<%BANNER%>
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Table of Contents
 Uganda Society
 Editorial
 Sanders saga
 The ancestral shrine of the...
 Kingfishers
 Notes
 Correspondence
 Back Matter
 Back Cover














xml version 1.0 standalone yes
Volume_Errors
Errors
PageID P14
ErrorID 4
P16
4
P22
4
P24
4


The Uganda journal
External Link ( Journal issues, 1999-2002 )
ALL VOLUMES CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00080855/00018
 Material Information
Title: The Uganda journal
Abbreviated Title: Uganda j.
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 22-24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Uganda Society
Publisher: Uganda Society etc.
Uganda Society etc.
Place of Publication: Kampala etc
Publication Date: 1939
Frequency: irregular[1976-<1995>]
semiannual[ former 1934-]
annual[ former <1948>-1973]
completely irregular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Periodicals -- Uganda   ( lcsh )
Genre: serial   ( sobekcm )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Uganda
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: v. 1- 1934-
Numbering Peculiarities: Suspended May 1942-Mar. 1946; replaced by the Society's Bulletin.
Numbering Peculiarities: One issue published every few years, v. 38 (1976)-<v. 42 (1995)>
Issuing Body: Vols. 11-13 published in London.
General Note: Journal of The Uganda Society (formerly The Uganda Literary and Scientific Society).
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - ABS8002
oclc - 01644239
alephbibnum - 000301510
issn - 0041-574X
lccn - 52026895
System ID: UF00080855:00018
 Related Items
Related Items: Uganda journal

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
        Front Matter 3
        Front Matter 4
        Front Matter 5
    Table of Contents
        Page i
    Uganda Society
        Page ii
        Page ii-a
    Editorial
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Sanders saga
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
    The ancestral shrine of the Acholi
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 28a
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 30a
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
    Kingfishers
        Page 44
        Page 44a
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 46a
    Notes
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
    Correspondence
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
    Back Matter
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
        00008
        00012
        00044thm
        00048thm
        00064
        00068
Full Text
























































































































I T




00"








wb
as










KENYAand UGANDA RAILWAYSand HARBOURS
EXCURSIONS TO THE COAST


DURING


JULY, AUGUST AND SEPTEMBER


CHEAP FARES FOR YOURSELF
THE KENYA AND UGANDA RAILWAYS AND
HARBOURS issue excursion tickets at single fare and a
quarter for the return journey to the Coast from all
stations and ports.

CHEAP RATES FOR YOUR CAR
Your car will make the holiday all the more enjoyable
and the KENYA AND UGANDA RAILWAYS AND
HARBOURS will convey it at special reduced rates for
the occasion.

Do not miss this opportunity of spending

A HOLIDAY AT SEA LEVEL DURING
THE COOL SEASON

FULL PARTICULARS ON APPLICATION TO ANY
STATION OR PORT.


-- _,.. ....-__...._




IMPERIAL


AIRWAYS









YOUR LINK

with the World is

BY AIR


IMPERIAL

AIRWAYS

Services connect
Uganda with the
World thrice weekly.

KAMPALA LONDON
105 (inclusive)
from The Imperial Hotel
to WATERLOO

The price of an Air Ticket is inclusive of everything except
Alcoholic drinks.

Air Tickets are interchangeable with Steamship passages

One way by air and the other by sea costs a half of the two
combined return fares with a free allowance for your baggage
by boat on the air half of your journey.
FULL PARTICULARS FROM IMPERIAL AIRWAYS P. O, B. 523
KAMPALA. PHONE 325 OR FROM ANY TRAVEL AGENT.










A GUIDE TO
THE SNAKES OF UGANDA

By
Capt. Charles R. S. Pitman, D.S.O., M.C.
Corresponding Member of the Zoological Society
Game Warden, Uganda.

The above work which appeared serially in Volumes III, IV and V of
the Uganda Journal is now on sale.
While the book is a complete guide to Uganda snakes, it also has a
much wider interest and importance, for it deals with species of snakes that
are found from the East to the West Coasts of Africa, and from the Sudan
to the Union of South Africa. It is, in fact, the most comprehensive and
authoritative work on African snakes that has yet been published.
Of the greatest value are the 23 splendid coloured plates which give a
complete and accurate pictorial record of the snakes of Uganda-some 80
species in all. Not only are the heads, lateral and ventral sections of adult
snakes shown,but the differences of colouring and markings of young snakes
are also depicted. The book is further illustrated by 18 plates of line draw-
'ings, two diagrams and two maps.
Another feature which increases the usefulness of the book is its index-
or rather indexes. Of these there are three-an Index of Scientific Names,
an Index of Popular Names, and an Index of Vernacular Names. There is
also a List of Contents.
The Foreword has been contributed by Mr. H.W. Parker, Assistant Keep-
er of Zoology at the British Museum.
The edition is limited to 500 copies, each one of which is numbered.

Price 30s.

Post Quarto. 362 pages, illustrated with 23 fine Coloured Plates,
18 Line Drawings, 2 Diagrams and 2 Maps. Half Bound

Published by THE UGANDA SOCIETY, KAMPALA, UGANDA,
from whom copies may be obtained.




.: .*. .- -. .- ,:- .A
a w ,, -, ... .. : -. ., .o ..
... ." '-. '. .B g ,-E ..* :, . .. .
',4- 1". -" *Kkx1cec1r.,ir cn.! r, l .w- . ..' ... .
'. .. .... -. -' I L ". .."

S:-f .L. d .
. --,,i ... ,. ., D a %.. .. ..a .,, ..

t la s' t, ank S i n. :k ; Doub f eranm.
at.^ A *:.43,



fl.ss^a rdpay rothe &ietofaiA N69nak&MA lqdia Lri., Kii
of' *a -Sam el'in con caeh sv
,- D......- .. ..


,, .~ ~... ..............
hl:'*.'. ". ," ', -S b
A **


!a Jutya d eebk. my acomu ", \ / ,' l .. & .. I ...



A, t 1," \" '. '*-', ~.- U > S' -'
'K,_ ..' '...;. .,........... ... t..'..,.-.. ............... .. ,.... .-. ......... 1
,. .. A .. . .
` x, C .. .. .... -..._ .

':;' ,. .;. 'n ,vlf ., .
,e ..: 'I ", ;. .... ", ,. ",,,, .. i. .











Uganda Journal.


THE ORGAN OF THE UGANDA SOCIETY.


JULY, 1939.


CONTENTS


EDITORIAL.

Sanders Saga.... .

The Ancestral Shrine of the Acholi.

Kingfishers ... ...


... ... by J. SYKES.

... by REV. FR. A. MALANDRA,

... ... ... ... by C.W CHORLEY


NOTES


An Arab historian's reference to the sources of the
Nile in 950 A.D. ...... .

A Legendary Hero of Buganda ... ...


... by G. HUMPHREY-SMITH.

by SAM. K.B. MUKASA.


CORRESPONDENCE


Vol. VII.


No. 1.









UGANDA SOCIETY.


Patron:
HIS EXCELLENCY SIR PHILIP E. MITCHELL, K.C.M.G., M.L
President:
JOHN SYKES, ESQ.,
Vice-President:
CAPTAIN C. R. S. PITMAN, D.S.O., M.C.
Honorary Vice-Presidents:
SIR ALBERT R. COOK, KT., C.M.G.
H. R. HONE, ESQ., M.C., K.C.,
DR. H. H. HUNTER, C.B.E.,
H. JOWITT, ESQ.,
THE RT. REV. BISHOP E. MICHAUD, M.B.E
E. J. WAYLAND, ESQ., C.B.E.
Committee:
DR. L.D. AHMED.
NORMAN GODINHO, ESQ., M.B.E.
G. L. R. HANCOCK, ESQ.,
H. R. HONE, ESQ., M.C., K.C.,
OMW. BALAAMU J. MUKASA.
OMW. B. K. MULYANTI.
MRS. H.C. TROWELL.
Honorary Secretary:
DR. A.W. WILLIAMS.
Honorary Treasurer:
W. N. R. LEE, ESQ.,
Assistant Honorary Treasurer
C.R. HALL, ESQ.
Honorary Editor.
R.J.R. POTTS, ESQ.
Assistant Honorary Editor.
G.H.E. HOPKINS, ESQ.
Honorary Librarian.
R. S. SHACKELL, ESQ.





Hon. Secretary,
Uganda Society,
Private Post Bag.
Kampala.

Please note that my address for the time being is as

follows





and is likely to remain so for the next .................months.


NAME (ir block letters)

DATE


IVI











EDITORIAL.



There is, we believe, amongst members a modicum of feeling on the subject
of the size of the Journal. Some complain that the articles are too few, others
that the advertisements are too many. In the present number we shall have ap-
peased at any rate the latter company, though many no doubt as they catch their
first glimpse of this slender form beneath its wrapper will be smitten with appre-
hension lest their Journal be vanishing altogether.
The main controlling influence over the Journal is, as in so many other
cases, money. The spate of advertisements in the last few numbers was due to
a well-meant endeavour to raise more of this necessary evil. But as, in the
opinion of many, they appeared rather disproportionately to dwarf the reading
matter and furthermore were found to cost slightly more to produce than the
remainder of the Journal, it has been decided to abolish the major part of them.
We find ourselves then limited by the present income of the Society to a
total of approximately two hundred pages for our four numbers, and if mem-
bers consider this too mean an allowance they must remember that the publishing
of the Journal is not the Society's only expense, and that their annual subscrip-
tion is not inordinately large.
As regards our contributions the Committee has decided that in future six
separates shall be issued free of charge to all those whose articles are published.
In the case of those who contribute notes, they will receive six copies of the
notes bound together. Any additional reprints required should be ordered from
the Editor at the time the contribution is sent in.
In conclusion we would like to make an appeal for more short articles
and notes. There is a reasonably steady supply of good strong meat, and we are
duly grateful to those who expend so much of their time and labour in sup-
plying it. But of lighter fare there is a sad deficiency, and we would stress the
facts that it takes a variety of dishes to make an attractive meal, that there is
succulence for somebody in the smallest of them, and that there are six hundred
critical guests to feed four times in a year.













NOTICES.

We acknowledge with thanks receipt of the following publications sent in
exchange for the "Journal":-
Journal de la Sociedt des Africanistes, Tome VIII, Fascicule II.
Bantu Studies, Volume XII No. 1 March, 1939.
Bulletin du Comite d'Etudes Historiques et Scientifiques de l'Afrique
Occidentale Francaise.
Tome XVIII, Nos. 1, 2-3, 4. 1935.
XIX, Nos. 1, 2-3, 4. 1936.
XX, Nos. 1-2, 3, 4. 1937.
XXI, No. 1 Jan-Mar. 1938.
Man, April, 1939.
Bibliographie Ethnographique du Congo Belge et des Regions Avoisinantes,
1939. Volume 1 Fascicule 3.
Sudan Notes and Records, Volume XXII, Part 1, 1939.
Africa, Volume XII, No. 2 April, 1939.
Bulletin of the Imperial Institute, Volume XXXVII, No. 1 Jan-March, 1939.
Journal of The Royal African Society, Volume XXXVIII, No. CLI.
The Nigerian Field, Volume VIII No. 2 April, 1939.

We have also to acknowledge with thanks receipt of the following:-
Seance Academique du 29 October, 1938, Universit6 Coloniale de Belgique.
Wire-Drawing, Especially in Africa, K. G. Lindblom (Statens Etnografiska
Museum, Stockholm.)
Coutumiers Juridiques de l'Afrique Occidentale Francaise Tome I. Senegal.
Abhandlungen aus dem Landesmuseum der Provinz Westfalen Museum fur
Naturkunde.
9 Jahrgang Heft, 1938, 1, 2, 3, 4.
10 Jahrgang Heft, 1939, 1.
The Formenkreis Theory, by Otto Kleinschmidt Dr. h.c. Presented by
Rear-Admiral H. H. Lynes, M.B.O.U.










The Sanders Saga.
By J. SYKES.
(Presidential Address for the year 1938-1939). (')


I. Introductory.
The "Sanders Saga" of Edgar Wallace may not be thought worthy to rank
with the "Forsyte Saga" of John Galsworthy or with the "Herries Saga" of Hugh
Walpole, but it is a Saga nevertheless.
It consists of one hundred and twenty-nine short stories and one complete
novel, all dealing with the activities and experiences of Mr. Commissioner
Sanders, better known as "Sanders of the River," as ruler, under the British
Crown, of a certain group of Native Territories in West Central Africa.
In the whole of them I can find but three references to Uganda, two to
Tanganyika, and two to Kenya. It cannot therefore be said that they have any
direct concern with East Africa, or a direct interest to its present-day inhabitants.
They have, however, an indirect interest, and that for two reasons.
The first of these is that the African peoples whom they describe are intended,
as will be explained later, to be peoples of a Bantu type, and speaking Bantu
languages.
The second is that, though, as is perhaps inevitable in any work of fiction
dealing with such a subject, and more particularly if the author is a journalist,
there is much that is sensational and much that is purely fantastic, there is also
a -certain amount which may be claimed to reflect a reasonably faithful picture
of African society at a certain stage of development, and of the problems of
Colonial Administration in contact with such a society a generation or so ago.
I should perhaps make it clear at the outset that, though in what follows I
have taken Sanders as a kind of hero and he is the last man in the world whom
I would wish to debunk, this does not mean that I am thereby expressing ap-
proval of all that he did. Rather do I share the common thankfulness that that
stage of Empire-building in Africa which the regime of Sanders represents,
has passed, or almost passed, away. And I would further claim that Sanders
himself, though he usually found the problems of the present sufficiently urgent,
was not unmindful also of the future, and fully realized that his primary duty
was to lead his people, albeit slowly, up to better things, and to lay solid foundat-
ions on which his successors were to build. No more than Moses could he hope
himself to enter the promised land.

(i) Delivered at the Kampala Club on January I8th. 1939g





UGANDA JOURNAL.


II. The Inception of the Saga.

It is first necessary to examine sources, to throw what light we can on the
inception of the stories.
Tales of West Africa first came to the ears of Edgar Wallace at an early
stage of his career. After various unsuccessful attempts to earn his living in
sundry capacities, which included those of news-boy, printer's assistant, hand
in a rubber-works, hand in a boot-shop, hand on a Grimsby Trawler, builder's
labourer, concrete-mixer for a road-maker, and milkman, he enlisted at the age of
19 as a Private in the Royal West Kent Regiment. From that Regiment he
transferred later to the Royal Army Medical Corps as a Hospital Orderly, and
in that capacity was posted in 1896 to South Africa, where he remained several
years, as soldier and civilian.
In 1897 there took place a British naval punitive expedition to Benin, from
which the wounded were evacuated to the Hospital at Simonstown where Wal-
lace was stationed. It was through talks with these wounded men and the tales they
told him that he picked up his first knowledge of the West Coast, though he
did not utilize that knowledge till many years afterwards.
A more direct contact with the type of African conditions which he de-
scribes was obtained about ten years later, when he was sent out to report on the
allegations of atrocities in the Congo Free State, in connection with the rubber
trade, that had recently been made by Sir Roger Casement (1903) and E.D. Morel
(1906). He spent a year as the guest of Missionaries at the station of Bonga-
ndanga, 1000 miles up the Congo River, the same place from which Casement
had written his report.
His missionary hosts were able to supply him with plenty of information about
the subject of his enquiry, but he naturally preferred not to be content with
second-hand evidence and so he spent a good deal of time visiting villages and
interviewing natives wth the help of a French-speaking interpreter. He soon
became much more interested in native affairs in general than he was in the
actual matters he was investigating. "He was fascinated by the life of these prim-
itive tribes, their feuds, their witch-doctors, their artless logic and forest-
born superstition." (2)
On the Congo River also he picked up all kinds of tales of British and other
European Colonial Administrators, men of the type of Sir Harry Johnston, who
had ruled half-explored Native Territories of the size of a European country,
and whose life was a continual struggle against tribal warfare, cannibalism, secret
societies, sleeping sickness and other diseases, and the peculiar beliefs and
peculiar cunning of the peoples they ruled.
He also applied himself to the study of the Lomongo language, apparently
of a Bantu type, simple and of limited vocabulary but rich in proverb and meta-

(2) Edgar Wallace. A biography, by Margaret Lane. I am much indebted to this book
for information concerning the inception of the Saga.






UGANDA JOURNAL.


phor, and he is said to have spent much of his time in the evenings poring over
the Grammar which one of his missionary hosts was compiling, noting down words,
expressions and proverbs-not knowing then in the least how he was going to
make use of them.
Though he wrote an article on "Congo Atrocities" for a missionary public-
ation, nothing from the pen of Wallace about this subject ever appeared in the
columns of the Daily Mail. Apparently he did submit a report but Lord North-
cliffe (then Sir Alfred Harmsworth) had recently been landed with an expensive
libel action through a report of Wallace's on another subject. He was not taking
any more risks, and in fact dismissed Wallace from the staff of Carmelite House
soon after his return from Africa.
After this our author passed through a lean period, from which he was deliver-
ed by the publication of the first of the "Sanders" books.
This occurred when he was on the verge of bankruptcy, with a bailiff in the
house and all the family valuables in pawn, and when, owing to his unlucky
record, no publisher or editor seemed to want his work. He had had, however,
some articles accepted by a paper called The Weekly Tale-teller, of which the
Fiction Editor was Mrs. Isabel Thorne. One day, when on his way to a meeting
of the Congo Reform Association, at which he was to speak, he met Mrs.
Thorne accidentally on the top of a bus, told her whither he was bound and re-
lated to her some of his African experiences and reminiscences. She at once
said to him that if he wanted material for short stories he had already got it.
The conversation continued while he accompanied her to London Bridge Station,
where she was catching a train, and for some time after while they walked up
and down the platform. Both were so thrilled with the possibilities that he for-
got all about his Congo Meeting and she, deliberately, missed several trains,
before they went their respective ways. Thus it was in the extremely un-African
and unromantic, not to say sordid, atmosphere of a London Bridge platform
that "Sanders of the River" was conceived.
When he got home Wallace at once dug out his Congo notes and set to
work to sketch out a series of stories of Tropical Africa. He transposed the
Congo into a great river running through the middle of an unspecified British
Territory on the West Coast; he set in charge of it his Mr. Commissioner Sanders,
apparently a composite portrait of several African Administrators, including Sir
Harry Johnston; he converted the Lo-mongo of the Congo into the Bo-mongo (3) of
the West Coast; and he transported some of the tribes that spoke it, with whom
he was familiar, to that coast also. In some cases, as for instance in that of the
Ngombi, he did not even trouble to change their names.
Within a very few days he was able to set before Mrs. Thorne an outline of
several stories, and each one was discussed minutely with her. It appears that it
was she who was in part responsible for the creation, as a foil, of Bosambo, the
native chief who combined unswerving fidelity, and a hundred per cent. efficiency
in all essentials, with a most engaging and unscrupulous rascality in minor matters,
particularly in the picking up of unconsidered trifles.

(3) I cannot bring myself to call it 'Mongo'.






UGANDA JOURNAL.


The stories, later collected as Sanders of the River, were published in the
Weekly Tale-Teller and were an immediate success. They were quickly followed
by a second series, The People of the River, which proved equally popular. Wal-
lace soon realized not only that this work was better than anything he had done
to date but also that the theme was almost inexhaustible. Accordingly he became
a serious student of African Ethnology and Folklore, but, while he embodied in
the tales much of the results of his researches, he did not hesitate to invent also
material of his own; do that while many of the customs, beliefs, superstitions,
and proverbs of the river tribes are genuine Bantu, others are pure Wallace, and
most likely to be so when they are supported by footnotes, apparently in the
authentic manner of the learned investigator. Wallace particularly enjoyed this
form of leg-pulling.

And so it went on through the whole of the eleven volumes of the series.
I am of opinion that, though all are good, the later books are not the equals
of the earlier. In 1909 Wallace still considered that he had some claims to be
thought a literary artist. The earlier Sanders books were written slowly and with
considerable care. In his later years, with the encouragement of his publishers,
by his own inclination and as a result of his journalistic training, the author
came to attribute more importance to quantity than to quality. He was the mass
producer par excellence. His vanity was flattered by the legend of the "weekly
Wallace"-which eventually became the "mid-day Wallace"-and the later San-
ders books were written under this handicap and with but little conscious attent-
ion paid to conscientious craftsmanship. It is also apparent that the atmo-
sphere of the theatre and the cinema had grown upon him, and this accounts
for the sensationalism that appears in such a book as Sandi the King-maker,
the last of the series.
In spite of all this he remained to the end, so far as the Sanders books are
concerned, an artist malgrd lui, and a master of his own technique of weaving the
various strands of the several plots and underplots, that characterize so many
of the stories, into a neat conclusion.
After the completion of the first three series of tales, he found it necess-
ary to introduce one improvement. Sanders was the strong and silent man of
action, and strong and silent men in large doses are definitely a bore. It was
impossible for him to go on for ever, or for Wallace to sell him for ever, dashing
up and down the river with monotonous regularity, collecting hut-tax, hanging
murderers and witch-doctors without trial, settling innumerable palavers, and
preventing the outbreak of tribal warfare. Hence in the fourth book, Bones,
Sanders was got rid of by being sent on leave for the space of one volume-though
incidentally he had to return before the end of it as the deus ex machina-and
his No. 2, Capt. Hamilton of the Houssas, was appointed Acting Commissioner
in charge of the River Terrotories. But Hamilton himself, Wallace thought, was
of the same type as Sanders, and to substitute the one for the other was not
enough. What was wanted was more comic relief. The bare-faced dishonesties
of Bosambo, and his quaint reminiscences of his early missionary training, could
continue, but they were not enough. Hence the invention of Lieut. Augustus






UGANDA JOURNAL.


