, and
values, and given a list of 25 persuasive propositions, the
student will indicate his own attitude toward each
proposition by writing a number from 1-totally
disagree-to 9-totally agree-, predict the mean score
for the class in reaction to each proposition, and predict
the type of curve as bi-model, central tendency, or flat.



















Following a lecture/discussion of motivation and given the
compilation of data in the preceding activity, the
student will make a list of his predictions of class
reactions which were essentially accurate and list of his
predictions which were essentially inaccurate.
Following a lecture/discussion of motivation and given the
preceding activities, the student will list those propo-
sitions in which he was in agreement with a majority of
classmates and those instances where he differed signifi-
cantly.


D. Evaluation:
The student will:
in a written quiz recall five items identified as character-
istics of particular audiences, indicate a priority of motives,
state a definition of attitude and give an example of
"value;"
and/or
present a 3-5 minute oral communication before the
class and submit a written description of his plan to gain
and maintain attention to the teacher. Evaluation based on
the inclusion of audience adaptation and plan.



















UNIT IV: RESEARCH AND DATA GATHERING


A. Objective:
Upon completion of a study of research and data
gathering including the considerations and activities listed
below, the student will identify reference materials and
demonstrate basic skills of research and data gathering for
an oral communication (See evaluation).





























D. Evaluation:
The student will:
submit a written bibliography for a proposed infor-
mative speech which will contain at least one of each of the
following: (1) materials for topic background, (2) biograph-
ical entries, (3) current periodicals including news and
opinion magazines, (4) interviews and/or observations;
and/or
deliver a 3-5 minute informative speech described above
in which he will name his sources of information and quote
at least one source directly and paraphrase information
from at least one source.


B. Considerations:
Reference materials: Reader's Guide, special indexes,
Statistical Abstracts, almanacs, biographical dictionaries,
encyclopedias.
Vertical files
General books found through card catalog
Current news periodicals and opinion magazines
Interview and observations
Compiling a bibliography
Note-taking



C. Alternative Activities:
Following a discussion and examination of reference
materials in the educational media center, the student
will list in a written exercise the names of three major
reference sources for periodical literature.
Following a lecture/discussion and examination of materials
in the educational media center, the student will list in a
written exercise the names of three reference sources for
biographical information and describe in a sentence the
nature of each.
Following a lecture/discussion, the student will in a written
exercise rewrite a scrambled bibliography of varied
entries in appropriate alphabetical order and form.
Following a discussion and examination of current news
magazines (Time, Newsweek, U.S. News, etc.) and
magazines of political opinion (Nation, National Review,
New Republic, etc.), the student will write a paragraph
identifying two different views or interpretations of the
same news event.



















UNIT V: SUPPORT MATERIAL AND USE OF EVIDENCE


B. Considerations:
Uses of support material: to clarify for the audience, to
prove or win acceptance by the audience, to reinforce
Crediting sources: credibility, revelation of bias, plagia-
rism
Attitudes, opinions, beliefs
Types of support: example, statistics, testimony,
analogy
Definition
Reasoning: deduction, induction

C. Alternative Activities:
Following a lecture/discussion on the uses of support
material, the student will bring to class three items of
supporting material found in commercial advertising and
explain orally why he believes one is used to "prove,"
another to "clarify," and the third to "reinforce" an
argumentative claim.
Following a lecture/discussion on the value and necessity of
crediting sources, the student will return to class the
following day with an illustration from television or
newspaper advertising and describe orally to the class
one of the following: (1) credibility resulting from status
of the source; (2) a source in which there is a possible
bias; (3) or, a source credited for information.
Following a lecture/discussion on example and statistical
support, the student will state, in writing or orally,
within 5 minutes, at least one example support and one
statistical support for simple assertions such as, "Domes-
tic tranquility has been disrupted in the U.S. in the last
five years," or "High schools have changed in the past
thirty years."


A. Objective:
Upon completion of a study of support material and
evidence including the considerations and activities listed
below, each student will present an oral argument of from
4-6 minutes in which he uses each of the forms of support
in such a way as to demonstrate his knowledge of each (See
evaluation).














































D. Evaluation:
The student will: deliver orally before the class a 4-6
minute argument in support of a controversial assertion.
Product will include a definition of terms, one of each of
the four forms of support, and crediting of source for each
piece of evidence. Scores will be determined 75% by the
preceding items and 25% by success of argument as
determined on an audience shift-of-opinion ballot.


Following a lecture/discussion on testimony and analogy as
support, the student will state orally or write for 5
minutes at least one testimony support and one analogy
support for simple assertions such as, "Florida will
become the most populous U.S. state in twenty years,"
or "High school students should receive driver's train-
ing."
Following a lecture/discussion on definition, the student
will be given a list of thirty terms such as "student,"
"teacher," "parent," "grammar," and "machine."
Assigned one of the terms, he will in writing or orally
state an Aristotelian definition and a possible opera-
tional definition for one of the terms.
Following a lecture/discussion of definition and a list of
thirty terms such as "motorcycle," "date," "class,"
"clothes," the student will on the following day state
orally the two ways he would define an assigned term
for at least two different communicative situations or
audience.
Following a lecture/discussion of reasoning and given a
copy of a written argument, the student will, on the
following day, present a paper in which he has (1)
identified the reasoning as inductive or deductive, (2)
classified the argument, and (3) named type of fallacy
included.
Following a lecture/discussion on attitudes, opinions, and
beliefs, the student will re-state in writing a definition of
each and will name or briefly identify a way to measure
one of them.



















UNIT VI: ORGANIZATION


B. Considerations:
Purpose description
Thesis statement
Outlining
Patterns of arrangement for main heads: time, topical,
problem-solution, reflective
Introductions
Conclusions

C. Alternative Activities:
Following a lecture/discussion on thesis and purpose, the
student will write a paragraph detailing communicative
purpose including response to such questions as "What
do I want to do in this particular communicative
situation with this particular audience?"
Following a lecture/discussion on thesis and purpose, the
student will write a simple declarative sentence which he
accepts as expressing the central idea or assertion of his
communication.
Following a lecture/discussion on outlining and exami-
nation of sample outlines, the student will read a
transcript of an oral communication and state in writing
the thesis of the speech, the pattern of arrangement for
main heads, and name the main heads.
Following a lecture/discussion on outlining and organi-
zation, the student, given a scrambled outline of a
speech and 10 minutes to unscramble it, will place main
heads, sub-divisions, and support material in proper
sequence.
Following a lecture/discussion on introductions and con-
clusions and given two days to prepare, the students will
deliver orally before the class a three minute attention-
holding introduction to a speech; effectiveness will be
determined by the classmate response. Audience
members will indicate disinterest by raising a hand at the
point of disinterest.
Following a lecture/discussion on patterns of arrangement
and given a series of thesis statements, students will
write from two to five possible main heads each for a
topical pattern; for a time pattern; for a problem-
solution pattern; and for a reflective pattern.


A. Objective:
Upon completion of a study of organization including
considerations and activities listed below, the student will
state in writing alternative organizational structures for a
specific communicative situation; he will write a statement
of thesis, and select from alternative introductions and
conclusions (See evaluation).





























D. Evaluation:
The student will:
Prepare a 5-7 minute speech for which he will submit an
outline with main points and pattern of arrangement clearly
shown. The outline will contain opening and closing
statements, statement of thesis and purpose. The student
will deliver the speech orally before the class. Oral
presentation will follow the outline. Selected members of
the class will be asked to identify thesis, state purpose and
organizational pattern for each presentation.



















UNIT VII: ORAL LANGUAGE: STYLE AND SEMANTICS


A. Objective:
Upon completion of a study of oral language including
the considerations and activities listed below, the student
will state and define characteristics of oral style and
illustrate them in his own discourse. The student will state
semantic considerations essential to oral discourse (See
evaluation).




























D. Evaluation:
The student will:
define with 80% accuracy each of the characteristics of
style, connotation and denotation, and characterize two
common misunderstandings about language on a written
exam;
and/or
prepare a manuscript speech of 4-6 minutes on a subject
of his choice and deliver the speech orally before the class.
Evaluation will be based upon the written manuscript and
the oral presentation.


B. Considerations:
Variations in oral and written discourse
Characteristics of style: clarity, correctness, appropri-
ateness
Stylistic devices: metaphoric devices, style and other
rhetorical skills
Connotation and denotation
Language as sign and symbol
Misunderstandings concerning the nature of language:
"the word is not the thing;" concept of "allness;" words
and a changing world



C. Alternative Activities:
Following a lecture/discussion of variations from oral to
written language and given two transcripts of discourse-
one originally designed as written discourse and the
other originally designed as oral discourse-the student
will name at least three differences in style from one to
the other. The student will state which was originally
oral and which was originally written.
Following a lecture/discussion on metaphoric devices and
given a two-hundred-word transcript of oral discourse,
the student will list on paper at least three specific
metaphoric uses of language.
Following a lecture/discussion on appropriateness in style
and given three items of communication with the same
message expressed with different word and sentence
choice, the student will write a brief statement of each
and name at least one audience for which each would be
inappropriate.
Following a lecture/discussion on characteristics of style,
and given three samples of oral discourse with the same
communicative intent but different in word and sen-
tence choice, the student will state which of the three
messages he prefers. Response will be quantified to
determine which statement was most preferred and
students will be in turn asked to write a description of
the message preferred, and of the one least preferred.
Following a lecture/discussion on semantics and given a
complex set of instructions, the student will communi-
cate the directions orally to the class using any word
choice he wishes. Evaluation will be based on audience
success in following his instructions and time needed to
communicate instructions to a majority of the audience.



















UNIT VIII: DELIVERY


A. Objective:
Upon completion of a study of delivery, including the
considerations and activities below, the student will be able
to identify major factors of delivery dealing with voice and
nonverbal considerations and deliver an oral communi-
cation applying those factors (See evaluation).


B. Considerations:
Reducing tension
Use of the voice: vocal anatomy and sound production;
articulation; variety in rate, pitch, and volume
Nonverbal communication: current approaches to the
study; posture, movement, gesture
Audio-visual aids

C. Alternate Activities:
Following a lecture/discussion on the vocal anatomy and
sound production, and given a drawing of the vocal
anatomy, the student will label the parts with 100%
accuracy.
Following a lecture/discussion on pitch, rate, and volume,
and given a list of 25 statements, each student will orally
state a statement assigned to him three to five times,
altering rate, pitch, and volume to suggest variations in
meaning.
Following a lecture/discussion on sound production, the
student will produce a sound designated and state orally
the function necessary to produce the sound.
Following a lecture/discussion on variation in pitch, rate,
and volume, and given a one minute written excerpt of
dialogue from literature, the student will read the
selection aloud using variations in pitch, rate and volume
to indicate a change of character.

Following a lecture/discussion on aspects of nonverbal
communication, the student will bring to class a paper in
which he has described five instances of nonverbal
communication experienced in the past 24 hours.
Following a one-hour lecture/discussion on types of non-
verbal communication, each student will select a tele-
vision commercial he has seen several times and analyze
orally before the class the nonverbal communication by
discussing use of three of the following: time, space,
action, and/or object.
























D. Evaluation:
The student will:
with 80% accuracy (1) identify and define and cate-
gorize nonverbal communication as sign language, action
language, and object language; and (2) identify audio and
visual aids appropriate to the presentation of a selected
informative communication;
and/or
read orally a selection of literature to the class. Reading
must contain variations in pitch, rate, and volume, and
include two instances of nonverbal communication, and
including at least one audio-visual aid.
and/or
with 80% accuracy on a 30-minute written exam (1)
label the elements of the vocal anatomy; (2) define
phonation, resonance, and articulation; (3) write at least
two assertions about stage fright from experimental
literature.


Following a summary lecture/discussion of nonverbal com-
munication and given a message to be communicated
using only nonverbal means, the student will, after 10
minutes of preparation, communicate the message to the
class. Evaluation will be based upon verbal statements of
class members identifying the message.



















UNIT IX: LISTENING


B. Considerations:
Definition of listening and hearing
Role of listening in communication cycle and in total
communication time
Listening rates
Variables related to listening behavior
Negative listening habits
Types of listening: appreciative, critical, discriminative
Steps to improve listening abilities

C. Alternative Activities:
Following a lecture/discussion on differences in listening
and hearing, the student will define orally or in writing
the terms "listening" and "hearing."
Following a lecture/discussion on variables related to
listening, the student will list ten of them in writing and
describe the relationship of each.
Following a lecture/discussion on habits which interfere
with listening, and given 15 minutes, the student will list
in writing five of them and describe the nature of each.
Following a 10-minute taped message giving information
about the size of a room and placement of furniture in
that room, the student will draw a map of the room
indicating proportional size and placement of furniture.
Following an 8-minute message read by the teacher, the
student will correctly respond to 8 or more of ten
multiple-choice questions concerning the content of the
message.
Following five short descriptions of three different listening
roles or situations, the student will classify each by
labeling the role as one requiring appreciative listening,
critical listening, or discriminative listening.


A. Objective:
Upon completion of a study of listening, including the
considerations and activities listed below, the student will
show a 20% increase from his protesting in listening
comprehension (See evaluation).























D. Evaluation:
The student will:
increase his score by 20% on the Brown-Carlsen
Listening Comprehension Test from Form AM administered
at the beginning of the unit to Form BM administered after
the unit. (Alternative listening tests may be devised by the
teacher.)



















UNIT X: ETHICS


A. Objective:
Upon completion of a study of ethics including the
considerations and activities listed below, the student will
provide written and oral evidence of awareness of different
ethical postures, and will have selected a philosophy of
ethical communication.

























D. Evaluation:
The student will:
present orally before the class a 7-10 minute expository
treatment of a controversial subject. The presentation must
present as fairly as possible the strengths and weaknesses of
each side in the controversy without revealing personal bias
until conclusion of the presentation. Class audience will
respond by evaluating objectivity of presentation of each
side in the controversy.


B. Considerations:
Approaches to an ethical position in oral communi-
cation: deception; "ends justify means"
Advisability of honesty
"Let the buyer beware"
Ethical communication in a free society

C. Alternative Activities:
Following a lecture/discussion on approaches to a personal
ethic of oral communication, and given three written
transcripts of persuasive efforts, each with a different
ethical philosophy, the student will state which he
considers ethical or unethical and name the character-
istics which make it so for him.
Following a discussion of the "let the buyer beware"
attitude as a possible philosophy of ethics for communi-
cation, the student will name in writing those features of
this philosophy which raise ethical considerations.
Student responses will mention such things as inequality
in intelligence, verbal skills, access to media, etc.
Following a lecture/discusion of ethics and persuasion and
given a collection of examples from commercial adver-
tising, each student will in a 2-minute oral presentation
before the class identify any features in the persuasive
effort which he believes raise ethical questions or defend
the persuasive effort as ethically sound.
Given a tape recording of a persuasive argument using a
large number of biased sources of support, the student
will write a paragraph evaluating the ethical position of
the speaker.



















