Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Sketch Map
 An Outline of Acholi History
 Extracts from Lt.-Col. C. Delme-Radcliffe's...
 An Acholi Hunt
 Island Elephants Again
 Meteorites in Uganda
 Extracts from "Mengo Notes"...
 Back Cover

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PageID P106
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The Uganda journal
External Link ( Journal issues, 1999-2002 )
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00080855/00025
 Material Information
Title: The Uganda journal
Abbreviated Title: Uganda j.
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 22-24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Uganda Society
Publisher: Uganda Society etc.
Uganda Society etc.
Place of Publication: Kampala etc
Frequency: irregular[1976-<1995>]
semiannual[ former 1934-]
annual[ former <1948>-1973]
completely irregular
Subjects / Keywords: Periodicals -- Uganda   ( lcsh )
Genre: serial   ( sobekcm )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Uganda
Dates or Sequential Designation: v. 1- 1934-
Numbering Peculiarities: Suspended May 1942-Mar. 1946; replaced by the Society's Bulletin.
Numbering Peculiarities: One issue published every few years, v. 38 (1976)-<v. 42 (1995)>
Issuing Body: Vols. 11-13 published in London.
General Note: Journal of The Uganda Society (formerly The Uganda Literary and Scientific Society).
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - ABS8002
oclc - 01644239
alephbibnum - 000301510
issn - 0041-574X
lccn - 52026895
System ID: UF00080855:00025
 Related Items
Related Items: Uganda journal

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Title Page
        Page v
        Page vi
    Table of Contents
        Page vii
    Sketch Map
        Page viii
    An Outline of Acholi History
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 8a
    Extracts from Lt.-Col. C. Delme-Radcliffe's Diary
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    An Acholi Hunt
        Page 30
        Page 30a
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
    Island Elephants Again
        Page 38
        Page 38a
        Page 38b
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 40a
        Page 40b
        Page 41
    Meteorites in Uganda
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 44a
        Page 44b
        Page 45
        Page 46
    Extracts from "Mengo Notes" - III
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 60a
        Page 60b
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text

Price Shs. 7/50 (7s. 6d) .

Ck ,..,,,... : .

Honorary Viee-Presidents :
,i- H. B. Thomas, o.B.E. Mr. E. B. Haddon
Mr ; F. Twining, C.M.G.. M.B.E. Mr. Mark Wils -
R: A. Tito Winyi II, C.B.E. Mr. Norman Godinho, M.B.E.

Past Presidents:
Sir A. R. Cook, IT., C.M.O., O.B.E. Mr. N. V. Brasnett
Mr. E. J. Wayland, C.B.E. Captain C. R. S. Pitman, D.S.O., M.c.
it Dr.'I H. Hunter, C.B.E.,LL.D. Mr. S. W. Kulubya, M.n.E.
-Mi'. H. Jowitt, C.M.o. Mr. E. A. Temple Perkins
SMi! ajor-General Sir H. R. Hone, Mr. R. A. Snoxall
K.B.B., M.C., k.c. Dr. K. A. Davies, o.B.e.
I'r. -J. Syk6s, o.B.E. Mr. G. H. E. Hopkins

Secretaries: Editorial Committee:
Saben & Co., Ltd.. Kampala The Hon. Editors
Mr. R. A. Snoxall
S... Auditor-:
SMr. O. S. Keeble, A.C.A.

SUBSCRIPTIONS.-The annual subscription (expiring 30th June) for
ordinary members and institutional members is Shs. 10. A double subscription
of Shs. 15 entitles two members of a family to all the rights and privileges of full
members, except that they receive one copy only of each issue of the Society's
periodical. Any member who has reached the age of 55 can become a life
member by paying a lump sum equal to the amount of ten annual subscriptions.
A member who has not yet reached the age of 55 can join for life by paying the
same sum plus the number of subscriptions by which the age falls short of 55.
The annual subscription for associate members is Shs. 2/50. Associates are
admitted to lecture meetings and may use the library; but are not entitled to
receive the periodical, to vote, or to borrow from the library.
Bankers' Order forms may be obtained from the Secretaries. Completed
Bankers' Orders should be sent to the Society in the first place, not direct to
a Bank.
PUBLICATIONS.-The Uganda Journal, the organ of the Society, is pub-
lished half-yearly, in March and September. Back numbers of the Journal, and
other publications of the Society, can be supplied as advertised on the back
The chief aim of the Journal is to provide a medium for the publication of
historical, literary and scientific matter relating to Uganda. and its peoples.
Material offered for publication should be sent to the Honorary Editor at the
Society's address. The Editor can arrange for manuscripts to be typed. Contri-
butions in the form of short notes or records, as well as longer articles, are invited.
Authors will receive twenty separate copies of their contributions free of charge :
additional separates may be obtained at a cost of ten cents a page if ordered at
the time when the manuscript is submitted.
EXCHANGE.-The Society is ready to consider entering into arrangements
with other institutions for reciprocal exchange of publications.
MEETINGS.-Meetings, at which papers are read by members or visitors,
are held periodically in Kampala. Notices of meetings are sent to those members
living in or near Kampala and Entebbe; and to other members by request. A
member wishing to read a paper should communicate with the Secretaries. The
Society reserves the right to publish, in whole or in part, any paper read at a
LIBRARY.-The library consists of books and periodicals chiefly on African
subjects, with a number of English newspapers and reviews. The library is open
to members: Monday to Friday-12.30 p.m. to 2 p.m. and 5 p.m. to 7.30 p.m.;
Sunday-10 a.m. to 12.30 p.m. Books may be borrowed against a deposit of
Shs. 20, not more than two volumes being taken at one time. Members resident
away from Kampala can borrow by post, on application to the Honorary Librarian.
ADDRESS.-The Society's Rooms (including the library) are situated in the
old Sikh Barracks, at the corner of Nakasero and Kyagwe roads. The postal
address, to which all communications should be addressed, is :
Members are requested to keep the Secretaries fully informed of changes of


Rules for the use of the library are as follows:

1. The library is open to ordinary members and associate members for
reading at the hours announced in the Journal and on the Notice Board.
2. Books should not be returned to the shelves after use. They should be
left on the table by the door.

Ordinary members are entitled to take books on loan under the following
conditions :
3. A member wishing to borrow books from time to time is required to
pay a library deposit of Shs. 20, to be retained by the Society until the member
signifies his wish to discontinue borrowing. The money will then be refunded.
4. Deposits should be paid to the clerk in the office (or posted to the Hon.
Librarian); a receipt will be given.
5. The Librarian is authorized to prohibit altogether, at his discretion, the
removal of certain valuable books, or books in constant use. Such books will be
clearly labelled. Current unbound periodicals are on no account to be taken away.
6. Books taken on loan by Kampala members may be retained for not
longer than two weeks in the first instance (three weeks will be allowed for members
who live more than twenty-five miles from Kampala). An extension of this
period may be granted by the Librarian at his discretion.
7. Not more than two volumes may be taken or retained by a member at
a time.
8. The catalogue number of the book, the name of the author, and the name
and address of the borrower, must be entered in the loan book by, or in the
presence of, the clerk.
9. Within reasonable limits, the cost of outward postage to up-country
members will be defrayed by the Society.

10. A member who loses or damages a book will be expected to defray the
11. A member who fails to make good the loss or damage of a library book,
or to return a borrowed book after a second reminder, will forfeit the whole or
part of his deposit, and also his right to borrow further books from the library
until his full deposit is renewed.

The library is open to members at the following hours:
Monday to Friday .. 12.30 p.m. to 2 p.m.;
5 p.m. to 7.30 p.m.
Sunday .. .. 10 a.m. to 12.30 p.m.


A new departure in lecture arrangements was undertaken in October 1946
when the Committee inaugurated a planned series of lectures under the title
"Towards the New Africa ". The fixture card for this series reads as follows:
23rd Oct. Cultural Contact and Social Change. Presidential Address by Mrs.
K. M. Trowell, M.B.E.
6th Nov. Educational Adaptation, by Mr. G. C. Turner, C.M.G., M.C.
20th Nov. Africa Emergent. Discussion between Mr. E. M. K. Mulira and two
Makerere Students (Miss Mary Senkatuka and J. Tombo).
4th Dec. Film Night, arranged by the Public Relations Officer.
18th Dec. Agricultural Efficiency, by Mr. G. B. Masefield.
15th Jan. Public Relations and Social Welfare, by Mr. C. M. A. Gayer.
5th Feb. An Evening of African Music, by Dr. K. P. Wachsmann, PH.D.
19th Feb. Malnutrition and Work Output, by Dr. H. C. Trowell, M.D., P.R.c.P.
5th Mar. The Indian's Contribution to East African Society, by Dr. M. M.
Patel, O.B.E.
19th Mar. A Business Man Looks at Africa, by the Hon. H. R. Fraser, O.B.E.
2nd Apr. Brains Trust-Summing Up.
The above programme was arranged by the Committee in the endeavour to
provide continuity. In the past lectures have had no particular plan, with the
result that there has been little to sustain the interest of members. In addition to
this planned series, there will from time to time be special lectures which will be
arranged as lecturers of merit and with subjects of particular interest present
The Uganda Herald has been very helpful to the Society in giving full
publicity to the reports of the lectures so far held and it is felt that the series has
filled a need. It is the intention to collate the papers read and to publish the
series in volume form later this year.
A further innovation has been the provision of refreshments after lectures.
On completion of the lecture, those present have been invited to stay on and take
a cup of tea and a biscuit. The resultant gathering has lead to much interesting
conversation in an atmosphere less formal than that of the lecture room; and
African members particularly have expressed themselves pleased with these
The Committee, encouraged by the success of these informal tea parties, have
arranged to provide light refreshments at the Society's premises during the luncheon
hour, from 12.30 to 2 p.m. on Mondays to Fridays. This latter experiment is as
yet only in its infancy and its development will be watched with interest.

Because of printing difficulties and the paper shortage, publication of the
Journal had to be suspended during the war, and had it not been for the kindness
of the Uganda Government in allowing printing to be done at the Government
Press and for the courtesy of the Government Printer in undertaking it, four of
the five occasional Bulletins would never have appeared, nor would publication
of the Journal have been resumed as soon as it was.
Now that conditions are returning to something more nearly approaching
normal, the Society cannot trespass further on the hospitality of Government, so
-arrangements have been made for the Journal to be published in England by the
Oxford University Press. This is the first number to be so produced.
The Society wishes to take this opportunity of expressing its thanks to the
Uganda Government, and to the Government Printer, Mr. S. Foote, and his
predecessor, Mr. George Bell, O.B.E., for the facilities they so generously afforded.
Special thanks are due, also, to Mr. Foote for seeing the whole of the last number
through the press while one of the Honorary Editors was on leave.


More than 1,500 volumes have been added to the library since the library list
was published and it is intended to bring out a new edition before the end of
this year.
More and more up-country members are using the Society's book borrowing
postal service. With the recent reduction in the local book-post rates it is probable
that this service will develop considerably.
The Reading Room is becoming increasingly popular, particularly with African
members. We owe much to the British Council for their generous supply of current
periodicals. So that the value of these gifts may be as widely spread as possible,
it is the Society's practice to distribute old numbers of periodicals, not needed for
binding, to up-country stations. Any member, or preferably group of members,
wishing to benefit under this scheme should write to the Honorary Librarian.
On 29th April 1946 a member borrowed "Burton: Arabian Nights Adven-
turer ", by Fairfax Downey, New York (Society No. 841). Unfortunately this
member failed to record his or her name in the loan book. Will the member
concerned please return the volume ?
It will be appreciated if members leaving the Protectorate will notify the
Honorary Librarian if they have for sale any books of interest to the Society. We
are indebted to the following for gifts of books and records: Capt. E. M. Persse,
M.C., the Rev. Father Prentice, Mrs. A. L. Hopwood, Mr. A. S. Thomas, Mr. E. W.
Gudger, Mr. J. T. Kennedy, Dr. W. J. Eggeling, Mr. T. R. F. Cox, Dr. A. J.
Haddow, and The Secretariat, Entebbe.
The library lost much by the departure, on retirement late in 1946, of Capt.
E. M. Persse, M.c. During the absence of the Honorary Librarian, from November
1945 to August 1946, Capt. Persse undertook these duties, to which he brought a
wealth of energy and in which his long experience of Uganda was of inestimable


Uganda Journal



No. 1

MARCH 1947

Published on behalf of
by the






An Outline of Acholi History By R. M. BERE
Extracts from Lt.-Col. C. Delmi-Radcliffe's Diary -
Island Elephants Again By E. A. TEMPLE PERKINS
Meteorites in Uganda By R. 0. ROBERTS
Extracts from "Mengo Notes "--III -

A Photograph of Mumia
Sesse Canoes -
An Early Visit to Ruwenzori
The War Record of H.M.S. Uganda



Tribal Nicknames








WE know nothing of the original inhabitants of Acholi-land, but story
has it that before the Acholi came to live there, in the early years of
the seventeenth century, there were no people. This may, or may not, be so :
earlier dwellers, if any, have left no remains and have no place in Acholi
mythology or folklore. Parts of the country may have seen the passage of
the Hamitic raiders, offspring of the great Galla tribe of Ethiopia, on their
way to found new kingdoms farther south and west: these, too, have left no
trace. The main Hamitic stream is thought to have crossed the Nile farther
north, at Gondokoro, in the sixteenth century.
The Acholi are Nilotic negroes, a part of the great group of Lwo
speaking tribes who moved, as a result of alien pressure from the west, from
the Bahr-el-Ghazal region of the Sudan probably about the year A.D. 1600.
Before the tribes ultimately settled in the lands in which they now live, more
than a hundred years elapsed and it was probably not until the late eighteenth
century that the Jopadhola and the Jaluo reached Budama and Kavirondo
respectively. Little is known historically of this great migration, but for a
number of years vast areas must have been in a highly restless condition
because of it. When a country has no written history, facts inevitably become
distorted and mixed with fable and the ancient heroes become deified or, at
the least, imbued with divine characteristics: another tendency is to personify
a whole tribe, clan or generation, in the name of one individual, who may-
perhaps have been a leader of his people.

The more important of the Uganda tribes to be affected by the Nilotic
migration have a common legend to describe their arrival in the lands they
now occupy, or through which they passed on their way to their present
homes: this legend is of the utmost importance if one is to understand the
origin of these peoples as they themselves see it.'
According to them, Lwo was the first man; his son, Ipiti, and unmarried
daughter, Nyilak, lived at Kilak, the long low hill between Atiak and the Nile.
Nyilak disappeared and for a long time nothing was seen of her until, one
day, she returned with three sons, Nyipir, Labongo and Tiful, about whose
parentage there was, not unnaturally, some doubt. Many insisted that they
were the children of Jok, their god, but Olum, who had led the tribes from
the north, was probably the father. A great feast was held to celebrate
Nyilak's return and as the three sons grew up, in the good country of Kilak,

1 It should be said, perhaps, that in giving this story, I am not following exactly
the detail as told by any one African, but that I have taken, principally, the Acholi
account and varied it somewhat to conform to the Aluru version. The differences are
only of detail. Reference should be made to the Rev. Fr. J. P. Crazzolara's valuable
paper on The Lwo People (Uganda Journal, Vol. 5) and to Major N. C. L. Lowth's
" The Story of the Entry of the Alur into the West Nile (Uganda Journal, Vol. 2).

there was nothing but friendliness between them, nothing to foreshadow the
great quarrel that was to cause the partial disintegration of the tribe.
One day, years later, Nyipir found an elephant in his millet. He speared
it with the first spear he could lay hands on, one which belonged to his brother
Labongo, but unfortunately the thrust failed to kill the elephant which made
off with the spear still sticking into its flank. Labongo was furious, insisted
on the return of the selfsame spear, and refused all the substitutes that Nyipir
offered. Nyipir therefore set out to find the elephant and recover the spear,
swearing not to return without it. He walked for ten days, crossing the great
river Nile, and reached, finally, a hilly country with a great forest, wherein
he met an aged woman, who asked him whence he came and what his purpose.
When he explained his mission, the old woman invited him into her house,
in which were many spears including, to his great jubilation, that of his
brother Labongo. Then Nyipir asked for food for his journey home and
willingly accepted the old woman's offer of peke (a mixture of beans and
millet). That she had substituted burjok beads for beans he only found
'out later.
When he got back to Kilak, Nyipir returned the spear to his brother and
a great feast was held to celebrate its recovery. Some days later Labongo's
wife chanced to pass as Nyipir was sitting in front of his hut threading the
burjok beads into a necklace, and stopped to admire their beauty. By ill
'chance her son was with her and he picked up one of the beads and swallowed
it. Now came Nyipir's opportunity to be avenged for Labongo's uncom-
promising attitude about his spear. He demanded the return of the same
bead and refused all substitutes. The child was made to vomit and defecate
but the bead was not recovered. Eventually, to settle the argument, Labongo
'said, Rip up its belly and recover your bead," but Nyipir refused saying,
" I will not cut open your child, that is your duty : whereupon Labonga slit
open the child's stomach and there found the bead which was handed back
,to Nyipir.
These two events engendered a great quarrel between the brothers, which
was not settled at Kilak, whence the people decided to move. After a while
they reached Wat Latong, opposite to Pakwac, on the banks of the Nile, and
:here the case of the brothers came up for discussion. To apportion the blame
was not possible, but it was evident to all that the brothers could not go on
living together as members of the same clan. Nyipir subjected himself to an
*ordeal by water to prove that he was not in the wrong and marched into the
Nile, calling upon God to help him; the water divided and he passed safely
over to the west bank. As he passed he drove his axe into the river-bed, to
be a sign that neither he nor his brother could cross the river again and that,
henceforth, they could meet only as enemies.
Tiful had already crossed the river with his people and settled in the
forest where Nyipir had recovered his spear. To this day the place carries
the name Nyepea, in commemoration of that event: there is now a Catholic
Mission on the site. Nyipir, also, remained across the river and is the ancestor
of the Jonaam and the West Nile Aluru. Labongo left Wat Latong with his
people and returned to Kilak: the present Acholi clans of Payera, Patiko,

Paico and Koic claim him as their ancestor and founder. The greater part
of the tribe continued to travel southwards and crossed the Somerset Nile
into the country of Bunyoro, having been at Kilak and Wat Latong at the
time of the quarrel. Legend is not clear as to the name of their leader and
it will be well therefore but briefly to touch on the probabilities.
That a large proportion of the people of Lwo entered Bunyoro is beyond
doubt, for many of the present Acholi clans of pure Nilotic descent, the Jaluo,
Jopadhola and some of the Lango, emigrated thence: that there is close
connection between this Lwo migration and the early Babito Bakama of
Bunyoro is no longer seriously questioned.1 Labongo can be identified with
Isingoma Labongo Rukidi, founder of the Babito dynasty or, if the alternative
more remote connection is preferred and Isingoma Mpuga Rukidi is taken
as the founder of the Babito, Labongo is accepted as the father of Isingoma's
mother, his father being a Hamite from Galla. As this is a riddle which will
probably never be solved, let us take one possible version of the story.
Olum continued to lead the migrating Lwo after they crossed the Somerset
Nile, being accompanied by his son, Labongo, and grandson, Cebami
(Kyebambi). Seeing the tribe well established across the river, Labongo
returned to Kilak, leaving affairs in the new country to his son, Kyebambi,
because Olum was by this time an old man. The Lwo warriors found here,
for the first time in a generation, serious opposition to their search for new
country, but they overcame this and themselves established the ruling line,
the Babito, who still look to Labongo as their founder. As is often the way
with alien conquerors, the Lwo rapidly became absorbed into the far more
numerous local population, losing their identity by mixture with the Bantu.
Gradually those Lwo who had kept apart were pressed farther and farther
to the north and east, until generations later, leaving but a remnant, the Chopi,
they again had to cross the Nile. Some of the Lwo may even have moved
beyond Bunyoro to play their part in establishing the kingdoms farther south.

