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|Table of Contents|
Front Cover 1
Front Cover 2
Front Matter 1
Front Matter 2
Front Matter 3
Front Matter 4
The Uganda Society
Word importation into Bantu language
Gordon's farthest south in Uganda in 1876
World mineral production and Uganda's contribution
The Uganda native war memorial recreation ground, Kampala
Index to Volume V
Back Cover 1
Back Cover 2
VOL. 11STIO. JW
0(d t W*' .......
Kookwm KEY OLN
Al N |TATEIN IPTFLSL UNGSAL
// !C ''
I j f", V ; O
IRNDA PALE ALE
"THE PUBLIC FAVOURITES"
East African Breweries,
Established 19 22.
MOUNT KENYA (17,200 FEET).
A description of the mountain by an appreciative visitor:
"MOUNT KENYA is one of the world's wonders. It straddles the equator but
its clean-cut peaks are snow-clad all the year round. Seventeen thousand feet
high, it towers above the Colony, one of the most striking physical features in a
country of astonishing contrasts. From the tropical sands of the Indian Ocean,
the land rises through every variety of climate to the highlands plateau and up
through cedar forests, rain forests, ferns, bamboos, giant groundsel, giant heath,
lobelias and hypericums to the everlasting snowfields and glaciers. There is no
more entrancing view of Mount Kenya than that which can be obtained at sun-rise
on a clear morning from the train as it is nearing Nyeri station when the mountain
hangs in the air, rosy pink in the warming rays of a new day. Around the foot-
hills of Mount Kenya lie some of the finest districts in the Colony, a source of joy
and delight to the holiday-maker."
COMFORTABLE AND CAREFREE TRAVEL
KENYA and UGANDA RAILWAYS
DETAILED INFORMATION REGARDING FARES AND SERVICES
FROM ANY STATION OR PORT
WILL YOUR CHILD'S EDUCATION
COST YOU ?
Have you ever considered the difficulty you may
be confronted with within 10 to 15 years' time ?
Let the "OLD MUTUAL" show you how, at
very little outlay now, you may secure, whether
you are alive or not, the education you intend
your child to have.
THE SOUTH AFRICAN MUTUAL
LIFE ASSURANCE SOCIETY
(Incorporated by Act of Parliament in the Union of South Africa).
BRANCH OFFICE FOR EAST AFRICA:
Sirona House, P. O. Box 359.
Sadler Street, NAIROBI.
Resident Manager for East Africa.
VITHALDAS HARIDAS & Co., Limited
General Managers for UGANDA (KAKIRA) SUGAR WORKS, Ltd. (Incorporated in Uganda).
Associated Firms(1) KENYA SUGAR LIMITED (Incorporated in Kenya),
(2) Nile Industrial and Tobacco Co., Ltd. (Incorporated in Uganda).
SUGAR Manufacturers, GINNERS and COTTON Merchants,
And Tobacco and Cigarette Manufacturers.
IMPORTERS and EXPORTERS
KAKIRA SUGAR WORKS :-Holding about I1,ooo acres of land, mostly under
cultivation, at mile 9, Jinja and Iganga Road. Employing about 5,000
Africans, 200 Indians, Europeans, Mauritians. About 36 miles of Light
Railway. Water supply to the Factory by means of pumping plant on
TELEPHONES: Kakira Factory 125; Jinja Office: 29, 121, 79.
P. O. Box 54, JINJA (UGANDA).
RAMISI SUGAR WORKS and PLANTATIONS :-AT RAMISI ESTATE (Digo
District) near Mombasa. Box 158, MOMBASA.
UGANDA-(1) Bukoboli, (2) Busowa, (3) Bubinga, (4) Kamuli, (5) Mbulamuti,
(6) Kakira, (7) Kabiaza, (8) Butiru, (9) Kabiramaido, (10) Pilitok, (11) Amaich,
(12) Aboki, (13) Chagweri, (14) Batta, (15) Jaber and (16) Kalaki.
KENYA- Malikisi. TANGANYIKA-Ruvu and Kiberege.
Other Plantations totalling about 4,000 acres Freehold Land.
1, BUKOBOLI. 2, BUSOWA. 3, BUKONA. 4, WEIBUGU.
THE ORGAN OF THE UGANDA SOCIETY.
Word Importation into Bantu Language ... ... by R. A. SNOXALL.
Gordon's Farthest South in Uganda in 1876 ... ... by H. B. THOMAS, O.B.E.
(Reprinted with permission from "Empire
Survey Review" No. 77, Vol. III).
World Mineral Production and Uganda's Contribution ... ... by K. A. DAVIES.
The Uganda Native War Memorial Recreation
Ground, Kampala ... ... ... ... ... ... by H. H. WooD.
Ducks Eating Groundnuts ......
"Etuku"......A Problem Propounded ... .
The Dry Crossing of the Nile Near Nimule
Hippo Hunting by Night ...
... ... by W. J. EGGELING.
... by J. F. SHILLITO.
... ... by E. J. WAYLAND.
... ... by JOCK JARDINE.
THE UGANDA SOCIETY.
HIS EXELLENCY SIR PHILIP E. MITCHELL, K.C.M.G., M.C.
H. R. HONE, ESQ., M.c., K.C., LL.B.
JOHN SYKES, ESQ.
SIR ALBERT R. COOK, KT., C.M.G.
DR. H. H. HUNTER, C.B.E., LL.D.
THE RT. REV. BISHOP E. MICHAUD, M.B.E
E. J. WAYLAND, ESQ.
E. F. TWINING, ESQ., M.B.E.
F. LUKYN WILLIAMS, EsQ.
DR. J. P. MITCHELL.
G. L. R. HANCOCK, ESQ.
OMW. B. K. MULYANTI.
G. GRIFFITH, ESQ.
W. N. R. LEE, EsQ.
R. A. SNOXALL, EsQ.
Honorary Assistant Editor:
R. S. SHACKELL, EsQ.
Representative in Great Britain:
A. R. MORGAN, ESQ., O.B.E.
S. R. HOOPER, ESQ.
THE UGANDA SOCIETY.
1. The attention of members is once again drawn to the new address of the
Society to which all correspondence to its officials should be directed. The new
The Uganda Society
Private Post Bag,
2. There has been a change in the business management of the Society which
has now been relinquished by the Uganda Printing and Publishing Company, Ltd.
and has been taken over by Messrs. Bell and Co. of Nairobi in the person of Mr.
R. W. A. Cooper.
3. Mr. W. N. R. Lee of Makerere College has kindly assumed the duties of
4. Members are reminded that with this number Volume V will be complet-
ed, and subscriptions are therefore due for the forthcoming year. A Bankers'
Order Form will be found elsewhere in this issue and if you have not already
chosen this most satisfactory method of paying your subscription, you are urged to
do so without delay.
5. On Thursday, March 3rd, under the auspices of the Uganda Society at
the Kampala Club and with the President of the Society Mr. Ralph Hone, M.C.,
K.C., in the chair, Colonel J. L. Sleeman, C.B., C.M.G., C.B.E., M.V.O., Chief
Commissioner St. John Ambulance Brigade Overseas, delivered a most interest-
ing lecture to a very well attended meeting on the history and work of the St.
John Ambulance Brigade.
6. We acknowledge with thanks the receipt of our reciprocating contempor-
aries as well as copies of the following:-
A History of Uganda Land and Surveys,
By H. B. Thomas, O.B.E.
Nubische Studien in Sudan,
By Professor Herman Almkvists.
Religion and Divination of the Logbara Tribe of North-Uganda,
By the Reverend Father Egidio Ramponi, F.S.C.
It is with somewhat of the feelings of a fond parent sending a child out into the
world that we have said farewell to the instalments of Captain Pitman's "Guide to
the Snakes of Uganda" ; we wish the book all success and we realise what a loss
to the household the departure of this invaluable child will be. It is therefore a
most heartfelt appeal for contributions which we now launch, and although we
have no intention of providing regular issues of the Journal with over Ioo pages
of reading matter, it will we hope be realized that in order to preserve even our pre-
vious average of 60 or 70 pages in each number we are urgently in need of con-
tributions. News reaches us from several quarters of articles "on the stocks", of
mountains having been climbed, of historical events which have been allowed to
pass unchronicled, of natural phenomena which perhaps will not be repeated in
our lifetime-in short the material which we are anxious to clip firmly into the
A younger child in our last issue has also been sent out into the cruel world,
we refer to the new cover of the Journal, and we are naturally anxious to hear what
impressions it has made Constructive criticisms will be welcomed, as to whether
members prefer sepia ink to black, as to whether the inking should be heavier or
should be left as at present, or whether the tone should be darker.
We are afraid that it is not possible to report any further development with
regard to the premises offered to the Society and it would be unwise to move into
the building in its present condition. Meanwhile the problem of housing the So-
ciety's growing library becomes more and more acute, and since it is not possible
always to have copies of our contemporaries immediately bound it is extremely
difficult to guard against deterioration.
Owing to the greater space available in this number a return has been made
to the inclusion of notices and members are referred to these as there are several
announcements of importance.
Finally we take this opportunity of thanking for his past services Mr. C. G.
Moody, our keen and careful Honourary Treasurer who has resigned office prior
to his departure on leave.
Word Importation into Bantu Language
with Particular Reference to Ganda.
By R. A. SNOXALL.
(WITH AN APPENDIX OF WORDS OF FOREIGN ORIGIN IMPORTED INTO THE
Possibly the term 'word importation' suggests too conscious a process for
something which is widespread in any live and growing language and 'word as-
similation' might perhaps be preferable. Most English students of French have
probably been warned at school that although the word 'portmanteau' looks so
unmistakably French, yet it must not be used on the other side of the Channel, and
they are taught that its French equivalent is 'valise,' which is of course also used
in English. The former word 'portmanteau' is a good example of a word which
has died in its original language whilst surviving in the language which borrowed
it. Many examples could be given of word borrowing and word assimilation in
European languages. What for example are Sir Toby Belch's 'Kickshawses' in
"Twelfth Night" other than 'quelques choses'?
The common French verd 'fifocloquer' is nothing more than a condensation of
the English 'to have five o'clock tea,' and a 'smoking' is the equivalent of the
English 'dinner jacket' via another line of thought and another line of usefulness for
If then it has been essential in various European languages to borrow or to coin
words for the expression of new ideas, it will be readily realized that with the
tremendous change in their whole life which the Bantu have experienced owing to
the impact of European civilisation, such a process has been found indispensable
in their languages.
Under what heading will it be most convenient to group the cases of word as-
In the case of Ganda we must first take cognisance of such importations and
adaptations as have taken place from languages other than European, these will
particularly consist of the assimilation of Swahili or Swahili-Arabic words into
the language. This is a process which had naturally been going on before the
advent of the European to Uganda, and in the first instance, when the Arabic
words were 'Bantu-ized' into Swahili probably before the arrival of even the Por-
tuguese in East Africa,
Secondly we shall consider cases where a Swahili or other foreign influence
has displaced a perfectly good Bantu equivalent, a tendency which is the least com-
mendable of all the processes which we can observe in operation.
Thirdly the adaptation of foreign words and their conversion to appropriate
Bantu forms where the original word would be phonologically impossible in the
Fourthly, the most interesting case, where the initial syllable of a foreign word
is identical with or extremely similar to the class prefix of a Bantu noun.
Fifthly the extension of Bantuized foreign words to the various functions and
forms of Bantu idiom.
Sixthly and lastly, the cases in which Bantu words have acquired new and
specialised meanings through foreign influence from the necessity felt for diffe-
rentiating' between something which is Bantu and something which is foreign in
In actual practice it is difficult to subdivide into water-tight compartments
and instances will be numerous where examples will fall naturally under two or
even more of these categories.
In the case of words which have found their way into the language through
Arabic and Swahili will be found such a bewildering number that no attempt can
be made at this point to give an exhaustive list, and many'words which in the
Southern Bantu languages have come in from European sources were in Ganda
incorporated in the language at a much earlier date from Swahili owing to the grea-
ter antiquity of the Arab influence.
Some examples are:-
Ganda. Origin. Meaning.
ekitabo Swahili (Arabic) kitabu Book.
