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Front Cover 1
Front Cover 2
Table of Contents
Further Memories of Uganda
The Uses of the Banana
Basoga Death and Burial Rites
Empisa Ezokuzika mu Busoga
Some Notes on the Mountains of Uganda
Back Cover 1
Back Cover 2
her Mewi ip
litel 4M # onmk F UMO
Vol. II. OCTOBER, 1934. No. 2.
Further Memories of Uganda.
The Uses of the Banana...
Basoga Death and Burial Rites.
Some Notes on the Mountains of
... by SIR ALBERT COOK. KT., C.M.G., O.B.E., M.D.
... ... ... ... ... by A. D. F. T.
... ..Uganda. by PATRCK. .A., .R..S.
Uganda. by PATRICK M. SYNGE, B.A., F.R.G.S.
Jackson and von Tiedemann. ... ...
An Interesting Hybrid. ...
Mimicry. ... ...
Observations on Bird Migrations
on Nsadzi Isle, Lake Victoria.
... ... by H.B. THOMAS. O.B.E.
... by H.L. DUKE. O.B.E., M.D., SC.D.
... ... ... by W. C. SIMMONS.
by C. W. CHORLEY. F.Z.S., A.R.P.S
Abdim's Stork. ...
First Uganda Stamps ...
Some Notes on the Northern Islands on Lake Victoria.
Die Kolonisation Ugandas.
Bark-cloth Making in the Central Celebes.
The Uganda Journal
THE ORGAN OF THE UGANDA LITERARY
AND SCIENTIFIC SOCIETY
... ... ... ... by W. J. EGGELING. B.SC.
... ... ... ... ... by R. M. K. KASULE.
... ... ... ... ... ... by E. G. SMITH.
THE UGANDA LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC
There are no restrictions as to membership of the Uganda Literary and
Scientific Society. Membership is open to all races and to Institutions and
Clubs. No entrance fee is imposed. The annual subscription, which is payable
in advance on ist July of each year, is Shs. io for single membership and Shs. 15
for double members. The double membership is introduced for the convenience
of families and entitles two members of a family to all the rights and privileges
of a full member except that they receive only one copy of each number of the
Additional copies of the Journal may be obtained from the Hon. Secretary
and Treasurer, price Shs. 2/50 per copy. A limited number of bound copies of
Volume i and a few single copies of each of the first two numbers can be obtained,
either from the Hon. Secretary and Treasurer or the Uganda Bookshop, price
Shs to for the bound Volume i and Shs 3 for single copies. Arrangements have
been made w:th the Uganda Printing and Publishing Company, Ltd., Kampala, to
bind the volumes of the Journal at a cost of Shs. 2/50 per volume. All subscriptions
and contributions to the Journal should be addressed to the Hon. Secretary and
Treasurer, P.O., Kampala. No guarantee is given to return any MSS. submitted.
Articles should be typed on one side of the sheet only and should not contain
matter likely to cause political or religious controversy.Those submitted by
Government Officials must comply with Colonial Office Regulations; they should
either be submitted t.f. s. the Head of Department concerned or they should
be addressed to the Editor, with a request that he will obtain the necessary
permission for publication.
THE UGANDA LITERARY AND 'SCIENTIFIC
His EXCELLENCY SIR B. H. BOURDILLON, K.C.M.G., K.B.E.
E. J. WAYLAND, ESQ.
P. L. FENTON, ESQ.
MRS. H. H. HUNTER.
MRS. C. G. MOODY.
R. A. SNOXALL, ESQ.
DR. A. T. SCHOFIELD.
OMW. E. S. W. KIRONDE.
Honorary Secretary, Treasurer, and Ed.'tor :
E. F. TWINING, ESQ., M.B E.
Representative in Great Britain.:
E. B. HADDON, ESQ., 3 Cranmer Road, Cambridge.
N. B.-The Society's Postal Address is P. 0., Kampa.'a; and
its Bankers the National Bank of India, Ltd., Kampala.
Since the last issue of the Journal good progress has been made in regard to
the consolidation of the position of the Society. The-close of the first year of the
revived Society led to a stocktaking of the achievements of the year and the
results were published in the form of a short report, together with the accounts
and balance sheet and a list of members. Copies of these were distributed to all
last year's members. Briefly, the results included a sound, if modest, financial
position, with an excess of assets over liabilities of some .1,'11, the Journal
on a firm footing with every promise of a bright future, and a membership of
The report and accounts were adopted by a general meeting at which there
was a satisfactory attendance representative of the wide field from which our
members are drawn. The discussions on the various matters on the agenda, if
not lively, at least showed the keen interest which is taken in our activities.
At the time of going to press it is not possible to give the results of the ballot
in regard to the proposed change of name of the Society, but the votes received to
date show a majority of three to one in favour of a change to "The Uganda
Society", although those voting against the proposal include some of our most
Whatever the ultimate results of the ballot may be, it has long been apparent
that a new constitution must be adopted, for in spite of the amendments made to
the old rules by a general meeting last year it has been found that our present
constitution is neither adequate for the proper functioning of the Society nor
particularly suitable in form. A draft new constitution will be adopted by the
Committee and circulated to members for their confirmation.
In the first two and a half months of the new financial year our membership
has increased to 380. Satisfactory though this is, there is still a long way to go
before we reach the desirable minimum membership of 500. This is a matter in
which all can assist by interesting those who have not yet joined. The figure 380
includes nearly oo00 entirely new members and it is sincerely hoped that most of
those 55 old members who have not yet rejoined have merely overlooked the fact
that their subscriptions are over due.
A suggestion has been made that the Society should appoint a representative
in every District, or at least in all important Districts, whose functions would be
to interest people in the Society's activities and thus swell the membership, and to
canvass for articles and notes on local subjects so as to ensure that all parts of
the Protectorate shall be adequately dealt with in the Journal. The Hon. Secretary
would be glad to be notified of any persons willing to serve in such a capacity, al-
though the final selection of representatives must, of course, rest with the
After a number of false starts, it has been definitely decided to hold the
proposed Arts and Crafts Exhibition under the aegis of the Society. The Society
has given a limited financial guarantee and the organisation of the Exhibition is
well advanced. Considerable interest is being shown and there is every promise of
a popular and successful Exhibition.
This Editorial note provides a suitable opportunity of voicing the gratitude of
all members for the very real support that we have received from our honoured
and distinguished retiring President, Sir Albert Cook. It is unfortunate that the
existing constitution does not allow of more than one Vice-President, but that
deficiency will soon be rectified and we hope that Sir Albert will accept a
permanent place among the Society's officers and will be spared for many years to
give us his support and occasionally to take us back with him through that
stirring early period of Uganda's history and development in which he has played
such a worthy part. His second lecture, delivered to a large audience in July,
has been put on permanent record in this number of the Journal under the title of
"Further Memories of Uganda.
Our new President Mr. E. J. Wayland, is also our oldest member, being one
of the original founders of the Society, and we can rest assured that under his
Presidency the Society will make further progress.
Further Memories of Uganda.
By SIR ALBERT R. COOK, KT., C.M.G., O.B.E., M.D.
It is with some diffidence that I am venturing to put on record some fur-
ther early memories of Uganda. I should certainly not have done so had I not been
pressed by several members to give some more reminiscences on the same lines as
my last paper.
It is perhaps of some little interest as showing how far the Uganda Journal, the
organ of our Society, travels, to mention that a few weeks ago I had a letter
from Colonel Molony, a cousin of the Captain Molony whose death I mentioned as
occurring in 1898 while helping to put down the Soudanese Mutiny, asking if I
could give him more information about that gallant young officer who was
shot at close quarters while leading a charge of his men against the rebel
stronghold at Kabagambi. This I have been enabled to do as Captain Molony
was both a patient of mine, when suffering from severe lion wounds, and a
warm personal friend. A further link with the past was afforded by the visit re-
cently to Uganda of Colonel Thruston who came to glean any available news of
his brother, Major Thruston, who was murdered at Luba's in the same mutiny
in October 1897. Through the kindness of the Provincial Commissioner, Buganda,
I had the pleasure of meeting the old veteran who has had a distinguished naval and
military career, and of telling him what I had known of Major Thruston, for it
so happened that I had met him on his way through Kampala to Luba's a few days
before the murder of himself and his two companions.
My last paper took us up to the close of the I9th Century. Two important
dates in the subsequent years are the arrival of the railway from Mombasa at
the Lake in December 1901, and the outbreak of the Great War, 1914-1918.
As before, my authorities are chiefly my own diaries and journal letters written
at the time, but from January 1900 forward there is another and quite important
source in the magazine printed and published monthly by the C.M.S.-first
entitled Mengo Notes, but in 1902 changed to Uganda Notes. I have a complete
set of these periodicals which had a fairly wide circulation, both in Uganda and
among those interested in the Protectorate in England. It was indisputably the
first newspaper in Uganda for the Uganda Herald did not start till July 19t2,
twelve years later, and even the East African Standard only began in 1903.
It was preceded by a cyclostyled Quarterly Record in 1899 but unfortunately
I have lost my copies of this periodical. These more ephemeral productions
were supplemented by quite a copious output of, for the most part, well-written
books dealing with travel or administration. Thus in the pre-railway period
we have, "The Rise of our East African Empire" in two volumes by Lugard;
"The Mission to Uganda" by Sir Gerald Portal; "The Land of the Nile Springs"
by Col. Colville; "Soldiering and Surveying in British East Africa" by Major
Macdonald; "With Macdonald in Uganda," by Major Austin; "Early Days in
East Africa" by Sir F. Jackson; "The Uganda Protectorate" by Sir Harry
Johnston; "Uganda and its Peoples" by Cunningham; "Eighteen Years in Uganda
and East Africa" by Bishop Tucker; and many others.
Sometimes, it must be confessed, it is hard to disentangle from ambiguous
titles the record of really excellent work in Uganda. Who would guess that in the
volume entitled, "Some Reminiscences of an Old Bromsgrovian" by General Ternan,
published quite recently, lie hidden racy accounts of the time when he was in
Uganda in 1894-7 ? His account of his reception at Entebbe is so amusing
that I must quote it : "Upon landing" he wrote, "I went off at once to report to
Jackson, but had forgotten that not having shaved since leaving the Coast, I was
adorned by a thin straggling, reddish-coloured beard; my costume was also hardly
as smart as it might have been for the occasion, consisting as it did of a very worn
and patched pair of knickers, a flannel shirt, and a very battered and faded terai
hat. I sported the remains of a large white-and-green umbrella to keep off the sun.
The result was that Jackson, who saw me approaching, at once jumped to the
conclusion that I was a missionary, and it was some time before we got matters
straight as to my identity."
"Seymour Vandeleur," by Col. Maxse, fills up some gaps in local history. His
work in Bunyoro was remarkable both as a surveyor and soldier and it was a
sad loss to the Empire when that brilliant young soldier who had done so much in
Uganda, Nigeria and the Sudan was foully done to death by the Boers. But if we
have gained much from the books written, it is tempting to think what we might not
have gained had certain well known characters put down their impressions in print.
George Wilson for example, commonly known as "Tayari", still happily with us
though long retired, what an adventurous life he lived-from industrial work
at Kibwezi in connection with the Scotch Mission to being Lugard's right-hand man
at Dagoreti, and finally on several occasions Acting Commissioner of Uganda. He
richly deserved his C. B.
Fred Pordage too. The very mention of his name recalls the man, dead
alas! now for over twenty years, he set his mark on Uganda. I can still see him
reconstructing the Fort on Old Kampala Hill during the Mutiny, and hear in
imagination his cheerful cry of "'o 'apa" to the workmen. Neither languages
nor aspirates were among his strong points but good humour and kindliness were.
I remember a Government Official, coming out new to the country in the old
'safari' days, was told that he would probably meet Pordage on his way up
country. On asking how he should recognize him he was told to look out for a
very friendly man. On crossing the Athi plains he met a down-country caravan
in which was being carried a litter with a sick Muzungu in it. On approaching
it a hand was thrust forth from under the awning and a feeble voice said:
"I don't know 'oo you are, but any'ow, 'ow are you?" He concluded rightly
that is was F.P. He was seldom ruffled, but once his feelings got the better of him.
It was when the railway was half way up to Uganda and complaints of thefts were
common. Pordage and his friends were wishful to replenish their supply of stimu-
lants and to safeguard the contents of a case of whisky had it labelled only "Medi-
cal Comforts". In due time the box arrived, apparently intact and of due weight but
alas! on being opened it contained only coal, the contents having been abstracted
and replaced by lumps of coal, which was used on the engines in those days.
He had called together a party of friends to celebrate the occasion and their
feelings of disgust can better be imagined than described.
Or "Martini" as he was affectionately called, the ex-Maltese sailor, who though
unable even to write became a District Commissioner. Or again Archdeacon Walker,
the hero of many an epic adventure, who arrived in Uganda in April 1888 to be
welcomed by the Kabaka Mwanga, then in the zenith of his persecuting policy, only
to be thrust forth in October 1888, with barely the clothes he stood in. As he only
retired in 19 2 many readers will remember him. Four miles west of the township
of Kampala, at Natete, opposite the present Church, is a large mound covering the
foundations of the double-storied brick house in which Walker and the Rev. Cyril
Gordon lived. A rising by the Mohammedan Arabs, in whose hands the new Ka-
baka Kiwewa was amerepuppet, was directed against the missionaries, both Protes-
tantand Roman Catholic. They destroyed the house, plundered the contents, and
all but killed the missionaries. Walker wrote "The Katikiro filled my white iron
box with the things he liked best, and made bundles of other things. Other Chiefs
did the same. All this time we heard the rabble thundering at the doors down-
stairs. The whole place was gutted. The doors were smashed and some torn off
their hinges, and the a hole place stripped and cleared of every thing. I remained
upstairs and watched the most painful sight: boxes of jam and butter thrown to the
crowds in the garden; men climbing in at the windows, tearing down any bit
of calico they could find, emptying the contents of the medicine bottles on the
floor, tearing the backs off all the books; smashing up anything they could not use."
The next day the whole party including some twenty natives from the French
Mission were taken down to Munyonyo and thrust on board the C. M. S. boat, the
"Eleanor," where they were robbed once more of some of the few things remaining
to them, Mr. Walker having even to part with his coat and trousers. They landed
on the little island at the mouth of Murchison Bay where a terrible misfortune
happened. They had only gone a short way when a hippopotamus charged
the boat and stove it in. They were all precipitated into the water, and five of the
natives drowned. The French Bishop, Mgr. Livinhac, showed his evangelistic zeal
by offering to baptize Archdeacon Walker while the boat was sinking! However,
they all swam ashore and the boat was eventually recovered and patched up and
the party reached the south end of the Lake. Archdeacon Walker is still alive and
well and lives at Wimbledon. What a book he could write if he only would!
But we must return to the period under review. The arrival of the telegraph
line at the Capital on April 12th, 900o, preceded by nearly two years the
arrival of the railway line at the Lake. The Boer War was then raging in
South Africa and we suddenly found ourselves up to date with Reuter's news
from the Front. This happy conditionof affairs did not last long, however, for where
the line passed through the Nandi country it was being constantly cut down.
On one occasion no less than sixty miles of wire were removed and coiled
into bracelets, etc., or cut into pieces and used as slugs for their muzzle-loading guns.
The actual record for length was taken by a telegram despatched from Mom-
basa on July 28 which arrived at Kampala on September 19, a period of seven weeks.
Another left Naivasha on July 18 of that year (900o) and only arrived on Sep-
tember 14. It brought the news of Queen Victoria's death quickly enough however.
It is hard for many now to realize the enormous difference which the arrival
of the Railway at the Lake in December 901o made to the Protectorate. Steamers
were placed on the Lake and began to ply regularly from what was always called
then Ugowe Bay (Kisumu) to Entebbe and Port Bell. There had been small steam
launches on the Lake before. The first called the "Ruwenzori" was owned one-third
by the C.M.S., and two-thirds by Boustead, Ridley and Co. The May goo number
of Mengo Notes records its decease thus: "An official notice has been received from
B.R. and Co., stating that as the launch "Ruwenzori" has become a total wreck on
the island of Dwera off Busoga, she has been handed over to the underwriters.
A miserable end to the miserable life of a miserable boat. 'Gone but not forgotten'.
Friends will please accept this the only intimation". It is only fair to say, however,
that my own recollections of the boat are happier. When Dr. Macpherson and I in
November 1897 brought Mr. Jackson (as he was then) into Munyonyo from Luba's
with a severe bullet wound in his lung, we found the little steamer most useful,
and I shall never forget the eight hours steaming through the night, the lovely
coast of Kyagwe lying half-concealed and half-revealed under the light of the nearly
full moon. To the wounded man it was heaven instead of the other place, which
would have been involved in porterage or canoe travelling, so peace be with its
The advent of the Railway meant that permanent brick buildings could
be put up. Corrugated iron for roofing began to replace thatch. Cement floors were
laid down in place of beaten mud daubed weekly with cow dung to keep down
jiggers and fleas. Washable distemper was used for the walls instead of coating
with 'noni'. Guttering collected the rain water off the iron roofs and it could be
stored in metal tanks. All this made for hygienic living, and the amenities of life
were imported on reasonable terms.
A huge benefit resulting from the new way of building was the com-
parative freedom from fire. Nothing strikes one more on looking through old papers
and journals than the constant menace or occurrence of fires. Most were caused by
lightning striking the thatched roof. At one time it was the primitive Government
Telegraph Office, then again an Indian trader's store; private houses were fre-
quently burnt, the unfortunate owner losing most of his possessions (which
at that time were not easily replaced), for a thatched roof and reed walls
stuffed with dry elephant grass became a roaring furnance in ten minutes.
Some here will remember the great Cathedral, a vast thatched building seating
4000 people, going up in flames in 1911, after being struck by lightning.
The fire that made most impression on us however was that which caused
the destruction of our Hospital on November 28, 1902. To quote from my journal,
written at the time, I wrote to the Home Committee: "The cable despatched from
here will have told you the sad tidings that our beautiful Hospital was destroyed
by lightning on the night of Friday, November z8. That week had been an excep-
tionally busy one, some twenty-eight patients having been admitted, so that the
wards were crowded. We made our last rounds as usual at 6 p.m. that evening,
and left everything tidy and nice, the long rows of sick happily settled for the night,
looking very comfortable with their bright red blankets, under the subdued light
given from the hanging lamps recently presented to the Hospital. What a different
light was soon to glare upon them! Having had several short nights, we turned
in early, about io p.m., just as the usual storm was starting. It came with
lightning but one gets accustomed to that here. About 10.30, however, in the
height of the storm, a vivid blaze, followed immediately by a clap of thunder
that shook the room, proclaimed that one of the flaming shafts had struck near
us. Two or three flashes followed but not so close. In a few minutes however I
noticed the strip of sky visible between the top of the ill-fitting reed shutters and
the lintel of the window lit up by a glare. I rushed to the window and wrenched
it open and saw that the Hospital was on fire. To slip on trousers, jacket
and shoes was the work of a moment, and we tore for the Hospital. My wife was
almost beside herself with anxiety for the sick, for one or two people we met on
the way told us that they were all being burnt in the house. However, this was
quite a mistake. We rushed out into the full fury of a tropical storm. What a
scene it was! Spouting columns of fire leaping twenty feet into the air! The lightning
had struck one corner of the women's ward (in spite of the lightning conductors)
and instantly ignited the thatch. This ward one could not penetrate Running to the
far end of the men's ward, I met my brother there, and we plunged into the build-
ing, meeting a stream of Baganda trying to carry out beds. Our time was limited
to minutes, and in less time than it takes to tell we had removed most of the
things in our Pathological Room. Then came a warning cry, for 112 tons of
thatch were burning above. But we remembered the Operating Room, which is
situated in the centre of the building. There was not a moment to lose; the door
was locked, but running back a few steps, I hurled myself against it, and smashed
it open. The heat was intense, blinding waves of fire were tossing above; for two
-awful minutes we grabbed wildly at everything we could lay hands on, and then
fled for our lives.
The native assistant in charge of the Men's Ward was actually walking round
the building when the lightning struck it, as the violence of the storm threatened to
carry away the roof.. He instantly ran to the Women's Ward and flung open the
doors, bidding them escape, and then seizing the drum, carried it outside and beat
the alarm. Meanwhile the other native assistants carried out the bedridden, the rest
escaping as best they could.
The cataract of rain pouring down had no effect whatever on the fire, but
diminished the number of those who came to help. From the time the building was
struck till when it became impossible to enter was only a few minutes, so but little
could be saved We got out the hospital registers, our microscopes, and perhaps
o10 worth of instruments, but little else.
No life was lost. One man had his leg broken while being carried out when his
:bearer stumbled and fell, but he was the only sufferer. It was wonderful how the
others escaped; a woman with her new-born babe, another with only one leg, two
men who had just had radical cures for hernia performed on them, a bad case of
pyaemia, an ovariotomy, etc., whom one would have thought hardly capable of
moving, bolted out like rabbits on the alarm being given. The roof being an open
one and composed merely of reeds, palmpoles and tons of thatch, soon fell in, and
most of the walls collapsed. In twenty minutes the building was one vast pyramid
of flame; in a couple of hours the glowing walls alone remained. Even then the situa-
tion was not without its humour. Our two quite new instrument cupboards of plate
glass, that had only been unpacked a day or two before, were indeed rescued by
willing helpers who staggered out with them, but once outside, not in the least
realizing the brittle nature of glass, they flung them down with a shout of triumph,
shattering them into pieces".
This is not the time to tell of the kindness shown and the help given but when
the new Hospital, the present one, arose like the phoenix from the ashes of the old,
it was built of permanent materials, thanks to the Railway.
With the Railway came a flood of Indian shopkeepers. Roughly speaking no
Indians started trade in the country before 900o but there were representatives
of two British trading firms, Smith Mackenzie and Boustead, Ridley & Co. They
had their stores on the slopes of Nakasero about where the Uganda Company is
to-day. The former was called by the natives "Ntula mbi" (a bad position) because
the store was situated just behind the fence of the Mohammedan Prince Mbogo.
With these small traders came an influx of European trade goods and the
effect was not always happy. In Kavirondo, then an integral part of the Uganda
Protectorate, the mixture of the old and new was positively ludicrous.
The Kavirondo male in his savage nudity, in spite of disfiguring his body
with blotches of red or yellow clay on the face, and elaborate decorations in mud
over the body, was not without a certain native dignity; but when an enterprising
trader from the coast brought up cases of billy-cock hats, waistcoats, etc., and sold
them to the native desiring to be dressed a la nmde in the European fashion the
result was frankly deplorable.
At that time you might meet a Kavirondo swanking through his native village
clad only in a billy-cock hat; another fondly imagining that he was "it" had on only
a waist coat, while yet a third could boast for covering only an umbrella!
Even in Uganda, the missionary ladies had their work cut out for them ip
persuading the native women not to give up their own graceful dress in favour of
the prevalent fashion of tight waists and garments assuredly not meant for
the more ample proportions of African women. In the end the good taste
of the natives themselves triumphed but it was touch and go, and the more
eager the English ladies became, the more doubtful their dusky sisters were
till one voiced the common feeling in the devastating remark: "Perhaps you are
jealous of us"!
With the advent of the Railway came the question of the dividing line
between the Protectorates and in December 190r Sir Charles Eliot, the then
Commissioner of B. E. A. met, Mr. Jackson, the Deputy Commissioner of Uganda,
and arranged that the Eastern Province of the Uganda Protectorate which extended
eastwards as far as the Kedong valley and thus included Naivasha, the Eldama
Ravine and the whole of Kavirondo should be ceded to B. E. A. In view
of future developments many have since regretted that Uganda so lightly sur-
rendered Kavirondo. Later on, the Rudolf Province was also handed over to
the East African Protectorate. Even before then, in February 190o, Sir Harry
Johnston, Her Majesty's Special Commissioner for Uganda, had reported in favour
of the amalgamation of the East African and Uganda Protectorates so, that the
problem of Closer Union has been on the tapis for over thirty years and, as you
know, has not been settled yet !