The history of the Acholi is the story of the clans and if that history is
to be understood it is necessary to consider briefly the nature of these clans.
Each was, and to some extent still is, a separate political entity, with its own
history and, occasionally, customs. Fundamentally, the clan is an enlarged
family group, members tracing their origin to some individual, from whom,
not infrequently, the clan takes its name and whom the kindred claim as their
ancestor. In addition to the kindred, each clan has a certain number of
lesser groups attached to it, possibly small or isolated clans without blood
relationship; each clan has, thus, two integral parts, firstly the parent group
or Kal" and secondly those attached by various affinities but not by direct
descent from the founder, the "Labong Kal ", who may perhaps be more
numerous than the "Kal ". Frequently, groups of the Labong" have a
family head of their own but accept, nevertheless, the sovereignty of the
"Kal ". The "Labong includes also those isolated individuals who may
1 See Crazzolara, op. cit., and Bere's The Origin of the Payera Acholi" (Uganda
Journal, Vol. 1).

be compared to the Alltuds, the strangers in blood, of our own ancient Celtic
society. Each clan has a hereditary head, normally a direct lineal descendant
of the founder, though there are no clear cut rules of ascension and there
have even been occasions when a member of "Labong" has been made
Rwot, as the clan head is called. There is one more point which must be
made; the clan has definite territorial rights and boundaries, there being
common ownership to all clan members, with the Rwot (and this is perhaps the
essence of his office) as won-piny or father of the land; rights of the individual
are well safeguarded.
The clans did not all enter Acholi-land at the same time,1 they did not
enter it together or from the same source or direction and, although each year
shows some improvement, they can hardly even yet be said to have settled
down to complete unity or neighbourliness. The present administrative
framework follows broadly the lines of the old clan divisions and, while there
is no rule to this effect, the present chiefs, who retain the old title, are
frequently the persons accepted by custom and by the will of the people as
the hereditary Rwots of their particular clans. The younger generation is,
happily beginning to think along broader lines than those of the narrow clan
Before A.D. 1600, Acholi-land must be considered as empty although
there may have been some Lango in the far north-east, ancestors of the
present inhabitants of Nangeya and the Rom mountains. At some time
during the next fifty years the main Lwo migration passed through the country,
and the clans who claim descent from Labongo established themselves at
Kilak. As has been said, these are the Payera, Patiko, Koic and Paico, all
prominent clans to the present day. Shortly after the main movement more
immigrants came from the north, people who had originally, when the Lwo
came from the Bahr-el-Ghazal, stayed with Nyakang, first Reth of the Shilluk,
but who later, though quite independently of Olum and Labongo, moved to
the south. These immigrants did not follow the Nile route but took their
own line farther east; it was thus that the Padibe, still a leading clan, came
to Uganda.
It does not seem to have been until after the beginning of the eighteenth
century that the main body of the Lwo in Bunyoro began to find the pressure
of the Bantu element too strong for them, causing them to undertake the
second stage of the great migration. Some found their promised land as far
away as Kavirondo :2 others, more fortunate, settled in the Lango district3 or
Acholi-land. All these clans, and there are many who will tell you that they
came from Loka (i.e., from across the river), call themselves Pa-Lwo. The
leader of the first such group was Owiny Opok and the date of his arrival
1 In working out the clan movements in relation to one another I have been much
assisted by a series of clan histories drawn up by Mr. A. C. A. Wright. The present
paper does not aim at giving a detailed account of individual clans and their migrations.
2 The Jopadhola and the Jaluo, who now inhabit Kavirondo and are the most
numerous of all the Lwo people, were part of the same movement.
3 This is not the place to discuss the origins of the inhabitants of the present Lango
district but it should perhaps be said of the statement that some of the Lwo people
settled there that this is in no way intended to convey the impression that they necessarily
form a majority of its present-day inhabitants.

seems to have been about 1730; he is the ancestor of the Pajule and is said
to have found the country of his choice already occupied by a group of
" Lango-dyang who were moving westwards; these subsequently settled
at Paranga. Widely distributed over Acholi-land are these Palwo clans whose
leaders always seem to have established themselves, without fighting, as rulers
over any others whom they encountered. Without detailing any of their
stories or giving a complete list of the Palwo clans one may quote, as examples,
the Bobi, Alero, Pader, Paimol and the Paimot of Amiel, as well as the better
known Pajule just mentioned. This completes the picture of the Lwo
immigrants to Acholi-land, an immigration not finished by the end of the
eighteenth century and still being continued by an occasional Chopi family.
In addition to the Lwo there are numerous scattered groups of entirely
different .origin, who came into Acholi-land either from the north-east and
,east and are still sometimes called Lango-dyang by the Acholi, or from
the north-west, their connection being with the Madi or Bari. The entry of
these people was disconnected and does not seem to have formed part of any of
the great migrations, nor can one place it at any particular period. We have
already mentioned the Paranga, whose journey must have started at much
the same time as the original Lwo migration; their neighbours, the Koro,
arrived quite recently and still claim connection with a group, similarly called,
in Teso: the clans of the eastern fringe, such as the Adilang, fall largely, but
by no means entirely, into this category. The Atiak and Palabek clans are
the most important of the north-western group, retaining something of the
rain-making ceremonies of their Madi neighbours: the Atiak, in particular,
have a well-kept and well-known set of rain-stones.
Each clan tells its own story, with the name and fame of each chief, their
travels from one country to another, their fights and alliances with other clans.
Each clan keeps its own greatly treasured, and seldom shown, regalia-spears,
shields, drums and other valuables, heirlooms from past chiefs. It is difficult
to ascertain exactly the place of the Rwot in native Acholi society; that he
was a personage is beyond doubt but it is also quite evident that the Rwot
was never in a position of executive authority comparable to that in which
his descendents are placed to-day or in which were found the Hima overlords
of the Bantu kingdoms farther south. The appointment was basically
democratic, for the Rwot was truly the representative of his people: far
more so, in fact, than their ruler.
The country which the Acholi took for their own was far from rich and
although they have developed for themselves a good and varied diet, based
,on a shifting cultivation of millet, hunger has never been far distant: there
has been no chance of an early settled economic development, such as a basic
plantain food staple would have secured. A struggle for existence has
governed much of the tribal history and in doing so has produced a fine
independent, virile type of individual.

1 The term "Lango" or "Lango-dyang" is misleading. When an Acholi uses
either of these words he refers to his Nilo-Hamitic neighbours to the east and north-east
and not to the inhabitants of the modem Lango district, of whom he speaks as Omiru ".


The clans had not long been settled in Acholi-land when first external
contacts began. As with many African tribes these were with Arab and
Egyptian slave traders, who first came to the country in the middle of the
nineteenth century. Geographical position and the democratic nature of
their rulers prevented over-extensive raiding, such as was practised against
less fortunate people like the Bari.
The first European in Acholi-land was the Maltese trader Amabile who,.
based on Gondokoro, established a trading post at Palaro in 1861: this post
was reached by Speke, on his way north after his discovery of the source of
the Nile, on 3rd December 1862. As is well known, Speke was driven east-
wards by the hostile attitude of Kamurasi of Bunyoro and so prevented from
completing his journey up the Nile valley. At Gondokoro on 15th February
1863 he met Mr. and Mrs. Samuel Baker, then travelling south before discover-
ing Lake Albert and the Murchison Falls in 1864. Baker, by then Sir Samuel
Baker, returned in 1872 to Acholi-land as Governor of the Equatorial
Province of Egypt, when his fort was established at Patiko. Two earlier
dates deserve mention: Baker's appointment in 1869 and his proclamation of
26th May 1871 which abolished the slave trade and annexed to Egypt the
lands of the Equatorial Nile.
In 1873 Baker was succeeded as Governor of Equatoria by General
Gordon. He had found the Acholi very different from many of their neigh-
bours, a friendly and likeable people: he had established friendly contacts.
with them and many of their chiefs, notably Ochama, Rwot of Payera (whom
he took to be the paramount chief of the whole tribe) and the successive Rwots
of Patiko, Kikwiyo Kare and his son, Omor Oye (known as Wat-el Ajoos or
son of the old man).' That strange and fascinating personality, Dr. Edward
Schutzer, better known as Emin Pasha, succeeded to the Governorship in 1878.
The full history of Emin Pasha's Governorship, his scientific research
and the application of his knowledge to everyday problems, his isolation in.
1885 as a result of the Mahdist rising in the Sudan, and his ultimate rescue by
Stanley four years later, form no part of this story: but Emin made several
tours in Acholi-land and began the move towards modern government. Like
Baker, Emin met Ochama,2 and also Ogwok, the very enlightened Rwot of
Padibe, by whom he was much impressed. After Emin's departure, the Acholi
were left to their own devices until 1898, by which time the orbit of influence
had shifted from the Sudian to Uganda. During this period, bands of
marauding Nubi soldiers, remnants of Emin's force, for a time under Fadl-El-
Mula, caused havoc in an otherwise fairly peaceful land and did much to
develop clan antagonisms where none before existed. Two events only are
deserving of comment: firstly, that at Jebel Habub (Kalongo R.C.M.) the
several local clans combined to drive the Nubi menace from a strongly estab-
lished fort; secondly, the death of Ochama in a battle between the Padibe and
Payera. The feeling between these two important clans is still influenced by
1 See Sir Samuel Baker's "Ismailia ".
2 See "Emin Pasha in Central Africa", p. 271 : "The Chief of all the Shuli,
Rochama, an old gentleman who is very proud of his pure Wawitn descent."

This battle, which was brought about by the influence of these self same Nubis.1
Awich succeeded his father, Ochama, and was for many years a thorn in the,
side of peaceful administration, although Kabarega, driven from Bunyoro by
Colonel Colville in 1893, seeking refuge at one time in Lango and at another
with Awich, was to blame for much of the trouble. And so we come to
1898, the year from which modem administration may be traced.
In that year came the first attempt to connect this part of the country
with the lake area farther south, instead of with Egypt and the Sudan. The
move, was part of the "scramble for Africa", the British aiming to secure,
by treaty with local chiefs, as much as possible of the country between the.
then Uganda Protectorate and latitude 10 N. Major Macdonald came north
from Kampala in the second half of 1898 and not only began to round up
the remnants of the Nubi mutineers from Buganda but also signed treaties
in Acholi-land with several chiefs. Unfortunately he failed to come to terms
with Awich and the Payera, but treaties were made with many of the northern
Acholi chiefs and some military posts were established. In the following year
the collectorate was opened at Nimule and Major Delmi-Radcliffe, the
original Langa Langa, arrived to begin, by regular military patrols, the routine.
pacification of the country. Langa Langa has become an almost legendary
figure: he made useful contacts with many of the chiefs and his recommend,
tion, even in those early days, of identifying the chiefs with the Administration
and making them a part of the Governmental organization ", shows his
wisdom and foresight. In 1901, after he had arrested Awich, Major Delme-
Radcliffe left for his well-known Lango Expedition, in which he received much
help from his interpreter and right hand man, Okello Mwaka, father of Rwot
Anderea Olal, now perhaps the leading figure in Acholi-land.
Five years later came the final closing of Wadelai, Emin's old station on
the Nile, and a brief attempt at a closer administration of the Acholi from
Mount Keyo (about twelve miles from Gulu), seat, also, of the first C.M.S,
station. The Mount Keyo post lasted.but a few months before being with-
drawn to Koba, not far from Wat Latong of the old legend, on the Aluru
bank of the Nile. Gulu was opened in 1910 and two years later the Nimule
collectorate was finally closed down. The second Acholi district, Chua, was
declared in 1914 with headquarters at Kitgum and Mr. J. R. P. Postlethwaite
as its first District Commissioner, and for the next twenty-five years the Acholi
were administered under two different district organizations.
Modem history inevitably suffers in its recording from being too close
to the events which it describes to allow of a proper perspective view; the
record tends to achieve either the detail of a report or the superficiality of
irrelevance. The intention of this paper has been to show the building up
of the Acholi tribe from earliest times and different lands to the structure
upon which, and from which, modern development is now taking place. The
last thirty years have, in fact, seen changes infinitely greater than any of past
generations; they have been years of steady progress from utterly primitive
1 See Awich: A Biographical Note and a Chapter of Acholi History" by
R. M. Bere (Uganda Journal, Vol. 10), in which the history of much of this period
is given in considerably greater detail than is attempted here.

conditions to the beginnings of a modern civilization. Roads, hospitals,
schools and cotton do not concern this story nor do such isolated events as
the Lamogi rebellion of 1912, when the people of clan Lamogi and some of
their neighbours stocked and fortified, in open revolt, the deep caves of the
Guru-guru hills, defying, for over a month, all efforts to dislodge them.
The year 1913 saw the disarmament of the people (when over five
thousand guns were recovered) and the depopulation of the Sleeping Sickness
Area, which resulted in a great movement of the western clans. In 1938 part
of this area was re-opened and a slow, controlled migration back towards the
old lands began. The Acholi have contributed nobly to the two great wars
of the past half century, even though in 1914 they had only just begun to enter
the orbit of British Administration. In the world war just ended Acholi
soldiers have served and fought with distinction in Abyssinia, Somaliland, the
Middle East and Burma, earning a reputation the equal of any African tribe;
and so the development of a people continues.
The urgent trend of modem administration has been to bring the clans
together and to make the Acholi conscious of their unity as a single people,
without destroying their individualistic background. To this end the districts
of Gulu and Chua were amalgamated in 1937, when a unified Acholi district
was formed with headquarters at Gulu : at the same time the Acholi Council,
with seats not only for chiefs but for representatives of the people from all
parts of the country, was brought into being. The Acholi are beginning to
feel a new unity and to understand, in their tribal life and the relationship of
the clans, the truth of their ancient proverb that one blade of grass is not, by
itself, sufficient to thatch a house :
"Ot pe cwer ki lum acel keken."


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Compiledgad~rmn by..~d~,. 14


(Published with the permission of the Director of Surveys, Uganda)
IN accordance with orders received, I reached Mombasa on 31st July 1902,
accompanied by Major Bright, M.C. and Lt. Behren, R.E.
On arrival I learnt that the German Commissioner, Capt. Schlobach,
my colleague on the Boundary Commission, had proceeded up-country some
time previously, having been informed that I was waiting for him to the west
of Lake Victoria. At the time of my arrival at Mombasa he .was supposed
to be somewhere near the Congo Free State boundary on the first parallel
South latitude. I telegraphed at once to H.M. Commissioner at Entebbe
requesting him to despatch runners in search of Capt: Schlobach with letters
to inform him of my arrival at Mombasa.
I left Mombasa on 14th August with Lt. Behrens and a hundred porters.
Major Bright remained at Mombasa to look after the remainder of the
Commission instruments and stores expected, and to assist the German
Commissioner when he should arrive.
Port Florence (Kisumu) was reached on 17th August. Here Capt.
Harman reported himself on joining the Commission. He was directed to
proceed to Mombasa to assist Major Bright. At Port Florence I met
Commander Whitehouse, R.N., then, engaged on his survey of Lake Victoria.
He very kindly placed his completed- chart at my disposal together with a
diagram showing his survey marks and the plan of observed angles. This
information proved later on to be of the greatest value in triangulating round
the north shore of the lake and saved a great deal of time and trouble in
searching for points.
Port.Florence was left at 6 a.m., 18th August, in the Sir W. Mackinnon"
-forty men being shipped in a dhow and twenty more in a steel boat.
Entebbe was reached at 6 p.m., 19th August. Capt. Schlobach and
Lt. Schwartz of the German Commission were both at Entebbe when we
On 20th August I had a discussion with Capt. Schlobach as to the methods
we should adopt in working. It was arranged that the German Commissioner
should first proceed to Mombasa in order to receive his chronometers which
had not yet arrived from Germany, to report the observations for the triangula-
tion, etc., made by the British Commissioner at Mombasa and to make the
telegraphic exchanges of signals with the British party at Entebbe. The
telegraphic line between Entebbe and Port Florence was found to be quite
unreliable but the Telegraph Superintendent was on his way to Kisumu to
see what could be done to improve matters. A site near the telegraph station
at Entebbe" was selected for the temporary observatory and one was planned

similar in arrangement to that at Mombasa, only built of grass and reeds on
a framework of wood.
The time between 20th August and 29th August was occupied in attempts,
which all failed, to get the telegraph line between Entebbe and Port Florence
to work, in discussions with the German Commissioner as to the plans of
work to be followed, in drawing up agreements, in practising the system of
.exchanges, in. efforts to complete the Entebbe observatory, in computations
and in the office work of all sorts connected with the pay sheets, etc., of the
porters, correspondence and arrangements for transport and food supplies.
On. the 29th a single signal was exchanged by telegraph with Mombasa and
this was the only one occasion throughout the work of the Commission when
this was possible. On this day Capt. Schlobach and Lt. Schwartz left for
Mombasa. On 1st September the twenty porters despatched in the steel
boat from Port Florence on the 18th August arrived at Entebbe-the forty
men in the dhow having come in three days earlier.
Work was continued as .before at Entebbe till Wednesday, 3rd September.
Continual efforts were made to get the telegraph line into working order
without success.
On 3rd September the German Commissioner reached Mombasa and
all was made ready for an exchange of signals.
On Friday, 5th September, the home mail arrived but the only Commission
stores forwarded by the railway were one crowbar and one officer's tent.
Everything else had been delayed by a goods train falling down an embank-
ment. Up till 7th September work continued as before in endeavouring to
complete the work on the observatory, in ineffectual efforts to exchange signals
with Port Florence and Mombasa, in computation and office work. Finally,
I decided to abandon the attempt to get signals through on this section, Port
Florence-Entebbe, to proceed to Port Florence, and to exchange signals with
Mombasa over the permanent telegraph line. As H.M. Commissioner was
unable to permit the Sir William Mackinnon to go until the usual mail day,
12th September, I decided, in order to save time, to .charter a launch, the
"Kampala ", the property of a private firm in Entebbe, for the trip to Port
Florence. This I was able to do for 5 per diem inclusive of expenses and
in order to lessen the charges to the Government I contracted to carry a cargo
of 16,000 lb. of coffee to Port Florence.
I left Entebbe on 8th September with Lt. Behrens. The porters which
had come up with me to Entebbe were left in camp under charge of Dr.
Bagshawe who had arrived to join the Commission.
Immediately on arrival at Port Florence arrangements were made for
erecting a temporary observatory as. at Mombasa and Entebbe. I learnt
here that the Commission stores had been transferred to another train
from the wrecked one but that this second train had also rolled down an
embankment so that nothing had yet arrived although despatched from
Mombasa seventeen days before.
11th September 1902. Work was continued on the observatory but
progress was exasperatingly slow. The railway authorities very kindly allowed
me to use some of their Indian carpenters and labourers on payment but their

style of working was very trying to the patience. Of, a, pary of twenty-six
men clearing the ground twenty-three were at one time observed lying about
smoking and idling, while the other three lazily scratched the surface with
tools. It took eight men a whole day's work to put up the four corner posts
of the observatory, planting them two feet in the ground. A party of,seventy-
four men sent out for reeds and grass were absent all day,and then brought in
four loads of twigs and ten of grass between them. This. in a country where
reeds and grass were close at hand.
14th September 1902. A very heavy thunderstorm passed over Port
Florence. The lightning -struck a house on the hill, not far from the observa-
tory, burning it down and slightly injuring some natives.
15th September 1902. News was received of another train being derailed
at Muhoroni.
16th September 1902. One wagon arrived with part of the Commission
stores, not much the worse for two rolls down hill but three weeks overdue.
17th September 1902. The observatory was finished and ready for work.
20th September 1902. Another good night enabled a whole series of
observations and exchanges to be successfully carried ,out. It got clear at
11 p.m. and remained so till dawn. This was the first night on which
observations could be made at Port Florence and Mombasa simultaneously.
Capt. Harman was now ordered up to Port Florence to take charge of the
observatory, as another successful night's work would enable. me to change
places with the German Commissioner and commence the second series of
exchanges. News was received on this day that the mail train was delayed
at Molo by a derailed goods train of which the engine had fallen over on
the line.
21st September 1902. Another successful programme was carried out,
being commenced at 8 p.m. and finished at 11 p.m. Next day I consulted
with the German Commissioner by telegram and we decided not to attempt
any further exchanges as the results were satisfactory and the German party
were very tired after so many nights' work in succession and having so many
computations to work out.
21st September 1902. Some tents near the observatory were blown-into
the lake.
24th September 1902. Capt. Harman arrived at noon having been
delayed by a series of accidents on the line. The train he was in finally came
to a standstill some few miles from Port Florence. Knowing that I was
anxious for him to arrive he therefore walked in to save time. The German
party left Mombasa on the same day. ,
26th September 1902. I left Port Florence with Lt. Behrens (arriving at
Mombasa on the 29th). Major Bright after handing over at Mombasa left
for Port Florence and Capt. Harman at Port Florence was directed to hand
over to Major Bright and proceed to Entebbe.
9th October 1902. During our absence at the (Mombasa) observatory
four burglars broke into the Uganda Rest House in which we were putting up.
Fortunately they were disturbed by an Indian servant of mine who saw them
go in but thought they were men I had sent to fetch something. Discovering

them in my room about to remove the despatch boxes he asked them what
they wanted. On this a scuffle ensued and, after beating the Indian, the
burglars escaped. Had they succeeded in getting away the despatch" boxes
which contained all the papers, computations, etc., connected with the work
of the Commission, the result would have been very serious. Burglaries in
the houses of Europeans were almost of daily occurrence at Mombasa and
the perpetrators were never brought to book. . .
23rd October 1902. One hundred yards of the telegraph line was removed
by natives in the Nandi country, so that work was impossible till communica-
tion was restored.
28th October 1902. (Two sets of observations were finished.) These
proving satisfactory, the German Commissioner and I decided to consider this
portion of our task completed. The work of obtaining the .difference in
longitude between the given point on the coast and Port Florence had thus
taken three months.
There now still remained the section between Port Florence and Entebbe,
of which the difference in longitude was required, as the next step in the work.
(Lt.-Col. Radcliffe and Lt. Behrens therefore set off at once for Port Florence,
arriving there on 1st November.)
2nd-10th November 1902. (After numerous abortive efforts) the attempt
to get telegraphic exchanges on the wire between Entebbe and Port Florence
was abandoned. The line was in every respect unsuitable to the purpose.
Originally only a telephone line, it was only partially insulated. Earth currents
continually affected the wire. Every thunderstorm in the neighbourhood also,
and an incessant crackling in the instrument, almost daily indicated lightning
somewhere pn the line. Besides this white ants destroyed the poles, the tall
grass grew up and covered the wire in places, trees dropped their branches
on to the wire, sometimes the poles took root and then the bushy growths at
the top enclosed the wire. Cattle and wild animals upset the poles when
rotten or eaten through by white ants, the grass fires damaged both the poles
and wire, finally on one occasion an elephant went off with half a mile of the
wire which had formed a noose round his neck, eventually strangling him after
a terrified flight through the jungle. The dead body was found some forty
miles north of the line in Usoga and the tusks and wire brought in to the
Collector by some natives.
Under these circumstances it is not surprising that the effort to obtain
exchanges of telegraphic signals failed.
11th November 1902. I embarked (at Port Florence) with Major Bright
and all the chronometers, leaving one as a standard in the observatory with
Lt. Behrens.
12th November 1902. We reached Entebbe. The chronometers were at
once taken to the observatory and the comparisons made.
13th November 1902. I discussed plans with the German Commissioner.
I wished to abandon:the attempt to obtain the longitude by chronometer
readings entirely and to execute a triangulation. Capt. Schlobach however,
perhaps not allowing sufficient consideration for the speed with which a
triangulation could be carried round the north of the lake (as eventually was

done), nor for the greater values of the results obtained from the triangulation,
insisted strongly on using chronometer journeys and said the authorities in
Berlin woqld be disappointed if the chronometers were not used after being
sent to far. He however consented to regard the results as provisional only,
to be replaced later by the results of a triangulation which he stated he would
join me in executing on the way back. He also consented to join the British
party in carrying the triangulation from Entebbe to the mouth of the Kagera
The making of the chronometer journeys appeared to me a regrettable
waste of time but I endeavoured to ensure that as little time'as possible should
be lost over them.
The work of preparing the caravan for a start (on the boundary survey)
was continually pushed on, loads packed, repacked and distributed, the porters
paid, and arrangements made for canoes and boats required ifor the parties
proceeding round the lake westwards. During my absence the porters left at
Entebbe had got considerably out of hand, their bad behaviour culminating
in a free fight with the local police. On my arrival I explained to the judge
that the men had been enlisted as military porters and were subject to military
law by which I had power, under the Uganda Military Forces Ordinance, to
deal effectively with the men, the civil law being inadequate to meet the case.
The judge, seeing the force of my contention, agreed that it was best that I
should deal with my men which I accordingly did and no further disturbances
took place.
24th November 1902. The first caravan was despatched from Entebbe
round the lake by land. Two hundred and forty porters with loads left under
the charge of Mr. Doggett, whose services had very kindly been lent to me by
Col. Hayes-Sadler to assist in making collections of natural history specimens
near the boundary. This ,caravan was directed to march to Masaka in the
first instance where Dr. Bagshawe, Medical Officer of the Commission, and a
portion of the escort would meet it.
From Masaka the combined caravan would march to Msozi, near the
mouth pf the Kagera river, and await my arrival. Elaborate arrange-
ments had been made at Masaka to collect a large supply of food as I had
been informed by the local officials and the German officers that a sufficient
supply for large caravans would be difficult to obtain near the actual boundary.
Col. Hayes-Sadler had also very kindly consented to allow me to use a
sufficient number of Government mules to mount all the officers of the
Boundary Commission. The animals were collected at Masaka and marched
on with the caravan to Msozi. These animals proved invaluable, in fact it is
not too much to say that the work would have taken half as long again
without them; and it was very clearly evident that riding animals for work
of this kind are quite indispensable. The only quadruped with the Commission
up to this was an Arab pony of my own which, after doing a great deal of
work, died later from tsetse fly sickness contracted in the Kagera valley.
26th November 1902. The first triangulation parties left Entebbe.
(From 28th November 1902 to 5th January 1903 triangulation work proceeded
without special incident.)