Nyoro. amakara (Bantu) makaa charcoal.
and (Omu-) nabbi (Arabic) nabii prophet.
ekyeti (Indian) cheti chit, card.
enkarata (Arabic) karata playing cards.
e'kanzu (Bantu) kanzu long white gar-
kyai (Arabic) chai (from Indian) tea
Omukafiri ,, Kafiri Infidel.
(found also in the form Kaffir in S. Africa)
e-kutiya or e-guniya (Arabic) gunia gunny bag.
e-jola ,, jura or
gora length of calico.
# Vide Appendix for full list,
meza (from Por-
(possibly from German)
(Arabic) bikira virgin
(Indian via Swahili) brinjal, egg-plant.
(Indian via embe
(Swahili) filimbi (flute)
(Indian via gari (magari)
(Bantu) hogo, mahogo
bicycle or cart.
tin, block tin, now
(Arabic) kiberiti (sulphur)
a box of matches.
a pound (weight)
a metal cooking pot.
Many words in the foregoing list are very obviously of Arabic origin via
Swahili, and it is not extraordinary that the great majority of them should be so
derived, since the more progressive Arabs supplied words for Bantuization where
a Bantu equivalent did not exist, in the same way as the Southern Bantu tribes had
recourse to the languages of the Europeans when the necessary word to express
the new idea was non-existent in their languages.
It should be noted that the stress on the penultimate syllable tends to be retain-
ed in Ganda with these words of Swahili origin, although this stress so common
to Bantu languages is not a usual feature of the language.
Fortunately for the future of Ganda, instances are not as yet numerous of the
importation of foreign words to the exclusion of genuine and equally good native
equivalents, though examples can be cited to show that such displacement has al-
Young Baganda may frequently be heard nowadays greeting each other with
"Jambo -sebo?" where the curt Swahili greeting is tending to displace the longer
form of Ganda greeting.
The cross-roads on which so commonly the shops of Indian traders are found,
are becoming known as 'sitensini' from the English 'station', though the older form
'amasanganzira' still exists. It is probable that some attempt is being made here
to show a distinction between the mere cross-roads and others where shops are to
be found, but unfortunately in the minds of the growing generation such a useful
distinction seems absent. 'E-kona' is another case where a word introduced from
English 'corner' has supplanted the existing 'ensonda'.
'Ba-masters' is becoming a common term in place of'abayigiriza', and can only
be commended on the grounds that a difference in sex is shown by its use, how-
ever since in the majority of cases no need is felt in Bantu languages for such a
distinction, it may be doubted whether the language is being enriched by the in-
clusion of such a word. 'Benseni' for 'basin' is another word of occasional useful-
However although the process of importation of foreign words to the dis-
placement of Ganda equivalents may not have proceeded far, European lines of
thought are becoming more and more obvious in modern Ganda speech. I very
much doubt whether much of the conversation to be heard in a foot-ball crowd in
Kampala would be intelligible to a peasant from some distant corner of Buganda.
Thus admiration for the play of a very strong side can be expressed by the words
Balina omupira munene! which when literally translated mean nothing more than
"Theyhavea big ball!" but which we might render "Ah! they play a real good game!"
I have even heard "tabora" used as an attempted phonetic equivalent of "F'tball"
but I hope its use will not spread too widely.
I must confess that I was most confused the first time I was asked, Ogenda ku
tabora "sebo? At the same time I was immensely relieved when I found that the
journey I was expected to make was only to the local football ground and not a few
hundred miles to Tabora in Tanganyika.
Examples are numerous of words in the third category with which we have
to deal i.e. the adaptation of foreign words and their attempted conversion into
appropriate Bantu form. The proper treatment of such words is a problem which
has greatly exercised the Inter Territorial Language (Swahili) Committee, which
now attempts to evolve suitable forms which are afforded the maximum of publi-
city in the Committee's bulletin and various other Swahili publications as a prelude
to their incorporation within the language if they are found acceptable. Since the
period offered for their consideration is usually one or two years, it may be urged
that such a time limit is insufficient, and a better expedient might prove to be the
printing of such words phonetically with the foreign equivalent in brackets over an
agreed transition period of five years. At the expiration of the five year period a
suitable Bantu equivalent might have appeared. Of course there is no need to
legislate for words of this type which are already firmly established.
A few examples of such words are:-
e'girasi drinking glass,
taba tobacco tabac
nanasi (also Swahili) pineapple ananas
emmeri and akameri mail, hence ship,
t tepu typewriter
Duluka, Yokana, Daudi Dorcas, John, David and
many other adapted names.
erementi or kerementi helmet
As an example of the confusion arising in the native mind from the English
spelling, let me describe an answer which was written down for me by a Muganda
Scout anxious to otain his "Pathfinder's" badge.
He had been asked to describe the chief trade routes connecting Uganda with
the outer world and decided that the "s. s. Clement Hill" was a venerable enough
Lake Victoria steamer to call for a special description, but in order to show that
he knew better than to spell the name "Clement" as a Muganda generally would
("Kerementi"), he gave the full name of the ship as the "s s. Helmet Hill."
Our fourth category gives rise to some most interesting and ingenious exam-
ples of word assimilation, and is probably the most logical and the most durable of
all the processes which may be observed. Thus from the Arabic via Swahili we
get the word 'risasi'-'lead' which to the Baganda bore the unmistakable 'li-' of the
li-ma prefix of the noun class and therefore became, with its initial vowel, 'erisasi'
singular, and 'amasasi' plural and has now settled into the typical form 'e'sasi,' plu-
In the same way 'bilauri'-'a glass, tumbler', was welcomed, but was naturally
suspected of being in a plural form and became 'ekirawuli' with its plural 'ebirawuli.'
This word might equally well be included in the 6th class of words since it pro-
vides an instance of a distinct change of meaning, for 'ekirawuli' now means 'a lamp
chimney' and 'e'girasi' means 'a tumbler.'
*Indicates word sufficiently well established to stand.
1 An ingenious and handy equivalent.
The word 'galubindi', is similar since in its original form in Swahili 'darubini'
it could not fit into the Ganda prefix system, and so took on the form 'galubindi'
without however retaining its original meaning, for 'darubini'meant'a telescope'but
'galubindi' means usually 'spectacles.' From the English 'medal' to the Ganda 'omu-
dali' the transition is easy, for the initial syllable of the English resembles the class
prefix 'mu' of the Ganda, which naturally, is reinforced by its initial vowel, and the
plural becomes 'emidali.' But even more interesting is the form 'akadali' which was
used to describe the small "Tailwagger's" badge which my dog used to wear on
his collar. The connection between 'obusikuti' and 'biscuit' may similarly be follow-
ed, but 'obusikuti' is plural and therefore 'a biscuit' becomes 'akasikuti.'
It is by such a process that the ultimate forms of the words in transition in the
third category may beevolved and 'lipoti' on the analogy of 'risasi' may develop its
plural form 'amapoti' as 'bulangeti' may equally well settle into 'akalangeti' in its
basic singular form.
The difference implied by the two categories 4 and 5 is that words occurring
in 4 are nouns and those in 5 may be other parts of speech, although "the exten-
sion of the words to the various functions and forms of Bantu idiom" applies equally
in both cases, e.g. from "Omusikautu" (Boy Scout) we get "Obusikautu" (Scouting).
I can quote no such interesting examples as those discovered by Professor
Lestrade, where in Venda from 'brandy' we get the noun 'vhurani' and the verb ranaa
which is inflected in the ordinary way and has the particular meaning of 'to be
drunk on European liquor.' One is tempted to suggest that such an essential diffe-
rence does not arise in the case of Ganda.
Another example of such inflection is to be found from the Afrikaans 'goeie
naand'-'good evening', which in Xhosa becomes 'ronanti' or 'ronanta' and means
'to have a good evening' and forms its causative 'ronantisa', 'to wish someone a good
Swahili certainly has 'kupasi' meaning 'to pass an examination' and 'amepasi'
is therefore 'he has passed' and 'atapasi', 'he will pass' etc. Canon Broomfield in
Bulletin No. 5 of the Inter-Territorial Language Committee has shown what would
be the natural evolutions of the verb 'kuvota' in Swahili but examples are rare in
Ganda and actually the only instance of such a process which I have heard is 'amaze
okupasi' or 'ayinza okupasi', i.e. 'he has passed' or 'he can pass', and I have never
heard any other form than the infinitive. It is true that I did once hear the verb
'okusivilaizi' 'to civilize' in the interpretation of an English speech into Ganda at a
Budo Speech Day, but the smiles of those of the audience who understood suggest-
ed that they regarded such a word as a very daring and undesirable innovation
and hardly as a serious attempt.
The sixth category is fairly rich in examples in Ganda of words adapted prin-
cipally from Swahili in which the meaning has changed completely or has assum-
ed a particular significance, e.g.:-
pesa (ma-) pice, small coins. pesa (ama-), a button.
darubini = telescope. galubindi, spectacles.
filimbi = flute. e-firimbi, a whistle
bei = price, e-beyi, price (of
safari = a journey, travel. safali a journey.
(i. e, undertaken by a Euro-
pean on a large scale or by a
chief, but implying a degree
of importance and much lug-
*gari (ma-) = cart, vehicle. egali bicycle.
Serikali = the Government Omuserikale an employee of
the Government in its uni-
form, hence now a policeman.
chandarua e tandaluwa hood of motor car, not mos-
Ganda is fairly rich in interesting forms of word evolution, where recognized
existing words have been given a specialised meaning to convey some new line of
thought. The following are examples: -
omulabirizi ="a bishop," from the verb okulabirira=to look after.
okugatulula =to separate or divorce. A reversive form of okuga-ta=to join
and hence now used with the evolved meaning of "to spell."
okuyawula =to differentiate and so now used for the Arithmetical term "to
akajugo =ekijugo was the holder of a spear-head and akajugo now means
ekibina ="a crowd or gathering" and is now used for "a class of a school.'
ekijenga ="an umbrella" or rather "a plantain leaf used as an umbrella,"
but "manvuli" from the Swahili "mwavuli" is a European um-
ekinywabwino ="that which drinks ink," hence now "blotting-paper."
ekisibo ="a fasting time" from okusiba=-to fasten.
ekiwujo ="a fan for blowing up a fire," and hence both owing to its shape
and its method of use, "a tennis racquet."
olusoma ="a school term" from "okusoma" (to read).
It is interesting to note that the change of meaning has been followed by a change
of noun class,
The noun having been formed from the verb is placed in the
lu-n class conveying "length".
endabirwamu ="a thing which is seen in" hence "a mirror".
wa kanzu="a plain clothes detective," because the omuserikale (policeman)
in plain clothes usually wears the kanzu imported by the Arabs,
which is the least obtrusive garment he can wear for detective
ekifananyi ="a picture" from okufanana=:to be like.
okufuwa Kapere = "to blow the fall-in". Lord Lugard's native name was "Kapere"
(Captain), and to the notes of the military bugle-call of "Fall-in"
were set the Ganda words :-
"Kapere-Kapere-azimbye enyumba e Kampala"=
"Kapere-Kapere-has built a house at Kampala".
The house of course referred to Lugard's Fort now the site of
the Kampala museum.
It is easy to see that from the connection of Lugard and soldiers
the "falling-in"in a smart military manner came to be known by
Under these categories are given a few examples from a much more exhaustive
list (which will be found as an appendix), and it is comparatively simple to separate
the various processes which commend themselves to the native mind when word
importation is deemed necessary but the phonetic laws responsible for the ultimate
Bantu form of the word are not so simple.
Why should 'powder' for example become 'ponda' and 'baking-powder' 'bikini
In this case it appears that the English diphthong 'ow'since it does not exist
in the language is first replaced by the vowel, and secondly that the voiced dental
'd' following this sound necessitates its nasalisation. By this process the natural
and common combination of sounds is produced as in 'londa' 'choose' and 'tonda'
'fashion or create'. This intrusion of a nasal is moreover a common feature of the
language, and is found in the recognized Ganda word 'newakuba-de'='neither',
which as often as not is spelt as 'newankuba-de', when the grammar rules of the
language suggest that such a form is definitely incorrect.* Other phonetic changes
can be accounted for by the following peculiarities of Ganda :-
(a) Ganda has no 'h' which is replaced by 'w' or dropped, e.g. Kawa= Coffee
for Kahawa and omuwogo for mhogo=Cassava, and at the beginning of a
word is replaced generally by 'k', e.g. helmet=kerementi and Swahili Hodi
(b) There is no 'sh' sound in Ganda which is rendered by plain 's' thus shona
to sew becomes 'sona' and mshumaa=omusumawa (candle).