The present Kampala only slowly came into existence during the first years of
this Century. Known to the natives as Nakasero Hill, a brick fort was built on its
summit for the Baluchi regiment during the Mutiny, in which the Europeans were
supposed to take refuge should the mutineers get the upper hand. Its value was
seriously discounted however by its being so far from the water supply, and a vast
number of native "ensuwa" were kept ready filled, and I suspect were usually
well stocked with mosquito larvae. On the departure of the Indian troops it be-
came the Kampala Prison, and is now used as the Police Quartermaster's Stores.
Prominent in photographs of this period is a lofty tower built of scaffolding on the
top of which was mounted a maxim gun. This was close to the present Agha Khan
Club. Lugard's fort had been rehabilitated with rampart, ditch, counterscarp, and even
drawbridge and really looked very nice though not too defensible against a
The introduction of hut tax by Sir Harry Johnston with the full agreement
of the Baganda Chiefs made labour easy, and Mr. Stanley Tomkins, then
Collector at Kampala, had good roads cut and well laid out in the new town,
which Mr. White, the Agricultural Officer, bordered with trees. Brick houses
began to appear, the first on Nakasero or New Kampala being for the military
officers, with barracks for the Sikhs-still standing, I think, and forming the
headquarters of Toc H. and the Uganda Library.
These were not the first to be built however. When I arrived in Uganda
early in 1897 there was only one brick house-built by a C.M.S. missionary, a Mr.
Wise, who came out in 1882. Twenty years later it was still in good condition
and was taken over as a store by Mr. C. H. Werner.
The destruction of Mackay's two-storied brick house at Natete by the
Arabs in 1889 has already been mentioned. The first house of unburnt brick
on Namirembe was a store built by Purvis in 1897, still existent. In the
closing months, of 190o a good cart-road from Entebbe to Lake Albert was
commenced. On that road enormous numbers of labourers worked doing one month
in lieu of the Rs. 3/- hut tax. Mr. Pordage, Mr. Ormsby and Quartermaster
Ramsay supervised the construction. Some difficulty was experienced in bridging
the Kafu. An Indian joiner built a raft to ferry across loads but when he got it to
the river, in the then dry season, to his disgust he could not find enough water to
float it, so he picked out the best garden he could find about half a mile from the
river, planted down the raft and pitched his tent on it, the raft making an excel-
lent floor. There was no undue hurry in those spacious days.
The only good road in the country--the Entebbe to Kampala road-was
widened and made available for mule transport. Entebbe itself was laid out
for the Olympic gods residing there. The thatched houses gave way to brick ones
with iron roofs; the Commissioner had a handsome house built near the
shore which afterwards became the Victoria Hotel. The present Secretariat
is built practically on the same site.
To quote from Mengo Notes of October 1901: "The traders in Uganda
are not very numerous . There is not now one firm of Englishmen that we
know of, and only two Germans. The latter have both left Kampala and now appear
to be doing chiefly wholesale business at Entebbe. The only man who seems
to be really alive and getting rich, is an Indian from Mombasa, and he is
undoubtedly getting most of the spare rupees in Entebbe and Kampala. He
apparently came up with the determination to undersell everybody else and
has done so. Now a tin of kerosene which not long ago cost ,4 can be bought for
13/4d. Jam which a year ago cost 2/8d., now costs 8d., and white flour, sugar
and such things can be bought at 4d. and 5d. a lb He exports ivory, cotton, rubber
and butter." This extract was from an article by the late Mr. C.W. Hattersley and
was published as mentioned above thirty-three years ago. It is a long article
and in view of future developments very interesting. He quoted in extenso long
directions by a Greek trader for preparing rubber for export.
Uganda was placed within the Postal Union in October 1901 and a Post Office
built at Kampala, though for some time longer an extra eight annas per lb.
was charged on all parcels.
The Church Missionary Society started an Industrial Mission on very sound
lines in the early part of 1900. It was situated on the hill of Bulange, 3 mile to the
west of Namirembe. A printing office was set up with four hand-presses, a cutting
machine and a machine for sewing books with wire. There, a good deal of printing
was done for the Government before they started their own office at Entebbe, e.g.
the whole of the new National Constitution, Regimental Orders, return forms, etc.
A large carpentry department was opened. The first Principal was Mr. Borup; after
some years the Mission was being moved to Mutungo on the Lake shore, when the
presence of the Kivu fly and the alarming spread of sleeping sickness interrupted the
completion of the buildings already commenced and the Industrial Mission was
moved back to Bulange under the superintendence of Mr. H. O. Savile, who later
on went to Maseno as Manager of the.East Africa Industries, Ltd. Many years after-
wards he joined the Government Staff at Makerere and only retired last year, to
the regret of all who knew him.
Meanwhile the Church Missionary Society Industrial Mission became merged
in the Uganda Co., Ltd., of which Mr. Borup became the first General Manager,
I think in 1905.
"As regards Agriculture, Uganda owes much to the Botanical and Forestry
Officers of the Government-that lovable old man, Mr. Whyte, about whom so many
amusing stories are in circulation, and Mr. Mahon, who in October 1902, from the
Scientific and Forestry Department of the Government (note the date) issued printed
instructions for the growing of cotton, coffee, chillies, maize and tobacco. They had
stout hearts and optimistic ideals in those days.
Transport across the lake deserves almost a chapter to itself. At first of course
it was wholly by canoe, a tedious and slow but wholly delightful way of travelling.
Who that has experienced it can ever forget it, the comfortable chair in the bow of
the canoe, or the still more luxurious recliningon a carpet ofsoft freshlypicked grass
with one's back leaning on the tent load, the rhythmic beat of the paddles, the
musical cry of the soloist, wit h the crash of the full-toned chorus keeping time to
the rowing, the glitter of the spray that rose from the long narrow prow as it forged
ahead into the waves, and the easy sliding grace of the canoe's passage through
the water. After a burst of hard paddling the "easy all" of the tired men, and the
noiseless and soothing rocking of the boat on the lake.
My first taste of travelling by canoe was in April 1897, less than two months
after arrival in the country. An urgent call came in from a sick missionary in Koki,
about 150 miles off, a distance which would be covered now-a-days between break-
fast and lunch but which took me a week's hard travelling. It was decided that
I had better go as far as I could by canoe and the Kabaka of that time, the notorious
Mwanga, kindly provided me with one of the Royal canoes. It was a large one,
some 40 feet long and 4i feet wide at its middle, with twenty paddlers. After a walk
of eight miles to Munyonyo most of the day was occupied by waiting for the canoe
men who came straggling in in response to urgent drum calls. About 3 p.m. we got
off and darkness fell on us near the mouth of Murchison Bay. I had no other
European with me, which was good for my learning the language as of course none
of the canoe men could speik English. The moon was nearly full, and the men did
a portage over one of the long narrow peninsulas of land which run out into the
lake near Entebbe. This saved some miles of paddling and the canoe was launched
the other side. We eventually arrived at Entebbe at 11.30 p.m.; it was my first
visit there'and I walked up the hill to the only four houses the pace possessed.
I roused up the owner of the first I came to who happened to be Mr. G D. Smith.
He came out in his pyjamas and with his usual courtesy and hospitality set about
preparing a meal as if midnight were a usual time for guests to arrive. A tin of
army rations was soon cooked and I thankfully sat down to a hot supper.
The next two days we travelled across the north-west corner of the lake,
landing when a storm blew up it was the rainy season--caulking the holes of the
stitching when the boards of the labouring canoe let in too much water, but
making steady progress. The fourth day almost undid us however. We had paddled
till sunset and the men were tired. Just ahead of us in the fading light we had
sighted three hippos and the steersman had given them a wide berth. I was sitting
in my camp chair in the front of the canoe, when a few minutes later I both felt and
heard a shock like passing over a submerged rock. We had passed fairly over the
back of one of the hippo floating just awash. The hippo may be a long-suffer-
ing creature at times, willing to live and let live, but the impact of a long heavy canoe
with twenty men in it, was a bit too much and made it see red or whatever the ap-
propriate hippo colour may be. It rose up behind the canoe and there was some
pretty vigorous back-chat. The effect on the tired men was equally electric; they
dashed their paddles into the water and for some minutes we swept forward like a
Thames penny steam-boat.
Later on in the evening we got caught in the heavy after-swell of a local storm
and when at length we landed, had to run the gauntlet of a triple row of breakers.
However, we got on shore at last and found we had to ford several streams ere we
could reach higher ground and camp at a village. A stalwart canoe man carried me
over the first but in the uncertain light and the still more uncertain bottom sat
down heavily under me in the second, so that I emerged wetter and wiser.
Next morning I had an interview with the 'Mubaka' or King's representative
who travelled with me. He told me that we should save time by marching the rest
of the journey overland. I consulted the only map I had, a War Office map of 1895
with remarkably few names in that district; we were somewhere south of Lake Na-
bugabo, but I noticed a number of wavy blue lines which suggested rivers. I asked
the Mubaka if there was much water on the road and he replied cheerfully: "Not
much". Theydeceived me, however, the fact being that the little affair with the hippo
and the storm of the preceding evening had somewhat evaporated their courage.
For three miles the path was all that could be desired, then the swamps
and rivers began I had the curiosity to count them and found that in the course of
the day we had forded seventy, for it was in the height of the rainy season.
The swamps varied from 50 to 200 yards across and the water or mud was
often up to or above our knees. However at 4 p m. we had been travelling steadily
since 9.30 a.m.-the path emerged on the sea shore, and the 'Koki guide pointed
south to the smoke of a village about four miles off and made me understand that
that was our camping place for the night. I pictured a pleasant w;ilk along the fil m
sand with a chance of drying our drenched clothing in the warm sunlight, but to my
stupefaction he headed for the lake and began to wade through its nlargin. Having
had about enough water for the day, I expostulated with him, but he pointed out
the undeniable fact that thick scrub came down to the water's edge and it was plea-
santer and quicker to go through the water than on land. We had four miles of this
to top up with, the waves breaking at times above our knees. One river which ran
into the lake was far too black to see the bottom and waist-deep, so we sent
some boys 1oo yards up stream to try and find a better ford. They came back after
a time and said they had not seen a better ford but they had seen five croco-
diles slide off the mud into the water. However, crocs or no crocs, we had to get
across, and picking up my dog who was in the greatest danger and carrying
him, we waded across in a bunch, the natives splashing and kicking up a row calcu-
lated to keep any self-respecting crocodile away. About sunset we reached our
camping ground and had to sit in wet things till the tent and loads came in three
hours later. The natives were most kind. They insisted on my coming into their
little house, kindled a roaring fire and made me share their evening meal-steamed
plantains, "gonja" and a rather doubtful-looking smoked fish. As I turned in, I re-
flected that it was Easter Day of all days in the year, and I had thoroughly enjoy-
On Easter Monday we took it leisurely and only walked eighteen. miles; the
next day I made a long march of thirty-one miles and got in to my destination,
Koki, outstripping my porters who, poor fellows, with their loads, camped after
All this sounds pretty hard travelling, but I will venture to say that many of
my readers have put in much harder days v hen following game; and when there
were only three doctors in the Protectorate, medical visits were apt to be both
exacting and exciting.
I think, however, the most remarkable canoe voyage I made was in December
1900. If I were to entitle it "How I took off my boots to save a hippopotamus
from drowning', it would suggest an incident in a comic melodrama for the movies
at Hollywood, but you shall read and judge foryourselves how true the description is.
After a pretty hard spell of work that year, four of us decided to go for a
Christmas holiday to Busoga and we started off in two canoes from Munyonyo on
December 20. The party consisted of Mr. Roscoe, Miss Chadwick, my wife and
myself. I will not dwell on our earlier adventures which were amusing enough,
but on December 28 we saw the Ripon Falls-the Government had not yet built their
station at Jinja and in the afternoon embarked for a place called Katoti's on the
lake shore about nine miles from Iganga. We had an awning over the front part
of the canoe consisting of the ground sheet of a tent stretched over a frame work of
boughs, under which we sat. When we were some miles from the shore, a sudden
squall sprang up and fearing that the wind would overturn the canoe which was not
a very large one, 1 sprang up and called to Roscoe to rip off the awning his side
while I did the same on mine. I walked along the edge of the canoe holding on to
the framework but I had forgotten the resilience of the boughs which bent under
my weight and the next moment I went over backwards into the lake. I do not
know whether myself or the crew were most astonished. The way on the canoe
carried it some distance ahead before they could check its speed and I swam after
it, with my sun helmet firmly fixed on my head in spite of the ducking. When I
got up willing hands helped me in and I sat in front feeling rather moist.
Some little time later, Roscoe caught a remark from one of the boatmen and,
gazing in front, exclaimed, "Look! there's a canoe upset and the fisherman drowning
in the water" and sure enough we could see ahead of us the red upturned bottom
of a canoe and the black head of a native bobbing alongside apparently unable to
hold on. We urged our canoemen to paddle up but they seemed strangely loth to
do so. "Callous brutes," we said, "to let their companion drown before their eyes"
and commenced to belabour them with our sticks by way of expediting matters. As
I was very wet already I thought it was my job to dive in and rescue the man, but
not caring to go in again in my heavy 'safari' boots I stooped down and unlaced
them. Meanwhile our boat had approached nearer and the supposed canoe suddenly
opened a tremendous mouth. It was one of the hippos, coloured pink, which fre-
quent the vicinity of the Falls.
The black head of the native simultaneously resolved itself into a water-lily leaf
flapping up and down in the wind. We sheered off in double-quick time. The
mistake was a natural one on Roscoe's part. The Luganda for a fisherman is
"muvubi"; for a hippo is "nvubu"; and hearing the word imperfectly he jumped to
the conclusion that 'fisherman' was meant instead of 'hippo'. His confident asser-
tion and suggestion carried us all along with him. However, I still maintain that I
took off my-boots to save a hippopotamus from drowning!
A connecting link between the canoe and the steamer was the dhow, but
dhows have not had a very happy history on Lake Victoria. In 1878 Songoro, the
Arab trader, began to build a dhow at the south end of the lake, completed by
Mackay the following year, but it was wrecked on its maiden voyage to Ukerewe.
Coming down to much later days, in October 19oo, when the first dhow built by
the Baganda was crossing from Entebbe to Ugowe Bay with Soudanese troops for
the Nandi expedition it foundered in mid lake through defective caulking and but
for passing canoes which picked up the drowning troops much loss of life would
have resulted. Almost at the same time Messrs. Boustead, Ridley and Co. lost
one of their two dhows. It was going from Kagei, Usukuma, via Ugowe Bay'to
Uganda. It picked up Mr. P. H. Clarke, whose lamented death took place only in
June last, and who was then their Agent at Ugowe Bay, but two miles from Port
Victoria it capsized, and was lost with the whole cargo of 200oo loads; eleven natives
were drowned but Mr. Clarke got ashore on an island by holding on to the case of
the first piano for Uganda which floated off the wreck. My own experience
of dhows was limited to a journey across the lake in the "Winifred," a dhow
launched and owned by the Government. We set sail from Entebbe on August
loth, go10 and it took us six days without landing to reach Kisumu. Accommoda-
tion was strictly limited. The small cupboard called a cabin was reserved for the
two ladies of our Church Missionary Society party-my wife and Miss Chadwick,
but they could not possibly sleep there. There was just room for them and
Baskerville and myself to sleep on the tiny after-deck with the bare feet of the
Swahili steersman at the tiller dangling over us. Our fellow passengers were the
Roman Catholic Bishop Hanlon and Father Biermans (aftewards his successor in
the Bishopric) of the Nsambya Mission. They slept in the hold with the hatch
open and did very well till a sailor passing by with a full bucket of water on
his head tripped on the combing of the hatch and sent the contents of the pail over
the illustrious clerics down below.
It was far less comfortable than travelling by canoe when you land and
camp each night, and I think you will understand how when a favourable gale
sprang up and blew us in the right direction, and the cowardly sailors wanted
to anchor, Baskerville and I sat on the anchor and dared them to touch it. We pre-
ferred the risk of shipwreck to remaining longer on the dhow.
But however brief our survey of transport we must not omit the sailing
boat. It is always a pleasure on any sunny afternoon to look from the heights of
Makindye and see the white sails of Dr. Hunter's yacht, or of other boats
skimming over the blue surface of the waters of Murchison Bay. I wonder if they
realize that fifty-seven years ago the first sailing boat cast anchor in the Bay. Sir
Harry Johnston was a very accurate writer, but he makes one slip in this
matter, for in Vol. I. of his "Uganda Protectorate", published in i902, he states
(p.79) "Owing to the dangerous storms and rough seas which prevail on the open
water.. the lake has never yet been deliberately crossed over its open waters from
north to south, or east to west." That feat had, however, been performed twenty-tive
years previously for on June 25th, 1877, the Rev. C.T. Wilson and Lieut. Shergold
Smith, members of the first Church Missionary Society party of missionaries,
left Kageyi, near Mwanza, and shaping a course across the centre of the lake, for
the naval lieutenant was an experienced navigator, cast anchor in Murchison Bay
on the extreme north on the evening of the 26th. June, thirty-five hours after
embarking, a record unbeaten, I believe, up to the present time. They had a favour-
able breeze behind them the whole way. The exploit was the more remarkable for
at a small island en route when they essayed to land, they had a perilous adventure.
The natives on the shore threw stones and shot poisoned arrows. A stone struck
Shergold Smith, shattering the glass of his blue spectacles into his best eye,
and destroyed the sight of it. Wilson's shoulder was pierced by a poisoned arrow,
and Smith blinded as he was, with the blood streaming down his face, sucked
the wound, and doubtless saved his comrade's life. It is sad to relate that six months
later Shergold Smith and Mr. O'Neill were massacred with their whole party on
the island of Ukerewe.
The steam-boat, "William Mackinnon", was put on the lake in November 1899
and did yeoman service, being at one time cut in half and a large new portion inserted
between the two ends. Owing to her very shallow draught she rolled heavily in a
sea and was known locally as "the stomach pump"!
There was also another small but useful steamer called the "Kampala." On re-
turning from leave in the autumn of 1902, we found the railway had reached the
lake but the last ten miles or so had not been ballasted and we witnessed, and
shared in the extraordinary spectacle of all the passengers, standing on the foot-
boards outside their carriages holding on to the brass handles while the train crawled
slowly along the last few miles into Kisumu, the lines stretching ahead like a piece
of watered silk. Arrived at our destination the "William Mackinnon" was not avail-
able, and we camped on the northern shore of the bay trying to get canoes, for a
whole week. While waiting there, however, the late Mr. P. H. Clarke to whom I
have already referred arrived on the scene and bought the "Kampala" and offered to
take us across the lake as his first passengers. We gladly accepted and set off,
though the bursting of a steam gauge delayed us a little. I learnt on that voyage
how difficult it is to awaken a native. The roof of the little cabin rose about five feet
above the deck, and while most of us slept on deck Roscoe slept on the roof
of the cabin; a storm sprang up when we were anchored off the Kyagwe coast
and the little vessel rolled violently pitching Roscoe, no light weight, clean off the
roof of cabin on to the deck. He might well have broken his neck, in which case we
should have missed all his fruitful contributions to the anthropology of the natives,
only he happened to fall plumb on to the body of a Swahili sailor sleeping below. It
knocked all the breath out of him with a terrific grunt, but the man did not even wake
up! I only saw that beaten once, when the Cathedral before the present one, which
crowned the top of Namirembe Hill, was being built. It was made of the old fashioned
sun-dried bricks, each of which weighed 18-20 lbs. The walls had risen some twenty
feet, when a careless native brick-layer dropped one of these massive bricks on to
the head of a Muganda who happened to be walking underneath. Had it been one of
us it would have shattered our skull beyond repair. As it was it felled the man and
stunned him for a few minutes, but did no serious damage, while the brick itself
broke under the impact.
Some little time after the railway was finished the "Clement Hill", "Winifred"
and "Sybil" were placed on the lake and difficulties of transport became a thing of
I am not venturing to deal with agriculture in the early years of this century
for that needs a specialist to go into. The cultivation of cotton, rubber, etc., were
kept well in view from 1900 onwards, but it is universally conceded that Mr. Borup,
who left us only a few months ago, introduced the cultivation of cotton as a
practical proposition, and I suppose the same might be saidof Dr. Hunter, still hap-
pily with us, as regards rubber and coffee. Planters came slowly to Uganda. There
is no great tract of healthy country like the Kenya Highlands and the immense
distance from the sea makes transport expensive. In June 1903 Mr. Dawe of the
Botanical Department at Entebbe paid a visit to Kampala to try and stimulate the
interest of the chiefs in the cultivation of native produce, especially cotton and
The Commissioner's Report for the year ending March 31st, 1904, though
saying a good deal about commerce, imports and exports does not apparently men-
tion planters. The handbook compiled under his authority and published that year
by the Emigrant's Information Office says that "Freehold grants of land can be
obtained from the Government up to ioco acres at prices to be settled with the
Commissioner. The price will depend on the value and situation of the land, and will
ordinarily not exceed two rupees per acre for agricultural land of average quality."
In May 1905 the European population of the Uganda Protectorate was estima-
ted at 386, made up as follows :-
Officials 122 24
Missionaries 146 51
Planters and Prospectors 35 8
Total 303 83
The first English ladies to arrive in the country were five Church Missionary
Society ladies in 1895, followed by three more in 1896. The first Government lady
(I speak from memory only) was, I think, Mrs. Foaker in 1898. Mrs. Boyle was the
first lady in Entebbe in 1903.
The Uganda Chamber of Commerce was established in 1905, the first Presi-
dent being, I think, A. E. Bertie Smith, while Dr. H. H. Hunter, Ramsay Shields,
C. H. Werner, and J. B. Struthers were original members. Bertie Smith started a
rickshaw service between Entebbe and Kampala. The fares were: Single: 6 Rs.
and return within 3 days: Io Rs.
On May 4th, 1907, Messrs. Lewis and Peat quoted the price of Uganda Planta-
tion Rubber at 4/6 and 4/9 per lb.
Surely few countries have been so puzzled, if not worried, by the varying
systems of coinage. On our arrival in 1897 we could buy things from the natives
either by cowrie shells or hands of cloth. The shells were threaded on 'byai' fibre
in strings of ioo called a 'Kyasa', and the strings often broke or individual shells
became detached. The exchange moreover fluctuated violently. At first 200 shells
went to one rupee, but the value tended to get steadily less until just before they
went out the equivalent value ranged from 1ooo to 1200 shells to the rupee. Thus
the value of a 5 note was 75,000 shells. As lo,ooo shells (called a 'mutwalo')
was a full load for a man, it required 72 men to convey the value of 5.
The importation of cowries was prohibited in July 1901, but their use continued
up till 1905. As the Government then had several million shells in hand from the
hut tax, and pice (64 to the rupee) were being introduced, they burnt millions of
them for lime. For this reason, the District Commissioner's house on Old Kampala,
in the building of which this lime was used, was called by the natives "enyumba
y'ensimbi"- the house of shells.
Payment by 'hands' of cloth was in some respects more convenient but it was
long before the yard stick came in as the unit of measurement. As a general rule,
the length of a person's forearm from the tip of the middle finger to the elbow was
taken and thus it was obviously to the buyer's interest to secure his longest-armed
friend to measure the piece, and the seller of the cloth his shortest-armed friend.
In 1907 the cental system was introduced but the first issue was made of
aluminium which speedily corroded when buried in the ground. Bronze coins fared
The ghastly muddle between florins, old shillings, and new shillings till the
shilling was standardized and the rupee called in, will be recollected by all.
A long 'safari' I took with some fifty porters in 1905 from Kampala to Mongalla
in the Southern Sudan will show the trials of a varied currency in those days.