6th Jtnuary 1903. (At Mizinda.) Capt. Schlobach requested me in the
morning to see-his escort at drill. I went to his camp and saw about thirty
men turned out who certainly gave an extraordinary example of perfection
in drill and manual and firing exercises. I should have thought it impossible
to drill Swahili troops to such a pitch of excellence and it was far in advance
of anything to be seen in our Protectorate. The drill, so far as precision was
concerned, was equal to that seen at an Autumn Inspection of the Prussian
Guards. The men however were not very well dressed and, being Swahilis,
were certainly not equal to our Sudanese as fighters.
28th January 1903. (At Bujaju.) I heard that Capt. Schlobach who had
occupied the trigonometrical station at Simba had left his post before the
observations -were completed on the intervisibility of Simba- and Dumo.
1st February 1903. (At Dumo.) I heard from Capt. Schlobach to the
effect that he had returned to Simba but not being inclined to waste any
more time or to stay any longer on British Territory he was about to quit
his post, leaving as he said, an officer to represent the German Commission.
If the German officers had up to this point done their share of the work on
the triangulations, and without making any time-robbing mistakes, the work
would have been finished long before. The fact that Capt. Schlobach had
now decided practically to leave that portion of the work to be completed by
the British Commission though unsatisfactory in one sense was in another
not disadvantageous. Having only my own party to consider, my hands were
freer and this would, I knew, enable the work to be finished much more
rapidly. I therefore accepted the situation without protest.
16th March 1903. I started down the Kagera (from Ulembe) in canoes
to survey the course of the river, sending the caravan by road to Msozi. I
was overtaken by darkness half-way to the lake and finally reached camp at
midnight. During the run down the river in the darkness one of the canoes
was slightly damaged by a hippopotamus. Fortunately no one was thrown
into the water. A man's fate in such a case can be easily imagined for the
river was swarming with crocodiles of extraordinary boldness. One, not long
after the hippopotamus had struck the canoe, seized a paddle and dragged it
from the hand of the paddler holding it. No doubt he had tried to seize the
hand itself. The Baganda canoemen, and in fact all of us, were much relieved
on getting out of this winding river, where in the dark a whole boatload of
men might at any moment have been capsized into the water to become helpless
prey of the crocodiles, or drowned. The dense wall of papyrus, the rapid
currents and the deep water would have made it practically impossible to
get out.
19th March 1903. I marched (from Kanabulemu) to Minziro. Special
precautions for safeguarding the camp had to be taken here as the natives
had a very sinister reputation, being to a large extent refugees from the law
from both Uganda and German territory. Minziro being a hill-island,
surrounded in all directions by swamp and almost impenetrable forest, it
afforded a comparatively safe asylum for evildoers.
21st March 1903. I shifted camp to the south end of the Minziro range.
On my arrival at this camp the young chief, a boy of fourteen, came to pay us

a visit bringing with him the body of a python nineteen feet long which had
just been killed after having seized a dog in the village.
22nd March 1903. I marched to Kakindo. On arrival I was met by
runners bringing letters from the German Authorities at Bukoba complaining,
in very indignant terms, that English troops had been seizing cattle forcibly
at Kigarama and had driven them across the Kagera. I knew that the story
must be absolutely devoid of foundation for it was quite impossible for any
English askari to have ever been anywhere near the place referred to. How-
ever I decided that it would be best to thrash the matter out thoroughly in
conjunction with the German officials in order that they might see how baseless
their complaints were and how anxious I was that they should have no cause
for any complaints even quite apart from the fact that the discipline of the
British escort rendered an incident of this kind simply unthinkable.
24th March 1903. I marched to Kivumbero a German port on the
Kagera in charge of an old Sudanese soldier usually under the influence of
drink and of the most impertinent bearing I had ever seen in any soldier in
any country. Besides this old soldier there was a nefarious scoundrel of an
Arab--styled the Liwali of Kivumbero-as the head of the Arab community.
This community was a relic of the old ivory and slave trading days. The
aspect of the inhabitants of this extensive settlement caused me to form
instantly the impression that the old trade had not been forgotten and possibly
still was secretly indulged in to some extent. The settlement itself was a
remarkable sight in the heart of Africa, consisting of large and fairly well
built thatched houses extending for a long distance up and down the river on
the right bank. Each house had large gardens with pomegranates, limes,
mangoes, bananas, sugar cane, vegetables and cereals-the whole an exact
reproduction of an Arab settlement in the Coast region. I crossed the Kagera
at the ferry at 2 p.m., swimming the riding animals across the river and taking
up my quarters in a somewhat dilapidated kind of rest hquse in rear of the
small fort.
26th March 1903. (At Buyanga.) Paymaster Rehse arrived from
Bukoba to represent the German authorities in the investigation of the matter
of the charges which had been made against the English askaris of looting
cattle in German territory. The herdman of the local native chief Kartasigwa
of Kigarama and three other witnesses came in. There was no difficulty
whatever in proving that the whole charge was a trumped-up one. The only
,vestige of a foundation for the story lay in the fact that long before, some time
before we left Mizinda, Major- Bright's cowman had exchanged a cow with
another man in Kigarama. Paymaster Rehse entirely agreed with me and
stated he would report to Bukoba accordingly. The necessity of having to
clear up this ridiculous matter, which should have been properly investigated
by the German officials before being developed as it was, cost me several days
of my valuable time.
1st April 1903. (At Bugoroba.) I was obliged to kill a savage.bull in
camp in the morning. The brute came into the camp three times during the
night, partially threw down my tent, completely demolished those of some
porters, and very nearly succeeded in injuring some of the men. It was.

impossible to shoot him in the dark and confusion of the camp but he came
again after daylight and deliberately charged straight among the porters,
upsetting and tearing two tents into tatters. I therefore killed him and issued
a ration of beef to all the porters. I gathered that this bull had been known
for some time in the neighbourhood. He was nominally the property of the
chief but had been very troublesome. An ineffectual attempt had been made
to kill him by some German officers whose camp he had visited and I found
spear and arrow wounds in his body. As I knew what complexion the affair
would assume when reported to Bukoba, and how indignant the German
authorities might be, I wrote an official letter at once and sent it off by runner
describing and explaining the circumstances. Some days later I received a
reply acknowledging my letter and thanking me for my courtesy.
2nd April 1903. I marched to Kivumbero. I had been informed by
Paymaster Rehse that the rest house was not intended for officers and that I
should certainly put up in a little fort where a better house had been built
for the convenience of Europeans. I gave the headman of, my caravan
therefore instructions to put my things into the house in the fort. On
arriving in camp myself I found the caravan at the rest house as before and
on making inquiry heard that the askari in charge had come down to the fort
and making a great uproar, being drunk, had turned all my people out, on the
grounds that the house in the fort was intended for German officers only.
3rd April 1903. I shifted camp across the river early and continued my
survey during the day. On getting to camp in the evening I learnt that the
drunken askari had made a further disturbance when my caravan crossed.
He had come down with a rifle in his hand and loading it, demanded who was
responsible for the caravan crossing without his leave ". Fortunately at this
juncture he all but fell off the landing stage into the rivei dropping his rifle
which sank at once in eighteen feet of very rapid water. I sent a report to
Bukoba concerning the manner in which this man had behaved towards my
caravan and heard later that he had been removed on appearing drunk before
a German officer who gave him a severe beating.
19th April 1903. I met Lt. Weiss (of the German Commission) near
Butakia also engaged on topography. He described to me his adventures
while surveying the course of the Kagera in canoes. It appeared that he had
been repeatedly, attacked by hippopotami, his very large and heavy dug-out
canoes being nearly swamped, some property being lost, and men several times
thrown into the river. Finally the paddlers left the canoes, refused to go on
the river any more, and decamped with the. paddles leaving the canoes in
the papyrus.
24th April 1903. (Six miles west of Mugabbi.) The insignia of the
D.S.O. arrived from Entebbe to be presented to Capt. Harman for his services
with the Lango Expedition in 1901. The presentation was duly carried out.
14th May 1903. (Near Mulema.) I started survey at 6 a.m. and finished
the group of hills east of the Kafunzo stream down to the Kagera River,
returning to camp at 8 p.m. I saw large quantities of game during the day,
eland, impalla, zebra, oribi, reedbuck, waterbuck and topi.
16th May 1903. During the morning I met a party of four lions on a

small knoll on which I had set up my plane-table. Two of the four made a
simultaneous and quite unprovoked charge and were shot. I could not spare
time to go after the others as they took a direction away from where I
intended to survey.
20th May 1903. During the afternoon a large herd of buffalo was met
and a bull killed after being wounded and charging twice. On the way home
the guides lost their way in the dark and as I felt sure they were wrong and no
stars were visible I decided to bivouac. At midnight a fire was made and we
slept till 3 a.m.
21st May 1903. Lions were heard roaring in four directions at the same
time around our bivouac. At 3 a.m. some stars appeared and I led the party
back to camp, getting'in at 5 a.m. Several men who had failed to keep up
straggled in during the day-many of them having spent the rest of the night
in trees and all of them with blood-curdling accounts of their narrow escapes
from lions. As a matter of fact this district had a bad reputation for lions
among the natives who were terrified of passing through it except in large
parties. We had frequent evidence that people had been attacked and killed
by lions and some individuals were brought iAto our camp from time to time
for treatment. The conduct of the lions I met bore out the comment of my
Sudanese orderly who remarked that they were "lacking in respect for the
sons of men".
30th May 1903. (At 1 5' South latitude, 31 16' East longitude.)
I had a good deal of trouble with the local Baganda porters. They endeavoured
now to refuse to fulfil the contract on which they had engaged to work,
claiming to be paid off before the time was up and objecting to marching
any farther.
3rd June 1903. (Bank of Kagera river 1 15' South latitude, 31' 19'
East longitude.) One of the porters found a young sing-sing waterbuck not
three days old. It was brought into camp and eventually throve wonderfully
and was brought to England.
4th June 1903. Three of the new Baganda porters and all of the men
carrying the reserve supply of food-twenty bags of beans-disappeared
during the night: Information was sent to the chiefs from whom they were
engaged, to have them apprehended.
6th June 1903. Sixteen more of the Baganda porters deserted.
8th June 1903. I received a report from Capt. Harman that an unarmed
party of porters had been attacked near Rukirra in German territory by
natives and that thirteen men had been killed and two wounded. As this
attack was reported to have taken place in German territory I sent the informa-
tion on to Bukoba in order that action might be taken by the German
authorities. Orders were at once sent to Capt. Harman to hold a court of
inquiry on the incident and to forward the proceedings to me.
10th June 1903. '(At 1 3' South latitude, 31 6' East longitude.) A
report was received from Capt. Harman to the effect that he had recovered
and buried the bodies of all thirteen men murdered.
13th June 1903. I received an official letter from Capt. Schlobach
referring to the attack on the porters near Rukirra in which he endeavoured

to throw the blame of the incident on the English officers and porters. A
letter also came from Bukoba announcing the immediate despatch of a small
body of troops to punish the natives.
16th June 1903. The Baganda porters who had deserted were brought
back into camp by their own chiefs for punishment. They were sent to
Mulema camp under escort to be dealt with and paid the arrears of pay which,
properly speaking, they had forfeited.
19th June 1903. (At 1' 4' South latitude, 31 0' East longitude.) I
received a letter from Capt. Schlobach asserting that he had been informed
that I had been seen surveying in latitude 1* 51 South and stating that he was
at a loss to understand why I was surveying so far within German territory.
I reminded him that our orders were to survey for ten miles on each side of
the boundary.
20th June 1903. The evidence collected by the Court of Inquiry on the
catastrophe in the Shagasha valley proved that an entirely unprovoked attack
had been made, with premeditation, on a perfectly unarmed and inoffensive
party of porters and soldiers qn fatigue duty collecting wood. -No motive
could be assigned for the attack beyond a general hostility of the natives
towards outsiders. This hostility was not specially directed towards people
in British employ and the natives had up to the time of the attack been very
friendly with our people. It was a fact however that German officials had
previously taken a punitive expedition into this valley and it was also a fact
that the attack coincided with the arrival of the German caravans at Rukirra.
25th June 1903. (At Nikorora.) I received copies of the German survey
as far as the longitude of Kwa Kikobe from Lake Victoria. Unfortunately
they proved quite useless for the purpose of being compiled into the British
survey. I therefore decided to complete the whole survey independently of the
German Commission.
27th June 1903. Survey continued as usual. The haze was very trouble-
some and was chiefly due to the natives burning the grass south of the Kagera.
All the natives on the British side of the boundary had been warned, and
refrained from burning the grass, but on the German side burning continued.
Work was therefore almost impossible.
1st July 1903. (At Burumba hill.) The Mohammedan chief, Abdul
Effendi of Bukanga, came to meet me. I was very glad to have the oppor-
tunity of thanking this chief. for the very efficient manner in which he had
rationed my caravan throughout the time I was marching about in Bukanga
and for help he had given under all circumstances. Abdul Effendi was a
man of remarkably good manners and pleased everyone with the Boundary
Commission very much, both now and later. It was remarked by all how
superior this chief, in his own bearing and in the control he exercised over his
people, appeared to be compared with the Christian chiefs. The behaviour
of the Mohammedan natives also was extremely good-they gave us willing
assistance at all times and never caused the slightest trouble, doing any work
required of them without hesitation and very well. With the Christian natives,
I regret to say, we had a good deal of trouble in petty ways.
7th July 1903. Duhara, the chief of Ruampara, one of the great Ankole

chiefs, came to visit me and to complain of natives from the German side
raiding his country. I told him the work we were engaged on was to fix the
boundary and that after the German Commission and I had completed our
task no more raiding would be allowed.
10th August 1903. (At Kiswera.) I received a letter from Capt.
Schlobach who was very anxious to dissuade me from completing the survey
south of the first parallel South latitude, and stated that the Governor of
German East Africa had directed that the English escort could not be permitted
to cross the first parallel. I reminded him that my orders were to survey ten
miles on each side of the boundary, that these instructions had been agreed
to in Berlin, that my own escort would of course accompany me, and that I.
could not accept any instructions from Dar-es-Salaam. I also pointed out that
no exception had been taken on the British side to the German escort accom-
panying the German Commissioners and being camped for months together
in country admittedly on the English side of the boundary, as at Nyangoma.
26th August 1903. (At Gamba.) Further letters were received from
Capt. Schlobach and the authorities at Bukoba endeavouring to prevent me
from surveying south of the first parallel. They were replied to with as much
conciliation as possible but adhering to the sense of my former letters on the
same subject.
21st September 1903. (At 30* 41' East longitude, on the Kagera.) I
again received a communication from Capt. Schlobach in which he made fresh
efforts to prevent my surveying south of the first parallel South latitude. I
wrote to him explaining that I must carry out the orders I had received and
had no choice in the matter. It was reported by all the natives near the first
parallel that the Germans had forbidden the natives to sell supplies to the
British camps. I could scarcely believe that the German officers could have
given such orders but it was very likely the askari and headmen with the
Germans had done so as they appeared to do quite as they pleased. The
German askari seemed to have no discipline whatever off the parade ground,
oh which however their training is extraordinarily good.
2nd October 1903. (At 1" 1' South latitude, 30* 31' East longitude.) I
met Lt. Weiss near his camp. He informed me that Capt. Schlobach was
surveying with Feldwebel (Colour Sergeant) Buchner in the Ruchigga
3rd October 1903. Lt. Weiss pitched his camp two hundred yards from
the British camp. He informed me that in Ruchigga, near the western end of
the boundary, the natives had raided Capt. Schlobach's cattle and carried them
off under the noses of the guard at night.
11th October 1903. The natives complained of their treatment by the
askari and men of Lt. Weiss' caravan. One man having been beaten while
bringing in food close to my camp, I requested Lt. Weiss to take notice of
the case and he accordingly had the offending askari flogged in my presence.
12th October 1903. Capt. Schlobach came into camp.
13th October 1903. I had a discussion with Capt. Schlobach as to the
arrangements to be made for fixing the boundary pillars. He declined entirely
to discuss any new boundary with which to replace the present theoretical one,

stating he had direct orders to refrain from doing so and was to mark the
existing line only. Capt. Schlobach again attempted to dissuade me from
completing my survey south of the first parallel and also raised the question
of the escort again. Finding that I was firm on both points he stated he
would still send an escort under Feldwebel Buchner to accompany me-one
of his chief preoccupations being a dread that I should exercise any sovereign
rights" (hoheits rechte) while south of the first parallel. In spite of the
divergence of our views in this matter Capt. Schlobach and I. remained
excellent friends as always and we were personally as cordial as ever. He
gave me much useful information concerning the country I was about to
survey, having an experience of it dating some years back. I, in return, gave
him material to assist the completion of his topography and made arrange-
ments for feeding his caravans north of the Kagera river.
14th October 1903. Capt. Schlobach left my camp for his own standing
camp near Karongo ferry on the Kagera river.
16th October 1903. (Near the Kasanda swamp.) I lost an hour in the
afternoon digging out a bull belonging to Capt. Schlobach from a very deep
game pit into which it had been allowed to fall by a stupid herdsman, who,
with tears in his eyes, besought me to help him.
28th October 1903. I shifted camp to near Mijerra--calling it Kivungo
from the district in which it lay. On arrival in camp at 8 p.m. I -found a
message from Lugarama, chief of Kazara, that he was unable to come and
see me, as I had requested him to do, because he had a sore foot. This was
one whom I had been warned against, as almost certain to forcibly resist the
movements of the Commission through his country. However, Capt. Harman's
tactful dealings with him when passing through Kazara with the advance
party had partially reassured him though, fearing treachery, he could not
summon up courage to visit me. But he sent me a cow as a present to indicate
29th October 1903. I despatched Mukudde, a Zjuganda sub-chief from
Budda, who had accompanied me throughout the work of the expedition, to
interview Lugarama, to reassure him and persuade him to pay me a visit.
I felt that a good deal would have been gained if Lugarama could be induced
to come himself to my camp and be made to realize that the Administration
was well disposed towards him.
30th October 1903. Lugarama came in at last, very nervous and clearly
thinking himself in great danger. Mukudde reported that three times he had
returned to his village and that he, Mukudde, had to return and bring him out
again each time. I had a long interview with Lugarama during the evening,
in the presence of Mr. Dashwood (the Collector of Mbarara) and Dr. Bagshawe,
and endeavoured to calm his fears, pointing out that it was the wish of the
Government to be his friend and protect him, not to look upon him as an
enemy. A handsome present of cloth at the end of his interview seemed to
please him very much. Information came in from Lt. Weiss in the evening
that he was in great difficulties about food. I therefore sent off at once
enough beans to last his caravan for a whole month and sheep for himself
sufficient for a similar period. It appeared that the natives objected strongly

to supplying his caravan with food on account of the manner in which his
men behaved. The natives appeared willing enough to sell food to us as
they got well paid in the British camp. It was stated that the German askari
took food by force and flogged the natives who hesitated to supply them.
I sent a sub-chief to Lt. Weiss begging him at the same time to let the sub-chief
make all arrangements for his supplies as he was authorized by me to do so.
After this I heard that no more trouble on this score was experienced.
31st October 1903. Mr. Dashwood left camp to return to Mbarara. In
the evening I had another interview with Lugarama who seemed much less
nervous than before.
1st November 1903. Lugarama returned to his own village in the morn-
ing and it was amusing to witness the delight with which his followers exhibited
the new white clothing which my present to their chief had been the means
of their possessing. Before he left camp I suggested to Lugarama that he
should pay a visit to the Government station at Mbarara. This he refused to
do most emphatically and displayed such terror at the bare idea that I thought
it best to let the matter drop for the present though I meant to get him to do
it before I left his part of the country.
6th November 1903. (At Rukirra.) Lugarama came in to see me and
seemed to have got more confidence. On pressing him to go to Mbarara he
said that he was afraid to go with anyone but me. As I was now his
father" he said he would go anywhere I chose to take him. I thought it
well to leave the matter at this stage now but as I could not possibly spare
time to take him to Mbarara myself I hoped later on to persuade him to go
in with Capt. Harman, whom he knew and in whom he would have confidence.
It was clear to me that not only did he dread the Government station but also
the King of Ankole and the other chiefs and sub-chiefs among whom he had
doubtless many enemies. He was probably well aware that these individuals
had done all they could to blacken his character and injure him by describing
him as irreconcilably hostile.
8th November 1903. Lugarama came in to camp of his own accord to
present to me two of his sub-chiefs. Through Lugarama I sent friendly
messages to Makaburi, chief of Ruzumburu, another chief who was thought
hostile and whom H.M. Commissioner at Entebbe had requested me to deal
with when' the opportunity offered.
10th November 1903. (At 0* 56' South latitude, 30* 31 East longitude.)
I had a letter from Capt. Schlobach informing me that he had placed an
escort under Feldwebel Buchner to accompany me, that he himself was not
going to do any more surveying, and that he hoped to meet me in Entebbe
to which place he intended to go from Bukoba.
11th November 1903. I sent off a reply to Capt. Schlobach informing
him that I had not yet received final orders to go or not to go to Mfumbiro
and that the date of my return to Entebbe depended on that.
12th November 1903. We had an opportunity of observing the timidity
of the natives in the neighbourhood of the thirtieth meridian and probably orn
Congo territory. On observing us they flung down all they carried and rushed
madly off into the grass in the effort to escape.