Tibbetts, known as "Bones," a Colonial Officer of quite a different type. Bones
certainly had strength of character, but silence was not one of his strong points.
If the average speech of Sanders occupies about three lines, and that of Hamil-
ton, except when sparring with Bones, five, that of Bones occupies at least
twenty. The idiosyncrasies of Bones are in fact pure padding, but they ensured
the continued success of the Sanders series. It has been observed with some
truth (4) that they have made Sanders a best seller for a quarter of a century,
for the same reason that P.G. Wodehouse has been a best seller during the same
period. For Bones, though utterly different in many respects, certainly has much
in common with Bertie Wooster and other congenital idiots in monocles and
old school ties that Wodehouse fans never tire of. Incidentally there are points
of resemblance between Bosambo and the imperturbable and indispensable Jeeves.
III. The man Sanders.
The Christian name of Mr. Commissioner Sanders is never revealed to us,
though certainly it began with an H; nor do we ever hear anything of his re-
lations. But we do know that by religion he was a Wesleyan, and that his early
education had included the study of Latin. We are also told a little of his per-
sonal history before he came to the West Coast, when we may assume that he
was somewhere about 30 years of age. By that time he had had considerable
African experience. Here are the words of Wallace himself:-
"Mr. Commissioner Sanders had graduated to West Central Africa by such
easy stages that he did not realize when his acquaintance with the back
lands began. Long before he was called on by the British Government to
keep a watchful eye upon some quarter of a million cannibal folk, who ten
years before had regarded white men as we regard the unicorn, he had met
the Basuto, the Zulu, the Fingo, the Pondo, the Matabele, Mashona, Barotse,
Hottentot and Bechuana. Then curiosity and interest took him westward
and northward and he met the Angola folk; then northward to the Congo,
eastward to the Masai, and finally by way of the Pigmy people, he came
to his own land."
In another place it is stated that as a young man he had assisted in the war
which broke Lobengula. This was in 1892. Also there was a time when he was
only Assistant Commissioner.
We may infer that the period of his Commissionership began in the early
years of King Edward VII's reign, when Joseph Chamberlain was Colonial Secret-
ary, and that he retired immediately after the end of the Great War. We are at
any rate definitely informed that he was dug out of his retirement, shortly after
this, in order to take charge for a short time of the country of the "Old King", on
the borders of his old Territory, mandated to the British Empire by the Peace
Treaties, and that even after this he had thoughts of taking on a commercial job
on the West Coast, though in the end he was dissuaded from so doing.
His pay as Commissioner was 2 a day, and in view of his frequent safaris
up and down the river, he must have drawn a handsome amount in travelling
allowances.


(4) By Margaret Lane.






UGANDA JOURNAL.


He was awarded the C.M.G., in reality for cumulative merit, but as it ap-
peared at the time it was (a) for rescuing a Secretary of State who had come
out to the Coast, and had been kidnapped by the tribesmen, and (b) owing to
representations made to the proper quarter by Bosambo. It is hinted that for
his final services in pacifying the "Old King's" country he was made a K.C.M.G.
In spite of his somewhat irregular, not to say highhanded, methods of ad-
ministration, of which more anon, he enjoyed in general the support and confid-
ence of his immediate superior officers, a succession of Administrators of
the West Coast Territories, and also that of the Colonial Office. It is true that
he did not see eye to eye with all the men who occupied the office of Administ-
rator, but we are informed that at least one of the latter received a hint from the
Colonial Office that, whereas new Administrators were not far to seek, Sanders
as Commissioner of the River Lands was irreplaceable. In fact his name became
a legend in Downing Street and on one of his leaves he had, much against his
will, to accept an invitation to stay the week-end at the Secretary of State's
country house.
In appearance he was spare and of medium height, and clean-shaven. His
complexion was yellow. His hair was originally red, but was grey before he was
40, and was always very closely cropped. His eyes were grey and he had peculiarly
keen eyesight. Usually, though not always, he was dressed in immaculate white.
His hand-writing was particularly neat.
He was not free from certain mannerisms. He constantly tapped the toe of
his boot with the black ebony cane he usually carried. When dealing with an
offender, he perched his head on one side like a bird, he tapped his teeth, he
wrinkled his nose like an angry terrier, he glared through narrowed eyelids, and,
when in the throes of composition of an official report, he nibbled his pen-
holder. He rarely smiled, though he had a grim sense of humour.
He was short of temper, particularly after a bout of malaria, caustic of
speech, and he swore on the slightest provocation.
He was by no means infallible, for he made mistakes, at times, through
over-precipitate action, and was on occasion deceived by a particularly plausible
native.
He was sufficiently human to enjoy his morning tea and to take a siesta
on Sunday afternoons, and sufficiently superstitious to touch wood occasionally;
he had a very definite horror of snakes.
His habits were abstemious, though he kept some good champagne, port and
hock in his cellar for special celebrations.(5) On only two occasions is it related
that he drank whisky-albeit on each of them he mixed himself a "stiff peg."
On a third occasion he indulged in a drink which by the description given was
apparently a species of 'John Collins.'

(5) "0 Abiboo, bring me from the cold cellar one bottle of the wine with the golden
end and also one bottle of the wine with the dust of many days."





UGANDA JOURNAL.


He was, however, an inveterate smoker-of thin black cheroots. Only once do
I find him smoking a pipe, and never a cigarette, though he owned a cigarette
holder, and also a gold cigarette case, until Bones borrowed it for a conjuring
trick and inadvertently dropped it overboard the Zaire.

His favourite recreation was fishing, for which the river and the sea coast,
where he lived, offered unlimited opportunities. He was also fond of walking
and swimming, and occasionally did a bit of shooting, mostly for the pot. He de-
voted much care and attention to the Residency gardens. Indoors his occupations
were reading the Times, (6) and, in the evenings, a hand at picquet.

He was the kind of man, who pretended to himself that he had no use for
women, but, like many men of this type, he was a self-deceiver, and when con-
fronted with ladies who would make him a suitable match, he fell for them pretty
easily. Only two such are mentioned. One was an attractive lady medical mission-
ary, who only forestalled a proposal by revealing the fact that her heart was
already given to another man in England. The second was Hamilton's sister,
Patricia, who came out to stay at the Residency, and eventually became Mrs.
Sanders. Patricia was exactly the right type, and I have no doubt achieved the
task of reforming Sanders from his bachelor habits with all due tact and circum-
spection. But I would hazard the opinion that Sanders might easily have fallen
a prey to a designing female of a less desirable type, had such an one chanced to
come along and set about him in the right way.

Though in general a simple soul in matters outside his official duties, Sanders
was by no means devoid of business sense. He saved a good part of his pay,
and made shrewd investments. In particular he had bought land for a song in
Lagos in his early days, which afterwards, as he had expected, appreciated
enormously in value owing to building developments, and before he was 40 he
had accumulated a capital of over 10,000. Yet a further source of income
was from damages obtained in libel actions. (7) He is described, as well he might
be, as examining his pass-book with a complacent self-satisfaction. On one oc-
casion, after his retirement, he nearly fell from grace, when he was on the point
of investing 5000 in a fraudulent West African Trading Company, from which
predicament he was rescued in the nick of time by Bones, then at the height
of his successful career as a financier in the City.

Sanders is described as being usually extremely reluctant to go on leave,
the reasons being that he had little confidence in the person or persons deputed
to act in his absence, and that he did not know how to pass the time when he
was in England, apart from aimlessly wandering about the streets of London;
though he once, at least, gave a lecture on Tribal Customs and Folklore to a
certain learned Society for African Studies. In consequence he allowed arrears
of leave to accumulate, and, sometimes by preference, spent his leave locally
in Africa. Here is an account of one such occasion:-

(6) And sometimes Blue Books.
(7) See p. 14 below.






UGANDA JOURNAL.


"The Commissioner whose work lay for the main part in wandering through
a malarial country in some discomfort and danger, spent his holiday in
travelling through another malarial country, in as great discomfort and at
no less risk-He went by way of St. Paul de Loanda overland to the Congo,
shot an elephant or two in the French Congo, went by mission steamer to
the Sangar river and made his way back to Stanley Pool.
"At Matadi he found letters from his relief, a mild and enthusiastic young
man, with a very pink face and gold-mounted spectacles, who had been
sent up from headquarters (probably out of the Secretariat) to take his
place as a temporary measure and was quite satisfied in his own mind that
he was eminently qualified to occupy the seat of the Commissioner".
Having read the letter, Sanders only comment was, "I think I will go home",
and home he went as quickly as possible to his River, to the great annoyance
of the Acting Commissioner.
Among the subordinates of his early years there were several of the type of
this young man, who for various reasons had to be got rid of, and this may have
accounted for Sanders' ingrained distrust of assistants and deputies. It is true
that he was not sparing of praise for good work done by Hamilton and Bones,
and also by another promising young man called Carter, who was before their
time and was unfortunately chopped by the tribesmen; and he sent all of these
off at times on independent and responsible missions, and had full confidence
in them, a confidence that increased with the years. But all the time I think there
was at the back of his mind the unspoken feeling, that, without himself in
constant action, or in the background behind his subordinates, the condition of
the River Territories would not be all that could be desired.
On the other hand he had the superlative merit of accepting full responsibility
for all that was done, either with or without his orders. He never tried to shift
the blame on to the shoulders of his subordinates. Passing the baby was not one
of his official habits.
IV. The Setting.
I have already explained that though the scene of the Sanders Saga is laid on
the West Coast, the locality and tribes described are those of the Congo. Wallace,
though purposely vague about geography, did attempt to give some verisimilitude
to the West Coast idea by not infrequent references to towns such as Sierra
Leone, Lagos, Cape Coast Castle, Grand Bassam, Dacca, etc. He implies that
Togoland was on the border of Sanders' Territory, and occasionally gives an
approximate Longitude and Latitude. One of these map references proves on
investigation to be in Togoland, but another is in the Atlantic Ocean, somewhere
off the coast of Brazil! There are also sundry allusions to neighboring Territ-
ories under the rule of the French, Germans, Belgians, Portuguese and even
Spanish.
All this is immaterial. What is more important is that Sanders' Territory
had a definite geography of its own. He himself lived in a building styled "The
Residency", situate on the coast, at the river mouth. The Elder Dempster steamer






UGANDA JOURNAL.


called about once a fortnight with the mails, and occasionally dropped visitors.
There was no harbour, and one landed somewhat precariously from a surf
boat.
I will not quote any figures given for the size in square miles of the Territ-
ories under Sanders; they are incredible. But we may suppose that the river
with its numerous tributaries was navigable for some 300 miles from the coast
and that the Territories were spread out on both sides of it for that distance,
some parts being only accessible by a painful walking safari through forest, of
which most of the land consisted. Somewhere near the Northern frontier were
Bosambo's headquarters, and a bit further on navigation was brought to an end
because the river narrowed to a gorge, in which ran a terrific current, against
which the steamers at Sanders' disposal could not possibly make head. Beyond
again lay the "Old King's" country which could be approached only by this
gorge or by crossing a range of mountains occasionally snow-capped. Up till
1914 it was nominally under German rule.
The population is given as about a million (sometimes as considerably less).
The number of tribes was 23, of whom 5 are given quite definite characteristics.
The first of these are the Pigmies who need not detain us as the description
given of them tallies fairly faithfully with what we know to be actually true of
the Wambutti on our own borders. Except when provoked, they gave little
trouble. The whole Territory was not unreasonably scared of their poisoned
missiles.
Living on the river banks were the Isisi, Akasava, and Ochori.
The Isisi made their living chiefly as fishermen. They were expert swim-
mers, and noted for their good eyesight, their love of washing themselves and their
superstition. (8) They were, however, a blood-thirsty fighting tribe, and hereditary
enemies of the Akasava, who had somewhat similar characteristics, i.e. they
were also a fishing people, and equally blood-thirsty. But there was much more
agriculture among them than among the Isisi, and some of them were also
iron workers. In addition it is stated that whereas the ferocity of the Isisi was
temperamental, that of the Akasava was cold-blooded.
The Ochori were also fishermen and cultivators, but, before Bosambo hit-
lered them into a first class fighting people, they were utterly spineless, noted only
for their cowardice and gluttony. (9)
The fifth people were the Ngombi, who lived in the forest away from the
river. They could neither fish nor swim. On the other hand they were expert
craftsmen and notable iron workers, acting as spear-makers for the other tribes.
Apart from this they were notorious for their thieving propensities, and for the
fact that they wore next to no clothing, for which the other tribes despised them
as the Baganda formerly despised the Bakedi. They were, however, just as good
fighters as the Isisi and the Akasava, and no less quarrelsome.

(8) See Proverbs Nos. i) and 3).
(9) See Proverbs Nos. i) and 2).






UGANDA JOURNAL.


All the tribes are described as being pure Bantu, except that the Ochori
had a dash of Arab blood. Each, except the Ngombi, had its own peculiar type
of canoe. Each again had its peculiar facial markings and system of extracting
or filing teeth. Each also had its own dialect, though common to all was Bomongo,
the lingua franca of the river. Incidentally it may be mentioned that Arabic
was the language of the Coast and of Sanders' Houssa troops, and that Swahili
was not without its uses.

Common characteristics of nearly all the tribes were cannibalism (except
in the case of some Akasava), a low standard of sex morality, the usual beliefs
in witchcraft and ju-jus, and a strong aversion to any prolonged spell of physical
exertion. Most of them were partial to eating dog flesh, and fattened up dogs
for this purpose. Several also were monkey-eaters.

Finally, though each had its peculiar fetishes, the tribes had several deities
in common, of whom undoubtedly the chief was the Storm God, Mshimba-
Mshamba, 'the swift walker', who spreads devastation in his track when he
goes abroad.
"You sometimes find his erratic track showing clearly through the forest.
For a space of twelve yards' width the trees are twisted, broken and uprooted,
the thick undergrowth swept together in tangled heaps, as though by two
huge clumsy hands.

"This way and that goes the path of Mshimba-Mshamba, zig-zag through
the forest-and woe to the hut or village that stands in its way.

"For he will leave this hut intact, from this hut he will cut the propped
verandah of leaves; this he will catch up in his ruthless fingers and tear it
away swiftly, piece by piece, strewing the wreckage along the village street."

When resting from his labours he was thought of either (as Caliban thought
of Setebos) as dwelling "i' the cold of the moon", or, alternatively, in the bowels
of the earth. (Io)

Of the numerous other tribes only two need be mentioned. One of these
was the Bald men of Ifubi, who had discovered the secret of an infallible depilat-
ory; and the other the People of the Well, who were thought by Sanders to be,
possibly, one of the Lost Ten Tribes of Israel.(")

We are told nothing of the tribal systems of land tenure, of puberty cere-
monies, of marriage customs, (other than payment of bride-price in the familiar
African manner), of what happened when twins were born or of other matters
which appear to excite the curiosity of anthropologists, both male and female.

(1o) For other deities see Appendix B.
(II) There were no cattle tribes. Cattle were unknown in the Territories, though
they existed in certain parts of the "Old King's" country.






UGANDA JOURNAL.


V. The problems of administration.

The River Territories had reached that stage of administration where taxation
had recently been introduced. It took the form of a 'hut tax', and was usually
paid in kind, i.e. in manioc, in maize, in goats, and sometimes in brass rods (mata-
kos) and salt, the principal local forms of currency. Sanders' principal duty as
Commissioner was to collect this tax, which, as elsewhere in the world, was not
paid with any enthusiasm on the part of the tax-payers, in spite of the Com-
missioner's occasional efforts to explain to them that they ultimately derived
benefit by their contribution.
We are also to imagine that the Territories had come under the British
Crown, as a result of a war of conquest, not very long before Sanders' time, and
that previous to that time the words "homo homini lupus" would have been
an adequate description of the state of society; that the "life of man" was as "poor,
nasty, brutish and short", as in the imaginary "natural state" envisaged by
Thomas Hobbes in the Leviathan, and that, furthermore, large sections of the
population saw no reason why the good old days should not continue.
From time immemorial the various tribes, especially when their hearts were
puffed up by reason of good crops, had raided each others' settlements, and carried
off each others' women and goats.
From time immemorial, when things went wrong, when M'shimba-M'shamba
had been more than usually destructive, when the crops had failed, and the
goats had died of mysterious diseases, the correct thing to do had been to con-
sult the local witch-doctors, who usually advised the sacrifice to the offended
deity of one or more young maidens.
From time immemorial it had been considered ridiculous to support useless
mouths, at the expense of the able-bodied. It was therefore the custom to take
the old and the mad, put out their eyes, lead them into the forest, and leave
them there for beasts of prey to do the rest; and not infrequently this form of
euthanasia was applied to those who were not really due for it, but whose
continued existence happened for other sufficient reasons to be undesirable-
to wives who had seen their best days, or to rich relatives reputed to have treasures
buried beneath their huts and who yet seemed indisposed to lend a ready ear
to the importunities of their less fortunate kinsfolk. This practice Sanders found
it particularly difficult to eradicate.
There still survived in Sanders' time Arab and other slave-dealers who enter-
ed the Territories by some back-door, and chiefs who were quite ready, as in
the good old days cala cala, to dispose to them of superfluous subjects for a
reasonable consideration.
Although we read occasionally of women acting as chiefs, by hereditary
right, and women certainly exercised a considerable indirect influence on local
politics, the condition of the female sex was in general depressed. From the begin-
ning of time husbands had been in the habit of beating their wives unmercifully






UGANDA JOURNAL.


on the slightest provocation, though the wives, if the practice was carried to an
unreasonable excess, not infrequently retaliated by hitting their lords and masters
on the head with cooking-pots, or, in extreme cases, putting poison in their chop.
From all this we may infer that Sanders' second main duty, that of keeping
the king's peace and making the king's writ run throughout the length and
breadth of the land, was no more of a sinecure than that of tax-collection.
A third main problem was the improvement of health conditions. The whole
of the Territories was riddled with malaria and with sleeping sickness. There
were occasional outbreaks of beri-beri and of small-pox, and, worst of all, of
the dreaded sickness mongo, 'the sickness itself', a kind of bush plague, which was
always devastating in its toll of human life, and for which apparently there was
no known remedy.
Yet another major problem was the prevention of the introduction into the
Territories of European brands of alcoholic liquor, which in effect meant the pro-
tection of the native from exploitation by the unscrupulous white man. Readers
of Trader Horn will remember that "in the earlies" gin was the universal stock-in-
trade of those who came to Africa to export ivory and rubber at a profit to them-
selves. In more than one passage Wallace (himself a strong advocate of temper-
ance), draws a lurid picture of the devastating effects of gin upon the African
community. Hence Sanders, though on one occasion early in his career he 'dashed'
two bottles of 'square-face' to a witch-doctor who had done him service, (12) was in
general a rigorous prohibitionist, and took the sternest measures with any trader
who was found offending in this respect.
We may now consider in more detail how Sanders endeavoured to deal
with the problems of Government, which have been described above.
The collection of taxes could only be made through the chiefs. The latter
extracted what was due from their people, and the Commissioner made a half-
yearly round to collect the proceeds. Such a system of course was open to the
objection that may be offered to all systems of tax-farming, viz: that the middle-
man (in this case the chief), always takes a handsome commission. In one of the
tales it is stated that Bosambo's commission amounted to at least 360%. But
Sanders apparently had no other alternative than to turn a blind eye to this sort
of thing. He was, of course, willing to listen to reasonable representations of
injustice, and, in time of economic depression, to temper the wind to the
shorn lamb.('3)
The next problem was the preservation of the British raj in the Territories
and the maintenance of law and order.
For this purpose Sanders had at his command an armed force, in the shape
of a Company or so of the King's Houssas, who were Kano men, and good
Mohammedans, and could be relied on not to fraternize with the local pagan.

(12) It is also recorded that on two occasions in his last tour he allowed Bosambo
a glass of beer.
(13) He also increased tax-paying capacity by the introduction of new crops, e.g. rice.






UGANDA JOURNAL.


He had also at his disposal Maxim Guns (the little guns that said "Ha Ha") as well
as Hotchkiss Guns. But of course in case of real trouble he and his handful
of troops could have been scuppered in no time, and even if he had lived to
tell the tale his official career would have been at an end, because a consider-
able military expedition, at great cost to the British tax-payer, would have been
necessary to retrieve the situation.('4)
For this reason Sanders had not only to employ his soldiers judiciously but
also to use all possible means of anticipating trouble.
One thing that was of great assistance to him was rapidity of movement.
He had two gun-boats at his disposal, the Zaire and the Wiggle, both running
on wood fuel.('5)
Though navigation of the river was treacherous (night sailing could only
be resorted to in an emergency) and the keeping up of the fuel supply needed
constant attention, Sanders or one of his subordinates could usually be at the
scene of possible or actual trouble in a comparatively short time.
Equally important was the Commissioner's method of diagnosing in advance
the symptoms of unrest. This was through an extensive system of espionage. Up and
down the river he had his spies, who seldom let him down. Sometimes they
were local natives; more often Kano men like the Houssas. They maintained
communications with headquarters by means of carrier pigeons. This system
worked satisfactorily, except that sometimes the pigeon might be taken by a hawk,
and that on one occasion an undesirable European, assisted by a native woman, who
was a bird charmer, intercepted the pigeons and altered the messages. Use was
also made of the lokali, i.e. the native drum-telegraph, and occasionally of helio.
Sanders may be claimed as an exponent of indirect rule, in the sense that
he relied on his chiefs so long as they continued in the straight and narrow path,
and endeavoured to educate them up to a sense of their responsibilities. Many of
them served him loyally, and showed sufficient strength of character to keep
their people in order, to repress at once the old, who wanted to revive the customs
of the good old days, and the young, who wanted to gain kudos in the eyes of
the women folk by blooding their spears on all and sundry.
Sanders would have been nowhere without the support of such loyal chiefs.
In particular he would have been nowhere without Bosambo, the escaped
Liberian convict, who by a series of judicious, though unprovable, murders, had
made himself chief of the Ochori. Bosambo's headquarters occupied a strategic
position at the head of the river on the frontiers of the "Old King's" territories,
and he was thus able not only to guard those frontiers but also to attack the Isisi
or Akasava in the rear if they seemed disposed to rebel.
Though he accumulated fabulous wealth by oppression of his own people,
and by petty thieving and general dishonesty, Bosambo remained absolutely
faithful to Sanders and the British Empire in all major issues. On at least a dozen

(14) On one occasion he was urgently requested to postpone an inevitable native
war until "after the end of the present financial year"!
(i5) The Wiggle was later converted to petrol.






tGANDA JOURNAL.


occasions he appeared, in the nick of time, with his trusty warriors to rescue
the Commissioner or his assistants from an.awkward predicament. He also acted
as a super-spy in times alike of war and of peace and was a pioneer in road-making.
There were of course, apart from chiefs, many law-abiding tribes and indiv-
iduals in the Territories, and from such Sanders derived moral support. But
they also in themselves constituted a problem. What should a Commissioner do
when faced with this sort of complaint? "Lord Sandi, the Akasava have come
down upon us, and taken our women and our goats, and our hearts are sore,
because the goats are very valuable. In the old days we should have, etc. etc."
In such cases, unless he could settle the palaver by peaceful means, Sanders could
only counsel self-help. On another occasion an enthusiastic chief, interpreting
his instructions, as Africans are apt to do. somewhat too literally, completely
disarmed his tribe, and Sanders had to explain to him that disarmament, if unilat-
eral only, was not without its dangers,-as indeed the event proved in this
particular case.
Perhaps that for which Sanders is most notorious is his rough and ready
system of justice. Summary executions and summary floggings were admittedly
a part of his regime. This is the sort of thing that happened. A native miscreant,
as often as not a chief, is caught in flagrant delicto, or not long after. Sanders'
words to the prisoner are few:-"O man, I think you have lived too long" or:-
"O man, to-night you shall live with ghosts", and he glances significantly at the
highest tree in the vicinity. Sergeant Abiboo of the King's Houssas steps forward
with the length of rope. that he invariably carries about his person when on
Yafari, and that is that! The condemned man usually shows a philosophical
resignation, with some such remark as, "Lord, I have lived".
A less extreme sentence was a severe flogging, administered by the sturdy
arm of the aforesaid Sergeant Abiboo, and there was also banishment, for a longer
or shorter time, to work in a chain-gang at the convict settlement somewhere
near headquarters. This place was known as the "Village of Irons," and was
situated on a peninsular, and guarded on three sides by water, infested with
crocodiles, and on the fourth by a barbed-wire fence. It must have been inhabited
very largely by ex-chiefs and ex-headmen. Incidentally there was a section of it
for the reception of female prisoners.
Without pretending to have made an exhaustive check, I find in the tales
accounts of about 40 cases of summary execution and about 23 of summary
flogging, in addition to occasional exhibitions of frightfulness by the burning of
villages and crops, where mass-punishment was thought necessary.
All this of course did not pass without protest from certain quarters. There
were sometimes Administrators who disapproved of such methods, who wanted
copies of the depositions in triplicate, and of the judgment in duplicate, and so on.
There were paragraphs in the English Press. There were questions in Parliament.
But Sanders went on his way unmoved and never appears to have got into
serious trouble over it, and on two occasions he even turned the tables on his
detractors by suing them for libel, and obtained handsome damages.(16)
(16) See p. 7 above.