The total distance was some 600 miles, say from London to Aberdeen. At first
I could use rupees and pice or alternatively shells, then in Acholi-land cloth, among
the Madis and Baris brass bracelets such as cost three-halfpence apiece in Birming-
ham, then beads. The latter were a great nuisance for, although the Nilotic tribes
were unclothed, both men and women were as particular in demanding the popular
kind of bead, both in colour and shape, as any lady of fashion would be in purchas-
ing, shall I say, her hat in Bond St., London. If they wanted small white beads, it
was no good trying to put them off with large blue beads and so on. Later on
I tound native salt a very good money, though being very soluble it did not do
to leave the load outside one's tent in a storm! Finally, in the Southern Sudan we
entered a land of starvation and I had only one kind of currency which they would
look at, a bale of native tobacco. With this I purchased scanty supplies for the men
till we got to Mongalla and could get 'dhurra' carried up the Nile from Khartoum.
The Dinkas at that time were pitiable objects. They had been raided again and
again by Dervishes and consequently lived very largely from hand to mouth,
only sowing just as much as would suffice to carry them through the dry
season. They smeared their naked bodies with ashes and were languid and feeble
with but little initiative owing to under-nourishment. We persuaded some of them
to carry light loads promising them cloth by way of wages. They were very poor
porters and came with us far more for the sake of meat from the game we
shot than for any wages. However, we were anxious to introduce cloth, and to make
sure they wore it in the right way made our Baganda boys cut it up into
native knickers for them. The journey over we distributed these as wages. After a
little time they came back dancing and singing and wearing the knickers, but
alas! not in the regulation manner, for they had twined them as turbans round
No sketch, however superficial, of the conditions obtaining in the Protectorate
during the first decade of this century would be complete without some reference,
however brief, to the epidemic of sleeping sickness. In the suddenness of its
onset,,the rapidity of its spread, the awful mortality which attended it, and the
seemingly hopeless efforts to find a remedy for some years, it attained an evil pre-
eminence among the plagues which devastate mankind. On the other hand there
is .hardly a better example of the beneficial results of scientific team work,
than its control and eventual conquest by some of the most brilliant scientific
investigators of that period. Sleeping sickness had indeed been known for well
nigh a century in West Africa and in Congo-land, but it was regarded as an
epidemic disease of those parts and not much interest was taken in it outside those
At the close of 1900 we notified the Protectorate Government that during the
last few months a series of cases had come in to our aards that we diagnosed as
sleeping sickness. They all seemed to terminate fatally and in our opinion the
disease was spreading. At that time the aetiology of the disease was unknown;
two years later, in 1902, Dutton in West Africa found that in certain cases of fever
a trypanosome was present, but this was not at first associated with sleeping
sickness. Our own Protectorate Government was however prompt to act and in
1902 the first of a long series of Scientific Research Commissions was sent out.
The tracking out and evaluation of the different factors, biological, pathological,
and sociological concerned form a detective medical record before which the Edgar
Wallace 'thrillers' pale into insignificance.
At the close of 1902 Castellani (now Sir Aldo Castellani) showed me in his
laboratory at Entebbe a diplococcus which he considered to be the cause of the disease
He had, however, discovered a typanosome in the blood and cerebro-spinal fluid and
on the arrival of Col. Bruce (later Sir David Bruce), the latter fresh from the dis-
covery of Nagana and its association with the tsetse fly in South Africa at once
realized the significance of the trypanosome as the causa causans of the disease and
of its spread by the glossina palpalis. Time has confirmed up to the hilt his bril-
liant deductions. Professor Minchin, Miss Robertson, Dr. Duke, and the Germans
Professor Koch and Klein-for science knows no frontiers-all added to our know-
ledge of the disease and forged weapons to attack it. Those of us in Uganda at the
time will not readily forget the seriousness of the problem. I shall never forget
passing through Jinja on one occasion. The Government was desirous of ascer-
taining the mortality of sleeping sickness throughout the affected areas. In
Busoga at that time teaching in arithmetic had not gone very far, so the chiefs were
bidden to bring in to the District Commissioner a twig for the death of everyone
known to'have succumbed to this disease in his district. We met a train of men
carrying in bundles of twigs in this manner. That first day the twigs totalled
Si,ooo arid the sad little processions continued for several days longer. The
population of the Buvuma Islands in Lake Victoria was reduced from 56,ooo
in o900 to only 13,000 in 1907. The population of the implicated districts of
Uganda, originally about 300,000, was reduced in six years to 1oc,ooo; three large
sleeping sickness segregation camps were formed in non-fly areas, one at Buwa-
nuka, near Sentema, another at Kyetume in Kyagwe, and a third at Busu in Iganga.
On one occasion I was asked to preach at a Sunday service at Busu. It was a
moving sight for any preacher. There were 450 in the congregation, all doomed to
die, for at that time no certain remedy had been discovered. Slowly the position
clarified. The use of arsenic was early discovered and each year an advance was
made in the safety, though in the complexity also, of organic arsenical compounds.
Nor were regrettable incidents missing as in real war. One remedy put on the
market by a firm of high reputation was tried at Busu camp. Forty-live people were
injected by the new drug and every one promptly died. From crude arsenic to atoxyl,
down to Bayer 205 and tryparsamide, the long series of attempts was made. The
n.-tives were evicted from the fly areas; the fair and lovely lake islands evacuated
of their inhabitants and victory at long last achieved. Like some vast beleaguered
camp attacked from every side, the opposing ramparts were finally stormed, and the
enemy driven triumphantly from the field. To vary the metaphor, the dark thunder
clouds which for a whole decade had brooded over the fairest provinces of Buganda
broke up, thinned and disappeared though, as the last medical report of the Govern-
ment (19j3) ihforms us, a few loc 1 storms are still flickering on the horizon in the
West Nile, Gulu and Chua districts.
The whole story is a magnificent epic of how light has prevailed over darkness,
modern science over ignorance, and God-blessed energy over fatalism.
It has been impossible in the space at my disposal to touch on even the
fringe of many important developments in Uganda in the pre-war decade. One
wreath I must, however, lay at the feet of the English women who came into the
country during those years. Their sex is not usually regarded as contributing any-
thing startling or dramatic to the development of a great dependency, especially
in pioneer days. But is that really so? Flour unmixed with leaven and baked forms
a very unappetizing damper. Mix the right proportion of leaven with it and you get
the nutritious arid tasty loaf. Leaven is an enzyme-I had almost been tempted to
use the less scientific term, ferment, only the metaphor might have been miscons-
trued by perverse minds--in itself unseen, but potent for good when used in the
right way. So our English ladies, whether as the wives and daughters of Govern-
ment office als, or merchants or settlers, or missionaries have exerted an enormous
though often unrealized influence on the development of the Protectorate. For one
thing, the beneficial example to those unnoticed but often very shrewd critics of
European ways, the indigenous inhabitants, of happy English married life is incal-
culable. Within the memory of some of us the African woman was treated by her
lord and master almost as a beast of burden or chattel; but the chivalrous devotion
of the Englishman to his wife, the tender care of parents for their children, and all
that goes to make up the full content of that magic word "home" have fallen, like
good seed into fertile soil, into the hearts of many Africans during the last thirty
years. Such is the silent and half-unconscious ministry of women.
But to prevent trespassing further on the annual toast to 'the lassies' at the
Caledonian dinner, let me give a concrete example. In the informative and interest-
ing Annual Report of the Medical Department of Kenya just published, the
Director of Medical and Sanitary Services, Dr. Paterson, remarks on page 4: "The
first occasions on which European Nursing Sisters were appointed to Native Hos-
pitals were in 1920 at Mombasa and 1921 at Nairobi. The first occasion when a
sister was appointed to a native hospital in a native reserve was not till 1928 when
a sister was appointed to the Native Hospital at Kakamega. These ladies were
'essentially pion ers, and they established a tradition. To them a great debt is
due not only for most efficient nursing service but because they were instrumental
in initiating a reform which has brought untold benefit to thousands of Africans
and has now enabled Government, by means of the African staff which they have
trained, to meet in a fashion which would otherwise have been impossible the
effects of unprecedented retrenchment among the senior staff. There are to-day
nine native hospitals to which European Nursing Sisters are posted. At no time
has retrenchment been allowed to affect this staff."
These words of Dr. Paterson about Nursing Sisters are both true and just and
in the generous emulation which should exist between neighboring dependencies
it is my happy privilege to be able to point out that we in Uganda anticipated this
fruitful discovery by nearly a quarter of a century. In 1896 the Church Missionary
Society, in giving instructions to start the Hospital at Namirembe, included in the
Staff an Engl sh Nursing Sister, late of Guy's Hospital, then Miss Timpson, now
Lady Cook. She was the first of a long series which have staffed our Mission
Hospitals. The Uganda Government when they opened their first .European
Hospital at Entebbe in 19.04 followed the same plan, and many of my readers must
have owed much to the ministration of these women in the European Hospitals in
Kampala and elsewhere in the Protectorate.
But I have trespassed on my readers' patience far too long. There is only one
thing I should like to say in conclusion. The richest surely of all earthly gifts is
friendship. As in some leisure hour one paces do" n the long.pieture gallery of
memory, forgotten or half-forgotten faces stand out in clear relief of those with
whom one has companies in Uganda. I have mentioned a few; there are many
others. Stanley Tomkins, Captain Fowler, F. H. Leakey, Dr. Moffatt, Col. Coles,
Sir Alexander Boyle, Guy Eden, Phil. Cooper, Bertie Smith, Seth Smith, that grand
old pioneer Bishop Tucker, and a brother of my own known to many as "Dr. Jack,"
who for twenty years bore the burden and the heat of the day here and to whom
much of any reputation which Mengo Hospital obtained was due.
Each brought his own contribution to the building up of this Protectorate. As
one recalls the names of those no longer with us we are reminded of Kipling's lines:-
"Some beneath the further stars
Bear the greater burden
Set to serve the lands they rule
(Save he serve no man may rule),
Serve and love the lands they rule
Seeking praise nor guerdon."
The Uses of the Banana
By A. D. F. T.
Sometime ago, when writing about bark-cloth, I put in a plea for the banana
on the grounds that it served as many purposes as papyrus or the Agave americana
but that hitherto it had lacked a Pliny or a Presecott to sing its praises. Now even
the Editor of the Uganda Journal, persuasive though he may be, has never sug-
gested that I could emulate the two gentlemen named, but he has asked me to try and
indicate some of the uses to which the banana can be put. Thus a challenge, light-
heartedly proclaimed, has been accepted and I find myself unexpectedly (and, I
must admit, reluctantly) the champion-at all events of a good cause.
It would be almost impossible to enumerate all the uses of the banana, since it
can be used for almost anything. If I tried, I should find myself involved in the terri-
fying task which must confront the compilers of dictionaries, who may mjss nothing.
For example, a position something like this would shortly arise: "The fibre of the
banana is used for making rope, which in its turn is used for
Tying up parcels
Mending your bicycle
Hanging yourself", and so forth.
One member of the White Fathers' Mission has arranged the uses into 170
"principal" uses, I believe; though I suspect that sometimes these are of the "tether-
ing goats" and "tethering fowls" variety.
I shall, therefore, content myself with dividing them broadly into classes,
and giving some examples under each head-examples not necessarily confined to
Uganda, though this note deals principally with the uses in this country.
It is perhaps necessary first to explain to those not really familiar with the
banana, that the tree consists of a juicy "stem" (the outer coverings of which when
they die make "banana fibre") surmounted by its canopy of broad green leaves, and
the fruit. The "stem" is built up entirely of the semi-circular sheaths of the leaves,
packed tightly together, and terminating io or 12 feet up in the air in the leaves
themselves. New leaves grow from the centre and the outer leaves with their
sheaths die off. It is only at the flowering stage that the true stem grows up from
the root-formation underground, through the centre of the tube made by the leaf
sheaths; and it is this stem that bears the flowers and subsequently the fruit-one
bunch only per "tree".
A screen, fisherman's umbrella, mat, carrying pads, and rope (on thei I'ft) made from
A roof made of byai.
Shows a new leaf growing from the centre of the
plant on the right; and on the left a piece of leaf
sheath ('vith the rdead leaf attached) is sticking out
at right angles to the trunk of banana.
Banana leaf used as an umbrella.
One more thing before we embark on the uses: there is the sweet banana (Musa
sapientum) in many varieties such as you see on European tables; and there is the
unsweet banana (Musa paradisiaca) which requires cooking before eating, and which
forms the staple food of the Baganda, who call it matoke. The latter when ripe has
a green skin and it is unpalatable unless cooked. There is a big difference between
the two. A lady recently out from England, asked at a dinner party to have a banana,
flinched and then hastily refused. When her hostess expressed her surprise (for
most new-comers love bananas) she explained that she had eaten all the bananas
she wanted, and anyhow they were horrid things and she could not understand why
so much fuss was made about them. When pressed for a further explanation it
transpired that on arrival at the coast she was, like most new arrivals, short
of money, so she thought she would save on her meals. A native sold her a large
bunch of unsweet bananas at Mombasa and she persevered with them until two
days later she reached Kampala and the conclusion that the passion for bananas
was a form of madness which attacked one after years of residence in the tropics.
As a food, then, the unsweet banana is used by the Baganda and other tribes,
cooked either in its skin or mashed up to look like pumpkin; and Europeans alsosome-
times use it as a vegetable. The sweet banana is of course used, as in Europe, for
dessert, salad and so on. The food value of the banana is high, and for those accus-
tomed to it, the banana is easily digested. Native babies start eating it at the age of
a few months, and the juice of the stem is often given to very small infants to
supplement their natural food.
Then, the tree furnishes drink: not only is the juice from the stem potable, but
between the sheaths which constitute the "stem" is to be found sweet, clear water.
Nobody need die of hunger or thirst who has a banana tree nearby.
The fruit moreover can be converted into an inexpensive wine (Luganda : mu.-
bisi) or beer (Luganda : nmwenge).
The juice from the stem is put to other varied uses. For instance it is used in
cases of snake-bite; it is given to small children to cure them of childish habits; the
pulp of the stem, placed on heated stones, serves the purpose of a steam kettle in
the case of a bad cough, and so on.
Sections of the stem are used as a cleansing medium-call it soap or sponge
as you will, the cleansing properties are very real. In Buganda scrapings from the
stem (kinyinyisi) and sections of the stem pulped (kigogo) are used for this purpose,
the latter being the more efficient though the more troublesome to prepare.
Having finished with the stem, we will go on to the dried outer coverings of
the stem (Luganda: Byai). These, if twisted or plaited, make a strong and
pliable rope or string and can be used for all the purposes those articles are put to.
Who in Uganda has not seen some part of an old car tied up with byai, or a shoe,
or a roof-beam, or a bundle, or a dog, or a prisoner ? And the beauty of it is that
there is a permanent supply all along the roads. When you want a bit of rope
you have only to go to the nearest banana garden, pull off a piece of byai, twist it,
and there you are! Untwisted, its uses are no less numerous. To mention a few :
as a thatching it is excellent, and it has the advantage over grass, in areas where
arson is not uncommon, of being less inflammable. It is used for making mats,
baskets, chair seats, plant pots, corks, and many other articles of daily use. Bas-
kets, fish traps, &c., are usually made of the midrib of the leaf (Luganda:
The green leaves are put to such varied uses as umbrellas (a single big leaf is
a good protection in a shower), aprons (as worn by young Badama girls), milk
bottles (the leaf is first smoked), funnels, wrappings to keep butter cool, plates,
spoons, cups, covering for the pot in which matoke is being cooked, &c., besides
providing shade and coolness round the houses. Moreover the dry leaves, if used
in sufficient quantity, make an excellent bed; they make a good screen, are used
to make head-pads for carrying loads (Luganda: Nkata), a shade for the bark-
cloth tree when the bark is first removed, and so on.
Children get endless delight out of the tree by making carts, wheels and other
toys from the stem and leaves. The skins of the fruit and the leaves make a good
Incidentally the skins, if rubbed on brown leather shoes, will darken the
Then there are the more sophisticated uses, such as its conversion into paper,
clothing &c., which can be read about in cyclopaedias. It is from the Musa tex-
tilis of the Philippines, for instance, that manila hemp abacaa) is made, from which
rope, stronger than English hemp rope, is manufactured, also clothing and orna-
ments. Who does not know, for example, of women's "hemp" hats ?
The fact is that the banana is so adaptable that it can be used for almost any-
thing, whether for sustaining life, affording shelter, supplying the thousand and
one wants of a house-wife or merely as the theme of a comic song. It may not
have the romantic dignity of papyrus but it has more uses; and it is difficult to ima-
gine anybody making a joke out of an expression like Agave amnericana.
The Latin name for the banana is Musa a not inappropriate name in
The Agricultural Department has kindly supplied the following list of some of
the varieties growing in Uganda. The names are given in Luganda. Roscoe in The
Baganda also gives details of the varieties.
Matoke. (eaten cooked) 27. Mukadalikisa
i. Nakitembe 28. Mamba
2. Nakabululu 29. Luwata
3. Lwewunzika 30. Mutabunyonyi
4. Sira 31. Ntika
5. Ndizabawulu 32. Namoge
7. Kibuzi Gonja. (the sweet kind).
8. Mbwazirume i. Nakatansese
9. Muvubo 2. Manjaya
Io. Lusumba 3. Nakakongo
Si. Namwezi 4. Gonja omuganda
Mbide. .(used for beer).
4. Ngumba (Ankole)
12. Nsowe (Buddu)
13. Ngumba ,,
Basoga Death and Burial Rites.
(EDITOR'S NOTE:- This article is partly a translation, partly a paraphrase, made
by Miss Laight of the C.M.S., Iganga, of notes on the subject made by Omw.
Ezekieri Zibondo, with the assistance of other Basoga Chiefs. The original notes
in Luganda are also printed in this number for the benefit of African readers and
those interested in the language.)
AN IMPORTANT CHIEF: When a big chief was seriously ill, very few people
were allowed near him. Perhaps his oldest wife, two or three chiefs, and a witch-
doctor() and his assistant) were admitted. When he was seen to be dying, the
headman made enquiries as to where his property was kept, and they collected
everything that they could lay their hands on and hid it carefully away. His
actual passing was kept secret at first, his attendants acting as if they were still
nursing the sick man. This was continued until all wives, cattle, ivory, hoes, male
and female slaves, etc., had been secured.
But the very fact of the property being thus hidden led people to suspect
a death, and the deceased's sons and brothers hastened to search for any remaining
property for themselves. Since a chiefs children received nothing-all went to
the specially appointed heir-all the others grabbed what they could. An excep-
tion was made in the case of a very young boy-child, who was still with his mother in
her hut. She was allowed to keep the contents of the hut for her son.
Everything else, not looted by non-inheriting relatives, went to the one heir.
The official announcement of the death was made one very early morning
when a Mutjwa (funeral official)(s) beat the royal alarm drum. The wives broke
out into a wild lamentation, and throughout the district over which he had ruled
every single inhabitant bewailed him. They wept aloud, writhing on the ground
(1) Omuulaciizi: One possessed by a familiar spirit, and with gifts at divining.
(2) Omusawo: One skilled in the magic of disease, and with power over evil spirits, with
whom he could converse. He was counted superior to the Milaiguzi, who was not so free
( 3) Oimtjwa-Abajwa : Very difficult to render in English, so, after explaining it hero as
"funeral official," I have elsewhere left it untranslated.
They wore the grandsons of the deceased, born to his daughters, but failing this exact
relationship, nephews or cousins, etc., might act, but they had to be related from the
female side of the family. As a last resort, others might be eligible. . In the case
of a woman's death the exact opposite obtained.
in convulsions of grief, and covering their heads with their arms. Chiefs, wives,
headmen, and people wept as they kissed the corpse. They tied bands of banana-
fibre round their heads and necks and waists. The women girt themselves with split
banana leaves, held in position by very broad belts of fibre. Both men and women
walked with bowed heads, and with arms folded on their breasts.
No work of any kind might be done, and no one might go visiting. Anyone
failing to observe these signs of mourning was stripped of all he possessed, and if
he offered any resistance he might be severely injured or even killed. There were
no fixed laws for the punishment of non-mourners, so that men would lie in wait
for strangers passing by, and assault them on a charge of failing to mourn a death
of which perhaps they were ignorant.
No one might be seen cooking any kind of food. It must be done in secret, or
the offender had all his belongings confiscated. Further, should there be any other
dead about to be buried, or any who died after the chief, they must remain unburied
until all the chiefs funeral rites were completed. Naturally, great inconvenience
was caused to the relatives of the dead, the bodies putrefying long before all cere-
monies for a very great chief could be over.
No cocks were allowed in the village, their crowing was taboo (i), and no one
shaved his or her head until all rites were accomplished (2).
The older wives of the deceased were brought together by the officials,
(abajwa) and were kept in the death-hut for 7 days, while they supported the body
of their dead husband across their knees. While so doing they were not allowed to
touch food of any kind (3).
THE PLACE OF BURIAL: The hut of the oldest wife (4) was generally chosen.
The Chiefs and officials decided upon the place, and then the latter (abajwa) clothed
themselves in unused barkcloths, girt with belts of fibre. Each took a hoe, for they
must be the first to turn the earth for the grave (5). When the taboo had thus been
lifted by them, others helped with the digging. The grave must be large enough
to accommodate many objects which were buried with the corpse. It was dug so that
its occupant might face in that direction from which the tribe is supposed to
have come originally. Tribes differ in this respect, but most of the Basoga
face their dead northwards, as they believe that they came from Bunyoro.
(1) Crowing of cocks was taboo because probably the crowing was considered typical
of virility, and with the chief lying dead, nothing must suggest chieftainship in the
(2) Head shaving was connected with another act, and this custom is described under the
account of a child's funeral.
(3) The wives who supported the corpse obviously could not remain thus, without food
or drink or rest for seven days. They took turns, 2 or 3 at a time, and those off-duty
found opportunities to slip away and snatch food in secret. Their doing so was wink-
ed at unless they were actually caught. But appearances must be kept up, so theoreti-
cally no wife enjoyed rest or refreshment.
(4) "Oldest wife" generally means the one first married.
(5) Taboo of turning the first sod for the grave. It was feared that the spirit of the dead
(Onmuimnu) might be offended and revengeful were his dignity injured by his grave
being dug by common people. One sod stood for the whole process.
During the digging, which usually took 7 days, the body remained in the cahr
of the Bajwa, guarded in the death-hut, watched over by the fasting women. The
grave was dug deep, perhaps to 30 feet, by all the male population. It was rect-
angular, and varied in size up to 20 by io feet.
During this 7 days, the chief duty of the headmen was to choose from
among the children or, failing them, the brothers of the deceased, the heir who was
to inherit all the hidden property. By the time the grave was dug, the heir must be
A second person, of mature years and of near kinship to the deceased,
was chosen to be the guardian of the young children. He was known as the Muku-
za. Also, one of the dead chief's daughters was chosen, and might be given a small
share of property. These alone inherited.
WASHING THE CORPSE: It was washed all over by the wives, who used sponges
of banana-stem, and. water specially carried up by the Bajwa. Across the doorway
of the death-hut was hung a new barkcloth. Next, the body was smeared with
butter, and a large coloured bead, indicative of his chieftainship, was tied round
the neck (1).
In Bugabula (Kamuli district) a piece of freshly-flayed cow-hide was taken from
the beast sacrificed to the dead, and laid upon the forehead of the corpse. Other
presents, big and small beads, and wire or brass bracelets might be put on the arms
The body was wrapped in brand-new barkcloths, turned so that the outer
surface was against the body (s). When wrapped, the body was taken by the
Bajwa to the burial-hut, and laid in the grave on a pile of barkcloths. No earth
was yet thrown upon it.
In most tribes the body lies on its right side, in a few cases on its left.
PROCLAIMING THE HEIR: When the corpse was in the grave, a large bullock
was chosen from the dead chief's herd, and tied in the doorway of the burial-hut.
The princes, including the one chosen as heir, were brought together. A large
crowd of chiefs, relatives, and people all armed with sticks, surrounded the heir.
This was in case another prince should gather his own adherents to contest the
inheritance and kill the heir-elect.