15th November 1903. I shifted camp to the east side of Ihunga. A
civil message came in during the day from Makaburi saying that he would
be glad to see me in his own country but could not come out of it.
16th November 1903. I worked over the Ihunga mountain, climbing it
from the east and passing down the west side. On reaching the valley I met
Feldwebel Buchner with about fifteen German askari. Feldwebel Buchner
reported himself to me and stated he had orders to escort me. if I crossed the
first parallel into German territory. He informed me that he understood
the English escort was not to accompany me. I told him that I could not
admit that -this was German territory-as the question of Mfumbiro had not
been settled and that wherever I went I should be accompanied by my own
escort and that Capt. Schlobach had already been informed to this effect.
Feldwebel Buchner then informed me that he must report to Bukoba and at
the same time carry out his orders of escorting me. I told him that of course
I should not think of interfering with his performance of his duty and that I
had no objection whatever to his following me about with his party. His.
manner was perfectly civil and respectful and confirmed me in my impression
of him as an excellent and valuable N.C.O. I knew him also to be a really
first-rate topographer and surveyor generally.
17th November 1903. I shifted camp to a point in latitude 1' 2' South
and longitude 30* 2' East, the German party camping close by. I surveyed
all day long, followed everywhere up and down some very steep hills by the
Germans. Feldwebel Buchner had told me he was fond of walking. A
messenger came in during the day from Lugarama and I sent him back to him
tt say that I expected him to accompany Capt. Harman back to Mbarara,
Capt. Harman having undertaken to go with him to visit the station and to
bring him back again safely to me.
18th November 1903. I surveyed all day along the steep ridge south of
the camp. The road back in the dark was very difficult to find. I noticed
that Feldwebel Buchner seemed less fond of walking and after 5 p.m. I did
not see him again.
19th November 1903. I surveyed all day as usual. I shifted camp into
latitude 1 3' South and longitude 30* 2' East. The natives all around seemed
extraordinarily nervous but I succeeded in partially reassuring them by sending
men ahead to shout down into the deep cleft-like valleys where the villages
were situated that we were friends and that they should not run away. Still
we continually saw women and children carrying away their property to hide,
and men driving their cattle and goats off in a great hurry. It appeared that
their former acquaintance with the ways of white men had not left them with
very agreeable recollections of them.
20th November 1903. The natives all round seemed very excited. I
learnt that the German askari had caught some and in other places had taken
goats, chickens and food from them without payment. This made it the more
difficult for me to deal with them. A messenger came in from Lugarama to
-say that one of his sub-chiefs had been killed by another man who was
endeavouring to steal some of Lugarama's cattle and make off with them to
German territory. The chief had himself been killed in the encounter and

thelcattle recovered so nothing remained to be done. The incident is merely
mentioned as bearing on the reports continually made by the natives that the
German officials were very anxious to increase the head of cattle in their
territory, refusing to allow any to be exported and encouraging all their chiefs
to increase their stock as much as possible. Paltry thefts are constantly taking
place along the border and the chiefs on the German side invoke the
protection of the authorities, to avoid being made to return them.
21st November 1903. The natives were still very nervous but on my
making efforts to reassure them some came up with presents of food and native
beer and accompanied me about all day.
24th November 1903. I shifted camp into latitude 1' 7T South and
longitude 30* 2' East. The small German detachment followed and camped
close by soon after. In the afternoon one of the German boys was beaten
by some natives who, noisy and drunken, surrounded the watering place.
The boy's cut head was bandaged by Dr. Bagshawe and, in order to prevent
anything more serious happening, I told off a water guard and gave orders
that all the water for the day was to be drawn at certain times under escort.
Very strict orders were given" that no fighting was to be commenced by anyone
on our side.
25th November 1903. (At latitude 1* 7T South, longitude 30* 2' East.)
About nooa information reached camp that a small party from Rukirra
carrying letters had been treacherously attacked in the Shagasha valley, about
four miles north of the camp, and one headman of porters murdered while an
askari was missing. The valley in which the attack took place was the same
one in which the porters had been attacked in June. I heard from the natives
and later from the Germans themselves that an officer from Bukoba had
attacked these same people a year or so before. The conduct of the natives
now was no doubt due to the treatment they met with then, especially as the
German patrol despatched from Bukoba in June to avenge the murder of our
porters had done absolutely nothing. I was unable to leave camp because
my porters were all away fetching a number of food loads from Rukirra and,
for safety's sake, I had to wait for their return. Missing me they might have
become further involved with the natives. However, Feldwebel Buchner said
he would go to the scene of the attack and camp there with his askari. He
left accordingly at 4 p.m.
26th November 1903. I surveyed again. During the day I had a boma
built round the camp as a precautionary measure. I returned to camp at
8 p.m. and then heard that the party of six men who had come out from
Rukirra thb day before to inform me of the attack on the mail escort had
been ambuscaded by natives on the top of the hill near a cliff. I*had warned
them to be well on the look out and not to hesitate to fire if attacked. The
natives rushed at them from some trees twenty yards from the path but the
Sudanese succeeded in killing three of their assailants, wounding three others,
and driving the remainder over the cliff. I thought after this there would not
be ,much inclination to ambuscade our Sudanese any more.
Feldwebel Buchner came back during the day carrying the Sudanese who
had been missing, on a stretcher. He had been found by a party of our men

from Rukirra endeavouring to make his way back to camp. His wounds
were a deep stab in the back and another in the ankle. Feldwebel Buchner
carefully bound up his wounds and brought him to the Doctor. The attack
apparently was made at 7 p.m. 'The small party of three men and one
headman of porters had lost their way and were asking the natives how to get
to my camp. The headman of porters was at once killed. The wounded
askari had been speared in the back but had pulled the spear from his own
wound and killed his assailant with it. His rifle had been dragged from him
and so he had lain in the grass till the morning and then tried to return to
camp. Fortunately he found the rifle of one of the two other men. These
had bolted in a cowardly and unsoldierlike manner, one of them throwing his
rifle away. The wounded man was found by the natives in the morning and
they endeavoured to kill him but he defended himself pluckily in spite 'of his
wounds. After he had shot eight of them they left him alone and he hobbled.
and crawled in the direction of Rukirra camp. The conduct of the two men
who ran away was so unlike that of ordinary Sudanese that I inquired into
their antecedents and found that they were not Sudanese at all but were
" boys enlisted in Uganda. They were later both tried and sentenced to two
years imprisonment with hard labour and discharge with ignominy. The
utmost indignation at their conduct was shown by the men and native officers
of the Company. The body of the murdered headman was buried by
Feldwebel Buchner's party. I decided to take no action against the natives in
this valley because in the first instance it had not been settled whether the
valley was within the German or the British sphere, secondly I had no time to
spare for punitive operations and thirdly all the natives being thoroughly
on the qui vive it would have been a matter of weeks to bring the people
concerned to book. I thought it better that the incident should be left until
it could be handled judicially by either the British or German authorities as
the case might be later on. A general attack on the people in the valley
would have resulted only in some innocent people being punished and the
guilty escaping. The German authorities made strenuous efforts to prove that
this and the former attack was due to the hostility which the English askari
and porters had excited among the natives-a view for which there was not
the smallest foundation in fact. My conversation with natives from all the
surrounding valleys led me on the contrary to believe that the conduct of the
Germans during the Boundary Commission and on previous occasions was the
sole cause of the outrages. On our side of the boundary from first to last we
never had the slightest trouble or sign of hostility from the natives. On the
contrary our relations were of the friendliest.
28th November 1903. In order to survey the hills to the south-west it
was necessary to cross a very deep swamp of liquid, unfathomable mud about
three hundred yards broad. The natives stated it was impossible to cross it
and Feldwebel Buchner, who had been surveying in the neighbourhood for
two years previously, informed me it could not be bridged. However I thought
it worth trying and decided to make a causeway with bundles of reeds and
grass. Setting all the porters to work at 6 a.m., under Dr. Bagshawe's super-
intendence, a very practical road across the swamp was completed by dark.

29th November 1903. The whole caravan crossed at 6 a.m., much to the
surprise and alarm of the natives on the other side who had counted on the
swamp as an insurmountable obstacle. All the villages were deserted and
the natives gathered in threatening groups on the hill-tops. I did my best to
reassure them as to my benevolent intentions but, though some individuals
came in and a flourishing market was always in full swing near the camp,
the bulk of the population maintained an attitude of suspicion, the cattle were
driven away and the women and children disappeared. My stay was too
short and r was too much otherwise occupied to be able to establish the
friendly relations we had with the natives everywhere in British territory.
30th November 1903. The natives, wherever I went, ran away as usual
or collected into armed groups watching my movements.
1st December 1903. The conduct of the Baganda porters was very bad
about now and they resorted to every trick to avoid doing the small amount
of work required of them. A climax came when seven were reported for
refusing to obey an order to fetch water. The flogging of all seven had a
salutary effect on them and the remainder, putting an end to this trouble for
some time.
4th December 1903. (At latitude 1' 9' South, longitude 30* 10' East.)
A food caravan came in from Rukirra bringing mails and a report from
Capt. Harman concerning his visit to Mbarara with Lugarama, which was
perfectly satisfactory. The chief announced after it that "his heart and the
hearts of all his people were now still ". Friendly messages were also received
from Makaburi though it was evident that a little more coaxing was required
to induce him to follow Lugarama's example, which, however, had much
impressed all the surrounding natives.
5th December 1903. Dr. Bagshawe marched with all the available porters
to Kivungo to obtain a fresh supply of food, returning to camp at 8 p.m. I
had arranged that the whole time I was surveying south of the first parallel
South latitude every morsel of food consumed by my caravan and escort should
be obtained from the food depots which I had established to the north of the
first parallel. I did this in order to avoid any possibility of friction with the
German authorities who I knew would immediately accuse me of interfering
with their natives if I asked any man to sell a couple of eggs or a handful
of flour. Although I had refused to recognize the country west of 300 20'
East longitude, though south of the first parallel, as being German territory,
I still thought it advisable to'give no opportunity for raising a controversy on
any point. The necessity of obtaining all my supplies from a distance involved
a considerable strain on the transport but it worked perfectly throughout.
6th December 1903. I surveyed as usual all day. A large quantity of
game was seen again in the plains-zebra, topi, eland, reedbuck and oribi
being the most abundant.
10th December 1903. I shifted camp (from beacon XVII) nine miles
to the north and close to the Rufua river. Surveying all day as usual I
passed Feldwebel Buchner who was endeavouring to shoot some hartebeesfe.
Feldwebel Buchner had refrained from accompanying me since the first busy
day he had with me, his desire for walking having apparently been satisfied

on that occasion. He sent out however a small patrol of four or six men
every day who followed me about at a distance-what their exact functions
were supposed to be I could not ascertain. I usually had an escort of fifteen
Sudanese with me and to look on the six Swahili askari as a protection would
have been absurd. On the other hand the idea that thest men were intended
to prevent my intriguing with the German natives (this appeared a constant
source of anxiety to my German colleague), or from annexing any portion of
the country, was equally absurd. During the day I killed a good male roan
antelope and sent the skin and skeleton across to Kivungo to Mr. Doggett
for preservation.
11th December 1903. Crossing a small ravine I suddenly came upon a
small troop of lions-two of them standing facing me and growling. I shot
them both as soon as I could get a rifle. They however disappeared into the
long grass. After searching for some time I thought it better to leave them
till next day and continue my survey at once, losing thus as little time as
possible. The German askari very nearly blundered on to the wounded lions
by not following my tracks. I sent word to them to keep behind me for fear
of accidents and also next day as I intended to follow up the wounded
12th December 1903. I left camp at 4 a.m. and picked up the track of
the troop of lions again at 6 a.m. In half an hour I found the lions and
killed the two wounded ones, which showed temper. I then continued survey-
ing and returned to camp at 8 p.m. I noticed that the German askari did not
come near me during the day, to the amusement of my Sudanese.
14th December 1903. The caravan marched in to Rukirra. Lugarama
came in and asked permission to shift his own village again to the north side
of the Karenge Lake into Kazara where he used to live formerly. I informed
him the Administration would be very glad if he would do so.
16th December 1903. I persuaded Feldwebel Buchner to send a message
through German territory while I would send off at 5 a.m. on the 17th a
letter carried by two Baganda runners to cross the Kagera at Nsongezi and go
to Bukoba via Kivumbero. My letters were to inform Capt. Schlobach of my
movements, that I should probably not have to go to Mfumbiro, and that I
should now work eastwards again completing the small area of survey left to
be done south of the Kagera.
19th December 1903. Capt. Harman and I completed the fixing of the
permanent marks at the ends of the Rukirra base: Dr. Bagshawe left at noon
with the first caravan for Kivungo on the return journey. Feldwebel Buchner
also marched off eastwards from the German camps. Lugarama came in to
bid me farewell and promised me that he would remain on good terms with
the station at Mbarara. He expressed great gratitude for the treatment he
had met with and said he wished to send a present of some cows to the king
of England. I explained to him that the English did not want presents or
cattle from the natives, only that they should be friendly and well behaved.
25th December 1903. (At Kivungo.) The Baganda runners which I
hall sent off on the 17th returned during the day having reached Bukoba early
on the 20th. They passed the German letter carriers half way to Bukoba when

they were coming back themselves. The distance covered by the Baganda
runners would not have been less than fifty miles a day.
An effort was made to celebrate Christmas Day and I sent Feldwebel
Buchner, who was camped five miles away, a present of six bottles of wine,
receiving in reply a flowery letter of thanks and good wishes in English
from him.
27th December 1903. An awkward situation had arisen with the local
natives as Kisrebombo, the local chief, who lived in German territory, refused
to allow the natives living north of the boundary to sell supplies to the English
camp. I therefore called for the sub-chiefs living on the English side of the
boundary, Kaviungo, Kanyantinda and Magamba, and sent them to Mbarara
to see the Collector there as an intimation that they must understand on which
side of the boundary they were living.
28th December 1903. The natives near the camp petitioned to be allowed
to bring in themselves all the supplies required as before. This was of course
agreed to and no further trouble occurred concerning the supplies.
1st January 1904. I marched off at 2 p.m. crossing the Rufua and
camping at 5 p.m. about five miles south-east of Kivungo camp.
2nd January 1904. I marched off at 8 a.m., found the Kachwamba
impassable at the point where we struck it, so marched upstream for three
miles to a point where it was possible to ford it in water about breast-deep.
I camped a mile east of the crossing place. I saw large herds of game in all
directions including a herd of about three hundred eland. A note arrived
from Mr. Doggett in the evening to say that German askari were smashing
all the canoes on the Kagera which they could lay their hands on. This I
knew they intended to do in order to make communication across the river
impracticable. As this proceeding would have made it impossible for me to
recross the river after I had completed my contemplated survey on the south
side, I directed Mr. Doggett to arrange a ferry with the help of Kamswaga of
Koki, the Chief Abdul Effendi of Bukanga, and Chief Duhara of Ruampara,
at the point where both banks of the Kagera were within British territory. A
couple of small canoes were later procured and dragged with great trouble
from a considerable distance to Nsongezi where they were launched and
lashed together forming a fairly stable ferry which would be punted by a pole
across the stream at a suitable and sufficiently shallow spot.
4th January 1904. On reaching camp at 8 p.m. I found a letter from
Dr. Bagshawe bringing me the melancholy news of the death of Mr. Doggett
from drowning at Nsongezi. It appeared he had been out collecting specimens
of fish, which I had directed him to do, in the small dugouts lashed together
which served as a ferry boat. He had had two men with him and by some
unexplained manner all three had been thrown into the water. Mr. Doggett
and one of the men were drowned at once, the other man saved himself by
getting hold of some overhanging branches and pulling himself out. He ran
to the camp and got help from the guard. When they returned to the spot
nothing was found but the canoes floating right side up with Mr. Doggett's
fishing things and a book still -in them. The sole survivor could give no
coherent account of the catastrophe and probably found himself in the water

without knowing how he got there. Mr. Doggett's death at the age of twenty-
seven years was particularly sad and a matter for the deepest regret to all the
officers of the Boundary Commission. He was an exceedingly hard-working
and keen collector, and also a good taxidermist, besides being ready at all times
to undertake cheerfully any work which I might require of him.
8th January 1904. I shifted camp into longitude 30* 24' East. Just as
we were approaching camp two rhinoceroses feeding in a hollow got our wind
and one charged the leading man of my party. Seizing a rifle I was able to
get a shot into the beast before he touched the man he was after, and killed it.
Feldwebel, Buchner's party had come over during the day and camped not
far off.
10th January 1904. I sent orders to Lt. Behreris to go and endeavour to
persuade Makaburi to accompany him to Mbarara as he reported Makaburi
to be quite near him and, as he thought, likely to be ready to acquiesce.
16th January 1904. I shifted camp to opposite Nsongezi.
17th January 1904. I visited the spot where Mr. Doggett was drowned
and got a photograph of it and the Kansori falls just above. I was rather
troubled by an importunate native chief who was very drunk and insisted on
blundering in among my instruments when they had been set up. As he was
a German chief and I knew that any trifle would have been eagerly seized
upon as a foundation for a complaint of ill-treatment I behaved with utmost
forbearance with him and when I moved on he was left sobbing on the ground.
20th January 1904. I shifted camp (to two miles east of longitude
30* 51' East). I was working along the foot of the hills and had my
instruments set up when the caravan passed about half a mile from me. At
this moment a rhinoceros and calf charged through the string of porters.
Hearing a great commotion I looked and saw men climbing trees in all
directions and cases being thrown to the ground as the carriers bolted off.
The German askari in rear of my porters on their way to join Feldwebel
Buchner repeatedly fired their rifles in the air-an unchecked expenditure of
ammunition seemed to be a feature of the German system at all times-and
then made a strategic movement in the opposite direction to the line the
rhinoceroses were taking. The commotion had hardly subsided and I had
resumed my work when two rhinoceroses woken up by a tick-bird charged out
of a small wooded ravine one hundred yards from where we were standing.
Catching sight of my mule under some trees they both of them made for it
and I was only just in time with my rifle to prevent the terrified mule being
killed and also probably the syce too, as he had become entangled in the reins
and was being dragged by the mule when I stopped the first rhinoceros. The
second rhinoceros turned then at the party of men near me and I had to
shoot it also.
21st January 1904. A mail was received from Entebbe forwarding a
telegram from the Foreign Office which made it clear that the Boundary
Commission was not expected to go to Mfumbiro and giving permission for
the work to the east of Lake Victoria to be commenced at once.
22nd January 1904. I completed all the topography required to the south
of the Kagera and in the evening I recrossed the river at Nsongezi. My next

task was to take the whole Commission to the east side of Lake Victoria,
completing the triangulation round the north en route as rapidly as possible.
23rd January 1904. Reports were received from Lt. Behrens to the effect
that he had succeeded in taking Makaburi in to Mbarara. Thus all the native
questions I had been directed to settle if possible by H.M. Commissioner at
Entebbe had now been satisfactorily dealt with.
28th January 1904. Preparations for leaving Nsongezi were made all
day. A site for a memorial to Mr. Doggett was selected and the work of
building a pyramid of stones there was commenced.

[On 29th January Lt.-Col. Delmt-Radcliffe and his caravan set off
for Entebbe, which was reached in five days, four of the stages being on foot,
one by canoe.
During the first four days the caravan marched 113 miles; unlike
Feldwebel Buchner, Lt.-Col. Delmt-Radcliffe must have been fond of
From 3rd February to 6th March Lt.-Col. Delmd-Radcliffe was
engaged in office work at Entebbe; from 7th March to 26th April he was
triangulating round the north shore of Lake Victoria from Entebbe to
Kisumu; and between 27th April and 20th May he was again busy with
office work at Entebbe.
Lt.-Col. Delme-Radcliffe left Entebbe for Europe on 21st May,
reaching Mombasa on the 27th and embarking the same day. He landed at
Marseilles on 16th June and arrived in London on 18th June 1904, his mission

Bishop on the Upper Nile
T HE Acholi and Lango are more expert at hunting than the other tribes
of my Diocese. Hunting, indeed, with its age-long traditions, its sagas,
and the enjoyment which it affords, has become an integral part of the life
of the Acholi man and woman.
I had long wished to see an Acholi hunt at first hand, so I was pleased
when an opportunity came in March 1946 to attend a two-day hunt at Anaka.
As few other Europeans have had the good fortune to take part in one of
these hunts, an account of our doings may be of interest.
The Rev. Alipayo Latigo (a local pastor), the Rwot (chief) and two
teachers were my guides and protectors: it was from them that I gained my
information concerning the whys and wherefores of the hunt. As I am not
a hunter myself, my account may contain mistakes due to inaccurate observa-
tion. However, for what it is worth, here it is.
The Acholi have three main methods of hunting :
Dwar obwo hunting with nets.
Dwar lino hunting with fire.
Dwar arum hunting .with spears.
The method employed on this particular occasion was dwar arum. It
is used at the end of the dry season when most of the grass and undergrowth
has been burnt and the country lies open to the eye.
The hunts take place in areas remote from habitation and cultivation but
each hunting tract has nevertheless a hereditary owner (won tim or won dwar).
All clan lands are divided into hunting tracts and even when the local chief
decides that a hunt should be held (and without his permission none can take
place) the consent of the won tim is equally essential. At Anaka we hunted
over two tracts, camping for the night on the dividing boundary: the owner
of the first tract was Amira, that of the second was Sira Odur (a Christian).
As can be imagined, hunting has to be strictly regulated, which is why
the permission of the chief is necessary. With the great number of people
taking part (those attending the hunt at which I was present must have totalled
about two thousand), whole herds of animals may be slaughtered. The District
Commissioner told me, indeed, that only a short time before, on the borders
of the, Sudan, forty-one elephants had been killed by encirclement by fire in
a similar hunt. The hunters were punished because such hunting with fire
is illegal.
To announce a hunt, the owner of the hunting tract sends out branches
of the small tree known in Acholi as olwedo (its botanical name is Loncho-
carpus laxiflorus) to all surrounding families. The branches are put in front
of the little pagan shrines (abila) for blessing by the local hunting spirits.
1 See "Acholi Hunts by R. M. Bere (Uganda Journal, Vol. 1, p. 153).


FIG. 1
The won tim (in leopard skin), his wife, the chief (in puttees) and the pastor (in breeches).

FIG. 2
From left to right. The teacher, the first spearman (the killer of the buffalo), the
pastor (behind the buffalo's head) and the second spearman.