TEACHER RESOURCE MATERIALS


Models and Roles in Communication Process
Barker, Larry L., and Robert J. Kibler, Speech Communication Behavior. Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1971.
Berlo, David, The Process of Communication. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1960.
Brown, Charles T., and Charles Van Riper, Speech and Man. Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1966.
Ellingsworth, Hubert W., and Theodore Clevenger, Speech and Social Action. Prentice-Hall, Inc.,
1967; pp. 39-102.
Murray, Elwood, Gerald Phillips, and David Truby, Speech: Art-Science. Bobbs-Merrill Company,
1967; pp. 36-62.

Audience Analysis and Adaptation
Anderson, Martin P., Wesley Lewis, and James Murray, The Speaker and His Audience. Harper and
Row, 1964; pp. 106-153.
Clevenger, Theodore, Audience Analysis. Bobbs-Merrill Company, Inc., 1966.
Hasling, John, The Message, The Speaker, The Audience. McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1971.

Research and Data Gathering
Auer, J. Jeffrey, Brigance's Speech Communication. Appleton, Century-Crofts, 1967; pp. 20-39.
Bryant, Donald C., and Karl R. Wallace, Oral Communication. Appleton, Century-Crofts, Inc., 1962;
pp. 43-63.



















Support Material
Mudd, Charles S., and Malcolm O. Sillars, Speech: Contentand Communication. Chandler Publishing
Company, 1969; pp. 85-116.
Walters, Otis M., and Robert L. Scott, Thinking and Speaking. The Macmillan Company, 1968; pp.
30-59.

Organization
Auer, J. Jeffrey, Brigance's Speech Communication. Appleton, Century-Crofts, Inc., 1967; pp.
88-108.
Gibson, James W., Speech Organization: A Programmed Approach. Rinehart Press, 1971.
Mudd, Charles, and Malcolm Sillars, Speech: Content and Communication. Chandler Publishing
Company, 1969; pp. 119-138.
Walters, Otis M., and Robert L. Scott, Thinking and Speaking. The Macmillan Company, 1968; pp.
60-90.

Style and Semantics
Alexander, Hubert G., Meaning in Language. Scott, Foresman and Company, 1969.
Benjamin, Robert L., Semantics and Language Analysis. Bobbs-Merrill, 1970.
Blankenship, Jane, A Sense of Style. Dickenson Publishing Company, Inc., 1968.
Condon, John, Semantics and Communication. The Macmillan Company, 1966.
Fabaun, Don, Communications: The Transfer of Meaning. The Glencoe Press, 1968.
Stageberg, Norman, and Wallace Anderson, Readings on Semantics. Holt, Rinehart and Winston,
1967.

Delivery
Auer, J. Jeffrey, Brigance' Speech Communication. Appleton, Century-Crofts, 1967; pp. 59-88.



















Bosmajian, Haig A., The Rhetoric of Non-Verbal Communication. Scott, Foresman, and Company,
1971.
Brooks, William D., Speech Communication. Wm. C. Brown Company, 1971; pp. 101-117.
Campbell, James, and Hal Hepler, Dimensions in Communication. Wadsworth Publishing Company,
1965; pp. 158-173.
Hall, Edward T., The Silent Language. Fawcett Publications, 1959.

Listening
Barker, Larry, Listening Behavior. Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1971.
Shrope, Wayne A., Speaking and Listening. Harcourt, Brace and World, 1971; pp. 230-240.

Ethics
Bosmajian, Haig A., The Principles and Practice of Freedom of Speech. Houghton Mifflin Company,
1971.
Nilsen, Thomas R. Ethics of Speech Communication. Bobbs-Merrill Company, 1966.
Walters, Otis and Robert Scott, Thinking and Speaking. The Macmillan Company, 1967; pp. 217-232.



















PUBLIC SPEAKING


Philosophy and Objectives


We live in a society governed by laws. When these laws need
to be interpreted, informative speech is used to communicate
their meaning. When these laws (whether they are laws of our
national government or rules of a small club) need to be
changed, persuasive speech is used to enact that change. When
we are able to use language for effective communication,
informative or persuasive, then our self-realization is strength-
ened and we become more competent, more able persons and
citizens.


This public speaking course seeks to prepare the student to
think critically and to express his thoughts fluently on subjects
of public concern. The course has as a prerequisite the "Basic
Speech Course" and presents a vertical study of the fundamen-
tals covered there.

"Public" is defined as both subject and audience. A public
subject may be an issue or idea of current or historical interest.
A public audience is either a specific group of people brought
together on a specific occasion, or is one or more people to
whom the individual is expressing his point of view on an issue
or idea. Public speaking is defined as informative and
persuasive oral communication between the originator and the
receivers) in any public situation.

This course is subdivided into five basic units designed to
culminate in the overall objective of critical thinking and
fluent expression. Each unit is discussed in terms of objectives,
considerations, student activities, and evaluation.


This course has an overall objective to equip the student to
think critically and to express those thoughts fluently in
public speaking situations. Accomplishment of the course
objective will be evaluated during the final week of the course
in two ways: (1) score 80% or better on a written test which
will require identification of terms, critical evaluation of data,
and analysis of speech excerpts; (2) prepare and present a
7-10 minute persuasive speech on a subject of his choice in
which he will illustrate critical thinking (through application
of audience analysis, organization, support material, and
research) and fluency of expression (through use of language
and delivery techniques).

The measure of effectiveness of instruction in public
speaking must be in terms of smaller units of behavior. The
above "course" objective is largely an attempt to characterize
for the teacher a desired outcome from the course. The large
number of variables, both in concepts to be measured and in
students performing them, make implementation of a course
objective dependent upon unit and daily objectives.




















UNIT I: REVIEW OF FUNDAMENTAL SKILLS
AND INTRODUCTION TO PUBLIC SPEAKING



A. Objective:
Upon completion of a review of the fundamental skills
of oral communication including the considerations and
activities listed below, the student will demonstrate a
prescribed level of performance in an oral communication
situation (See evaluation).
B. Considerations:
Selection of a speech subject: occasion, purpose, audi-
ence analysis and adaptation, communication models of
the public speaking situation
Research and data gathering: finding information (stu-
dent's own knowledge, library facilities, community
resources, other sources), documentation, note-taking.
Discovery and use of support material: kinds of evi-
dence, kinds of argumentation, verbal illustration, visual
aids, motivational appeals
Organization: outline format (introduction, body, con-
clusion), basic patterns of development (time, topical,
problem-solution, reflective)

C. Alternative Activities:
Following a review/discussion, and given a list of topics, the
student will formulate statements of purpose for pos-
sible speeches to described audiences.
Following a review/discussion on various models of com-
munication, the student will, with 100% accuracy, draw
a model specifically illustrative of a public speaking
communicative situation.
Following a review/discussion on audience analysis and
adaptation and given a list of ten topics, the student will
phrase theses for speeches for three different hypotheti-
cal audiences.
Following a review/discussion on research and data gather-
ing, and given a specific assertion, e.g., "1972 has seen a
decline in the number of crimes committed in major
American cities," the students, after using library re-
sources, will in a two-minute report to the class,
summarize his findings concerning sources dealing with
his assigned assertion.




















Following a review/discussion on forms of support, the
student will be required to make an assertion, e.g.,
"__ is a great movie," and support the assertion
in a two-minute speech to the class by using one
example, one statistic, one analogy, and one testimony
support.
Following a review/discussion on organization, and given a
scrambled outline including thesis statement, main
heads, and items of support, the student will identify the
thesis, arrange the main heads in appropriate order, and
place support material under the proper head.
Following a review/discussion on delivery skills, and utiliz-
ing a tape recorder, the student will select a sentence
from a list of ten, and, following 10 minutes prepara-
tion, will read aloud the sentence in each of the
following delivery patterns: slow or fast rate, monotone,
low or loud volume.



D. Evaluation:
The student will:
listen to a 10 minute audio-recording with a written
transcript of a speech, be given 40 minutes to identify in
writing four of five basic skills by citing specific examples
from the speech;
and/or
deliver a 3-5 minute informative speech defining one of
the fundamental skills (subject selection, research, support
material, or organization) and illustrate that skill by
examples.



















UNIT II: EXPOSITION


A. Objective:
Upon completion of a study of expository speaking,
including the considerations and activities listed below, the
student will identify major considerations in exposition and
apply them in a speech.


B. Considerations:
The growing importance of expository speaking in a
complex society
Responsibilities of the expository speaker: knowledge of
the subject and accuracy of his data
Purposes of expository speech: definition, directions,
report
Structure for expository speaking
Materials for exposition: example and statistics, compar-
ison and contrast, reinforcement and repetition, visual
aids
Modes of delivery: extemporaneous, manuscript, mem-
orized, impromptu

C. Alternative Activities:
Following a lecture/discussion concerning the role of
expository speaking in our society, the student will list
in writing five instances where effective expository
speaking is essential for him.
Following a lecture/discussion concerning the speaker's
responsibility for accuracy and thoroughness of his data,
and given a list of ten topics, the student will select two
and describe in writing the responsibilities he would
assume if called upon to give a speech on the topics.
Following a lecture/discussion concerning purposes in
expository speaking and given five paragraphs of dis-
course, two of which have essentially persuasive pur-
poses and three which have essentially expository
purposes, the student will so label each with 100%
accuracy.
Following a lecture/discussion concerning materials for
expository speaking and assigned a specific concept such
as "circulation of the blood," "the rotary engine," etc.,
to define and illustrate, the student will deliver a
2-minute expository speech using comparison and/or
contrast.
Following a lecture/discussion of audio-visual aids, each
student will deliver a 2-minute expository speech
demonstrating or describing a simple process or situation



















such as "construction of a unique paper airplane,"
"assembly of a bike brake," etc. Project will require the
use of two audio and/or visual aids.
Following a lecture/discussion of manuscript speaking, each
student will deliver a 5-minute expository speech from
manuscript. Project will require exact agreement with
time requirement, facility with the manuscript while
maintaining audience contact, and submission of a
manuscript copy to the teacher.



D. Evaluation:
The student will:
prepare and present to the class a 5-7 minute expository
speech on a topic of his own choice using extemporaneous
delivery in which he uses at least three of the materials for
exposition discussed in class;
and
score 80% or better on a written exam in which he is
required to: define purposes of expository speaking;
describe responsibilities of the expository speaker; and,
accurately identify the type of material for exposition used
in each of ten short excerpts from examples of expository
discourse.



















UNIT III: PERSUASION THROUGH REASONED DISCOURSE


A. Objective:
Upon completion of a study of persuasion through
reasoned discourse, the student will identify reasoned
discourse or essentially logical argument in speeches and
writing, define major concepts, and apply elements of
reasoned discourse in support of an argument.






























D. Evaluation:
Each student will:
prepare and deliver a 5-8 minute persuasive speech in
support of or in opposition to an assigned proposition. He
will submit an outline of the speech, including a description
of purpose, a thesis statement, and a short description of
his strategy. Each speech must illustrate elements described
in the description of strategy;
and
score 80% or better on a written examination requiring
definition of terms, identification of forms of support,
identification of materials for proof, and labeling of fallacy.


B. Considerations:
Argumentation, persuasion, propaganda
Reasoning and proof
Burden of proof and presumption
Logical proof: syllogism, inference
Lines of argument
Fallacy
Materials of reasoned discourse

C. Alternative Activities:
Following a discussion of reasoning, proof, argumentation,
persuasion, and propaganda, each student will match
with 100% accuracy the term with its definition.
Following a lecture/discussion on logical proof, each
student will identify a recent persuasive effort directed
at him and describe in writing what he believes to have
been logical argument in that persuasive effort.
Following a lecture/discussion of materials to support an
argument and given 30 minutes to read ten arguments,
five with and five without logical support, each student
will with 100% accuracy identify which arguments have
such support and which do not.
Following a lecture/discussion on fallacy and given a
written sample of discourse containing four different
fallacies, each student will identify in writing all four
fallacies.
Following a lecture/discussion concerning syllogistic argu-
ment, each student will construct and describe before
the class a syllogism of his own construction.
Following a lecture/discussion concerning causal argument,
each student will present a 2 minute argument of his
choice illustrating chain causation.
Following a lecture/discussion of argument from sign, each
student will submit three written examples of argument
from sign of his own creation.



















UNIT IV: PERSUASION THROUGH EXTRA LOGICAL ELEMENTS


B. Considerations:
Motive appeals: self-preservation, sex, acquisition of
property, personal esteem, curiosity, imitation, etc.
Ethos of the speaker as a mode of persuasion
Language as an element of extra-logical persuasion
Audience analysis and adaptation
Ethics of persuasive speaking

C. Alternative Activities:
Following a lecture/discussion on motive appeals and after
listening to a recording of a five minute persuasive
speech containing six specific motive appeals, each
student will identify five in writing.
Following a lecture/discussion on style and stylistic devices,
and after listening to a five-minute taped speech and
given a written transcript of it, the student will correctly
identify in writing the purpose of the speech, and the
stylistic devices used to develop that purpose.
Following a lecture/discussion on rhetorical devices and
after listening to a 5-minute taped speech, the student
will correctly identify in writing three kinds of rhetorical
devices and write an example of each from the speech;
Following lecture/discussion concerning language and per-
suasion, and given a written transcript of a speech
delivered to a specific audience, each student will
identify in writing linguistic choices which he believes to
be most appropriate to the situation.
Following a lecture/discussion of audience adaptation and
persuasion, each student will select a controversial
persuasive proposition which he supports and submit a
written description of alterations he would make in
choice of appeals, language, thesis, etc., for two different
audiences.
Following a lecture/discussion on ethics and persuasion,
and given ten short illustrations of persuasive discourse,
five of which contain questionable ethical postures, the
student will identify these five and describe in writing
the ethical consideration.


A. Objective:
Upon completion of a study of extra-logical persuasion
including the considerations and activities listed below, the
student will identify elements of extra logical persuasion
and apply them in a persuasive speech (See evaluation).





















D. Evaluation:
The student will:
deliver a ten minute persuasive speech using either
extemporaneous or manuscript delivery on a persuasive
topic of his choice. The speech must be accompanied by a
written outline including a description of purpose, thesis
statement, and a description of strategy. The speech must
result in a change of opinion consistent with the student's
statement of purpose and measured by a shift of opinion
ballot;
and
score 80% or better in a written exam requiring
definition of the modes of persuasion, labeling of ten
excerpts of discourse, each illustrating a type of motive
appeal, and write a statement of personal position in regard
to three given ethical postures.



