The chief heir was brought up to the doorway, where the bullock and a large
tribal spear had been placed in readiness. An old man then made a speech, offering
gifts to the dead and blessing the corpse. He also prayed for blessing on the heir
and others present, saying, "O, thou departed one, remain below for 3 days and
then return to destroy those who caused thy death, that they too may bite the dust,
as thou, who didst them no harm, hast done."
(1) The large coloured bead indicative of chieftainship was the Kivuma, and was reserved
for a very big chief.
Smaller beads were, Katabamu, Obutycre, Obuk watzi.
(2) Why the barkcloths were turned inside out on the body has not yet been explained.
One suggestion is that the better side be near the body for him to feel it.
The oldest Mujwa also dedicated the bullock with sacrifices and approached it
with similar words. Then, taking the spear, he put it into the heir's right hand,
who thrust it with all his strength into the bullock's chest. Immediately the heir
was taken away, guarded on all sides by a great crowd, while the tribal drums were
beaten amid screaming and shouts of joy.
The Mujwa plucked the spear from the bullock, and the Mukuza also made his
thrust at it. If the bullock had expired, a second, or perhaps a goat, was brought.
If not dead the sacrificial beasts were strangled by the Bajwa.
From the time of his public appointment, the heir was provided with one or more
of his predecessor's wives, who were seized by force, though they themselves
seldom offered any resistance. He was given a special house and compound built of
dead banana leaves. Here he was guarded in seclusion for fear of assassination by
his jealous relatives. The Mukuza too was given one or more of the wives, and was
given a specially built place in which to live.
Meanwhile, at the place of burial, the sacrificed bullock was cut up and the liver
taken out. A small piece of it was roasted and placed in a little wooden dish which
was laid at the feet of the corpse.
A Mujwa prepared to throw the first handful of earth into the grave. Immedi-
ately, a second man got down into the grave, to catch up this first earth. When he
had caught it, he wrapped it in banana fibre, and secreted it. A few days later (viz.,
when the rite of Burning the Dead Banana Leaf would be observed) he would re-
turn by night, and scatter this earth on the surface of the grave. This was supposed
to prevent the spirit of the chief from being buried with the body. This "first earth"
having been thrown in and retrieved, everyone threw earth upon the corpse. As the
grave filled, a very great drumming was made and people tried to fling themselves
in, to be buried with their chief, but they were forcibly restrained.
The heirs were not present, being in seclusion since the spearing of the bullock.
When the grave was filled, all the people encamped for the night in grass huts which
they had built for themselves all round the burial hut. The Bajwa and older wives
(who had sat with the corpse for the 7 days) were excused from doing this, while the
younger wives were unable to do so, having been seized by the heirs, or carried off
previously by plundering relatives.
Everyone who attended the funeral,-parent, in-law, child, or friend,-brought
a barkcloth; and of these, the Bajwa took some, others were given to the wives in the
burial-hut. The rest were kept in reserve in the grave until the time known as
Okulongosa Amagombe (1). In the case of a very big chief, the rite observed at all
(1) Okulungosa Amagombe-apparently only done for a big chief, was not identical with
Okwabya Olinhbe-the concluding rites of burial which "broke down" finally all taboos,
and averted the danger of the spirit's vengeance, so enabling the heir to take over the
inheritance unafraid. This rite was necessary at all funerals.
The Kilongosa Annagombe was the re-opening of the grave to add fresh barkeloths. This
was necessary, as an additional tribute to the dead, owing to his importance and power
S. also Kulongosa Anmagombe did away with the necessity of the rite of Burning the
Dead Leaf, which took place at all other funerals.
other funerals, i.e. Okwokya Akasanja (Burning the Dead Leaf) was omitted, though
the accompanying rite of Brewing the Kasanja Beer was kept. When this beer had
been brewed the folk returned home and were allowed to resume their occupations
but did not shave their heads until the last rites were completed. Anyone found with
shaven head, except perhaps a very young child, would be despoiled of all his pos-
sessions, and perhaps his whole village woud be plundered.
Okwabya Olumbe or THE COMPLETION OF THE FUNERAL RITES: There was no
stated period for these last rites, but the Bajwa, headmen and heirs chose the day.
They went into the plantation, and first the heir cut down a stem of beer bananas,
the Bajwa cut other plantains, and these were all buried in the ground (1).
They then announced far and wide that the obsequies of So-and-so would be
celebrated on such a day. Whereupon chiefs, princes, princesses, in-laws, and friends
all prepared both banana and millet beer (2), and cows, goats, chickens, etc., to offer
at the funeral.
A day or two early, all gathered at the place of burial, and again they built
numerous grass huts, in which to lodge with their sacrificial gifts on the night pre-
ceding the ceremonies. The heir also prepared his bullock and his beer. All night
long songs and music were heard, and the dead man's drums be wailed their master.
The Bajwa took earth from the grave, and also two coffee-berries, and wrapped
them in coffee leaves. Over this was poured beer of both kinds. It was taken into a
shrine, built in the deceased's compound, which was henceforth to be his home. In
it they also placed a gourd of each kind of beer.
At dawn, as great a lamentation was made as when the death was first an-
nounced, and the Bajwa re-opened the grave and disclosed the body. They placed over
it those bark-cloths which had been stored, and added also hew ones. About 8 a.m.
the vitch-doctors and diviners came and d minced and beat their drums. An old man
and one Mujwa went to the shrine, taking all the offerings of the people. They offer-
ed them there, beseeching the dead not to return and molest the heir or the children.
They also prayed to all departed spirits to fight for and not against the heir. After
this dedication, the sacrifices were killed in the shrine and in all previously exis-
ting shrines of those who had died before.
The grave was now finally covered in, for this concluded the rites. The slaugh-
tered beasts were divided, the Bajwa taking one leg from each. A very great number
of animals was killed for a big chief.
Games were kept up for about io days, and the sons-in-law of the dead chief
brought offerings of bullocks or goats to redeem their wives from the death spells.
Next morning early the Bajwa unwrapped the earth and coffee beans, extracted
the latter, and scattered the earth about the shrine. This was to ensure that the
spirit of the departed would remain in its own ibome-shrine. When this fell into
disrepair, it would be rebuilt.
Now the heir entered fully into his inheritance, and all the wives of his predeces-
sor had no choice but to join the household of the new chief.
(1) The bananas were buried in the ground solely for the purpose of hastening the ripen-
ing processes, to forward the beer brewing.
(2) Banana beer Omwenge. Millet beer Amalwa.
THE FUNERAL OF A LESSER CHIEF OR PRINCE: When ill, he was nursed by
his wives and near relations. His death was kept secret until his young wives and
possessions were in safe hiding. At his death, no one in the village was allowed to
work, or to cook, or to go about visiting. Those who did so were plundered. He
was loudly bewailed, and everyone kissed the corpse.
'When breaking the news to his superior chief, his headman sent a suitable
present, such as a hoe. The chief replied by sending a bullock and a barkcloth by
the hand of a messenger who was to represent him at the funeral. Should the de-
ceased be a prince, the royal drum was sent and must be beaten before he could be
The body was washed and wrapped in the same way as for a big chief but
without most of the bead decorations. No kivuma bead was put round his neck. The
site for the grave was chosen according to his rank, generally it was in the hut of the
wife whom he first married. The grave was rectangular, and perhaps 15 by to feet.
The corpse was laid in it facing in the direction of the tribe's supposed origin.
The digging completed, all had to wait for the chiefs representative and his
gifts, (and perhaps the drum). The chief had also been informed of the heir chosen
to succeed, and the messenger brought his approval of the appointment.
The chief's bullock was tied in the doorway of the burial-hut, and an old man,
reputed to be a seer, and one of the Bajwa handed the tribal spear to the heir. One
or both of them then made the dedicatory speech, in words similar to those spoken
over a big chief.
The heir and the Mukusa speared the bullock, and each received a wife of the
dead man's. 'I ley were then taken into the seclusion of their special enclosures,
from whence they only emerged once each morning to receive the condolences
of their friends.
After the spearing of the bullock, other animals were killed by the Bajwa, who
used sticks, not the tribal spear. The meat was cut up, the Bajwa taking
their portion first. A piece of the liver was, in some cases, thrown into the grave.
In other tribes it might be placed in a wooden dish at the feet of the corpse. This
was the dead man's food ready for him when he should want to get up.
Three days later, the Bajwa brought a bunch of very young beer bananas, and
a goat, and a bit of dead banana leaf taken from the pillow of the chief wife. They went
to a cross-roads, just as dawn was breaking, and burnt the dead leaf (kasanja) (i).
They killed, roasted and ate the entire goat, allowing nothing to be left over. Only
men might be present at this ceremony, and only Bajwa. It was performed
in secret. Early that same day, they also began to brew the beer known as kasanja
or nabairekuta, which was always connected with the Burning of the Dead Leaf.
The beer took 5 days to ferment, and a gourd of it was poured over the grave.
Then the Bajwa received a goat known as the kisiki (2), and music, dancing,
and drumming began.
(1) Tle reason for Burning the Bit of Dead Banana Leaf is not clearly given. It was a
further precaution against jealousy and vengeance from the dead. The feast was sacri-
ficial in character-but why the dead stuffing from a wife's pillow?
(2) The second goat was called Kisiki which is the name of the big log which keeps the
fire burning for the cooking of the feast. Again the reason of the name being given
to the goat is forgotten.
Up to this point, all property was in the power of the Bajwa, but when the
Kasanja beer had been drunk, everyone went home until the day of the concluding
ceremonies (Okzwabya Ohimbe) and the heir entered into his inheritance.
The dead man's married daughters, however, remained at the place of burial.
After the Kwabya rites, their husbands must each bring a goat, and redeem his
wife from the death spells. Unless he did this, she was not allowed to return to
All the concluding rites were similar to those for a big chief, except that the
sacrificial gifts were fewer. The chosen heir became ruler of the tribe, even over
those who were older than he was.
THE FUNERAL OF A HOUSEHOLDER or HEAD OF A FAMILY: i.e., one who had
living children. All kissed the corpse and wailed aloud. No restrictions were
made as to work or visiting, but cooking was not permitted for one day. Friends
and relatives were quickly summoned. The grave might be in his own hut, or in
his garden or courtyard. It was rectangular, and faced in the direction of the
tribe's origin. It might be io by 6 feet, and as deep as was thought necessary. A
Mujwa turned the first sod, to remove the taboo, and then all lent a hand. The
corpse was laid out straight, and washed in water brought by a Mtjwa in a gourd
carried without a head-pad (1). Beaten banana-stems were their sponges. Wives,
or relatives of either sex might do this, and then the body was wrapped in bark-
cloths, and generally buried at once.
The heir might be appointed at the time of burial, and must spear a goat.
Sometimes he was appointed a few days later, when the older people had examined
the suitability of the various aspirants. The Burning of Kasanja was observed,
but a 'chicken took the place of the chiefs goat. The Kasanja beer, and the
redemption of married daughters were observed.
The concluding rites were the same, except that sacrifices were few, and the
grave was not re-opened to add fresh barkcloths. It was merely smoothed over,
and beer of both bananas and millet, together with blood from the sacrificed
animals, was sprinkled upon it.
THE FUNERAL OF A YOUNG MAN: If married, he was treated as an older man,
except that the heir was always appointed on the day of the final (Okwabya) rites,
not on the burial day. Then he might take his predecessor's wives, and all shaved
When the deceased was unmarried, a widower, or married but childless, a
broom was placed on the grave, and he was told, "Go right away, and never return
to earth, thou childless one." His name was despised in the tribe, and might never
again be given to another, lest he also be childless.
(1) The carrying of water to wash a corpse is invariably done without a head-pad on
which to rest the pot. It is done as a sign of sorrow and discomfort.
THE FUNERAL OF A MARRIED WOMAN: Her husband would lament aloud and
kiss the corpse. Had she borne children, they too kissed the corpse, as did also
her relatives. Any other wives who were present prepared her for burial. A spot
was chosen in the plantation, and she was buried according to the rites of her
husband's tribe. A Mujwa turned the first sod. When the body had been washed,
the women dressed it in a small loin-cloth, and then wrapped it in barkcloths. The
men tied the latter in position and bore the corpse to the grave, where, in most
tribes, it lay upon the left side.
There might be a short speech made by a Mujwa, or by a seer, to invoke bless-
ings on the dead, telling her that those present were innocent of any harm done to
her, and that after a few days, she might return to avenge herself on those who
had caused her death.
Should she have possessed property, her spirit was appeased by the offering
of a goat or bullock, before the heir took over the things.
In the case of a childless woman the speaker said, "Never come back, for you
have left no remembrance behind you." A broom was placed upon the grave, and
her name was allowed to die out of the tribe.
At women's funerals 4 days elapsed before the Burning of the Kasanja rite, not
3 as for men, and the banana bunch used was Namakogo and not Mbide bananas.
These were roasted with the goat.
The final rites might be observed at once, or might be delayed, as was most
convenient, but the same ceremonies and games took place as for men.
The heiress (i). The dead woman't relatives brought forward an' unmarried
girl and gave her to the husband who had been bereaved. She was thus the
heiress, and took possession of all her predecessor's property, hut, plantation, hoes,
etc, and was henceforth the man's wife. On that day all, including the heiress,
shaved their heads.
In the case of a woman who had married daughters their husbands had to
redeem them from the death spells with a goat. But there was a special ceremony
in the case of a woman dying and leaving married sons. These sons' wives each
cooked food and took it to the scene of the burial, where their husbands were
awaiting them. I he women dressed themselves up as men and went into the
plantation, and sat there just as men do when they meet to arrange a marriage
dowry, or when they go to redeem wives from funeral rites. Indeed these women
pretend to be men. Their husbands then dress as women, and each comes and
greets his disguised wife.
Then they do all they can to make the women laugh, by jesting, and all kinds
of foolishness (2). Should a woman laugh, she proves herself to be unfit as a wife,
the food which she has brought is considered uneatable, and her marriage is
(1) The "heiress" or substitute wife given to the widower was usually a sister, and
certainly a relative of the deceased wife. A dowry having been paid for the wife, the
husband must have compensation.
(2) This "laughing test" is only done when a woman dies, leaving married sons.
annulled. Should she preserve her gravity, her husband eats the food which she
cooked and takes her home. The goats or chickens which are served at this parti-
cular feast are contributed by the parents of the women.
If all the women are wives of the same man, only one animal need be killed. If
there are more than one married son, each must be thus redeemed with a goat or
The shrine which is built to house the spirit of a woman is not a permanent
structure, but is demolished after the funeral rites are concluded.
THE FUNERAL OF AN UNMARRIED GIRL: She is buried in the same way as a
married woman, except that no heir need be appointed, for she is not counted as
having property, and there is no widower to be consoled.
If her father wishes, he can offer a goat or fowl at the concluding ceremony.
The priest dedicates it and slays it at the head of the grave. The liver is roasted
and thrown in with the body, while the priest says, -'We give you this present."
Then he eats of the meat, and those present eat also.
The preparation of grave and corpse, the Kasanja beer, etc., are all done
similarly as for a married woman.
SPECIAL DEATH-RITES FOR A WITCH-DOCTOR, PRIEST, OR ONE WITH A
FAMILIAR SPIRIT (1): NO difference is made between man and woman. When such a
one was ill, all his fellow sorcerers were called to attend. First they built shrines
in which they offered sacrifices and they beat their sacred drums. As the patient
grew worse, he was carried inside one of the largest shrines.
Then one of the priests, or a pupil studying in the school of witchcraft (2), either
male or female, pronounced a formula appealing to the spirits and gods of all kinds to
come to the help of their sick comrade. Especially was mentioned the spirit or god
who was supposed to inhabit the patient and to be responsible for his utterances
when he was in his trances.
It was thought that a male spirit was the first to answer the appeal, and that
it entered the patient and spoke thus, "There is a great conflict here, but we are
fighting and holding our own." So saying, it disappeared.
If the patient were going to recover, a female spirit next appeared, and took
possession of him until he was well again.
(1) Mswczi-the Lusoga form of Musanfiz-one who is possessed by the spirit of a deity or
of a dead person, generally a chief.
(2) A pupil in the school of witchcraft (cf.) "One of the sons of the prophets".
When he was not going to recover no female spirit came, and the male spirit said,
"We are losing this battle." And no matter how many prayers were offered, or how
furiously they shook their rattles and charms, there would be no answering voice,
and no help forthcoming.
When the patient died a drum was gently beaten, using the alarm rhythm. Then,
to the accompaniment of their magic rattles, all the sorcerers began to sing in
a doleful voice the chant which announced bereavement in their midst.
No one who was not of their profession, was allowed near the body; a curtain
hid it from view, and it was guarded by priests. The body was carefully washed (1)
and wrapped in barkcloths; next to the skin were placed those particular barkcloths
in which the deceased had been wont to dress when acting under the influence of his
The site of the grave was chosen near to a fair-sized ant-hill. One witch-
doctor, and one relative went together to prepare it, the former taking the head, and
the latter the foot. Each was given an unused barkcloth, and each took a hoe in his
right hand. The grave faced in the same direction as all others in that tribe. When
each of the two had made a stroke with his hoe, others finished the digging. There
was no wailing, but all the sorcerers shook their rattles (2) and chanted dirges until
they were tired.
When the grave was ready, a hole was broken in the back of the shrine where
the body lay, and the dead was carried through by his fellows. On the way to burial
every object standing by the roadside was broken down and left in ruins. The body
was laid on its right side in the grave.
A he-goat for a man, or a she-goat for a woman, was brought by one of the
relatives of the deceased, and offered with words similar to those spoken at all
funerals. Then a witch-doctor took the offering, repeated-the words already spoken
and added as follows, "All ye spirits and deities, look upon him who has harmed
your fellow, and take vengeance upon him. We offer you this present."
The owner of the goat then killed it at the foot of the grave, and quickly tore
out the liver and the heart. These he roasted slightly, and gave them to the head
witch-doctor, who placed them in a wooden bowl, or sometimes in an ash-scoop,
and laid them at the feet of the corpse. This was the special meat for the dead person.
The witch-doctor made ready to throw the first earth on the body, and a very
near relative of the deceased prepared to catch it up, and so prevent the spirit from
being buried with the body. The rest of this ceremony was observed as at other
funerals. Everyone else then threw earth till the body was lightly but not deeply
covered. At dead of night all the sorcerers assembled to complete the filling and level-
ling, while they sang and danced, and beat their drums. At daybreak they covered
the grave completely with rubbish.
(1) In the Busiki district of Busoga, the corpse, after being washed was smeared all over
with the vegetable oil which exudes from the flower bud (MAfpumumpiu) of the banana
(2) Ei~asi are gourds, with wild banana seeds or coffee berries which rattle inside them;
they are decorated externally with shells and charms.
Three days later in the case of a man, and four in the case of a woman they
performed the rite of the Burning of Kasanja and brewed the Kasanja beer.
For two days after the burial, no one was allowed to eat any peeled food, only
those kinds which were eaten unpeeled, or bananas roasted in their skins. Then
the relative next in age to the deceased must bring a goat. It was killed, and its
blood poured into the deceased's vegetable platter. All women who had to peel
food then came and washed in this blood, in which a certain medicine had been
mixed to keep away the avenging spirit of the dead.
Men sorcerers were also allowed to wash in it, but no one else. After this, the
peeling of food might be safely resumed, and the mourners returned to their homes.
3 he head of the household to which the deceased belonged, however, remained to
prepare for the concluding ceremonies.
When the time for these arrived, he brought a sheep and a goat and gave them
to the head witch-doctor. He and his helpers took them secretly by night to the
grave, strangled them and stamped on them until life was extinct. They flayed
them and ate up every scrap of meat. Dancing and beer-drinking were kept up all
that night and all the next day. In days gone by they had built no shrine for the
dead man's spirit, but now they do so and offer him gifts, as at all other funerals.
Then the sorcerers commanded gifts to be brought again in order that they might
discover the dead witch-doctor's successor, who would not only inherit his belong-
ings but also receive his familiar spirit and succeed to his supernatural powers.
All the magic-mongers gathered from far and near with their drums. They
seated the people of the tribe, and surrounded them night and day, keeping up an
incessant chawiing and dancing, and rattling of charms. All the while they scrutin-
ized the faces of the spectators watching for the neophyte to reveal himself.
Presently, worked upon by the frenzy of the incantations, some one showed
signs of supernatural seizure and called out, "Behold, I am he; I have made my
Immediately all the witch-doctors surround this person, who is now inspired
by the homeless familiar spirit who used to inhabit the dead sorcerer. He is pres-
ented with a goat called Okusala Akalimi (1); after receiving it, he takes up his
parable and prophesies.
All the sorcerers, in their varying ranks and cults receive him into their brother-
hood with every mark of honour.
The meat of the goat Okusala Akalimi is cooked with plantains, and this food
is called Kibigiya (2). When ready, the head witch-doctor places it in the joined hands
of the heir and feeds him with it.
(1) The goat Okusala Akalimi (to cut a little tongue) gives utterance to the newly possessed
(2) The origin of the word Kibigiya is not remembered.
They also used to bring a necklace of wild banana seeds dyed red (1) and a
special stoal. The new sorcerer was first purified from the taint of death by
the sacrifice of another goat, called Eyokunaza Olumbe (the purification of death).
He was then invested with the necklace, and seated upon the stool. Two women-
servants called Nandere were appointed to wait on him (or her) for two days, to show
him every detail of his new life. He was taught the proper magic methods of
sweeping, cooking, digging, fetching water, eating, making a fire, and all occupations
required in the life of one endowed with supernatural power. Should the neophyte
be a woman, one of the men sorcerers went to lie with her that night, and a second
crept up and removed the bed covering. In the case of a man initiate, a woman
went to him. This was supposed to show them the proper method of sexual union.
There is a deity in Busoga called Mukama, and men dedicated to him receive
his name, or are called Isegya. Their funeral rites were similar to those of
all other professors of magic.
A CHILD'S FUNERAL: His parents, especially the mother, and all relatives
lamented loudly and kissed the body. The father prepared for the burial. The
grave was in the mother's garden, if convenient, and only differed from other graves
in being much smaller. Women washed and wrapped the body, and it was laid in
the grave facing the direction of the tribe's origin. A boy lay on his right side, and
a girl on her left. The parents were the first to throw earth into the grave, and
then everyone did so. The grave was guarded, the relatives camping by it in grass
shelters, to prevent medicine-men from stealing the body by night for purposes of
The Burning of the Dead Leaf, and the Kasanja beer were observed as for
adults. The parents did not shave till all death rites were complete, and they
abstained also from sexual intercourse. In fact, both acts invariably went together
and were prohibited at all funerals. The concluding rites were similar to those
of an adult, except that it was unnecessary to appoint an heir.
THE BURIAL OF TWINS: At the death there was no wailing. If only one died
someone went and struck the second child, saying, "Your comrade has gone." They
called in a special witch-doctor Lukowe, who was the same one who had been sent
for to be the first to pick up the twins at their birth. Should he not be available,
another of the same cult, Lukowe, was called. He arrived, beat his drum, and
rattled his charms. The Mujwa dug the grave according to the custom of the tribe.
Two rows of cowrie shells, indicative of twins, were tied round the child's head,
two large beads round the neck, and one on each arm. Other bracelets of wild
banana seeds were put on the arms. After the burial a hedge of reeds and
Enkandwa (2) intermixed was put round the grave, and it was guarded against body-
snatchers. Other rites were similar to those of ordinary children.
(1) The necklace of wild banana seeds is called Luttcmbe.
(2) Enkaudwa, a quickly growing herbaceous shrub, slightly thorny.
13URIAL OF THE PARENTS OF TWINS (I): This was similar to that of their twin
children, except that they were buried near a small ant-hill. The funeral took place
at nightfall. The attendant witch-doctor received a present, generally a hoe. The
grave was concealed under piles of rubbish.
A SUICIDE'S FUNERAL: When the body was discovered, a suitable present, such
as a hoe, was sent to the local chief to announce the tragedy. The chief then gave
permission for the body to be taken away. The Mujwa was summoned and pro-
pitiated by a gift of two or more goats (to compensate him for the unlucky task
that had fallen to his lot).