The word Kalitunsi=eucalyptus provides another example. There are many others
in the Appendix,
(c) There is no 'dh' sound in Ganda and for it is substituted a 'z' e.g.fedha
becomesfeza etc. (=Silver or money).
(d) Similarly the unvoiced equivalent 'th' does not exist and for this as
we should expect is substituted 's' e.g. thumuni becomes simoni=a 50
(e) Two vowel sounds in juxtaposition cannot occur in Ganda so that saa=
hour or clock becomes sawa, ndoo=ndolo (bucket) and choo (earth closet)
becomes ekyoloni where the ni of the locative by a confusion of thought
(f) Choo provides a further example of a phonetic difficulty in Ganda for the
sound 'ch' is always palatalised into ky (c) and so chai= tea becomes kyai
and chupa=bottle, kyupa etc.
Such are the processes which are going on 'under our very ears', many of which
show most commendable resource, and all of which indicate the ease with which
many apparently disconcerting words and ideas in foreign languages are becoming
'Bantuized'. In what ways if any can the European help in this assimilation of Euro-
pean thought to Bantu idiom?
He can help by studying closely the modern form of the native language and
by endeavouring to understand the process of thought by which the imported
words which have been noted, and very many more which in a varying degree must
be familiar to Europeans, have been incorporated into the language.
By consultation with the native leaders of public thought he must prepare lists
of such words as have already been standardised in the language, as well as of those
for which no suitable equivalents exist, and for which some Bantu equivalent or
some other treatment is necessary.
In the course of such work he will soon discover that there is much assistance
which a European, who appreciates the native idiom, can give, in full explanations
of the European ideas, in a consideration of which unassisted, the native may miss
important implications, and by endeavouring to stimulate the native to a search in-
to his own vocabulary as well as into those of his friends and elders in an endeavour
to find a suitable equivalent in the native language. Should such an equivalent be
impossible to find, steps must be taken to give as much publicity as possible to an
adequate explanation of the foreign term both in its foreign spelling and its phon-
etic equivalent. Such a term may thereafter, as I have suggested, be used in print
in its phonetic form with its actual equivalent, in a bracket after it for an agreed
transition period which I suggest should be five years.
A growth of some such keenness on energetic assistance in the fascinating pro-
cesses which are going on to-day would rapidly result in some standardisation by
co-operation with the printing presses of these necessary foreign forms which have
crept into the language, and would promote improved understanding between
European and native and result in an increased literature in the language. Is it
too sanguine a hope that such a move might also bring into being one standard
orthography for what is after all the one language of the Baganda?
Some Words Imported into Ganda.
The orthography used is that of Blackledge. It must be remembered that since.
the collection of his words further changes have taken place.
alimansi ... ... ...... diamond... ... ... ...
amerikani (malikane) ... unbleached calico ....
bafuta ... ... ... ... bleached calico ...
basitola ... ... ... ... pistol ... ... ...
e-bendera ... ... ... ... flag ... ...
beti ... ... ... ... pouch of leather; brick mould.
ebinzali ...... ...... curry powder .........
e'bomba ... ...... ... cycle pump ... ... ...
obukali and adjective-kali anger .......
obuganga ... ... ... ... gun powder ... ...
Obukristayo(and derivatives Christianity ......
bulangeti ... ... ...
Obulabirizi ... ... .. ...
bulungi ... ...
bululu ... ...
obuna-bi ... ...
busati ... ... ... ...
ebweta ... ... ... ...
bwino ... ...
e-chupa (now also ekyupa)
edakika ... ... ... ...
e-debe (amalebe) ......
e'dini ... ... ... ...
e-doti (eroti) ... ... ...
e'daka (ama-) ......
e'binika ... ...
office of a bishop; dioc
bugle, trumpet ...
blue .. ...
box, casket ... ...
bottle ... ...
petrol tin ...
religion ... ...
four yards of cloth.
bear ... ...
... Arabic (Swahili).
... ... (
efirimbi ... ...
firipi ... ...
frasila or furasila (falasir
efulano ... ... ...
futi ... ... ...
egali ... ... ...
galubindi ... ...
jowa (perhaps jora) ...
juzi (adverb) ...
kaladali ... ... ...
ekalamu ... ...
kalani ... ... ...
kalata ... ... ...
kalifuwa ... ...
kalitusi (now kalitunsi)
kamulali ... ...
kangala ... ...
kaniki ... ...
ekanisa ... ...
ekanzu ... ...
gun-cap ... ...
silver ... ...
whistle ... ...
hammer of a gun ...
... block for fez ... Swahili-Arabic.
-a) weight of 32 or 36 lbs. Swahili-Arabic.
... vest ... .. ... English, flannel.
... foot measure ..... English.
... bicycle Swahili-from
... cart vehicle ... ... Indian.
... spectacles, telescope, ... Swahili-Arabic.
microscope, field-glass telescope.
... large mat or carpet ... Swahili godoro.
... Government ...... English.
... Prayer beads of Mohammedans, Swahili Arabic.
... woollen material, flannel Swahili-Arabic.
... day before yesterday, the Swahili.
other day ......
...mustard ........ Swahili-Arabic.
... pencil, pen ...... ... Swahili-Arabic.
... clerk ... ... ... ... Swahili-Arabic.
... playing cards ...... Swahili-Arabic.
... scent (Is it 'karafuu'?)
... Eucalyptus tree ...... English.
... intoxicant made ofjaggerie Swahili.
... dark blue cotton cloth
... church ... ... ... Swahili.
.. kanzu ......... Swahili-Arabic.
kapa ......... ...cat
kawa ............ coffee
ekengere ... ... ... ... bell of cy
ekibiriti ... ... ... ... sulphur,
ekijiko ............ spoon
ekikapo ... ... ... ... matting b
ekikoi (now ekikoyi) ... loin cloth
ekikompe ... ... ... ... cup, mug
ekirabo ... ... .. ... club, drin
ekirawuli ... ... ... ... lamp glas.
ekiremba ... ...... ...turban
ekitambala ... ... ... towel, du,
kitani ... ... ... ... linen (whi
ekitiyo ... ... ... ... spade
gkizibawo (now basikoti) .., waistcoat
... ... (paka)
cle or electric bell
ag ... ...
kodi ... ... ...
kolokoni ... ... ...
e'kuti ... ... ...
kyai ... ...
ekyasi (cf. esasi) ...
ekyeti ... ... ...
ekyoloni ... ...
lerwe (zirerwe) ...
leso (lesu) ... ...
limawo (ennimawa, ennimu)
liri ... ... ... ...
nguo (olugoye, engoye) ...
May I come in ? ...
prison ... ...
powder flask ...
tea ... ... ...
cartridge ... ...
chit, note ...
latrine ... (ch
coloured cloth worn by
lemon ... ... ...
silk ... ... ...
cloth, clothes ... ...
sword, rim of cycle wheel
olupapula ...... ... piece of paper, page English.
olutambi ......... lamp wick (utamvi) ... Swahili.
amafuta ... ... ... oil. butter ... ... Swahili.
emairo ... ... ... ... mile, estate ... ... English.
makansi ... ... ... ... scissors ... ... Swahili-Arabic,
malaika ... ...... ... angel .. ... ... -do-
* emalekebu (emerikebu) ship ... ...... -do-
mali ... ... ... ... possessions wealth ... -do-
emanu ... ...... ...manna ... ... English.
emanzamu (manzambu) ... cartridge belt ... Swahili-Arabic
masu-bawa (ama-) ...... Mohammedan prayer beads -do-
maya ... ... ... ... ostrich ... ... ... Swahili.
embalasi ... ... ... horse ... ... ... Swahili-Arabic.
emmeri and hence akameri steamer ........ Swahili-English.
emeza ... ... ... ... table ... ... ... Swahili-Portuguese,
minsani ......... ...mission ..... English.
minzane ... ... ... ... scales ... ... ... Swahili-Arabic.
Misiri ...... ...... Egypt ... ... ... -do-
empano ... ... ... ... wedge ... ... ... -do-
empata (e'pata) ... ... hinge ... ... ... -do-
empeta ... ...... ... ring ... ... ... (pete) -do-
Mpwanyi ... ...... ... coast (Mombasa) (pwani) Swahili.
omubikira ... ...... virgin, nun ...... Swahili-Arabic.
omubinikiro ... ... ... funnel ... ... (birika) -do-
omucungwa ... ...... orange ......... Swahili.
Omudaki ... ... ... ... German ... ... ... -do-
omudumu ......... ... gun-barrel, jug ... -do-
omufalisi ... ... ... mattress ... ... English.
omufuleje ...... ... gutter, water pipe ... Swahili-Arabic,
omufundi ... ...... fundi (workman) ... Swahili.
omugati ... ...... ... bread (mkate) -do-
NOTE :- Recognised as foreign word and not ama-which would be the ordinary class prefix,
Word. Meaning. Probable Origin.
omugini ... ... ... ... rest house, inn ... ...
omukafiri ... ... ... ... heathen ... ... ... ... Swahili-Arabic.
omukandala ... ... ... belt, girdle ... ... ... Swahili.
omukebe ... ... ... ... tin, can ... ... (mkebe) -do-
omukombo ......... rafter, roof principal ... -do-
omulimawa ... ...... lemon tree ...... ... Portuguese.
omulongoti .......... mast, flagstaff (mlingote) Swahili.
omunala ......... ... survey beacon, tower, flagstaff -do-
emundu ... ...... ...gun, rifle ... ...
omupera ...... ...... guava tree ... ...... Swahili.
omupunga ......... ... rice ... ... ...... Swahili.
omupapali ...... ... ... pawpaw tree (papai) Swahili.
omusala ... ...... ... pay, wages (mshahara) Swahili-Arab.
omusalaba ... ... ... ... the cross, crucifix ... ... -do-
omuserikale ...... ... policeman ... (serikali) Swahili.
omusingi ... ... ... ... foundation ... ... ... Swahili.
omusitali ... ... ... ... ruled line (mstari) Swahili-Arabic.
omusomali ...... ... iron nail ... (msumari) -do-
omusomawa ... ... ... candle ... (mshumaa) -do-
omusonyi ... ...... ...tailor ... (mshoni) Swahili.
omusukano ... ...... carpenter's brace ...... -do-
omusumeno ... ... ... saw ... ... ... ... -do-
omutaimbwa ......... crow bar ... .(mtaimbo) Swahili-Arabic.
omutini ... ... ... ... fig tree ... ... ... ... Swahili.
omutumba ... ... ... ... load of cloth ... ... ... -do-
omuwogo ......... ... cassava ... .(mhogo) -do-
emuyamba (mwamba) ... file ... ...... -do-
omuyembe ... ........ mango tree .(mwembe) Swahili-Arabic.
omuzabibu ... ... ... ... vine ... ... ... ... -do-
omuzeituni ... ... ... olive tree ... ... ... -do-
omuzigiti ... ... ... ... mosque ... ... ... ... -do-
omuzinga ... ... ... ... canon, large gun ... ... Swahili.
omwamvuli (now manvuli) umbrella ... .(mwavuli) -do-
endobo ... ... ... ... bucket (ndoo) -do-
engamira (and ngamiya) ... camel ... .(ngamia) -do-
enguwo ...... ... ... loin cloth (unguo- nguo) -do-
Engiri ..... ... ... ..Gospel ... (Injili from
Greek through Arabic) -do-
enkasi ... ... ... ... paddle, oar ... (kasia) -do-
enkutu ... ... ... ... loin-cloth ... ... ...
ensululu ... ... ... ... pick-axe ... ... ... -do-
entalabusi ... ... ... ... tarboosh ... ... ... Swahili-Arabic.
enukuta ... ... ... ... letter of alphabet ... ... -do-
enusu ............ half ... ... ... ... -do-
envinyo (e-vini) ... ... wine ... ... ... ... Swahili-Portuguese.
enyumbu .... ... ... ... mule ... ... ... ... Swahili,
taba (or tab.
... ... ... ... guava ... ... ...
... ... ... ... button ... ...
... ... ... ... weigh, measure ...