UGANDA JOURNAL.


It is true that there was a High Court and also an Attorney-General at
Headquarters, but is was not apparently part of their functions to revise the
sentences of Commissioners. On one occasion Sanders found the Court very
helpful. It was at a time when the outcry had been more vociferous than usual,
and yet it was imperative to make an example of the King of the Ngombi. He
reported the circumstances to Headquarters, which obligingly sent up a real
Puisne Judge to conduct the trial and attend the execution.

Sanders, if asked, would have defended himeslf on two grounds. In the first
place he would have said that he did not adopt such methods by preference,
and that hesitation to act and any delay in awarding punishment would have
been mistaken for weakness by the people he had to deal with, and would have
had fatal consequences. Secondly, that what he did had the implied sanction and
approval of the people of the Territories. Though they might easily forget the
lesson, the majority recognized at the time that a sentence was deserved and
was for the good of the community, and respected the Commissioner for taking
what steps he thought fit to see that his orders as to what was to be done, or
left undone, were implicitly obeyed. It may even be said that a stigma attached
to the criminal.(17) Here is a complaint that Sanders once received:-"Lord,
when I walk in the village, the children mock at me, because my father was
hanged and my brother sits in the Village of Irons".
Be that as it may, Sanders certainly paid but little attention to a memorandum
on Native Policy, issued at an unknown date, by a mythical Secretary of State
for the Colonies, which ran as follows:-
"The customs of the country must not be lightly over-ridden or checked.
Nor should its religious observances, or immemorial practices, be too rudely
suppressed. The native should be approached gently with arguments and illus-
trations obvious to his simple mind. Corporal punishment should under
no circumstances be inflicted save for exceptionally serious crimes, and then
only by order of the supreme judiciary of the country."
He did, however, in his general dealings with the problems of government,
employ, if not arguments and illustrations, certainly methods which had an appeal
to the native mind. He made what use he could of his knowledge of native psycho-
logy. He was prepared to take devils, ghosts, ju-jus and witchcraft as a serious factor
in native life, and even to avail himself of the influence they exercised. He once
paid a celebrated witch-doctor 6 to put a curse on anybody who should trans-
gress a certain law that he had made, and it proved a most effective means of
preserving that law inviolate. Again, when he desired to prevent an aggressive
tribe from poaching game in the territory of another, he set up on the boundary
a notice inscribed, "Trespassers will be prosecuted", called the people together
and said, "See, now, O people, I have set here a piece of wood with certain
powerful devil-marks, and he who shall go past it, will become a prey to most
horrible ghosts and ju-jus." This innocent deception also worked.

(i7) The question of whether or not a stigma attaches to the African criminal in the
eyes of his compatriots, was discussed at a recent lecture given before the Uganda Society,






UGANDA JOURNAL.


It is a fact that in Africa the boaster is often accepted at his own valuation,
and Sanders was not above creating an impression of what a wonderful and terr-
ible fellow he was by self-laudatory speeches at big palavers.
He was, however, wise enough to admit that there were no infallible general
rules for the treatment of the African, and that the only possible rule was to
deal with him as an individual.
He was also capable of an infinite patience and recognized that the African,
even if trained to perform a certain task to mechanical perfection, is yet liable
to have an off-day. On a certain occasion, for instance, when he was in a des-
perate hurry, he found that the wood-men fuelling the Zaire, had stacked all the
wood in the bows, instead of distributing it evenly about the deck, as for years
past they had been taught to do. All that the headman could say in excuse was,
"Lord, we thought it would be quicker that way". Sanders did not go off the
deep end, as might have been expected. (sT) He quietly ordered the wood to be
restacked.
There were occasions too when he found a native in real trouble, and then
he could be as tender as a woman.
A brief word must now be said about the other two problems which, in
addition to those of taxation and the preservation of law and order, confronted
Sanders. They were:-"Health", and "Gin."
The latter was only an occasional problem and was dealt with by absolute
prohibition, rigorous search of the baggage of any trader who landed in the
Territories, and confiscation of contraband where necessary. If by any evil chance
a smuggler got away with it at the coast, or entered the Territories at some other
point, he was usually speedily detected and received a stiff sentence, for Sanders
administered justice no less rigorously to Europeans and Arabs than to Africans.
The health problem was ever writh him, and, as there was seldom a Doctor
in the Territories, he could only adopt the most simple and obvious preventive
measures, in which he was assisted as far as possible by the Missions. It is per-
haps of interest that an attempt to introduce vaccination led to resistance as
stout as that of our local Malakites to anti-plague inoculation, though not on
religious grounds.
The experiment was once tried (and soon abandoned) of appointing Bones
Acting Medical Officer of Health. He attacked his duties with his usual enthus-
iasm. The Residency was made uninhabitable with disinfectants; the cook
found himself quite unable to comply with the regulations laid down for hygienic
cooking and left hastily. Bones also insisted on sterilizing all the knives, forks,
and spoons before each meal, and went about, while the craze lasted, in a gauze
veil and rubber gloves.
Sanders was not without worries of a comparatively minor character. Among
these may be mentioned the suitable entertainment and enlightenment of visitors.
In general he disliked visitors of all sorts, but had to accept them as a necessary

(18) A propos of which Wallace truly remarks that some men fret their hearts out
in Africa, dealing with such little problems as ill-stacked wood.






UGANDA JOURNAL.


evil. They were of most miscellaneous character. There were political notabilities
and high officials of the Colonial Office. There were scientific expeditions of
all kinds,-anthropological,' biological, astronomical, etc. There was a lady
of a donnish type, who was interested in native administration. There was
an American circus proprietor out to obtain a specimen of the 'Missing Link',
whom Bosambo obliged by kidnapping a real live Pigmy. There were Pan-
African agitators, who had to be carefully watched, and who also usually hailed
from America, from which also came on one occasion two thinly camouflaged
negro ex-pugilist gangsters, who had made New York too hot to hold them.
There were gold prospectors, who were particularly unpopular; there were
wasters and down-and-outs; and there were undisguised globe-trotters of both
sexes with letters of introduction from the Colonial Office. Many of these had
to be put up for longer or shorter periods at the Residency, and when the party
included ladies. Sanders, having groaned heavily in spirit, ordered Bones to get
the refrigerator mended, and put up the tennis-net.
There was always a certain number of missionaries (19) in the country, and Wal-
lace, both through the mouth of Sanders, (20) and in author's 'asides', pays con-
stant tribute to the work they did. I have already mentioned that he himself had
spent several months on a mission station in the heart of the Congo, and in
addition his first wife was the daughter of a missionary. His attitude to Missions
was therefore fully sympathetic. Sanders, however, is represented as being con-
scious at times that difficulties might arise should the Church challenge the
supreme authority of the State, as represented by himself. He also criticized miss-
ionaries sometimes for their failure to realize that some at any rate of their
converts might have ulterior motives.
More serious was the fact that he was responsible for the safety of the miss-
ionaries, who insisted on living in lonely out-stations, constantly exposed to
the possibility of native attack. In fact, at least a dozen missionaries were mur-
dered in the Territories in his time, and he could do nothing to prevent it.
Apart from the spasmodic efforts of Bones, of which more anon,(21) it was
the Missions that supplied such education as there was in the Territories. This
consisted, as we might expect, of the Three R's, and some of the natives proved
apt pupils. A few were taught English but I regret to have to place it on record
that Sanders did not approve of this at all. He was the type of officer who refused
to converse with a native in any language other than a vernacular, a prejudice
due to his intense dislike of the pidgin English that was common in the West
Coast towns, and that a man such as Bosambo was familiar with. (22)
The only exceptions to his rule that Sanders ever made were in the case of
a very sporting elderly negro lady, a D.Sc. of an American University, who spent

(19) As elsewhere in Africa, Missions had been established in the Territories a con-
siderable time before the advent of the British Administration.
(20) Sanders himself is depicted as a sincerely religious man.
(2i) See p. 23 below.
(22) Typical of it is the remark of a boy applying for a job as cook:-"I make 'um
cook fine; you look 'um for better cook, you no find 'um-sauyy."






UGANDA JOURNAL.


two years on her own in the bush collecting botanical specimens, and, very grudg-.
ingly, in that of a member of the royal family of the Isisi, who had obtained the
degree of B.A. in an English University.
Apart from the missionaries, there were no unofficial except traders, and
these were non-resident. I have already referred to their activities in connexion
with gin-running. As well as this, they too often wanted to sell arms to the natives and
at times used violent methods to make the latter collect rubber and ivory for them. I
fear that, as a body, the commercial community do not come at all well out of
the picture, though there were at least two traders who are depicted as honest,
law-abiding men.
Our survey would not be complete without some mention of Sanders' relations
with his official superiors, and others at Headquarters.
He never seems to have had any trouble with the Auditor and on only one
occasion do I find him complaining that one of his votes was over-spent. Here
he seems to have been lucky, as Military Headquarters, which maintained a semi-
independent organization, were extremely strict, and frequently caused Hamilton
and Bones great agony of mind over their accounts and store ledgers.
Sanders' main concern was with the Administrator, in other words the
Governor, who lived some 100 miles down the Coast, and who occasionally paid
a visit of inspection. Communication with Headquarters was normally by sea,
but there was also a land telegraph, which was not infrequently put out of action
by elephants.
The Commissioner had to spend a good deal of time in his office, engaged
on official correspondence and reports, which were typed by a staff of moderately
efficient Asiatic and African Clerks, and, from the specimens given, it appears
that he could write Civil Service English in a manner to which no reasonable Secret-
ariat officer should have taken exception. He could have the honour to be your
obedient servant with the best of them.
Administrators changed pretty frequently, and most of them are shadowy
figures. In the case of some, however, we are given definite particulars, and their
sayings and doings are worthy of record. One, Sir Robert Sanleigh,
"was a stout, florid man, patient and knowledgeable. He had
been sent to clear up the mess made by two incompetent Ad-
ministrators, who had owed their position rather to the constant appearance
of their friends and patrons in the Division Lobbies than to their acquaint-
ance with the native mind, and it is eloquent of the regard in which he was
held that-he was known familiarly along the Coast to all Administrators,
Commissioners, and even to the Deputy Inspectors, as 'Bob'."
Needless to say Sanders had no trouble with Bob, and it was in fact in Bob's
days that he got his C.M.G.
Here is a portrait of an Administrator of a different type:-
"Sir Harry Coleby had a reputation, which he had acquired in Bermuda,
Jamaica and the Straits Settlements. It was not a reputation for loving-





UGANDA JOURNAL.


kindness. He was stout, white of hair, bristling of moustache, and pink of
face. He referred to himself constantly as 'the man on the spot.' He worked
-as a motor-engine works, by a series, of explosions. He exploded at his over-
worked secretary; he exploded at his officers; he exploded at anything or
anybody that thwarted or annoyed him".
This man caused real trouble. Without any reference to the Colonial Office,
he decreed that the rate of taxation in Sanders' Territories must be increased.
Sanders reported that any such action would provoke a wholesale rebellion,
and, when Sir Harry persisted, he cunningly issued orders for the evacuation of
all the missionaries. Their Societies protested to the Colonial Office, which politely
asked Sir Harry to explain wlwt it was all about. This caused an explosion of
more than usual severity, and in an evil moment the Administrator penned
a vitriolic despatch to the Secretary of State, in which the importance of trusting
the 'man on the spot' was definitely over-emphasized. On a previous occasion
in his career, these tactics had worked, but not so this time, with Joseph Chamber-
lain at the Colonial Office. Sir Harry was informed by cable that his successor
had been appointed, and that he was to return to England by the first available
steamer.

A third Administrator was a Scotsman, Sir Macalister Campbell Cairns. In
appearance and temper he was not unlike Sir Harry, but he was much more
manageable. By day he was the stern Administrator, talking perfect official
English, and out to reform all abuses, particularly abuses connected with Mr.
Sanders' monstrous methods of administering justice. But he had his moments
of relaxation. His habits from sun-down onwards were convivial, and by the
end of most evenings his speech became that type of Higher Standard Scots;
which good Caledonian Societies telegraph to each other round about St. Andrew's
tide; and the precincts of Government House resounded to the music of the
bag-pipes on which Sir Macalister was an expert performer. At such times he
was approachable, and reasonable, even on official matters.
He made a considerable favourite of Bones. The latter when summoned to
Headquarters to answer for his sins, volunteered to learn the pipes, and the
Administrator's heart at once melted towards him, and he proceeded then and
there to instruct him, with a fair amount of success.

It was through the joint efforts of Sir Macalister and Bones on the pipes
that serious trouble on Sanders' northern frontier, with possible international
complications, was shortly afterwards averted. The "Old King" had been giving
trouble and Sir Macalister insisted on taking the matter out of Sanders' hands
and going up personally to the Ochori border to settle the palaver, and on taking
Bones with him as guide, companion, and fellow-musician.
A meeting-place was appointed at which the "Old King" had prepared a very
pretty little ambush. While proceeding to this rendez-vous the Administrator and
Bones beguiled the time pleasantly by practising on the pipes. By a fortunate
coincidence it so happened that the witch-doctors had recently, by dire pro-
phecies, been putting the "Old King's" people in mortal terror of certain dreadful






UGANDA JOURNAL.


'ghost music', with the result that directly the sound of the pipes came within
earshot, the old man and all his warriors gave one wild simultaneous yell, and fled
incontinently back across the Ghost Mountains, never once halting till they reached
their own city of Rimi-Rimi.
VI. Living conditions.
Living conditions for Europeans in the Territories were much as we might
expect. The Residency was a commodious building, situated quite close to the
sea, at a place called M'piti. By day there was often a fresh breeze, strong enough
to blow all one's papers on to the floor, but at night it was desperately hot and
sleep was often a difficulty.
The main sitting-room is described as follows:-
"A great room, the walls of varnished match-boarding, the bare floor covered
in patches by skins. There are twelve windows with fine mesh wire and
looking out on to the broad verandah which runs round the bungalow. The
furniture is mainly wicker-work,-a table or two, bearing framed photo-
graphs. There is also a huge gramophone, the property of Bones, and the
pictures mainly consist of portraits of the royal family, from Queen Victoria
onwards. There is a big table in the middle of the room, over which hangs
an oil lamp".
We are not told much about the other rooms, save that Sanders had a
sanctum, which was forbidden ground to his colleagues, and to the world in
general, until the arrival of Patricia, who insisted on giving it a thorough spring-
cleaning. Hamilton and Bones messed in the Residency but slept out in their own
quarters near the Houssa lines. The latter, with his usual ingenuity, rigged up in
his bath-room a somewhat Heath Robinson type of shower. Water was collected
into tanks by gutters from the corrugated iron roofs.
Sanders paid his cook Shs. 10/- a month, but the latter sometimes got at
the gin and was not very enterprising. Too frequently the menu consisted of a
chicken of minute proportions, rice pudding and sweet potatoes. But on at least
one occasion there was pork for lunch and on another Yorkshire-pudding. Here
too the advent of Patricia brought about great changes for the better in the
standard of living (23) and the efficiency of the boys.
On safari chicken was even more familiar, and a good deal of tinned food
had to be carried.
All the officers appear to have been extremely moderate in the matter of
alcohol, but they drank a fair amount of tea, coffee, lime juice, and, after fever,
barley water.
Some of the soldiers acted as personal boys or batmen, and their wives under-
took the dhobi work. Bones had a special henchman of his own, one Ali Abib,
who had previously been in the employ of a Bacteriologist and talked babu
English, with a strong scientific flavouring.

(23) Such as cucumber sandwiches for tea.






UGANDA JOURNAL. ZI

Amusements were rather lacking. There was no golf, and no riding, and
tennis only very occasionally. There is no mention of sailing, though the opport-
unity was not lacking. Sanders, as I have already said, was a keen fisherman,
and the others occasionally followed his example. Hamilton and Bones some-
times took local leave for shooting, and the former was also fond of walking.
Sanders devoted much time to the Residency Gardens and Hamilton kept chickens.
VII. Bones.
The monotony of existence was relieved by the character of Bones.
With a man such as that at the Residency, life could never be dull. His
sayings and doings afforded a perpetual source of entertainment, and often to
Hamilton, though seldom to Sanders, of exasperation.
Lieut. Francis Augustus Tibbetts was a native of Surrey, as is evidenced
by his frequent contributions, in defiance of Colonial Regulations, to such papers
as the Guildford Chronicle and the Hindhead Observer. He had been educated at
Clifton (Modern side) and Sandhurst,(24) and was seconded to the Houssas very
shortly after obtaining his commission.
He started with certain advantages. His father had been a well-known Ad-
ministrator on the Coast, and he had a wealthy uncle, who made him a hand-
some allowance, and whose business in the City, worth half a million, he eventu-
ally inherited. In addition he had learnt Bomongo and other vernaculars as a
child and ultimately had an even greater command of African languages than
Sanders himself.
Though he dropped a few bricks at the start, and always remained somewhat
erratic, he settled down to the job of administration not only with courage but
with a shrewdness that would have surprised any one who only met him when
off duty. To such a superficial observer it would have seemed only that Bones
was ridiculous of appearance, that he could not spell, or write English, that his
conversation was a perpetual flow of Malapropisms and that he was possessed
of a childish vanity.
All this was in a sense true but there was a good deal more in him than that,
and he could be trusted to give a good account of himself in a tight corner.
He was certainly a dreamer, and invested all his own doings with an aura of
romance. Steaming up the the river in the Wiggle, he was Vasco da Gama, finding
the Cape Route to India. Surveying the country from a hill-top, he was "stout
Cortez, silent upon a peak in Darien". He was steeped in Rider Haggard. Who
knew but that another King Solomon's Mines might not be found in West Africa
by an intrepid explorer such as he, or that in the heart of the Isisi Forest there
might not lie the city of a long hidden white race, descendants of refugees from
the lost Atlantis, whose beautiful young queen Bones was destined to marry; and then
there would be headlines in all the papers about "Lieut. Tibbetts' astounding dis-
covery," and his name would become a household word?

(24) It is also stated that he was for a very short time a medical student at Bart's.





UGANDA JOURNAL.


Besides this Bones was an omnivorous reader of magazines, particularly
of such as bame from America, and he was the kind of man for whom advertise-
ments are intended. This was the sort of thing that appealed to him:-
"Missouri man makes 500 dollars in six months, in spare time! You can
do the same! Cut out this coupon,' sign your name on the dotted line and
post with remittance to-day!"
Bones invariably did so, and thus involved himself in all kinds of corres-
pondence courses, bought every possible kind of patent gadget and patent medic-
ine, and in general took up with every possible kind of stunt. Here is a somewhat
miscellaneous list of his interests, hobbies and activities:-
(a) He was a great buyer of sweep tickets, and once actually drew a runner in
the Cambridgeshire.
(b) In addition to the bag-pipes (above-mentioned) he bought, and, obliv-
ious of the discomfort caused to his colleagues, endeavoured to learn in-
numerable musical instruments. He also sang, and this too was not popular.
(c) He adopted a native toto, who, while still an infant, was appointed chief of
one of the tribes, in much the same way as the first Prince of Wales was
imposed upon the Welsh.
(d) At one time or another he studied either directly or by correspondence the
following subjects: -archaeology, botany, biology, law, accountancy (in which
he obtained a Diploma from an American College'), eugenics, astronomy,
invalid cookery and home nursing, native folklore, psychic phenomena and
mesmerism, civil engineering and mountain-railway construction, electrical
engineering, short-story writing, Ihotion-picture production, and sociology.
Perhaps his most remarkable feat was to learn aviation by correspondence
in twelve lessons, without leaving terra firma or even seeing an aeroplane!
(e) After two months' residence in the Territories, he wrote a book on West
Africa. In this of course he was not unique. He also wrote a play, and
several film-scenarios, (21), and he even tried his hand at poetry.
(f) He imported a bull-dog.
A special hut had to be built to house the junk that Bones accumulated. In it
reposed old wireless sets that did not work, and never had worked, volumes of
self-improvers, such as the 'Hundred Best Books' and innumerable encyclopedias,
discarded saxophones and banjoleles, thousands of samples, ranging from lino-
leum to breakfast foods, boxes of scientific and quasi-scientific instruments, every
possible kind of patent lamp, and a unique assortment of safety razors and
razor strops.
In more recent times, Bones might have produced cast-iron solutions of the
various racial minority problems of Europe and devised schemes for the settle-
ment of Jewish refugees in Africa. He would certainly have learnt the Palais
Glide and the Lambeth Walk.