He would then cut the rope and drag the body to the nearest swamp and
throw it in.
The tree on which the suicide had hanged himself was dug up, and burnt
utterly, root and branch. The same day the next of kin to the deceased sacrificed
a goat, which was also completely burnt at the place of death. There was no wail-
ing at such a death, and no other rites were considered necessary.
Of recent years, however, it is becoming the custom to bury a suicide
in the same way as other folks, and to make a lamentation over him.
The old Kisoga religion taught that, when anyone died, his spirit (Omuzimu)
remained alive for ever. It had the power to wreak vengeance on the living, who did
not treat thedead with theproper respect. All the concluding rites (Okwabya Olumbe)
were observed for the sole purpose of propitiating this spirit and averting its malign
influence from the living. Particularly was it liable-from jealousy --to molest the
heirs, children and its former wives, causing them danger, poverty, death, barren-
ness and misfortune.
Hence at funerals the Bajwa took care to observe, and remove all taboos
before permitting the heirs to touch any of the deceased's property.
(1) Parents of twins were counted as possessed by a spirit, who had fathered one of
the children. They were therefore buried in graves similar to those of witch-doctors,
the essential features being (a) it was close to an ant-hill, (b) it was covered over
with piles of rubbish.
N.B. Suicide by hanging is the only kind referred to in the accounts collected,
so apparently it was the only kind common.
Empisa Ezokuzika mu Busoga
(EBY'OMUKUNG'ANYA :- Ebigambo bino Omwami Ezekieri Zibondo yeyabiku-
ng'anyanga era nga ayambibwa Abami Abasoga. Ebigambo ebiri mu Lungereza
ekitundu ekimu byakyusibwa bukyusibwa Miss Laight owa C.M.S. Iganga.) ate
ebinyonyola wansi ku lupapula bye bibye.
OKULWALA N'OKUFA OKW'OMWAMI OMUKULU. (a) Omwami omukulu nga alwade,
bwalabika nga mulwade nyo tebakiriza bantu bangi kutuka gyali. Era abantu ba-
tono nyo dala abakirizibwa; omukyala omu omukulu enyo, nabakungu 2 oba 3, no-
mulaguzi, oba omusawowe omu. Abo boka be bakirizibwa okubera awali omulwade.
Awo, bwebalaba nga omwami ali kumpi okufa, awo abakungu nebabuliriza eri
ebintu byomulwade ebiterekebwa gyebiri, nebabikunganya byona byebasobola
amangu, nebabikweka mu kyama.
(b) Omwami nga afude ekigambo kibera mu kyama nyo tebasoka kwogera, wa-
bula basirika nebafanana nga abakyalwaza omulwade, songa amaze okufa,
okutusa lwebamala okukweka ebintu ebisinga obungi, nga, abakyala, ente, ama-
sanga, enkumbi, abazana, abadu, nebirala byebaba bainziza okukweka. Naye
abantu abalala abokumpi nebatanula okutegera nti Omulwade tawone kubanga
ebintubye bikwekebwa. Awo nga waisewo enaku nga 2 oba 3, mu kiro nga busasa-
na bunatera okukya, awo omujwa nakuba engoma eyokulaya, okutegeza nti
Omwami afude. Era mu kisera ekyo abakyala nebakaba nyo. Awo ensi yona gyafu-
ga nekaba nyo, buli muntu yena yena nakaba. Awo abalangira, abana boyo afude,
oba bagandabe, kasita, bategera nti Afude, awo nga agenda mbiro okulaba eri
ebintu byomu'fu babitwale, buli omu kyasanga; oba mukyala, ente, esanga,
omudu nebirala nga atwala kitwale awatali kuwebwa.
Kubanga eda abana boyo afude tebawebwanga bintu, wabula byona nga
bya musika. Kyoka omwana nga bwabera nenyina alina ebintu mu njuye byona nga
abitereka nebibera byamwanawe owobulenzi. Ebyo ebyanyagibwanga mu ngeri eyo
Abantu bakaba nga besasabaga, nebetika emikono ku mutwe, nebekulukunya
wansi mu taka. Abakulu, abakyala, oba abakurgu, nabantube nebakaba nga
banyuwegera omulambo. Abantu besiba ebyai ku mitwe ne mu bulago ne mu biwa-
to. Abakyala bambala endagala zebitoke mu biwato, nebazisibisa ebyai ebikakati-
ke. Abasaja era nabakazi batambula nga basulise emitwe wansi, oba okwewumba
emikono nga gizingiridwa mu bifuba.
Omwami nga afude, tewali muntu yena akola omulimu gwona, newakubade
okutambula eng'endoze kululwe okukyala. Singa asangibwa nga agenda okukyala
nga takaba, anyagibwako kyona kyona kyasangibwa nakyo. Bwagezako okukiga-
nirako, akubibwa nyo, olusi a'tibwa. Okunyaga kuno tewalinga muntu aw a ekira-
giro kukyo, wabula bull muntu yagendanga mu kubo nalindirira abatambuze, na-
nyaga buli gwalaba nga alina ekintu kyayagala oba okumukuba obukubi. Nga
tewali muntu alabika nga afumba emere jona, wabula afumba mu kyama enyo ewa-
la. Singa alabibwa, ebintubye binyagibwa.
Era o-nwami omukulu nga ofude, emirambo gyabantu bona egiba gisangidwa
nga teginaba kuzikibwa, oba egyabo abafa oluvanyuma, tegizikibwa okutusa ye
lwamala okuzikibwa. Naye emirambo gyateganyanga bananyinigyo okugikuma,
kubanga omwami omukulu yamalanga enaku nyingi nga tanaba kuzikibwa, olwekyo
emirambo gyavundanga negiwunya.
Enkoko empanga nga tezikirizibwa kuberawo ku kyalo, omwami omukulu kya-
fuga nga afude okutusa Iwebazika omulambo, amakulu zireme okukokolima.
Abantu bona tebamwanga nviri zabwe zona ezibade ku mitwe gyabwe okutusa
lwebabya olumbe olwo.
Omulambo gwaberanga ku magulu gabakyala abakulu okumala enaku musa-
nvu, oba kusingawo. Abakyala abo bakunganyizibwanga abajwa nebakumirwa
munju omuli omulambo era nga omulambo guli ku magulu gabwe. Era tebakirizi-
bwa kulya akantu kona oba okunyuwa, nga baziizibwa abajwa okutusa okuzika.
EKIFO KYOKUZIKAMU OMWAMI OMUKULU. Enju yomukyala asinga obukulu
yerondebwa, oba eyomukyala gweyasoka okufumbirwa. Enju eyo, abakungu naba-
jwa bwebamala okukakasibwa, awo abajwa nebambala embugo empya ezitayamba-
lwangako, nebazisibamu ebimyu ebyebyai, nebakwata enkumbi. Awo abo be basoka
okutema wansi wekifo ekirondedwa. Awo nga abo bamaze ebyomuzizo okusoka
okutema ku ntana, awo abantu abalala nabo nebabera okusima. Entana egerebwa
nga abajwa oba abakulu nga bwebagala, kubanga etekebwamu ebintu bingi nyo ebi-
zikibwa awamu nomulambo. Entana esimibwa nga egenderera olui gyebanatunuza
omulambo, north, south, east oba west, kubanga buli kika kitunuza emirambo-kului
gyebagamba nti gyebafuluma. Abekika ekisinga okubera ekinene mu bufuzi bwe
Busoga, kitunuza entana ku lui lwa North, kubanga bagamba nti Bava Bunyoro. Mu
kisera ekyokusima entana, omulambo guba nga guli mu buyinza bwa abajwa nga be
bagukumira munju eyo. Entana esimibwa nyo, abantu bona aba'aja, abami nabako-
pi boka be babera gyebasima entana, ate abakyala bona nebabera eri omulambo.
Bwekityo bwekikolebwa era ne mu kusima entana okwabantu abalala ababa bafude.
Entana ebera mpanvu nyo dala okuka wansi nga futi 30, nokusingawo. Esimirwa
enaku nga 7 kwe kugamba nti Iwafa okutusa lwebazika. Ekisera ekyo kyona baba
basima ntana, okutusa Iwebategeza abakulu abajwa nabakungu nti entana nga etupe.
Mu kisera ekyokusima entana omulimu omukulu ogwabakungu gwebakola, kweku-
londa mu bana bomufu oba mu bagandabe nga talina, okulaba analya oba anamusiki-
ra. Kasita entana egwa okusimibwa nomusika abera nga yetesetese. Entana esimi-
bwa mpanvuwanvu nga abajwa nabalala bwebagala. Ebera yansonda 4, obuwanvu
nobugazi kiri eri abakulu okugera. Kyoka teitirira buwanvu obusinga futi 20, nobu-
gazi tebusinga futi io.
OKUNAZA OMULAMBO. Omulambo gwona gunazibwa, abakyalabe be bagunaza
nebigogo (ebisumwa) era namazi agaleteb a abajwa. Mu mulyango omuli omula-
mbo basibawo embugo empya. Nga bamaze okugunaza, ne bagusiga omuzigo.
Olumala ekyo nebagusiba. Ekivuma ekinene ekyobwami kisibibwa mu bulago, naye
atali mwami mukulu, tebamusibamu kivuma ekyo. (Naye nga abami abakulu abe
Bugabula badira akaliba akabisi akava ku nte gyebawayo eri omufu, ne bakateka mu
kyenyi kyomufu). Nga ebyo biwede, ebyo kugusiba embugo, empya enjerere nga zi-
fulidwa kungulu kwazo, kwekudirira ku mubiri gwo mulambo. Waberawo ebirabo
ebirala, nga obunyere, obukwanzi, ne bikomo bitekebwa ku mikono gyomufu, oba
ku magulu nga bwe bagala. Omulambo bwegumala okubera omuteketeke. negusitu-
libwa abajwa na bantube, okugutwala munju omuli entana, nebaguteka mu ntana, so
sikutekako taka, bagugalamiza ku nkuyanja yembugo gye basoka okutekamu.
OKUIEKAWO OMUSIKA. Omulambo nga guli mu ntana, ente emu enume enene
enyo gye balonda mu nteze, eretebwa nesibwa ku mulyango gwenju omuli omulambo.
Awo nebakunganya abalangira, oyo gwebanatekawo baba bamaze okutekateka.'Awo
abakungu abakulu na bajwa nekibina kinene ekiri ku lui lwoyo anasika nebamu-
kwata ne bamwetolola nga bakute emigo gyabwe. Kyebava bakola bwebatyo, ktiba-
nga abalangira abalala bwe balaba munabwe nga bamutwala okumusisa, nabo bale-
ta abantu babwe okulwanyisa oyo atekebwawo. Singa kiinzika a'tibwe, nomulala
natwala obusika. Kale nga oyo gwebalonze bwatusibwa ku mulyango awali ente,
era wewabera efumu ekulu erye kika nga teketeke. Awo omusaja omukulu,nayoge-
ra ebigambo bingi, nga awayo ebirabo eri omufu, era nasabira bmufu omukisa, ate
nasabira omusikawe omukisa, nasabira nabalala. Era nagamba nti Gwe omufu,
omalangayo wansi enaku 3, nokomawo nozikiriza abo abaku'se gwe, nabo balye ku
taka eryo lyebakulisiza, songa tolina kabi gwe kewabakola. Nga amaze okusaba
ebyo, ate orrujwa omukulu naye nawayo ente eyo, nga agitukako nga oli eyasose
bwakoze, eranawayo ebiraboebirala ebiba biretedwa eri omufu. Era naye nasabaebyo-
mukisa nga bifanana ne byoyo eyasose. Omujwa bwasirika, nadira efumu, nalikwasa
omusika, mu mukonogwe ogwadyo. Awo omusika nafumita ente namanyige mu ki-
fuba. Awoomusika nebamugyawo mangwagonga agendera mu kibina ekineneekimu-
kuma. Awo omujwa omukulu nasimbula efumu mu ente, omukuza naye nagifumita.
Nga ente eyo ewede ne nte endala oba embunzi nabyo nebitugibwa, abajwa ne babi'ta.
Ente nebagibwa, nebagyamu ekibumba, nebokyako katono, nebateka ekibumba
mu katiba akatono, kye kitundu ekyokedwako, nebateka emiranamiro womulambo.
Omujwi nadira etaka okusoka okuyiwa ku mulambo. Omuntu omulala abera
wansi mu ntana nabaka etaka eryo eryoluberyeberye erifukibwa ku ntana. Oyo ali-
base, nalikweka nga alisibye mu kyayi. Amala enaku 2 oba 3 nalikomyawo ekiro
lwebokya akasanja nalisasanyiza kungulu ku ntana. Amakulu agokubaka eryo, nti,
Omuzimu guleme okuzikibwa awamu nomubiri. Nga ebyo biwede, abantu abalala
nebafuka etaka ku mulambo, nga gwebasibwa ku mukono ogwadyo mu ntana.
(Abalala ku gwa kono nga empisa yekika ekyo bwebera). Omusika taberawo, ku-
banga olumala okufumita ente eyo, kwekwanjula nti Ye musika, ako ke kabo-
nero. Olwo nga atwalibwa, abajwa awamu nomu ku bakyala ba kitawe gwasikide,
bamukwatirako lwampaka, so omukazi tagana, noluvanyuma era bamukwatira
abalala nga omuwendo abajwa gwebaba balabye ogwabakazi. Abo awamu nomusika
ku lunaku Iwe bazise, babazimbira ekisakate ekyesanja, nenju nezizimbwa olunaku
olwo. Eyo omusika gyakumirwa yeka, olwokutya bagandabe okumutemula.
Mu kisera ekyokutekawo omusika engoma enkulu eyekika zikubibwa, era emi-
zira gikubibwa nyo nolube. Ate ekidirira kwekukaba okunene enyo okwamanyi, ne-
kuwulikika, era abantu abalala nebagezako okwesula mu ntana, nabo bazikirwe
awamu nomwami, naye bagibwamu lwamanyi. Nga entana emaze okuju-
zibwa etaka, abantu bona basula mu nsisira zabwe zebazimba kulwabwe, bull
muntu nga bwasima okwetolola enju omuli entana. Wabula abajwa boka awamu
nabakyala abakade, kubangl abakyala abato bona baba bakwatidwa nebawebwa
omusika, abalala nga batwalidwa batabanibe oba abaganda bomufu.
Mu kutekawo omusika yenyini, mutabani womufu oba mugandawe batekawo
omuntu omulala omukulu alirana okumpi mu kika ekyo noyo afude, oyo bamulonda
nabera Omukuza womusika, era naye oyo afumita ente eyo omusika gyafumita mu
kisera ekyo kye nyini. Era bamuwa omukazi i, oba kusingawo nga babagya ku
bakyala bomufu. Era naye bamuwa ekifo mangwago mu kisera kye kimu nomu-
sika gyasula. Era nate, batekawo omuwala omu ku bawala bomufu, oyo nabera
omusika 3 ku bane, oyo okuwebwa ekintu nga bwekiba kisanide, oyo ayinza ye
Buli muntu aja ku lumbe nga mukulu, oba muko oba mwana, oba wamukwano,
aleta olubugo, ne ku mbugo ezo, abajwa batwalako ezimu, endala nebawa ku
bakyala abali munju yentana okwebikanga Embugo endala zikumibwa nezitereke-
bwa okutusa mu kisera ekiitibwa Okulongosa amagombe. Embugo ezo ziterekebwa
mu ntana nate.
Abami abakulu nga tebokya kasanja nga bwekikolebwa ku balala, wabula
waberawo mwenge oguitibwa ogwa kasanja. Ogwo nga gumaze okugya, abantu
badayo awabwe, kyoka tebamwa nviri ku mitwe gyabwe, okutusa ku kwabya
bwekuliberawo. Naye bainza okukola emirimu emirala gyona. Singa wabawo
munju nemusangibwa nga waliwo amwede envirize, nebwabera omwana omuto nyo,
Awaka awo banyagawo ebintu byona, olusi nga ekyalo ekyo kyona kinyagibwa.
OKWABYA OLUMBE LWOMWAMI OMUKULU. Tewalinga kisera kigere kikakafu
ekimanyidwa, wabula nga kisinzira ku bakulu abakungu, nabajwa era nomusika
okulonda olunaku olwokwabizako olumbe. Nga ekisera kimaze okutesebwa, nekiki-
rizibwa, abajwa no omusika be basoka, nebagenda mu lusuku, omusika nasoka oku-
tema etoke, erya mbide. Awo nabajwa nebatema amatoke amalala, negazikibwa mu
kinya wansi, Awo nebalangirira wona nti okwabya olumbe Iwagundi kuliberawo ku
lunaku gundi. Awo abakungu nabalangira, abambeja, abako, abomukwano bona,
buli muntu natema omwenge ogugwe, natekateka amalwa, era nente, embuzi nenko-
ko ebyokutwala okuwayo ku lunaku olwokwabya.
Awo, nga esigade enaku 2 oba 3, abantu bona nebakung'anira mu kifo webazi-
ka. Nebazimba ensisira nyingi okwenkana nga ezasoka oba kusinga awo nga
olunaku olwokwabya lunaberawo enkya. Abantu bona abatekateka omwenge, ama-
lwa, ente, embuzi, enkoko, nebabireta. Era kwolwo omusika Iwatekateka ente eyiye
eyokuwayo, era nomwengegwe lwegusogolwa. Era ku lunaku olwo ebinyumu byo-
na nebitanula okukubibwa, eng'oma zomufu zona ziretebwa okukubibwa okukabira
Ekiro ekyo omwenge Iweguide abajwa agenda ku ntana nebagyako etaka ne-
baliteka mu malagala gomuti gwoluwanyi (oluwano). Etaka eryo baliteka mu mpa-
nyi 2, nebafukako omwehge namalwa, nebazitwala mu sabo erizimbidwa mu mbuga
yomufu, okubera enju yomufu. Era mu sabo omwo batekamu ensuwa yamalwa
Nga bukede abantu bakaba nyo, nga oluberyeberye, era abajwa nebatandika
okutema entana okugisima nate okutuka ku mulambo. Nebalyoka batekamu embu-
go endala ezakumibwa, era nendala eziba ziretedwa. Olwo (tekikyakolebwa) ku
sawa nga 2, abalubale, abaswezi, nebaja nebazina nyo nga bakuba engoma zabwe.
Awo omusaja omukulu, nomujwa omukulu nebagenda awali esabo, nebaleta ebirabo
byona ebikunganyizibwa, nebabiwayo nga bogera ebigambo ebyokusaba omufu,
aleme okulumbanga omusika, oba abalala ku banabe. Nebasaba emizimu gyona
girwanirirenga omusika. Awo nga bamaze ebyo okubiwayo nebi'tirwa ku sabo eryo,
oba ku masabo ago. Olusi gazimbwa mangiko, amalala gaba gabafa eda. Mu ki-
sera kino, entana eba emaze okuzikibwa nenyuwezebwa nyo dala, kubanga ke ka-
malirizo. Awo nga bimaze, okubagibwa, abajwa nebatwala okugulu kumu ku buli
nte, ne buli mbuzi. Ente zatibwanga nyingi ku lumbe lwomwami omukulu.
Awo nga biwede, abantu bona nebamwa enviri, era nokunaba. Abakyala aba-
kulu tebanaba era nabambeja abakulu. Era olwo, ebyai ebisibibwa ku mitwe, nemu
bulago, era nendagala ebisibwa mu biwato, nebisulibwa. Awo ebintu byona nebibe-
ra mu mukono gwomusika, nawebwa embugaye ne byona byona. Ebinyumu bivuga
okumala enaku nga 1o, Abawala bomufu, olwo bababwe, nebaleta.ebintu okubagya
mu lumbe. Baleta ente, oba embuzi. Olunaku olwokwabya nga luwede, enkera aba-
jwa basumulula etaka, nebaligya mu mpanyi, nebalifuka mu sabo. Olwo omuzimu nga
gusigade munju yagwo, esabo eryo liberal lyaluberera. Bwerigwa oba kukadiwa, ate
nebazimba edala. Awo nga ebyo biwede, abantu bona nebadayo ewabwe, omusika
natal. byona ebyomufu, nabakazi bina bawalirizibwa okufumbirwa omusika,
era tebainza kugana.
OMWAMI OMUTONOTONO (OBA OMULANGIRA). Ono nga alwade ajanjabibwa aba-
kyalabe, nabantube, ababera okumpi naye, oba bagandabe, naye era mu kyama.
Bwategerekeka nga wakufa, ebintubye bikwekebwa kubanga bagandabe bwebate-
gera ng'afude, nga babinyaga. Nga afude tewali muntu akirizibwa okulima ku kya-
lo kyafuga, nokufumba. Era abatambuze tebaita mu makubo agaita mu byalobye.
Bwebasangibwa banyagibwa, nokukubibwa. Era emirimu emirala tegikolebwa. Ka-
sita afa, amangu ago abantube bakaba nyo nga bagwa ku mulambo okugunyuwegera.
Awo nga waliwo abakyala abakyali abato bakwekebwa, nente, embuzi, enkumbi,
abazana, abadu, nebirala.
OKUBIKA ERI OMWAMI OMUKULU. Omuntu omukulu aberawo ku mulambo,
awereza ekitone ekisanira, nga enkumbi, eri omwami omukulu okubika nti Omwa-
miwo oba mutabaniwo gundi afude. Omukulu atekawo omubaka nawereza nente,
okugenda okuzika mu linyalye. Oyo omubaka asanga nga byona byetesetese. Oyo
afude bwabera nga mulangira, engoma yobulangira ewerezebwa, yesoka okukubi-
bwa, nebalyoka bazika. Nga tenaba kutuka tebazika mulambo.
OKULONDA EKIFO. Kirondebwa nga kigenderera obukulu bwakyo. Enyumba
zomufu balondako emu eyo mukyala omukulu, gweyasoka okuwasa. Munju omwo
mwemusimibwa entana. Ebera mpanvuwanvu, yansonda 4, nga obuwanvu teyandisi-
nze ft 15, nobugazi tebusinga tt io Etunula ku luyi nga ekika kyomufu gye kyafu-
Entana nga ewede, balindirira omukulu ava eri omwami omukulu, aaamu no
olubugo, nente, (era nga abade mulangira nengoma). Kasita ebyo bituka, era nomu-
sik2. nga amaze okwanjulibwa eri Om. omikulu, ebigambo bijira wamu nolubugo
Awo omulambo gunazibwa nama'zi, noluvanyuma nebigogo, neguzingibwa mu
mbugo, nga zifulidwa kungulu kwolubugo, kwekubera kungulu kw omubiri gwomu-
fu. Awo omulambo gutwalibwa mu ntana. Ente evude eri Om. omukulu neretebwa
nesibibwa ku mulyango gwenju omuli entana. Awo kabona omukulu oba omusaja
omukulu, nomujwa, nakwata efumu, nebaleta omusika. Awo kabona oba omujwa
nayogera ebigambo nga awayo ente eri omufu, nasabira omufu omukisa, namuga-
mba nti Omalangayo enaku ntono nokomawo notwala oyo akwononye gwe. Era no
omujwa nayogera bwatyo, nalyoka adira efumu nalikwasa omusika okufumita ente,
nagifumita. Awo omusika owokubiri oba omukuza, naye nafumita ente, olumala
ebyo omusika amugyako efumu. Omusika akwatirwa omukyala i, ku bakyala bomu-
fu, nomukuza naye bwatyo. Nebabatwala mu bifo ebirondedwa ku mabali, nebabera
eyo. Buli enkya baja okulamusa ebagenyi babwe abakubagiza.
Awo nga ente emaze okufumitibwa, ebintu ebirala ebiretedwa okuwebwa, nga
bikubibwa emigo, abajwa bebabita. Enyama yona nebagibwa abajwa nebatwalako
eyabye, ekibumba kisulibwako ekitundu mu ntana. Olusi bateka mu kabya akabaje
enyama, nebagiteka emiranamiro womulambo. Amakulu nti omufu bwanagolokoka
alye. Naye ebika ebirala tebikola bwebityo.