The won tim then confers with the heads of the clans and they decide together
the exact point to which each hunting party must proceed before turning to
help form the great ring which will enclose the hunted animals. All the
hunters wear sandals, and each carries three long spears, an axe or club, a
knife and a horn; prominent officials like the won tim have their heads
adorned with coloured ostrich feathers. Each man's horn has its own particu-
lar note or tune, by which members of a family can be summoned to give aid
in danger or to help cut up and carry meat.
The women who attend the hunt are well laden: they carry baskets of
food, gourds and skins. Like the men they wear sandals because the short,
dry grass stubble and thorns quickly pierce bare feet.
Standing in front of the rest camp at Anaka on the morning of the first
day of the hunt I was amazed at the number of people taking part. Many of
the hundreds of men, women and children who were passing had already
tramped several miles; others had come up to thirty miles by bicycle. Many
of the women had babies on their hips, others had them strapped to their
backs and carried big bundles and food-baskets on their heads. Some of the
women were far advanced in pregnancy, and it is by no means rare for babies
to be born in the bush during a hunt. Children born thus are called
" Odwar ", Otim or Oyo "-names which are common enough in Acholi
and show the frequency of such births.'
Even the small boys were armed. Each carried a spear, too big to be
of much use to him. The Rwot's son, aged about fourteen, stalked along
fully equipped, very proud of himself. Later in the day, when he was tired
of waiting in the hot sun, I saw him throw his spear on the ground and sit
down. A growl and rebuke from one of the older men soon brought him to
his feet. It was not because he sat down that the elder objected but because
he had left his spear in a dangerous position. When a spear is not being
carried it should ,be stabbed into the ground, blade upwards. Thus do the
Acholi learn the laws of the hunt from childhood.
Our hunt took place twenty-five to thirty miles to the north of the
Murchison Falls. From Anaka we walked about five miles to the edge of
the cultivated area and then another five miles through rolling bush and
sparsely forested land (interspersed with wide strips of grass, dried yellow by
the sun or burnt black by fire) to the site of our camp. As man-made tracks
grew less frequent we cut across country or followed game paths. Here and
there I noticed, as we went, the branchlets and tufts of grass which Amira,
earlier that morning, had left to indicate the direction which he wished us
to follow.
I had known, before starting, that-the object of the hunters was to form
a ring around the hunted animals. What astonished me now was its enormous
size. There were eight separate groups of hunters taking part and, by the
grass fires which they started when they reached their allotted places bn the
1 The names signify, respectively, born during a hunt ", born in the bush and
"born by the wayside on a journey ". The first two are reserved for children born
in the course of a hunting expedition, the third is applied to children born on the way
to a hunt or on some other journey. The masculine forms, only, are shown.--[En.]

circumference, I estimated that the ring must be at the very least eight miles
across. Our party did not reach its position till about midday, after most of
the other parties had reached their objectives. It was many hours before we
saw them approaching us over the intervening ridges.
I have mentioned the fires lighted on the circumference of the circle.
These, and others lighted from time to time later, serve the double purpose of
signalling positions and of scaring animals towards the centre of the ring.
When the fires show that all the hunting parties are in position the groups
turn to face the centre of the circle and move inwards, spreading sideways
into line as they go. Progress is often slow, not only because the animals must
not be driven too quickly owing to the risk of scaring them and causing them
to bolt sideways and escape before the gaps in the ring are closed, but also
because the speed of the advance must coincide with the movements of the
other sections. Often we had to wait. A cry goes up "Itong'o tern (sit
down)-an order from the leading hunter of a particular group. Later another
cry is heard, gently echoing along the line "Nyakibole" (let us go forward).
Some time before our party made contact with the groups on our right
and left the pastor called out, Look, look. Animals !" There, in front of
us, to the south-west, crossing the crest of a far-off slope, driven slowly forward
by unseen hunters, was an enormous herd of game, numbering hundreds of
animals. Later on we realized that many of these must have escaped, for the
hunters who should have been approaching the herd from another direction
had been delayed killing a buffalo. It was worth walking a long way for the
sight of that one herd alone.
As we moved inwards, sometimes following behind grass fires or skirting
them to obtain a view of the other oncoming parties and their signals, we came
across the great broad tracks of elephant. The tracks were fresh.
Except for the buffalo alluded to above, which had attacked a man and
his wife suddenly from among trees, the only things killed in the early stages
of the hunt were some edible rats and other small animals. It was not until
about two hours after the drive began that the first antelopes started trying
to break back through the line of hunters.
It must not be imagined that this line is at all evenly distributed. Here
and there, some in front, some behind, two or three near a tree, others near
anthills, the men are dotted about, sometimes sitting and waiting for ten or
twenty minutes on end. Behind them are parties of women. Suddenly a
low whistle ripples along a section of the line, each man freezes, one spear
poised between three fingers and the thumb of his right hand, the other spears
and the club gripped in his left. An antelope is seen running wildly from
side to side. The hunters seldom chase it. It is frightened and rushes blindly
near a dark figure who is suddenly galvanized into action and flings a
quivering spear. He misses, the antelope swerves away, avoids a spear hurled
from another direction, charges blindly this way and that in efforts to escape
the shower of missiles which follow its course, until at last it is transfixed,
bowled over, and stabbed again from every side.
As soon as the animal is dead the horns sound, the womenfolk and the
successful spearmen form a little knot, and the process of dividing up the spoil

begins. The first spear-the killer of the animal-takes the head, one front
leg, one back leg, the entrails and the tail. The second spear takes the neck
and chest. The third takes the second fore-leg. The remaining back leg
may be claimed by the chief or the won tim, should he appear on the scene,
or by any other person of standing or authority. For example, the school
teacher went up to one group and asked, Has Amira taken his share ? No.
Then I take it." Later, at the end of the day I saw the rwot bul (the man in
charge of the youths and dances) demanding from an expostulating killer the
share of the won tim so that he might give it to a girl whose menfolk had
slain nothing.
A hunter must be very close to an animal to kill it because a running buck
at more than twenty feet is not an easy target for a spear. Many hunters
missed and in the early stages of the hunt, while the line was still tenuous,
many animals broke through and escaped. I carried a spear myself, more for
fun than with intent to kill, but I could not resist flinging it from time to time.
My narrow misses spurred me to ambition. Here came a big buck. Round
to my left I turned, running slightly, and lunged hard at it: a violent blow on
my ear and the shaft of the spear had broken, the pointed base (dim) falling
behind and the remainder of the shaft and blade falling harmlessly in front !
Although there was not yet any sign of hunters ahead of us, some could
be seen on our flanks in a line curving over a crest and down into a river bed.
We began to move forward more rapidly and were ascending a long slope when
a check occurred. There, on the brow of the hill, stood three elephants.
For me it was a great stroke of good fortune to have such a near view; for
the hunters the elephants were a decided nuisance because they made an even
advance difficult and so allowed more game to escape. Government game
laws forbid the killing of elephants here, so the hunters.had to try to drive them
out of the ring. Up to them rushed a single hunter brandishing his spear. He
must have been about fifty years old, was over six feet tall, of magnificent
physique, and did not know the meaning of fear. He was supported in his
efforts to move the elephants by the shouts and horn-hoots of other hunters.
Irresolute, perplexed, but perceptibly becoming angrier, the three great beasts
stood in line. They moved this way and that. Their trunks began to curl
forward into the air, their huge carpets of ears spreading up and out; they
lurched forward in one direction and then in another, the people dividing as
they came. Finally they turned and went back, to the accompaniment of
loud boos, following the crest of the ridge into a more wooded area on our
right. It looked as if they had passed out of the ring so the line moved
forward cautiously into longer grass. Animals began to leap out in greater
numbers from their hiding. Spears whizzed here and there and the Rwot
besought me to drop behind, warning me that some of the children didn't
always throw straight. I could well believe it!
We now came into sight of what had been planned as the centre of the
ring-a big, dry, well wooded river bed. Many more men and women were
in view than previously, but there were none immediately in front. People
were dashing about and animals leaping hither and thither in every direction.
The climax of the hunt was approaching when my attention was caught by a

thick cloud of white dust in the river bed away to our right. It rolled rapidly
forward and soon we saw that it was caused by a herd of elephant charging
at a furious pace, though luckily not in our direction. These huge beasts
now spoilt the finale of the hunt, for the people could not attend to the
great number of game which had been driven inwards. A fearful hullabaloo
ensued. The Acholi, in crowds or as individuals, seem to have little fear
of elephants. Men or women, they all rushed after them, hooting, shouting,
gesticulating. The herd plunged up from the river towards the outer edge of
the ring on our right, but unseen hunters were still approaching from that
side. Back the animals turned, wheeling off in another direction till some-
thing frightened them once more and they turned again at a tangent. For
some fifteen to twenty minutes the elephants were unable to get away until
finally they crashed through the river bed and ascended the slope of the hill
on the farther side. Our last sight of them was as they crossed the skyline
in single file, a dozen in all.
The first day's hunt was now practically over, for the planned encircling
and contracting movement had ceased. It had not been an entire success
partly because of the elephants and partly because of the escape of the huge
herd of game which we had seen earlier.
Two groups of hunters had been delayed by buffaloes, while a third group
never reached within a mile of the centre of the ring: it too had met buffaloes
and in addition had killed such a lot of game that it had to spend the rest
of the day cutting up and disposing of the meat. Notwithstanding these
happenings, the hunters in my party estimated that between three hundred
and four hundred head of game had been killed. Certainly, as I moved back
to camp, which we reached long after dark, most of the women and not a few
of the men that we passed seemed to be carrying some portion of a carcase.
At the camp, where some of our party's women and my personal boy (belonging
to another tribe) had been left to prepare food, we found the women in great
merriment and my servant not a little abashed. It appeared that a lion
prowling near the water-hole had prevented them from drawing water for a
long time. My boy had sped up the hill towards the trees in great fear, not,
said the women, because of the lion (he did not know that it was there) but
because a lot of buck and other harmless game had rushed through the camp!
All through the first hours of darkness people kept drifting into camp in
little groups guided by the big grass fires set blazing to direct them. Our
party turned in after a prayer from the pastor. Turning in, for most people,
meant lying down as they were, to sleep the sleep of the exhausted.
Before I rose next morning horns had been blown for water and food,
and the clan which was to take up position on the farthest side -of the ring
had already moved off, men, women, babies, meat and all. As I was eating
breakfast along came the won tim of the second hunting tract, carrying the
olwedo branches announcing that the hunt was on. A few minutes later, just
as we were about to start, my companions excitedly pointed to a patch of rising
ground some distance away across which three animals were passing. These-
confirmed in part, the women's story of the night before: they were lions, but
too far distant to distinguish clearly.

My guides had decided to take me to-day direct to the centre of the ring
so that we could get a more general view of what was happening. As it
turned out, however, the hunt this time was to prove a failure, chiefly because
the meat obtained the previous day required so many people to carry it that
several parties did not even attempt to hunt. Even so, I had an interesting
day. Not long after starting we passed the scene of one of yesterday's buffalo
fights. Great lumps of the beast's carcase were lying about and being cut up.
I am told that the meat is very tasty. Perhaps it is, but very soon it sntells!
I realized this before we even reached the place and, at the end of the day, as
we trudged back in the dark to Anaka, I could tell when anyone carrying
buffalo meat came within ten yards of me!
As a memento of the hunt I took a photograph (Fig. 2) of the buffalo's
head and of the slayer and the second spearman. I was then asked
to go into a small grass shelter to see the man who had been attacked.
He was stretched on a blanket and from my very unprofessional examination
I should guess that he had a broken rib or two and a bruised collar bone.
I bandaged him up to the best of my ability, conjuring up recollections of
first-aid classes many years ago in a hospital in England. Beside the patient,
the wind wafting its unsavoury aroma into his nostrils, was placed a twenty-
pound lump of buffalo meat-a kindly but, for a sick man, a tantalizing
appreciation from his family and friends for having secured a buffalo for them.
When I asked why the patient had not been gored by the animal I was
told that a buffalo's horns are too much incurved and too much on top of
the animal's head for it to be able to gore a prostrate object. It seems to fear
to trample with its hoofs, but instead tries to push its prostrate enemy against a
tree or tussock to lift him into a position in which the horns can be used. This
is the reason why an Acholi, if attacked by a buffalo, will lie flat on the
ground if there is no easily climbed tree at hand, and why in the present case,
when the buffalo had suddenly charged, this man and his wife had both fallen
flat. Following up its advantage the buffalo had then pushed against the
man with its head, cracking a rib, but the man then caught the beast's horn
with his left hand and shouted to his son for help. The son flung his spear
and hit the buffalo, causing it to turn and catch sight of the wife, whereupon
it rammed her leg. By that time spears had transfixed it, and the beast drew
off and fell dead.
The woman was not as severely hurt as the man, who was in such severe
pain that I impressed upon his friends the need to carry him to the Anaka
dispensary, about fifteen miles away, on a stretcher. This they did. Next
morning, after breakfast, I saw a strange procession passing the Anaka rest
camp-a stretcher, carried by four men, with nothing on it. Walking feebly
behind, in the midst of some women who were swishing him with branches to
keep off flies, spear in hand, bandaged with my bits and pieces of cloth, and
sweating fearfully, came the patient. He had been carried all through the
night and early morning but when he neared the Anaka camp and dispensary
he insisted on walking. Why? Was it pride?
Leaving the scene of the killing we walked for, some hours in the broiling
sun, finally taking up our position among a few trees near the crest of a low

hill, with an excellent view in three directions. Here we had some welcome
food while we watched the smoke signal fires on the horizon. It was obvious
by then that the pace of the hunt was too slow but we saw a good deal of
game of all kinds moving past, especially near a river bed about half a mile
away. On the other side of this river a herd of buffaloes galloped across a slope
of open land: to my inexperienced eye their pace seemed phenomenal. The
elephants we had seen the day before must have moved just as swiftly but the
jerky, bouncing, bucking action of the buffaloes appeared to emphasize their
movement. What had disturbed them by the river I cannot say. They had
scarcely entered another patch of bush on the other side of the open land
when they re-emerged, returning towards the river. The moving game, driven
by the advancing line of unseen hunters behind the hill had warned them.
They did not remain in the thicket by the river but, in a twinkling of an eye
were across and charging towards us. The women in our party had already
skipped up nearby trees, and the men had apportioned me my tree and chosen
theirs. As we were not following the usual routine of the hunt, and were away
from the main line of advance, we were evidently not expected to do any
attacking ourselves !
The buffalo herd consisted of six animals, two of them young ones. They
pulled up about one hundred and fifty yards away and looked at us. I was
wondering whether I could take a photo, and then climb my tree, or should
climb the tree first, when one of my teachers decided that he could not stand
such insolence and rushed at the beasts with his spear! Taken aback, they
wheeled round and were off in a cloud of dust, vanishing out of sight round
the back of our hill.
Hardly had the buffaloes disappeared when a tall, solitary, splendid figure
emerged from some trees on our left. It was the old stalwart of the previous
day-he who had driven off the elephants. My companions hailed him and
up he came. He was looking for buffaloes, he said. Looking for buffaloes!
One solitary individual who had come on ahead of his party because he was
bored! I asked him how many he had killed in his time. Not many," he
replied, about twenty or so." He talked with us for some minutes and then
began springing round a tree. What is he doing now ? I asked. Showing
us how to kill a buffalo," the pastor replied. Presently he moved away round
the hill in the wake of the herd. Whether he got any, or whether they got
him, I do not know-other hunters came into view and we too moved on.
Nothing much of interest happened after that. It became clear that little
game would be seen, so we turned for'Anaka, which we reached, footsore and
weary, about 8.30 p.m. How many miles we had walked I cannot guess but
I am glad that I did not have to walk as far as the women who were carrying
loads, meat and babies. At one stage on our return journey a nasty sharp
nail came up through my shoe. I had occasion then to be grateful to the
owners of several new-type hunting clubs-stout sticks with hefty two-inch
steel nuts on the end, probably lifted from a Government borehole pump.
I had known that the Karamojong had a habit of utilizing these pumps for
purposes other than the Government intended, but I had not realized that
the Acholi had acquired this habit too. By using one club as an anvil, one

as a shoe-last, and an Acholi axe as a hammer, I got rid of ihe offending
What did I see on this hunt just ended ? Something deep-rooted in the
Acholi nature; man at his primitive hardiest and best. Something not yet
ruined by the so-called progress of civilization. Something far more valuable
to the people themselves than the horns, skins and meat which are the visible
results. The meat, which is smoked into a kind of biltong might, indeed,
according to my pastor, prove the reverse of beneficial, because it is frequently
so bad that it causes stomach-ache, and imaginary poisoners are blamed!
No. The importance of these great hunts lies in their spiritual and social
value. In them, from childhood upwards, are unconsciously fostered the
virtues of endurance, courage, and resourcefulness, the quality of co-operation,
and the sense of community effort and mutual help.
The preparation and repairing of weapons for the next hunt gives relish
and anticipation, and breaks the monotony of agricultural and pastoral duties.
After the hunts, for days in their conversations, and years in their songs and
sagas, the hunters have topics and themes to remember and talk and sing about.
Perhaps they will even make a song about the Bishop's Hunt!

This note is a continuation of the "Strange Story about Elephants"
published in Volume 3 of the Uganda Journal. In that article I described
how, early in 1935, I visited Rusuku Island in Katwe Bay in the north-east
corner of Lake Edward, finding there one live female elephant (afterwards
shot) and the much decomposed remains of three male elephants. The skins
of the three corpses were more or less intact: in each case the legs were drawn
up and the mouth open, indicating a painful death. All three animals
appeared to have died at about the same time, probably, I thought, of

O N Christmas Day 1940, when I reached Katwe preparatory to a hunt
among the Ruwenzori foothills, my first questions were naturally of the
islands in the bay. As can be imagined, I was most interested to hear from
the local chief that there were six elephants on Kakules island, which lies
about half a mile to the north of Rusuku and is of much the same size. He
told me that nine elephants had been seen going across the previous September
but that three had returned to the mainland almost at once. My binoculars
confirmed that only six remained.
Seven months later, in July 1941, I was in Katwe on my way to the Congo.
There were still six elephants on Kakules, and two buffaloes. The presence
of the buffaloes is, perhaps, more difficult to explain than the presence of the
elephants. The former, admittedly, have better eyesight but there was little
food visible on the island to attract them, the vegetation consisting chiefly
of bush, with very little grass (which is their staple food).
From the flat foreshore on the mainland, about three-quarters of a mile
to the west of Kakules, the islands in certain lights, and especially in the
late evening, loom up large and green. The nearest mainland, on the other
hand, is at no time of the day conspicuous from the islands. I suggest that
this may be one of the reasons why animals seem more prone to visit the
islands than to leave them.
Elephants, after feeding on the mainland, often go down to the lake to
drink, and not infrequently wade far out into the shallow water, halfway to
the islands or more. When they see the islands only a few hundred yards off
they may decide to visit them, wading and swimming the rest of the way.
Once ashore, there is little inducement for them to return, so long as the
vegetation lasts. The mainland is not clearly visible (if visible at all to an
elephant), there is a belt of comparatively deep water immediately around
the islands, very different from the sandy shallows of the mainland foreshore ;
facts which may sometimes cause the animals to remain. The six I saw
must have had a lean time the previous March, at the end of the dry weather.
Then, so I was told, the island became almost denuded of food. However
their luck held out, the rains saved the situation, and the vegetation increased
sufficiently to tide them over a difficult period.

FIG. 3
View of Kakules island from Rusuku, showing uprooted Euphorbia tirucalli
in the foreground. November 1941.

FIG. 4
The Kakules elephant which was shot and examined. Three of the other six
elephants on the island are standing under the Candelabra Euphorbias on
the skyline.

f. .~

FiG. 5
The six elephants on the south-west beach of Kakules, November 1941.