... .. ... ... barrel, keg ... ...
... ... ... ... pepper ... ... ... ...
..... ... pay wages to ... (pokea)
>so) .. ... ... rations, food money ...
... ... ... ... steel... ...
... ... ... ... lightning, thunderbolt ...
... ... ... ... plane ... ...
... ... ... ... colour, dye, paint ...
... ... ... ... pound, (weight) ... ...
... ... ... ... quarter ... ......
... ... ... ... pearl ... ... (lulu)
... ... ... ... rupee, money. ... ...
.... .. target, mark (shebaha) ...
bawa ...... practise at target ......
... ... ...... Sunday, a week (Protestant)
... ... ... ... soap ... ......
............ journey, caravan of porters
sasi) ... ... lead, solder, bullet ... ...
... ... ... ... hour, watch, clock ... ...
... ... ... ... plate, dish ... ...
m iti) ... ... cement ... ... ... ...
... ... ... ... hat, helmet ...
... ... ... snow (theluji) ...
......... European drum, band
ikukulu) ... Christmas Day (Blackledge)
... ... ... ... telegraph, telephone
simu) ...... to phone, to telegraph
... ... ... leather belt ...
... ... ... ... fireworks (Blackledge)
... ... ... sew, stitch ...
ufuluya) ... metal cooking-pot,
... ... ... ... sugar ... ... ...
... ... ... ... cloth worn over the
shoulder (by men) or
under the arm-pits
... ... ... ... chapter ...
a) ... ... tobacco ...
nmonly etawaza) lamp ... ...
... ... lantern ...
......... awning, outer covering
... ., ... tile .. ... ...
Fathers via Latin
e-temba ... ...
e-teteyi ... ...
e-tikiti ... ...
e-tundubali ... ...
walifu ... ... ...
ewema ... ... ...
yegu ... ... ...
yekalu ... ... ...
ezabu ... ... ...
ezabuli ... ...
Meaning Probable Origin.
rectangular house ... unknown.
apron ... ... ... -do-
ticket ... ... ... English.
brick ... ... ... Swahili-Arabic.
tarpaulin, ground sheet Swahili-Indian.
the alphabet ... Swahili-Arabic.
write, enroll ... Swahili.
tent ... ... ... Swahili-Arabic.
fork ... ... ... Swahili
influenza ...... English (ague)
temple ...... Swahili-Arabic.
gold ... ... ... -do-
psalm ... ... ... -do-
watch, sentry-go, turn -do-
mercury ...... -do-
Note:- Of great interest is the Budo slang word 'gama' (a drinking mug)
where it appears that metathesis has operated in order to bring the word into the
language, and 'maga' the natural phonetic equivalent has by a kind of Kinyuma
achieved its final form. I am indebted to Mr. W.G. Poole for this word.
7. omujozi (emi)
8. enamba (n Clas
9. emotoka (n.clas
o10. pikipiki (n.class
12. erikiso (n.class)
13. Balozi -
14. tundubali -
15. epapali (ma-)
16. tamusiya (?)
18. kabu (?)
I9. mandigadi (n.cl
o2. kabada (n.class
Swahili or Arabic.
s) - -
grandson or direct
number-plate of cycle
Swahili or Arabic.
22. okugenda fulu
(Used by bus-drivers perhaps from noise of horn
when going fast, probably onomatopoeic.
25. sati (n.class)
27. ekirato kiatu
31. e-sanduko (can be
li-ma or nasal)
(from the verb okulwala)
to go very fast
noun of above.
the old prison in
to be loose-of rope or
hood of motor car but
not mosquito net.
Gordon's Farthest South in Uganda
By H. B. THOMAS, O.B.E.
(Re-printed from "Empire Survey Review," July, r935).
Colonel C. G. Gordon, C.B., of the Royal Engineers, later known to the world
as General Gordon, had already achieved the reputation of a man of action when,
in 1874, he accepted service under the Khedive Ismail as Governor-General of the
Equatorial Province of the Sudan. Envoys from Gordon visited Mutesa, the King
of Buganda, in 1874 (Chaille Long) and 1875 (E. Linant de Bellefonds), but not until
nearly two years after his appointment was Gordon able to lead the final advance
which was planned to carry the Egyptian flag to the shores of Lake Victoria. In
January, 1876, he reached Mruli on the south side of the mouth of the Kafu river
into the Nile, and here he established a fort and garrison while a force was sent
forward under an Egyptian (Arab) officer, Nuehr Aga, to occupy posts as far south
as the Ripon Falls. Gordon returned at once towards Dufile, where his presence
was required, not intending again to visit the southern portion of his province.
By this time, early in 1876, Gordon had, with the assistance of Lieutenants
C. M. Watson and W. H. Chippindall,* completed a half-inch-to-the-mile survey of
the Nile from Khartoum to Dufile and from Foweira to Mruli, and he now planned
the exploration of the unmapped sections of the river. Two Italian assistants, Gessi
and Piaggia, made the first through boat journey from Dufile to Lake Albert in
March, 1876 ; Gessi circumnavigated Lake Albert for the first time in April, and in
May Piaggia made a somewhat ineffectual canoe journey on Lake Kyoga. But
Gessi's and Piaggia's explorations complicated rather than elucidated the geogra-
phy of the Nile, for Gessi reported a large arm running north-west from near
Wadelai, and Piaggia that a rivert extended north-eastwards from Lake Kyoga.
Reluctantly Gordon decided that he must himself settle these problems. During
July, 1876, he traversed the river from Dufile to Lake Albert in his newly comple-
ted steamer, the Nyanza, disproving the. existence of Gessi's western branch of the
Nile; and in the early part of August, with toil and hardship, he surveyed the
section between the Murchison Falls and Foweira. Here he received with dismay
the news that Nuehr Aga's occupation of posts in Mutesa's kingdom had not pro-
Happily, Lieut-Col. W. H. Chippindall, R.E., is still living in England.
t "Another of those dreadful off-shoots," as Gordon described them in a letter to Col.
Stanton (see Sudan Notes and Records 1927). Piaggia called his river (which is probably the
arm running towards the present Lali Port) the Missanga, and Gordon could not dismiss
the possibility that it afforded a cataract-free water route to the Sobat river.
needed according to plan and that the troops were in effect prisoners at Mutesa s
capital, Rubaga (near the present Kampala). Gordon swiftly came to a decision to
withdraw from the Buganda adventure and sent messages to Mutesa calling on
him to facilitate the departure of the troops, with whom was a young German doctor,
later well known as Emin Pasha, who had recently take service under Gordon and
had been sent to Rubaga a few weeks previously with presents for Mutesa. Thus
the middle of August, 1876, found Gordon once more in Mruli fort awaiting the
outcome of these entanglements. In this dismal spot he remained for some three
weeks until on 7th September, 1876, Emin marched in from the south, followed a
few days later by the whole of Nuehr Aga's force, of whose unwelcome presence
Mutesa was, in fact, glad to be relieved. The knowledge that the retirement from
Rubaga had been safely accomplished left Gordon free to investigate the Lake
Kyoga section of the Nile from Mruli to Nyamyongo, which was required to complete
his map. '
It has usually been assumed that Emin accompanied Gordon to Nyamyongo.
Gordon's own accounts give no hint that Emin was with him, but the assumption
is probably based on a letter written by Emin on 3rd December, 1876, to Martin
Hansal, the Austrian Consul at Khartoum, which is printed in the journal of the
Austrian Geographical Society for 1877, and English geographers have accepted
this conclusion (see E. G. Ravenstein's note at page xxi of the Introduction to "Emin
Pasha in Central Africa," London, 1888). The recent publication of Emin's journals
in extenso, however, finally establishes the fact that Emin remained at Mruli.
Gordon, according to his own records, set out from Mruli on i th September,
1876, and it is possible to print here the relevant extract, hitherto unpublished,
from his small pencil diary.l| This reads as follows:
I There is an unimportant but not readily explicable discordance regarding the chrono-
logy of this period. Emin's journals ("Die Tagebftcher von Dr. Emin Pascha", Hambury ,1917
-26) give the date of his return to Mruli as 7th September, Gordon's departure for Nyamyo-
ngo 9th, and Nuehr Aga's arrival llth. Gordon's letters (Birkbeck Hill, "Colonel Gordon
in Central Africa", London, 1881) and his pocket diary give the return of the troops on 9th and
his own departure on 11th. Both accounts agree that Gordon arrived back at Mruli late on
the evening of the seventh day after his departure. The appearance of the "Tagebiicher"
obviates reference to G. Schweitzer's rather unreliable "Life and Work of Emin Pasha",
London, 1898, in which alone extracts from Emin's journals have hitherto been available. For
this journey to Nyamyongo it will be convenient here to follow Gordon's dates.
"Returning from M'tesa by a new way, I found Colonel Gordon at Mrooli, from which
place after going for an 80 mile reconnaissance up-stream to Speke's Niamyongo in the Ma-
nyara county, and after experiencing all sorts of adventures, we struck an entirely new route
and went by Mrooli, Kissuga, Masindi, Korota to Magungo." Petermanns Mittheilungen for
March, 1877, confirms this account. It is noteworthy that Emin should have collected the
name Manyara, for the inhabitants of northern Bugerere are still known as "Banyara".
II Through the kindness of Dr. B. M. Allen, author of "Gordon and the Sudan", 1931,
who has had access to unpublished Gordon papers and to whom I am much indebted for other
"September 9. Nuehr Aga arrived from Dubaga.
i. Started for Niamyongo, Marched 161 miles,
12. I5- miles.
13. 20 miles.
14. 17 miles. Attack en route.
15. Marched ii miles.
16. Left for Mrooli. Halted sudd.
17. Arrived Mrooli 1i p.m."
The only available narrative details of the journey are in Gordon's letters as
printed by Birkbeck Hill, while Gordon's map which is available in two forms
shows the survey work which he performed. The earlier edition of the map is in
the Journal ofthe Royal Geographical Society, vol. 46 (i876), pp. 431-2, where appear
Gordon's "Notes to accompany a survey of the White Nile from Lardo to Nyamyu-
hgo," and this map is elaborated in a later publication, "Map of the White Nile
from Khartoum to Victoria Nyanza by Colonel C. Gordon. C. B., Royal Engineers,
and his staff. Surveyed in 1874-5-6 and 7, Scale, 10 Geog. miles to i inch. In-
telligence Branch, Qr. Mr. Genls Dept.; Capt. G. E. Grover D.A.Q.M.G. 1878."
If Gordon's map is compared with the modern topographical sheet, "Masindi
Port," North A-36/0, 1/250,000 (1911), it will be found reasonable to identify Gor-
don's swamp Karabeisar with the river Makote. His route traverses the northern
slopes of a forested hill, which would be Wajala, and skirts Kookoogo, the present-
day Lukoge. The Sezibwa was evidently crossed near the present Erima ferry. On
his return by water through Lake Kyoga, Gordon's Magogo and Andarra passages
approximate to the narrowings of the lake at Namasali and at the bifurcation of
Lakes Kyoga, and Kwania south of the present Muhaluzi Hill (Gordon's Mahorzi).
There remains the problem as to where the "Nyamyongo" reached by Gordon
is situated. The conclusion to be drawn from a review of all the evidence is that
Gordon's Nyamyongo was at or near Galiraya on the west bank of the Nile oppo-
site Pegi hill, say in latitude i 22' north. This conclusion is founded primarily
on the evidence of Gordon's map. It conflicts with the written record, and an exami-
nation of the facts may be of interest.
When Gordon left Mruli, he followed a track at no great distance from the
southern shore of Lake Kyoga. He states that he marched 80 miles; yet it is only
about 60 miles from Mruli to Galiraya. To explain this discrepancy it must be
assumed that he overestimated the length of his marches, a well-known tendency
(from which Gordon was not immune*) when travelling by compass on a time-scale,
as Gordon would almost certainly be doing in a hurried journey of this nature.
Under date 15th September Gordon says (letter printed by Birkbeck Hill),
"Having marched close on eighty miles by land I ought to be near Nyamyongo
which Speke puts near south of i N. Lat.",t and Dr. B. M. Allen informs me that,
in the original letter, following the words quoted above Gordon makes a further
reference (which has not hitherto been printed) to the effect that "I therefore take
I" 8' for N. Lat. of where I am and Prout can rectify it."t A modern map shows
that if Gordon had marched 80 miles he would have been close to lat. i0o8' north.