Ngawaisewo enaku nga 3, abajwa badira etoke eto nyo eryambide, ne sanja
lyebagya emutwetwe womukyala omukulu, ne mbuzi i., nebagenda mu masa-
nganzira agomakubo nga obude busasana, nebokya esanja, neba'ta embuzi, neba-
girya nga enjokye. Tebagitwala 'ka, wabula bagirya yona, nebagimalirawo mukifo
ekyo. Abasaja boka bebagenda okwokya akasanja. Kikolebwa mu kyama, tewaba
muntu amanya atali mujwa.
Enkera, ku lunaku lwebokya akasanja, era kwebatemera omwenge oguiti-
bwa ogwakasanja. Abajwa bebagutema, negumala enaku 5, negugya. Nebadirako
ensuwa emu nebafuka ku ntana. Era kwolwo abajwa bawebwa embuzi eyitibwa eye
"Kisiki" Kwolwo engoma oba ebinyumu bikubibwa. Mu kisera kino, ebintu byona
ebyokulumbe, biba bikyali mu mikono gya bajwa. Omwenge ogwo ogwakasanja
(oba Nabairekuta) nga gumaze okunyuwebwa, abantu bona badayo ewabwe,
okulindirira olunaku olwokwabya. Era omusika atandika okubera nanyini bintu
byona era nokufuga. Naye abawala abafumbo abazalibwa omufu balwawo,
tebadayo mangu. Olusi batusa ku lunaku olwokwabya nga bali eyo ku lumbe.
Ku lunaku lwokwabya, abasaja abafumbidwa abawala bomufu, buli omu aleta
embuzi i. Okugya mukyalawe ku lumbe. Nga takoze bwatyo, mukyalawe aziizi-
OKWABYA OLUMBE LWOMWAMI OMUTONOTONO, kyekimu nga bwebabya olw'o-
mw. Omukulu, wabula ebirabo ebyembuzi oba ente bibera bitono. Nga okwabya
kuwede, oyo omusika nebwabera omuto aba afuse omukulu okufuga bane.
OMUSAJA OMUKULU SEMAKA., Era nga alina abanabe bangi, bwafa, omulambo-
gwe gunywegerwa. Tebaziiza bantu kuita mu makubo, wabula okufumba ku luna-
ku olwo, tebafumba mere. Batumira mangu emikwanogye, nabagandabe nabanabe
abataliwo. Abantu abakulu bwebakungana, batesa mangu okufuna ekifo okyokumu-
zikamu. Olusi balonda mu njuye, olusi ebweru mu lusukulwe, oba mu lugyalwe.
OKUSIMA ENTANA, ebera yansonda 4, nga bagitunuliza ku luyi Iwona lwona nga
ekika kyoyo afude bwekikola. Ebera nga ya ft io obuwanvu, ne 6 obugazi. okuka
wansi kiri eri abagisima nga bwebagala. Omujwa yasoka okutema enkumbi ku
taka, abalala nebalyoka badirira.
OKUNAZA OMULAMBO. Basoka okugunaza namazi, nga gugololwa gwona, omu-
jwa yaleta amazi mu nsuwa nga talina nkata ku mutwe. Oluvanyuma bagunaza
nebigogo ebikube. Gunazibwa bakyalabe, oba ngatalinabo omu ku kikakye, omu-
kazi oba musaja. Omulambo guzingibwa mu mbugo, era bainza okuguzika ku lu-
naku olwo bwewatabawo ekiziiza. Okuzika kugendera ku mpisa eyekikakye.
OKUTEKAWO OMUSIKA. Olusi bamutekawo mu kisera ekyokuzika. Oyo yafumita
embuzi. Olusi omusika atekebwawo oluvanyuma nga abakulu bamaze okwekanya
asanira. Okwokya akasanja, abajwa batwala enkoko nesanja, netoke eto eryambide,
nebakola nga ku bami. Omwenge gwa Nabairekuta, kikoledwa bumu era. Ebyaba-
walabe abafumbo obutadayo ewabwe kye kimu nate nabami.
OKWABYA OLUMBE kye kimu, wabula ebintu ebiretebwa okuwayo eri omufu
byebiba ebikendevu. Era tebasimanga ntana okwongeramu embugo, wabula okulo-
ngosa kungulu ku ntana nokuyiwako omwenge namalwa, nomusai okugutonyezako.
OMUSAJA OMUVUBUKA, nga abade alina omukyala, byona ebikolebwa kuye bifa-
nana bumu nebyomusaja omukade. Okunywegera omulambo, okugunaza, ekifo
kyentana, nokugisima nokuzika, okwokya akasanja, nomwenge.
OKUTEKAWO OMUSIKA kye kimu era, kyoka omusika tatekebwawo ku lunaku
Iwe nyini wabula ku lunaku olwokwabya. Ebyo ku lunaku olwo nebifanana wabula
okutekawo omusika, Iwawebwa omukyala. oba abakyala Era nebamwako enviri
kwolwo lwe nyini.
Naye singa afa nga teyalina mukazi, obanga yafumbirwako natazala mwana, oyo
bwazikibwa baleta ekyeyo nebera kuntana nti Gendera dala todanga kungulu kuba-
nga tolesewo mwanawo. Amakulu nti omukisagwo mubi, tegwetagibwa. Era singa
abade muwulu bakola bwebatyo (naye kakano tebakyakola). Era bakikolanga
erinyalye lireme okutumibwa abalala kubanga teyazala. Nga yali musaja muwulu,
nga talina mukazi, omusika atekebwawo, naye kyoka tawebwa mukazi kubanga ta-
liwo wabula obuntu obulala obuberawo.
OMUKAZI OMUKULU, obanga mutumbo nga alina omusaja, oyo akaba nyo
nokunyuwegera omulambo. Obanga yazala abana nga webali oba abekikakye, ba-
nywegera omulambo. Obanga waliwo abakyala abalala abo bebajanjaba omulambo.
Okubika batumira mangu abekikakye nabanabe. Okulonda ekifo ekyentana. Kyali
bweru, mu lusukulwe obanga luli kumpi. Yasimibwanga nge yomusaja, nga bagobere-
ra empisa yekika ekyo kyeyafumbirwako gyafiride bweri. Omujwa yasoka okutema
enkumbi ku taka, noluvanyuma abalala. Okunaza omulambo, abakyala bebakola,
nga ku basaja. Abakyala bane basoka okugusiba ekyambalo ekitono mu kiwato
mwoka oluvahyuma embugo,. zezisibibwa abasaja. Entana yafanana nga neyomusaja.
Nga bamaze okutumira bagandabe oba abazadebe, nabanabe, nga bali kumpi,
bamala kutuka, nebalyoka bazika, naye nga bali wala bamala gazika. Omulambo
gwatwalibwa nga mu mikono gyabasaja ku ntana, negutekebwamu bugazi neguziki
bwako ku mukono ogwakono nga empisa yekika gyeyafumbirwanga bweri.
Obanga waliwo ebyokwogera, omujwa oba kabona, oba omusaja omukulu,
aberawo nayogera mu bitono nga asabira omulambo omukisa. Era nalagirira nti
Si fe tukulabide akabi kano, naye omalanga emagombe enaku ntono, nokomawo no-
twala oyo akuletede akabi kano. Obanga omufu alinawo ebintu olwo ba'ta embuzi
oba ente, okumuwa okulya nga empisa yekika bwebera.
Omukazi nga yali mugumba atazala bana, kabona oba omujwa ayogera nti To-
komangawo gyetuli kubanga tolina kyolese bweru, nebakola nga ku musaja omugu-
mba. Erinyalye telitumibwa bana mu kika ekyo, lizikirira. Naye obanga
yazalako omwana erinyalye litumibwanga abana. Nga waisewo enaku 4 bokya aka-
sanja. Abajwa agenda nga busasana, nebatwala etoke eto erya Namukago, nesanja
nenkoko nebakola mu kyama Omwenge gwa kasanja oba nabairekuta kyekimu
nabasaja. Bwebatyo bwebakola ku bakazi bona.
OKWABYA OLUMBE. Kiinzika okwabya amangwago, oba oluvanyuma, nga
abekika kyomufu bwebera bateseza nebakiriziganya. Nga ekisera kituse, batema
omwenge, nebirala nga ku basaja.
OKUTEKAWO OMUSIKA. Abekika kyomufu baleta omuwala atanaba kufumbirwa
nebamuwa-omusaja eyali 'ba woyo eyafa. Awo oyo asikide mugandawe yabera omu-
sika, natwala ebintu, nenju, nolusuku ebyoyo gwasikide, eia afumbirirwa dala omu-
saja oyo. Ku lunaku olwo bona bamwa enviri zabwe, nomusika namwa.
Omukazi eyafa obanga alina abawalabe abafumbirwa, abasaja ababafumbidwa,
baleta embuzi okugoberera abakyala babwe ku lumbe. Obanga yalina abana abale-
nzi abafumbo, abakyala babwe abo bafumba emere bona, nebagitwala ku lumbe ba
'babwe gyebali nebatula mu lusuku, nga abasaja bwebakola nga bagenze ebuko.
Bambala nga abasaja, kubanga befula nga abasaja bwebakola nga begenze okugo-
berera abakyala babwe ku lumbe. Awo nga abakyala abo bali eyo mu lusuku awo
omusaja wabwe nayambala nga omukyala naja ne bane nalamusa abakyala, noluva-
nyuma nebaleta ebyokusesa bingi.
Abakyala abo bwe baseka, emere gyebalesc teribwa, era *babwe tebamutwala.
Naye bwebataseka nga olwo emere eribwa omusaja wabwe bamutwala, (empisaeno
oyokusesa ekolebwa ku bakyala abafa boka), okwo kuitibwa abakyala okugoberera
basaja babwe ku lumbe nga bafiridwa bakitabwe oba bakade babwe.
Embuzi abakyala zebata okufumbirwa ku mere gyebatwala gyebazala ba ba-
bwe bazigya eri bazade babwe era n'enkoko emu obanga abakazi bali bamusaja omu
nga bangi, bona baja omulundi gumu. Esabo crizimbibwa okutekamu omuzimu
,gwomukazi si lyaluberera, likoma ku lunaku olwokwabya olumbe Iwoka.
OMUKAZI OMUVUBUKA. Byona ebikolebwa kuye nga afude bye bimu nga ku
mukazi omukade Singa tanafumbirwa, tebatekawo musika wabula olumala okwa-
bya nga bamaze. Singa kitawe awayo embuzi oba nkoko ku lunaku olwokwabya,
ebyo kabona abiwayo era babi'tira emitwetwe wentana. Ekibumba kyokebwa ne
kisulib a mu ntana, nga kabona ayogera nti Eno ye mbuzi oba enkoko gundi gya-
kuwade, oluvanyuma kabona nalya, nebona nebakola bwebatyo.
Okuzika, entana, okunaza okuzinga, omweage gwa kasanja, okusawo omusika
byona bifanana omukazi omukulu.
OMUNTU OWENJAWULO AITIBWA OMUSWEZI (oba omusamize) omusaja oba
omukazi kye kimu. Nga alwade baita abaswazi bane, nebaja nebamu janjaba. Nga
tanaba kufa bane bagezako okuzimba amasabo, nokuwayo sadaka mugo, era neba-
kuba engoma ezabalubale.
Naye bwekitegerekeka nga obulwade bweyongera, awo basitula cmulwade, ne
bamutwala mu limu ku masabo amakulu agomu kifo ekyo.
Awo omu ku baswezi, oba omu kwabo abaigirizibwa mu kibina kyabaswezi,
kasita aberawo nga asinga ku bane abaliwo, oba mukazi, oba musaja, oyo nayogera
ebigambo ebyokuita abalubale bona ababuli ngeri okuja okuyamba omulwade ba-
muwonye. Okusinga asoka okuita omuzimu, oba lubale owoyo, omulwade gwasa-
miranga, era naita abalala. Nga amaze okuita emizimu omuzimu omusaja nga
bwebalowoza gwegusoka okuja negwogerera ku mulwade nti Waliwo olutalo lune-
ne nyo. Naye tugezezako nyo okulwana, era tukyalwana. Awo negumuvako, ne
gugenda. Kale nga anawona omuzimu omulala omukazi neguja ku mulwade negu-
muberako ebanga lyona okutusa Iwawona. Naye nga tawone omuzimu omusaja
bweguja ku mulundi ogusoka negwogera nti Tetusobole lutalo. Oyo nga anafa, ne
wakubade abasamize baja nate nebegairira nyo nga baita emizimu, oba lubale yena,
tebawulirwa so tewali dobozi lyona erija nate, newakubade bakuba ensasi nyo dala.
Awo nga afude, ekisoka nga ye muswezi omukulu, bakuba engoma katono nga ba-
gikuba mu mubala ogwokulaya, okutegeza nti Afude. Nga engoma esirise, nebaku-
ba ensasi, awo nebatanula okuyimba enyimba zabwe ezekiswezi nga baimba nenaku
Omulambo tebakiriza muntu yena atali muswezi, oba mulubale, okugutukako.
Era baguteka mu 'gigi negukumibwa abasamize boka, kye kimu nga bwekikolebwa
Abaisiramu. Omulambo gunazibwa bulungi nyo abasamize boka, nebaguzinga mu
mbugo. Basoka okugutekako embugo ezo zeyakozesanga nga abade asamide. Kwe
kugamba nti Embugo zomulimugwe, noluvanyuma nebadirizako endala.
Entana yomusamize omukulu. Balonda ekifo wabweru ekyo ku kiswa, eki-
mpimpi. Abasoka okugera entana nokugitema babera 2, omu muswezi omulala
omujwa. Omuswezi abera emitwetwe wentana, ate omujwa emiranamiro wayo.
Buli omu kubo awebwa olubugo lumu olugya olutayambalwangako. Abo bombi
nga bamaze okwetekateka, nokugera, bakwata enkumbi buli omu mu mukonogwe
ogwadyo. Awo bombi basoka okutema ku taka awanabera entana. Batema omu-
lundi gumu gwoka, awo nebakwasa enkumbi abantu abalala, abo basima entana.
Etunula yona yona nga ekika kyoyo atude bwekiri, era efanana nga entana zona
bweziba. Okukaba, tebamukabira, wabula abasamize bane buli aja akwata nsasi
nakuba, oba era naimba, bwakowa nawumula. Abalala baja nezabwe nga bakuba.
Okwo kuitibwa okukabira omusamize.
OKUZIKA. Ngabyona byetesetese, bamenya enyumba omulambo mweguli, ne-
batekako ekituli emanju. Eyo gyebaisa omulambo, era mu kugutwala ku ntana,
mu kubo mwebaguisa, agenda bamenyawo buli kintu kyona kyebasanga, nga guli
mu mikono gyabasamize boka nomujwa, okuguteka mu ntana. Gutekebwamu nga
gukikibwa ku mukono ogwadyo.
Awo nebaleta embuzi ensaja obanga ye musaja, oba embuzi enkazi obanga
mukazi. Owekika kyomufu yagiwayo era ayogera ebigambo ebyogerwa ku kuwa-
yo esadaka eri abalala abafa, nga Nkuwade embuzi eno, olye nga ogenda. Naye
omalanga mu taka enaku 2 aba 3 nokomawo notwala oyo akuletede akabi kano, era
naye aje gyoli alye ku taka, lyogenda okulya. Era nomu ku basamize naye akwa-
ta embuzi eyo, nayogera ebigambo bimu bwebityo nga agatako nti Emizimu mwena,
nabalubale, mutunulire oyo alese akabi ku muntu wamwe, namwe mumulumbe.
Obugenyi bubuno obubaweredwa. Bwebamala okwogera, omujwa nakwata embu-
zi nagi'tira emiranamiro wentana, nagyamu mangu ekibumba, nomutima nabyokya-
ko. Ate nabireta eri omulubale omukulu, abiteke ku kabaje akava ku muti, oba
olusi mu kawawo, nebakasa emiranamiro womulambo. Eyo ye nyama ye nyini
omulambo gyegunalya. Omulubale omukulu nadira etaka okuyiwa ku mulambo.
Mu kisera ekyo waberawo omuntu asinga enyo okubera ku lui lwomufu; aba nga
yetesetese, nalibaka, Amakulu nti Omuzimu gwomufu guleme okuzikibwa.
Engeri eno eyokubaka etaka erisoka okuyibwa ku mulambo ekolebwa ne ku
bantu abalala abatali basamize. Etaka eryo erikwatibwa, oyo alikute, alisiba mu byai,
nalitereka yeka okumala enaku ngi 3, nalyoka alireta nate ekiro mu kyama, nalite-
ka kungulu ku ntana nga amaze okulisumulula, mu byai, nalisasanya kungulu ku
ntana. Amakulu nti Omuzimu gwomufu guli kungulu. Nga etaka eryo limaze oku-
kwatibwa, kweryo erisoka, awo abalala nebafuka etaka tonotono ku mulambo ne-
batajuza ntana. Balekerawo, okutusa ekiro nga buzibye, abaswezi bona nebakunga-
na nebagenda ku ntana nebongera okuyiwako etaka, okujuza entana yona, nokugi-
nyweza obulungi. Era nebaimba nyo ekiro ekyo, nebazina nyo kitalo, era engoma
zona ezengeri eyo zivuga nyo dala okukesa obude. Tewabera kukaba kwona, wa-
bula ebyo byoka. Enkera baleta amabombo, naye gatekebwa ku ntana nga bukya,
nebabika entana yona obutalabikako, nebamala.
Nga waisewo enku 3 nga musaja oba 4 ngamukazi, nebokya akasanja, nga bwe-
kikolebwa ku balala. Era nomwenge oguitibwa ogwa kasanja, gutemebwa nga bulijo.
Nga bamaze okuzika tekikirizibwa kuwata mere yona, wabula buli mere yona
nga si mpate. Oba matoke bafumba mpogola, okumala enaku 2. Nga ziisewo, omu-
ntu adirira okumpi noyo eyafa awayo embuzi i, eyo ne'tibwa, omusai gwayo gufu-
kibwa mu kibya kyomufu kyeyakolezangamu. Awo abakazi bona abawata emere
nebanaba mu musai ogwo, nga gutabudwamu nedagala erigoba omuzimu obutakwa-
Era abasaja abaswezi boka bebakirizibwa okunaba mu musai ogwo. Nga oku-
naba okwo kuwede, awono emere neryoka ekirizibwa okugiwatanga. Nga byona bi-
wede abalala abawala badayo. Nanyini lumbe olwo nasigalira kunony bintu ebyo-
kwabya olumbe.. Ainza okumala ekisera kyona, kyoka ekitali kiwanvu nyookuita
abantu, nadala abaswezi okwabya olumbe.
OKWABYA OLUMBE Oyo nanyini maka, aleta endiga nembuzi nabikwasa omulu-
bale omukulu. Oyo awamu ne bane batuga embuzi nendiga nebabisambirira nebi-
gere okutusa Iwebifa, mu kiro nga tewali bantu balala abawulira. Bi'tirwa ku ntana,
nebibagibwa. Enyama eribwa abo abalubale bagirya ekiro ekyo nebagimalawo.
Nga bukede nebazina, buzinyi ekisera kyona. Era ku lunaku olwo waberawo
omwenge mungi negunyuwebwa ekiro kyona nemisana. Eda tebazimbanga sabo,
era tebakwatanga muzimu okugutwala mu sabo, oba munju nga bwekyakolebwanga ku
balala. Naye enaku zino bazimba esabo era bakola nga ku bantu abalala, okukwata
omuzimu negutwalibwa mu nju noluvanyuma mu sabo. Okwabya nga kuwede, aba-
swezi nebalagira oyo nanyiniwo okutekateka ebintu. Ekisera ekirala bakomewo
okutekawo omusika. Era ye wuyo anabera omusamize okuda mu kifo kyoyo eyafa.
Awo abaswezi bona bwebakomawo nengoma zabwe, nelaimba nyo nokuzina nga
ensasi zikubwa. Nga baimba batuza abantu bona abekifo ekyo abasanira okulaba
omusika worrufu. Abalubale abavude enjui zona baimba emisana nekiro ebanga
lyona awatali kusirika nga batude nabantu. Nebanonya oyo asanira okubera omu-
sika, mpozi anafunika wakati mu ku mba okwo. Baba baimba nga balaba omu kwa-
bo abatude bananyiniwo, nga asamira, nga ayogera ebigambo nti Nze gundi
nzize nsimye. Amangwago nebetolola oyo akwatibwa omuzimu nabaswezi bona.
Embuzi neretebwa okumuwa oyo omugya omulubale, alyoke ainze okwogera. Awo
natanula okwogera ebyomuzimu.
Mukisera ekyokutekawo omusika waberawo abalubale bangi. Era newabawo
ebitongole ebyengeri nyingi nga amadala gabwe bwegali. Awo nebamuwa ekitibwa
ekinene dala, oyo omugya nebamulondera abawereza 2 abakazi abaitibwa Nandere.
Bamuwereza enaku nga 2, bamulongosereza byona uga bamulaga buli kalimu kona,
okwera enju, okufumba, okulima, okukima amazi, okulya, okukuma omuliro, nebira-
la byona ebikolebwa omuntu kunsi.
Embuzi eyo eyokulya eitibwa nti Okusala akalimi. Omulubale omukulu
adira enyama ne mere yamatoke nebagifumbira wamu, eitibwa Kibigiya. Awo oyo
omulubale adira emere ne nyama nagiteka mu ngaloze zombi, nalisa oyo omusika.
Awo ku lunaku olwo lwebasisa, baleta olutembe olumyufu, nentebe, nebanaza olu-
mbe olwo nga bawayo embuzi i, eitibwa Eyokunaza o!umbe. Nebambaza omusika
olutembe, natuzibwa ku ntebe. Olwo nga okusisa kuwede. Era obanga omusika ye
mukazi, omusaja omulala omulubale, yagezako okusula naye ku kitanda, omulala
naja nabagyako olubugo. 01 o kwekumulaga okwegata nabasaja. Nga ye musaja,
baleta omukazi omulala neyegezako okwegata naye, nga amulaga okwegata naba-
kazi. Kino nga kikolebwa Iwebagenda. Omusika afuse omulubale.
OKUFA KWOMUNTU AITIBWA MUKAMA OBA ISEGYA. Engeri zino ze zimu eziko-
lebwa ku mulubale, kubanga nabo bali mu kika kyabalubale (oba ekya baswezi).
OMWANA OMUTO, nga afude, nyina ne kitawe oba bagandabe bakaba nyo
nga bagwa ku mulambo, okusinga ye nyina. Amangwago nebatumira baganda ba-
bwe n'abemikwano bona. Kitawe natekateka byakuzika. Ekifo kyentana kironde-
bwa kitawe oba omulala, ebweru oba mu lusuku Iwa nyina nga wali obanga luli
kumpi. Okusima kye kimu nga empisa zokusima zona, kyoka ebera nyimpiimpi
ngobuwanvu bwomwana bwebuli. Nyina yanaza omulambo oba omulala nebagu-
zinga nga abalala, negutwalibwa ku ntana mu ngalo. Muntana bagutunuliza ku lui
nga ekika ekyo gyekikola, obanga mulenzi, guwumuzibwako ku mukono ogwadyo,
oba muwala kugwa kono. Kitawe ne nyina obanga webali, bebasoka okuyiwako
etaka, oluvanyuma nabalala. Entana ekumibwa; bazimbako ensisira okugyetolola
olwokutya nti Abalogo baja oku'ba omulambo ekiro. Okwokya esanja kikolebwa
nga ku bakulu era nomwenge gwa Nabaireku'ta. Abazade bomwana tebamwa nvi-
ri okutusa lwebabya olumbe. Era omusaja teyegata namukaziwe era omukyala
teyegata namusaja ngatanaba kwabya, nokumwako enviri. Abakikola baba baso-
beza era bwamanyibwa aitibwa omusirusiru. Empisa eno ekwata ne ku kufa kwa-
bakulu, obutegata okutusa okumwa enviri. Okwabya olumbe kufanana okwabalala
wabula nga tewali musika.