During the course of my July visit I went once again to Rusuku and
there I made an interesting discovery. Several large Euphorbia bushes had
grown up since I was last on the island, and the chief, who was with me,
assured me that the plant was a deadly poison to, any animal eating it.
Mr. A. S. Thomas, Senior Economic Botanist, kindly identified the sample I
sent him, commenting as follows:
Thank you for your most interesting letter and plant specimen. It is
Euphorbia tirucalli N.E.Br. The Luganda name is Nkoni and an extract is
used as a purgative : it must be a very violent one for the milky juice of this
and many other Euphorbias is very acrid, and most painful if it gets into the
eyes. The plant must be exceedingly unpalatable and . there is no doubt
that if it were taken in any quantity (it) would be poisonous: in fact, a closely
allied species is used as a fish poison in the Philippines."
"The main use of Nkoni in this country is as a hedging plant: it is one
of the principal species employed to make cattle kraals in parts of Ankole,
where its name is Oruyenzhe. I have seldom seen the plant wild in Uganda
and it is doubtful whether it is native to this country; most probably it has
been brought in from the south. Almost invariably the specimens that are
scattered over the countryside are relics of old fences or cattle kraals or are
boundary marks. Was the elephant island ever inhabited ?x Or did the
plant grow there spontaneously ? As it does not occur on the island now
populated by the animals, let us hope that the animals will not be poisoned by
the vegetation, but will be driven by hunger to return to the mainland."
Dr. J. Carmichael, Senior Veterinary Research Officer, was able to confirm
that animals are sometimes poisoned by Euphorbias:
According to Steyn (Toxicology of Plants of South Africa, 1934) there
are in South Africa certain species of Euphorbia associated with a condition
known as Pigoed (urethritis) and he gives records of cattle dying of strangury
after eating Euphorbia genistoides."
These opinions suggest that, as I surmised in my original article, the three
dead elephants found on Rusuku Island in 1935 had been poisoned. The
fact that they all appeared to have died within a short period might, moreover,
be held to indicate that they had partaken of the poison at the same time,
perhaps eating all that was available. If poisoning by Euphorbia tirucalli is
the answer, why did not the remaining cow succumb too: did the bulls scoff
the lot while her back was turned ? I can hardly believe that there is such a
difference in sagacity between the sexes that she and not the males would
know that the plant was forbidden fruit. Nor can I believe that she would
not have been kind enough to warn the hungry bulls !2

1 It was.-[E.A.T.P.]
2 In fairness to the genus it must be pointed out that not all species of Euphorbia
are violently poisonous. Thus Dalziel (" The Useful Plants of West Tropical Africa,
1937 ") says that the latex of E. balsamifera Ait., commonly grown as a hedge in parts
of West Africa, appears to be harmless, because pieces of the young shoots are
commonly sucked by boys: animals, however, do not browse on it. Another species,
E. kamerunica Pax, is stated in the same work to be highly purgative, a drop or two
being said to act effectively. A case is known in which apparently this species was
used (on the Benue River) in trial by ordeal; the suspected person was given a small

My next visit to Katwe was in September 1941, when the two buffaloes
were again visible on Kakules but only five elephants. I did not have time
to search the island for the missing elephant, but I was told that it had been
seen several times, lying down.
In November 1941, another short visit was paid to Kakules-a visit which
produced a further chapter in the island's story. From the camp at Katwe,
situated on a fairly high ridge overlooking the flat foreshore to which I have
referred, I could see six elephants on Kakules and two on Rusuku. The latter
had, I was informed, but recently arrived and had almost certainly crossed
from Kakules where, according to the chief, there had lately been nine. I
took out a canoe and visited both islands. The two elephants on Rusuku
were in excellent condition and seemed far fatter than those on Kakules: one
was a medium-sized bull, the other a young bull.
I was most interested to find that the Rusuku elephants had uprooted
five of the Euphorbia tirucaUi. There were at least a dozen other bushes eight
to ten feet high, and several smaller ones, mixed up amongst other vegetation.
One of the uprooted plants had been torn to pieces, and one had been
trampled down: the others had been left intact with their roots in the air.
I photographed one bush, with Kakules island in the distance (Fig. 3).
After exploring Rusuku I crossed over to Kakules where I photographed
all six elephants together, on the south-west beach (Fig. 5). There were
three males and three females.
For the return journey to camp we took the canoe round the east side
of the island, to avoid some schools of truculent hippo. As we passed close
in to the shore I was surprised to see an elephant lying down about twenty
yards inland. I quickly went back by canoe to the south-west beach, confirmed
that there were still six elephants there, returned, and went ashore. The poor
brute, a young bull, was almost dead and seemed to be suffering. I had no
rifle with me, and it was too late in the evening to fetch one to put him out
of pain, so I had to defer further action till dawn. The post mortem disclosed
very little to my unprofessional eye, but the bladder was quite full and I

calabash of the latex to drink followed by water ; death is said to have occurred in
a few minutes ".
The latex of several species of Euphorbia was used in East Africa not so long
ago as an ingredient of arrow poison. The species used were chiefly those of the
"candelabra type. It will be noted from Mr. Temple Perkins' photographs (Figs. 4,
5 and 8) that the common Candelabra Euphorbia of Uganda (E. calycina Pax) occurs
on Kakules. This species is just as likely to be poisonous as is E. tirucalli but it looks
(to humans) far less appetizing and is therefore, perhaps, less liable to be eaten.
It must be remembered, too, that what is poison to one animal may be meat to
another: "The koodoo is fond of the bitterest type of. aloe; and the black rhino, a
heavy browser, regards the most poisonous milky, euphorbiaceous trees as the finest
pickles. . The two last-mentioned animals were created to check the number of
these plants. If they did not exist even our indigenous trees would become weeds like
. . aloes propagated by wind, and euphorbiaceous trees such as Euphorbia tirucalli L.
. . spread by doves" (" Some Factors affecting the Perpetuation of our Indigenous
Fauna" by Jacob Gerstner. Journal of the South African Forestry Association,
No. 13, p. 7).
If a rhineroceros can eat Euphorbia tirucalli with impunity should we assume that
an elephant cannot ? Further investigation would appear necessary.-[ED.]

FIG. 6
Kakules and Rusuku, and a third (small) island, seen from the mainland.
The birds are Marabou storks.

FIG. 7
Part of the north-east beach of Kakules before the vegetation was destroyed.

FIG. 8
Swinging trunk and outspread ears-the danger is evidently regarded as
acute. This is the same stretch of beach as in Fig. 7, showing how it
appeared in July 1941, after most of the bush had been eaten.

Photo by W. J. Eggeling.

FIG. 9
The two buffaloes on Kakules.

concluded that poison and stricture might have caused the death of yet another
Katwve elephant.
Christmas 1941 saw me again at Katwe, and on reaching Kakules I soon
found that one of its six elephants was missing. I explored every yard of the
island but only five elephants and two buffaloes were to be seen. While
searching for the sixth, I approached the buffaloes closely. After a few
minutes they decided to take to the water, heading for the mainland to the
east, at least a mile and a half away. One cow elephant on Kakules appeared
to be in poor condition, and I thought that the younger bull on Rusuku was
not so fit as in November.
The next news I had of the elephants was a year later when, in December
1942, the chief at Katwe sent me a message to say that four more elephants
had died on Kakules, and that the two animals on Rusuku had likewise
The elephants on Kakules had dwindled to one, their story was nearly
over, and it was by pure chance that I was at Katwe for the finish. No
elephants were visible on either island when I was at the camp on Boxing
Day 1943, the only unusual object in view being what I took to be a rock
near the shore of Kakules. It was not till a moment or two later that I
realized that there are no rocks off the coast of Kakules. What then could the
object'be: was it conceivably the corpse of a hippopotamus ? No, it was the
last of the elephants.
The island was a desolate waste; some small tufts on the flat parts near
the shore where formerly were tall Phragmites reeds; stumps of bushes on the
slopes; and a few Candelabra Euphorbias here and there. That, and five
bleached skeletons glaring in the sun.
One other point deserves record-the fact that neither during the post
mortem which I have mentioned, nor (as vouched for by the chief, and by
the many Katwe fishermen who daily pass Kakules in their canoes) during
the period of sickness and death of the remaining elephants, had any vultures
or other carrion birds appeared over the islands. There are always scores .of
Marabou storks at Katwe (and often on the northern end of Kakules), all
the year round (Fig. 6), but not one had gone near the corpses. It is
probable that the same was true of Rusuku in 1934-1935, when it was evident
that nobody knew that there were three dead elephants on the island.1

1 On consideration, I think that I may have been mistaken when I wrote irr my
previous article that, although the skins of the corpses were almost intact, birds had
entirely consumed the organs. Natural decomposition might well have accounted for
their absence.-[E.A.T.P.]

A METEORITE has been defined as a mass of mineral matter which has
reached the earth's surface from outer space. Meteorites may appear
as single bodies or else as a shower of relatively small masses. They vary
greatly both in composition and weight, and have been found to occur at
points all over the earth's surface. In composition, meteorites have been
found to range from Siderites, consisting mainly of metallic iron alloyed with
nickel, through Siderolites, which contain much stony matter in addition, to
Aerolites which consist almost entirely of stony matter. In meteoric irons
the percentage of nickel varies from 6 per cent. to 10 per cent. The weights
of meteorites have ranged from a fraction of a pound to many tons.
A meteorite penetrates the ground to varying depths depending on its
shape, weight, density and speed, and on the nature of the ground. As might
be expected, three out of every four meteorites Which enter the earth's
atmosphere fall into the sea.
Presumably, meteorites enter the earth's atmosphere, at a distance of about
seven hundred miles above the ground, as cold bodies which are invisible
from the earth. It has been estimated that they move at velocities of ten to
forty-five miles per second. The atmosphere, which is densest at the surface
of the earth and becomes progressively more tenuous away from it, then acts
as a cushion of great stopping power. The velocity of the meteorite is
reduced by the air it compresses .in its path. The great friction so engendered
causes the surface of the meteorite to be heated suddenly. This results in
brittle superficial material being flicked off and left behind floating in the air
as the trail of the -meteor. Moreover, the surface of Siderites are oxidized to
a thin black crust of oxide and those of Aerolites are fused to give a thin crust
of glass. Small meteorites disintegrate completely before reaching the surface
of the earth. It is conceivable that meteorites composed largely of a brittle
material like troilite (FeS), the proto-sulphide of iron, might break up into
fragments under such ,conditions of heat and pressure. As the meteorite
approaches the surface of the earth it cools down owing to the greatly reduced
velocity, so that the fused crusts of Aerolites have solidified before they touch
the ground.
The passage of a meteorite through the atmosphere is accompanied by a
sound somewhat like thunder. This is due to compression of the air in front
and on either side of the meteorite, causing longitudinal waves to be set up
in the air.
So far as is known, two meteorites have fallen in Uganda in recent years.1
The first fell at Maziba near Kabale, Kigezi District, on the 24th September
1942; the second was observed at Soroti, Teso District, on the 17th Septem-
ber 1945. It is possible that other meteorites have fallen in the Protectorate
1 A possible earlier meteorite was reported by Mr. R. MacGill in the Uganda
Journal, Vol. 8, pp. 35-36, under the heading, Meteorites in Uganda "; a letter on
the same subject by W. J. Eggeling appeared in Vol. .10. The Aerial Phenomenon "
described by Mr. Mark Wilson in Vol. 2, pp. 302-304, can be explained meteorologically
--see Fusiform Cumulo-Nimbus Clouds in Uganda by R. E. Parry (Uganda Journal,
Vol. 4, pp. 257-262).-[ED.]

in the past, but have either not been observed or found or else their presence
has not been reported. For the sake of convenience, those referred to above
will be designated the Maziba and Soroti meteorites, respectively.
The Maziba meteorite (Figs. 10 and 11) is an Aerolite in that it is essen-
tially of the stony type. It weighs 4,975 grammes or approximately 11 lb. The
mean diameter is 14 cm. and the specific gravity is 3-50. It is approximately
16 cm. long by 13 cm. wide by 12 cm. thick. There are six main faces, two of
which meet in a rounded edge. The faces are all smooth and somewhat curved.
The whole surface is composed of a layer or crust of black glass, a fraction
of a millimeter thick, which resulted from the fusion of the crystalline material
of which the meteorite is composed. The fusion of the surface of the meteorite
was caused, as described above, by the heat generated suddenly by friction in
the upper part of the earth's atmosphere. The thinness of the crust indicates
that the time during which it was at a temperature above the melting point
of the material was of relatively short duration and that rapid cooling
then set in, causing the fused surface to solidify before the meteorite struck
the ground. There is no evidence to show that this meteorite is the product
of the disintegration of a larger body within the earth's atmosphere, the surface
being everywhere of uniform character. A few relatively shallow pits occur
on the surface.
Internally, the Maziba meteorite consists of a pale grey, finely crystallized
material resembling igneous rocks such as form the crust of the earth.
Finely divided bronze-coloured troilite (FeS).may be seen scattered throughout
it, and particles of metal. The presence of metal is also evinced by the
application of a hand magnet to the powdered material, when an appreciable
proportion of highly magnetic metal is attracted. This metallic fraction is
tough and malleable and cannot be crushed to a fine powder in a mortar like
the other constituents.
Rounded and elongated nodular masses called chondrules, which vary
from 1 mm. to 2 cm. across, are also present. They consist of olivine, an
orthosilicate of magnesium and iron.
Examination of thin slices under the microscope showed that the Maziba
meteorite consists in the main of olivine. Other minerals such as antigorite,
enstatite, albite and zeolite are present in small proportions, in addition to
the troilite and metal described previously. The metallic constituent was
found to consist of iron-nickel alloy.
The composition of the Maziba meteorite is shown by the following
Silica (SiO2) ... ... ... ... = 38-89%
Ferrous oxide (FeO), including a little A10lO = 16-15%
Chromic oxide (Cr2O,) ... ... ... = Trace
Ferrous sulphide ... ... ... ... = 4-66%
Iron ... ... ... ... ... ... = 11-16%
Nickel ... ... ... ... ... ... = 0-97%
Lime (CaO) ... ... ... ... ... = 2-01%
Magnesia (MgO) ... ... ... ... = 26-19%
Phosphorus pentoxide (PO1 ) ... ... ... = 0-24%

The Soroti meteorite manifested itself as a trail resembling a condensed
vapour trail, many thousands of feet high, passing over eastern Buganda and
parts of the Eastern Province (including Soroti in Teso District) on Monday
the 17th September 1945. Fragments of the meteorite fell at a village three
miles south-west of Katine and about nine miles north-west of Soroti. The
following is a copy of a report which was received from the District Com-
missioner, Teso, dated 22nd September. 1945 :
At almost exactly ten minutes past one on Monday, 17th September, a
low rumble, as of thunder, but without claps, was heard. It was, indeed, so
similar to thunder that people indoors took little notice for half a minute. It
rose slightly in volume and its persistence soon drew everyone to look skywards.
Many thousands of feet high (a wild guess is 20,000 ft.) a vapour trail could
be seen; similar, I am told by R.A.F. personnel, but larger than, the trail
left by a jet-propelled aircraft. This trail extended across half the sky which
was as blue and clear as it could be. After about a minute the sound abruptly
stopped. The trail disintegrated after about five minutes. Everyone had
different ideas as to the direction. I, personally, thought north-south, another
European thought south-north. All the points of the compass in fact, were
"There was very considerable speculation by everyone as to what the
phenomenon was, and no small excitement among Soroti's townspeople of
all communities. Guesses veered from a meteorite to the after effect of
Japan's atomic bombs, and from a jet plane to a huge bomb sent from Europe
to destroy Africa. Local Teso opinion eventually dismissed it as 'shauri ya
Mungu'. Many thought it was Judgment Day.
The correct answer came the next morning when a man from Katine
brought in four lumps of what appears to be pure iron in parts crystallized,
and bearing signs of intense heat. The largest is the size of a man's fist, and
weighs about 2 lb.
We now go over the words of a woman from Melok village, about three
miles.south-west of Katine Etem (Gom bolola) Headquarters:

'I was sitting in my hut with my three children yesterday morning.
I heard something like thunder. As there were no clouds in the sky, I
thought that there was something harmful. So I went out of my hut
and went to a tree nearby with my eldest child. I told him to kneel down
and pray to God. We had just knelt down, when a thing came from the
sky and went into the ground near the tree. I and my child were blinded
by smoke for a little while. When we could see again I went to the
place where the thing had fallen.'

"A very small crater, about a foot deep, was found only three feet from
the spot where they had been praying. Other pieces of metal were found
scattered around within a radius of a mile or more. Some are believed to have
fallen in the Omunyal swamp.
"There are unconfirmed reports of more pieces falling at Toroma and
east of Malera.

FIG. 10
The Maziba meteorite.

FIG. 11

Fragments of the Maziba meteorite showing the thin, dark, fused crust
and the pale inside.




FIG. 12
The Soroti meteorite.

"The pieces brought to the District Office evoked great interest, and some
five hundred people had seen them within an hour of their arrival in Soroti.
Many hundreds more have come to see them since.
Reliable reports say that the phenomenon was observed from Aloi in
Lango District and Budaka in Mbale District where it was seen as a 'ball
of fire'."
Summarizing then, it may be stated that the phenomenon was observed
from eastern Buganda; from Budaka, seventeen miles west-south-west of
Mbale in Mbale District; from Soroti and Toroma in Teso District; and
from Aloi, eighteen miles to the east of Lira in Lango District; that is within
an area of at least 4,200 square miles. Fragments of the meteorite are known
to have fallen only in Teso, particularly near Soroti. The meteorite was
moving in a general south-west to north-east direction.
Four fragments of the Soroti meteorite (Fig. 12) were received on the
27th September from the District Commissioner, Teso. The weights of these
were as follows : 1,000 grammes, 700 grammes, 180 grammes and 170 grammes,
making a total of 2,050 grammes or approximately 4J lb.
The specific gravity of the largest fragment was determined and found
to be 5-86.
The shapes of three of the fragments are very irregular while the fourth
and the largest is essentially rounded. The surface in each case is very rough
with sharp points and edges, and concave hollows.
Examination showed the fragments to consist essentially of two different
kinds of material: one a brittle, fairly coarsely crystalline, opaque, compact,
non-magnetic and bronze-coloured substance resembling a sulphide mineral
such as pyrrhotite, the other, a tough, greyish-white, strongly magnetic and
metallic looking substance.
The bronze-coloured substance was analysed qualitatively and found to
consist of the mineral troilite having the composition of ferrous sulphide
(FeS). No elements other than iron and sulphur were detected in it. The
metallic constituent was analysed also and found to consist of 91-13 per cent.
of iron and 8-87 per cent. of nickel. No other element was detected. It
was apparent that the greater part of the material consisted of troilite. It was
also noticed that the sharp points and edges projecting out of the surfaces, as
described above, consisted of the tough iron-nickel alloy, and that the surfaces
of the hollows in between were troilite. It is clear therefore that there had
been a considerable amount of natural etching of the surface of the meteorite
causing the hard and tough iron-nickel alloy particles to stand out and the
softer, brittle troilite to be worn away leaving hollows. Such etching may
have been caused by oxidation while the hot meteorite passed through the
earth's atmosphere; moreover, the vapour-like trail left by the meteorite may
have consisted of the products of oxidation such as the oxides of iron, nickel
and sulphur.
In addition, a thin film, a fraction of millimetre thick, of a greyish-black
amorphous substance, covers the surface of the meteorite except on fresh
fractures formed when the various fragments broke on hitting the ground, and
also except on the points and edges of the projecting iron-nickel alloy particles.

This substance was found to contain iron and a little nickel, and is a mixture
of the oxides of the two metals.
The iron-nickel alloy in the Soroti meteorite occurs as irregularly shaped
particles and veins distributed apparently haphazardly throughout the troilite.
After etching with nitric acid it was observed that particles of troilite were
embedded in the alloy.
From a consideration of the chemical composition of the iron-nickel alloy
and the specific gravities of such alloy, troilite, and the meteorite as a whole,
it has been concluded that the latter consists of 34-3 per cent. iron-nickel alloy
and 65-7 per cent. troilite, the iron-nickel alloy consisting of 8-87 per cent. of
nickel and 91-13 per cent. of iron.

"WIIE have several times mentioned that Uganda is becoming more
V V civilized, and we seem lately to be making greater strides still. For
some time the Collector at Kampala, Mr. Stanley Tomkins, C.M.G., has been
steadily improving the town, having good roads cut, and laying out the place
more regularly, and now that avenues planted by Mr. Whyte are growing up,
the place begins to look really nice. The market has been removed to a more
secluded spot, and the Swahili huts have been built in a more regular style.
The Sudanese who all lived on the hill behind the old fort have all been
removed to a good distance behind the next hill, and are no longer visible
from Kampala or Namirembe. The military have made great improvements
in their quarters, and have now brick houses for officers and a good brick
fort, and they are building brick barracks for the Indian troops stationed at
Kampala. The latest move of the Administration is to make a good cart
road from Entebbe to the Albert Lake, some one hundred and fifty miles.
On this road enormous numbers of labourers are engaged, working one month
in lieu of tax money (Rs. 3), and the road is making good progress. Parts of
it will present some difficulty to the engineers, such as the flat valleys of
Singo, which during the rains are big swamps, and the Kafu River, which
varies from having no water at all to being a deep river of nearly a mile wide
in parts. Capt. Johnson, Mr. Pordage and Mr. Ormsby have gone out lately
to survey the road and make all arrangements as to stopping and feeding places
for the mule transport shortly to be started. They are accompanied by
Quartermaster-Sergeant Ramsay, who has had great experience in bridging
difficult rivers and swamps in this country, and it will be interesting to see
what he can do to make a permanent bridge over the Kafu. There is plenty
of good timber within reasonable distance. When we were out there not long
ago, we had hoped to take advantage of a raft Mr. Geo. Wilson had had made
to cross this river. An Indian had made it and had taken it down to the river
and, we presumed, launched it. To our disgust however we found the Indian
joiner in some little difficulty. He could not find there (in the dry season)
enough water to float it satisfactorily, so he picked out the best garden he could
find about half a mile from the river, planted down the raft and pitched his
tent on it, the raft making an excellent floor. He looked very happy when we
saw him. We are not quite sure how long he remained, probably he intended
waiting for the rains or until Mr. George Wilson returned from his long tour
to give him further orders. In either case he is probably sitting there yet.
It is proposed to give up Busindi (Masindi) except as a military station. We
hear on good authority that two hundred and fifty mules have been sent round
to Uganda via Usoga. Some have already arrived, and transport carts are
coming by dhow across the lake to Entebbe. We are constantly mentioning

these places, but we fear all our readers are not clear as to the location of
some of them. Mengo is the capital, though the name itself refers to the hill
on which the King's palace is built. Kampala is in the capital, and is the
hill on which the Government station (or fort) is built, and where are all the
traders. Nakasero is the next hill and is the military station. Namirembe is
the hill to the west .of Kampala, and is the C.M.S. station. So that all these
places are included when speaking of Mengo or Kampala. For all these
places Munyonyo is the landing place some seven miles away; an excellent
road made by the natives last year leading right down to the landing. But it
is not an easy matter to land dhows there, as the prevailing winds in the
Murchison Gulf are so awkward that much time is wasted by both dhows and
steamers in coming up there. This has proved it to be a bad place for a port.
Entebbe, the Government residency, is now quite a big town, and is eighteen
miles from Mengo, by the old road, still used by porters. But a cycle road,
going round the hills, makes the journey twenty-three miles. It is this cycle
road which is being widened and improved for the mule transport. Entebbe
has a good harbour, being somewhat sheltered by the long arm stretching out
into the lake, and almost all transport is done now from Kisumu (Ugowe Bay)
to Entebbe, and thence by porter to Mengo and elsewhere. Still the storms
there are often very violent. Last year a sort of breakwater pier was made
by carrying in hundreds of thousands of stones, and a very respectable thing
it was, but a terrific storm almost carried it away. A lot of tax labourers are
again engaged on it, and will probably make a better job of it this time, and
it will be a great convenience for steamers. The town itself is being nicely
laid out, and made really pretty by Mr. F. Pordage, who is in civil charge.
There are the accounts office, the workshops and so on belonging to Govern-
ment and there are extensive brickfields, and a street of brick houses is being
built for officials and clerks, each costing about 300. A new printing office
is being built and Mr. de Boltz, assisted by a Swahili and a boy from the
C.M.S. Industrial Mission, is turning out excellent printing for the Government.
The Commissioner's headquarters are just being rebuilt, a substantial brick
house, and near that is the military commandant's headquarters. The
Government gardens are being well looked after by Mr. Mahon, who is making
extensive experiments in the cultivation of cocoa, oranges, pineapples, pepper,
vanilla, West Indian bananas, strawberries and various yams and tubers.
Amongst a great variety of flowers, he has grown most excellent roses. A
great variety of plants has been received from other parts of Africa and Kew
Gardens, and a large piece of ground is under cultivation. We fear great
difficulty will be experienced on account of the uncertainty of the seasons and
the high altitude. Of course, many English things grow readily, such as
cabbages and similar vegetables. A site has been purchased by the Govern-
ment officials for an English church. There are often over thirty Europeans
resident and visiting at Entebbe. A temporary building is to be erected
almost immediately, and Bishop Tucker will, we hope, get a resident chaplain
appointed whilst in England. Later on, it is expected, a brick church will be
built. At present occasional services are to be held, conducted by C.M.S.
men as opportunity offers. The traders in Uganda are not very numerous,