UNIT V: SPECIAL OCCASION SPEAKING


A. Objective:
Upon completion of a study of special occasion speak-
ing, the student will recognize the variety of special
occasions for public speaking and apply methods of
fulfilling each occasion's purpose and format (See evalua-
tion).
























D. Evaluation:
The student will:
present a 6-7 minute speech for a specified special
occasion. The student will submit an outline of his speech
which will show the planned introduction and conclusion,
identify the occasion and indicate special language choices
made. Evaluation is based on the agreement between
student's written plan and the actual speech.


B. Considerations:
Public formats (group): panel, forum, symposium
Public formats (individual): master of ceremonies, intro-
ducing a speaker, welcoming a person or group, giving
and receiving of gifts or awards, announcements.
Ceremonial speeches: dedication, eulogy, after-dinner
speaking
Interrogation

C. Alternative Activities:
Following a lecture/discussion on public formats and placed
in groups of three to five, each group will organize an
assigned topic into specific areas and then assign group
members a particular area. The student will prepare his
area so that he can participate in a 10-15 minute
symposium before the class.
Following a lecture/discussion on public formats (indivi-
dual), and placed in twos, each pair of students will
alternate re-enacting the situations of introducing a
speaker, welcoming a person or group, etc.
Following a lecture/discussion on ceremonial speeches, and
given a written transcript of five short speeches of each
type, the student will correctly identify by labeling each
by type.
Following a lecture/discussion on interviewing and interro-
gation, and given an example of interrogation (from the
Congressional Record or a legal situation) in which a
person has been asked to provide his expertise on a
subject to a committee, the student will identify in
writing instances of hostility, clarification of questions,
definitions, etc.
Following a lecture/discussion on interrogation, and placed
in groups of three to five, each group will select one
person to role-play the expert, will select a topic, will
have one day for the group and the expert to research
that topic, and will then participate in an interrogation
of that expert.



















TEACHER RESOURCE MATERIALS


Public Speaking
Blankenship, Jane, Public Speaking: A Rhetorical Perspective. Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1966.
Bradley, Bert, Speech Performance. William C. Brown, 1967.
Culp, Ralph B., Basic Types of Speech. William C. Brown, 1968.
King, Robert G., Forms of Public Address. Bobbs-Merrill, 1969.
Olbricht, Thomas, Information Speaking. Scott, Foresman and Company, 1968.
Scheidel, Thomas, Persuasive Speaking. Scott, Foresman and Company, 1967.
Smith, Donald K., Man Speaking. Dodd, Mead and Company, Inc., 1969.
Terris, Walter F., Content and Organization of Speeches. William C. Brown, 1968.
Walter, Otis M., Speaking to Inform and Persuade. The MacMillan Company, 1966.
Wilson, John and Carroll Arnold, Public Speaking as a Liberal Art. Allyn and Bacon, 1968.



















DISCUSSION, OR SMALL-GROUP COMMUNICATION

Philosophy and Objectives




Probably no form of communication-public speaking,
interpretation of literature, debate, or drama-has the import-
ance and obvious application to all our lives that small-group
discussion has. Every person finds himself frequently involved
with other persons in problem-solving situations in which
decisions must be made that affect him very directly.


School systems should give purposeful attention to the
study of small-group communication as the most direct way to
emphasize the roles of receivers of communication as well as
senders of messages. In addition to learning "how to" send
messages, discussion offers one of the best ways to learn about
the process.

This course does not deal with public discussion for the
purpose of information dissemination. Regularly, summaries
of discussion mention the forms of discussion, such as panel,
forum, and symposium. Certainly these forms have value in
our society, but they have little to do with interpersonal
small-group communication. They are really forms for public
speaking. Small-group communication for the classroom must
allow the small group to operate in isolation from the public
audience, just as such a group would function in the outside
world.


This course does seek to provide the experience through
which the student may study the process of small-group
problem solving. The course is divided into four units-review
of fundamental skills and introduction to small-group com-
munication, the process of discussion, group interaction, and
problem-solving. Each unit consists of objectives, considera-
tions, student activities, and evaluation.

This course has an overall objective to equip the student to
perform the roles of both receiver and sender of communica-
tion in small group, problem-solving situations. Accomplish-
ment of the course objective will be evaluated during the final
week of the course in two ways: (1) score 80% or better on a
written test on the considerations of the course; and (2) be
placed in a group of five to six, given an assigned topic, discuss
that topic through correct procedures, and arrive at an agreed
recommendation for solution.



















UNIT I: REVIEW OF FUNDAMENTAL SKILLS AND
INTRODUCTION TO SMALL-GROUP COMMUNICATION


A. Objective:
Upon completion of a study of small-group communica-
tion, including the considerations and activities listed
below, the student will apply the fundamental skills to
small-group communication (See evaluation).


B. Considerations:
Selection of a topic for small-group communication: fact
or enlightenment, policy determination, value judgment
Research and data gathering for small-group communica-
tion
Discovery and use of support material for small-group
communication
Organization for small-group communication: topical,
format
Delivery: verbal and nonverbal skills

C. Alternative Activities:
Following lecture/discussion selection of a topic for small-
group communication, and placed in groups of five to
six, and given a list of general topics, the student will
suggest one of the three purposes for each topic, and the
group will write a consensus of opinion regarding an
appropriate purpose for discussion of each topic.
Following a lecture/discussion on selection of a topic for
small-group communication, and placed in groups of five
to six, the student will suggest a topic for each of the
three purposes, and the group will write a consensus of
three topics per purpose.
Following a lecture/discussion on research and data gather-
ing for small-group communication, and placed in groups
of five to six with an assigned general topic, the student
will be given one day in the library to prepare an
annotated bibliography on that topic. Following a
meeting to evaluate data, each group will submit a short
statement identifying areas where additional data is
needed and recommend additional sources.
Following a lecture/discussion on discovery and use of
support material for small-group communication, and
given a written transcript of a small group discussion and
assigned to groups of five to six, each group will submit
a written identification of at least one example, one
statistic, and one testimony.




















Following a lecture/discussion on discovery and use of
support material for small-group communication, and
given a specific topic and one day in the library, each
student will record one example, one testimony, and one
analogy for inclusion in a discussion.
Following a lecture/discussion on organization for small-
group communication and placed in groups of five to six
which are assigned different organizational formats with
which to experiment in solving one particular problem,
each group will evaluate in writing the success of the
various formats and attempt to determine reasons for
success or failure.
(It is recommended that the teacher tape-record some of
these earlier discussions and use them later for analysis
of objectivity, question-phrasing, role-playing, etc.)
D. Evaluation:
The student will:
be placed in a group of five to six which has two days to
conduct a discussion which selects a topic, selects an
organizational format, and gathers and reports on support
material. The teacher will move from group to group to
evaluate each discussion by quantity of data, adherence to
format, and topic choice.




















UNIT II: THE PROCESS OF DISCUSSION


A. Objective:
Upon completion of a study of small-group communica-
tion as process including the considerations and activities
listed below, students will identify fact, policy, and value
questions; use the reflective process as an organizational
structure for discussion; and demonstrate in actual sessions,
their ability to withhold judgment and maintain a spirit of
inquiry (See evaluation).


B. Considerations:
Phrasing questions: functions other than inquiry (expres-
sive, directive, ceremonial); unproductive questions
(loaded, two-alternative, multiple-pronged, vague,
unanswerable); productive questions (open-ended which
are in no way unproductive and which limit the area of
inquiry, and which are at least ultimately answerable)
Types of questions: fact (verifiable truth), policy
("should"), value (definition of terms and context)
Reflective process: define the problem, analyze the
problem and set criteria for solutions, suggest possible
solutions, evaluate solutions, select a solution
Agenda preparation: purpose (organization, range, and
depth), types (buzz session, brainstorming)
Inquiry and advocacy: withhold judgment, "spirit of
inquiry," thorough research

C. Alternative Activities:
Following a lecture/discussion on phrasing questions and
given a list of twenty questions, the student will then
have one-half hour to categorize each question as
unproductive or productive and to list all specific
reasons why each question is so categorized.
Following a lecture/discussion on phrasing questions, the
student will have 10 minutes to write three productive
questions which will be collected by the teacher and
submitted to the class for evaluation.
Following a lecture/discussion on phrasing questions, the
student will have five minutes to write an unproductive
question. He will then submit it to his classmates and
they will classify it as loaded, unanswerable, two-
alternative, multiple-pronged, or vague.




















Following a lecture/discussion on types of questions and
given a list of fifteen questions, the student will
categorize in writing each question as fact, value, or
policy, and will when called upon by the teacher, state
and defend that classification to the class.
Following a lecture/discussion on types of questions and
given fifteen minutes, the student will write three
original questions for each category of fact, value, and
policy.
Following a lecture/discussion on phrasing questions and on
types of questions, and after listening to a 10 minute
tape recording of a discussion, the student will have 5
minutes to list in writing the Discussion Question (e.g.,
"Are automobiles a safety hazard?") and all subordinate
questions (e.g., "How is it a safety hazard? To whom?
What are automobile manufacturers doing about it?
What are the legislators doing about it? Is the auto-
mobile less safe than a truck or motorcycle?" or any
other questions which might arise). He will label all
subordinate questions as productive or unproductive. He
will then use his analysis to participate in a class
discussion led by the teacher. After this discussion, he
will hear the tape recording again and have 5 minutes to
add to or delete from his previous analysis.
Following a lecture/discussion on types of questions and
placed in groups of five to six and given a general topic,
each group will phrase in writing a productive question
of fact, value, or policy on the topic.
Following a lecture/discussion on the reflective process and
given a general topic, each student will phrase in writing
a specific question, develop an agenda for that question
based on the steps of the reflective process, and indicate
aspects of the question to be included under each step.
Following a lecture/discussion on the reflective process and
placed in groups of five to six, each group will orally
phrase a specific question for that topic and then
develop an agenda for that question based on the
specific steps of the reflective process, indicating aspects
of the question to be included under each step.
Following a lecture/discussion on agenda preparation
methods in addition to the reflective process, and given a
general topic, the student will select a specific method
for agenda preparation (other than the reflective pro-
cess) and prepare in writing his topic in that method.



















Following a lecture/discussion on inquiry and advocacy,
and after listening to a tape recording of a group
discussion, the student will write an analysis of those
members who issued judgments prematurely and what
those judgments were, those members who remained
objective, and give examples of that objectivity.
Following a lecture/discussion on inquiry and advocacy and
placed in groups of 5 to 6 to conduct one of the
previous activities, each student will, after the discus-
sion, write an analysis of group behavior in terms of who
remained objective and how, who issued judgments and
how, and cite evidence of influences upon the group by
such objectivity and judgment.


D. Evaluation:
The student will:
score 80% or better on a written test on phrasing
questions, types of questions, the reflective process, agenda
preparation, and the "spirit of inquiry;"
and
be assigned to a group of five to six which will select a
topic, phrase a specific question of fact, value, or policy,
employ the reflective process in discussing that question,
and demonstrate the ability to withhold judgment. Each
student will write a one-page description of the group's
success in following the process of discussion, and this plus
the teacher's observations as he moves from group to group
will be the basis of evaluation.




















UNIT III: GROUP INTERACTION


B. Considerations:
Roles: interaction of members, responsibilities of mem-
bers, types of memberships (mixed group, all male or all
females, extra-large or especially-small-groups), leader-
ship evolvements, group loyalty, and personality types
Role-playing
Case studies
Tension situations: primary, secondary
Reinforcing behaviors: compare quality of group deci-
sions with individual decisions
Participation in making decisions, its effect on the
acceptance of the decision, motivation feedback, and
semantics

C. Activities:
Following a lecture/discussion on roles, and after listening
to a 10 minute tape recording of a small-group discus-
sion, the student will identify in writing three specific
roles apparent within the taped participation; or, three
instances of reinforcing behaviors; or, three instances of
group loyalty.
Following a lecture/discussion on role-playing and placed in
groups of five to six with an assigned general topic for
discussion, the student is assigned a specific personality
type (e.g., a reinforcer, a leader, a summarizer, a
dissenter, etc.) to enact while participating in group
discussion.
Following a lecture/discussion on tension situations and
after listening to a 10 minute taped discussion, the
student will write an example of primary tension and an
example of secondary tension found in the discussion.
Following a lecture/discussion on roles, group loyalty, and
reinforcing behaviors, the class will be divided into new
groups of five to six and given new problem areas. Each
student will keep a written log of each session of his
group; each group will be set up so that participants may
spend time observing other groups on a rotating basis.
Each student will also keep a written log of the
sessions) he observes and will draw conclusions on roles,
group loyalty and reinforcing behaviors from that log.


A. Objective:
Upon completion of a six-week study of group inter-
action in small-group communication, including the con-
siderations and activities listed below, the student will state,
through written description of his different small-group
experiences, the relationship of discussion to other forms of
communication; he will identify in writing behaviors which
characterize group dynamics (See evaluation).
























D. Evaluation:
The student will:
score 80% or better on a written test on roles,
role-playing, reinforcing behaviors, and tension situations;
and,
after participating in an assigned group of five to six on
an assigned topic and keeping a log of the session, will write
a two-page description of the group interaction and draw
conclusions from that description.




















UNIT IV: PROBLEM SOLVING


A. Objective:
Upon completion of a study of problem solving in
small-group communication including the considerations
and activities listed below, the student will have observed a
variety of real-life problem-solving situations and will
identify situations for the use of group discussion and ways
of utilizing discussion (See evaluation).

























D. Evaluation:
The student will:
be placed in a group of five to six and select a specific
area topic, discussion question and subordinate questions,
and after one day in the media center for research and data
gathering, each group will establish an agenda and execute a
problem-solving discussion and submit a written statement
of the recommended solution and a log of the process of
arriving at that solution.


B. Considerations:
Observation of real-life situations: field trips, educa-
tional television, outside speakers, school situations
Record-keeping or minutes
Problem areas: international, national, local, school,
individual
Problem-solving situations: conference, committee meet-
ings, study group, workshop, staff meeting, round table

C. Student Activities:
Following a discussion of format of real-life situations, and
given the experience of observing the local county
commission or other governmental body deliberating in
actual session, the student will return to the classroom,
be placed in groups of five to six which will phrase a
question dealing with the same content as that observed,
and then conduct a problem-solving discussion.
Following a discussion of format of real-life situations and
given a similar experience to the preceding one, the
student will return to the classroom, be placed in a
group of five to six which will phrase a question dealing
with the content as that observed and will be assigned
specific roles to play during a problem-solving discussion
of that content.
Following a discussion of format of real-life situations, and
given a similar experience to the preceding one, the
student will return to the classroom, be placed in a
group of five to six which will conduct a discussion
which evaluates the observed process in terms of the
concepts learned in small-group communication. Each
group will submit a summary of findings.
Following a discussion of real-life situations and given any
of the previous experiences and assignments, the student
will keep a written record of the process of the actual
session.




