For instance, Gordon computed Keroto to Magungo as 54 miles (see Birkbeck Hill,
p. 195). In fact it can hardly be more than 30 miles.
t Speke placed Urondogani in lat. 00 52'27" north (and there is every reason to accept
his value, for he was an accurate astronomical observer). His Nyamyongo, or rather the
point in Nyamyongo's territory at which he was turned back, was 9 miles northwards from
Urondogani, along the river (see Birkbeck Hill, p. 181), or say in lat. 0 0 591 north, and there-
fore not far from opposite the present port of Namasagali. The difference between Speke's
00 59' and Gordon's lo081 would represent about 10 miles, which is therefore the distance
which Gordon assumed that he was short of Speke's position. Actually their positions were
about 28 miles apart.
$ Colonel Prout, an American officer in the Egyptian service, whom Gordon proposed
should succeed him as Governor of the Equatorial Province.
it must be remembered that Nyamyongo was the title of a chieftainship which
covered the northern half of the present county of Bugerere (its southern boundary
being about 4 miles south of Namasagali) and that the name Nyamyongo might be
applied to any place within that area, The actual headquarters of Nyamyongo,
who was a frontier chief of Bunyoro, have, according to native report, always been
at Misanga on the Nile bank in about lat. 1i3' north.
Gordon's map, however, establishes the fact that he had determined his Nya-
myongo to be at the mouth of the Nile into Lake Kyoga and that opposite to it on
the Busoga shore were two mountains, Nabouga and Namjari. Now there are no
mountains of any sort on the Busoga bank of the Nile other than the Pegi group
which is directly opposite Galiraya, and one of the outlying peaks of this group
bears on the modern topographical map the name of Nalibuga.
Efforts to reconcile Gordon's too southerly latitude of Nyamyongo with the
entrance of the Nile into Lake Kyoga and at the same time to bring it within a
short distance of Speke's Urondogani left their mark upon the map of central Africa
for the next twenty years and are well exemplified in Ravenstein's map of Ugan-
da in Lugard's "Rise of Our East African Empire" (1893), vol. ii, where Lake
Kyoga is contorted to run almost due south to north.
One minor point which goes to confirm the identification of Gordon's Nya-
myongo with Galiraya is that Gordon returned to Mruli by water in two days.
Experience of canoe transport on the sudd-choked Lake Kyoga shows that even from
the mouth of the Nile this would be a notable performance,l| and we know that it
was nearly midnight on the i7th September before he reached Mruli. But to add
a further fifteen or twenty miles to the presumed length of the journey renders it
virtually impracticable of accomplishment in two days.
The Egyptian garrison evacuated Mruli towards the end of 1879 and the site
of Gordon's fort, in all probability, has not been occupied since that date.
If one is to believe Stanley's account ("Through the Dark Continent", chap. xv),
Namionju was in the unenviable position of a shuttlecock between Buganda and Bunyoro.
II Chailld Long in 1874 took over 5 days from Pegi Hill (Gebel M'tingi) to opposite Mruli
(see "Provinces of the Equator", Publications of the Egyptian General Staff, Part 1-1874,
Cairo, 1877). How Gordon obtained canoes without delay at Nyamyongo in a hostile country
is obscure. Perhaps he had sent them forward from Mruli to await him.
World Mineral Production and Uganda's
By K. A. DAVIES.
Since the beginning of his intelligent activities man has been forced to ac-
cept the rocks and their products as a necessary factor in his economy. Pre-
history, in fact, is classified by the particular type of implement of stone or metal
which mankind shaped; and although in later times other phases of human activity
come more easily to mind, the story of man's gradual improvement in applying me-
tals to his use is one of the main features of the evolution of civilisation. The
greatest acceleration in this direction has of course been made since the Industrial
Revolution, but who would deny, when he considers for example the increase in the
use of aluminium, since the later days of the last century that we still pass through
Today such is the complex nature of mankind's activities that a failure in the
supply of mineral commodities must usually lead to considerable inconvenience
and often times to hardship. Part and parcel of our complex life, too, is the de-
pendence of man upon his neighbours, and in no other trade is this interdependence
more obvious than in the supply and demand of minerals. During times of peace
the requirements of each nation are usually fulfilled in spite of tariff barriers, but
with the coming of war supplies of much needed metals are cut off and all the
countries concerned are embarrassed thereby. Even were the United States and
British Empire, who together control more than 50% of the world's mineral exports,
in alliance they would find themselves sadly lacking in such important products
as potash, nitrates and tungsten. This lack of necessary materials then is of a much
greater degree in countries who are less fortunate in their endowment, and can be
at times of crises of considerable weight in determining policy. If anyone should
doubt the part played by minerals at times of international tension let him examine
the German imports of key minerals during the first half of 1914, and the imports of
manganese into France in the critical days since the war. The desire, too, on the
part of both these countries to hold the Ruhr Coalfield is another pointer in this
direction; in fact, minerals are so essential for armaments that it has been suggested
by Sir Thomas Holland that the withholding of these exports might be used as the
main force in a sanction scheme to deter aggressor nations.
It would be idle to pretend however that minerals are only of value in time of
war; rather do we lose sight of the manifold uses of metals in the years of peace.
The price of gold for instance largely depends on purely political circumstances
and that of silver on the prosperity of certain countries in the Far East. Again,
increase in the price of base metals during the early part of 1937 was occasioned
as much by the general rise of the standard of living and the increased demand
for such commodities as tinned foods and motor cars and other articles of the
luxury class as by the stated intention of the European powers to rearm. Even
the Ruhr might be said to lend its aid to the cause of peace for Lorraine iron
demands that France and Germany should enter into trade agreements in order
that the interdependable sources of income, coal and iron, may be worked to the
Thus it comes about that each country must depend in some degree upon its
neighbours for the fulfilment of its need of minerals whether these comprise
spectacular exports like uranium or the humble iron-ore. Whether therefore we
regard Uganda as a unit of the British Empire or as a member of the Common-
wealth of Nations, we must view its mineral products both appraised and potential
in the light of these contributions to the general betterment of man's conditions of
Let us therefore examine what the Protectorate has to offer and discover how
these assets are governed by political change or by the advancement of knowledge.
We shall deal firstly with the metals whose ores are at present exported and treat
the others, which may come into prominence in the future, subsequently.
Gold-Uganda, in common, with so many other countries who are working
gold at the present time is fortunate in that it has come into the market when the
price has been at the highest level the metal has ever known. At the old pre-war
value of 77/10 an ounce the working of numerous claims would have proved unpro-
fitable, especially as the winning has been carried out mainly by people of no
experience. Every consideration points to a continuation of demand at the present
price and there is no reason why Uganda should not increase its contribution to
the world's supply, especially if the lodes from which the alluvial gold is derived
are found to be workable. So many people think of gold as a commodity which
is stored up in national vaults that it is as well to point out that one third of the
annual output goes with the making of jewelry into gilding and other ornamentation
or is used in dentistry.
Tin-This is another metal the demand for which is likely to be maintained
for a considerable time. Increased canning of foodstuffs and other articles, the
use of tin alloys and general expansion of its application, together with the better
purchasing power of most nations has caused a general rise in the price of late.
Unlike the easily sold, precious metals the value is however subject to continual
fluctuation and very little safe prophecy can be made regarding the possibility of
expanding Uganda's exports. The 575 tons which represented Uganda's exports
in 1936 may seem infinitesimal when compared with the 180,000 tons of the word's
output, but, if properly worked the Protectorate deposits could yield considerably
more. A great increase might however bring the country under the quota system;
but the supply might prove a useful one if for some reason other sources failed or
Columbite-tantalite-This is the oxide of the two metals columbium (or alter-
natively niobium) and tantalum which may exist in varying proportions and are
mixed with some amount of oxides of iron and manganese. The metals were first
discovered in 1802, but for many years they were confused one with the other-
and were not put to much use until tantalum was applied to the making of fila-
ments of electric lamps early in the present century; it was soon however supersed-
ed by tungsten. Columbium on the other hand was so little in demand that in
1906 all the metal produced up to that time with the exception of half an ounce was
on show in an exhibition in New York. Certain limited uses of these two elements
called for intermittent production before the war and the major portion of the de-
mand was satisfied by West Australian mines which were opened as demand war-
ranted; occasionally as much as 17 tons of ore a year was exported.
The advance in metallurgy during the war and in the years immediately suc-
ceeding however brought to light new applications of these two elements and in
1921 sheets of tantalum were produced for the first time.
Columbium, the cheaper of the two metals is now supplied in fairly large
quantities from Nigeria, a large proportion coming from the waste dumps of the
tin mines where in past years it has been thrown out as useless. Tantalite on the
other hand occurs in places which are more remote from Europe, and Uganda is
therefore lucky in that the ore found here usually carries a high proportion of the
tantalum end of the series. Well-pricked high grade ore of this type may fetch up
to 350 or more a ton, but it is usually very difficult to prevent admixture of tin-
stone and other minerals in the concentrate. Like some of the tinstone in the
Protectorate it is at present worked from the drift deposits on the hillsides but in
some areas is found in workable quantities in the streams.
Although colhmbite-tantalite, as at present known, is confined to Ankole and
Kigezi, tantalum-bearing minerals such as fergusonite and bismutotantalite occur
over widely separated areas in Buganda. The first named has been found near
Kagadi on the Hoima-Toro road, but apparently does not carry uranium as some
varieties do; the associates of this mineral when examined however may prove in-
Stress is being laid on tantalum, therefore, because of its peculiar incidence to
Uganda and its undoubted prominence in the future. If the localities of the ore are
as productive as they are widespread, then Uganda will surely play an important
part in the tantalum market, and who knows what critical uses it may have in the
years to come. A glance at its properties and its present uses will give the reader
some idea of its importance and what is more, of its widening applicability.
Tantalum is a bluish white metal darker than columbium which has the ap-
pearance of platinum; its specific gravity (16.8) is also twice that of columbium.
Used by itself it can be worked cold and is resistant to most acids including aqua
regia which attacks gold and platinum. This property of freedom from attack by
acids including those of the living body has led to its use in surgical and dental in-
struments and in chemical apparatus. It can be produced in varying hardnesses
and be highly polished; in addition special processes can give it a striking irrides-
cent surface, which suggests its use as an art metal. Tantalum is also of importance
in the manufacture of artificial silk, where it is used for the manufacture of spin-
nerets through the minute holes of which the viscose is forced. An increasing
amount, again, is being absorbed in tantalum-carbide tool mixtures which are cap-
able of cutting steel of previously unmachineable hardness and of retaining a pre-
cision cutting edge at high speeds for long periods; the metal is incorporated too in
other special steels for which there is a growing demand. Further uses at pre-
sent are in the manufacture of instrument pivots, thimbles, needles, valve-plugs,
gaskets, and penpoints. Another peculiar property which it possesses is that of con-
verting alternating into direct current, which permits of its use in radio battery
charges. Its power of absorbing oxygen and hydrogen at high temperature causes
it to be incorporated in radio valves where traces of these gases are absorbed from
the mechanically evacuated tubes, giving the high vacuum required for this purpose.
New applications for columbium are continually being found, and it is sug-
gestive that the price offered in Germany and the United States is considerably in
advance of that in England.
The mining of columbite-tantalite in Uganda is still in its infancy, but as was
stated previously the wide-spread nature of the occurrence of tantalum minerals in
the Protectorate suggests the probability of attaining a considerable production.
The ore was exported for the first time last year when i81 tons left the country;
although this figure seems a small one it is only a beginning, and it must be remem-
bered that it is in fact greater than the total world export of only a few years ago.
Tungsten.-Wolfram, which is one of the ores of tungsten, occurs in the Ki-
gezi district and the export of this commodity from Uganda has recently begun.
Two localities at present yield this mineral, but little or nothing is known of the
extent of the deposits; the history of the discoveries in the Protectorate however
suggests that other finds will be made. So great has been the demand for tungsten
during 1937 that the price has risen rapidly, and the closing of the major part of
world's supply from China by the Sino-Japanese war has led to quotations which are
at present (November) three times that of the beginning of the year.