OKUZIKA ABANA ABAZALIRWA NGA BALONGO. Omwana omulongo nga afude
tebakaba. Kasita afa omu omulala nga akyaliwo agenda nebakuba ku mulamu nti
Muno agenze. Nebagenda banonye omusamize Lukowe. Obanga kiinzika ba-
Icta omusamize oyo gwebaita okubasitula bwebazalibwa. Obanga talabika baita
Ltikowe omulala. Oyo bwatuka akuba ensasi nengoma ezekiswezi. Omujwa na-
sima entana, omulambo negutwalibwa mu ntana. Eyo esimibwa ngempisa yekika
bweri. Omulambo gusibibwako ensimbi ku mutwe emirundi 2, kubanga abana ba-
zalibwa 2. Era gusibwa obunyere 2 mu bulago era ku mikono kusibibwako ensi-
mbi i, nentembe ku buli mukono. Bazika nga abalala, entanaye batekawo oluko-
mera olutabule emuli nenkandwa. Era bakolako ensisira. Okwokya ensanja nomwe,
nge nga balala era nokwabya olumbe kye kimu.
Omuntu eyazala abalongo omusaja nomukazi, babaisa bumu mu kuzika. Nga
bwebaisa abana babwe, kyoka abakulu bazikibwa awali akaswa. Bazikibwa Iwagu-
lo esawa 12 oba i, eyekiro, Omusamize bamuwa ekintu oba enkumbi. Amalalo
EYETUGA YEKA. Nga asangibwa, eda basokanga okuwayo enkumbi oba ekirala
eri omwami nanyini kyalo okwanjula. Nga omwami awade olukusa okumugya ku
muti bayitanga omujwa, n'awebwa embuzi nga 4 n'okusingawo. Awo nalinya ku
muti nasala omuguwa, oba nga omulambo gumaze okugwa, yakwata ku mulambo.
Negutwalibwa neguzikibwa mu muga.
Ate omuti kweyetugira bagukulawo gwona, nemirandira negwokebwa gwona.
Kuno nanyini oyo eyafa yawangawo embuzi neyokerwa awo weyetugira. Tewali
kirala ekyakolebwa. Teyakabirwanga. Naye empisa eno efude. Kakano bamuka-
bira era nokuzikibwa azikibwa nga abalala.
ENSONGA EZAGENDERERWA MU KWABYA OLUMBE. Enzikiriza eyeda eye Kisoga
egamba nti Omuntu nga afude, omuzimugwe gubererawo nga mulamu; tegufa emi-
rembe namirembe. Guinza okuvunana abekoka abatatukiriza okukoka ebisanira
ku muntu afude.
Omuzimu tegufa. Babya olumbe Iwona nebatukiriza obulombolombo bwona
nga omuzimu gujanga okuvunana abalamu.
Omuzimu guinza okulwaza omusika n'abakyala, n'abana oba kubaletera akabi,
obwavu, nokufa n'emikisa emibi oba butazala bana.
Yempisa eyeda, abakuza, abajwa, nomu ku bakulu bebasoka okukola ku kiga-
mbo kyona mu kuzika. Abo mu lulyo abakulu nga bamaze obulombolombo
nebakwasa omusika ebintu byona ebyali ebyomufu. Emizizo gyona nga giwede,
nakola bwayagala nebintu ebyo.
Bett- ^fe rW3''. IIPl* 'l ,.. (^"*:-'- *' *' ii-^i
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PANORAMA OF LANGIA ACHOLI MOUNTAINS.
Some Notes on the Mountains of Uganda.
By PATRICK M. SYNGE, B.A., F.R.G.S.
The continent of Africa is full of surprises. The snow peaks of Ruwenzori,
situated right on the equator, must surely be considered as one of the greatest
surprises offered to the traveller and explorer by the "Dark Continent." Herodotus
refused to believe in the stories of a source of the Nile among snow and wrote,
"How therefore, since it runs from a very hot (Libya) to a cooler region (Ethiopia),
can it flow from snow." Stanley (1) quotes all his arguments in full.
The newcomer to Central Africa, when he sees Uganda as a small pink patch
on the map with a large number of rather ill-defined masses of blue which a foot-
note tells him are swamp, expects a land of dark forests and steaming swamps, full
of mud and mosquitos. Of lakes and swamps, of mud and mosquitos there are
plenty in East Africa but there are also mountains higher than any that the Alps
possess, rivalled only by the giant peaks of the Himalayas and the Andes.
Uganda forms a part of the Central African plateau and nearly all the country
is at an altitude of approximately 4,000 feet above sea level. From Entebbe a day's
car run will take one 2,000 feet higher into the Kigezi country where it is sometimes
distinctly cold of nights and where one can get a first glimpse of the strange type
of vegetation characteristic of the mountains of East Africa. Beyond Kabale the
newly-constructed road to the Congo passes through hills and meadows where
"red-hot pokers", gigantic and bizarre lobelias and white everlastings are encir-
cled by bushes of yellow St. John's wort and where there are huge forests of bam-
boo among which roam great herds of elephant.
The mountains of East Africa form roughly a great triangle with Ruwenzori,
Kenya and Kilimanjaro at the apices. Although the snow peaks are separated by
great distances from one another, between them lie several lesser mountain masses
such as Elgon, the Birunga Mountains and the Aberdares. These may have formed
some kind of link for the vegetation to pass between the higher masses when the
glaciations were much lower and the pluvial periods had filled up the lakes much
above their present level.
At present much of the interest of the flora and fauna of the higher zones lies
in the isolation of the mountains from one another and in the consequent develop-
ment of separate endemic species which are yet sufficiently similar to support the
(1) "Through the Dark Continent." 1878, Vol. I, p. 9.
theory that they have sprung from a common stock. The mountain summits must
be considered scientifically as islands rising out of a sea of lower land. Such a con-
ception is easy to visualise in those superb moments when one looks down from the
mountains and sees all the surrounding country covered with cloud and above
the cloud a few isolated peaks. Alternatively one may stand on the lowland and
look to the snows of Ruwenzori floating ethereally among the clouds; such a view
Stanley saw and such a view can be seen by anyone who is lucky from the Lubilia
river on the road to the Congo.
To obtain a near view of the snows it is necessary to walk about fifteen miles
up the Bujuku Valley among gigantic heathers and tree groundsels, so large that
they could supply canary seed for the whole world, and in appearance rather
resembling overgrown cauliflowers which have gone to seed. Glittering in the mid-
day sun the snows present a magnificent picture. (Plate i). Such a place was
described to Stanley (i) by Sekajugu-"a hollow surrounded by high walls of rock
which contains a small round lake from the centre of which rises a lofty columnar
rock. It is very cold there and snow frequently falls".
This reference to Ruwenzori and lake Bujuku is one of the earliest definite
records of Uganda's snows and it was then described as "Mount Gordon-Bennett in
the country of Gambaragara". Stanley does not seem to have connected his disco-
very of Ruwenzori thirteen years later (2) with his previous view of "Mt. Gordon-
Bennett" but merely complains of the lack of observation of other travellers !
II. The Discovery of the Mountains of Uganda.
The earliest historical record of the discovery of mountains in Uganda relates
to the Mufumbiro or Birunga Volcanoes. They were sighted by Speke (3) about 1861.
He apparently considered them to be the highest part of the fabled "Mountains of
the Moon", about which he had heard from the Arabs.
The next mountain to be discovered was Elgon, which was seen by Stanley
from a canoe on Lake Victoria. He under-estimated its height and consequently
placed it on his map much nearer to Lake Victoria than it really is and at approxi-
mately the position of Busia. However, he clearly understood from the natives that
this mountain "Marsawa" was a very important feature of the district. Joseph
Thomson (4) refers to it in more detail. The name "Masaba" appears to be the correct
Luganda name for the mountain, and it is perhaps unfortunate that the name "Elgon'
seems to have been invented from a confused association with the cave-dwellers "El
Gonyi" on the north side of the mountain (5).
(1) "Through the Dark Continent." 1878, Vol. 1. p. 427.
(2) "In Darkest Africa." 1890. Vol. 1. p. 405.
(3) "Journal of the Discovery of the Source of the Nile." 1932 edition, p. 175.
(4) "Through Masai Land." 1887.
(5) Hobley C. W. "Notes on a journey round Mt. Masawa or Elgon." Geographical
Journal 1897, Vol. IX, pp.173-185,
o. a a
r r- 'W 1
Helichrysum meadows below Bulambuli, (Mount Elgon).
Photo by Dr J. M. Wallace.
Crater wall with senecio elgonensis in foreground, (Mount Elgon).
Photo by Dr. J. M. Wallace.
Ruwenzori was rediscovered, somewhat spectacularly by Stanley who obtained
his famous view of the snows on May 2oth, 1888. In reality, as explained above,
this was his second sight of the mountains (1).
The natives believed that the white substance on the mountain was salt,
having no conception of snow or its connection with water.
This mountain had been vaguely known to the ancients, and Humphreys (2)
writes that its position was given with tolerable accuracy by Ptolemy in A.D. I5o.
In an attempt to compare the legend of Herodotus (quoted above) with the.
actual facts he suggests, although with some misgiving, that Mts. Emin and Gessi
represent the "Crophi" and "Mophi" of the legend and that the lake between them
is the "abysmal lake" from which flows the "ruamuli", the "Fountain of the Nile".
The Baganda knew of the existence of this range and to it refers their proverb
"Gambalagala afumba bire" which had been translated "Gambalagala cooks the
clouds." An ingenious native derivation associated "Gambalagala" with okubalagala,
which the dictionary translates as "to hurt" or "to get painfully stiff as when
The people living nearer the range have individual names for the peaks, but
are often unable to give a name for the mountain as a whole. However, the Luko-
njo name "Rwenzura" (s) seems to be in fairly general use. Johnston (4) has dis-
cussed the name "Ruwenzori" and has suggested other possible derivations as well
as giving other tribal names.
The Langia-Acholi mountains appear to have been discovered by Baker.
They are marked as hills on the map of Emin Pasha's district (6) and were perhaps
vaguely indicated on earlier maps of the Sudan. They were, however, not
surveyed until very recently (6), when the highest peak, Kineti, which is in the
Sudan, just over the Uganda border, was found to be 10,456 feet in height. The
peaks actually in Uganda do not greatly exceed 9,000 feet.
III. Geographical and Geological Description.
One of the most interesting points about the previous history of the East
African high mountains is the great extent of their previous glaciation. Although
Mount Elgon has no glaciers or permanent snow at present. Nillson states that there
are traces of old moraines which indicate the former existence of glaciation to the
(1) "Tn Darkest Africa." 1890. Vol. I, p. 405.
(2) "Ruwenzori, Flights and Further Explorations". Geog. Journal, 1933. Vol LXXXII,
(3) Nkura-rain, hence "The rain mountain."
(4) "The Uganda Protectorate." 1902. p.153.
(5) Stanley, "In Darkest Africa." 1890. Vol. II, p. 213.
(6) Whitehouse, "The Langia-Acholi mountain regions of tho Sudan-Uganda border
land." Geog. Journal, Vol. LXXVIII, pp. 140-150, 1931.
extent of 75 sq. kilometres. For Kilimanjaro, Klute has estimated that the glacia-
tion probably covered two hundred sq. miles, while Nillson thinks that it must have
been even greater. There are no available estimates of former glaciation on Kenya
or Ruwenzori but ancient moraines show that it must have been fairly extensive.
The glaciers reached their maximum size in an epoch that was considerably colder
and wetter than the present. It is probable, but not certain, that the ebb and flow
of the glaciations coincided with the rise and fall of the lakes during the pluvial
periods. It is possible that at this period much of the present peculiar high-
mountain flora occurred at lower altitudes and that there were connecting links
between the various ranges which are now isolated as biological islands.
Even at the present it is probable that some changes are going on, possibly
resulting in a very slight drying-up of the mountains. Dr. Humphreys has recorded
that several of the Ruwenzori lakes appear to have diminished recently.
This mountain mass, fifty miles almost in diameter, is formed from an extinct
volcano, the cone of which must once have been considerably higher than the
present peaks which are situated on the crater rim. This crater is eight miles in
diameter and nearly two thousand feet in depth. It is said to be the largest in the
There are good rest camps on the mountain and the normal Uganda route to
the crater and summit starts from Budadiri, twenty-five miles from Mbale, and pro-
ceeds via Butandiga and Bulambuli, the bamboo camp, to Mudange, the highest
camp at approximately 1 ,ooo feet.
From Mudange it is about two hours' walk up to the top of Jackson's Summit
(13,6oo feet) a rocky peak which though actually not the highest point is the sum-
mit usually ascended. The highest point is Loven's Peak (14,100 feet) which
is situated on the crater rim about two miles from Jackson's Summit. From Mu-
dange there is also a path through the crater into Kenya. None of the ascents
are difficult or very long and the only difficulty lies in combatting the effects of
the altitude. These are not generally very serious. It is recorded, however, that
on an early ascent of the mountain, Dummer's companion suffered so acutely from
mountain sickness that he "wished to lie down and die".
The people living round the lower slopes are the Bagishu and they provide
sturdy porters. They are mostly short stocky people and are reputed to be very
coarse feeders. Of a bull which we had killed, the Bagishu porters cheerfully ate the
guts, and I have been told that they have becn seen.to tear out and eat great chunks
of raw and recently-killed baboon. They cultivate plantains, coffee and bulo
(Eleusine) on the lower slopes and are now proceeding to cultivate also some of the
forest zones, up to 7,500 feet.
On the higher zones live the Wanderobo and they have made many small paths
over the alpine moorland near the top. They are chiefly herdsmen.
A group of Lobelia bequacrtii in flower, at about 10,700 feet.
Photo: G. L. R. Hancock.
The Bujuku stream above Kigo on the second valley step,
showing giant Sciiecio and Lobhlia bcquacrtii. at 11,600 feet.
The Senecio forest near lake Bujuku, 12,800 feet,
showing cushions of moss on the tree trunks.
I. II ,,I'^, "'I' '
Mount Stanley from below Lake Bujuku, showing giant Senecios, .Alhicmilli adn
CPhar ris, r.. R icancsis.
Photc: G. L. R Hancock.
Ruwenzori consists of a considerable range, along the top of which passes the
border between Uganda and the Belgian Congo. Although it has always excited in-
terest by reason of its snow peaks and its inaccessibility, Ruwenzori is still perhaps
the least known of the larger of the East African mountains. There have however
been a number of expeditions which have attempted to explore the higher regions.
Outstanding in success among these must be mentioned the expedition of the Duke
of the Abruzzi in 1906, which conquered many of the peaks for the first time, and
the recent ascents and flights made by Dr. Noel Humphreys. On the Belgian
side much biological work has recently been done by a big expedition under
the Count de Grlnne.
The route usually taken up the mountain follows the Mubuku and Bujuku
valleys, starting from Ibanda or Bugoye about twenty-five miles from Fort
Portal. There are no camps but it is in many places possible to make a camp under
one of the rock shelters which appear to be characteristic of Ruwenzori. Above
Ibanda the first day's march is usually made up to Mihunga where there are
the remains of a hut occupied by the British Museum Expedition in I906. From
Mihunga the path leads to the snows via the rock shelters Nyinabitaba, Kyanasabo
and Kigo. Climbing on Ruwenzori is made difficult by the excessive mist and rain
as well as by the steepness of some of the peaks and glaciers. The highest peak is
the Margherita Peak (16,794 ft.) of Mount Stanley, the mass to the north of the
Scott-Elliot pass and situated at the head of the Bujuku valley.
There are no native huts on Ruwenzori above 7,000 ft. and it is necessary to
take Bakonjo and Batoro porters from the base at Bugoye. These porters feel the
cold of the higher regions very severely and it is necessary to provide them with
blankets and sometimes with other clothing as well. By themselves, however,
some of them have penetrated almost up to the snows in search of leopard and
The Birunga range is volcanic and consists of eight cone-shaped peaks stretch-
ing for approximately forty miles across the western rift valley. The highest peak
is Karisimbi (14,780 ft.) which is just over the Uganda border in the Parc National
Albert. In Uganda the highest peak is Muhavura (13,547 ft.). Both these vol-
canoes are extinct but Nyamlagira and Ninagongo are in a perpetually active state.
One of the most obvious features of the Birunga range is the prevalence of cloud
and mist which obscure the summits during much of the year and result in the
heavy growth of saturated moss in the alpine zone. East of the actual Birunga
peaks is the highland Kigezi country, most of which is situated at 6,oo0-8,ooo ft.
above sea level. Kabale is generally the starting point for visits to this area and
the usual route crosses Lake Bunyoni to Bufundi camp on the western shore. From
there a trail leads up to Behungi camp.
North of Elgon there are a number of small mountain masses forming a rough
chain up to the Acholi mountains of the Sudan border. Of these Debasien (o,o050
ft.), Moroto (9,700 ft.) and Kamalinga are the most prominent. The last-mentioned
has not yet been climbed to the summit and all of them are little known. Sir Harry
Johnston says of Debasien: "So far as outline goes, I think Debasien is the most
beautiful mountain in Central Africa."
The Langia-Acholi group is situated on the Uganda-Sudan border. Mount
Kineti (10,456 ft.) is the highest peak. No part of this range appears to be very
IV. Climate and Vegetation.
The most obvious points in which the climate of the mountains differs from
that of the surrounding lowlands are the increased humidity and the lowering of
the temperature. The "Agaso" mountains of the Langia-Acholi group form the only
exception to this statement. They are considerably drier than any of the other
mountains and instead of luxuriant forest, their lower slopes are covered with thorn
and other xerophytic plants, of which the most characteristic is the bright pink
Adenium. Only at the higher levels does forest occur. Unfortunately the writer
has had no opportunity of studying the vegetation of this group, but Chipp(1) has
published some records of the vegetation of the Imatongs and there is a collection of
plants in the Forestry Herbarium collected by Mr. W. J. Eggeling during a Christ-
mas week-end at Agoro. No list of the latter has, however, yet been published.
With regard to the other great mountain groups, several vegetation zones are
easily apparent and the zones on Mt. Elgon may be taken as a good example:-
I. Forest zone: 6,00o-9,000 ft.
II. Bamboo forest zone or Arundinetum: 9,000-10,000 ft.
III. Heather forest zone or Ericetum: Io,ooo-Io,5oo ft.
IV. Alpine zone: above Io,5oo ft.
On Mt. Elgon there is no true alpine moraine as on Ruwenzori, although the
nearest approach to it is found in the rocks of Jackson's Summit.
The Forest zone is characterized by giant trees such as Podocarpus and by a
general dampness and luxuriance of growth. Many of the trees are covered with
epiphytic masses and lichens of which Usnea, "the old man's beard" lichen is
prominent. 'Ihis lichen grows in gr6at white streamers, and mats often several
yards long are found dangling from the branches. In bright sunlight it makes a
beautiful although somewhat variegated picture. Another fine epiphyte is Canarina
Emini which bears great orange bells, pendant from a glaucous foliage.
Unfortunately on the normal Uganda route up via Budadiri, Butandiga, Bula-
mbuli and Mudange much of this forest has been cleared for crops. However, from
Butandiga the magnificent view over the lower slopes and away to Nkokonjeru
makes up to some degree for the cutting of the forest. All the lower slopes are now
covered with plantains and the native houses appear as mushrooms in a sea of
(1) 1929. Kew Bulletin, No 6.
emerald green. At Sipi, which is at about the same altitude as Butandiga, there is still
some of the finest forest to be seen in Uganda, and in addition there is a magnifi-
cent waterfall opposite the rest camp. On the Kenya side of the mountain at this
level there is open parkland dotted with European farms.
A considerable amount of both this forest and the bamboo forest above has been
cleared and it is difficult is many places to see where they once met. Much of the
cleared forest area is now occupied by bracken of the same species as occurs in
England, and by drifts of white and pink Helichrysums, the everlasting flowers ofthe
Victorian drawing room. When in full flower, however, they present a magnificent
At Bulambuli camp one comes to the bamboo forest, light and feathery on the
edge where the sunlight flecks with lightness the yellow stems and pale leaves, but
damp and gloomy within where little direct sunlight penetrates. Above Bulambuli
camp there is a small valley where one gets a first glimpse of the characteristic
mountain plants. Beside a small stream grow giant groundsels, real trees often
twenty feet high and often contorted into weird shapes. Their stems are covered
with cabbage-like crowns of foliage, from which hang down mop-like masses of dead
leaves. Some of the stems are almost converted into pillars of dead leaves with a
central trunk core. Among them grow the giant lobelias, great rosettes of leaves
from the centre of which emerge green obelisk-like spikes, which have been aptly
compared to the tombstones in a Turkish cemetery. All these are marsh-loving and
with them grow the "red-hot pokers", Knipholia, and the beautiful pink orchid,
Disa Stairsii. There is also in this zone a most interesting gladiolus-like plant,
Oenostavhys dichroa, recently discovered by Mr. George Hancock and described
from the Kew Herbarium as a new genus. 1 he flower is small and tubular, but
covering it there is a large and decorative purple bract. The background to the
picture is provided by the bamboo forest, all yellow and glittering in the sunlight
and covered with long streamers of the "old man's beard" lichen, Usnea. The whole
scene seems unreal and unrelated to the rest of the surrounding world One's
thoughts are carried to fantastic pictures of landscapes in other geological ages or to
still more imaginary ideas of landscapes in other planets.
Among the bamboo forest is found Lobelia gibberoa, a mighty plant reaching to
twenty-five feet when in flower. This species is unique among the arborescent
Senecios and Lobelias in that it is found over a large range of altitude (5,000--o,ooo
feet) and on practically all the higher mountains, while all the other species are con-
fined to a slight range of altitude and conditions and in almost all cases to a single
mountain and perhaps only to one valley even there.
Above the bamboos one emerges into a rather more open type of forest in
which the dominant tree is a heather. There is also in this zone another species of
arborescent Senecio which displays all the usual adaptations of a sunloving genus
to an existence in semi-shade: namely, a loose, lanky habit of growth, thin almost
glabrous leaves and fewer leaves per rosette.
From this forest to the alpine zone there is an abrupt transition, the character
of the vegetation changing entirely in a distance of fifty yards uphill along the path.
In general appearance the alpine zone approximates to the open moorlands of the
Highlands of Scotland or Exmoor. For the most part the ground is boggy and
covered with tussocks of short grass. There are occasional clumps of tree heathers,
gnarled and twisted into every conceivable kind of shape. Colour is provided by the
Helichlysums and a second species of Knipholia, while the rocks are covered with
most beautiful lichens of all forms and shades. Some writers refer to the open moor-
land as the sub-alpine zone and to the rocks as an alpine zone. It seems to the
writer, however, that such a differentiation is unnecessary, the difference between
the moorland association and the rock association being one due to edaphic factors
and not to altitude, patches of the rock association occurring in the middle of
the moorland association.
The landscape is dominated by the tree Senecios and the giant Lobelias.
There is Lobelia Telekii in which the flowers are entirely shielded by the bracts,
giving the plant the appearance of a great woolly caterpillar stood on end. Lobelia
elgonensis is a botanical monstrosity, stiff and erect like a pretentious obelisk in a
cemetery. Nevertheless it has a certain bizarre beauty. Peeping out among the
large green bracts are quite attractive bluish-purple flowers. As a contrast to the
six-foot curiosities there is also a small Lobelia, L.Lindb!onii which creeps over
the ground and bears small blue flowers of the type associated with the bedding
lobelia of English gardens.
Senecio elgonensis is the dominant arborescent groundsel of the alpine regions.
We found it flowering frantically in August, bearing great panicles of yellow
flowers. On the highest parts of the crater rim and around Jackson's Summit
S. elgonensis is replaced by Senecio Gardneri, a species with a short and rather
thicker trunk and thick leaves covered below with a dense white tomentum.