(25) Here is one of his captions (with spelling corrected):-"Far from the hum and
competition of the busy world, the native goes about his daily tasks, under the watchful
but benevolent eye of the Chief Commissioner,"






UGANDA JOURNAL. 23

Not infrequently he essayed to apply in practice the theoretical knowledge
that he had acquired. For example, when studying sociology he became a Com-
munist, and addressed both white and black as "Comrade", and eugenics led him
for a time to become a Nudist, or almost a Nudist.
He was a born Educationist, for he had a passion for passing on information
to others. "Did you know, dear old Officer and Excellency, that the amount of
the National Debt in pennies would, if placed end to end, reach three times
round the world?" As a pedagogue, Bones found Sanders and Hamilton some-
what stony ground. But this did not deter him from trying his skill on the African,
who proved much more receptive. The women of a certain tribe, as a result
of a series of lectures on biology, decided that the methods of the female bee in
dealing with the drones had much to commend them, and took immediate action
on the male population.
On another occasion Bones translated a number of nursery rhymes into
Bomongo, and taught them to native children. But the broadcasting of "Tom,
Tom, the Piper's Son" led to an epidemic of pig-stealing, and a knowledge of
other rhymes produced equally unfortunate results. The vernacular version of
"Mary had a little lamb" may be of some interest:-
"Miri-Miri had a small goat, with white hair,
When Miri-Miri walked by the river,
The goat also walked.
It went to all places behind Miri-Miri."

Bones quite rightly held the view that physical fitness was a necessary con-
comitant of mental development, and accordingly endeavoured to introduce
'Rugger' into the Territories. It is stated that the Isisi and Akasava took quite
kindly to the game. The difficulties that arose were due rather to over-enthusiasm
than to lack of technique. This was the sort of thing with which the trainer had
to contend. "Yesterday," said an Akasava forward, "when we laid our heads to
gether for the little ball to be put under our feet, an Isisi dog pinched me behind.
Now to-day I am taking with me a little knife! etc., etc."
On one occasion, with the approval of Sanders, who attended in person, it
was agreed that a dispute between the Akasava and the Isisi should be decided
on the issue of an inter-tribal Rugger match, Bones acting as referee. A little
before half-time the Akasava opened the score with a penalty goal, and seemed
likely winners. But shortly afterwards the play of some of their men became
decidedly unorthodox, and before long the local Nakivubo was invaded by the
supporters of both sides, and a general rough-house ensued, which was only term-
inated by the bayonets of the troops and a sudden and most providential down-
pour of rain. Incidentally, in the confusion, Bosambo got away with the Cup, that
had been donated by Miss Campbell Cairns, the daughter of the Administrator
and a flame of Bones, for presentation to the winners.





UGANDA JOURNAL.


VIII. Twenty Years after.

It is now time to take our leaves of the River Territories, but in so doing we
may perhaps be permitted to speculate on one or two of the developments that
have probably occurred since the days of Sanders, and also to take a glance at our
heroes in retirement.
Presumably there is now an aerodrome at every important station on the
River. I have also every confidence that the Commissioner of to-day is well
acquainted with the Bushe Report, and that a sound system of primary education
with a strong agricultural bias has been established throughout the Territories;
and, if that be so, what further need to seek for evidence of genuine progress?
No doubt Bosambo, now somewhat elderly, but certainly rich, is still ruling over
the "Old King's" Country, where Sanders in his final tour established him. His
grandsons have perhaps been sent to Achimota-but not at the expense of their
grandfather-and it is to be hoped that the eldest of them will, in due course, rule
his people with as much success as the old man himself, though by methods
somewhat less crude.
Hamilton is in the City, managing with his shrewd common-sense the con-
siderable interests of the firm of Tibbetts and its subsidiaries, while Bones lives
in the country, nominally engaged in farming, and in all probability losing money in
weird agricultural experiments.
And what of Sanders himself? At any rate he is not like some retired of-
ficials, a prey to financial anxiety, dependent only on the monthly cheque from
the Crown Agents. Thanks to his own worldly wisdom he resides in comfort in
a villa at Twickenham. He has long outlived the desire to return to Africa, and is
contented with such simple pleasures as a visit to Lord's or the Oval and an
occasional fishing holiday in Scotland. He spends much of his time on the premises
of the Sports Club, and the Royal Empire Society, reading the papers (26) and
swappng yarns with his cronies, and I have no doubt attends the annual dinner
of the Corona Club. And during the last few months he has probably been
rendering useful service to his country in connexion with A.R.P.

APPENDIX A. Some Proverbs.

No self-respecting student of the manners and customs of African tribes
under-estimates the significance of Proverbs, as a revelation of native mentality.
Edgar Wallace was no exception and puts a large number into the mouths of
his African characters, and also into those of Sanders and his colleagues, who
were all good linguists.
Some of these, no doubt, are genuine, and known in other parts of Africa,
but others (we hope, the more cynical ones) are the creations of Wallace's own
fancy.(27)

(26) Particularly the Spectator and Blackwood's.
(27) See p. 4 above.






UGANDA JOURNAL.


A few specimens, of a rather miscellaneous character, are appended:-
1) The Ngombi to hear, the Bushman to smell, the Isisi to see, the Ochori
to run.
2) The Isisi sees with his eyes, the Ngombi with his ears, but the Ochori
sees nothing but his meat.
3) As the hunter without a spear, so is the Isisi without a ghost.
4) The snake and the Tofolaka live in the grass, and the snake dies of shame.
5) Only the rat comes to dinner and stays to ravage.
6) A good wife does all things but fly.
7) No man turns his face to the sun or his back to his wife.
8) A lover has strong arms but no brains.
9) Men know best, who know most, but a woman's happiness lies in her
illusions.
10) When a slave sits in the king's place, only slaves obey him.
11) A king is a poor man, and a beggar is poorer.
12) Between a slave and a warrior is the length of a spear.
13) Spears grow no corn. Rather are they terrible eaters.
14) If your neighbour be armed, take your arms and join him.
15) Speak only the words which high ones speak and you can say no wrong.
16) You cannot measure right with a string.
17) If you cannot find your enemy, kill your dearest friend.
18) Men who stand still do not step on thorns.
19) To every man there is an easy kill somewhere and, if he misses this, all
kills are difficult.
20) That which is looked for is never boasted about.
21) A thing is worth its price and what you give away is worth nothing.
22) To-morrow is a different day, or, To-morrow is also a day.
23) Sandi's word has one face.

APPENDIX B. Some other deities.

In addition to Mshimba-Mshamba, the following deities are worthy of
mention: -
(a) Bimbi-He is a god of the forest and stalks restlessly from one border
of it to the other.
"Bimbi is older than the sun and more terrible than any other ghost. For
he feeds on the moon, and at nights you may see how the edge of the desert
world is bitten by his great mouth, until it becomes, first, the half of a moon,
then the merest slither, and then no moon at all. And on the very dark nights,






UGANDA JOURNAL.


when the gods are hastily making him a new meal, the ravenous Bimbi calls
to his need the stars; and you may watch, as every little boy of the Akasava
has watched, clutching his father's hand tightly in his fear, the hot rush of
meteors across the velvet sky to the rapacious and open jaws of Bimbi.

"He was a ghost respected by all peoples-Akasava, Ochori, Isisi, Ngombi
and Bush Folk. Even the distant Upper Congo people feared him.
Also all the chiefs for generations upon generations had sent tribute of corn
and salt to the edge of the forest for his propitiation, and it is a legend that
when the Isisi fought the Akasava in the great war, the envoy of the Isisi
was admitted without molestation to the enemy's lines in order to lay an
offering at Bimbi's feet".

(b) M'giba-M'gibi. He is an elusive devil:-
"He transforms himself into any manner of thing his fancy dictates. He is
the one who walks behind you on dark nights, and, though you turn ever so
quickly, he vanishes. His is the face you remember and then do not remember.
So that when you meet a man on the highway and stop suddenly, half raising
your hand in salutation, and as suddenly you discover that his is the face of
a stranger, spit once to the left and once to the right, for this is M'giba-
M'gibi, 'He Who Is Not'."

APPENDIX C. Bibliography.


The eleven volumes of "The Sanders Saga", arranged in chronological order,
are as follows:-

1) Sanders of the River.
2) The People of the River.
3) Bosambo of the River.
4) Bones.
5) Sanders.
6) Again Sanders.
7) Bones of the River.
8) The Keepers of the King's Peace.
9) Lieutenant Bones.
10) Bones in London.
11) Sandi, the King-maker.











The Ancestral Shrine of the Acholi

By THE REV. FR. A. MALANDRA,
Principal, Ngetta Normal School, Verona Fathers' Mission, LIRA.




The Acholi people call the place where they exercise part of their acts of
worship, the Abila. When they wish to offer sacrifice either for joyful or for sor-
rowful events, in thanksgiving or in propitiation, they gather together about this
shrine.
Now, as all their sacrifices, whether public or private, are offered up at this
Abila it may truly be called the centre of their religious worship.
If one visits these various villages and casually observes the Abila, whether
in its complete or rudimentary state, one will not be greatly impressed; yet the in-
habitants of the village always consider it a very sacred place.
And what is the object of their worship? Their ancestors. It is the belief of the
Acholi that the souls of their dead must appear in the vicinity of this shrine
some time after their death. The time of this is not definite. These souls have
no permanent dwelling. After a period of wandering about, they indicate some
particular signs, by which the people of the village may know their sacred duty;
namely, to build a small temple as shelter for the souls of their ancestors.
Henceforth they are venerated, so that they may be of assistance to the bereft
ones, and they will exercise their power so that the hunting will be successful,
evil spirits will be deterred from entering their villages, sickness may be unknown
among the inhabitants, women may not be barren, their children will enjoy health
and happiness and their crops will be abundant.
Briefly, they are worshipped so that they may exercise their beneficial in-
fluence, in return for which their surviving relatives will offer them meat, pudding,
semsem and beer at the proper time for sacrificing at the Abila.
The Abila assume various forms. It cannot be precisely stated whether or not
there is a fixed rule for the construction of such miniature temples for all tribes,
or even for a small group of people; as they vary in shape and size in the various
Villages. In some localities, the Abila takes the shape of a small hut, having a
roof made of grass, with a rather pronounced slope, and supported by small
forks fixed to the ground. In the centre there is a longer fork which reaches to
the highest point of the roof. This last is not found in all Abila. In this
case, the poles which are to be used for the building and the quality of the trees
from which they must be cut, must always be designated in time by the minister





UGANDA JOURNAL.


or priest of the village, who is called Ajwaka. The Abila in the form of a hut is
usually of small dimensions, very seldom reaching a height of three feet. In some
cases, however, it is very large, and this is dependent on the dignity of the man
to whom it is dedicated. A chief, for example, would have a very large one de-
dicated in his honour.
In a place called Paico there is a village not far distant, that is directly west
of Mount Ato. In that village of the elder Ali, I saw a newly made Abila, about
four feet high and three feet wide, under a tall tree called Oywelo. Encircling it
was a fence composed of little sticks, about three feet in length. Its purpose was
to make sure that the wandering cattle did not do damage to it. I asked the pur-
pose of that particular Abila and was told that it was erected in memory of an
elder who had died some years before. When asked why they had built it so ex-
traordinarily large, they assured me that it was to do honour to that elder who
had had such a powerful influence on all his clan, and who is still very highly
esteemed by his clansmen.
The quality of the timber to be used for such a building, is not determined.
For instance those people of Patik and of Atyak, and a goodly number from
Payira, use a quality of timber called Olwedo. Neither are they particular as to
the number of small forks of Olwedo that are fixed into the ground to support
the small grass roof of the Abila. Usually, though, the number varies from four
to six.
In other villages, for example at Pabo, the Abila is not a small hut, but
simply a small table consisting of a smooth stone, and supported all around by
smaller pieces of the same kind of stone. The height is generally about nine
inches. In the centre of the front side there is a tiny aperture, through which
parts of the offering are inserted. (Fig. 1)
There is yet another form of Abila that one frequently sees, namely a single
stone. I saw this in two different places, north-west of the village of the old chief
of Pabo. I made inquiries as to the purpose of the small, square stone at the
foot of a tree, and the old man who had placed it there said very simply that
it was the small temple of his ancestors.
It is worth noting that while in most cases only one small hut or table is
used as a temple, yet there are some cases in which there are two, three, four
and even five small tables of stone, ranged according to their size. This may be
seen in some villages in the neighbourhood of Pagak.
The Abila as constructed by the people of Payira is in the shape'of a small
hut. There is another, also, made of but three sticks, whose base is triangular,
and which is tied at the apex with interwoven grass. At Payira, in a village com-
prising three families, I noted that one did not have any temple, and those of the
other two were differently constructed. One of these had two sticks fixed across
and tied at the top; the other had three sticks but of different wood. Both of
these Abila were less than sixeen inches in height.
At Paico, I found that the sticks fixed into the ground were nothing else but
bamboo canes, split down the middle, and they were nine inches long.






Fig, 2.


Ahila consisting of smooth Stone. Abila which has the boni as a sacred tree.




Fig. 3.


1 IE
i, ,I

Ahila~~~~~~~~~~~~' ,"sstn ,'ot tn. blewihha h oia asce r


Dry branch replaces the green tree
in this Abila.


(Photos: Fr. Malandra.)


Fig. 1.





UGANDA JOURNAL.


While visiting the village of Olwacomoy, I met an old man who told me
the history of the Acholi of Koc. Close by, one could see two graves, surround-
ed by sticks. They were the Abila which he had built for his father and his
grand-father. The three sticks of each were tied at the top with interlaced grass.
The first one-that of his father-was smaller than the second and its sticks
were of different quality.
Whenever the Abila is small hut, very often you can see near it what is called
Kijere, which is small table made up of four forks, twenty-four inches in height
supporting sticks tied together. We are told that the son sits upon it when he
wishes to communicate with the souls of his ancestors. It is, however, certain that
its purpose is also to serve for the sacrifices during religious ceremonies, when
the offering are placed upon it.
At the side of the temples of the ancestors, there are always a small tree or
one or two big branches of trees, and it makes no difference whether or not they
are dry or still green. At times two forks, five feet high and crossed at the top
by a pole, may be seen at the side of the temples.
These small trees are not always of the same kind. Some plant the Mulembe,
others the Olwedo, others still the Boni, the Olu or the Akwo. It appears that
the Okango tree is used only for chiefs. but there are times when one might find
them on the graves of common people. Some plant trees of different kinds, in a
group, just above the Abila. As an example of this, I found the Olwedo and the
Akwo planted together. In another place in Pagak, the Olwedo and the
Boni were growing on the same spot; at Pabo, the Boni and the Olu; at Koc,
the Akwo and the Olu. (Fig. 2)
Now, what is the purpose of these living trees near the A bila? According to
the natives, it is to furnish a cool, shady, sequestered spot for the souls of the
ancestors. The small green trees, as well as the dry branches joined with the pole,
are used for displaying hunting trophies. Where there is no tree growing, one
will see several dried branches. Their purpose is obviously for hanging hunting
trophies and the skulls of the victims, slain for the sacrifice. (Fig. 3)

It appears that what is called the sacred tree has no such relation with the
souls of the ancestors as some of the latest ethnologists claim. It is far from con-
clusive, from the information of the natives themselves, that the sacred tree
and the small temple are the dwelling of the souls of the ancestors. It is only a
rendezvous, where, according to the testimony of the living, the souls of the
dead come to rest; and as they occasionally find food they are propitiated, so as
to ward off evils and protect the village of which they are the guardians.
That the A bia is not the dwelling of the souls, is obvious; for when the
Ajwaka is asked about the causes of this or that particular incident which oc-
curred in the village, he makes a decision to this effect: "Build an Abila; the
ancestors wish to eat." He does not say that they want a dwelling abode, but
simply, a place to eat. This will be seen even more clearly when we discuss the
inauguration of the Abila,






UGANDA JOURNAL.


Furthermore, as great importance attaches to these Abila in the different
stages of an African's life, one would think that they would be built rather quick-
ly, and that care would be taken to maintain them, in view of their object of
worship. Yet this is not done. Years and years frequently elapse before anything
is done in the line of erecting an Abila in the village of the ancestors. During a
trip which I made through the village of Koc Amar, I encountered an old chief
whose family failed to build an Abila. I asked the reason for this neglect in so
important a matter. He told me that the time for erecting it was not ripe. He
pointed out the exact spot where he intended to erect it. It was just beneath a
stately tree, above the grave of twins, (Rut). Once the Abila is built and has
been inaugurated with the customary sacrifices, they do not take care of it, as
one would suppose. In many villages, I noticed that the Abila were dilapidated,
and when I asked the reason for this apparent neglect, the natives explained
that they would build another, or that they would put the old one in condition
whenever the need for this would arise; i.e., the occasion for a new sacrifice. It
is as well to remark here that the sacrifices are not nearly so frequent as was
remarked in a recent article. Those who offer the sacrifices are expected to make
them once or twice yearly, when there is the crop-oblation about November or
December, and in weather suitable for hunting, usually in February or March.
The other occasions for offering sacrifices are indicated by the Ajwaka, and
these are very few in number.

When the one who has built the Abila changes place and goes to a new
village, he abandons the first one and takes with him a branch or two of the
sacred tree in order to plant it near the new Abila, at the time when the new
ceremonies are conducted.
The Abila is dedicated to the so-called Kwaro, an ancestor. Just who
this ancestor is, is not known in all cases; for he is not always closely related to
the one who is building it.

The fact is, the A bila is sometimes called Abila pa wora (The Abila of my
father) and at other times it is called Abila pa kwaro, (the Abila of my ancestors).
It is called Abila pa wora when it has been dedicated only to the father of the
one who built it. When it is dedicated to the father and grandfather or the
great-grandfather, or to the chief of the clan, it is then called Abila pa Kwaro,
the temple of the ancestors. Under this name are included all the people whom
they wish to remember. It is called Abila pa kwaro regardless of the number of
smaller temples.
At this stage it is well to see if, in the dedication of such temples, consider-
ation is given only to the masculine branch of the family tree or if the feminine"
branch is likewise taken into consideration when the generic name Abila pa
kwaro is applied.
I would answer affirmatively. There are cases in which one finds two temples,
the second one much smaller than the first, or even at times of the same di-
mensions. I sought for an explanation of this fact, and the builder told me that







Fig. 4.



4i7















Abita to father and mother made of sticks tied with
interlaced grass.


Fig. 5.













c------5--- .





Abile :- the smallest in the middle is of the father.

(Photos: Father Malandra.)


Abila of a chief.
(Photo: Father Sellegrmi )






UGANDA JOURNAL.


one was bulit for his father, the other for his mother. In a village called Kongo,
west of Parabongo, among the tribesmen of Pagak, I found two temples erected
to the memory of a certain man's parents. Their size was exactly the same.
(Fig. 4)
Not far from the famous mountain of Kilak, among the villages of Kulu-
nyang, close by the people of Pabo, I saw two Abila erected to a father and a
mother, and they were not of the same size. Two others, similar to those of
Kulunyang were observed near Mt. Ato. In the erection of these, it is well to
note that the A bila dedicated to the mother is in some cases to the left, and in
others to the right. In the case of the Abila pa kwaro (ancestors) there is not
always one for the ancestors, but not infrequently each of the ancestors has one
for himself, beginning with the grandfather. At Pabo and at Pagak Abila are
arranged in this order. First that of the old chief Boo: second that of the great-
grandfather; this is followed by that of the father, and last of all is that of the
mother. This last was found in its rudimentary stage. The chief's was the greatest,
and the sizes diminished in the descending order.
At Atyak I saw an Abila made of three small huts. The one in the middle
was the smallest, and it was dedicated to the father. The one to the right was
for the chief of the clan, and the one to the left was for the grand-father. (Fig. 5)
Such are the ancestors to whom the common people ordinarily dedicate
Abila. It is not clear whether the Abila dedicated to the chiefs is intended for
the immediate predecessor, or for the first member of the dynasty. It may even
be for the most illustrious member, or for several chiefs conjointly. It was at
Atyak that I saw a temple in an old village, which was dedicated to the fourth
king of the dynasty-Labongo Lawierut; there was another to the last king, Olya.
All these Abila of which mention has been made, must be considered not
as real dwelling places for the souls of the ancestors, but simply as places of
shelter and of rest.
I would like to introduce here another argument in support of this opinion.
This argument is taken from the very name which the natives give to their
small temples. The name Abila, is a derivation of the verb biilo which means "to
taste." From this we are to understand that the souls of the ancestor or ancestors
come to taste the food which has been offered to them, with the solemn rites
incidental thereto. Simply that, and not that they live there. As was stated in
one of the preceding paragraphs, if the Abila were the dwelling place, and not
a place to which the ancestors come only from time to time, it is difficult to ex-
plain the fact that they abandon the Abila or simply let it fall into disrepair. They
do neglect the Abila for years on end, and only rebuild it when the ceremonies
are to be re-enacted.
And in this latter case how could they hope to receive protection which
had been sought from the ancestors, on the occasion of the opening ceremonies
of the Abila?
Here is a second argument. When an evil befalls a village, or when
some one becomes ill and the Ajwaka is called in to give an explanation or






JZ UGANDA JOURNAL.

to effect a cure, always he recommends this or that particular offering for the
sacrifice. If there is no Abila it is built without further ado, so as to have a con-
venient place to make the sacrifice. If there is one already, the sacrifice is at once
offered. The fact of the ancestors wanting food is quite obvious.
These reasons confirm me in the conviction that the Abila is not the
dwelling place of the souls of the ancestors, notwithstanding all that has been
written to the contrary.
Abila is not the only name that is applied to the small temple. One often
hears this other name: Kac pa wora or Kac pa kwaro. Strictly speaking, Kac
does not mean the small temple. It signifies the small tree under which the temple
is built. Etymologically, Kac is a derivation of the verb kayo and means "to
gather" or "to harvest".
Precisely what the word kac means in the sentence Kac pa kwaro is very
hard to say.
The natives say that all such names are used for the sacred place as it is;
that is to say for the Abila as well as for the sacred tree. Nevertheless, the opinion
prevails that by the word Kac one is to understand "the sacred tree" even though
there may be several Abila.
Then why is the sacred tree called Kac? The following explanation might
be given. Because upon it are collected and displayed the skulls of the victims
sacrificed. The skulls and horns of the animals killed in the hunting season are
also hung from its limbs and not infrequently they hang up bunches of crops.
Considering the derivation of the word Kac, this theory seems quite plausible.
This may also help to elucidate its use. The verb kayo from which Kac is de-
rived, preceded by the word Latin (latin kayo) which means "son," is used to
express the first-born. Therefore the way of saying Kac pa Kwaro evidently signi-
fies the one who prepares the Abila, since he is the one who receives the father's
inheritance. In other words, he is the first-born.
Ordinarily the first-born builds the Abila, although it is well to note that
this is not always so. Quite often others erect it. This also is in confirmation of
the above statement. These reasons may well explain the second interpretation of
the name Kac, according to our own mind; because those natives whom I
questioned were unable to give an explanation other than that it has been called
Kac for the past generations.
The first-born has the duty of building the Abila and when he is dead the
duty falls to the lot of his brothers; no account is taken of his sisters, if he is
married. And if he is not married the duty falls upon the first married brother.
If they were married about the same time, the elder one must do it. If none is
married, no one is bound to build it. The reason assigned for this is that for the
inauguration of the Abila beer is necessary and flour for making the bread to
be offered to the ancestors, and to those who participate in the ceremonies. If
the one who is to build the Abila is not married, he will find himself in an im-






UGANDA JOURNAL.


possible situation, for there will be no one to prepare the beer (Kongo), to
grind the millet or to attend to the other incidentals. Therefore he is no longer
obliged to erect the Abila, and the duty devolves on another.
The circumstances connected with its erection vary. For one it might be
sickness in the family; for another some dire calamity or bad luck in the hunt;
for another help and deliverance in a moment of danger, in which case the Abita
is built not to propitiate, but as a thank-offering.
There is the case also when the reason and desire for building the Abila is
the result of a dream, in which the Kwaro (ancestors) clearly express the wish to
eat. If the dream was confused, and 'there is still a lurking suspicion-which is
always strengthened by their superstition-the dream is taken as an evident
omen of exceptional importance. The Ajwaka is then consulted and he gives the
answer according to the mind of the ancestors.
What is the time for the building of the Abila? It is the first months of the
Dry Season-November and December. At this time also the people are ready
to start their hunts, and they have plenty of food to inaugurate the ceremonies.
The place where the Abila is built is in the central part of the court-yard
of the village, in front of the hut of the mother if she is still alive; if she is not,
in front of the hut of the wife. If the builder of the Abila has several women,
the Abila will then be erected in front of the hut of the one he first married.
The distance between the Abila and the hut varies from thirty to forty feet,
and according to the space available. However, this rule is not a rigid one; for
I have seen several Abilas at a distance of three feet only from the hut. In this
latter case they were all to the left as one came out from the hut.
At the time of the inauguration of the Abila others beside the elders of the
village, regardless of their family ties, participate; because they are familiar with
the ceremonies all the members of the clan, of both sexes, the sons and their
wives, the daughters and their husbands and their children, all take part. The
women take what food is necessary. The beer is prepared in the village where the
Abila is to be built. All the relations, near and far, must be present at the inaug-
uration ceremonies. If they fail to put in an appearance they fall into discredit,
and will call down upon themselves the chastisements of the ancestors.
When a man is prevented, for any reason whatsoever, from taking part in
the ceremonies, the vengeance of the ancestors will not overtake him. On the con-
trary he will merit a special blessing. The Ajwaka is always consulted before the
erection, and as a matter of fact he has the last say-so in the decisions. It is very
seldom that he takes part in the inauguration ceremonies.
Suppose the builder is poor or unable to build it; as he is in no position to
do so he is freed from the obligation, and the ancestors will not be vexed on
this account. In this case, and when all the clan has disappeared, the souls of
the ancestors will live along the banks of the brooks, where they feed on frogs
or upon leaves. Every so often, they will return to their grave.
E





UGANDA JOURNAL.