that is to say, traders of any importance. There is not now one firm of
Englishmen that we know of, and only two Germans. The latter have both
left their establishments at Kampala, and now appear to be doing chiefly
wholesale business at Entebbe. The only man who seems to be really alive
and getting rich is an Indian from Mombasa, and he is undoubtedly getting
most of the spare rupees in Entebbe and Kampala. He apparently came up
with the determination to undersell everybody else, and has done so. Now
a tin of kerosene which not long ago cost 4 can be bought for 13s. 4d. Jam
which a year ago cost 2s. 8d. now costs 8d., and white flour, sugar and such
things can be bought at 4d. and 5d. a lb. He exports ivory, cotton, rubber
and butter, the latter he sells to the men at work on the railway. We begin
* to feel that now we are quite near to the rest of the world, for a journey to
the Coast can be done in eight days, if no accident happens (accidents do
happen!). The last trip of the 'William Mackinnon' was only thirty-eight
hours from Entebbe to Ugowe Bay. We fear if, when the railway reaches the
lake, a great number of people come up and expect to make a fortune, they
will very probably lose one instead of making it, for there does not seem much
to find here. We hear there are two big railway steamers coming out for the
Victoria Lake, fitted with electric light, and something like twice the size of
the 'William Mackinnon' which is some seventy tons. These, and if the
light railway (or tramway) talked of to Mengo becomes a reality, will make
a journey from England possible without a single bit of walking, and the
man who complained that his employers at Zanzibar had promised him a free
passage to Uganda and then he had to walk every blessed step of the way',
will no longer have cause to grumble. At any rate we are very nearly within
three weeks from Marseilles to Mengo.
We hear too that a small steamer is coming up, and also a steel boat
for the Albert Lake. A light railway is also contemplated to the lake from
Entebbe, which will make the Nile journey very simple when the steamer gets
on the lake and runs to Wadelai. A tea grower from Assam had lately been
up here to report on the country for tea and coffee growing. Coffee grows
very well but the chances seem rather remote for tea, which needs constant
and regular rains to make the young shoots palatable. . We have been
asked several times what became of the elephants, zebras and hippos, brought
in lieu of taxes last year. We hear they are all dead. A quiet life did not
seem to agree with any of them, and the elephants evidently did not wish to
be trained to work. Pigs are being bred here, and seem to be doing very
well. Horses do not thrive at all, though some live a fairly long time, mules
do much better. Bicycles seem to have shorter lives than other steeds, but
there are better days ahead, for roads are being made everywhere, and many of
them good-if hills are not mentioned. We hear with great joy that it is
proposed to cut a new cart road to Jinja (Ripon Falls) from Mengo, to pass
within an hour of Ngogwe. This is to follow the lake shore, much nearer
than the present switchback, and will be almost level for the greater part of
the way. If only the natives could be persuaded to see that walking on a level
road is easier than mounting every possible hill, life in Uganda would have
fewer ups and downs. But they prefer to get to the top of a hill and see what

is before them, and know where they are by the number of hills still in front
of them. Still the natives are not behind the times, and all the leading chiefs
have either already built, or are building, good brick houses, many of them
two stories high, and with doors and shutters which would do credit to any
European's house (in Africa). Many of them sit at table for their meals, with
plates, knives and forks, one of them actually going so far as to have his wife
eat at table with him. It was an unheard of thing until lately for a big chiefs
wife to eat in the same house with her lord. Another leading man (ordained)
has gone the length of allowing his wife to walk down the street with him, and
has even allowed her to take his arm, but few can muster up courage for this
yet. One thing the chiefs mean to do if possible and that is to put a stop to
drinking as much as possible, at any rate in public. In this they are assisted
in every possible way by Mr. Tomkins, who has encouraged them to take
several strong measures to suppress it. Along most of the main roads, and at
most camping places, are little huts where men live to guard the camps and
the roads. At these, sugar cane, cooked food, tobacco and beer are usually
sold, but it was found they were becoming a great snare, and often special
runners were delayed because of the temptation the beer offered. By Mr.
Tomkins' advice the sale of this has now been forbidden at all these huts, and
at most of the public markets throughout the country. The road between
Entebbe and Mengo was perhaps the most affected, and on this he absolutely
forbade the sale of beer as it interfered so with Government servants in the
execution of their duty. The other day word was taken to him at Kampala
that beer was being sold in a market near the capital, contrary to regulations.
He at once jumped on his horse and, followed by several men, made a raid
on the place, the men breaking all the calabashes and gourds, and spilling the
beer in all directions.
The tribute is now being collected. A great many people cannot give
rupees, and shells they are not encouraged to bring, as they are becoming more
and more useless, and are no longer paid out to chiefs or soldiers as salaries
or wages. They now sell for as many as a thousand or eleven hundred to the
rupee, instead of three hundred as a few years ago. A few are allowed to
bring mats, water pots, baskets; and old men are allowed to bring one
hundred and twenty crocodile eggs in lieu of Rs. 3. Many thousands are
giving labour, as already mentioned. The cowrie shell difficulty cannot last
much longer, for the Government have now got up an immense quantity of
pice. At Kampala alone they are issuing 640,000 at sixty-four to the rupee,
a great many of these having been issued to the head chiefs and paid out in
wages. All we want now is a good supply of two and four anna pieces. Why
we cannot have a few good English sovereigns we cannot imagine. Why
should people be compelled to carry about this wretched bulky silver, of
which one sovereign's worth weighs six ounces, and the counting of which in
large sums wastes an enormous amount of valuable time, especially of Govern-
ment men and traders ? Fancy the most valuable coin of a country only being
worth one shilling and fourpence. What will be done with shells now in
stock in Government hands remains to be decided. There are suggestions
of burning them down for lime, but the loss will be considerably over 1,000

if this is done. Still, the sooner the difficulty is faced the better, and rid the
country of its burden.
A good deal of attention is being given by the natives to rubber collecting,
and a number of them have been taught the process of boiling by a Greek
who has been out prospecting for it on behalf of the Administration. We
give a copy of a letter sent by him to one of the Regents, as we believe a
great many people are ignorant as to the way rubber is collected. The letter
runs as follows:
'Thank you for your letter. Some of your men are really very
intelligent. Re press for rubber. I would enquire if one strong enough
could be had at the Coast. Meanwhile I would see if a couple of
carpenters can be hired for a short time, that I might be able to make
you a temporary press with levers, which might be found useful for very
thin blocks (not exceeding 6 oz.). I may mention to you that some
reports have already arrived concerning the rubber prepared as I do it,
and even at the Coast, where it is new to the brokers, it is estimated at
Rs. 20 more per frasla than Coast ball rubber (a frasla is 35 lb.). I
believe there are still some people who maintain that ball rubber is quite
as good, and I admit that at first sight it looked to me about the same,
but I was induced to my experiments by the scientific report Mr. Whyte
received from Europe, which was most discouraging. By the way, you
require also a thermometer and someone to see that when your men heat
rubber it should not be allowed to have a temperature above 108 degrees,
otherwise the resin, which is the greatest defect of Uganda rubber, melts,
and gets mixed with the rubber particles before it is congealed, and has
the same drawback as when congealed by evaporation by human and sun
heat (which generally owing to accumulation becomes 125" F.). Once
rubber is perfectly coagulated, then it should be dipped in its spongy state
into boiling water, to melt the resin before it is put in the press, so that
most of the resin that remains in it goes out with the water. Great care
also should be taken to see that no water remains in the blocks, otherwise
the rubber would acquire a bad smell, and so decrease its price. As
soon as rubber milk comes, it should be strained before beginning
operations on it, which should never be forgotten. There would be no
difficulty in straining it if aniline dyed cloth is used (Bendera).'
One trader has offered as much as one rupee a pound for rubber prepared
in this way. He also offers one rupee for three pounds of raw cotton, which
grows readily here; and one tree produces, if well cared for, up to two or
three pounds weight each season.
We conclude by congratulating Mr. Jackson on the many substantial
improvements that have been carried out during his term of office as Acting
Commissioner. He has every reason to be pleased with the state of the
country, and has effected a good deal in a short time, not merely on paper,
but real solid improvements, and the natives feel they can trust him, and
appreciate him accordingly.
It should be noticed that this article deals only with the Kingdom of
Uganda, and not with the Uganda Protectorate as a whole. What is

sometimes spoken of as 'Uganda' includes all the country to the east of the
Victoria Nyanza, Masai, Mau, Nandi, Kavirondo, Baringo, etc., only called
Uganda since the establishment of the Protectorate."
(Mengo Notes, October 1901, pp. 79-82.)

"The new roads to Bunyoro and Jinja (Ripon Falls) are being rapidly
pushed forward. That to Jinja is already cut all the way through, and over
five thousand men are engaged completing it. The one to Unyoro (Albert
Lake) too is rapidly being finished off. Government mule and bullock carts
will probably not be run after all, at any rate not to any great extent. It is
found so much cheaper to use human labour which can be got for one-tenth
of the cost of mule transport, and about one-third that of bullock carts, besides
being much more expeditious. Men can look after themselves in the wilder-
ness, can provide their own food, and do not need veterinary surgeons. The
Baganda make excellent porters, and are anxious to do the work, which is a
comparatively easy way of earning their hut tax. Still the new roads are a
great boon, and will make travelling a luxury compared to the old ones, and
when anyone is enterprising enough to get out Cape carts, or some other means
of conveyance, the roads will be ready for them."
(Uganda Notes, February 1902, p. 9.)

"We shall have more to say about Sir Harry Johnston's glowing reports
of Uganda in a future issue. At present we merely warn anyone who thinks
of coming here to settle, to think twice before he comes'to a place where it is
pretty certain that he will 'swamp' all his capital, and get precious little
return. Our opinion is that Uganda proper offers practically no advantages
to settlers of any kind, and anyone thinking that he will get special concessions
from Government will be grievously disappointed. More than one prospector
has already gone home quite satisfied that he can get no fortune here, and
several poor fellows are struggling to get a bare existence here, and find it
hard to do even .this. The object of the Government is to do all they can to
enable the natives to reap the benefit of whatever riches their country possesses,
and the latter are not merely 'sitting under a tree and smoking a pipe', but
are making a great effort to learn how they can avail themselves of the advan-
tages the railway offers, to get their products into a good market."
(Uganda Notes, February 1902, p. 9.)

"We print below (Extract 20 [ED. Uganda Journal]) a letter from a settler.
Such evidence is far better and more forcible than anything we can say about

the country, and the reports which are being spread abroad at home concerning
it, for the writer has had some five years' experience of Uganda, in various
positions, and has for a long time been engaged in planting. He did not come
out without training for the work he has taken up, and we believe his experience
may be taken as that of a man competent to do the work, and that he is able
'to speak of it with authority."
(Uganda Notes, April 1902, p. 27.)

"For some time past a number of reports on Uganda have been appearing
in the papers, and now that the railway from Mombasa to Lake Victoria is
completed, and steamers are plying on the lake, the country is attracting
increased attention.
The reports for the most part speak of the country in glowing terms, but
it seems to the present writer that they are highly coloured descriptive articles
which perhaps appeal to the naturalist, sportsman or tourist, and impress the
reader with the extensive knowledge of the writer, but that they contain little
information of real value to any persons considering the project of settling in
the country, and earning his living by horticulture, farming, or development of
the natural products of the country.
Anyone at home reading these glowing reports must wonder how it is
that the country has not already been settled.
In the country itself there has been no lack of men desirous of settling,
and inquiries have been made from South Africa and Australia as to the terms
on which land might be obtained. Owing to the impossibility of obtaining
land on any reasonable terms none of these men have settled.
In Uganda it has been generally understood that the Administration were
not desirous of encouraging settlement until the completion of the railway.
Now that the railway is an accomplished fact it is only reasonable to expect
that more favourable land laws will be introduced, otherwise it is not to be
expected that settlers will come to an untried country like Uganda, when
land can be obtained on far more favourable terms in known and proven'
countries such as Ceylon, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, North and
South America. It has also many times been said that the object of the
Administration is to do all they can to enable the natives to reap the benefit
of whatever riches their country possesses, and that this accounts for the
unfavourable attitude shown to would-be European settlers.
The writer, though admitting that many Waganda have shown that they
are anxious to make an effort to advance themselves, does not believe thai
they by themselves are capable of any extensive development of their country.
A few of the chief might under superintendence of the Government or
missionaries make some small advance, but as soon as the superintendence was
removed the natives would at once fall back to their own methods.
More real development of the country could be done by fifteen or twenty

European settlers in ten years than could be performed by the whole Waganda
tribe in a century. By the presence of such settlers the Waganda would
themselves benefit very greatly. The lower classes would obtain regular and
instructive labour, for which they would receive fair pay. The chiefs, by
watching the work and noting the causes of success and failure, might gain
much useful information for themselves, and they have already shown that
they are capable of following where others lead.
The belief that natives, however intelligent, wholly lacking in knowledge
of scientific agriculture, or of planting on any extensive scale, and who are
moreover entirely ignorant of the requirements of European and other markets,
are capable of developing the country, without first obtaining some instruction
or insight into the work expected of them, seems to the writer to be utterly
unreasonable and impracticable.
In other and better known countries failures amongst agriculturists are
by no means unknown. If then failures occur amongst skilled agriculturists,
is it reasonable to anticipate any degree of success from the efforts of unskilled
natives, who are not likely to throw their hearts into such work, and who
consider that labour in the field is only fit for women ?
Many of the chiefs hold fairly extensive plots of land and if these men
would engage Europeans having a knowledge of agriculture, to plant on their
land in a methodical manner, giving them an interest in the work done, then
an advance might be made; but the presence of Europeans either as settlers,
superintendents or instructors, is a sine qua non for the real and continued
development of the country's resources.
Though many Waganda have shown considerable aptitude for learning
few people, if indeed any but visionaries, would deny that their true oppor-
tunity lies in the use of their muscles, and to use these with effect, the
presence of European settlers with some capital and knowledge of agriculture
is necessary.
Turning now to the country itself, Uganda has already been written of as
the finest coffee growing country in the world', a paradise on earth' and in
similar terms. Along the northern shores of the Victoria Nyanza the scenery
is of a romantically pretty order, and'in describing it one is naturally moved
to enthusiasm. The soil, climate and rainfall differ vastly in various localities.
At one spot may be found barren stony ground, unfit for any purpose whatever
and with uncertain rainfall, while a few miles farther on there will be rich
soil of great depth, and a fair annual rainfall. The products which could
most probably be grown successfully are coffee, rubber, tobacco and chilli
Coffee grows in a more or less wild condition in certain localites on the
north and western shores of the lake, and usually attains a height of twelve
or fifteen feet. One or two experiments with imported coffee seed have on a
very limited scale been successfully made, but the impossibility of obtaining
good seed in any quantity has so far prevented this product being grown on a
large scale.
Rubber grows in nearly all the Uganda forests, and might be successfully

The soil seems well suited to the growth and flavour of tobacco, and the
native article is smoked by a good many Europeans.
Chilli pepper too does very well. Within fifteen months of planting seed,
a yield of about 8 cwt. has been gathered by the writer from half an acre.
Cattle might be profitably kept on a small scale. Pigs seem to thrive
extremely well, banana fed pork having an excellent flavour.
There are at present, so far as the writer is aware, only two freehold
estates in Uganda, and these were purchased from the natives prior to the
Special Commissioner declaring the land to be Crown property.
Under existing circumstances, Uganda offers not the slightest inducement
for European immigration even on the smallest scale. The introduction of
more favourable land laws however is not one likely to offer any difficulty,
while it would be greatly beneficial to the country. Supposing that freehold
land could be obtained, the writer sees no reason why energetic men with a
capital of not less than one thousand pounds should be discouraged from
trying their luck in Uganda, but it would be necessary that great care be shown
in selection of land. The main points to be considered being soil, rainfall,
labour and an easy and cheap means of transport for produce to railhead."
(Uganda Notes, April 1902, pp. 29-31.)

"Masaba is the local name for Mt. Elgon. Elgon is the Masai word
for 'eye' (en-gon), personified.
The present Mission Station of Masaba is east of Iganga and north of
Mumia's. Being on high ground an extensive view is obtained for many miles
over the Teso country, and over Busoga. But only a little of Kavirondo is
visible owing to the hills. The lowest slopes of Elgon run about north and
south, as it were behind us, and a bold spur with perpendicular rocky sides
juts out to within two miles of us. There are magnificent plantain gardens in
these hills, and to judge from the number of them there must be a very large
population. But though we only live a mile away from the foot of the hills,
our friends stop op the slopes of the lower ridge. The true hill people we do
not see. They are shy and suspicious, and my two visits with Kakungulu and
an escort only evoked hostility. I shall try again some day with some of the
Kavirondo chiefs, as soon as the animosity against Baganda has had time to
die down. Some gardens are perched on ledges made where a rock wall
ceases and another begins. It looks impossible to get up there: but houses
can be clearly seen: and gardens, and people if attacked by anything in the
valley. Lovely waterfalls over these cliffs are visible after rain. The weapons
in use are a shield about five feet long by sixteen inches wide-plain undaubed
hide, a spear with a very small blade, and bow and arrows. The latter perhaps
belong more especially to the hills. The arrows are often only tipped with
a wooden splinter. Iron appears to be very scarce in all this district of Masaba,
and markets in which it might be traded do not seem to exist.
Of the people of the plains we have many friends, and all are most glad

to welcome us as soon as their shyness is got over. But as we go southwards,
following the Elgon ridge, we come in about two hours to a long ridge
originating in the main ridge and running north-east. Here live the chiefs
Wanzera and -Ifungo and these are not as yet known to us. Beyond them
comes a chief called Majanja on the borders of the Ketosh country; he seems
both friendly and enterprising, and will be our connecting link with Mumia's.
The men wear a skin hung by a lace over the shoulder-and a certain
number trim the upper edge straight and lace it down after the Masai fashion.
Occasionally one sees the small black bead which used to be a favourite with
the Masai, and the custom of circumcision is universal. Kakungulu declared
there was a-colony of Masai in the hills about six miles off ; and the charac-
teristic large shield and spear, with the springy gait of the Masai, seems to be
known by repute. But any connection with the Masai is most unlikely; and
the scanty dress of the women seems decisive against it. Further, there are
no wooden ear ornaments: though two or three men have large rings' of
brass-slightly suggestive of the iron ring ornaments of the Masai and Kikuyu;
but not a bit like them. The women however pierce the lip after the fashion
of the Bavuma on the, island of Bugaya; but generally insert, not a piece of
wood as on Bugaya, but a piece of white alabaster-like stone (found on the
hills), ground on stone to the shape of a rifle bullet. I do not think these lip
ornaments are universal in Kavirondo. The men do not appear to tattoo
much, and the women only indulge in it slightly. A row or two of nodules
on the forehead is the prevailing fashion. The Sio Bay iron workers (also
Kavirondo people) wear large iron rings reaching from the shoulder nearly
to the chin, and often also rings of iron half up the leg and arm. There
are a few relics of iron ornaments here in Masaba, worn by two or three
people and one chief. Otherwise Kavirondo people are not noticeable for
their ornamentation. In this part a few leading men make a conical hat of
grass and cover it with shells: and many heads of villages have a leather band
for the head, covered with one or more rows of shells. But the number of
stripes does not seem to denote the rank of the wearer. A few ivory ornaments
may be seen, mostly a crescent tied on the head. I should not forget to notice
that some lads wear one or more laces of cowskin tied round the leg.
The houses are roughly made of a circle of sticks about five feet high
and mudded; the roof is strongly made of sticks. The d6orway is low and
small, those who own cows make it about four feet high so that the cow can
just get through. Those who do not, often have a doorway not over three
feet high. Doors are of wicker-work covered with African paint (cowdung)
and very good baskets are made all over Kavirondo, large and small after the
same fashion. The inside of the house is warm and roomy; well suited for
accommodating cows and keeping out the cold winds which are frequent.
You are not likely to be invited into a house except to see a sick person, but
some boiled potatoes on a wooden board will be offered you as you sit at or
near the doorway. This is Kavirondo hospitality. The native custom, how-
ever, is to visit whenever beer is going; and for this purpose a long lusiki
(reed tube) is carried about in a hollow bamboo by those who possess them.
I think this is more peculiar to Masaba, the lusiki being bound with fibre

grown in Busoga, if it is not actually made there. Probably also on account
of the plantains, beer is more plentiful in Masaba than elsewhere in Kavirondo.
The men spend a lot of their time walking about and herding cows; but
1 .cannot make out that they go far from home. A few visit the Basoga,
fifteen miles off; but I believe the rest do not go much more than six miles
in a direct line from their home. I find the women much more ready to work
than the men; and employ them not only for cultivating, but for mud work
on houses. The feature of Mumia's is the trading spirit; but here there is
not a single market. I find, however, the same trading instinct: for they come
in crowds to sell such things as plantains, grass and firewood. The feature
of the Samya and Sio Bay district is iron-work; here hoes are in such great
demand that wooden blades are sometimes used for iron ones. It cannot be
more than fifty miles to Samya, nor more than twenty to the great border
markets of Kairanya (a border Musoga chief), yet the intervening people are
unfriendly. They are non-Bantu, and some at least of them are, I think, of
Teso origin. Whilst there are few or no plantains at Sio Bay and Samya, and
a very limited number at Mumia's and Kakamega's, there are vast plantain
gardens here in the hills, and in a .belt of about two miles along the foot of
the hills. After that they cease. But the people seem to prefer millet, and
grow large quantities of it. Potatoes are grown where there are no plaintains,
and even where there are plantains. Elephants are said to be found in the
plains close to us. Ivory, if sold, is usually sold for hoes. The villages here
are without any fence or wall. In Kakamega's district and about Sio Bay
(Munyala's) they'have a fence of cactus or Euphorbia, Traces of these fences
are to be seen here, but I only know of one village that is actually inside such
a fence in this district of Masaba. In all the rest of Kavirondo a ditch
(lukoba) is dug round each village, and the clay dug out made into a surround-
ing wall, pierced with a low and not too wide gateway.
There is no feudal system; but the people speak of themselves as
' children' (abana) of such and such a chief. Hence, in this part, they speak
of their own.children as ebyana-a term which sounds odd, because in Luganda
it is applied to an offspring that is short and thick, such as a calf elephant or
hippopotamus. The chiefs appeal to be chosen for their personal character;
but do not enforce their authority by any kind of punishment so far as I know.
Hence it is not certain how far their favour or disfavour will affect the Mission
work. Their people listen to them in matters that require no hard work;
but if you want work done, you must enlist your workers yourself by some
system of pay. Houses are not often built in the plantain gardens; but are
grouped together, apparently under some family system; and the pater-
familias seem to get more and more cattle and people around him until he
becomes a secondary chief. One such man I found claimed the ownership of
this mutala (ridge); and he has now returned. He is a fellow in the prime
of life and has introduced us to many distant chiefs. I hope he may in time
read with our boys; his living just outside our compound is a very great help.
All the people seem of a teachable disposition and independent character.
There is no sharply defined line of propriety between men and women, or
boys and girls, so far as we have seen. Nor is there the least attempt to make

a private yard to their houses. We have every reason to think that the women
will read quite as soon as the men; but at present the mind of the people is
simple and very ignorant. Reading comes as a quite new idea to them: and
their ideas oscillate between an evil spirit (omusambwa) and a God who is
the cause of sickness: an idea common, I believe, to all people in these parts,
Banyoro, Teso and Basoga. The work is to be done by earnest prayer coupled
with personal influence and visiting. There are comparatively few charms
either worn or used in the villages-so different from Busoga.' The familiar
grass devil-hut (esabo) is only seen here and there. . ."
(Uganda Notes, February 1902, pp. 12-14.)