TEACHER RESOURCE MATERIALS


Small Group Communication
Bormann, Ernest G., Discussion and Group Method. Harper and Row, 1968.
Brilhart, John K., Effective Group Discussion. Wm. C. Brown Company, 1967.
Crowell, Laura, Discussion: Method of Democracy. Scott, Foresman and Company, 1963.
Gulley, Halbert E., Discussion, Conference and Group Process. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc.,
1968.
Shepherd, Clovis R., Small Groups: Some Sociological Perspectives. Chandler Publishing Company,
1964.
Smith, William S., Group Problem-Solving Through Discussion. Bobbs-Merrill Company, 1965.




















DEBATE
Philosophy and Objectives




The general aim of school debating is to train students for
the important debating situations of life-the courtroom, the
political platform, the civic improvement group, the legislative
body, the club or organization. School debating is also a
valuable tool for developing in the students the habits of
thorough investigation, logical thinking, and effective extemp-
oraneous delivery. If it is to be a desirable part of the speech
program, debating must, however, be practiced in an atmos-
phere of friendliness, tolerance, and fairness, and with con-
stant attention to objectivity in analysis and reasoning.
Moreover, it must constantly be borne in mind that the
purpose of training in debate is not primarily to win decisions
in school tournaments, but to educate students for a life of
intelligent and responsible citizenship.


A debate is the presentation of the strengths of either side
of a proposition. The proposition is supported by the
affirmative side and denied by the negative side. The purpose
of the debater is not to convince his opponent, since it is
assumed that both parties to the argument have studied all of
the available facts and have arrived at what they believe to be
the proper solution to the problem out of which the debate
arises; rather, it is to convince a neutral third party, either in
the form of a single critic or an audience, that the solution
presented is the correct and desirable one.


This course identifies a series of units designed to provide
the needed theory units designed to provide the needed theory
of argumentation and opportunity for application. The units
are the relationship of fundamental skills to debate, the
conceptual elements of argumentation, support for the case,
argumentation of the case, and formats for debate.

The general objective of this course is that the student will
know the tools to develop and present arguments of logical
validity in a communicative manner. Each student will, by the
end of the course, score 80% or better on terms and concepts
and apply them in a debate situation.




















UNIT I: REVIEW OF FUNDAMENTAL SKILLS AND
INTRODUCTION TO DEBATE


A. Objective:
Upon completion of a review of the basic skills of oral
communication, including the considerations and activities
listed below, the student will identify applications of these
skills to debate (See evaluation).


























D. Evaluation:
The student will:
score 80% or better on a written test reviewing concepts
from his fundamentals course;
and/or
deliver a 3-5 minute speech in which he has applied the
principles of research, organization, and delivery.


B. Considerations:
Selection of topics for debate
Research and data gathering
Support material
Organization
Delivery

C. Alternative Activities:
Following a review of topic selection, the student will
identify in writing ten possible topic areas appropriate
for debate.
Following a review of research and data gathering, the
student will identify in writing a topic area for debate
and list ten possible bibliographic sources of information
to be examined.
Following a review of organization and the organizational
format of problem-solution, the student will identify
main heads for this pattern of arrangement appropriate
to argument.
Following a lecture/discussion on the basic delivery tech-
niques, times, and format of general debate and placed
in groups of four with an assigned topic, the student will
be a member of either the affirmative or negative team,
and will prepare and present a 2 minute speech on the
topic.




















UNIT II: CONCEPTUAL ELEMENTS OF ARGUMENTATION


A. Objective:
Upon completion of a study of the conceptual elements
of argument, including the considerations and activities
listed below, the student will define debate terminology
and processes (See evaluation).


B. Considerations:
Proposition: wording, structure, use, fact, policy
Burden of proof: value, inherent responsibilities, estab-
lishment, presumption
Prima Facie case: constructive speech, rebuttal speeches
Stock issues: definition, differentiation, use, conten-
tions, issues within a debate

C. Alternative Activities:
Following a lecture/discussion on the importance of clear
and concise wording of propositions for debate, and the
difference in propositions of fact and policy, the student
will identify from a list of fifteen propositions those
which are (1) propositions of fact, (2) propositions of
policy, and (3) improperly worded for use in debate.
Following a lecture/discussion on the burden of proof and
presumption, the student will score 80% or better on a
written, short-answer exam concerning definitions of the
above terms, and including a brief explanation of their
importance and use in debate.
Following a lecture/discussion on the construction and
importance of a prima facie case, and given a copy of
five case outlines, the student will identify in writing
those which establish a prima facie case. He will then
add contentions to those which are incomplete to make
prima facie cases from them.
Following a lecture/discussion on stock issues, the student
will score 80% or better on a quiz in which he defines
these terms and briefly explains their purpose in a
debate.


D. Evaluation:
The student will:
score 80% or better on a multiple choice written exam
on the conceptual elements of argumentation;
and
select a topic area, state a proposition which carries a
burden of proof and in a 3 minute speech develop the need
argument which must include at least two contentions.




















UNIT III: SUPPORT FOR THE CASE


A. Objective:
Upon completion of a study of support for the case,
including the considerations and activities listed below, the
student will identify types of evidence and reasoning and
will apply them in argumentation (See evaluation).


D. Evaluation:
The student will:
select at least twenty samples from newspapers and
other periodicals or from television advertising and prepare
a paper from these identifying and illustrating at least three
of each of the different types of supporting evidence or
reasoning. Evaluation will be based upon the extent to
which all types are illustrated;
and/or
deliver orally before the class a 3-5 minute argument in
support of or in opposition to an assigned proposition.
Successful performance will require at least three different
types of support used to support the assertion.


B. Considerations:
Evidence (proof): types, supporting evidence
Reasoning: cause-effect, inductive, deductive, literal
analysis, figurative analysis, expert opinion, statistics
Refutation
Fallacious reasoning

C. Alternative Activities:
Following a lecture/discussion on the use of proof in
debate, and given written samples of the different types
of proof, the student will identify in writing each sample
as one or more of the following types of supporting
evidence: (1) cause-effect reasoning; (2) inductive
reasoning; (3) deductive reasoning; (4) literal analogy;
(5) figurative analogy; (6) expert opinion; and (7)
statistics.
Following a lecture/discussion on the use of proof and
support material, the student will select at least two
different examples from periodicals to illustrate at least
five types of proof.
Following a lecture/discussion on support material and use
of proof, and given a proposition, the student will orally
identify possible types of proof for the statement, and
defend his choices.
Following a lecture/discussion on support material and
proof, and given a hand-out containing inconsistencies in
reasoning or proof, the student will report orally to the
class on at least three examples of faulty reasoning or
poorly supported statements he finds in the printed
materials.



















UNIT IV: ORGANIZATION OF CASE


B. Considerations:
Affirmative: defining terms, traditional case, compara-
tive advantage case, organization
Negative: position of argument: status quo, direct
refutation, repairs, counter-plan

C. Alternative Activities:
Following a lecture/discussion of the importance of the
terms in debate, the student will, from a list of given
propositions, select orally those words in the proposition
which need further definition, and state possible defini-
tions.
Following a lecture/discussion on traditional and compara-
tive advantage case structures, the student will identify
from a prepared list those case outlines which are
traditional or comparative advantage. In addition, given
a proposition, he will discuss and defend briefly in
writing which type case he would choose for use on that
proposition.
Following a lecture/discussion on organizing an affirmative
case, the student will be paired with another student and
assigned a proposition to present orally in outline form,
explaining to his classmates (1) definition of terms, (2)
selected line of argument (traditional, comparative
advantage), (3) stock issues and supporting contentions,
and (4) anticipated major areas of clash and affirmative
position on these issues.
Following a lecture/discussion on types of negative argu-
ment and organization of the negative case, the student
will, with his previously-assigned partner, report orally
on his choice of a negative position to his original
affirmative case, and his reasons for the choice. He will
identify anticipated areas of clash and respond nega-
tively to the issues.
Following a lecture/discussion on possible negative posi-
tions of argument, the student will define in writing the
following types of cases, their strengths, and possible
weaknesses: status quo, direct refutation, repairs,
counterplan.


A. Objective:
Upon completion of a study of organization of case,
including the considerations and activities listed below, the
student will identify approaches available to affirmative and
negative cases and deliver both types of argument (See
evaluation).


























D. Evaluation:
The student will:
be assigned a debate proposition for which he will
prepare and then debate orally with a colleague before the
class either the affirmative or negative position. Success will
require application of comparative advantage or traditional
case structure to the proposition, definition of terms,
statement of contentions, evidence of research, and a 5-7
minute oral presentation.



















UNIT V: FORMATS


A. Objective:
Upon completion of a study of formats including the
considerations and activities listed below, the student will
identify the various structures and deliver a speech in each
of the four formats of debate (See evaluation).


















D. Evaluation:
The student will:
deliver a 5-7 minute speech, organized to conform to an
assigned format structure (traditional, cross-examination,
parliamentary, or informal). Success on the assignment to
be measured by inclusion of the characteristics of the
selected format.


B. Considerations:
The structure and concept
Debate forms: traditional, cross-exam, congressional or
parliamentary, informal

C. Alternative Activities:
Following a lecture/discussion on history and format of
traditional-style debate, the student will research and
debate in class (in traditional style) a given proposition.
Following a lecture/discussion on cross-examination debate,
the student will demonstrate orally his knowledge of
debate technique, including cross-examination, by con-
ducting an in-class cross-examination-style debate on a
pre-assigned proposition.
Following a lecture/discussion on parliamentary or congres-
sional debate, the student will orally support or oppose a
bill or resolution read to the class. Proper parliamentary
procedure will be used at all times during the exercise.
Following a short speech on a relevant topic, the student
will respond informally, either negatively or in support
of the topic in an impromptu manner.




















TEACHER RESOURCE MATERIALS


Debate
Bauer, Otto F., Fundamentals of Debate: Theory and Practice. Scott, Foresman, and Company,
1966.
Ehninger, Douglas and Wayne Brockriede, Decision By Debate. Dodd, Mead and Company, 1963.
Freeley, Austin J., Argumentation and Debate: Rational Decision Making, 3rd edition, Wadsworth
Publishing Company, 1971.
Michigan Speech Association Curriculum Guide, Discussion and Argumentation-Debate in the
Secondary School. National Textbook Corporation, 1968.
Miller, Arthur B., and Remo Fausti, Elements of Deliberative Debating. Wadsworth Publishing
Company, 1969.




















PARLIAMENTARY PROCEDURE
Philosophy and Objectives





Parliamentary procedure provides an orderly system for allowing and expediting equal voices in
decision making. It reflects the tenets of the United States of America and thus prepares the
individual for understanding of and participation in "government by committee."


Today's educational trends are toward a core program
which enables the student to develop his knowledge in a way
that inter-relates all aspects of his learning. The study of
parliamentary procedure in the secondary school is a step
which makes the study of history and the democratic process
realistic and workable. Thus, it is possible for the student to
understand how our history has come about through the
democratic process.





Since the highest form of discussion and debate is even-
tually governed by the rules of parliamentary procedure, a
basic knowledge of these rules is imperative. With such
knowledge comes the realization that rules per se are not
developed by far-off gods but are instead the result of the
members of an organization determining what guidelines are
best to expedite equal voices in reaching their goals. Rules can
prevent chaos, but unless they are explicit and precise, they
can entangle procedures. The knowledge and use of parlia-
mentary procedure is a key enabling the student to take an
effective part in school, community, and governmental activi-
ties.


The purpose of this course is to involve the student in
parliamentary situations which illustrate democratic process
and which present the basic rules of group organization. The
course is six to eight weeks long, and may be taught in a
semester which also includes discussion, or mass communica-
tion, or any other choice made by the teacher.


The course is divided into four units: review of fundamen-
tal skills as applied to parliamentary procedure, organizing a
permanent society, motions, and ratification of a document.
Each unit consists of an objective, considerations, student
activities, and evaluation.


Following an eight-week study and application of the
purpose and procedures of parliamentary procedure through
the organizing of a permanent society, each student will fulfill
the course objective of mastering the process of parliamentary
procedure by scoring 80% or better on a written objective
examination which includes questions on the fundamental
skills as applied to parliamentary procedure, motion, prelim-
inary organization of a permanent society, and ratification of a
document.




















UNIT I: REVIEW OF FUNDAMENTAL SKILLS AND
INTRODUCTION TO PARLIAMENTARY PROCEDURE


A. Objective:
Upon completion of a review including the considera-
tions and activities listed below, the student will apply the
fundamental skills to parliamentary procedure (See evalua-
tion).


B. Considerations:
Selection of a topic as applied to parliamentary pro-
cedure; principles of parliamentary procedure, issues to
be dealt with on organizing, vocabulary
Research and data gathering as applied to parliamentary
procedure, constitutions, bylaws, articles, amendments,
reference material on parliamentary procedure
Discovery and use of support material: constitutions,
bylaws, articles, amendments, reference material on
parliamentary procedure
Organization: order of business, seven voting methods
(voice, ballot, etc.), quorum
Delivery: methods (manuscript, memorized, extemp),
skills (verbal, nonverbal), parliamentary procedures steps
to obtain action



C. Alternative Activities:
Following a discussion of the principles of parliamentary
procedures, the student will be given 15 minutes to write
one to three sentences which explain each principle by
defining the terms and providing an example. The
remainder of the period will then be spent by each
student, when called upon by the teacher and asked for
a specific principle, reading his explanation aloud. Each
student may, when called upon, comment on other
students' definitions by adding to or subtracting from
them.
Following a lecture/discussion on twenty basic vocabulary
terms of parliamentary procedure, the student will score
80% or better on a written test on these twenty terms.
Following a lecture/discussion on issues to be dealt with by
organizations, and given a copy of the minutes of a
meeting of an organization and 15 minutes to prepare,
the student will read those minutes and then list in
writing the issues dealt with during that meeting by that
organization, and will, when called upon by the teacher,
state those issues aloud.
Following a lecture/discussion on issues dealt with by an
organization, and given 15 minutes, the student will list
in writing five specific issues he thinks any organization
must deal with and write the reason why by each issue.



