The inaugurations of Abila for chiefs are much the same as for those of the
common folk. There are, however, a few minor changes. The successor of the
deceased chief will build the Abila in the Kal-the village of the chief-and its
proportions will be larger. The sticks which are to be used for the building are
not always of the same quality. At the Kal of Patiko they use the Olwedo, and
at that of Atyak any tree, so I was assured by an old chief. At times the size of
an Abila of a chief is the same height as that of a common hut. (Fig. 6)
At Atyak the Abila are two in number: one to the Chief Labongo who was
one of the first of that dynasty; the other to the last chief, Olya. They are both
as large as common huts.
Of course in this case there is not a fixed number of poles, which might be
taken as a sacred number for such buildings. In such a large Abila as that of a
chief, which is the size of a common hut, there is a fork in the middle for sup-
porting the roof. The royal drums called Bul Ker are depended from it.
If the chief's Abila is of the common type and is too small to house the
royal drums these are kept in a special hut nearby, which is specially built for
this purpose.
Near the chief's Abila, which is in the centre of the village, Kal, there is
not an ordinary sacred tree, but a special one called Okango. Even for the chiefs,
the Kac, (sacred tree) will be one only, even when the Abila are more than one.
For the inauguration of the Abila of a chief, a great dance takes place.
The duty of building the Abila, as was stated above, devolves upon the first-
born, and when he is single his married brother will perform this work. If he
has no brothers, he himself will do it.
When the time for building it has come, and it is important to remember that
the ancestors indicate the time, the very first thing to be done is to consult the
Ajwaka. If the sign is a sickness or some other misfortune, the Ajwaka then de-
clares the need of building the Abila. After having drawn lots in his own hut he
then declares who is to build.
If the sign was made known in a dream, the Ajwaka then says very solemnly
that it is so, and says that the ancestors must have food. The quality of timber to
be used is then pointed out by him, as also those things necessary for the cere-
monies.
After having consulted the Aiwaka, the builder of the Abila returns home,
and sends word around to all the relations, acquainting them of the Ajwaka's
decision to build an Abila. They are so informed in order that they may partici-
pate in the rites and ceremonies. He likewise tells them the amount of flour they
should bring for the bread and of leaven for the beer. If there are other food-
stuffs to be consumed, he tells them.
When all the food is ready and all the relations have arrived, word is sent
to the Ajwaka asking him if he wishes to attend, and if so to come at dawn. Then
they set about building the Abila, following very minutely the instructions of the
Ajwaka.






UGANDA JOURNAL.


In every hut of the village beer is prepared in earthen jars. This is generally
done at sunset. The Ajwaka then motions to the relations to meet together, and
adorns his person with the signs and trinkets of his stock-in-trade. Over the
goat skin that he wears he places the skin of an antelope. In his right hand he
holds the Aja (a small empty calabash, containing small stones.) In his left hand
there is a small stick, or a wand. Making sundry and majestic gestures, he enters
into direct communication with the ancestors. He dances and prances, and every
now and then rattles the calabash, so as to attract the attention of the spirits.
They are expected to come and make known their wishes to him.

All in attendance, very particularly the elders, pay close attention and the
silence is sepulchral. They are awed at the tremendously important act that is
taking place before their very eyes, and they are awaiting the answer.

Suddenly the Ajwaka stands still; the rattling of the Aja ceases; he pauses,
and his features are tense. He is in evident communication with the ancestors.
Sitting on the goat skin he suddenly stoops to the ground, for he hears things.
The sounds at first are quite confused. Then they are clarified. He slowly raises
himself, and thus addresses the people.

Kuaro tin dok oloko.
The Ancestor spoke today, once again.
Wuweny nyok, gweno, wa kongo.
Get ready goats, hens and beer.
The answer from the ancestors is given, and their wishes are made known
publicly. After these preliminaries the elders go and fetch a goat (nyok gibworo)
from the master of the Abila (won abila), that is, the one who built it. They
bring it near the Abila and, tied thereto until after sunset, it is afterwards taken
into a hut for the night, and the following morning it is again tied until sunset.

It is well to remark here that the elders (lodito) always perform the rites,
regardless of whether they are or are not related to the owner of the Abila. This
office is reserved to them, since they are very well acquainted with all the rituals.
The first offering of the goat, made without any ceremony at the time of the
presentation, is like an answer to the request of the ancestors. Meantime the
Ajwaka goes back to his village, and does not return any more until the following
rites of the consecration of the Abila. The next morning, at break of day, the
goat is taken close to the Abila and left there. Later on, about eight o'clock, the
elders gather in front of the temple to initiate the ceremonies.
Then the master of the Abila (won abila) advances and loosens the goat,
and taking hold of its rope leads it around the Abila three times. He goes around
the Kac the same number of times. He suddenly stands still and while the others
stand around, with their spears, the Ajwaka commences the opening prayer. This
is a sort of general introduction to the function. Here are the words that are
uttered;





UGANDA JOURNAL.


Wora yam ceng ikoko cam man.
My Father, you asked for this food long ago.
Cam tin dong en: bin ie dong.
Here is the food to-day: then come.
Ilwong omeggiwu duc, cam mewu en.
Call all your brothers, here is the food for you.
After such an invocation, he addresses the onlookers in order that they also
may take part in the offering. He says:
Wun lokakawa, an alwongo wun pi wora.
Relations of mine, I have called you for my father.
Ma an atyeto: wubin ka mio cam igi.
For whom I have drawn lots: come to give him to eat.
Ma an amio ki woragi.
The food I give to my father.
Tin amako dyel en.
Behold here is the goat.
Wamii ki wora dong en.
Let us give it then, to my father.
He having extended this invitation, one of the ,elders takes his place and acts
as master of ceremonies; holding the goat by the rope he says the following:
In wkaro tin dong an amio cam mewu.
Ancestors, behold to-day I give your food.
Wukel latinni wan waribo wun ki latinni.
Bring here your son; we unite you to your son.
Cam mewu dong en.
Here is your food.
Wubin ducu ka keto cingwu.
Come ye all and place your hands upon it.
Kom nyok man.
Upon this goat. (').
This formula comprises two parts: the first is an invitation to the souls of
the ancestors to come near the Abila; the second is an invitation for the placing
of hands upon the victim as a sign of their good pleasure, or their displeasure,
as the case may be. When the prayer is over the elders stroke the back of the
goat either out of fear of those who are armed with spears or to cause the
animal to defecate or to urinate. (The natives attribute it simply to the influence
of the ancestors, and not to any of the above reasons given.)

(i) Such invocations lead us to believe that the Abila is dedicated primarily to the
grand-father rather than to the father,






UGANDA JOURNAL.


It is a good omen if the goat defecates, and they at once thank the ancestors
for having accepted the offering for consecration of the Abila. All those present
likewise express their good pleasure. On the other hand, if it urinates, it is taken
as an ill-omen. It means not only that the ancestors are greatly displeased, but
that there will be cases of death in the village, if they dare sacrifice that goat with-
out mentioning it to the Ajwaka, in front of the Abila, before the service gets
under way.
When the omen is good they proceed without delay to carry out all the ritual-
istic ceremonies; and when it is not good they are expected to go to the Ajwaka,
with the goat. All do not go to the Ajwaka, but only the builder and a represen-
tative group selected from among the elders. Arrived at the Ajwaka, the builder
(Won abila) explains the reason for his coming, and gives minute details of what
happened in the village.
Having heard the full account, the Ajwaka then casts lots either with two
pieces of skin, shaped like soles, or with round small stones. The dice are thrown
up in the air, and then permitted to fall on the skin of a bull, on which he is
standing. Then, having considered the mysterious manner in which the falling
dice have arranged themselves, he raises his head.
He addresses those present, in a grave and solemn tone of voice: "The
fact that the goat urinated, points to the fact that the ancestors do want the
Abila to be built; but they reject the victim for the sacrifice. There is a reason
for this. Some one among you is guilty of having incurred the displeasure of the
ancestors. It is on this account that they refuse the food which they had at first
requested, and which you wished to offer. It is thus that they express their dis-
pleasure. Who is guilty?"
The chief of the representative body then begins to recall past events, over
a period of years, trying to recall what might have been the cause of this refusal
on the part of the ancestors, and on such a very solemn occasion.
Then he commences to talk, while the people present listen very attentively,
and in absolute silence. They confirm the Ajwaka's statement. Then the builder
declares that really, in the past, this or that occurrence called down the dis-
pleasure of the ancestors. He will then tell how, in public or in private, he
quarelled without a good reason; or that he-quarelled with his brothers and other
relations; or how his wife offended the wives of his brothers. Any similar case,
which would be a reason for having displeased the ancestors, is admitted.
Then the Ajwaka pronounces sentence, having heard the testimony. He
orders that a she-goat be sacrificed, so as to placate the ancestors. Then, in
recompense, they offer the Ajwaka gifts which were brought along for this pur-
pose: flour, hens, a bow with five arrows, or other articles of small value.
The elders and all the people taking part, again return to the village, and
they gather in a circle to hear the answer of the Ajwaka. Afterwards they go to
the Abila, and an elder having led around three times the victim to be offered and
being reassured that all will be well, the rite is continued; as a mark of pleasure
and as a blessing, they all spit on the victim.





UGANDA JOURNAL.


And now, if the she-goat should urinate, the Ajwaka is once more consulted,
and this time he advises them to kill another goat like the first one; but instead
of being reddish, he suggests that it be blackish, with a white spot in front.
This will indeed rejoice the spirits of the ancestors. Then the same elder, holding
the goat by the rope, pronounces in an audible voice, and in the presence of all
the people, the ritual prayer:
Wuyee cam ma wamiowu tin.
Accept the food we present you to-day.
Cam mewu dong en.
Then here is your food.
Walworowu pingo wun loditowa.
We honour you because you are our ancestors.
Now in the event of the omen being good, the goat or the she-goat is handed
over to another elder so that he may bring it to the house of its owner (the won
abila) and it is kept for the sacrifice.
It must be noted that the goat is not placed in a hut, or together with the
cattle; as it has been chosen for the sacrifice it has already become a sacred thing.
For this reason it must not be contaminated by what is not sacred. It is kept m
the same house as the owner of the Abila because, as the natives explained,
that goat must be the scape-goat, for all the offences of the villagers, represented
in the person of the won abila.
Thus staying in the house, the goat takes upon itself the sins of all. The
ancestors will then be placated, and will willingly accept the food offered, and
also will there be a general purification on the villagers. So ends the second day.
The following morning the Ajwaka comes to assist but on condition that he
has received an invitation. The tethered victim is untied and is made to go around
the temple three times again, one of the elders leading it. Afterwards it is offered
by this elder, who says:
Nyoki, tin dong en.
Here is your goat, to-day.
Tin dong wumat remo.
To-day, drink ye its blood.
Gemo ma binoni owok ki cen.
If evils come, let them be far removed.
Kom dano obed ma yot.
Let the body of the people be healthy.
All the natives armed with spears approach the victim and then they spit
upon it for the second time, in the hope of drawing down a blessing. This done,
the victim is slaughtered, and its head split open; it is then skinned and quarter-
ed, The bowels are attentively scrutinised and if they are not in an abnormal






UGANDA JOURNAL.


condition, one of the elders says, ber (good) and the others all answer in unison
ber. If in examining the bowels there is found an abnormality, it is removed,
pierced with a thorn, and then thrown into the forest.

The significance of this act has reference to the formula pronounced in the
offering of the victim. Nothing of an injurious nature must befall the parents of
the ancestors. On account of the sacrifice offered to them, the ancestors must
take care to prevent evils from descending upon the village, and troubling the
inhabitants.
Anyone may do the cutting. The one who does begins with the forelegs,
starting with the right foreleg first. Then the hind legs are cut. Some say that
it is immaterial whether one starts with the front or the hind legs.
Slicing a piece of meat from the loin (akic), they roast it over a slow fire.
There are some also who roast pieces of meat from the chest or the liver.
While these functions are transpiring, the wife of the Won Abila is helped
by the other women of the relations, in preparing bread. The preparation is made
in the hut of her husband. When the meat and the bread are ready, the same
elder, the master of ceremonies, prepares the food in one pot (atabo) only. It
makes no difference if it was previously used. In procession, they go and place it
under the temple. Again they slice the loins or the chest of the goat, and they
cook it in the house of the Won Abila. This second portion of meat which is
not roasted, but simply parboiled, is called amal. The master of ceremonies
cuts it, and it is then taken to the elder, who attends to the cooking of it.
When this second portion is also cooked, the same master of ceremonies
enters the hut, removes it from the fire, and places it in two pots. These two equal
shares of meat and of bread are carried by the elder and an assistant, and placed
in front of the Abila. Upon these and upon the food previously offered, these
words are pronounced by the elder:
Cam mewu dong en.
Here is your food.
Wek kom lotino obed ma yot.
Let the body of the children be healthy.
Ki mon meggi ginong nyodo.
And may the women bear children.
Wek nyingwu pe orweny.
That, your name may not disappear.
Good health for the living, and very particularly for the young, is earnestly
besought, and also that the women of the relations may bear children. They
ardently wish also, that their Name may be perpetuated to future generations.
This request is always made, for all natives are very anxious to have numerous
children, and this invocation is made again at the end of the ceremony.





UGANDA JOURNAL.


It is at this point that the Ajwaka comes, if he has received an invitation.
He covers the Atabo with earthen pots called agulu. Then there is a respite, so
as to enable the ancestors assembled in the room to taste the food spread out
for them. The food is covered so that its odour also may comfort the ancestors.
After a short while, the pots which were carried to the Abila are returned
to its owner, in whose house the elders and the Ajwaka gather in order to eat it.
At the same time, out in the courtyard, the rest of the meat is cooked in the
agulu, except one foreleg which is presented to the Ajwaka. Another piece of
meat, with the bowels, is set aside for the elders who eat it the following day
in the house of the Won Abila. They eat by themselves.
After the repast the elders come out, and go to stand in front of the Abila,
where the master of ceremonies is found to be standing with a hen, held by him.
Holding it by its feet, he makes movements upon the Abila. When he has finish-
ed this the neck of the hen is cut, and while the blood is flowing freely the
elders say,
Remo tin wamiowu en.
Here to-day, we offer blood.
Komwa obed mayot.
That our bodies may be healthy.
Onre it is cooked it is offered with bread, but not by being placed under
the temple as was done before; this time each elder takes a morsel of bread
and then a bit of meat and making of them a round pulp they throw it at the
temple, while the chief says:
Wamiowu cam dong en.
Here we give you food.
Komwa obed ma yot.
That our bodies may be healthy.
Wek too obedi
That death may not come.
Ka yam wan wape
If we should not be here
Cam mewu bene pe.
You should not have had food.
In this formula they express their belief that the souls of the ancestors have
it within their power to stave off death; and, that they may exert this power,
they say that if they were not living they would not be able to offer these
sacrifices, nor would the Abila have been constructed.
Having finished this formula all throw on the ground small particles of
meat. At this moment the beer is offered, not only by the elders but also by
the elder women who present themselves at these ceremonies, even though
they are not related to the ancestors. They sip a mouthful and they sprinkle it
at the same time upon the temple while the elder says.





UGANDA JOURNAL.


Komwa obed ma yot.
That our bodies may be healthy
Kongo wamiowu tin dong.
Here, this day, we offer you beer.
Then the rest of the hen and the beer are given to the people who took part.
Even the boys of the relatives of Won Abila may eat and drink.

There are some Abila that are consecrated only with the offering of a hen;
this may be either because the builder had nothing else to offer, or it may also
be due to the express wishes of the ancestors. Later on, when the Abila's owner
gets a goat, he will offer it, without any special ceremony other than the formula
of presentation:

Yam amii gweno.
Some time ago I offered you a hen.
Tin amii dyel dong en.
To-day, I here offer you a goat.
Komwa obed ma yot.
That our body may be healthy.

Among the people of Atyak, when they offer chicken with bread the
elders sit down, and they place the small pellet of meat in the hand of him who
is appointed to make the offering. Kneeling before the Abila he sets the ball of
meat on the ground. He does not throw it. The above formula is then recited.

After these offerings the elder master of ceremonies takes the spear in hand,
together with those of the participants, which were leaning against the sacred
tree, and says in a clear audible tone of voice:

Wuling eno ba:
Keep silence.
Wan watimo ngadi.
We have offered to an ancestor.
Tin wamio cam en.
To-day we have given food.
Ento wuling !
But listen!
Kom dano obed ma yot.
The body of the people may be healthy.
And all the elders reply with one voice:

Kom dano obed ma yot.
The body of the people may be healthy.
And they continue:





UGANDA JOURNAL.


Elder: Ngu ci oto, lee ci otoo.
The wild beast may die; and the animals may die (by our spears)
All: Otoo, otoo, otoo!
Let them die, die, die!
Elder: Tong obed ma bit.
That the spear may be sharp.
All: Ma bit, ma bit, ma bit.
Sharp, sharp, sharp!
Elder: Nyodo i kom mon opot maber.
Childbirth of mothers may be happy.
All: Maber, maber, maber.
Happy, happy, happy.
Elder: Cam ci otwi, ci ocyek.
The crops may grow and may ripen.
All: Ocyek, ocyek, ocyek.
Ripe, ripe, ripe,
Elder: Lotino ci okok.
That the children may cry.
All: Okok, okok, okok.
Cry, cry, cry.

This last phrase means that there may be children in the houses. Because
when there is the cry of the children it is a sign that a new baby is born. This
invocation is replete with meaning. They wish to be happy parents, in the true
sense of the word. Thus keeping clear of immorality the people are stronger
and more generous in all life's events.

Though the above dialogue is admittedly simple, it is, nevertheless, quite
impressive. The pomp and show of it all impresses one not a little. Those un-
civilised natives congregated about a very small temple for the purpose of hon-
ouring their ancestors in order that they may be propitious and kind to the
living; the elders, clad in their goat-skins, armed with spears, and looking really
savage, make an imposing picture.

Their ceremonies conclude with a dance. There is also a deal of singing in
honour of the ancestors. Even love-songs have their place in this singing part
of it. This dancing and merry-making occurs in the late evening.

At sunset the skull of the goat is placed upon the Abila and there it will
remain for some days, when it is removed only to be placed on the sacred tree.
All the men present eat the food that is left over, and which was not offered to
the ancestors.







UGANDA JOURNAL.


After they have been anointed on their breasts by the chief-elder, with
the wee (what remains of the food in the bowels of the goat) the following
words are pronounced:
Komi obed ma yot: Cwinyi obed ma ngic.
That your body be healthy, and that your heart may be in peace
It is well to note that the young men of the relations eat only portions of
the forelegs of the goat, after having presented it at the Abila, to invoke a blessing.
The last ceremony of this long series of functions is the sprinkling with water
of all present.
The master of ceremonies sprinkles the crowd with a green twig of a tree,
having dipped it in the water with which he washed his hands before the meal.
He expresses every good wish:
Nyodo onywal nyodo.
Let there be one childbirth after another.
Komwu obed ma yot.
That your body be healthy.
Wunek lee, bel bene otwi botwu.
Kill the beasts and let your crops grow.
Lotino ducu komgi obed ma yot, gudong.
That your children be healthy and may they grow.
At the same time he passes through the multitude, sprinkling them, with
a deal of solemnity. Then, again standing in front of the Abila, with much en-
thusiasm he pronounces the final words, which partake of the nature of a farewell:
Kwaro tin dong ogoyo laa i wiwu.
To-day you were blessed by the ancestors.
Then the meeting is over, and so the day ends the initiation of the Abila.
To have taken part in it is a sign of blessings galore.
It must be remarked that the dance is performed only by circling the Abila.
The following day the elders eat the piece of meat which had been taken
from the fire to the Abila, the day previous; they also eat the meat which was
kept in the bowels.
For the women of the relations a goat is unceremoniously slaughtered. If
the Won Abila has plenty of cattle he will have a bull killed in order that this
day may be one of great rejoicing for all. This is done for the relations, but all
who wish may take part in the feast.
If the Ajwaka has been present, he receives, in addition to the presents
enumerated, a foreleg of the victim; and also he is presented with a small goat
and some flour.