The principal use of tungsten is in the manufacture of high-speed tool steels,
but another well known application is in the making of filaments for incandescent
lamps; of late years too tungsten alloys have been used more and more in the
valves of aeroplane and car engines.
It will be seen from these facts therefore that Uganda has here again entered
the market at a fortunate time.
Copper.-At the end of the war the United States held a pre-eminent position
in the copper market, for she controlled nearly 70% of the world's output. Subse-
quently, however, development of copper resources in Northern Rhodesia, the
Katanga, Chile and Canada altered the position considerably. A slump in the
market in 1930 caused the setting up of a quota system but even this did not pre-
vent the price from sinking, until in 1935 it reached a London low record of
427.15 a ton. Since then however the industry has slowly recovered and the
value at present is almost twice that just mentioned. The marketing of this metal is
also easier with the general improvement in the financial state of many countries
and the increasing demand contingent on the setting up of huge re-armament pro-
During the slump there was little incentive to carry out much development
work on the widespread resources of Central Africa, but Uganda copper at least
received a fair amount of attention during the whole of that period. Copper was
first reported from Mt. Stanley by the Duke of Abruzzi's expedition of 1906 when
they climbed Ruwenzori, but it was not until prospecting was started in the neigh-
bourhood of Kilembi, following upon the finding of a piece of copper sulphide in a
stream, that anything was done on a large scale to prove the deposits. Copper ores
and other minerals occur in many places around the mountain, but such is the
difficulty of traversing it that little is known at present of its exploitability. A con-
siderable amount of work has been done at Kilembi by Tanganyika Concessions,
Ltd., and more than a million tons of ore of a good grade have been demar-
cated. If the present price of the metal could be maintained, there is no doubt that
the working of these deposits would be a profitable undertaking, for in spite of its
seeming inaccessibility the site is nearer the sea-board than the well known cop-
per areas to the south. In addition the by-products in cobalt and nickel would largely
pay for the working of the copper. Initial costs in the installation of machinery and
transport would cause considerable difficulty, but this could be overcome if the price
Reduction of the ore demands fuel and in this process the use of crude oil
furnaces proves the best method. The discovery of workable oil in the Lake Albert
area would therefore facilitate enormously the opening up of the industry. A consi-
deration of the use of the metal, its importance in the electrical industry, its use
in brass, bronze and other alloys and as sheets in roofing and plumbing will soon
show its indispensable nature. Production should increase even in times of peace
and thus sooner or later a call must be made on Uganda's resources.
Cobalt.-Cobalt together with nickel occurs in a mineral called linaeite which
is associated with the copper deposits of Ruwenzori. It is largely used in the form
of cobalt salts employed in colouring pottery and glass and in insect poisons; it is
also used with tungsten in some of the best high-speed tool and magnet steels. In-
creased knowledge of cobalt alloys has of late, too, considerably increased the
demand, and the amount of the metal manufactured trebled between 1931 and 1934 ;
the increase yearly since has been at about the same rate. Any exports from Ki-
lembi in the near future would come in on a rising market and might be of such an
amount as to make a considerable contribution to the world's output.
Nickel.-The proportion of nickel as judged by many assays of the Kilembi
ores is considerably smaller than that of cobalt. Fair quantities however would
be produced in the working of the copper ores and would find a ready market. The
Empire controls the nickel production, for of late years the famous deposits of Sud-
bury, Ontario have yielded 90% of the world's output, and the reserves are so rich
that the position is likely to possess the same aspect for many years to come.
No metal, with the possible exception of aluminium, has caught the public ima-
gination so much during the present century or been applied to more diverse uses.
Its alloys with iron to form heat-and corrosion-resisting steels, magnetic and non-
magnetic mixtures and in low expansion metals such as invar are well known; other
alloys are compounded with copper (monel metal), silver (nickel-silver), aluminium,
zinc, gold and other metals. Such is the demand that no restriction is likely to
be placed on the output and Uganda's share will therefore contribute to the Empire's
strength in this regard.
Petroleum.-The efforts to find mineral oil reservoirs in the British Isles ate
a tribute to the important part played by petroleum in our modern world; in fact so
much use of it is made that the consumption threatens to deplete the world's resour-
ces in a very short time, and such experts as Sir John Cadman have warned the
nations that the employment of oil at the present rate of increase will use up the
known resources in just over a quarter of a century. Not only conservation is
needed therefore but the discovery of new supplies, and it is here that Uganda may
have a contribution to offer.
So much has been said about the known petroleum occurrences around Lake
Albert, that no reiteration is needed here. Recently however, with the confirmation
of Wayland's compression hypothesis, it has been pointed out that the data point
to the existence of structures favourable to the storing up of oil. There remains
therefore to test this region, and to discover whether the Protectorate can offer a
future supply of petroleum which will at least satisfy the needs of the countries in
the immediate neighbourhood for many years to come.
Bismuth.-The value of bismuth in the medical world is well known to all; less
however is known of its incorporation in alloys and its use in staining glass and
in enameling. Bismuth and its carbonate occur together with wolfram and tinstone
in one locality in Kigezi where sufficient has been won to be exported for the first
time. Much more work requires to be done however before the value of this
occurrence or the possibility of others can be appreciated.
Other minerals.-Nearly all the attention paid to Uganda's mineral wealth
has been claimed by the products described above and of these gold and tin have
been easily the most prominent. This has been due of course, mainly to the demand,
but in some measure also to the ease with which they are identified and worked.
The tantalum-columbium minerals bring to the Uganda prospector a new problem,
for they are often difficult of recognition in the field; yet there is reason for be-
lieving that with experience and the discovery of new deposits, even these ores
will be recognized without difficulty.
The occurrence of minerals of this type is often known to the technologist
years before they are worked, but with a rise in prices or diversion of the present
flow from other sources mining is made possible.
Recently, microscope examination of rocks from certain parts of Bugishu
served to prove the existence of considerable deposits of rock phosphate; this lo-
cality is in close proximity to large outcrops of limestone. The value to Uganda
at some future time of these two products need not be amplified.
Other minerals found in quantity in Uganda and possible of marketing in the
future include monazite, ilmenite and rutile. The former produces thorium oxide
which is used in incandescent mantles and flash light bulbs but of late years the
demand has decreased. Ilmenite and rutile on the other hand are sources of ti-
tanium and occur together with monazite in the alluvials of Buwezhu. Titanium
metal is incorporated in alloys and is being called for every year in increasing
amounts; other titanium compounds are variously used for smoke screens, 'sky
writing', fireworks, arc-light electrodes, dyeing, medicines, pigments and many
other substances of every day use.
It will be appreciated that discoveries by the technologists or the dictates of
fashion may easily bring some new mineral into prominence. For example, one
obvious trend in metal technology today is the production of alloys which combine
lightness with strength. Mixtures with aluminium have so far held the field in the
building of aeroplanes and for other purposes demanding these properties, but
there is however some indication that beryllium and magnesium may become more
important in this way. Their specific gravities of 1.9 and 1.74 respectively give
them a decided advantage over aluminum (2.7); and it may be remarked that three
magnesium alloys were produced at the National Physical Laboratory in 1936.
Beryl, one of the ores of beryllium, is found in Uganda, but the production of
the metal is so difficult at present and the price offered for the ore so low, that little
is being done in the marketing of this commodity. Considerable sums of money
are being spent however in America, Germany and England in the search for
a suitable method of producing the beryllium from the ore. When however it is
remembered that metallic alluminium was once a curiosity (1), it will be appreciated
what changes may be wrought by continuous research and world demand.
In addition to the above there are a number of other minerals of economic
importance; but owing to market and other conditions they are unlikely to be
worked for many years to come.
The Economic Aspects of Geology. C. K. Leith, 1922, Constable Co. Ltd.
Mineral Year Books, United States Dept. of Interior, 1928 to 1936.
World's Minerals and World Politics, C.K. Leith, 1931, McGraw-Hill.
The Mineral Sanction as an aid to Internation Security, Holland, 1935, Oliver
A Survey of the Mineral Position of the British Empire, 1936. Imperial Institute.
Report of National Physical Laboratory for 1936.
Ann. Repts. Geol. Surv. of Uganda.
Monographs on Mineral Resources with special References to the British
Empire-Gold, Tin, Copper, Nickel, Cobalt, Imperial Institute.
Mining Journal. Vol. CLXVII, 1929, p. 896. Beryllium; a History by B. W.
The Marketing of metals and minerals. Spurr and Wormser, 1925, McGraw-Hill
Mineral Commerce and International Relations, E. Sampson. John Franklin
Inst. Vol. 221, No. i. 1936.
Nature, Research Items. Feb. 20, 1926. p. 288. New Uses for Metallic Tantalum.
Engineering and Mining Journal. May 28th, 1927. p. 888. Tantalum and rival
Mining Journal. Vol. XLII, 1926, Jan. 16th. Tantalum as substitute for
Sands, Clays and Minerals, Vol. i. Jan. 1933, No. 3 p.4o. Notes on Tantalum
and Niobium, W. R. Schoeller.
Mining Magazine. Dec. 1929, p, 376. Tantalum and Columbium (Niobium),
C. W. Balke.
(1). It could not be bought in the market 50 years ago.
The Uganda War Memorial Recreation
By H. H. WOOD.
Honorary Secretary of the Nakivubo Board of Trustees.
(Re-printed from "Makerere College Magazine").
It is probable that before the early history of Uganda was recorded, a little
stream made its way through what is now the Kampala Township, and on through
swamp and forest, to feed the great Victoria Nyanza. Even in the year 1924 only
those who lived very near it had heard of the Nakivubo; and they were few since
the surrounding country was mostly swampy and uninhabitable.
Today the "river" has become famous, and for no greater reason than that of
the existence of the "Nakivubo Ground" as it is familiarly called.
At the end of the Great War a certain amount of money remained in a "Gifts
and comforts fund." This had been raised by public subscription for the purpose
of sending comforts to our African soldiers in the war zone. The Government of
Uganda-the administrator of the fund-decided that the money should be used for
a memorial to those who had died in the service of the Empire. Many schemes
were considered by a committee under the chairmanship of the Provincial Commis-
sioner, Buganda, with Mr. B.T. Duckworth as Honorary Secretary. Finally it was
decided to prepare a playing field and to dedicate this to the public.
For this purpose the Government generously allotted a piece of land between
Makerere and Mulago hills and on this, with the assistance of Prison labour (the
central prison was then in Kampala) and under the supervision of Mr. H.O. Savile,
,then Principal of the Uganda Technical College, now Makerere College, a football
ground was speedily and inexpensively constructed.
It took only a very short time for the Committee of control to find that this
land at Wandegeya was going to be totally inadequate for the purposes for which
it was intended and to allow for the future development which quickly showed
itself desirable. The Government was approached and again evinced great interest
in the scheme. The Wandegeya ground was sold to Makerere College for what it
had cost to prepare and the memorial authorities were given approximately I r
acres of land in the Nakivubo channel.
Now the greater work started. The land was in an excellent position-central,
sheltered, and in pretty surroundings-but was little short of a marsh. Much of it
was under papyrus, all of it was extremely rough, labour was almost unprocurable
and the prison authorities were unable to assist again to any large extent.
After considerable thought and discussion it was decided to send recruiters to
the West Nile district and they eventually provided nearly 200 porters to start on
the work of reclamation under a European contractor. Such was the development
Photo by B. T. Duckworth.
Nakivubo Ground showing Coronation Memorial Pavilion.
of the country then in progress, and the demand for labour, that these very poor
workers had to be paid Sh. 2o/- per month each. A very worrying time followed
but in the end the ground was ready for football. Deep drains had been cut and
levelling completed, though a slope across the ground had to be left so that water,
draining mostly from Mengo hill, should not lie there. The old Nakasero-Mengo
road had had to be removed--signs of it can still be seen on the ground to-day,
where it is driest in wet weather- and a new road on the West side constructed.
His Excellency Sir Geoffrey Archer opened the ground officially on the roth April,
1926; the opening was followed by a football match between the Uganda Kobs
and a Uganda team selected by the Uganda Football Association.
Alas, nearly all the money from the original fund was gone, but the recreation
ground was there and appeared likely eventually to be self-supporting, particularly
with the promised aid of clubs intending to use it. The committee for the prepara-
tion of the Memorial had done its work !