Following a lecture/discussion on research and data gather-
ing for parliamentary procedure, the student will use the
library to locate a specific constitution of an organiza-
tion, and list in writing the stated purpose of that
organization.
Following a lecture/discussion on discovery and use of
support material for parliamentary procedure, the stu-
dent will select one of the issues which he wrote earlier,
use the library to secure a specific constitution or other
source, and write examples which either illustrate,
explain, or defend the need for such an issue.
Following a lecture/discussion on all aspects listed under
Organization in considerations, and given 30 minutes,
the student will list in writing the entire order of
business, the seven voting methods, and the definitions
of a quorum.
Following a lecture with examples on the seven voting
methods, and given a mock question and a specific
method of voting, the student will so vote on that
question.
Following a discussion on delivery as applied to parlia-
mentary procedure, and employing the parliamentary
steps to obtain action, the student will present an issue,
which he has earlier written and supported, to the house.


D. Evaluation:
The student will:
score 80% or better on a written examination on the
fundamental skills as applied to parliamentary procedure.



















UNIT II: MOTIONS


A. Objectives:
Upon completion of a study of motions, including the
considerations and activities listed below, the student will
apply the correct procedures for making each of the four
classes of motions (See evaluation).


B. Considerations:
The nature, purpose, precedence, procedure, and types of
each of the four classes of motions:
Principal motions: main motion; reconsider; rescind,
expunge; take from the table
Subsidiary (secondary) motion: postpone indefinitely;
amend; refer or commit; postpone to a definite time;
limit debate; previous question; lay on the table
Incidental motions: point (question) of order; appeal;
division of the assembly; division of the question; leave
to withdraw a motion; parliamentary inquiry; suspension
of rules
Privileged motions: call for the order of the day;
question of privilege; take recess; adjourn; fix time and
place


C. Alternative Activities:
Following a lecture/discussion on the nature, purpose,
precedence, and procedure of each of the five types of
principal motions, and given an in-class meeting, specific
students will be assigned to present a particular principal
motion to the class, will discuss and vote on it in correct
parliamentary procedure. The same procedure is used for
subsidiary, incidental and privileged motions.
Following a period of information and application of the
nature, purpose, precedence, and procedure of the four
classes of motions, and given a list of 15 motions for a
hypothetical meeting, the student will correctly label
each of the motions as to class and type, and will arrange
them in the correct order of precedence.
Following a period of information and application of the
nature, purpose, precedence, and procedure of the four
classes of motions, and given a chart with all the motions
listed by class and type down the left-hand side, and
blanks underneath the categories of: "purpose," "re-
quires a second," "debatable," "amendable," and "vote
requirement," the student will complete the blanks by
writing the purpose, and writing yes or no under:
"requires a second," is "debatable," and is "amendable;"
and writing the percentage under "vote requirement."




















Following a period of information and application of the
nature, purpose, precedence, and procedure of the four
classes of motions, the student will write a dialogue of a
hypothetical meeting which includes at least two types
of each class of motion.


D. Evaluation:
The student will:
score 80% or better on a written examination on the
four classes of motions;
and/or
will prepare and present one of the four classes of
motions during an hour-long class meeting; and will vote in
proper order on the motions presented during that meeting.



















UNIT III: ORGANIZING A PERMANENT SOCIETY


A. Objective:
Upon completion of a study of organizing a permanent
society including the considerations and activities listed
below, the student will participate in the preliminary
information and participation for organizing a permanent
society. (See evaluation).

B. Considerations:
Duties of a member in the procedure for speaking and
making motions
Duties of a chairman in handling speaking and the
making of motions
The preliminary meeting: sufficient number of people
interested in a specific organization; time and place for
first meeting; temporary chairman and temporary secre-
tary; explain purpose of organization; introduction of
the resolution; move the appointment of a constitution
committee
The first meeting: elect temporary chairman; elect
temporary secretary; state purpose of meeting; introduce
the resolution; specific assignments of committees:
(articles) name and purpose; membership; officers; meet-
ings; amendments (method of)

C. Alternative Activities:
Following a lecture/discussion on the duties of both the
members and a chairman, and given a sheet which lists
the specific duties of the chairman, the student will
prepare himself to participate in organizing a permanent
society. His preparation will be measured by the precise
manner by which he conducts himself, as established by
the duties of members and the chairman, as he partici-
pates in the following activities.
Following a lecture/discussion on the activities of a
preliminary meeting, and given time to prepare, the
student will write the specific kind of permanent society
he would like to organize and list at least three reasons
why this kind of society should be organized.
Following a lecture on the activities of a preliminary
meeting, and prepared with his written suggestion of and
and reasons for a specific organization, the student will,
when called upon by the teacher, read his suggestion to
the class, and answer any questions asked by the class.



















Following the reading of all suggestions for specific
organization, the student will vote for three suggestions
he prefers. The teacher will conduct the voting, using a
different voting technique each time. After the three
suggestions have been selected, each student who pre-
sented the original suggestion will again present it. Each
student in the class may support or deny a suggestion
through correct member procedure for speaking. After
presentation and discussion of the three final sugges-
tions, each student will vote, in a specific method
designated by the teacher, for the one suggestion he
prefers. The selected suggestion will become the kind of
permanent organization for the class.
Following a lecture on activities of a preliminary meeting,
each student may nominate and will vote in a specific
method designated by the teacher for persons who will
(1) call the first meeting to order, (2) be proposed as
temporary chairman and for what length of time (it is
best to rotate temporary officers so as to give everyone a
chance to participate), (3) be proposed as temporary
secretary and for how long, (4) explain the purpose of
the organization, (5) introduce the resolution, and (6)
move the appointment of a constitutional committee.
Following a lecture on the activities of the first meeting and
prepared by the decisions made in the preceding activity,
the student who was selected will call the first meeting
to order and complete the process of selecting the
temporary chairman. The temporary chairman will
resume the business of election of the temporary
secretary, the explanation of the purpose of the organ-
ization, the introduction of the resolution, and the
making of a motion to appoint the constitutional
committee.
Following a lecture on the articles of a constitution, and
after selection of a new temporary chairman, each
student will volunteer or be appointed to one of the
committees (name and purpose, membership, officers,
meetings, and amendments). The committees will be
given one week of class time to locate and analyze their
articles in at least three other constitutions. Each
member of the committee will write in correct form his
suggestion for the wording of his article and will present
it in a 3-5 minute informal speech to the committee. The
committee will collate its final selection and will select
someone to present it to the entire group for ratifica-
tion.


D. Evaluation:
The student will:
score 80% or better on a written objective examination
which includes questions on duties of members and the
chairman, the activities of a preliminary meeting, and the
activities of a first meeting.



















UNIT IV: IMPLEMENTATION OF A PERMANENT SOCIETY


A. Objective:
Upon completion of application of the procedures of
ratifying a document, including the considerations and
activities listed below, the students will organize a real
society of which they will be charter members. Organ-
ization will require use of previously studied procedures
(See evaluation).


B. Considerations:
Adoption of the constitution and bylaws
Procedure for ratification
Election of permanent officers
Committee assignments


C. Alternative Activities:
Following a lecture/discussion on the procedure of adopt-
ing the constitution and bylaws, the chairman of the
constitution committee, when called to report by
the temporary chairman, will read the constitution
aloud, move its adoption, and hand the original and one
duplicate copy to the chairman (for the secretary).
Following a study of motions and using the results of the
committee on a specific article, that committee will
present the article as a principal motion to the entire
class during the second reading. Each article and section
will be read, discussed, and possibly amended, until the
entire document has been considered.
Following the consideration of the entire document and
possible revision thereof, the chairman of the constitu-
tion committee will read the constitution in its entirety,
and the group will have the opportunity to amend it as a
whole, following correct parliamentary procedure.
Following a period when all amendments have been acted
upon, the chairman of the constitution committee will
again read the constitution in its entirety. Each student
will identify in writing any conflicting amendments
which may have inadvertently crept in and will, when
the floor is opened for discussion, present those conflicts
to the house. After the fourth reading, the constitution
is then put to a vote, and if adopted, a recess is declared
in order that the members may sign the document.
Following the adoption of the constitution and a 15
minute lecture with examples on bylaws, the temporary
chairman will conduct a meeting to determine the



















bylaws. In this meeting, each student will prepare in
writing a suggested bylaw, and will, when called upon by
the chairman, present that suggestion to the class in
correct parliamentary procedure, etc.
Following the adoption of the constitution and bylaws, the
students will elect permanent officers according to the
procedure established therein.
Following the election of permanent officers, each student
will prepare in writing one item of new business to
present to the organization, and will, when called upon
by the chairman, present this item in correct parlia-
mentary procedure to the group, which will then follow
correct parliamentary procedure in acting upon it.


D. Evaluation:
The student will:
score 80% or better on an objective test which includes
questions on the process of each reading for adoption of a
constitution and bylaws and the procedure for electing
permanent officers.



















TEACHER RESOURCE MATERIALS


Parliamentary Procedure
Eubank, Henry L., Meeting Management. William C. Brown Company, 1968.
Cruzon, Rose Marie, Practical Parliamentary Procedure. McKnight & McKnight, 1962.
Brigance, William Norwood, Speech: Its Techniques and Disciplines in a Free Society. Appleton-
Century-Crofts, Inc., 1952.
Robinson, Karl F., and Charlotte Lee, Speech in Action. Scott and Foresman and Company, 1965;
pp. 180-203.



















MASS COMMUNICATION
Philosophy and Objectives




The increase in population and technology has yielded three media of mass communication-print
(primarily newspapers and magazines), broadcasting (radio and television), and film. These media
reflect, interpret, and influence our society.


Just as a responsible, articulate citizen needs to know the
techniques of language so that he can analyze written and oral
communication, so he needs to know the techniques of these
media. He must be able to analyze their content and method
so that he can decide for himself what to appreciate and what
to discard.




The course is divided into three units, one on each of the
media and presented in terms of its social, legal, political,
economical, and technical aspects. Each unit includes objec-
tives, considerations, student activities, and evaluation. A list
of minimum materials is also recommended for each unit.


This course has an overall objective to equip the student to
analyze written and oral communication. Accomplishment of
this course objective can be evaluated during the last week of
the course in three ways: (1) given copies of a newspaper and a
magazine covering similar events, and 30 minutes to read and
analyze specific sections of them as well as their format, the
student will write his analysis in terms of support material,
believability, and layout; (2) after viewing a 15 minute
television show or film, the student will have 40 minutes to
prepare a 3-5 minute speech which analyzes the purpose,
technique (camera), and support material and will then present
that speech to the class; (3) the student will have three days to
prepare a 7-9 minute speech which is built around a single fact,
value, or policy thesis statement about mass communication
and which discusses all three media and uses specific support-
ing evidence for its thesis statement. He will then present this
speech to the class.



















UNIT I: PRINT


A. Objective:
Upon completion of a study of the print media
(primarily newspapers and magazines), including the con-
siderations and activities listed below, the student will
analyze content and format of various publications and will
participate in creating a newspaper or a magazine (See
evaluation).


B. Considerations:
Social: information, persuasion, entertainment, news-
papers and magazines as public products, not moral
entities
Political: influence, biases, point of view, ownership,
types of media
Economical: money generated by the industry, money
spent by the industry, operating procedures of the
industry
Legal: free speech controversy, laws, question of
whether media invents or reports news
Technical: lay-outs, headlines, printing procedures, pic-
tures, types of stories and articles


C. Alternative Activities:
Following a lecture/discussion on the social role of the
print media and given a copy of a front section of a
newspaper, each student will list by headline the articles
which are informative, the articles which are persuasive,
and the articles which are entertaining.
Following a lecture/discussion on the political role of the
print media and given the editorial page of a newspaper,
each student will identify the point of view, excerpt
examples to support his analysis, and present his findings
in a 3-5 minute informative speech to the class.
Following a lecture/discussion on the political role of the
print media and given a specific magazine and placed in
groups of four to five, each group will write the overall
point of view of that magazine and support that
conclusion with a minimum of one example each from
an article, advertisement, editorial, picture, and lay-out.



















Following a lecture/discussion on the political role of the
print media, each student will have one week to select
one specific topic, locate three different articles from
newspapers and magazines on that topic, and write a
description with supporting examples of the point of
view of each source. He will then compare and contrast
the three points of view, select the one which is most
believable to him, and in writing state why it is so.
Following a lecture/discussion on the technical aspects of
the media, each student will draw a front page lay-out
for a community newspaper implementing the news
stories of the day.
Following a lecture/discussion on the technical aspects of
the media, the students will visit the local newspaper
plant to observe the printing and production processes.
Following a lecture/discussion on the technical aspects of
the media, each student will list in writing five different
sizes of headlines and the relative importance of each
size.
Following a lecture/discussion on the overall role of the
print media, each student will have two days to select
and read a newspaper or magazine of his choice and
prepare a 4-6 minute speech on the lay-out, point of
view, successes and failures as he sees them of the
selected media. He will then present that speech, using
for illustration a copy of the media.


D. Evaluation:
The student will:
be given a newspaper section or magazine to examine,
and will in writing correctly identify the point of view of
that media and support that conclusion with a minimum of
three excerpted examples;
and/or
be placed in a group of 4-6 which will select a particular
kind of newspaper or magazine, draw a lay-out for a front
page, editorial page, feature page, and general page, and
prepare a 3-5 minute speech per member which presents the
layout of a particular page to the class, the point of view
and purpose of the media, and the reasons for so organizing
the media.



















UNIT II: BROADCASTING


A. Objective:
Upon completion of a study of the broadcasting media
(radio and television), including the considerations and
activities listed below, the student will demonstrate orally
and in writing his knowledge of broadcasting and under-
standing of its present function in society (See evaluation). B. Considerations:
Social: entertainment, information, persuasion, aids to
education, believability, program types
Political: broadcasting as a media of persuasion
Economical: G.N.P. affected by (1) money media causes
others to spend, and (2) money the industry itself
spends
Legal: laws (licensing, controls, monopolies, advertising),
free speech controversy
Technical: scheduling, producing, taping, equipment

C. Alternative Activities:
Following a lecture/discussion on influences of broad-
casting on society, the student will list in writing two
influences and write an example of each using his own
words.
Following a lecture/discussion on broadcasting as sources of
entertainment and information, and given a list of
program types and a copy of the local broadcasting
listings, the student will first categorize each program
according to type and to predominance of entertainment
or information, and will then mathematically determine
the predominant offerings in the area.
Following a lecture/discussion on the objectives of pro-
gramming and given a copy of the local broadcasting
listings, the student will analyze a day's offerings by
applying the objectives of programming.
Following a lecture/discussion on broadcasting as an aid to
education and given a copy of the local commercial and
educational television listings, the student will categorize
programs according to instruction or information/
culture and will, for the commercial station, determine
how many programs are "educational," and for the
educational station, determine how many are instruc-
tional and how many are informative/cultural.



