Kingfishers
By C. W. CHORLEY


As may easily be imagined, such conspicuous birds as kingfishers were
the subject of legends in the past as well as to-day. In the old Greek fables king-
fishers were the symbol of Alcyone, who threw herself into the sea when her hus-
band, Ceyx, lost his life in a shipwreck. The Greek gods admired this proof of
affection so much that they gave the pair a new existence as kingfishers and
masters of the sea.
Kingfishers were a mystery to the Greeks because they could not find any
nests and consequently thought that the kingfisher made its nests on the sea and
possessed magical powers, given to it by Zeus, of calming the wind and sea during
the period of incubation. They noted that the young birds appeared each year
during the calm days before the winter storms, so the kingfishers were thought
to be responsible for the "halcyon days" of peace, and were greatly honoured
and held in high favour in consequence. Ornithologists, however, have deprived
the kingfisher of this halo of glory, for he is no longer an immortal or king of the
waters, and other birds are just as efficient fishermen.
There is still in many parts of England a superstition that a kingfisher stuffed
with wood-ash and rape-seed and suspended from the ceiling will forecast the
coming weather by pointing its bill towards the direction from which rain will come.
The islanders and many of the natives of the mainland are very superstitious
about various species of birds, especially the owls, doves and the little Pigmy
Kingfisher (Ispidina picta), with its brilliantly coloured metallic blue plumage and
coral-red bill and legs. The islanders are in great dread of this bird and it is hated
by them. If it appears near their camp or dwellings it is thought to be an omen
of death. There are several coincidences with regard to this which would be far
too long to mention in this paper.
Eleven species of kingfishers are known to occur in Uganda, and all of them
are known as akasimagizi except the Pied Kingfisher, which is called mujolo.
They are a striking group of birds, all having long bills, a comparatively short body
and tail, and round wings, and are not easily mistaken for any other group. Their
colourings are very variable, from very sober and dull tints or plain black and white
to the most brilliant plumage. As may be gathered from the name, many of them
feed on fish, but others have different habits and do not eat fish; some are found in the
forests far from water, others take to the bush, while the beautiful Senegal Kingfisher
(Halcyon senegalensis), with sky-blue wings and large crimson beak, is in no way
fastidious in choosing a locality as it may be found in the bush, on the edge of
forests, or in the open plains. When at rest upon a branch it sits in rather a
lumpy attitude, with its chin resting upon its breast, arousing itself at intervals to






















A typical hunting ground of the Pied Kingfisher


vsy~


A Pied Kingfisher hovering over the water like
a kestrel. Speed qf the exposure, 1000th of a second
at F. S on Selo Fihn.
Photos; C. W. Chorley.






UGANDA JOURNAL.


utter its loud cry like the sound of a watchman's rattle. This bird's favourite diet
is grasshoppers. March is the only month in which I have found the species
breeding.
The Malachite or Crested Kingfisher (Corythornis cristata) is fairly common
and inhabits a great part of Uganda. It can often be seen on low twigs or papyrus
overhanging the water's edge, and when disturbed its rattling cries sound as if it
were very vexed at the sudden disturbance. They have keen sight and with their
electric-blue colouring they look like meteors in their flights over the water. They
suddenly check their fight in mid-air to make a spiral plunge into the water after
their prey, then they return to a suitable perch and knock the small fish, frogs
or water-insects they have captured against the perch a few times before swallowing
them. These birds usually nest in May, June and November, and lay three to
four eggs.
The beautiful little Pigmy Kingfisher (Ispidina picta), that flashes and glitters
with every movement, is of a lovely orange and most intense blue. It is com-
monest on Lake Victoria and other lakes of Uganda, especially on the edges of
papyrus swamps. It flutters up and down, calling with a very feeble note, and
dashes into the water with a splashing thud after small fish, frogs, shrimps and
water-insects. It is very solitary in its habits and never assembles in numbers.
These birds seem to choose areas which they consider their own and in which
they resent intrusion by another of their kind; it is not an uncommon sight to
see two of them engaged in conflict, like sparkling gems whirling through the air.
They nest in January, March, May, August and September, and usually lay
three eggs.
Another'larger species of kingfisher is the Pied or Black and White King-
fisher (Ceryle rudis), which is remarkable for the tinting from which it derives its
name and which is in great contrast to the brilliant hues which decorate the
majority of kingfishers. It is very common in many parts of Africa.
The habits of the Pied Kingfisher are totally different from those of the
majority of kingfishers, as it is social instead of being solitary. Numbers are to
be seen fishing together and using the same breeding-grounds. Their mode of
fishing is also quite different from that of other kingfishers, because they are.the
only East African species that hovers over the water like a kestrel, with head and
beak pointing down to the surface of the water. When hovering they change
their position from time to time in search of finny prey and once they see a fish
near the surface they plunge head foremost into the water like a stone. If, the
fish is a very small one it is swallowed at once, but the larger ones are carried to
the bird's favourite perch, beaten several times against the bough, and then
swallowed without any trouble.
The courting days are punctuated by much squawking and twittering, chas-
ing and querulous abuse. The momentous decision and choice once made,
there is a lot of work to be done and many feet of digging to make the necessary
nesting sites. A suitable bank on the lake shore is found and several pairs make
their nests in the same long bank.
To the onlooker the making of these homes appears a big task, but the
kingfishers seem to accomplish it with no very great difficulty. Their powerful"
beaks cut their way easily, the loose matter being pushed out by the feet.







UGANDA JOUVtAL.


The hole goes back a great length, as much as seven feet if no obstacle is met
with. Just in front of the nesting chamber an angle is made, at the end of the
tunnel, and room is there provided for turning round. The chamber is usually
large enough for the easy movement of the bird. The eggs, streaky white and
usually two to five in number, are laid on the bottom of the chamber, on the earth;
for the chamber is not lined with moss, down, leaves or twigs as in the nests of
other birds. Fishbones are much in evidence in the chamber during the later
stages of incubation, for the birds eject portions of bones from the stomach in
castings, like owls and hawks, and soon there is an abundance of unpleasant odours.
Sanitation has no place in the Pied Kingfisher's home and the chamber is a place
of horror, best left alone for the stench is as patent as the darkness. When the
brood leaves the nest they are taught how to fish for themselves and are fed
during this tuition, which lasts about a month. The lesson over, a new generation
of kingfishers has arrived.
Breeding of the Pied Kingfisher is at maximum during the heavy rains and
is much less during the short rains in August and October. Only a few breed in
the driest months, late May and June. The types of breeding sites preferred by
the Pied Kingfisher on some of the islands in Lake Victoria, and the number of
nests found at different seasons are shown in the following table, which is from
observations made over a period of one year:-


Locality. Type of breeding site.
Kimmi White Sand
Mpata
Zinga
Nsadzi
Bulago
Bugala (Sesse)
Damba Coarse sand and stones
Ngamba
Lukalu
Wema Brown sand and red earth
Kibibi
Nsadzi
Sindiro
Kerenge
Bugala (Sesse)
Tavu Vegetable debris, brown earth
Kome
Kizima
Kome Old termite-hills


March-April.
70
38
21
44
104
51
50
14
29
19
8
17
5
5
12
7
14
7
9


May
0
3
0
0
8
2
10
0
2
0
2
1
2
0
6
3
9
2
0


Aug. & Sept.
22
7
3
19
48
16
21
4
12
49
36
23
15
17
42
No record.
No record.
0
0


From these observations it seems that the birds carefully choose nesting sites
in a locality; white sand being their first choice, followed by coarse sand and
pebbles, and so on to brown sand and red earth, banks of vegetable debris and
termite-hills, these last only being used in the absence of any other suitable
ground. Hard clay is entirely unsuitable; the birds sometimes make unavailing
efforts to burrow in it but accept failure after penetrating a foot or so.






e ,*
fr .,-4


A seven foot long excavated nesting chamber with
tunnel provided for turning round.


Kingfishers' nests in ant-hill.
Photos: C. W. ( .r,...





UGANDA JOURNAL.


NOTES



An Arab historian's reference to the sources of the Nile
in 950 A.D.


By G. HUMPHREY-SMITH.

The following extract from the Kitabu 'ttanbih wa'lishraf of Ali b. Husayn
alMasudi may be of interest to readers acquainted with the better known dis-
sertation of Herodotus on the sources of the Nile.
The translation is that of M. Carra de Vaux published by the Socidtd Asiat-
ique in Paris in 1896:
"Le Nil. Il tire son origine de sources situ66s dans le Mont de la Lune (Dje-
bel el-Kamar) a 7 degr6s et demi derriere la linge de 1'Equateur, ce qui 6quivaut
a 141 parasanges et 2/3, ou en miles a 425 miles. De ces sources sortent dix
course d'eau qui se d6versent cinq par cinq dans deux lacs qui se trouvent du
c6te du sud derriere la ligne de 1'Equateur.
"De chacun de ces deux lacs ressortent trois ours d'eau, et tous ces bras de
fleuve vont se d6verser dans un meme lac situd dans le premier climate. C'est de
1 que descend le Nil d'Egypte. Le Nil traverse le pays des Negres, passe par
la ville d'Alwah, capital du royaume de Nubie, puis par celle de Dongolah,
appartenant a la meme nation; il quite le premier climate, et il atteint, dans le
second climate, Oswan (Sydne), ville de la Haute-Egypte et la premiere ville
musulmane depuis les frontibres de Nubie. Aprbs avoir franchi la Haute-Egypte,
il passe au Caire et il va se jeter par plusiers bouches dans la mer de Roum, dans
le troisieme climate. Depuis la ligne de l'Equateur jusqu'a la ville d Alexandrie.
situde sur le bord de la mer a 1'endroit oi aboutit un des bras du Nil, il y a une
distance de 30 degrds 6quivalant en miles h 1,820 miles, et en parasanges a 606
parasanges et 2/3. Et de l'origine du Nil dans les Monts de la Lune au point oi
il se jette dans la mer de Roum, la distance est de 748 parasanges et 2/3, ce qui
6quivaut en miles a 2,245 miles. Il y a des gens qui dvaluent cette distance
de 1'origine du Nil A son embouchure a 1,130 et quelques parasanges.
"Dans le voisinage du Mont de la Lune la Lune sont beaucoups de villages
et de localitds Zendj; apres les avoir franchise on arrive au pays du Sofalah des
Zendj et a 'ile de Kanbalou don't les habitants sont musulmans, puis aux pays
de Berbera et de Hafouni. Nous avons rapport dans nos pr6cedents ouvrages 19





UGANDA JOURNAL.


motif qui a fait donner a ces months le nom de la Lune, les influences 6videntes
et remarquables qu'y excercent les phases lunaires, et les opinions 6mises sur ce
point par les philosophes, par les dualistes manichdens, etc.,"

Masudi is often called the "Herodotus of the Arabs", on account of the
digressive nature of his writings and the wide range of his travels. The com-
parison between the two cannot with justice be carried much further than this.
Some fifteen centuries separate them, and the Moslem scholar of tenth century
Baghdad was a very sophisticated person compared with Herodotus and very
mfch better informed. Masudi himself travelled as far as China and the learned
men of his time studied the philosophy and science of Greece and India.

One would eagerly digress upon the sources of his information, but in the
absence of a library and even of a copy of the Muruju 'dhdhahab,-a previous
work, of which the Kitabu 'ttanbih is an abridgement,-let it suffice to say that
Masudi in the course of his travels covered Egypt, Madagascar and Zanzibar.
Arab geography is a study in itself and one hesitates to advance without the
guiding lights of the many authorities ancient and modern.

One notes, however:-
A resemblance between this passage and Herodotus' description, and the
obvious application of Masudi's description to the Uganda part of the Nile
system,-the two lakes leading into a third other from which, (in the second
iqlim, i.e. in the latitude of India) the Egyptian Nile flows.

ALSO: The confident exactitude with which he gives his distances and lati-
tudes. Whitaker gives the Nile's length as 4000 miles, but as I do not know
the length of the "mil" Masudi and the Arabs used it must be left to one
better informed to comment on his accuracy. The name derives from the Roman
mile of a thousand double paces.

In another passage Masudi shews himself fully aware that the Nile floods
are caused by the rains in the Mountains of the Moon, a theory which Herodotus,
as far as.I can recollect, accepts with some hesitation.

The passage throws an interesting light on the scope of Arab knowledge
at a time when Europe was in the dark ages,-the days of Athelstan and the
reconquest of the Danelaw in England,-and many years before the source of
the Nile became a matter of speculation in Europe again.

The last words quoted are tantalizing; it would be interesting to know why
the mountains were called the Mountains of the Moon, and what the "influences
6videntes et remarquables" are supposed to consist of, not to mention the
opinions of the philosophers and Manichaean dualists on a point which can
hardly have been much within the experience of the latter at any rate,





UGANDA JOURNAL.


A Legendary Hero of Buganda.
By SAM K.B. MUKASA

The Greeks have Heracles, the Hebrews Samson, the Romans Horatius, the
English St. George; in fact every nation has got a legendary hero, who is sup-
posed to have performed supernatural feats of bravery.
In this country of Buganda we have such a Patriarch known to fame as
Wakiwugulu, who probably lived in the reign of Kabaka Mawanda. His memor-
able feat is supposed to have been performed during one of the innumerable
conflicts which we had with our neighbours the Basoga.
The battle was long and fierce but as the sun neared the distant hills the
Baganda with their king could be seen in a headlong flight, and lost no time
in crossing the lake at Bugungu.
Wakiwugulu was wrath at this defeat, and telling the King that he would
rather die fighting the enemy than share, with His Majesty, such a disgrace,
paddled across the lake and faced the foes alone with his spear and shield.
The story goes that the first spear he threw passed through four people who
fell down dead! The enemies were petrified at such a show of muscular strength
and following the fashion of the Philistines when their Goliath was slain, they
turned and fled.
Wakiwugulu, with the war cry of his grandsires on his lips, chased the fliers
and killed the stragglers until he could kill no more. Then he collected all the
spears of the dead, tied them in a bundle and summoned boats by blowing his
horn. The old chronicles tell us that it required several boats to carry the spears
of the victims across!
Wakiwugulu is still remembered by that act of bravery, and even to day
the members of his Clan-Fumbe-still swear by his name.





UGANDA JOURNAL.


CORRESPONDENCE




The Nature and Characteristics of the Supreme Being
Worshipped among the Acholi of Uganda

Kampala,
5.5.39.

Honorary Editor,
Uganda Journal.
Kampala.

Sir,
The importance of Lubanga in Acholi mythology appears to be greatly exag-
gerated by Professor Boccassino's article in the last number of the Journal. When
Christianity first began to be introduced to the Acholi the word 'Lubanga' was
used for God in order, I believe, to introduce a new conception of the Almighty
to the old Tribal Deity Jok.
The Jok manifests himself in many ways and whether he is really one Supreme
being (comparable perhaps with the old testament idea of God) or whether there
are numerous spirits each called Jok is a matter of doubt. What is certain, how-
ever, is that Jok is the supreme being or beings to the pagan Acholi and that
Jok is not held as by any means an inferior or necessarily wicked spirit, this idea
being due largely to the fact of Christian Missions using his name to represent
Satan or the Devil of Christian Literature.
In his "Study of the Acholi Language", Father Crazzolara says of LUBANGA
"name of a spirit (of Bunioro origin) adopted for God by Missionaries". This
sums up the whole question, and one must feel that Professor Boccassino has been.
confused between the descriptions given him of pagan and Christian Lore.

I am, Sir,
Yours faithfully,
R.M. BERE.






UGANDA JOURNAL.


Sailing on 4he, Vitoria Nyanza In 19081

P.O. Box 352.,
KAMPALA.
LUZIA, 25TH. MAY, 1939.

The Hon. Editor,
Uganda Journal,
KAMPALA.

Sir,
With reference to the notes of Sir Alison Russell, K.C., on Sailing on Victoria
Nyanza in 1908 in Vol. VI No. 4. of your Journal, he mentions the yacht
"Egypt".
This yacht was bought from the Government Printer by a European Auc-
tioneer in Jinja and used for a number of years for fishing in Napoleon Gulf.
The yacht later passed to Yusofu Luzige, a Muganda.
The lead keel was stripped and sold in the Indian Bazaar. The "Egypt" bones.
went to rest on the Jinja side of the old Jinja Bugungu Ferry.



I am, Sir,
Yours faithfully,
C.W. CHORLEY.





UGANDA JOURNAL.


Soil Erosion and Agricultural Planning&


Veterinary Research Laboratory,
Entebbe.
2nd June, 1939.


The Editor,
The Uganda Journal,
Kampala.

Sir,
When I speak of understocking in most parts of Uganda, I mean that the
possible carrying capacity of the land is by no means satisfied. I certainly
agree with Mr. Ap Griffith, that there is also space for further afforestation on a
scientific basis.
If it is decided to use a certain area for afforestation, it will plainly be
necessary to protect it from fire. This is, however, no argument against burn-
ing as a system of pasture control in places where there is no intention of,
systematic afforestation.
Control of pasture for stock presents similar problems to those of shifting
cultivation. Where land is adequate they are both unattended by harm, and are
probably the most economical forms of husbandry. As soon the land becomes
inadequate under these methods for the production of food and economic crops
and for feeding the stock, the changes of agricultural or pastoral methods are
drastic and involve considerable expense; the present situation in parts of Teso is
abundant proof of this. There appears unfortunately to be no adequate
compromise between nomadic methods of husbandry and permanent settlement.
In the long run, the added benefits of permanent settlement are undoubted.
But in a land of infrequent water supplies, the cost of developing these alone is
prohibitive, except where the population is heavy. These problems are being faced
by Government in Teso and are proving to be exceptionally costly. It is plainly
out of the question to adopt them generally. What other form of pasture manage-
ment can be advocated?


I am, Sir,
Yours faithfully,
R. N. FIENNES.





UGANDA JOURNAL.


THE UGANDA SOCIETY.

List of Members.

A


ACKROYD, R.

ADAMSON MRS. W.
AHMEDI, DR. A. D.
AHMED, DR. L. D.
AITCHISON, A. D.
AITKEN, H. H.
ALLAN, MISS. D. I.
ALLEN AND SON, MESSRS. E.

ALMEIDA, C. E.
ALMEIDA, F. M.
AMIN, C. P.
ANDREWS, N. S. F.
ARCARI, A. L.


BADCOCK, W. J.
BAGOT, R. A. MISS, M.B.E...
BAILLIE, MIss, I.
BAINES, REV. R.
BAKER, S. J. K.

BARBER, I. B.
BARRELL, F. M.
BARRETT, J. S.
BATEMAN, G. W. B.
BATTSON, DR. and MRS. A. A.
BAZONGERS, OM. S.

BEATON, A. C.
BECKFORD, DR. H. A.
BEDDY, H.

BEECROFT, Miss. A. B.
BELL, G. H.
BELL, H. J.
BELL, J. R.


Sutton Court, Stanton Lacy, Ludlow,
England.
White Horse Inn, Kabale, W.P.
P.O. Box 1, Kamuli, E.P.
P.O. Box 294, Kampala.
National Bank of India Ltd., Kampala.
Tororo Hotel, P.O. Tororo, E.P.
P.O. Box 400, Kampala.
12 and 14, Grape Street, Shaftesbury
Avenue, London W.C.2., England.
P.O. Entebbe.
P.O. 174, Kampala.
P.O. Box 411, Kampala.
Colonial Office, London S.W., England.
P.O. Mbarara, Ankole, W.P.
B
C/o Agricultural Department, Entebbe.
. Mulago, Kampala.
European Hospital, Kampala.
C/o C.M.S. Salisbury Sqr. London E.C.4.
School of Geography-12, Abercromby
Sqr., Liverpool 7, England.
C/o Secretariat, Entebbe.
C/o Secretariat, Entebbe.
P.O. Jinja.
C/o European Hospital, Kampala.
C/o Medical Department, Entebbe.
Owesaza Kimbugwe P.O. Box 91,
Kampala.
Juba, Khartoum, Sudan.
P.O. Box 371, Kampala.
African and European Investment Co.,
Butiaba, W.P.
C/o Medical Department, Entebbe.
Government Printer, Entebbe.
C/o P.W.D., Masindi, W.P.
C/o P.W.D. Jinja E.P,





UGANDA JOURNAL.


Name Address
BERE, R. M. C/o Secretariat, Entebbe.
BESSELL, M. J. C/o Secretariat, Entebbe.
BIDGOOD, MIss. M. E.. European Hospital, Kampala.
BIGGS, MR. and MRS. C. E. J. C/o Agricultural Department, Entebbe.
BIRCH, J. P. C/o Secretariat, Entebbe.
BISSETT, MR. and MRS. C. B. C/o Geological Survey, P.O. Box 9,
Entebbe.
BLACK, DR. J. J. C/o Medical Department, Entebbe.
BLACK, M. A. P.O. Box 714, Nairobi, Kenya Colony.
BLAD, V. E. Uganda Police P.O. Kampala.
BOASE, DR. and MRS. A. J. C/o Medical Department, Entebbe.
BOAZMAN, MR. and MRS. H. P.O. Box 103, Kampala.
BOLTON, MIss, H. M. C.M.S. Fort Portal, W.P.
BOND, A. W. C/o Uganda Co., Ltd., P.O. Box 1,
Kampala.
BOWERS, REV. H. All Saints' Vicarage, Donchaster,
England.
BOYD, A. T. LENNOX, M.P. 17, Great College Street, London, S.W.1.
BRASNETT, MR. and MRS. N. V.Forestry Department, Entebbe.
BREWER, MIss. E. M., M.B.E., C/o C.M.S. 6. Salisbury Sqr. London
E.C.4.
BRIDGES, H. W. M. 11, Green Lane North, Wavetree,
Liverpool, England.
BRITTEN, MIss. B. N. Mengo Girls' School, Kampala.
BROWN, DR. and MRS. A. F. Medical Department, Jinja, E.P.
BROWN, A. S. C/o Forestry Department, Entebbe.
BROWN, DR. J. SCOTT. Mulago, Kampala.
BUCHAN, THE HON. J. N. S. C/o Government House, Ottawa, Canada.
BURNER, D. K. C/o Secretariat, Entebbe.
BUXTON, D. A. J. Wilderness House, Ongar, Essex,
England.