The ground was now handed over to a Board of Trustees, nominated by the
Government. The "Buganda Native Sports GI ound, Kampala" come into the charge
of these Trustees : The District Commissioner, Mengo (Chairman), representatives
of H. H. The Kabaka of Buganda, the Church Missionary Society, The White
Fathers Mission and The Mill Hill Mission, with the recommendation that they
should appoint an advisory committee consisting of representatives of the various
bodies interested in native sport of all kinds to help them.
One of the first things that the Board realized was the insufficiency of the title
for a Uganda memorial and steps were taken to have this corrected in the Deed
of Trust, so that it should be called "The Uganda Native War Memorial Recrea-
tion Ground, Nakivubo".
The first matches were played; the Uganda Football Association which had
been founded in 1924 gave every encouragement and assistance. Crowds began to
line the touchlines and to realise that this public ground, belonging to them, was
to be the scene of all the most important football and other matches. Those with
cars drove them on to the West side touchline and sat at ease to watch. This was
of course highly undesirable, because the wheels cut into the still soft earth and
the cars took up far too much room for the comfort of those without them.
Money for upkeep and improvement soon became an urgent need. For several
years many public spirited people, mostly Europeans, put their hands into their
pockets from time to time and made donations to assist. Also the Uganda Kobs
and the Kampala Sports Club paid large nominal subscriptions and were permitted
the use of the ground occasionally for rugby football and other matches. A system
of collections on the ground was started and even an attempt to force people to pay
to watch (without any means of keeping them away if they didn't) was tried. All
these methods of raising money were obviously unsatisfactory and in any case
brought in only just sufficient to keep the ground in its then condition.
Evidently the only economic method of dealing with such a matter was to
ensure that those who wanted to watch matches should be the ones to support the
ground financially, and it was only right and fair that the African, to whom the
ground belonged, and for whose benefit it was kept and who provided by far the
largest proportion of spectators, must be the one to subscribe. This could only be
done by charging an admission fee-which meant a strong enclosing fence,
About 500 was required for the erection of a suitable corrugated iron fence
around about half of the property-enclosing two football pitches. Endeavours
were made to raise this amount by loan, with guarantors, or in some other way, but
without success. After some time the Government was again asked for assistance.
As before, it did not fail and ordered the required fencing direct from England and
this was erected and completed in time for the Uganda F. A. cup final match
played there in August 1930. No charge for admission was made for this match-
a gesture by the Trustees in honour of the birthday of H. H. The Kabaka.
The cup-final resulted in a draw and the gate takings for the re-play and at
the Gossage cup match-Kenya vs. Uganda-in that same month brought in over
The Trustees now found themselves in a much better financial position and
able to set about the programme of building and improvements to the ground upon
which they had set their hearts.
From 1930 until today the story of Nakivubo has been one of steady progress.
The improvements completed speak for themselves; permanent stands have been
built, a proper mile running track made, the whole ground more carefully levelled
and drained, the remainder of the property enclosed within the fence, another
football pitch constructed, palings erected around the main football pitch and run-
ning track and a fine Coronation Memorial pavilion erected. The pavilion was
still another generous gift from the Government to show their interest in and
anxiety to help the athletic progress of the people of the Protectorate, and was
officially opened by His Excellency Sir Philip Mitchell in May 1937.
There have been, and still are, critics of the whole system of charging for ad-
mission to public matches, but it can only be repeated that it must surely be those
who are entertained who should pay for the cost of such entertainment and that
they should pay in proportion to the comfort in which they watch.
Finally, a few statistics may be of interest. The present annual income from
the ground is over 600. From this the general recurrent expenditure includes
the cost of upkeep of the ground and fittings and buildings, the cost of sending foot-
ball and athletic teams to Kenya, entertaining visitors here in Uganda and assistance
to the various Associations for their general expenses. These commitments
usually swallow about half of the income, leaving some 300 per annum for im-
provements. Some of these improvements have already been mentioned and it is
the intention of the Trustees eventually to make the ground into a really good
stadium and club for the use of the African. The main stands are to be extended
up and back and roofed over: standing mounds and further seating accommodation
are to be constructed and an infinite variety of amenities introduced. It is hoped
that in the future it will be possible to make tennis courts, a swimming bath and a
main club house: the latter to include reading and recreation rooms, a restaurant
and even finally perhaps residential quarters. Only when all this is done will the
ground be a really fitting memorial, worthy of the games for which it is intended
and the people for whom it is available, and a real "Wembley" of Uganda--a Coun-
try whose progress in sport is not behind its progress in every other direction.
If many now believe the stream to be named after the ground instead of the
reverse, the Nakivubo does not worry but flows quietly on-perhaps part of it
may soon be a mighty canal, thus enabling it to reclaim its name for itself,
Ducks Eating Groundnuts.
By W. J. EGGELING.
When on safari in Bugungu, Bunyoro, early in September 1937, I was arrang-
ing one afternoon with some local fishermen for a small duck-shoot the following
morning, when a bystander suddenly interrupted the conversation by stepping for-
ward and volunteering to take me that very evening to a place where many duck
came every day just before sunset.
He was so certain that duck would be there that I agreed to go with him and
we set off forthwith.
In a short while we arrived at a fairly large native shamba containing plots of
muhogo, beans and cotton and a small brown patch of Stone Groundnuts. (Voand-
zeia subterranean Thou).*
The dry shrivelled appearance of the plants was due, as my guide assured me
and as I soon saw for myself, to their having been twisted round and round by
something wrestling to pull off the half-ripe underground pods. His contention
that ducks were the culprits was borne out by the prints of webbed feet in the
sandy soil and by a few scattered feathers.
Although we lay in wait till nightfall we did not see any duck and, as the
plants had already all been stripped of fruit, it was actually a forlorn hope that any
birds would arrive. This was confirmed by the owner of the plots who told me that
the duck had stopped coming a day or two previously. He had tried everything
he could think of to scare them off, including scare-crows, snares and smoky-fires,
all without success. Finally 'totos' had been sent to guard the shamba in the after-
noons, but by that time the damage had been done and, when I saw it, the crop,
about A acre in extent, was a complete loss. As stated I did not see any duck on
this occasion but from the description of their size, colour, behaviour (including
the habit of perching on a nearby tree), etc., I had little doubt that that they must
be Whistling Teal (sometimes called Fulvous Tree Duck)-Dendrocygna fulva Gm.
-the commonest duck on Lake Albert. This supposition was confirmed in October
when at dawn nre morning I disturbed a flock of about 20 Whistlers on a sadly-
mutilated groundnut plot in the same locality.
Regarding the value of the stone groundnut, which is much less frequently
encountered in Uganda than the common variety (Arachis hypogaea L.), we quote
Daiziel, The Useful Plants of West Tropical Africa (p. 270)-: "As a human food
Balland, considering the proportions of the ingredients, regards Voandzeia seeds
as an example of a natural article possessing the composition of a complete
food, and suggests that (theoretically) one kilo furnishes almost exactly all the bodily
requirements of nitrogen fat and carbohydrate". The wild duck of Bugungu
would seem to know a good thing when they see it !
Mnjugu (njugu) mawe (Kiswahili); Mpande (Luganda, Lugungu ); Ndemesa (Lunyoro),
"Etuku" .......... A Problem Propounded.
By J. F. SHILLITO
In the article on the Coronation Ceremonies of the Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom,
(U. J. IV, p. 289 et seq.) mention is made of the Sacred Guild (Abajwara-Ekondo)
but no account was given of the investing of new members of the guild with their
insignia. This latter ceremony (in its modern form) was witnessed in Toro during
the celebrations of the anniversary of the accession of the present Mukama of
Toro. (3oth January, 1937.)
I have not had the opportunity of investigating this ceremony fully but the
essentials to which I wish to draw attention are these: the recipient, who may have
inherited his Ekondo or been awarded it for good services, kneels before the
Mukama in the presence of the other Guild members while the Omusuna ties to his
forehead a single scarlet tail-feather of the common grey parrot and places a string
of blue beads round his neck.
Omusuna is the title of the hereditary Head of the Guild and it is under-
stood that he claims descent from Bamuroga who accompanied the first of the
Babito Kings into Kitara and invested him (Rukidi I ) with the feather (Etiku) that
he later incorporated into his crown (Ekondo)l. When the recipient has accumulat-
ed enough of these scarlet feathers, he has his Ekondo made, and the original
feather with which he was invested is the first to be placed on the beadwork of the
crown. These emblems may only be worn during the first four days of the lunar
month, while carrying out the ceremonial observances of those days, and for
special occasions, anniversaries, etc., though it is not unlikely that in the past these
would be timed to coincide with the former period.
Turning now to Mr. Geoffrey Gorer's book, "AFRICA DANCES", opposite to
page 337 we find the following descriptive note to an illustration of two bronze
figures from Dahomey.
"This group is typical of modern Dahomeyan work. It represents very
exactly a woman worshipper of the snake fetish Danh dancing in full re-
galia, with the python on her shoulders. Notice the parrot's feather on her
forehead-the insignia of a fetisher-and the necklaces. Behind her is a
man playing the special tom-tom."
While it is probable that the python is now not held in veneration to any great
degree, there still remain isolated examples of "sacred" pythons in Uganda, though
it would appear that the Sacred Guild is now free from association with such a
cult. The similarity of insignia is surely a clue worth following up and I should
be interested to hear if connecting links can be traced across the continent.
In conclusion I should like to thank the Katikiro of Bunyoro-Kitara and also
the Katikiro of Toro for information willingly supplied.
1, Compare Uganda Journal Vol. IV p. 75,
The Dry Crossing of the Nile Near Nimule.
By E.J. WAYLAND.
Mr. Watney's note under the above title in the Coronation Number of the
Journal is interesting from several points of view; one of them is this: tradition
has it that the dry crossing appears in famine years, and according to expectation
famine-time should be approaching. Recorded famine years are 1898, 1908, 1918-
19 and 1928; but my informant told me that the crossing formed in 1917, disappear-
ed in 1921 and was reformed about 1930. Mr. Watney shows the dry crossing to
be breaking up again.
The dry crossing near Nimule as it is called-actually it is much nearer Old
Belgian Fort (a recognized camping place) but few people have heard of it-has
been in the scientific news of late. In the issue of Nature for February 22nd of this
year the present writer drew attention to a criticism of Emil Ludwig's work
(translated by H. Lindsay) in which Dr. Hurst, the greatest authority on the Nile,
obviously doubts the existence of "a natural bridge so strong that it bears the
elephant from one bank to another" and adds "Nobody else has even reported this
bridge". In his reply to my letter calling attention to the Uganda Journal for
January, 1934, Dr. Hurst points out that the Arabic word "sudd" means blockage,
and he describes some temporary Nile blockages which have occurred, on the
lower Bahr el Jebel for the most part (Nature loc cit), and adds "In 1934 1 was on
what appears to to be the spot described by Dr. (sic) Wayland, and at that time a
block must have been just beginning to form, for at a point where the river narrows
suddenly there was an accumulation of floating dead vegetation mostly umsoof,
covering the whole width of the river and extending perhaps thirty yards upstream.
It was, however not at all consolidated nor was it a serious obstruction to the
river". This cannot have been the spot where the dry crossing now under discus-
sion occurs, however, for the river does not narrow at that point.
Following up Dr. Hurst's letter, Dr. A.E.H. Tutton writes (Nature, January
12th., p. 994) as follows :-
"It may be of interest to add to the record of the observations by Dr. (sic)
Wayland, from the air in 1930* and by an actual passage on foot in 1933, that a
natural bridge does from time to time exist across the higher reaches of the Nile,
strong enough to bear the elephant, a still more remarkable observation by my
late brother-in-law, Mr. Leonard Loat, made and recorded by him in the year 1902,
during his survey of the fishes of the Nile for Lord Cromer's Government and the
British Museum (Natural History). In a letter to me describing the difficulties
then being met with, owing to the remarkable density and solidity of the "sudd"
between Fashoda and Gondookoro, he states that he had just observed a herd of
over two hundred elephants walking on the sudd over the river. When he return-
ed to England for a short leave, before undertaking a similar survey up the Blue
A mistake occurs in my original note under this head (Uganda Journal, Vol. 1, p.68,
paragraph- 2),-for 1930 read 1931.