Following a lecture/discussion on theories about broad-
casting as a media of persuasion, each student will list
five commercial broadcasting programs which he can
recall as having persuaded him to think or do "x" (e.g.,
believe in an idea, etc.). He will then assess each
program-influence by one or more of the theories
presented, organize his list into a 4-5 minute informative
speech and present it to the class.
Following a lecture/discussion on the economical role of
broadcasting which includes a list of the costs of
commercial air time and a list of the costs of various
equipment, overhead, and salaries, each student will
prepare and present a 4-6 minute speech on the role of
broadcasting in the economy.
Following a lecture/discussion on broadcasting as sources of
entertainment, and given one week to select and view a
half-hour drama (or documentary, newscast, or variety
show) with highly controversial material, the student
will write examples from the program which fulfill each
of the following categories: elements of information,
entertainment, opinion formulation, and persuasion.
Each student will state his findings orally to the class
when called upon by the teacher.
Following a lecture/discussion on the economical role of
broadcasting with emphasis on the construction and
purpose of commercials, and after viewing in class two
to five commercials on television, the student will record
the name of the product, the motivational techniques,
and the technical techniques of each commercial.
Following a lecture/discussion on the role and responsi-
bility of broadcasting in society, each student will write
what he considers the ideal role to be and will then list:
(1) all ways which broadcasting meets this responsibility;
(2) all ways in which broadcasting does not meet this
responsibility; (3) all practical reasons why broadcasting
might be unable to meet this responsibility as perceived.
Each student will then prepare and present a 4-5 minute
speech to the class based on his data.
Following a lecture/discussion on the role and responsi-
bility of broadcasting in society, with emphasis on the
construction and purpose of commercials, each student
will write a script including stage and/or film directions
for a 1-minute television commercial.







































D. Evaluation:
The student will:
score 80% or better on a written examination covering
the social, political, economical, legal, technical aspects of
broadcasting;
and
prepare and present a 5-7 minute informative speech on
a selected aspect of broadcasting.


Following a lecture/discussion on program types and
techniques of broadcasting, and placed in groups of four
to six, the students will conceive, organize, and complete
a half-hour radio documentary on a selected subject and
tape record it. When the tape is played to the class, class
members will write the subject, point of view, elements
of information and persuasion, support material, and
documentation of the program.
Following a lecture/discussion on fifteen general terms of
the techniques of broadcasting the student will score
80% or better on a written examination covering these
terms.
Following a study of broadcasting which includes twenty-
five terms from all its areas, the student will score 80%
or better on a written examination covering these terms.
Following a study of broadcasting, the student will partici-
pate in a field trip to a local radio and/or television
station and will answer in writing fifteen questions
regarding that field trip when he returns to school.



















UNIT III: FILM


B. Considerations:
Social: exposition, persuasion, entertainment, informa-
tion, instruction, art
Political: governmental and propaganda use of films,
film as "truth"
Economical: money spent by the public to see films,
money spent by the industry to make films
Legal: laws, rating codes, licensing, corporate structures

C. Alternative Activities:
Following a lecture/discussion on film's influence on
society through exposition (documentary, explanation,
and/or information) and after viewing a short film in one
of the aforementioned categories, the student will write
excerpts from the film which fulfill each question or
category: topic of film, purpose, use of specific types of
support material, organization. He will then view the
film again, and afterwards, either add to or delete from
his written excerpts. (Repeat the same procedure for an
essentially "entertaining" film.)
Following a lecture/discussion on film's influence on
society through persuasion, each student will list five
films he has seen which have persuaded him to some
point of view or idea and will identify that point of view
or idea and at least three techniques used to achieve it
for each film.
Following a lecture/discussion on the motivational tech-
niques of promotion of films and their relationship to
film content, and given a copy of film advertisements in
a newspaper, each student will identify in writing the
motivating force used to persuade people to go to the
film, and will, when called upon by the teacher, state his
findings to the class.
Following a lecture/discussion on film techniques, each
student will view in class a television commercial and
write excerpts which illustrate camera angle, cut, fade,
zoom, pan, and tracking. (Repeated experienced are
needed to reinforce the various techniques.)


A. Objectives:
Upon completion of a study of the aspects and processes
of film, the student will analyze the content and techniques
of a given film and will participate in making a short film
(See evaluation).











































D. Evaluation:
The student will:
view a short film and score 80% or better on a written,
objective examination which requires him to identify the
film's subject, credits, major and minor content techniques,
camera techniques and overall purpose;
and/or
be placed in a group of four to six to make a 50-foot
silent, either black and white or color, super 8 film on a
subject of the group's choice from the following possibil-
ities:

Exposition
a. How to do "X": select a sport, hobby, or skill;
determine precisely the steps and procedures required;
write a rigid script complete with camera directions, film
it.


Following a lecture/discussion on frame composition, each
student will be given three to five still pictures (cut from
magazines, etc.) and will analyze the composition in
terms of camera angle, camera shot, subject placement,
use of light and shadow, and creation of mood. After
working with still pictures, the students will view a 2 to
5 minute film and discuss it from the same points, but
with the addition of action and continuity.
Following a lecture/discussion on persuasion in both
language and film, and after viewing a short film of
persuasion, the student will write the persuasive points)
being made, and will list in writing the supporting
material for that point, both in terms of facts, reasoning
and motivation and in terms of camera techniques. He
will present his findings in a 4-6 minute speech to the
class.
Following a lecture/discussion on the process of film-
making (subject and technique), each student will create,
organize, and write the full script (including camera
directions) for a 1-minute film on a selected subject.
Each member of the group will then participate in a
12-15 minute symposium which presents and explains
that film to the class.



















Or, state and film a contest-arm wrestling, egg-eating,
etc.
b. Documentary: select one person or place, determine
precisely the information to be given about him or it,
and for what purpose; write the script; film it.
Or, select a local incident (athletic preparation, band
rehearsal, play rehearsal, etc.)
c. Information: select a topic (shoes, animals, light fix-
tures, transportation, guide to your city, etc.) research
it; decide what pieces of information can be presented
visually and silently; organize it; write the script; film it.
Or, explain an idea from a particular point of view (an
old person, a child, something inanimate, etc.)

Persuasion:
a. Select a general topic (automobiles, for example) and
then determine a precise point of view and a judgment
or conclusion (automobiles are the most wonderful
invention of man); gather data; write the script; film it.
b. Select a general topic, then present two conflicting
points of view about that topic and then persuade the
audience to either one of the two points of view, or a
new, third point of view.
c. Select a theme which is inaccessible to direct interpreta-
tion on film, (e.g., the color yellow in a black/white
film, or the sound of wind in a silent film, shapes, or
textures etc.); write the script; film it.
Following production and processing of the student-made
films, all films are viewed in class for appreciation and
analysis of purpose, technique, subject matter, successes
and failures.



















TEACHER RESOURCE MATERIALS


Mass Communication
Casty, Alan, Mass Media and Mass Man. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1968.
Rivers, William L., Theodore Peterson and Jay W. Jensen, The Mass Media and Modern Soceity.
Rinehart Press, 1971.






Broadcasting
Brooks, Keith, editor, The Communicative Arts and Sciences of Speech. "The Social Importance of
Television and Radio," by Baron Griffith and Maurice E. Shelby; pp. 393-410; "History and
Development of Radio and Television," by Edgar Willis; pp. 358-374; "Radio and Television
Programing," by Richard Moll; pp. 375-392.




Film
Jenks, William, The Celluloid Literature. Glencoe Press, 1971.
Kuhns, William and Thomas F. Giardino, Behind the Camera. George A. Pflaum, 1970.
"Basic Titling and Animation for Motion Pictures," Kodak Company.
"Movies with a Purpose," Kodak Company.
"Slides with a Purpose," Kodak Company.



















ORAL INTERPRETATION OF LITERATURE


Philosophy and Objectives



Teachers today find more and more students who either do not or cannot create mental images
from the words they read. Literature far too often lies, lifeless, upon the page. This seeming inability
to create mental pictures has been cited as the result of an environment of television and movies,
media which supply all images and leave the individual with little to do.


Oral Interpretation, however, requires the individual to
discover and to re-create experiences from written language. It
is the process of determining possible meanings of written
works in prose and poetry, and of bringing those meanings to
visual and aural life. The value of oral interpretation exists in
its two-fold goal of discovery and recreation. The student must
first analyze a works) for action and development before he
can interpret that work for theme, mood, and the total
experience the work affords. Only then can he begin to
determine methods of "bringing the work to life" for others.




Oral Interpretation provides a different, yet sound, basis for
studying organization, research, and analysis. It provides an
excellent approach to the world of literature. Also, it provides
a viable context for students to experience literature and to
know the pleasure and satisfaction of communicating that
experience with others.


This course is subdivided into four units: review of
fundamental skills as applied to interpretation, selection and
analysis of material, individual interpretations and techniques
of preparation, and group interpretations and techniques of
preparation. Each unit consists of an objective, of consider-
ations, of student activities, and of evaluation.





The course objective is the enabling of the student to
analyze, prepare, and present a piece of literature to an
audience. This objective will be evaluated during the final
week of the course when the student will select an excerpt
from prose for a 6 to 8 minute individual interpretation in
which his introduction reflects both purpose and technique
and in which his content, or interpretation itself, appropriately
employs all of the techniques of presentation and of literary
adaptation.




















UNIT I: REVIEW OF THE FUNDAMENTAL SKILLS AND
INTRODUCTION TO ORAL INTERPRETATION


A. Objective:
Upon completion of a review, the student will apply
fundamental skills of The Basic Course to the process of
oral interpretation (See evaluation).
B. Considerations:
Selection of material for an interpretation situation:
occasion, purpose, self-interests, audience analysis and
adaptation, types of material (prose and poetry), sources
of material (other classes, books, magazines, recom-
mendations, bibliographies)
Support materials in works for interpretation: kinds of
evidence or details, techniques of composition (flash-
back, transition, stream-of-consciousness, narration,
characterization, action, climax)
Research and data gathering for interpretation: informa-
tion on author and/or period
Organization in works for interpretation: time, topical,
logical, motivational, flashback, stream-of-consciousness,
narration, lyrical.
Delivery: methods (manuscript, memorized), skills
(verbal, nonverbal)

C. Alternative Activities:
Following a review/discussion on selection of material for
an interpretive situation, the student will compile a
written list of works (three prose, three poetry) he
personally likes and will construct hypothetical audi-
ences based on occasion and purpose for each work.
Following a review/discussion on selection of material for
interpretive situations, the student will use the written
list of works from the preceding activity and will write
for each work a supported reason as to why it could
merit presentation to an audience, e.g., 'Barn Burning'
by William Faulkner has strong character analysis and
identification."
Following a review/discussion on sources of literature, the
student will compile a written list of five pieces of
literature he has read and enjoyed and a second list of
five works he has not read but which he has had
recommended to him or has wanted to read.
Following a review/discussion on support material, and
given a mimeographed one-paragraph character sketch,
the student will write a generalization about the kind of
character in the work, e.g., "The main character is a
gentle person," and will support that generalization with
as many examples and/or details as there are in the
paragraph. (Note: this same exercise can also be done
with a poem, an essay, an excerpt from a novel, etc.)



















Following a review/discussion on organization and given an
8-10 sentence paragraph from an essay, the student will
write the main point of the paragraph and will list the
method of arriving at that point and the pattern of
arrangement of supporting material for that point.
(Note: this should also be done with literature to afford
recognition of similar uses of technique.)
Following a review/discussion on organization and given a
one-page mimeographed short, short story, the student
will write the main point of the story and the necessary
sub-points to reach that main point.
Following a review/discussion on research and data gather-
ing, the student will select one author and his work from
his own list of six works liked (from preceding activity),
go to the library and compile a bibliography of any
critical essays written on either his author or the
particular work he has listed by that author.
Following a review/discussion on delivery, the student will
present his findings from the preceding activities in a 2
minute speech to the class, which includes a quotation
of at least one excerpt from the literature.
Following a review/discussion on delivery, and given a list
of twenty phrases with varying meaning, e.g., "Go!"
(meaning get out of here), "Go?" (meaning do you want
me to leave?), "Mother" (meaning the answer to a
question), the student will deliver a particular phrase
with the specified emphasis.
Following a review/discussion on delivery, and given a 3x5
card with a particular message on it, e.g., "Drink a glass
of water; take off your hat and coat," the student will
pantomime that message to the class, concentrating on
the details of nonverbal delivery.
D. Evaluation:
The student will:
select a work he personally likes and will use the five
fundamental skills in a 3-5 minute speech which explains to
the class how this work could be used for interpretation
and which includes the reading of a brief excerpt from the
work.



















UNIT II: SELECTION AND ANALYSIS OF MATERIAL


A. Objective:
Upon completion of a four-week study of selection and
analysis of material including the considerations and activi-
ties listed below, the student will apply in writing and
orally the techniques of selection and analysis of material
for interpretation (See evaluation).

B. Considerations:
Literary types: prose (essay, short story, play, novel,
diary, letters), poetry (lyric, narrative, dramatic)
Analysis of literature: objective (identification and
action, characters, ideas, setting), interpretive (mood,
theme, purpose, point of view)
Language: style, stylistic devices (figurative language),
word play (pun, connotation, level of language), cliches
Introductions to interpretations: purpose (present infor-
mation about work, author, and/or period; set the
mood; orient the audience) methods (expository, per-
suasive), support material (place excerpt in context,
identify characters, suggest or state theme)

C. Alternative Activities:
Following a lecture/discussion on literary types and given 2
days, the student will locate a work which he likes for
each type and will write excerpts from each work which
examplify the stated characteristics.
Following a lecture/discussion on analysis of prose litera-
ture for identification and development of the principles
of action, characters, ideas, and setting, and given
written sheets with a short, short story, the student will
be placed in a group of three to five and will in class read
the examples and write excerpts from them which
exemplify the stated principles.
Following a lecture/discussion on analysis of prose litera-
ture for identification and development of the principles
of action, characters, ideas, and setting, and after
listening to a tape recording of an oral interpretation of
a short story or essay, each student will comment on the
identification of the stated principle.



