C

CALCROFT, G. C.M.S., P.O. Ngora, E.P.
CALVERT, J. E. H. P.O. Mbale, E.P.
CAMPBELL, D. C. C/o Secretariat, Entebbe.
CAMPBELL, J. National Bank of India Ltd., Kampala.
CAMPLIN, MIss. R. P.O. Fort Portal, Toro, W.P.
CANNON, H. A. P.O. Box 93, Kampala.
CARMICHAEL, DR. J. Veterinary Department, Entebbe.
CARPENTER PROF. G. D. HALE. Penguella, Hid's Copse Rd. Cumnor Hill
Oxford, England.
CARTER, D. Barclay's Bank (D.C. and O.), Kampala.
CAVE, MISS. P. C. B. C.M.S. Gulu, W.P.
CAVERS, D. Technical School, Kampala
CHAMBERS, J. E, P.O. Box 168, Jinja, E.P.







UGANDA JOURNAL.


Name


Address


CHANDLER, P. C/o Agricultural Department, Kampala.
CHILDS-CLARKE, MRS. B. F ,C. C/o Secretariat, Entebbe.
CHITNAVIS, M. D. C/o High Court, Kampala.
CHOLMELEY, DR. W. A. W. Crescent, Highgate, London.
CHORLEY, C. W. C/o Provincial Administration, Kampala.
CHORLEY, T. W. C/o Medical Department, Entebbe.
CHURCH, MIss. M. M. C. S. C/o Medical Department, Entebbe.
CHWA, SIR DAUDI, H.H. THE KABAKA, K.C.M.G., K.B.E.
Mengo, Kampala.
CLARK, C. R. P.O. Box 1221, Nairobi, Kenya Colony.
CLARK, MISs. E. P. Education Department, Kampala.
CLAY, THE HON. and MRS. G.F.C/o Agricultural Department, Entebbe.
CLERK, V. M. C/o Narandas Rajaram and Co.,
Kampala.
COHNHEIM, MIss. V. C/o Overseas' League St. James, London.
COLE, REV. W. D. C.M.S., Mukono.
COLLIN, H. P.W.D., Kampala.
COMBE, A. D. C/o Geological Survey, Entebbe.
COOK, ALBERT, SIR. C.M.G., O.B.E., Makindye, Kampala.
COOK, A. S. K. C/o Uganda Police Headquarters,
P.O. Box 355, Kampala.
Cox, THE HON. A.H., C.M.G., Kampala.
Cox, T. R. F. C/o Secretariat, Entebbe.
CRAWSHAW, P. Overseas House, St. Jame's,
London, S.W.
CRAZZOLARA, REV. FR. J. P. P.O. Box Arua, W.P.
CRITTENDEN, MR. and MRS. F. H.P.O. Box 121, Kampala.
CRONLEY, H. C/o Veterinary Department, Kampala.
CROOK, W. V. C/o District Commissioner's Office,
Mbarara.
CROSSE-CROSSE, MR. and C/o Secretariat, Entebbe.
MRS. W. W. R.
D


DA COSTA, C. C. C.
DAKIN, J. C.
DAKIN, MR. and MRS. R. G.

DALAL, RAMJI LANDHA.
DANIELL, THE REV. E. S., O.B.E.

DA SILVA, R. A.
DASTOUR, MR. and MRS. N. K.

DAVIDSON, H.
DAVIES, D. STEDMAN,
DAVIES, DR. and MRS. K. A.


P.O. Entebbe.
C/o Secretariat, Entebbe.
C/o Uganda Co. Ltd., P.O. Box 1,
Kampala.
P.O. Box 53, Jinja, E.P.
Litton Chenery Rectory, Dorchester,
Dorset, England.
C/o P.O. Box 467, Kampala.
C/o Barclay's Bank (D.C. and O.),
Kampala.
C/o D.C., Kampala.
C/o Agricultural Department, Entebbe.
C/o Geological Survey, Entebbe.






UGANDA JOURNAL.


Name
DAVIS, MISS. M. B.
DE BOER, H. S. DR. and MRS.

DE BOER, MRS. H. S.

DE BOER. J.
DE COURCY-IRELAND, M. G.
DELMEGE, J. DE G.
DESAI, F. B.
DE SOUZA, C. A. B.
DE SOUZA, J. C. B.
DIMMOCK, Y. K.
DORLING, E. A.

DOUGLAS, MIss. R. L.

DOWNES, C. P.
DRAPER, MR. and MRS. D.
DRISCOLL, B.
DUCKWORTH, B. T.
DUNTZE, G. E. D.

EGGELING, W. J.

ELLIOT, MR. and MRS. A. V. P
ELLIOT, F. C.
ELLIOT, MR. and MRS. J. R. M.
ELLIS, A. G.

EVANS, MIss. E. M.
EVANS, PRITCHARD, E. E.
EVERETT, P. R. B.
EWART, F. K.


FARMER, MAJOR, N. T. C.

FELICITY, SISTER, H.
FIENNES, R. N. T. W.

FISHER, R. C. V.
FISHLOCK, C. W. L.
FLOYD, DR. H. G.
FOLKES, A. S.
FORREST, MR. and MRS. A. E.
FORREST, DR. S.
FOSTER, G. W.


Address
C.M.S. Mbarara, Ankole, W.P.
C/o Medical Department, Zomba,
Nyasaland.
C/o Medical Department, Zomba,
Nyasaland.
P.O. Box 162, Kampala.
C/o Agricultural Department, Entebbe.
Walcot, Charlbury, Oxford, England.
P.O. Mbale, Eastern Province.
P.O. Box 210, Kampala.
P.O. Box 60, Kampala.
Mengo Lukiko, P.O. Box 91, Kampala.
C/o Mrs. Chamberlain, Whitecroft Road
Mikbreth, Royston, Herts, England.
Normal School, Buloba, P.O. Box 400,
Kampala.
C/o Veterinary Department, Entebbe.
Drapers Ltd., Kampala.
Uganda Police, Kampala.
C/o P.W.D., Masindi W.P.
C/o Secretariat, Entebbe.
E
St. Leonard's Upper Largo, Fife,
Scotland.
.Bishop Tucker College, Mukono.
P.O. Box 77, Kampala.
C/o Secretariat, Entebbe.
C/o Land and Survey Department,
Kampala.
Mulago Hospital, P.O. Kampala.
Exeter, College, Oxford, England.
P.O. Box 2, Soroti, E.P.
District Court, Soroti, E.P.
F
Penlands, Loxwood, Billingshurst,
Sussex.
Lwala Convent, Kaberamaido W.P.
Veterinary Department (Laboratories)
Entebbe.
Crescent Farm, Sidcup, Kent, England.
C/o Agricultural Department, Entebbe.
C/o Medical Department, Jinja.
C/o Messrs. Folkes and Co., Kampala.
C/o Secretariat, Entebbe.
C/o Medical Department, Entebbe.
P.O. Bugondo, E.P.






UGANDA JOURNAL.


Name
FOSTER, MR. and MRS. H. G.
FOSTER, THE HON. and
MRS. R. S.
FOULDS, J. G.
FRANCIS, MR. and MRS. C. C.
FRANCOMBE, A. N.
FRASER, MR. and MRS. H. R.
FREEMAN, R. W.
FULLERTON, D.

GAMBLE, MR. JUSTICE F. C.
GASTRELL, J.
GAYER, C. M. A.
GAYER, MIss. D. M.

GAYLER, MISs. H. M.
GEE, MR. and MRS. F. L.
GEORGIADIS, N. H.

GIBBINS, E. G.
GILLANDERS, GEORGE.
GILL, R. W.
GILLIO, J. J.

GLEDHILL, A. W.
GODDARD, K. L.
GODINHO NORMAN, M.B.E.
GOLDRING, MR. and MRS. T. J.
GRABHAM, G. W. O., O.B.E.
GRANT, D. G.
GRAY, MR. JUSTICE J. M.
GRIFFITH, DR. and MRs. G.
GRIFFITHS, J. F. (P.W.D.)
GRIMSHAW, REV. FR. E.

GUILBRIDE, THE HON. CAPT.
and MRS. F. L.
GUMBA, OMWAMI Z. B. K.
GUNN, I. D.
GUPTA, MR. and MRS. K. D.


ADDON, E. C.

HADDON, E. C.
HADDON, B.
HAIG, N. S.


Address
P.O. Bugondo, E.P.

Education Department, Zanzibar.
P.O. Musaka.
High Court, Kampala.
P.O. Box 523, Kampala.
C/o Baumann and Co., Kampala.
C/o Forestry Department, Entebbe.
Oxford University Press, Amen House,
Warwick Street, London E.C.4.
High Court, Kampala.
P.O. Mbarara, Ankole, W.P.
C/o Secretariat, Entebbe. *
King's College, Budo P.O. Box 121,
Kampala.
C.M.S. Namirembe, Kampala.
Makerere College, Kampala.
East African Tobacco Co. Ltd.,
Kampala.
C/o Medical Department, Entebbe.
C/o Medical Department, Entebbe.
C/o D.C., Fort Portal, W.P.
C/o H.M. Syndicate, P.O. Box 77,
Kampala.
C/o Crown Agents, London, S.W.1.
Berega, Tanganyika.
Kampala.
P.O. Box 547, Kampala.
P.O. Box 178, Khartoum' Sudan.
S.B.S.A. Ltd., Kampala.
H.M. High Court, Bathurst, Gambia.
C/o Crown Agents, London S.W.1.
C/o Crown Agents, London S.W.1.
St. Francis' Leper Settlement, Iganga,
Buluba, E.P.
H.M. Syndicate, P.O. Box 77,
Kampala.
Kitarunjwa, Bugabula, P.O. Kamuli, E.P.
Barclay's Bank (D.C. and 0.), Kampala.
Government Indian School, Kampala.

I

C/o Medical Laboratory, Mulago,
Kampala.
3 Cranmer Road, Cambridge, England.
C/o Agricultural Department, Entebbe.






UGANDA JOURNAL.


Name Address
HALL, C. R. C/o Uganda Co. Ltd., P.O. Box 1,
Kampala.
HALL, W. 1. C/o Buchanan's Estates, Kampala.
HANCOCK, G. L. R. Makerere College, Kampala.
HARRISON, MR. and MRS. T. W.Mwiri College, P.O. Jinja, E.P.
HARROLD, J. H. C/o National Bank of India Ltd.,
Kampala.
HAWTHORNE, MISS. G. M. C/o Medical Department, Arusha, T.T.
HAYES, T. R. C/o Agricultural Department, Entebbe.
HAYLEY, T. T. S. Silchar, Assam, India.
HEAD, MISS. M. E. P.O. Box 400, Kampala.
HEILBRON, B. N. C/o White Horse Inn, Kabale, W.P.
HENNESSEY, DR. and MRS.
R. S. F. Crown Agents, London S.W.1.
HENNING, J. C. C/o B.A.T. Co. Ltd., P.O. Mbale, E.P.
HENRY, A. W. P.O. Box 27, Kampala.
HETT, RONALD, L. Labour Office, Kampala.
HOLIDAY, DR. M. Kakamega, Kenya Colony.
HONE, THE HON. M.C., K.C., LL.B. and MRS. H. R. HONE.
Crown Law, Chambers, Entebbe.
HOoD-DYE, DR. W. M. C/o Medical Department, Entebbe.
HOPKINS, G. H. E. C/o Medical Department, Entebbe.
HOWE, C. R. P.O. Box 1241, Nairobi, Kenya Colony.
HUGHES, REV. FR. ARTHUR. Rubaga, P.O. Box 301, Kampala.
HUGHES. MISS. J. P.O. Box 121, Kampala.
HULL, R. L. C.M.S.. Maseno School, P.O. Luanda
Via Kisumu.
HUNTER, DR. H. H. C.B.E., LL.D.
and MRS. HUNTER. P.O. Box 26, Kampala.
HUNTER, W. A. C/o Messrs. Hunter and Greig,
Kampala.
HUTTON, DR. P. W. Medical Department, Mulago, Kampala.
I
IBRECK, A.E. Education Department, Kampala.
ISAAC, W.R. C/o Uganda Co., P.O. 1, Kampala.
IRVING, J.W.M. Agricultural Department, Entebbe
ISHMAEL, G.C. Kampala.
J


JACKSON, MIss D.
JACKSON, H.K.
JAGO, MISS. D.
JACKSON, L.G.
JAMES, E.T.
JARVIS, L.J.


C.M.S., Gayaza, P.O. Box 119, Kampala.
Kitale, Kenya Colony.
P.O. Box 442, Kampala.
2 Delamark Road, Sheerness, Kent, Eng.
C/o Secretariat, Entebbe.
P.O. Jinja, E.P.






UGANDA JOURNAL.


Name Address
JENKINS, A.G. VAUGHAN. C/o Secretariat, Entebbe.
JENKINS, A.O. C/o Secretariat, Entebbe.
JOHNSTON, MR. AND MRS. F.W.Judicial Department, Kampala.
JONES. MR. AND MRS. A.D. Kampala.
JONES. E.R. Veterinary Department, Entebbe.
JONES, REV. J.C. C.M.S. Mukono.
JORDAN, REV. FR. A. St. Peter's School, Nsambya, Kampala.
JOSHI, C.K. P.O. Box 120, Kampala.
JOWITT, THE HON. AND MRS.
H. JOWITT. Education Department, Kampala.
JOWITT, R.J. LIEUT-COMMANDER,
R.N.(RETD.) C/o Secretariat, Entebbe.


KALANZI, E.J.
KASIRYE, J.
KASULE, REV. FR. J.
KAUNTZE, THE HON. DR. C.M.G.,
M.B.E., and MRS. KAUNTZE.
LE GEYT, CAPT. P. S.
KENNEDY, F.R.
KENNEDY, J.T.
KERKHAM, R.K.
KING, H.M.
KING, N.W.

KINNISON, K.M.
KIRONDE, OMWAMI E.S.W.
KIRWAN, B. E. R.
KISOSONKOLE, C.M.S.
KIWANUKA, OMWAMI R.S.L.

KULUBYA, OMWAMI S.W.




LABERGE, REV. FR. A.
LATTIN, F.J.
LAW, SIR CHARLES.
LAWS. S. G.
LEA-WILSON, L. C.
LEA-WILSON, Miss M. S.
LEE, W. NEVILLE.
LEFEBVRE, REV. FR. R.


Agricultural Department, Serere, E.P.
P.O. Box 91, Kampala.
C.M. Budaka, P.O. Mbale, E.P.

Medical Department, Entebbe.
Morden, Moretonhamstead, Devon, Eng.
C/o Secretariat, Entebbe.
Veterinary Department, Kampala.
Agricultural Department, Entebbe.
Commissioner of Police, Kampala.
Public Works Department, Entebbe.
C/o Barclay's Bank (D.C. and 0),
London.
Nyanga, P.O. Jinja, E.P.
C/o Kilclooney Estate, Fort Portal, Toro.
P.O. Box 106, Kampala.
Omulamuzi, Buganda, P.O. Box 91.
Kampala.
Omuwanika, Buganda, P.O. Box 91,
Kampala.

L

P.O. Box 7, Entebbe.
C/o Secretariat, Entebbe.
P.O. Zanzibar.
Veterinary Department, Entebbe.
Berchlea, Beech, Nr. Alton, Hants: Eng.
PO Box 400, Kampala.
Makerere College, Kampala.
Rubaga, P.O. Box 301, Kampala.





UGANDA JOURNAL.


Name Address
LE GEYT, CAPT. P. S. Police Department, Kampala.
LEGG, MRS. A. W. C/o Public Works Department, Entebbe.
LEIGMAGGER, REV. FR. J. St. Joseph's Mission House,
Bressanone, Bolzano, Italy.
LESTER, DR. A .R. P.O. Box 139, Kampala.
LEWEY, MR. and MRS. A. W. Jamaica, British W. Indies.
LEWIS, MR. and MRS. B. P.O. Box 231, Kampala.
LEWIS, MR. and MRS. C. 203 Clanmor Rd. Sketty, Swansea,
S. Wales.
LINDSELL, R. F. J. C/o Secretariat, Entebbe.
LINSTEAD, J. P.O. Box 523, Kampala.
LOBO, M. F. P.O. Entebbe.
LOEWENTHAL, DR. L. J. A. C/o Medical Department, Entebbe.
Louw, DR. GRAHAM C/o Medical Department, Entebbe.
Low, G. C. High Court, Kampala.
LOWTH, MAJOR N.C.L., M.C. C/o Secretariat, Entebbe.
LUBOGO, OMWAMI, Y. K. P.O. Kaliro, E.P.
LUBWAMA, A. S. Education Department, Kampala.
LUNN, G. P. Education Department, Kampala.
LUSH, A. J. Education Department, Kampala.
LWANGA, OMWAMI, MARIKO Owesaza Kaima, P.O. Box 91, Kampala.
LYON, MIss. S. G. C.M.S. Hospital, Fort Portal, Toro, W.P.

M

MACARTNEY, REV. W. H C.M.S., Mbale, E.P.
MACDONA, MR. and MRS. B. F. Barclay's Bank (D.C. and 0), Nairobi.
MACGREGOR, THE HON. D., C.B.E. National Bank of India Ltd., Kampala.
MACKAY, DR. A. G. Medical Department, Entebbe.
MACKEN, CHEV: F. J.,C.S.G., B.L.P.O. Box 125, Kampala.
MACKENZIE, S. C. A and E Investment Co. Ltd.,
Butiaba, W.P.
MACKINTOSH, W. L.S. C/o Veterinary Department, Kampala.
MACLEVIN, H. P.O. Box 25, Kampala.
MALLETT, MR. and MRS. A. E. Kampala.
MALYN, R. A. C/o Secretariat, Entebbe.
MANASVI, A. D. M. C/o P.O. Box 16, Kampala.
MARC, R. C. Public Works Department, Entebbe.
MARGACH, THE HON. L. G., O.B.E.P.O. Masindi, W.P.
MARR, J. D. Messrs. Balfour Beatty and Co.,
Kampala.


MARRIOTT, MR. and
MRS. J. W. F.
MARSHALL, C.
MARTIN, E. F.
MARTIN, DR. W. S.


Makerere College, Kampala.
C/o Secretariat, Entebbe.
Agricultural, Department. Entebbe.
Agricultural, Department, Entebbe.







UGANDA JOURNAL.


Name
MARTYRIS. S. X.
MASCARENHAS, P. P.
MASEFIELD, G. B.
MATHESON, A. R., M.C.
MATHEW, CHARLES
MATHIAS, L. A.
MATHERS, THE VENER
ARCHDEACON, H.
MAURICE, D. G.
MCELROY, DR. and M
MCEWEN, T.
MCKEOWN, Miss. L.
MCLATEN, D.
MEEK, P. C.

MEHTA, N. K., M.B.E.,
MELVILLE, A. R.
MERRICK, J. E. S. THE
C.M.G., O.B.E. and MRS.
MERSY, C. J.
MICHAUD, THE RT.
REV. MGR. E., M.B.E.
MILLER, D. W.
MILNER, J. D., M.B.E.
MINDEROP, REV. FR. J
MINNS, P. C.
MITCHELL, G. K.
MITCHELL, DR. J. J.
MITCHELL, DR. and M
MITCHELL, P. E. HIS
EXCELLENCY, SIR, K.C.
LADY MITCHELL.
MOODY, MR. and MR
MOORE, N.

MORGAN, W. D.
MORRIS, E. G. THE H
O.B.E.
MOSES, MICHAEL, M.
MOWAT, DR. A. H.
MUKASA, BALAMU. 3.
MULYANTI, OMWAMI I
MURRAY, DR. D.
MURRAY, DR. G. J.
MURRAY, R. B. H.
MUSOKE, M. K.


, J.P.


ABLE


Address
P.O. Entebbe.
P.O. Box 201, Kampala.
Agricultural, Department, Entebbe.
P.O. Sotik, Kenya Colony.
P.O. Box 71, Kampala.
C/o Secretariat, Entebbe.


C.M.S. Mbale, P.O. Mbale, E.P.
C/o Secretariat, Entebbe.
iR. R. S. C/o Medical Department, Tanganyika.
P.O. Box 2, Masindi, W.P.
C/o Medical Department, Entebbe.
Land Office, Entebbe.
C/o Viljeon and Meek, P.O. Box 21,
Heidelberg, Transvaal, South Africa.
P.O. Box 1, Lugazi.
P.O. Box 338, Nairobi, Kenya Colony.
HON'BLE,
MERRICK. Secretariat, Entebbe.
C/o P.W.D., Kampala.
Vicar Apostolic of Uganda,
Rubaga, P.O. Box 301, Kampala.
H.M. Customs, Kampala.
76 Caden Place, Aberdeen, Scotland.
., M.B.E. Nsambya, P.O. Box 321, Kampala.
C /o Secretariat, Entebbe.
C/o Secretariat, Entebbe.
Medical Department, Entebbe.
IRS. J. P. Medical Department, Mulago.

M.G. and P.O. Entebbe.

s. C. P.O. Kampala.
Cumberland Terrace, Regent's Park.
London N.W.I.
C/o Messrs. Hunter and Greig, Kampala.
[ON'BLE,
Education Department, Lagos, Nigeria.
B.E. Kampala.
Mulago Hospital, Kampala.
Makerere College, Kampala.
. K. Mengo Lukiko, P.O. Box 91, Kampala.
Medical Department, Entebbe.
Medical Department, Entebbe.
Veterinary Department, Kampala.
P.O. Box 91, Kampala.






UGANDA JOURNAL.


Name
NADIOPE, OMWAMI W. W. K.
NASON, MR. and MRS. C. S.
NAZARALI MULJI.
NAZARETH, P. C. S. C.
NAYLOR, CAPT. H. M.
NICHOLAS, J. R.
NUROCK, MAX. O.B.E.
NUTI, G.
NYE, G. W.




OOMMEN, E. S.
ORTNER, REV. FR. J.B.

O'DONOVAN, B.
O'SULLIVAN, DR. M.


Address
P.O. Kamuli, E.P.
Makerere College, Kampala.
Government Indian School, Kampala.
P.O. Entebbe.
C/o Toro Tea Co., Fort Portal, W.P.
Imperial Hotel, Kampala.
C/o Secretariat, Entebbe.
P.O. Mbarara. W.P.
Agricultural Department, Kawanda,
P.O. Kampala.

0

Government Indian School, Kampala.
Catholic Mission, Kakamega,
Kenya Colony.
P.O. Box 290, Kampala.
Catholic Mission Hospital, Nsambya,
P.O. Box 464, Kampala.


OUSELEY, MR. and MRS. W. B. Education Department, Jinja. E.P.

P
PAIN. A. C. King's College, Budo. P.O. Box 121,
Kampala.