Nile, I asked him whether he had recorded a solid fact or was indulging in a tra
veller's tale, as it seemed a very extraordinary circumstance, if true. He was
most emphatic, however, as to its being literally true, and that he had ceased to
count the elephants after the two hundredth; also that he had been accompanied by
a big-game hunter friend at the time, as well, of course, as by the Egyptian skipper
and Sudanese crew of his little survey vessel, a specially fitted dahabeyah, all of
whom were greatly interested in the unusual spectacle. It is referred to in the
obituary notice of Mr. Loat's work which appeared in the Times of April 30, 1932."
Hippo Hunting by Night,
By JOCK JARDINE.
Hippo-hunting by night is very popular with the natives along the Albert Nile
although, from my experience, for real thrills I should place hippo-hunting by night
next to elephant-hunting. I was once asked by my native friends to join in one of
these hunts and as 1 should gain a lot of experience (even in the dark) I gladly ac-
cepted. Canoes were prepared during the afternoon, spears with dried logs to act
as floats attached by ropes were all put in order and the hour of departure fixed
for 5. p.m. Each canoe was manned by a spearman and a paddler and had a
smouldering log of wood placed in the bottom. This last had two uses-one for the
lighting of cigarettes and the other for keeping the mosquitoes away. A special
seat made out of wood was put in position for me to sit on, and this was quite
comfortable as long as the canoe did not wobble about. We left for the hunting
grounds which hippo were known to frequent when coming ashore at night, the
well defined water-ways leading to the banks being easily detected in the fast fad-
ing light. In one of these we took up our position, the canoe being pushed back
into the papyrus clear of the path used by the hippo. The long, deadly spears
with ropes attached were laid ready; the logs used as floats tightly fastened; and
we sat down to wait.
Up and down the river hippo could be heard grunting away and it seemed
hours before the first arrival made its appearance. As the spearman stood erect
in the canoe with his spear held in his two hands the excitement became more and
more tense and I kept wondering what was going to happen to our canoe when
the animal was speared. The animal gave a snort and a blow just as it was
about opposite the canoe, making its way ashore, and the spearman raised his
deadly weapon and drove it in just behind the shoulder. The animal gave a scream
as it turned and plunged in the water, a second spear was driven in, the ropes and
floats were thrown into the water and I found myself hanging on for all I was
worth with the canoe swaying from side to side. The spearman appeared to
balance himself in mid-air.
Back into the river went the hippo, splashing and screaming as he went, and
as soon as the canoe steadied we pushed out from the papyrus and followed it.
This part of the hunt I did not relish-the following of the wounded animal that was
plunging about in the river in the dark with two spears in it-but the canoe-boy
kept the float in view and kept on. How he saw it was a mystery to me as when
the animal was down I could see nothing. He said that the animal was moving
down-stream and kept paddling on. At last it came up but this time it was rolling
over and over and was in its death throes. Finally it sank. News of the kill was
sent out by tapping on the side of the canoe until a faint reply was heard in the
distance, and the hunt was over. We returned to camp and I was still able to
snatch a few hours sleep before daybreak.
In the morning the dead hippo was towed ashore to where men, women and
children could assemble to cut up the meat, and by noon only the skull and large
Plant Hunting on Tropical Mountains.
SECOND BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) EXPEDITION TO RUWENZORI,
"MOUNTAINS OF THE MOON."
By PATRICK M. SYNGE.
E. LINDSAY DRUMMOND-15S. od.
In a manner intended for those who do not know one plant from another as
well as for the expert, this book recounts the experiences of a Scientific expedition
sent primarily to study the flora and fauna of the Ruwenzori range situated on
the Western boundary of Uganda. During a period of ten months spent in East
Africa one or more of the party visited Mts. Elgon and Kenya, the Aberdare Moun-
tains and also the Virunga Mountains; surely an ambitious programme for so short
a visit. Although not the first ascent attempted by the author that of Ruwenzori
receives pride of place in the book as it was the major enterprise and partly, no
doubt, on account of its traversing but slightly known territory.
By way of remote and previously unexplored valleys the expedition reached
the Summit of Weiseman Peak amidst the Equatorial Snows. Mr.. Synge was
clearly awestruck by the strange world revealed to him and enraptured by the gro-
tesque and monstrous vegetative forms which he encountered in the high regions.
He attempts to convey his impressions and flights of fancy to the reader, a method
to my mind less pleasing and effective than a dispassionate presentation of the pic-
ture, leaving the reader, as it were, to see the landscape for himself.
The accounts of the author's visits to the various other mountains in Uganda
and Kenya are in some degree repetitions, for as Mr. Synge points out close af-
finities exist between the striking plant communities at high altitudes on all the
East African Equatorial Mountains, a phenomenon of much interest to the Scien-
Later chapters tell of a most interesting trip in a dug-out canoe on Lake Kioga,
give a brief history of a limited part of Uganda and an account of native life in
town and district. In this part of the book Mr. Synge is revealed in many minor
errors which although perhaps unperceived by the visitor are only too apparent to
The final chapter is concerned with the potentialities for progress and cultural
development of the Baganda and the author indicates the educational attitude and
method which he feels should be applied in the best interests of the people. There
is little in the chapter specially applicable to the nature of Uganda, the author's
suggestions being such as are generally recognized as ideals in the directed cultural
evolution of a backward people.
The book is illustrated by some excellent photographs and by reproductions
of oil paintings, water colours and drawings, of varying merit, by Mr. Stuart
Somerville. The artist has captured the spirit and attitudes of the people, but
depicts the African Scene with less success.
Legends relating to the Mountains of the Moon of the ancients are collected
in an appendix which also discusses the claims of Ruwenzori to this title and
explains at some length former beliefs as to the sources of the Nile.
Successful attempts to cultivate in England some of the more striking plants
collected are recorded in a further appendix; a most interesting experiment neces-
sitating much care and labour which I hope will be rewarded by great enrichment
of English Gardens.
F. R. B.
Mr. Synge contributed to the Uganda Journal. Vol. II page 145.
By J. R. P. POSTLETHWAITE, C. B. E.
H. F. & G. WITHERBY, LTD., 7S. 6d.
(Re-printed with permission from "The Uganda Herald.")
We welcome the publication of Mr. Postlethwaite's little book, "African
Roses", consisting of sixteen very readable short stories and seventeen appropriate
poems which are crowded into less than 200 pages. The author gives us an open-
ing chapter of admitted autobiography and the story of the opening of Kitgum as
a station. We are sorry, however, that he only gives us one reason as to how
Bwana Gweno got his name The rest of the book is described as "more or less
fiction;" but those of us who knew the author, and are acquainted with some ofhis
contemporaries and his achievements, can perceive that it is rather less than more.
Many of the events described will be passed down as history, though not to be
found in the archives in Entebbe, while some of the characters almost burst through
their thin covering of disguise!
For those who do not know Africa, or who have not had the fortune to have
seen Uganda before the headlong rush to progress overtook it during the last two
decades, the book fulfils a need. To those who know Acholiland some of the tales
are especially interesting. The author has given us some episode connected with
every district in which he worked, Busoga, Mengo, Masaka, Toro, etc. To Kampala
residents the poem, Nile Water, should appeal. The "little town in Africa nest-
ling mid seven hills" is, however, beginning to outgrow its nestling habits, while
one might almost think that the lines
...the Nakasero lights
Shine bright across the valley
To the Namirembe heights
would have been slightly altered if written in 1938, when, thanks to Messrs. Balfour
& Beatty, we have blazing electric street lamps.
From so many good stories it is difficult to pick outstanding ones. Those that
appealed most to the writer of this review were the Blackman's Gods, No more
of that, Twelve o'clock and alls well, The Failure, Conditions on the spot, and Pete.
The book is written with knowledge and insight. The author knows his
Africa and its inhabitants, whether it is the blackman, who is a mixture of "friend-
liness and suspicion, or "the misunderstood and ill-used official who did his job,
whatever the consequences." The petty quarrels and hates of station life are por-
trayed, but for the man who is treated unfairly"the scars grow smaller as the years
go by." Even the evils of parents being separated from their children are touched
on, and the moral drawn.
The book is worth reading, if only for one thing, the epitaph of the late Pete
Pearson in the tale and poem called Pete. As one reads one's mind is carried to
the little stone monument overlooking Lake Albert, the scene ofmany of his exploits.
The last two stanzas bear repeating:
He had no time for orders, and he hated human laws,
His views on right and wrong were quite absurd,
But he never broke a promise or failed a pal in need,
And he knew all nature's laws for beast and bird.
He'd never seen a rugger match, he'd never held a bat,
He'd never heard the tufters raise the hind,
But he'd grin and bluff and win, with a ruddy busted flush,
And all he'd ask was danger of a kind.
We must congratulate Mr. Postlethwaite on his book, which we hope will find
its way to every Uganda bookshelf, and much further afield, while we look forward
to more African flowers from his pen.
The Bisoro Stories.
By AKIKI K. NYABONGO.
(BASIL BLACKWOOD, OXFORD. 3s. 6d.)
(Re-printed with permission from "The Uganda Herald")
This pleasing little book, by the author of "Africa Answers Back," we are
assured, is the second of a series of books for Western children, and we are
promised more. As the Lutoro-English title implies, they are African animal tales,
and should delight the heart of many an English child. The book is well illustrat-
ed by Gabriel Pippet.
The tales do not purport to be derived from anyone part of Africa, but, judg-
ing by the names of those who have helped to collect them, presumably they were
culled in Toro. We meet some old favourites which are known in other parts of
Africa, sometimes with slight variations, such as The leopard and the rabbit; Mr.
Hare; The race between the dog and the tortoise ; The leopard and the rabbit; Why
the bat only goes out at night; Why the giraff has a long neck; How the leopard got
his spots. But there are number of most interesting new tales.
It is a pity, however, that the author could not give us the English equivalents
of Mr. Kyingora and Mr. Ntuha. It is much easier for children to understand Mr.
Crow and Mr. Golden-crested Crane. We are sorry, also, that the author is still
unable to keep away from Mrs. Baskerville's rendering of "How the Grey Parrot
got its red tail." Though not mentioning this tale, yet he gives a poem which in
metre and spirit is so obviously like the poem in that story, that it is little less
than a parody of it.
Nevertheless, those who are interested in African folk-tales will find some-
thing in The Bisoro Stories well worth reading, while mothers who like bed-time
stories to read to their children are recommended to try this little book.
In the last number of the Uganda Journal the name of C. W. Chorley appears
in error at the foot of the illustration Fig. 2. of Mr. E.J. Wayland's article, follow-
ing p. 252.
INDEX TO VOLUME
BIRCH, J. P. Madi Blacksmiths. *
Some Notes on the Metu People of
BISSET, C. B. Hill-Top Hollows in Masaka District.
BOOTH, A. J. The Possibilities of Sailplaning and
Gliding in Uganda.
CARPENTER, G. D. HALE Do Birds Eat Butterflies ?
CHORLEY, C. W. Waterspouts.
The Effect of Cloud on the Behaviour of
CRAZZOLARA, J. P. The Lwoo People.
DAVIES, K. A. World Mineral Production and Uganda's
EGGELING, W. J. Ducks Eating Groundnuts.
HERSKOVITS, M. J. Mweso.
JARDINE, JOCK Hippo Hunting by Night.
KENNEDY, F. R. Teso Clans.
METTAM, R. W. M. A Short History of Rinderpest with
Special Reference to Africa.
PERSSE, E. M. Waterspouts.
PITMAN, C. R. S. A Guide to the Snakes of Uganda. Part IX.
,, ,, ,, ,, X .
,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, X I.
ROGERS, F. H. The Stamps of Uganda.
SHILLITO, J. F. "Etuku"-A Problem Propounded.
SNOXALL, R. A. Busemba.
Word Importation into Bantu Language
with particular reference to Ganda
THOMAS, H. B. Gordon's Farthest South in Uganda in 1876.
W., K. The Kings of Bunyoro-Kitara. Part III.
Abakama ba Bunyoro-Kitara. Part III
WAYLAND, E. J. Note on a Prehistoric 'Inscription'
in Ankole and Uganda.
The Dry Crossing of the Nile near
WooD, H.H. The Uganda Native War Memorial
Recreation Ground, Kampala
WRIGHT, A. C. A. The Lwoo People.
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