Following a lecture/discussion on prose literature for
elements of mood, theme, purpose, and point of view,
and given the same example as in the preceding activity,
the student will in class identify in writing the stated
elements for each example.
Following a lecture/discussion on prose literature for
elements of mood, theme, purpose, and point of view,
and after listening to a tape recording of the same
example as in the preceding activity, the student will
comment on the stated elements from the work. (Note:
the same activity can be used for analysis of poetry.)
Following a lecture/discussion on analysis of prose and
poetry, the student will select a type of literature and a
specific work for that type, and given three days of
preparation time, will present a 3-5 minute oral com-
munication to the class which analyzes the selected work
on both objective and interpretive levels.
Following a lecture/discussion on levels of language, figura-
tive language, denotation and connotation, and cliches,
the student will locate and write examples of each aspect
of language discussed. These examples may all be in one
work or may come from different works.
Following a lecture/discussion on the purpose and methods
of introductions, and using any piece of literature from
any previous activity, the student will be given two days
to write, memorize, and present to the class an intro-
duction for that work which employs the techniques of
purpose and method.
After listening to the introductions in the previous activity,
the student will volunteer comments on (1) whether or
not the introduction followed the techniques for intro-
ductions; (2) whether the particular work was appropri-
ately introduced; (3) whether he would add or change
anything in the introduction, and if so, what; and (4)
whether or not the introduction was interesting.
After listening to the introductions in a previous activity,
the student will vote for introductions which best fit
each of the following categories: best all-round, created
best mood, provided most information, established the
best context, presented the best characterization,
showed the best analysis of literature, showed the best
analysis of language, oriented the audience best.

D. Evaluation:
The student will:
after three days preparation time, select a work not
hitherto presented to the class, and will in writing analyze it
on objective and interpretive levels, analyze its language
use, and write an introduction which includes techniques of
purpose and method. He will turn in copies of the full work
he has selected, his analysis and his introduction. He will
then present to the class a 4-6 minute oral interpretation of
the work and an introduction to it.



















UNIT III: INDIVIDUAL INTERPRETATION AND
TECHNIQUES OF PREPARATION


A. Objective:
Upon completion of a six-week study of individual
interpretation and techniques of preparation, the student
will in a 30 minute quiz, state and define the considerations
and will, in a 7-10 minute oral interpretation, apply those
considerations and techniques to the specific class audience
(See evaluation).


B. Considerations:
Literary adaptation:
Purpose: to apply visual and aural techniques to
written language
Techniques: point of view, setting, continuity, theme,
action, interaction, building forward movement
Techniques of preparation:
Methods: manuscript, memorized
Skills: verbal (timing, rate, rhythm, volume, empha-
sis, articulation, tone, consistency),
nonverbal (locus, focus, gesture, facial expression)
Methods of emphasis: description, narration, dialogue,
action, reflection, and combinations of all or any

C. Student Activities:
Following a lecture/discussion on literary adaptation with
examples of both an original work and an adaptation of
it, and given a short prose work and one class period, the
student will identify in writing all techniques of literary
adaptation which are used in the work.
Following a lecture/discussion on literary adaptation, and
using the same short prose work as in the preceding
activity, the student will incorporate the techniques of
adaptation into a 3-5 minute adaptation of the work.
Following a lecture/discussion on adaptation and selecting
from his own list of preferred literary works, the student
will identify in writing the point of view, theme, and
elements of continuity for three different types of
literature.
Following a review/discussion on methods and verbal skills
of delivery, and given a short prose work and fifteen
minutes to read and prepare that work in class, the
student will comment on the specific verbal skills) to be
employed for specific passages and why.



















Following a review/discussion on methods and verbal skills
of delivery, and given a written paper with five passages
of varying length and content, and fifteen minutes to
read and prepare those passages in class, the student will
read aloud a specific passage, using a specific verbal skill
for the content.
Following a review/discussion on methods and verbal skills
of delivery, and after listening to several readings from
earlier activities, the student will comment on the
appropriateness of the verbal skill to the content of a
passage read by a particular student.
Following a lecture/discussion on nonverbal skills and given
the same written paper of five passages as in a preceding
activity and fifteen minutes of class time to prepare, the
student will read a selected passage aloud, employing
both verbal and nonverbal skills appropriate to the
content.
Following a lecture/discussion on nonverbal skills and given
one day to prepare outside of class, the student will
present a 2 minute interpretation of a selected work and
use locus and facial expression as his primary nonverbal
skills.
Following a lecture/discussion on methods and purpose of
description and given three days of class time to prepare,
the student will select a magazine article or essay, adapt
from it a descriptive scene, prepare an introduction
which reflects purpose and method, and present a 4-6
minute interpretation which employs all verbal skills and
the nonverbal skills of facial expression and gesture.
Given sufficient class time to prepare, the student will
select a short story, adapt from it a descriptive scene,
prepare an introduction which reflects purpose and
method, and present a 4-6 minute interpretation which
employs all verbal skills and the nonverbal skills of facial
expression and gesture.
Following a lecture/discussion on methods and purpose of
action in literature, and given sufficient class time to
prepare, the student will select a short story, adapt from
it an action scene, prepare an introduction which reflects
purpose and method, and present a 4-6 minute interpre-
tation which employs all verbal skills of focus and facial
expression.
Following a lecture/discussion on the form of letters and
diaries, and given sufficient class time to prepare, the
student will select either a diary or a series of letters
between two famous people, adapt from it a scene of
narration and dialogue, prepare an introduction which
reflects the purpose and techniques of literary adapta-



















tion, and present a 6-8 minute interpretation which
concentrates on continuity and character identification
and consistency through verbal and nonverbal skills.
Following a lecture/discussion on purpose and techniques
of dialogue and verbal and nonverbal skills for maintain-
ing individual characters in dialogue, and given class time
to prepare, the student will select a short story, adapt
from it a scene in which forward movement is built
through dialogue between two characters, prepare an
introduction which reflects purpose and method, and
present a 4-6 minute interpretation which employs all
verbal skills and the nonverbal skills of facial expression
and gesture.
Following a lecture/discussion on purpose and techniques
of dialogue and verbal and nonverbal skills for maintain-
ing individual characters in dialogue, and given class time
to prepare, the student will select a short story or essay
which has a character thinking thoughts to himself,
adapt from it a scene which presents narration about the
character and the character speaking aloud and thinking
aloud, write an introduction which reflects purpose and
method, and present a 6-8 minute interpretation which
employs three different vocal patterns (narration, char-
acter speaking, character thinking).
D. Evaluation:
The student will:
select a short story, adapt a scene of dialogue and
narration which builds forward movement, write an intro-
duction which reflects purpose and techniques, and present
a 7-10 minute interpretation which uses all techniques of
preparation with consistency;
and/or
score 80% or better on a written exam on the adaptation
and analysis of literature for individual interpretation.



















UNIT IV: GROUP INTERPRETATION AND
TECHNIQUES OF PREPARATION


A. Objective:
Upon completion of a five week study of group
interpretation and techniques of preparation including the
considerations and activities listed below, the student will
develop the skills of conceiving, controlling, and presenting
a piece of literature through group interdependence and
interaction (See evaluation).

B. Considerations:
Group interpretations: choral reading, reader's theatre,
chamber theatre
Techniques of preparation: methods (memorized, manu-
script), verbal skills (timing, rate, rhythm, volume,
emphasis, synchronized voices) nonverbal skills (expres-
sion, gesture, locus, focus, blocking, synchronized move-
ment, timing)
Methods of emphasis: narrator (wandering, stationary),
point of view, chorus

C. Alternative Activities:
Following a lecture/discussion on the basic techniques of
preparation, and a lecture on synchronized voices with
taped examples, and all students given the same short
prose work and then placed in groups of four to six,
each group will have one class day to determine which
lines should be read in chorus and which lines by
individual readers in preparation of an interpretation of
the work. They will then present their work to the class.
Following a lecture/discussion with examples on blocking,
synchronized movement, and timing, and all students
given the same short story involving 4-6 characters,
students will be placed in groups of four to six members
and will have one class period to read the story and to
devise and rehearse appropriate blocking, synchronized
movement, and timing. Each group will then present its
performance to the class.
Following the performances in the preceding activities, the
student will comment on the appropriateness and
effectiveness of the movement to the work. Each
student will then vote for the one group performance he
thought best met these requirements.



















Following a lecture/discussion with examples on choral
reading, and given four days to prepare, each student
will locate a work which lends itself to choral reading
and will write an adaptation of that work for a 5-8
minute performance.
Following a lecture/discussion on choral reading, and given
five student adaptations from the preceding activity, and
placed in groups of five members, each group will read
aloud the adaptations and select the one or two which
best fulfill the requirements for literary adaptation for
choral reading. These scripts will then become the
literature for the same or new groups who will be given
three days to rehearse and memorize a 5-8 minute
performance of the script.
Following a lecture/discussion with examples on point of
view and the narrator, and given a short prose work and
15 minutes to read and analyze it, the student will, when
called upon by the teacher, state the points) of view in
the work and select one particular point of view as the
narrator.
Following a lecture/discussion with examples on point of
view and the narrator, and given a short prose work and
one class period, the student will write excerpts from the
work which exemplify the use of narrator in relationship
to other characters, to "break" scenes, to participate, or
to observe, and the use of the narrator to tone down or
"spruce-up", contrast, emphasize, or analyze the story.
Following a lecture/discussion with examples on readers'
theatre, and placed in groups of four to six, the student
will have one week to locate, adapt, memorize, and
rehearse an 8-10 minute readers' theatre performance on
a short story of his choice which uses a narrator.
Following a lecture/discussion with examples on chamber
theater, and placed in groups of four to six, students will
have one week to locate, adapt, memorize, and rehearse
an 8-10 minute chamber theatre performance on a short
story or narrative poem of their choice.
D. Evaluation:
The student will:
place himself in a group of four to six and will have one
week to locate, adapt, memorize, and rehearse the group's
choice of type of material and of choral reading, chamber
theatre or readers' theatre in an 8-10 minute final perform-
ance which includes techniques of preparation, methods of
emphasis and characteristics of the selected group interpre-
tation.



















TEACHER RESOURCE MATERIALS


Oral Interpretation of Literature
Bertram, Jean D., The Oral Experience of Literature. Chandler Publishing Company, 1967.
Campbell, Paul, The Speaking and the Speakers of Literature. Dickenson Publishing Company, 1967.
Coger, Irene, and Melvin R. White, Readers Theater Handbook. Scott, Foresman and Company, 1967.
Fernandez, Thomas L., Oral Interpretation and the Teaching of English. National Council of Teachers
of English, 1969.
Hunsinger, Paul, Communicative Interpretation. Wm. C. Brown, 1967.
Lee, Charlotte, Oral Interpretation, 4th edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 1971.
Mouat, Lawrence, Reading Literature Aloud. Oxford University Press, 1962.
Wimsatt, W.K., Josephine Miles and Lawrence Perrine, What to Say About a Poem. National Council
of Teachers of English, 1963.



















DRAMA


Philosophy and Objectives



The objective of the basic course in drama in secondary education is to provide the student with a
firm foundation of personal experience in the language, symbols, and functions of the various theatre
arts, and to provide him with the experience and means of understanding the purpose and function of
theatre in his life. In all cases, the student should be made aware of the complex and difficult crafts
and skills involved and the need for practitioners to work hard and long to perfect them. Also, he
should be made aware of the exciting demands of the theatre arts and the challenge to grow in
observation, perception, and imagination to try to meet them.


Examination of a variety of secondary school drama courses
and directions for those courses confirms the belief that these
courses vary in content, length, and grade level from institu-
tion to institution. While one school might offer an intro-
ductory over-view for a semester, another will indicate
concentration on acting or stage craft. In some schools, the
course serves as a meeting time for production of "the high
school play."


The elements of drama which are treated in units in this guide
are (1) the relationship of fundamental skills of oral communi-
cation to drama, (2) theatre history, (3) dramatic literature,
(4) pantomime, (5) acting, (6) costumes and make-up, (7)
stage craft, (8) directing, and (9) theatre business practice.


The bulletin, therefore, identifies a series of units which may
be used in a variety of ways. The teacher might select certain
of the units for a first semester and the remainder for a second
semester course. He might choose to extend one or more of
the activities into a full course and omit some of the others.
This guide is only intended to identify certain aspects of
educational drama at the secondary school level.



















UNIT I: REVIEW OF FUNDAMENTAL SKILLS AND
INTRODUCTION TO DRAMA


A. Objective:
Upon completion of a review of the basic skills, the
student will demonstrate his awareness of the application of
these skills to drama (see evaluation)..





















D. Evaluation:
The student will:
from a list of the basic skills of oral communication
select four skills and write a paragraph about the relation-
ship of each to the study of drama.


B. Considerations:
The communication process
Research and data gathering
Organization
Delivery
Stylistic and semantic language choices

C. Alternative Activities:
Following a lecture/discussion to review research and data
gathering, the student will list on a sheet of paper at
least three aspects of drama and play production which
will require use of research skills.
Following sufficient time in the library to gather data
concerning a character from a play or the period of an
assigned play, the student will write a paragraph explana-
tion such as costume, contemporary events, contempor-
ary room furnishings, etc. The paragraph will include
citation of sources of information.
Following a lecture/discussion reviewing the communica-
tion process, the student will write a paragraph describ-
ing the value of feedback in the presentation of a play.
Following a lecture/discussion reviewing organization, the
student will name structural considerations in dramatic
literature. Response will name such things as time
placement, character establishment, plot, climax, etc.
Following a lecture/discussion reviewing voice and bodily
movement as fundamentals of oral communication and
given a list of ten lines from different plays each student,
when called upon, will indicate through variation in
pitch, rate and/or volume the alternative meanings
resulting from those vocal variations.
Following a lecture/discussion reviewing nonverbal com-
munication, and given a message to communicate, the
student will use only nonverbal communication to
convey the message. Audience ability to state the
message will determine success.



















UNIT II: HISTORY OF THE THEATRE


A. Objective:
Upon completion of a study of the history of the theatre
including the considerations and activities listed below, the
student will be able to restate major aspects of the
evolutionary development of the theatre.


B. Considerations:
Each of the following periods discussed in terms of dates,
major playwrights, plays, contemporary events, location,
and physical theatre.
Western
Greek
Medieval
Renaissance
Elizabethan
Neo-classical
Romantic
Oriental

C. Alternative Activities:
Following lectures/discussions and given a list of plays and
a separate list of playwrights from the Greek theatre,
the student will identify the author with the play by
matching the letter of the play with the letter of the
author.
Following lectures/discussions and a play, date, and period
from the Elizabethan (or any other) period, the student
will name at least one contemporary historical event and
any relationship that event may have with the play.
Following a lecture/discussion on the Elizabethan theatre
and given an opportunity to examine a model of the
theatre, the student will label the parts of the theatre on
a mimeographed drawing of the theatre.
Following a lecture/discussion of the commedia dell'arte,
the student will describe in writing three influences from
this period still with us today.
Following lectures/discussions of the Greek and Roman
theatres, the student will identify and describe in writing
the major distinctions between Greek and Roman
theatres.
Following a lecture/discussion of Oriental theatre, the
student will write a list of three similarities and three
contrasts between Kobuki and Western theatre.