PALIN, REV. R. C.
PANCHMATIA, J. L.

PARRY, R. E.
PARSONS, CAPT., A.W.
PARSONS, MR. and MRS. H. E.
PATEL, A. D.
PATEL and PAREKHJI, MESSRS.
ADVOCATES.
PATEL and SHAH, MESSRS.
PATEL, D. V.
PATEL, I. V.
PATEL, S.B.
PAUL, DR. J. H
PAVEY, MISs. M. R.
PEACOCK, DR. W. L.
PERKINS, E. A. TEMPLE,


C.M.S., Kabalore, Fort Portal. Toro.
C/o Hoima Cotton Co. Ltd.. P.O. 47,
Jinja.
Education Department, Kampala..
Uganda Police, Mbarara. W.P.
C/o Warren Wright Esq., L.L.B., K'la.
C/o Treasury Office, Kampala.

P.O. Box 216, Kampala.
P.O. Jinja, E.P.
P.O. Jinja, E.P.
P.O. Box 118, Kampala.
P.O. Box 162, Kampala.
P.O. Entebbe.
C.M.S., Lira, P.O. Lira.
Elgon Lodge, Stoke Poges, Bucks, Eng.
C/o Secretariat, Entebbe.






UGANDA JOURNAL.


Address
PERROTT, MRS. T. H. H.
PERSEE, CAPT. E. M., M.C.
PESKETT, G. W.
PHILPOT, G. T.
PICKWELL, G. HARRISON.
PINTO, A. F. A. N.
PINTO, E. A.
PINTO, L.
PITMAN, CAPT. C. R. S., D.S.O.,
M.C., and MRS. PITMAN.
POOLE, W. G.
POSTLETHWAITE, G. H.
POTTS, R. J. R.
POULTON, W. F., C.B.E.
PRENTICE, REV. FR. A. H.
PRESTON, CAPT. T., O.B.E.
PRESTON, W. B.

PRIESTLEY, MR. and MRS. T. P.
PROBSTHAIN, A.
PURCHASE, G. W.


PURSEGLOVE, J. W.


RABENSTEINER, REV. FR. A.

RAINSFORD, DR. and MRS. C.
RANKINE, J. D.
RAVAL, R. V.
REESINCK, RT. REV. MGR. J.
VICAR APOSTOLIC OF THE
UPPER NILE.


RIFKEN, S.
ROBERTS, A. L. L.
ROBERTSON, MISS. A. B.
ROBERTSON, D.W., D.S.O., M.C.
ROBERTSON, MR. and MRS. H.P.
ROBINSON, MR. and MRS. J. F.
ROE, J. E. R.
ROGERS, F. H
Ross, ALAN.
RUSSELL, MR. and MRS. J. N.
RYLAND, P. W. E,


Name
C/o District Magistrate, Jinja, E.P.
C/o Secretariat, Entebbe.
Uganda Police, Kampala.
Tobacco Officer, Hoima, W.P.
C/o P.O. Box 442, Kampala.
C/o Pinto Junior, Kampala.
Kampala Oriental Co., Kampala.
C/o Merchant Bank, Kampala.

Game Department, P.O. Entebbe.
P.O. Mukono.
C/o Medical Department, Entebbe.
Makerere College, Kampala.
C/o Crown Agents, London.
Katigondo, P.O. Masaka.
Secretariat, Entebbe.
Liverpool Uganda Co., Ltd.,
P.O. Jinja, E.P.
Kampala.
41 Great Russell Street, London.
C/o National Bank of India Ltd.,
Mombasa.
Agricultural, Department, Entebbe.


Catholic Mission, Nyabondo, P.O. Box
50, Kisumu, Kenya Colony.
R. C. Haslar, Galwall Park, Belfast, U.K.
Secretariat, Entebbe.
P.O. Box 162, Kampala.


P.O. 321, Kampala.


P.O. Box 49, Entebbe.
Texas Oil Co., P.O. Box 295, Kampala.
Education Department, Kampala.
C/o Secretariat, Entebbe.
P.O. Box 172, Kampala.
King's College, Budo, P.O. Box 121, K'la.
Veterinary Department, Entebbe.
C/o Secretariat, Entebbe.
Uganda Co., Tea Estates, P.O. Mityana.
Education Department, Kampala.
Uganda Police,





UGANDA JOURNAL.


Name
SAINT CLAIR-THOMPSON, G. W.
SANGSTER, R. G.
SAYER, MISs. M.
SCHETT, REV. FR. S.
SCHOFIELD, DR. A. T.
SHACKELL, R. S.
SHELDRAKE, F. J.
SHEPHERD, J. K.
SHILLITO, J. F.
SHINE, R. E
SIDDALL, E.
SITWELL, O. R. LIEUT.
COMMANDER, R.N. (RETD.)
SKINNER, D.

SLAUGHTER, B.I.
SMITH, REV. C. H.
SMITH, E.G.
SMITH, F.
SMITH, G. H.
SMOUT, E..S.

SNELL, DR. D. G.

SNOXALL, R. A.
SOUND, W. W.
SPIRE, F., C.M.G.

SPURR, G. P.
STAFFORD, D. N., O.B.E.
STAPLES, E. G.
STEAD, M.
STEIL, J. W.
STEINITZ, MIss. I.
STEPHENS, A. L.
STEWART, D. F.
STONE, R.E.
STONES, DR. R. Y., O.B.E., M.C.,
and MRS. STONES.
STRAETER, REV. FR. F. J.
STUART, C. E. RT. REV. BISHOP
and MRS. STUART.
STUART, M. S. M.


STUCKEY, R. W.


Address
Forestry Department, Lira
Busingiro Forest Station, P.O. Masindi.
C/o Mrs. Longden, P.O. Box 414, K'la.
Catholic Mission, Ngora, E.P.
Farnley Hall, Leeds, England.
C/o Uganda Co. Ltd., Kampala.
C/o National Bank of India Ltd., Nairobi.
Agricultural, Department, Entebbe.
5 Rous Road, Buckurst Hill, Essex.
P.O. Butiaba, W.P.
King's College, Budo, P.O. Box 121, K'la.

C/o Secretariat, Entebbe.
Uganda Police C/o Crown Agents,
London, S.W.1.
C/o Secretariat, Entebbe.
P.O. Box 56, Kampala.
C/o Uganda Police, Kampala.
Medical Department, Entebbe.
P.O. Mbale, E.P.
Medical Dept. C/o Crown Agents,
London S.W.I.
Medical Dept. C/o Crown Agents,
London S.W.I.
Education Department, Kampala.
Makerere College, Kampala.
The Glades, Cleeve Hill, Cheltenham,
England.
C/o Land Office, Entebbe.
P.O. Hoima, W.P.
Agricultural Department, P.O. Kampala.
Fort Portal, Toro, W.P.
D.C., Mengo, P.O. Kampala.
Buloba College, P.O. Box 400, Kampala.
Agricultural, Department, Entebbe.
Agricultural, Department, Entebbe.
Uganda Administration, P.O. Lira, W.P.

Namirembe Hospital, P.O. Kampala.
Namilyango College, P.O. 381, Kampala.
Namirembe, P.O. Kampala.

18, Laurence Poultenay Lane,
London, E.C.
Agricultural Department, Mbarara, W.P,





UGANDA JOURNAL.


Name
SULLEY, J. P.
SWANE, D. O.
SWANN, H. B.
SWITZER, C. W.

SYKES, MR. and MRS. J.


TAIT, MR. and MRS. W. KER.
TAYLOR, J. H.
TEMPLER, J. T. LIEUT.-
COMMANDER R.N. (RETD.)
THOMAS, A. S.

THOMAS, MR. and MRS.
F. MOWBRAY.
THOMAS, H. B., O.B.E.
TILBROOK, S. M. H.
TITMUSS, J.
TOLLER, P. B. M.
TOMBLINGS, D. G., C.M.G.
TONGUE, E. DAUNCEY, O.B.E.
TOTHILL, J. D. THE HON'BLE.
DR., C.M.G.

TROWELL, DR. and MRS. H. C.
TUCKER, A. R.
TURNER, G. C., M.C.
TURNER, G. F.
TWINING, E. F. CAPT., M.B.E.
and MRS. TWINING.


VANE, G. V.
VERHULST, RANE, MONSIEUR

VINCENT, N.


WACHSMANN, DR. K. P.
WALLACE, DR. J. M.
WALLER, MRS. P. G.
WALSH, E. L.
WARNER, B. ASTON, C.M.G.
WATSON, MR. and MRS. J. D. B.


Address
P.O. Jinja, E.P.
P.O. Entebbe.
P.O. Kitale, Kenya Colony.
C/o Provincial Administration,
Jinja E.P.
Education, Department, P.O. Kampala.
T
Kampala.
P.O. Box 210, Kampala.

Forestry Dept., Nairobi, Kenya Colony.
Agricultural Dept., Kawanda,
P.O. Kampala.

Land and Survey Department, Entebbe.
Land and Survey Department, Entebbe.
C/o Moody and Tilbrook Ltd., Kampala.
Technical School, Kampala.
C/o National Bank of India, Kampala.
Makerere College, Kanipala.
Provincial Administration, Jinja, E.P.

Agricultural Department, Khartoum,
Sudan.
C/o Crown Agents, London S.W.I.
C/o Secretariat, Entebbe.
Makerere College, Kampala.
C/o Government House, Entebbe.

The Deputy Director Labour Dept.,
Mauritius.
V


C /o Secretariat, Entebbe.
Administrateur Territorial, Kibungu,
P.O. Kabale, W.P.
P.O. Box 353, Kampala.
W
P.O. Box 56, Kampala.
The Williows, Hildersham, Cambs, Eng.
13, Park Place, Sunderland, England.
Land and Survey Department, Entebbe.
C/o Secretariat, Entebbe.
C/o Uganda Police, Kampala,






UGANDA JOURNAL.


Name
WATSON, J. K.
WATSON, J. M.
WATNEY, H. B.
WAY, H. J. R.
WAYLAND, E. J., C.B.E.,
and MRS. WAYLAND.
WAYLAND, J. S.
WEBSTER, G.
WHEATLEY, VERY REV:
WHITEHOUSE, G. C.
WHITTLE, R. A., M.C.
WILLIAMS, REV. A. M.
WILLIAMS, DR. A. W.
WILLIAMS, MRS. A. W.
WILLIAMS, C. A.
WILLIAMS, D. L. GWYNN
WILLIAMS, E.
WILLIAMS, F. LUKYN.
WILLIAMS, M. C.
WILLIAMS, DR. M. AILE
WILLMOT, CAPT. A. C.,
and MRS. WILLMOT.
WILSON, MARK, His HO
MR. JUSTICE.
WILSON, CAPT. G. E. H.
WILSON, DR. W. A.
WINDSOR-AUBREY, H. M
WINYI II, R. A. TITO, C
MUKAMA OF BUNYORO


Address
Public Works Department, Mbale, E.P.
Agricultural, Department, Entebbe.
C/o Secretariat, Entebbe.
Geological Survey, Entebbe.

P.O. Box 9, Entebbe.


C/o E. J. Wayland Esq., C.B.E., Entebbe.
C/o Forestry Department, Kampala.
FR: W. Nsambya, P.O. Box 321, Kampala.
C/o Secretariat, Entebbe.
Secretariat, Entebbe.
Namirembe, P.O. Box 56, Kampala.
Mulago Hospital, P.O. Kampala.
C/o Mulago, P.O. Kampala.
C /o Secretariat, Entebbe.
FE. Registrar's Office, P.O. Entebbe.
Agricultural, Department, Entebbe.
C/o Secretariat, Entebbe.
Land and Survey Department, Entebbe.
EN. Kamuli Mission Hospital, Busoga, E.P.
O.B.E.,
Public Works Department, Entebbe.
NOUR
H.M. High Court, Dar-es-Salaam, T.T.
Geological Survey, Entebbe.
C/o Medical Department, Entebbe.
Crown Law Office, Entebbe.
P.B.E.,
P.O. Hoima, W.P.


WISHART, C.W. Public Works Department, Entebbe.
WOOD, MR. and MRS. H. H. Makerere College, Kampala.
WORKMAN, H. F. C/o Uganda Police, Kampala.
WRAY, M. 0. C/o Secretariat, Entebbe.
WRIGHT, A. C. A. C/o Secretariat, Entebbe.
WRIGHT, MISS. H. F. P.O. Hoima, W.P.
WRIGHT, MR. and MRS. S. H. H. King's College, Budo, P.O. Box 121,
Kampala.

Z


ZUURE, REV. FR. A.


C.M. Namilyango, P.O. Box 381,
Kampala,






UGANDA JOURNAL.


Institutional Members.


Anthropological Institute, The Royal, 21 Bedford Square, London W.C.1.
Bunyoro Native Administration, P.O. Hoima, W.P.
Cambridge University Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Camb-
ridge, England.
Church Missionary Society, 6 Salisbury Square, London, E.C.
Colonial Services Club, 5 Broad Street, Oxford, England.
East African Dependencies, Trade and Information Office, Grand
Buildings, Trafalgar Square, London, W.C.2.
Geographical Society, The Royal, Kensington Gore, London, S.W.7.
East Africa Publicity Association, Nairobi, Kenya'Colony.
Empire Society, The Royal, Northumberland Avenue, London W.C.2.
Goan Institute Library, P.O. Kampala.
Gordon Memorial College Library, Khartoum, Sudan.
Gold Coast Education Department, P.O. Box 53, Accra, Gold Coast.
London University Institution of Education, Southampton Row, London
W.C.
Mc.Millan Memorial Library, P.O. Box 791, Nairobi.
Namilyango College, P.O. Box 381, Kampala.
Ngora Normal School, P.O. Ngora, E.P.
Nigerian Agricultural Department, Ibadan, Nigeria.
Norman Godinho Junior School, P.O. Kampala.
North Western University Library, Evanston, Illinois, U.S.A.
Oriental Studies, The School of, Finsbury Circus London, E.C.2.
Oxford University School of Geography, Mansfield Road, Oxford, Eng.
Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University,
Mass, U.S.A.
Rhodes House Library, c/o Messrs. B. H. Blackwell, 50 Broad Street,
Oxford, England.
Sacred Heart School, Budini, P.O. Kaliro, E.P.
South African Native College, Fort Hare, Alice, South Africa.
Stationery Office, H.M., Cornwall House, Stamford Street, London S.E.1.
Swedish Academy of Sciences, The Royal, Stockholm, 50 Sweden.
Veterinary Services, Department of, P.O. Kabete, Kenya Colony.
Victoria (Queen) Memorial Library, P.O. Box 1087, Salisbury, Rhodesia.







UGANDA JOURNAL.


Government Subscribers to Bound Volumes.


Agricultural Department Library, Entebbe.
Agricultural Education, Superintendent of, Kawanda,
Ankole, District Commissioner, Mbarara.
Attorney General, Entebbe, (Crown Law Office).
Audit Department Library, Entebbe.
Budama District Commissioner, Tororo, E.P.
Buganda, The Resident's Library, Kampala.
Bunyoro, District Commissioner, Hoima. W.P.
Busoga, District Commissioner, Jinja, E.P.
Central District Commissioner, Mbale, E.P.
Chief Secretary's Library, Entebbe.
C.I.D. Library, Kampala.
Education Department Library, Kampala.
Forests, Conservator of, Entebbe.
Game Warden, Entebbe.
Geological Survey Library, Entebbe.
Government House Library, Entebbe.
Kampala Technical School, Kampala.
Kampala Township Authority, Kampala.
Karamoja, District Commissioner, Moroto.
Kenya Uganda Railways, General Manager, Nairobi.
Kigezi, District Commissioner, Kabale, W.P.
King's African Rifles, Bombo.
Land and Survey Office Library, Entebbe.
Lango, District Commissioner, Lira,
Makerere College Library, Kampala.
Makerere College Tutors' Library, Kampala.
Masaka, District Commissioner, Masaka.
Medical Department Library, Entebbe.
Mengo, District Commissioner of, P.O. Kampala.
Mubende, District Commissioner of, P.O. Mubende.
Mulago Hospital Library, P.O. Kampala.
Post Master General, Nairobi.
Post and Telegraphs, Regional Director, Kampala.
Provincial Commissioner, E.P., Jinja.
Provincial Commissioner, W.P., Masindi.
Public Works Department, Entebbe.
Registrar, H.M. High Court, Kampala.
Teso, District Commissioner, Soroti.
Toro, District Commissioner, Fort Portal.
Treasury Office, Entebbe.
Veterinary Department, Kampala.
Veterinary Pathologist, Entebbe.


P.O. Kampala.








UGANDA JOURNAL.


Reciprocating Contemporaries and Free List.


The Editor "Africa", 17 Waterloo Place, London, S.W.1.
The Librarian, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at
79th Street, New York.
The Editor "Bantu Studies", University of Witwaterstrand, Johannesburg,
South Africa.
The Librarian, The Bodleian Library Oxford, England.
The Curator, British Museum, Antiquities Section, Bloomsbury, London W.C.
The Curator, British Museum, Natural History Section, Cromwell Road,
London, S.W.7.
Monsieur le Secretaire, 'Bulleton de L'Afrique Occidental Francaise, P.O. Box
206, Dakar, French West Africa.
The Librarian, Cambridge University Library, Cambridge, England.
The Secretary, East African and Uganda Natural History Society, C/o
Coryndon Memorial Museum, Nairobi, Kenya.
The Secretary, Imperial Institute, London, S.W.7.
The Librarian, Kungle, Uppsala, Sweden.
The Librarian, Musee du Congo Beige, Tervueren, Belgium.
The Librarian, The National Museum of South Rhodesia, P.O. Box 240,
Bulawayo, Rhodesia.
The Editor, "Nigerian Field", c/o Moor Plantation, Ibadan, South'Nigeria.
The Secretary, Rhodesian Scientific Association, P.O. Box 978, Salisbury,
South Rhodesia.
The Editor, Royal African Society Journal, Imperial Institute, London, S.W.7.
The Librarian, Smithsonian Institute, Washington, U.S.A.
Monsieur le Secretaire, Socidtd des Africanist6s, 61, Rue de Buffon, Paris,
(Se) France.
The Librarian, The Stoneham Museum, Kitale, Kenya Crown Colony.
The Editor "Sudan Notes and Records", Khartoum, A.E. Sudan.
The Editor, "Tanganyika Notes and Records", The Secretariat, Dar-es-Salaam,
Tanganyika Territory.











P.O. Box 25.


HUGH MacLEVIN
KAMPALA.


Telephone 109


Passage


Sub.Agent for the


B. I.
STEAM NAVIGATION COMPANY LTO.


Uganda


Sub-Agent for the


K.P.M.
LINE OF STEAMERS

INSURANCES-
FIRE AND MOTOR CAR
Agent for
ATLAS ASSURANCE CO. LTD.
THE GUILDHALL INSURANCE CO. LTD.
PASSENGER BAGGAGE INSURANCE.

HUGH MacLEVIN, Kampala.










VITHALDAS HARIDAS & Co., Limited.
General Managers for
Uganda (Kakira) Sugar Works Limited.
(INCORPORATED IN UGANDA)
Associated Firms:-
KENYA SUGAR LIMITED.
(INCORPORATED IN KENYA)
Nile Industrial & Tobacco Co., Ltd.
(INCORPORATED IN UGANDA)
Tobacco Manufactures.

Sugar, Cigarettes, and Tobacco, Manufacturers, Ginners
and Cotton Merchants, Importers and Exporters.
Kakira Sugar Works :-
Holding about 13,000 acres of land with approx. 9,000 acres under
cultivation.
At Mile 9 Jinja-Iganga Road. Employing about 4,000 Africans,
300 Indians, Europeans, Mauritians. About 30 miles of Light Railway
Water supply to the Factory by means of pumping plant on Lal e
Victoria.
Telephone: Kakira Factory 125.
P.O. Box 54, JINJA (UGANDA).
Kenya Sugar Limited-Works and Plantations:-
At Ramisi Estate (Digo District) near Mombasa.
P.O. Box 158, MOMBASA.
Gazi Sisal Estates.

TOBACCO FACTORY at Kakira-(Jinja).
COTTON GINNERIES-(Uganda).
i. Bukoboli 5. Mbulamuti 9. kabiramaido 13. Chagweri
2. Busowa 6. Kakira 10. Pilitoki 14. Batta
3. Bubinga 7. Kabiaza 11. Amaich 15. Jaber
4. Kamuli 8. Butiru 12. Aboki 16. Kalaki
Kenya.
Malikisi.
Tanganyika.
Ruvu and Kiberege.
Other Plantations totalling about 4000
acres Freehold land-
i. Bukoboli 2. Busowa 3. Bukona 4. Bubinga









Uganda Sugar Factory Ltd.



Managing Director:-
NANJI KALIDAS MEHTA, Esq. M.B.E.




PIONEER SUGAR MANUFACTURERS
& SPIRIT DISTILLERY OWNERS
IN UGANDA.


Telegrams,
SUCCESS.


P.O. Box i.
Lugazi, Uganda.


Telephone,
JINJA 43.








MOTORS


LIMITED


Head Office: KAMPALA
BRANCHES


BUKOBA
SOLE


MASAKA


JINJA


DISTRIBUTORS FOR


DIAMOND T. TRUCKS
HUDSON CARS
AMERICAN BANTAM CARS
INDIA TYRES

Modern

Service

Station.

































7D %. .-























































:- :, .' : -'
*I.;:. ".
.." ... .. ,.. ."
,',.: ..

.. ;' "* .





* *.' .' :. L : .



":- *!*.:, ; '. .s ^ o . .






-, .: i '.. : '. "
.1 < *








". ::" :." .": ." "'." "/ "' *





S 'i .. : o.




* ; ... .




: ': "
: i ii -,

















-:. . .. .





* :.!:.,: ":. :.. *i .. '. : :. **


I 1


*F '


,.. ..:.




Z IT'
T-,
IT,
j

T#
vT- IT
"'q
T,
t
T

A -SO


b*,I pur,7-,
N-u mb: rs ofthe Q da jou' m.- I`
Saok,, e a

-4roih,the,' 146, Libv

PrllCeS,:-


i n,
9&
:TT
t7t,
T,
N ut -P "n


It


I . .
S h,, jV
A
1 -T, N,, 4T


0-ts"'t,
BOUN ,'TVO L U


f vit
T,
TI

IT
TT,

Shillin T, I


rs, Tar e.,6ntif-le dtto,,a iyed tion
-,-lll A-Tohl,
bo 'Q, vices
a V
"'T
TY
T
T,- IV W T

taliv pam 'T
T T T,
T
ITI
T':
IT
:t
1 T 11,
t
TI, A
1
TT, T;
Te N