"Mr. Innes, at Jinja, Busoga, has had another visitation by thieves, who
dug under the walls of the house, entered, and made off with goods to the
value of 9. The Basoga are born and bred to thieving, and many chiefs up
to not very long ago had proper paid thieves attached to their following, whose
business it was to rob caravans and hand over the proceeds to their masters."
(Uganda Notes, March 1902, p. 17.)

"The Goverhment are now taking up elephant and zebra farming in
earnest. Mr. Doggett, who accompanied Sir Harry Johnston as Naturalist,
has been appointed to take charge of the work. He has arranged to build a
farm in Kisubika, Bulemezi, some forty miles from Mengo, and will commence
almost at once with zebras, and shortly go to Toro to catch elephants. The
training of the latter will be conducted principally by qualified Indians, who
will bring with them Indian elephants to act as tutors to their heathen African
brethren, and teach them the joy of dragging about poles, and doing transport
work instead of merely uprooting trees and destroying gardens out of pure
mischief. The zebras in Bulemezi and Singo are quite tame, the Baganda
have never hunted them, as they do not eat the flesh. It is quite easy to get
within twenty or thirty yards without their stampeding, and natives, if not
dressed in white cloth, can go up and touch them, though they have to look
out at times for a sharp bite. They feed with the cows which are herded out
there in great numbers."
(Uganda Notes, March 1902, p. 17.)

"Semei Kakungulu, who was in charge of the Bukedi district, and in
receipt of 200 per year from the Government, has resigned his post, and has
retired in the direction of Mt. Elgon where he has been given twenty square
miles of land to settle upon with his people. It was considered that he had

been raiding too much in the districts near the north of Busoga, and had made
himself king of the country. On being told by Mr. W. Grant that he must
give out publicly that he was not actually a king, and being rebuked also for
his constant raiding, he appears to have in a fit of pique resigned his office,
and asked for some land where he could be quiet and free from further trouble.
He was then given this twenty square miles of land to which he has retired."
(Uganda Notes, March 1902, p. 18.)

"The Indian troops stationed in Uganda need a great deal of catering
for, and latterly a good deal of the food has been grown locally. The following
list of what they consume and its supply may be interesting:
WHEAT FLOUR.-The supply of wheat grain here is very small and is
also of poor quality. PEAS.-The grain called mpokea is liked very much by
the Indians, and the pulse called kawo is also liked, but the supply of these
articles does not seem great. RIcE.-The supply obtainable here is very small
and the grain inferior. CLARIFIED BuTTER.-There is a plentiful supply of
butter, and when clarified it is considered very good. RAW SuGAR.-The
supply of sugar cane is large and a great deal of this article could be manufac-
tured. CmLLIEs.-The supply of this is not a large one, probably owing to
the demand not having been great. The chillies grown locally from Indian
imported seed are good. TURMEmRIc.-The supply is very small. POTATOES
(English).-The supply is ample. SALT.-The salt obtainable from Kibero
when refined is very good and the supply is abundant, but the original cost is
very high. For some time now the commissariat department at Kampala,
under the charge of Mr. H. Hunt, a most capable and energetic man, has
been expressing the juice from locally grown sugar cane, and boiling it down
to procure the raw brown sugar used by the Indians, and several attempts to
crystallize it have been made very successfully. The Katikiro and several
other chiefs have planted large patches of cane, and there is every prospect
that before long a plentiful supply of sugar will be obtainable. An Indian
trader is about to commence the manufacture of it as well. the Kibero salt
is really salts and of a very dirty colour and very gritty. It is refined by
sprinkling it slowly into a large pan of boiling water. Much of the refuse
rises to the surface and is skimmed off, and the heavier settles to the bottom.
The salt laden water is poured off and slowly evaporated, and the residue is
a very good white salt."
(Uganda Notes, March 1902, pp. 18-19.)

M UMIA'S photo was not taken by appointment. The unit I commanded
was due to give a display at Mumia's, not far from Kakamega, one
February afternoon in 1945. For various reasons we had decided not to camp
there. Mumia's had an unenviable reputation for blackwater; it had at one
time been an administrative headquarters, one of the earliest in Uganda in
those far-off days when Uganda's frontiers extended to Naivasha, until the
death-rate from blackwater among Europeans became so high that the station
was closed down. More important to me, however, was the reputation of
our own askari: and information having reached us privately that the little
colony of Nubians and Swahilis-the inevitable residue of all abandoned
Bomas-was preparing to welcome our men with something presumed to
be stronger than tea, we had camped instead at the C.M.S. school at Buterere.
We arrived, therefore, only an hour before the time at which our display
was due to begin. Casually inquiring of the sub-chief who welcomed us, how
many years since Mumia himself had died, I was told that he was still alive,
and living close-by. "Then why can't he come to our show ?" I asked.
That was out of the question, came the reply: why, the Governor of Kenya
himself had to go to Mumia's to visit him in his hut, if he wished to see him.
That was a challenge that could not go unaccepted: I vowed that Mumia
should see our show that afternoon, if he never lived to see another.
We.were received in a darkened hut, no different from a million others in
Africa, whilst an interpreter shouted our greetings at Mumia-for the old
man1 was half-blind and almost deaf. To our request that he should attend
our display, he answered, And what good would that do, when I could hear
nothing and see little ? This called for the retort diplomatic, and I replied,
It would give us an honour and your people a pleasure, if you would come."
Without another word he signalled for his attendants to bring him his robe
and staff of office (bearing the badge and inscription of the old Imperial British
East African Company), and we lifted him into our car.
Six thousand Bantu Kavirondo-or Abaluhya, as they prefer to be called
to-day-rose to their feet and gave, Mumia the traditional greeting: a few
moments later the Kenya Police Band, which was accompanying us, gave him
a fine eyes left as they marched past-but I doubt if he recognized what was
happening. I would like to be able to record that the old man related to us
some of his experiences, but it would not be true. The world forgetting, by
the world forgot," Mumia is beyond the stage of reminiscences-and it is left
for us to recall the unique link with East Africa's history that he represents;
the coming of the first white men to Uganda from the east: the warning that
he says he gave to Bishop Hannington, to turn back: his reception of Lugard
1 How old is Mumia ? He received and assisted Joseph Thompson in 1883
videe Johnston's The Uganda Protectorate, p. 247), and must have had considerable
standing then.-[ED.]

FIG. 13
Mumia-February 1945.

(Map illustrating "An Early Visit to Ruwenzori,"
page 61)

D.S.O., IN JULY, 1898.
MR. G. OLIVER: +++++++

SCALE: I : 100,000.

(who described him as a truculent young chief ") : the establishment of his
Boma as perhaps the most important post on the route from the Coast to the
interior of Uganda, and the last centre at which the European traveller could
be assured of food and porters before entering the uncertain country of Busoga.

M R. R. W. FREEMAN has commented as follows on the article on
Sesse Canoes which appeared at p. 29 of Vol. 10 of the Journal:
"I was interested to see Harris' note on Sesse canoes. He seems to me
to be much too precise about species; many species other than those he
mentions are used for the various canoe parts in other areas around the lake.
Bibo is probably the most durable 'tie' but where it cannot be found easily
the bark fibre Binsambwe (Hibiscus spp.; Triumfetta spp.) is often used
instead. Keels in the Busungwe area were made, when I was there, of Nzingu
(Mitragyna spp.) and proved so durable that during my time on the island we
built three successive 'bodies' on the same Nzingu keel.
I am a bit doubtful of Harris' last paragraph. Mperere and Mperewere
seem to be two forms of the same name and are both used in many places for
the common non-woody Acalypha sp. with the fibrous nettle-like stem which
is used for plaiting baskets. I never saw any of the canoe-builders at Busungwe
tighten the binding by forcing in slips, except as a repair. In building, our
men used long pieces of forest lines, split in half, and bound the Bibo round
the whole join, i.e., through two holes in two planks and round two strips of
split liane. Caulking with Ebyai (plantain fibre) completed the job.
Our largest sewn canoe was nearly fifty feet long but proved rather
unwieldy in rough weather; once it got broadside on to the waves it was very
difficult to turn."

A S a supplement to the interesting paper on Ruwenzori by Messrs. Bere
and Hicks which appeared in Vol. 10 of the Journal, it may be opportune
to note an early climb to the snows by that fine soldier Captain (later Lieut.-
Col.) Claude H. Sitwell, D.S.O. (1858-1900), who was in the Uganda
Administrative Service from 1895 to 1899 and was killed in action at the
Tugela River during the South African war.
This climb, which is not among the early climbs listed at pages 20-21 of
de Filippi's Ruwenzori, is referred to in Sitwell's MS. diary, lodged in the
Secretariat library at Entebbe, and seems to have been made by way of the
southern valleys of the range.
Sitwell, who was at the time in charge of the Toro District, pitched camp
at Fort George, Katwe Salt Lake, on 1st July 1898. On the 5th he moved to
Kikirongo, and on the 6th to Kirembi (" Lovely camp, amongst hills, well

wooded, good water. Had long shot at Ruenzorie antelope"). Next day
he marched to Nakasojo. His entries for the following days are:
"Friday 8th. Went up to Mbogo's village 11 hours off. He said
it was day and half march to snows. No news buffalo, plenty food.
Saturday 9th. Left camp at 6.50 a.m., passed Mbogo's, crossed
river Nyamwamba, had very tiring march up mountains, very pretty
country, plenty streams to cross, reached Kianjoki, on river Matinda, at
11.45. Very prettily situated, wooded hills all round. Cloudy, very
little sun. Had to leave cows other side of river as banks were too steep
for them. Wakonjwa country, took photos, plenty food, lovely cold
water. Thunder and rain 6 p.m. Very cold, Cook fever as usual.
Sunday 10th. Cook still ill. Went up into mountains, very hard
climb, hills well wooded at first, then short grass and bare, got up to snow,
but could not reach top as there was sheer rock and no road, brought
back some snow and various shrubs and fruit. Rain and thunder evening.
7-8 hours to climb up to snows from Kianjoki, very easy to get back.
Very cold night."
Sitwell returned to Nakasojo next day and thence to' Fort Gerry (Fort

At the suggestion of the author, the above note was shown to Mr. R. M.
Bere, who has done several climbs on Ruwenzori, in the hope that he might
be able to identify Sitwell's line of approach. It has been shown also to
Mr. A. J. Rusk, who spent many arduous months on the mountain in 1938
and 1939 when demarcating the Ruwenzori Crown Forest and surveying the
forest boundary. Neither Bere nor Rusk were able to trace Sitwell's route
with any certainty, although both made helpful suggestions.
While Rusk was poring over all the maps he could find, and the Editor
was suggesting to the newly formed Uganda Section of the East ,African
Mountain Club that they should try and trace Sitwell's route on the ground,
Mr. George Oliver returned to Uganda and to him the note was hastily shown.
Oliver, it will be remembered, was with Dr. G. N. Humphreys on his ascent
of the twin peaks of Mt. Stanley in 1926, and had been his companion on
many climbs and explorations. In addition he had accompanied one of
the sections of the 1934 British Museum Expedition which ascended the
Namwamba valley from Kilembe. Oliver's knowledge of Rawenzori is
He writes as follows:
I take it that, at the.time of Sitwell's visit, the Bakonjo country was well
populated. It was in my day (1922) until the hanging of three Bakonjo in
the Nyamagasani valley precipitated a big exodus to the Congo.
Well developed hunters' tracks would be in existence for hunting red
duiker and hyrax : hence the march would be easy. Kianjoki can be estab-
lished as the area above Kilembe mine. As Sitwell crossed the Namwamba
I assume that he went up the left bank, following the hunting track to Karirumu

rock shelter and proceeding thence to Rugendwara by the old hunters' track,
to the Ibanda rock shelter on the Kurugutu river. I was informed by the old
headman and guide, Bwamanjalo, when on Humphreys' expedition up the
Kurugutu in 1932, that in the old days the Ibanda area was hunted by people
from the Namwamba valley. There also used to be a track to the north of
the Hainguru rock shelter, which avoided the fallen heath forest zone.
Sitwell's description of hills, well wooded at first, then short grass and
bare, definitely points to the area south of Rugendwara, which is much more
open than most of Ruwenzori. The sheer rocks indicate Rugendwara itself,
a very exposed peak, bare and precipitous, on which snow is present at certain
times. On a good hunting track seven to eight hours would give ample time
to reach this peak (13,899 ft.)."
We are most grateful to Mr. Oliver for his comments. Sitwell's ascent
resolves itself into an unsuccessful attempt on Rugendwara, which is still

THE Department of Chief of Naval Information at the Admiralty has most
courteously supplied the Society with the following details of the cruiser
H.M.S. Uganda, covering her service with the Royal Navy and the Royal
Canadian Navy, 1942-45.
It will be appreciated that the account is necessarily short because so many
of her duties were routine patrols and convoys which, while extremely impor-
tant to the war effort, did not provide anything exciting to write about.
Should this summary come to the notice of anyone who had the honour
of serving with the vessel and who can contribute a first-hand account of any
of her actions, will he please be so good as to communicate with the Editor ?

"Commissioned in 1942, the cruiser H.M.S. Uganda served for a short
time with the Home Fleet before going to the Mediterranean early in 1943.
Her duties were chiefly of a routine nature, consisting of patrols and
screening valuable and important convoys.
When the invasion of Sicily took place, H.M.S. Uganda, in company with
other ships of the Royal Navy, played an important part, rendering valuable
assistance to the invading armies by heavily bombarding enemy shore batteries
and concentrations.
Particularly successful in this respect was the bombardment of Augusta
in which H.M.S. Uganda took part.
Later, when the allies invaded the mainland of Italy, the Uganda again
carried out many successful bombardments.
During the critical days at Salerno, when ships of the Royal Navy and the
U.S. Navy were constantly called upon for bombardments, H.M.S. Uganda
fired 816 rounds of ammunition during the ten-day period between 5th and
15th September 1943.

During this operation the Uganda was hit by a rocket bomb, and left the
area for Malta in tow. She went to the United States for refit.
On 21st October 1944 the cruiser was transferred to the Canadian Navy.
Manned by the R.C.N., she sailed from the States three days later for the U.K.
By March 1945, H.M.C.S. Uganda had arrived at Sydney, Australia, to
join the British Pacific Fleet, and in May sailed from Leyte in company with
H.M.S. King George V for operations against the Myako Islands, Sakishima
Gunto, and in June for the bombardment of shore installations at Truk.
On 12th July, again in the company of the King George V, she sailed
from Manus for operations. On the 27th of the same month she left the
battle area of the British Pacific Fleet and arrived at Esquimalt, British
Columbia, 10th August 1945."

Uganda's Commanding Officers during the war were:
Captain W. G. Andrewes, C.B.E., D.S.O., R.N.
(from 17th Dec. 1942 to Feb. 1944).
Commander D. L. Johnston, R.N.
(from Feb. 1944 to 24th July 1944).
Commander II. F. Pullen, O.B.E., R.C.N.
(from 25th July 1944 to 14th August 1944).
Captain E. R. Mainguy, O.B.E., R.C.N.
(from 15th August 1944).

The Hon. Editor, The Uganda Journal.
The explanation of the ternm Kavirondo given by Mr. E. V. Hippel
in the last number of the Journal is certainly the most satisfactory I have yet
heard, and bears out what Omw. Yosiya Kyazze told me recently, that he
thought the name originated in what is now Kenya Colony. It leads me to
wonder whether we can elucidate some other tribal nicknames which are
still obscure :
(1) BUKEDI. The term is applied by the Baganda to large areas of the
Eastern Province north and east of the Nile. For several reasons it is unlikely
that it is connected with the Luganda bukedde, derived from okukya "to
dawn ". As Thomas and Scott remark in Uganda, it is popularly said to
mean the land of naked people ". Kitching and Blackledge, in their Luganda
dictionary, say simply that it is the Luganda name for the area west of Elgon.
In a footnote on p. 136 of the second edition of Wallis's Handbook of Uganda,
the etymology of the word is discussed, and the suggestion is made that it may
be derived from the Lango word kidi, east ", or the Teso word akidi the
dawn ".
Perhaps a more plausible explanation is that the word is a corruption of
Okedea, the name of that part of Teso first penetrated by the Baganda. In
this connection Omw. Y. Kyazze told me that he thought the word was derived
from Bukedea when Kakunguru first went there. Many Baganda now living
should be able to tell us whether this is correct or whether the word originated
earlier: I believe Baganda fought in Bukedea in Mutesa's time.
Or is the word taken from Lunyoro ? Rukidi (the name of the first
Mubito Mukama) and Mukedi are both Lunyoro personal names, and it is
just possible that the name Rukidi has some connection with Lo-Kedi or
Lo-Kidi, which I remember as a Bari name.1 I think it is certain that
the -kedi or -kidi word has no etymological connection with nudity what-
ever it may have come to mean by popular application.
(2) BUNYORO. Roscoe, in The Bakitara, says that this nickname arises
from the custom in Kitara of the Mukama rewarding members of the Hera
(I think he means Bairu) class by elevating them to the rank of Banyoro,
"freed-men ", with the status of chief, thus creating a middle class between
the Bahuma aristocracy and the indigenous agricultural Bantu-speaking
peasants. Although the word Munyoro originally denoted a chief it is used
nowadays, in addition, as the equivalent of "Mr." The fact that the term
Bunyoro is used as a nickname implies that there was a considerable number
of this artificial middle class, and indeed Roscoe gives the names of twenty-four
1 Cf. also the names Lokidi (Lotuko) and Kidi (Fari) referred to in Social
Organization of the Lotuko by C. G. and B. Z. Seligman, and in Lafon Hill" by
J. H. Driberg, two papers which appeared in Sudan Notes and Records, Vol. VIII,

of its clans. Hence the nickname, for, as Gilbert wrote, When every one is
somebody, no one's anybody."
This sets one thinking, because, of course, Roscoe did not know of the
Lwo invasion, infiltration, infusion or whatever it was, which now seems
certainly to have taken place. I think we can all accept the use in common
of -bito meaning royal" in Acholi and Lunyoro. I have noticed that Wright
(Uganda Journal, Vol. 3, p. 175) mentions the Acholi ceremony of Kwer min
Lanyoro, that of the new-born child. Is there any possible connection between
Lanyoro and Munyoro, for if so it may mean that the "middle" class is
derived principally from Lwo stock, and not, as Roscoe thought, from the
Bairu stock.
(3) Mmo. The name given to the Lango by the Acholi, the Alira
and the Akum (Kuman)-See Driberg, The Lango, p. 36.
There may be other nicknames for tribes, besides the above, and it would
be interesting to record them, with the reason for the nickname, before this
information becomes lost entirely.
Yours faithfully,
3 Cranmer Road,
4th May 1946.

Mr. Haddon's letter has been shown to several members of the Society
known to be interested in this subject. Their comments on the origin of the
name Bukedi can be summed up as follows:
Kedi or Kidi (known to the Banyoro as Isingoma Mpuga Rukidi) came
to Bunyoro from beyond the Nile, from the country known as Bukedi, Bukedde
or Bukidi (a name used later for Lango): he was the first of the Ababito
dynasty. Reference is made-to this in several different writings, for example
in K.W.'s articles in Vol. 3 (p. 155) and Vol. 4 (p. 75) of the Uganda Journal.
Later, the areas of Buruli and Bugerere, now belonging to Buganda, were
overrun by adventurers from Bunyoro. These adventurers, who were known
as Banyara, pushed east along Lake Kioga, establishing settlements not only
on its southern shores but also in Lango and in the western peninsulas of
Teso in the neighbourhood of Bugondo. They were in occupation of north
Bugerere when Kakunguru built his fort at Galiraya.
All the naked non-Bantu inhabitants of the countries to the north and east
of the lake were known to the Banyara as Bakedi, so it was natural for the
Baganda to adopt the same name for them.
When Kakunguru was called on by the British to help in the round-up
of Kabarega in Lango he got in touch with the Bakedi (i.e., Lango) across the
lake. The Kuman and Teso, on whom he exercised a great influence from
this time onwards, were known to him and his followers as Bakedi, also.
Kakunguru's 'invasion' of Teso was made from the west, from Lango,
so that it was quite reasonable for the Baganda to think of themselves as


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By Captain C. 'R. S. Pitman, D.s.o., M.c.
Price: Shs. 32/50.

Applications for the above publications should be made direct to :
The Uganda Bookshop,
P.O. Box No. 145, Kampala.

The Uganda Journal, Vol. 1, Nos. I and 2; Vol. 3, Nos. 3 and 4; Vol. 6. No. 1.
V Journal of the East Africa and Uganda Natural History Society, Vols. I to III.
Sudan Notes and Records, Vols. I and II.
Man, Vols. I to XXIII.
Nigerian Field. Vols. I to VII.
Eagero. Ensonge--Muswabuzi-White Fathers' Press, Bukalasa.
A collection of .1455 Lugandai proverbs (title unknown) compiled by the Rev.
I. HW. Duta and published in 1902.
Anyone willing to dispose of any of the above should communicate with the
L^ Honorary Librarian, naming price, at:
The Uganda Society,
. Private Post Bag, Kampala. .
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