D. Evaluation:
The student will:
select a theme common to drama throughout history
and will identify in writing at least three different historical
periods where the theme is present;
and/or
list in order presented the major periods in theatre
history. Response will state in writing at least six major
periods, give dates, and characterize the physical theater in
each named period;
and/or
describe in writing the role of religion in the origins of
the theatre and traces of that influence still found in
modern theatre.



















UNIT III: DRAMATIC LITERATURE


A. Objective:
Upon completion of a study of dramatic literature, with
approximately ten major historical periods, including the
considerations and activities listed below, the student will
be able to identify forms, styles, and structure (See
evaluation).


D. Evaluation:
The student will:
be given a play without author or title and given one
hour, will read the play, identify in writing form, major
elements of structure, and period with 100% accuracy.


B. Considerations:
Drama as literature
Forms: tragedy, comedy, melodrama, farce
Elements of the play: plot, characters, dialogue, staging

C. Alternative Activities:
Following the reading of one of the Greek plays, each
student will analyze it by completing a form calling for
analyses in terms of specific items.
Following lectures/discussions concerning analysis and
criticism and given the opportunity to attend the
production of a play, each student will write an
evaluation of the play. Each evaluation must name in
writing the plot, characters, period, and audience reac-
tion.
Following lectures/discussions concerning analysis and
criticism and given a collection of reviews of plays from
the New York Times, or other source, each student will
identify reviewers' discussion of the elements of the
play.



















UNIT IV: PANTOMIME


A. Objective:
Upon completion of a study of pantomime, including
the considerations and activities listed below, the student
will communicate the actions and attitudes of a character
through pantomime (See evaluation).
B. Considerations:
Movement: posture, walking, sitting
Gesture, facial expression
Characterization consistency: action, expression, believ-
ability

C. Alternative Activities:
Following a lecture/discussion on movement in pantomime,
the student will assume a posture such as relaxed, tense,
excited, or irritated, as assigned by the teacher. Success
to be determined by 90% accuracy of identification by
the other class members. (Repeat same activity using
walking and sitting.)
Following a lecture/discussion on characterization through
pantomime and having drawn a description of a char-
acter from a written collection of thirty, the student will
in a 1-minute presentation, pantomime the character.
Evaluation will require 80% identification of character
by class.
Following a lecture/discussion on consistency of action,
and given an assigned activity (drink a glass of water, tie
your shoe, eat a sandwich, brush your teeth, etc.), the
student will have 5 minutes to mentally prepare his
activity and will then percent that activity to the class.
(Repeat activity, adding to it assignments for two people
working together, and for groups.)
D. Evaluation:
The student will:
perform a two-minute pantomime before the class in
which the remainder of the class will identify the character,
his motivation, and his activity with 80% accuracy.




















UNIT V: ACTING


A. Objective:
Upon completion of a study of acting, including the
considerations and activities listed below, the student will
play a role in a scene from a play (See evaluation).


































D. Evaluation:
The student will:
act in a one-act play to be produced and presented to a
public audience. Evaluation will be based on his written
description of the character and relationships to other
characters; upon teacher evaluation of his performance; and
upon an audience response ballot concerning his perform-
ance.


B. Considerations:
Warm-up exercises
Characterization: role analysis, keeping in character,
character parts, dialect, monologue
Rehearsing
Stage terminology
Picking up cues and reaction
Memorizing
Breathing and relocation exercise
Stage orientation
Entrances and exits

C. Student Activities:
Following a lecture/discussion on warm-up exercises, the
student will respond vocally and physically to the
teacher's oral directions.
Following a lecture/discussion on improvisation and given
sufficient time to prepare, the student will interview a
foreign-born student and improvise a scene in which he
assumes the role of the interviewee in the prescribed
situation.
Following a lecture/discussion on role analysis and assigned
a role in a scene, the student will write an analysis of the
role based on a teacher-distributed series of questions
such as "What do we know about his background?" "His
motives?" "His current situation?" "His reaction to the
characters?"
Following a lecture/discussion on dialect and given a
written paragraph, the student will read the paragraph
aloud to the class. The class must be able to identify the
dialect with 95% accuracy.



















UNIT VI: COSTUMES AND MAKE-UP


A. Objective:
Upon completion of a study on costumes and make-up,
including the considerations and activities listed below, the
student will select costuming and do make-up for a
production (See evaluation).
B. Considerations:
Make-up: materials, accentuate or alter features, steps in
application
Costuming: sources, consistency, colors, steps in design-
ing, sewing, fitting

C. Student Activities:
Following a lecture/discussion on facial features and given
three photographs of three different faces, the student
will identify in writing the features to be emphasized in
reproducing a similar facial character on an actor.
Following a lecture/discussion on materials for make-up
and a supply of make-up materials and a stereotype
character to produce, the student will make-up a dummy
head to produce the face of the selected character.
Success if measured by the class ability to identify.
Following a lecture/discussion on materials for make-up
and given a supply of make-up materials and a partner,
the student will make up his partner to fit an assigned
role.
Following a lecture/discussion on sources of costumes and
given a scene from a play, the student will select
materials needed to make the costumes and make at
least one costume.
D. Evaluation:
The student will:
select one character role from a list of roles supplied by
the teacher, and selecting a classmate, will make-up the
classmate and costume him for the selected role. Success
will require 75% accuracy by classmates in identifying the
character from the list of roles.




















UNIT VII: STAGECRAFT


A. Objective:
Upon completion of a study of stagecraft, including the
considerations and activities listed below, the student will
identify major responsibilities in stagecraft and design a
scene (See evaluation).


B. Considerations:
Types of stage: traditional, arena, thrust
Design
Sets
Construction
Painting
Properties
Lighting
Sound effects

C. Alternative Activities:
Following a lecture/discussion of types of stages and given a
previously-read play, the student will name in writing
the most significant adaptations necessary in staging the
play from traditional to arena stage.
Following a lecture/discussion of scene design and given a
supply of drawing materials and a scene from a
to-be-produced play, the student will produce a color
rendering of his assigned scene.
Following a lecture/discussion on lighting and an orienta-
tion to a lighting board, the student will on cue alter the
lighting as requested.
Following a lecture/discussion on sound effects, and given a
specific series of sound effects to produce, and time to
gather the necessary equipment, the student will pro-
duce the sound effects on cue and of requested intensity
and duration.

D. Evaluation:
The student will:
be assigned a specific one-act play for which he will
prepare any three of the following requirements for
production: lighting, sound effects, a scene design, or
properties. He will be evaluated both by his classmates and
by his teacher on the adequacy of the materials.




















UNIT VIII: DIRECTING


A. Objective:
Upon completion of a study of directing, including the
considerations and activities listed below, the student will
demonstrate awareness of responsibilities of the director
and will direct a scene (See evaluation).

B. Considerations:
Pre-rehearsal responsibilities: analyses of play, analyses
for production, prompt book
Casting and try-outs
Rehearsal: blocking, cueing, first reading, allocation of
responsibility

C. Alternative Activities:
Following a lecture/discussion on pre-rehearsal analyses of
the play by the director, the student will take a
previously selected play and write a summary analysis of
style, theme, and characterization.
Following a lecture/discussion on pre-rehearsal analysis, the
student will identify in writing each different set needed
and major set pieces to be secured.
Following a lecture/discussion on the preparation of the
prompt book and assigned a scene or act from a
previously-read play, the student will prepare a prompt
book for that scene.
Following a lecture/discussion of blocking and given a
segment from a previously-studied play, the student will
block and direct walk-through of student actors in
accordance to his blocking plan.

D. Evaluation:
The student will:
assume the role of director and direct a short scene
before the class. Evaluation will require specific attention
to at least three of the responsibilities of the director
selected by the director for evaluation.



















UNIT IX: THEATRE BUSINESS PRACTICE


A. Objective:
Upon completion of a study of theatre business practice
including the considerations and activities listed below, the
student will demonstrate his understanding of theatre
business (See evaluation).

B. Considerations:
Business manager
Publicity manager and publicity: news releases, posters
Ticket manager
House manager
Programs

C. Alternative Activities:
Following a lecture/discussion on the role of the business
manager and costs of production, the student will be
assigned three plays for which he will submit an estimate
of royalty and costume costs.
Following a lecture/discussion on publicity for a produc-
tion and assigned a possible play and date, the student
will prepare a news release for that production and at
least one poster for advertising display.
Following a lecture/discussion on ticket management and
given a hypothetical production by the class, the student
will describe in writing his plan for ticket management.
His product must include the number of tickets,
salesmen, and the sales plan, and identification of unsold
seats.


D. Evaluation:
The student will:
be assigned one of four managerial roles: business,
publicity, ticket, or house. He will detail in writing his plan
for carrying out his responsibility for a play to be produced
by the high school drama club.



















TEACHER RESOURCE MATERIALS


Drama
Albright, H.D., William P. Halstead, and Lee Mitchell, Principles of Theatre Art, 2nd edition.
Houghton Mifflin Company, 1968.
Baleslansky, Richard, Acting: The First Six Lessons. Theatre Arts Books, 1966.
Brockett, Oscar G., The Theatre, An Introduction. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1964.
Dean, Alexander, and Lawrence Carra, Fundamentals of Play Directing, rev. ed. Holt, Rinehart and
Winston, 1965.
Gasner, John, Masters of the Drama, 3rd edition, rev. Dover Publications, 1954.
McGaw, Charles, Acting is Believing, 2nd edition. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1966.
Motter, Charlotte Kay, Theater in High School: Planning, Teaching, Directing. Prentice-Hall Inc.,
1970.
Secondary School Theatre Conference, A Course Guide in the Theatre Arts at the Secondary School
Level. American Educational Theatre Association, Inc., 1968.
Trilling, Lionel, The Experience of Literature: Drama. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1967.
















APPENDIX



















POSITION PAPER
CONCERNING SPEECH IN FLORIDA
SECONDARY SCHOOLS



The programs outlined in this position paper are consistent with guidelines established by the
standards and accreditations of the Department of Education of the State of Florida and with the
Florida Speech Association.





I INTRODUCTION




Students in Florida junior and senior high schools need to increase their understanding of oral
communication. This position paper is issued jointly by the Florida Department of Education and the
Florida Speech Association to focus attention on the increased emphasis which must be given to the
study of oral communication in our schools.
The program of speech instruction in Florida schools shall be directed toward training students: 1)
to identify and develop relevant and useful oral language skills; 2) to become efficient and critical
consumers of oral discourse; and 3) to recognize areas for continued oral language study.
Efforts by language arts departments to design programs in terms of behavioral objectives for the
1970's reveal the lack of relevant study in the area of oral language. The obvious differences in
written and oral language behavior clearly highlight the need for development of oral language for
every student in the public schools.
The state, national, and international problems confronting our society demand citizens who have
developed the ability to articulate problems and solutions and who can evaluate, critically, the
statements of others. Such citizens should also be capable of recommending means of minimizing
communication problems and offering leadership in the application of inquiry, advocacy, and
exposition to social problems.
This position paper is directed to outlining an appropriate minimum program of speech study for
the public schools in Florida.



















II CURRICULAR NEEDS


A. Each school system will provide, at the 9th or 10th grade level, and for a minimum of one
semester, a basic speech course designed for all students. Such a course will be aimed at student
understanding of the ways in which each of the basic skills is applicable to all forms of oral
communication. The principal objective will be student understanding of the process of
communication as well as ability to incorporate these skills in every oral language situation. The
fundamentals will include:
1. Communication models and roles;
2. Audience analysis and adaptation;
3. Research and data gathering for any oral activity;
4. Supporting material-use and evaluation of evidence;
5. Organization for different communicative situations;
6. Language, including aspects of oral style and semantics;
7. Delivery, including the role of voices and significant non-verbal communication;
8. Listening comprehension development;
9. Ethical concerns in oral language situations.
B. Each school will provide a minimum of one semester of instruction in speech for those students
experiencing difficulty in school because of language patterns. No single characteristic is a greater
handicap to a student than "culture bound" language habits. Such a course will attempt to have
students identify variations in language patterns, vocabulary, and habits which interfere with
efforts at cross-cultural communication. To accomplish this, students will examine communication
efforts within several cultures to identify differences and to evaluate their effectiveness. Awareness
of differences would not demand conformity but would explain to the student his successes or
failures in various communicative situations.
C. Each school will provide advanced elective courses for oral language development. While the basic
course will provide data relevant to any oral communication form, the advanced courses will
provide opportunity for attention to specific forms. Therefore, options will include public
speaking with attention to persuasive and informative public speaking; courses in small group
problem solving and the nature of inquiry; debate and responsibilities of the advocate in
parliamentary and formal deliberative situations; oral interpretation of literature and oral
presentation as a measure of understanding; and drama with emphasis on technical problems,
dramatic literature, and acting. Courses in mass media properly fall within the category of
advanced communication study.
All such courses might not be offered by every school. Determination of which advanced
courses to offer would likely depend upon the training and interests of the teachers of speech, and
the needs of the students and of the communities.

III CO-CURRICULAR

Co-curricular programs will be offered to meet the specific needs of the students to engender
community pride, and to gain the benefits of inter-scholastic activity. The co-curricular program may
consist of:
A. Assembly programs within each school and community to provide for demonstration and
development of abilities in oral communication.
B. Inter-scholastic programs in debate, public speaking and interpretation through membership in
the official state league, the Florida Forensics Program, and participation in other tournaments
and workshops.
C. A drama program designed for the understanding of theatre by both participants and student
audiences. Such plays should be directed toward the student's development of personal
aptitudes, production skills, and the audience's appreciation of dramatic literature. Fund raising
as a major purpose of high school productions must be discontinued.






















IV PERSONNEL


Courses in speech and drama should be taught by individuals holding majors in speech from
accredited universities and colleges. Minimum course qualifications should include fundamentals of
speech, phonetics, argumentation and debate, small group discussion, interpretation, play production,
acting and methods of teaching speech. Desirable preparation should include persuasive speaking,
advanced interpretation, rhetorical theory, communication theory, and directing of extra-curricular
activities. Speech personnel should hold membership in one or more of the following organizations:
1. Speech Communication Association
2. Southern Speech Communication Association
3. Florida Speech Association
4. American Educational Theatre Association.




V FACILITIES




For effective learning in the speech courses, the following facilities should be available:
A. A large classroom with movable chairs and lectern.
B. An auditorium and stage area with minimum equipment of six baby spots; cyclorama or other
masking forms; available stools and lecterns for readers theatre productions; and storage spaces.
C. An oral communication laboratory to include listening stations and tape equipment for
two-way listening procedures.
























































































DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
DIVISION OF ELEMENTARY & SECONDARY EDUCATION
BUREAU OF CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION
SHELLEY S. BOONE DIRECTOR
FLOYD T. CHRISTIAN COMMISSIONER




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