Senecio elgonensis has only a very slight pubescence on the under side of the leaves.
Apart from the vexed question of how these Senecios and Lobelias reached the
African mountains, these plants present many other interesting problems. Nothing
is known of the age of the individual plant, or their rate of growth or of the fre-
quency and season of their flowering. It is hoped, however, to gain some idea of
their rate of growth from certain specimens which have been carefully labelled,
measured and noted for future observation.
The normal reaction of plants to mountain conditions results in nanism, the
production of dwarf forms, but these Senecios and Lobelias have rushed madly to
the opposite extreme, becoming positive giants as compared with the common
groundsel and dandelion or the small bedding Lobelia.
An interesting parallel to the arborescent Senecios is found in the genus Espe-
letia, also composites, plants which grow at approximately the same altitudes and
in the same situations in the Andes and from photographs bear a remarkably close
resemblance to the African mountain Senecios. Is this a case of parallel and con-
vergent evolution due to similarity of environment, or is it a case of variation follow-
ing on discontinuous distribution?
Although there is no permanent snow on Elgon, there are frequent showers of
hail and sleet, while frosts often occur at night. A thin sprinkling of snow has
been observed to lie for some hours on the higher peaks. There is also a general
Lobelia (Thclkii) (Mount Elgon).
Photo by P. M. Synge.
Helicharysum at 11,000 feet. (Mount Elgon).
Photo by P. M. Synge.
Senecio Elgonensis and Senecio (Gardnlcri) round small tarn
below Jackson's Summit (Mount Elgon).
Photo by P.M. Synge.
Evening view from Mount Elgon shewing Lake Salisbury.
Photo by P. M. Synge.
Heather forest with arborescent Senecio from above.
Photo by P. M. Synge.
Lobelia (Elgoncusis) (Mount Elgon).
Photo by P. M. Synge.
impression of dampness caused by the prevalence of rain and Scotch mist. During
some days spent at Mudange during August we found that rain invariably came on
about mid-day and frequently before. There were, however, very quick changes;
when the sun came out the whole landscape would light up and clouds of steam
would rise from the damp grass. During December and January the climate is said
to be much drier and in previous years much of the alpine grassland zone has been
On Ruwenzori the vegetation and climate bear very distinct resemblances to
those of Elgon, only Ruwenzori .seems to be in every %way wetter and colder
and the plants are somewhat modified accordingly. It is apparently never possible
to rely o:1 getting fine weather on Ruwenzori but authorities suggest that the best
chance of getting a few fine days is in Juie and again in December.
From the vegetational point of view the chief differences between Elgon and
Ruwezori are closely connected with the geographical differences. Elgon is an
extinct volcano with a vast crater surrounded by a gently undulating downland; Ru-
wenzori is a rocky mass with very deep-cut valleys and numerous small lakes. The
ridges are apparently covered with thick vegetation while the base of the val-
leys is said to be so boggy that there is scarcely a dry level space on which
to pitch a tent in the higher zones. Many of these valleys contain endemic species,
but at present only the flora of a very few of the valleys is at all known and
further exploration is likely to yield a number of new forms and perhaps species.
There are considerable differences between the western and the eastern
slopes of Ruwenzori. On the western side the rainfall is heavier and here Profes-
sor Hauman talks of forests of the arborescent Senecio, S.Friesiorum,, a species
with a very dense white tomentum on the under surface of the leaves and presenting
a close parallel both in type and altitude to Senecio Gardneri on Mount Elgon. On
the eastern slopes no such forests are recorded and it is permissible to suggest
that they are due to the greater humidity
There is permanent snow on the peaks and the snow line reaches down to
13,500 feet approximately. Some of the Senecios grow right up to the snow line and
are often seen with their leaves covered with snow.
The Birunga mountains are all volcanic and possess a flora all of one type,
dominated by Senecio Erici-Rosenii, another species of arborescent groundsel. Mr.
Burtt states that the alpine flora is subject to much cloud, giving great humidity
and excluding bright sunlight throughout much of the year, with resulting low day
temperature and the prevention of frequent ground frosts. On the lower slopes are
forest zones resembling those found at similar altitudes on the other East African
The Highlands of Kigezi are also of great interest botanically as well as being
ofgreat beauty. Between the camps Bufundi and Behungi there are water meadows
resembling in general appearance a very flowery English meadow into which a few
exotics such as Lobelia Mildbraedii have escaped. There are red-hot pokers, pink Disa
Stairsii and Ranunculus.
The vegetation of the mountains north of Elgon, namely Moroto, Debasien and
Kamalinga is as yet very little known.
V. The Fauna.
By JOHN FORD. B.A.
The animal populations of the mountains are of particular interest, both in their
affinities one to the other and to faunas in other parts of the world. One finds that,
although specifically there are slight differences between the animals, more especially
the smaller forms such as insects, at the higher levels of the mountain, yet in their
general and more obvious characters there are very strong resemblances. This, in
itself, is not very remarkable since to a great extent the climates and general
habitats are similar. It is, though, surprising to find insects, various species of
midges and daddy-long-legs, which are totally different from related genera which
occur in other parts ot Central Africa, and resemble instead, very closely, genera in
Abyssinia and in Europe. How is this to be explained?
It has been shown that in former ages Central Africa was very much colder and
that at times the lakes extended over far greater areas than to-day. In such a climate
animals which now inhabit the temperate and sub-arctic regions of the Earth could live
comfortably in a land which is to-day utterly unsuited to them. In course of time the
glaciation in the north retreated and the ice caps of the African mountains decreased
and in some cases disappeared. The cold-loving animals disappeared and, at
lower levels, were replaced by tropical forms. But on the mountain, where
it still remained cold, temperate and so-called 'palaearctic' animals continued to
exist in isolated groups. It is only rarely that one gets direct evidence of such
happenings, but the theory of 'relict faunas' briefly explained above does offer a
satisfactory explanation of these peculiarities. The next question is why, in spite
of strong general resemblances are there now definite specific differences between
the faunas of the various mountains ? Evolution is continuous and following the
isolation of the higher-level, cold-loving animals, they continued to evolve and, as
a result of this isolation developed in slightly different directions so that, for
example on Ruwenzori, we find two species of brown rat, one closely related to
another species on Elgon and the other to a fourth species of the same genus in the
Kivu area. However, rats abound on the mountains and many of them are peculiar
only to one mountain. This is also true of other mammals, particularly on Ruwenzori,
and on Elgon there is a race of duiker, found so far only on that mountain. On
Elgon, too, there is the well-known golden mole, another species of which occurs
on Ruwenzori and this genus is peculiar in occurring elsewhere only in South Africa.
It is not possible to mention more than a small number of these mountain beasts,
many of which must be regarded as being endemic and not introduced during other
climatic ages. There are, for instance, special forms of bush-pig and bush-buck,
and hares. Mole rats and the hyrax occur at great heights. On Elgon, too, we
have the now famous "Nandi bear", which, from its description by its discoverer,
and also according to the local inhabitants, is a distinct species, although, as yet,
somewhat obstinate mammalogists persist in calling it a common spotted hyaena !
There is a very diverse bird fauna in the mountains, but comparatively few species
at higher levels. Lugard gives a list ot those on Elgon (1933) among which may be
mentioned as of particular interest, the Elgon Francolin, the Ethiopian Snipe,
Ellenbeck's Decorated Sand-grouse, and the beautiful little Sunbird, which with its
long beak gathers honey from and fertilises the giant Lobelias.
But problems of distribution of life at high levels are not alone in making
the study of the fauna of the Central African mountains of absorbing interest.
Vegetation of such an unusual type necessarily harbours insects and other small
invertebrates peculiar to it. In the bamboo zone, where the water runs in-fast-flow-
ing streams where no mosquito could possibly breed, we do nevertheless, find
a Culex which has found in the water in the hollows of bamboos bored by a moth
larva a suitable place for its larvae. Another interesting group of insects is the
grasshoppers, which, at high levels, have reduced wings and are all unable to
fly when fully grown. They occur in short grass, where presumably hopping is
sufficient for locomotion. Further, it is possible that on high, exposed places, where
high winds are frequent, flight is disadvantageous for small animals. It is notice-
able on Elgon that the flying insects are generally somewhat sluggish and seem to
confine themselves to short flights from one clump of vegetation to the next. In the
neighbourhood of 1,000 feet a fritillary is very common and closely related species
occur on all the mountains, but at higher levels the Lepidoptera are represented
only by small moths and a few blues and skippers. The small copper butterflies
of the Birungas are important as a link between the common African race and
the coppers of Europe and show that the three are closely related, and in fact,
are geographical races of the same species. In the short grass on the top of Elgon
the beetles, at any ra'e among the larger insects, seem the preponderating
group, and weevils in particular occur in large numbers on the giant groundsels and
lobelias, to which many seem to be specific.
A great deal remains to be done before much is known of the smaller animals
of the mountains, but perhaps enough has been said to indicate the attractions and
the scientific value of a survey of the mountain fauna.
(The writer is much indebted to Mr. John Ford for his account of the mountain
fauna and to Mr. G. L. R. Hancock for his co-operation in the writing of the paper).
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on Mounts Muhavura and Mgahinga, Uganda.' Journ.
Ecology Vol. XXI, No. t. Feb. 1933.
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"Aims and Methods in the study of Vegetation." 1926.
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Borderland." Geog. Journ. LXXVIII. 1931 p. 140.
Jackson and von Tiedemann
By H. B. THOMAS, O.B.E.
With characteristic humour Sir Frederick Jackson tells, in his very pleasant
book, Early Days in East Africa, of his dealings with Dr. Carl Peters in Uganda in
Jackson relates that after the departure of Peters and his companion von Tiede-
mann, he received from the latter a Parthian shot in the form of a studiedly insult-
ing letter which so amused the directors of the Chartered Company in London that
it had never been returned to him and he could not therefore quote its full text.
Von Tiedemann obviously took some pride either in the sentiments or in the
English of this letter for with true Teutonic thoroughness he preserved a copy and
on his return to Germany published it in his book, Tana-Baringo-Nil (Berlin 1892).
As this work is not likely to be accessible to many of the readers of the Journal the
letter seems worth reprinting. It was written on 4th April, 189o, at Tabaliro Island
(apparently an islet two or three miles south of Kyanshonzi point, which is south of
the mouth of the Kagera River), and was brought back to Buganda by some return-
ing canoes. It reads as follows:-
To Mr. Jackson Esq., Uganda.
"On the road to Usukuma I get the somewhat amusing news, that you thought
it advisible to send a letter to the king of Uganda in order to tell him that you have
the intention to stop or, if necessary, to arrest Dr. Carl Peters and me. This
information should nearly make me wish to return to Uganda in order to see you
and your gallant men, of whom we saw some specimens in Kavirondo, to stop or
arrest Dr. Peters and me. I am a Prussian officer. What you are, I don't know,
and I don't care to know, people say, you are a clerk of the british east africa
company. I think Dr. Peters will leave it to the public of Europe to judge about
the letter you thought conform with the honour of a gentleman to address to a king
of Uganda, and I myself may perhaps have at a more convenient place a chance to
make you answer personally for your conduct."
Peters and von Tiedemann arrived at Mengo on 25th February, 1890. It is
usual to assume that they hastened to leave Uganda when they heard that Jackson
was following them. But there is a good case for accepting Peters' assertion in his
book, New Light on Dark Africa, that he had planned, almost as soon as he had
arrived at Mengo, to remain no longer than the middle of March, for he had insuf-
ficient stores and ammunition to maintain his expedition for any period against
determined opposition. Moreover, he was well aware that the atrocities which had
been committed during his unauthorised passage through the British hinterland
from the Tana River to Lake Victoria prevented his returning by any route other
than that of the German sphere to the south of Lake Victoria. Von Tiedemann had
accordingly been sent forward to Sese on 8th March to superintend the collection of
canoes and Peters had finally fixed the date of his own departure when, two days
before-on 22nd March-Mwanga received from Jackson (who had only learnt of
Peters' exploits on his return to Mumias from the Turkwel River on 4th March) the
letter announcing his intention of marching into Uganda. Peters actually left Mengo
on 25th March, Jackson arriving on i4th April, 1890.
No one after studying the portrait in full uniform of Adolf von Tiedemann,
Lieutenant im Dragoner-Regiment von Wedell, which adorns his book would for
a moment think of questioning his claim to be a Prussian officer. In real life he
must have been a "terrific" fellow. Twenty-five years later popular jargon would
have classified him as a pukkaa squarehead".
An Interesting Hybrid
By H. L. DUKE, O.B.E., M.D., SC.D.
In September last year, in a remote corner of one of the backwaters of civilisa-
tion, an event occurred that is unique in the recorded history of the world. Alexan-
der, the situtunga-bushbuck, was born, in the antelope house at the Human Try-
panosomiasis Institute, Entebbe.
His mother, Susan the situtunga, very nearly died in the days that followed her
delivery, and she had to be kept for some weeks in the sick-bay.
The prodigy himself started life on diluted cow's milk, imbibed through a teat
from a bottle three times daily. He has never looked back.
When Susan came out of hospital and rejoined her companions in the main
enclosure, she and Alec talked things over and came to a satisfactory understanding.
She agreed to take over supervision between meals, and set to work to bring him
up according to the traditions of her race, and he was to get his meals out. The
reprobate father, a fine young bush-buck with a roving eye and no scruples, took no
interest whatever in his remarkable offspring, who spent most of his time at his
As time went on Alec repaid his mother's devotion by favouring 'in form and
feature, face and limb', more and more her side of the family. The photographs
accompany) ing this note, taken by that acknowledged master of the art, Dr J. M.
Wallace, are so good that detailed description of our subject is unnecessary.
Alec is, broadly speaking, more of a situtunga than a bushbuck. As a baby, the
length of his coat was less noticeable and his general colour and markings were like
those of a bushbuck kid. But as he grew older the situtunga features became more
Most noticeable are his ears which are rounded like his mother's and similarly
marked, whereas his father's cars are pointed and more uniform in colouring. His
feet also are situtunga-like, the hooves being longer than those of the bushbuck.
In general colour, however, he is still rufous, thereby differing from a young
male situtunga of the same age, whose coat would be blackish-grey. The long hair
on the body is yet another maternal feature.
In his gait Alec is somewhat more upright and graceful than the typical situ-
tunga who moves rather clumsily in a characteristic manner with head held low
and the 'heels' of the long hind legs reaching the level of the back as the animal
moves along -a gesture doubtless acquired by the species in its normal marshy
When asked by the Editor to describe this hybrid, I stipulated that before doing
so the zoological records of crossed species among the mammals must be consulted.
On my arrival in England recently I visited the Natural History Museum and there
had the pleasure of hearing Dr. Schwartz discourse on this interesting topic.
Hybrids, it appears, are known between a number of combinations of species. Most
of these hybrids have been born in captivity, but some have been found in nature
in areas where the distribution of the participating species permits. The following
list includes most of the recorded instances among the Ungulates:-
Horse (male) X Donkey ("Hinny")
Donkey (male) X Horse ("Mule")
Mountain Zebra X Horse
Mountain Zebra X Chapman's Quagga ("Equus wardi")
Grevy's Zebra X Horse
Chapman's Quagga X Horse
Chapman's Quagga X Donkey
Onager X Donkey
Onager X Chapman's Quagga
Lelwel Hartebeest X Coke's Hartebeest
Sassaby X Lichtenstein's Hartebeest
Natal Duiker X Crowned 1Duiker
Buffalo X Cow
Gayal X Zebu
Gayal X Zebu X Yak
Bison X Cow
European Bison X American Bison
Two Photos of Alec as a Baby.
Photographs by Dr. J. M. Wallace.
A group in the antelope house; two young male bushbuck,
Susan and Alec, from left to right.
Photograph by Dr. J.M. Wallace.
~r -.-. ..w
Peter, the father.
Susan, the mother.
Photographs by Dr. J. M Wallace.
Getting Ready for Lunch.
Photograph by Dr. J.M. Wallace.
Pere David's Deer X Red Deer
Lion X Tiger
Lion X Leopard
Lion X Puma
Dog X Wolf
Dog X Jackal
Dog X Fox
Dog X Fox X Coyote
Red Kangaroo X Wallaroo ('Macropfis hagenbecki")
Black Macaue X Pig-tai'ed Monkey
There are also one or two examples known among the monkeys and ba-
boons but the records are still unpublished.
By far the best known hybrids are, of course, the mule and the h;nny,
about which a word later on.
The hartebeest hybrids are interesting because their existence was first
demonstrated by a careful study of a long series of horns and skins sent home from
Africa to the Museum. In a paper on these animals, Dr. Schwartz figures a convinc-
ing series of horn types from animals shot in their natural habitat, showing all
steps between the two extremes, both of which have hitherto been regarded
as good zoological species. Here is a lesson indeed for the 'species-mongers' who
are so desperately ambitious to seize any excuse for creating a new species
from museum material.
About the fertility of hybrids there is, so far, little information. Alec may
perhaps live to throw some light on this point, and so find a place in the text books
of the future. There are certain cases on record of fertility in female mules, if
served by a male horse or donkey but not by a male mule. No instance is known of
successful pairing by a male mule. The hinny is far less frequently bred than the
mule, and there are no known records of fertile pairing, but this may of
course be due to inadequate observation.
To return to Alec, from his earliest youth he has been dedicated to science. His
r6le is an easy one. He is a "control", that is to say a sort of living indicator whose
function is to reveal any untoward happening in the antelope house at Entebbe, such,
for example, as the accidental transference of infection from animal to animal. His
companions are most of them infected with the trypanosome of Sleeping Sickness from
man's blood, and their part in the inquiry is to show whether the game, and
antelope in particular, are capable of acting as a reservoir for the germs of this
serious disease. There are laymen in our midst who hold that studies of this kind
have no place in the turmoil of modern Africa, where every available penny is
claimed ten times over for schemes of reorganisation and development. And yet
Alec and his companions and their wild relatives are no negligible asset to the
publicist in East and Central Africa, in these days of wealthy tourists, white hunters,
national parks and the like.
Thanks to the captive antelope at Entebbe, and particularly to Alec's enterpris-
ing sire, Uganda's contribution to the attainment of a proper valuation of the big
game and a decision about their fate bids fair to justify the steady support that her
Government has always given to this research, which started in Bruce's day and
now at long last promises a definite issue.
Meantime Alec grows daily in stature and, no doubt, in wisdom. His future is
assured. Already he is a distinguished public character, with a niche in the temple
of fame. There will be no question of 'enyamayavo enungi enyo' where Alec is con-
cerned, although his black attendant doubtless feels that all his patient care as foster-
mother entitles him to repayment in kind. Alec's remains will be preserved, if not
in Westminster Abbey, in a building almost as majestic, the South Kensington
Museum-a fitting resting-place tor a real sport.
By W. C. SIMMONS.
To anyone, like the writer, who is an amateur in that branch of Natural
History which deals with living organisms there is nothing more. fascinating than
the study of mimicry. Those who are familiar with the subject will know that
controversy still continues on the causes of mimicry and we appear yet to be
awaiting the decision of the experts as to whether the theory of natural selection
gives us the best explanation of the undoubted proved facts of mimicry. Some
experts believe that natural selection gives a satisfactory explanation. (1)
The interesting butterflies studied by Professor G.D.H. Carpenter in the Sesse
Islands are very good examples where several species of Planema are mimicked by
one species of Pseudacraea so closely that to the amateur they are difficult of
distinction. The Planema models have some species where males and females are
different and some where the sexes are alike and the mimics follow them in these
characters (2). It is difficult for some naturalists to understand how these wonder-
ful copies of what is admittedly a model distasteful to birds, monkeys, reptiles and
other predatory species can have been introduced solely by a process of natural
selection, the depredators leaving the distasteful butterflies alone because the wing
patterns are known to them, and killing off those that are tasty but have not
so closely come to resemble the model that distastefulness is expected because
of a known association with a distasteful pattern.
It may be taken as proved that the pattern or model is always more
common than the mimic. If it were not so the distasteful association would not help
(1) G.D. H. Carpenter and E.B. Ford, Mimicry, Methuen, London, 1933.
(2) G.D.H. Carpenter, A Naturalist on Lake Victoria, London, 1920,
the mimic which is not distasteful, and it has been proved in many cases that where
the mimic begins to outnumber the model the pattt rn does not remain constant to
the model. For natural selection to bring about the close copy of a model it is
necessary that the potential mimics should be variable.
Very commonly the very distasteful butterflies like the Acraes have a slow
flight and have the habit of sitting on a leaf so as to display their colours, and
where the mimic closely copies the wing pattern and colour (as in Papilio ridley-
anus) it is generally found that the habit of slow flight and wing display is not so
closely followed. It appears that the mode of flight, and of sitting with the wings
wide open or closed is more difficult to copy than the colour pattern, or rather that it
is more difficult for natural selection, if you believe that is the cause, to work upon
habits than upon variations of pattern. Those butterflies which so exactly resem-
ble dead leaves when shut up and standing in the proper position on a twig will
occur to everyone as a good example, where the butterfly must "stay put," for im-
mediately the wing is opened the bright upper side attracts unwanted attention.
This leads to the case of those spiders, common in Uganda, which so exactly resemble
bits of lichen or knobs of bark on a tree trunk that they are perfectly hidden so
long as they remain still, and nearly all of which have the habit of spinning every
evening a new large web which is carefully removed before daylight so as not to
give them away. There is again the case of those coloured spiders and mantidae
which sit on similarly-coloured (generally yellow, white or mauve) flowers and
await their prey. Their colour and shape and immobility render them invisible to
the prey they hope to catch, differently from the last example of the spider who is
invisible because he hopes not to be caught.
All the various kinds of mimicry have been arranged in different classes and
given names(3), which helps the scientist to keep things in order. This fascinating
subject might well be studied by amateurs in Uganda who could help to collect new
facts. When the local Museum comes to have a representative collection of Uganda
natural history it is to be hoped that we may have on display a good series of the
various creatures which escape unwelcome attention by resembling other objects or
other creatures which are not regarded as good for food.
(3) E. B. Poulton, The Colours of A animals, London, 1890.
Observations on Bird Migration on Nsadzi Isle, Lake Victoria.
By C. W. CHORLEY, F.Z.S., A.R.P.S.
Bird migration is an extremely interesting and absorbing subject. In this
short article I have brought together the results of many years of observations of
the movements of birds which are known to visit Uganda, apparently at definite
limited seasons. The migratory birds mentioned below are insectivorous and it is
very likely that they destroy some Glossina palpalis (Tsetse fly) during their so-
journ on the islands.
Migrating birds seem to be more active and friendly than the local residents,
which are at times very hard to approach. Migrants of other than insectivorous
species are not included below as they have no direct connection with Glossina con-
trol, from the point of view of which this article is mainly written. There is little
doubt, from their known habits, that the insectivorous species eat a certain number
BEE-EATERS (known, to the Baganda as Myjolo):
These may at once be distinguished in flight by the shape of their wings and
delicate hues of many colours, greens and verditer blue predominating.
The European bee-eater (Merops apiaster) has been observed on Nsadzi Isle
during the months of October to February. Permanent residents of this family can
always be seen on most of the islands; among these are :-
Swallow-Tail Bee-eater-(Dicrocercus hirundineus),
Short-Tailed ,, ,, -(Melittophagus meridionalis),
Long-Tailed ,,,, -(Merops supercliosus).
Bee-eaters can be seen on the edge of forest-clearings and along the foreshore
in small flocks of from six to twelve in number, making short flights and returning
again and again with their catch to the same bush or tree. They are the greatest
enemy with which the bee-keeper in Africa has to contend.
This interesting family contains a large number of species, variable in size, form
and colour. Their shape is always neat and elegant, their plumage lies very close
to the body, in order to permit the short but rapid flight in pursuit of their active
The large spotted fly-catcher (Muscicapa griseola) has been observed on the
fringe of the forests on Nsadzi Isle during the months of October to February. In
the year 1928 fly-catchers were seen in large numbers on Nsadzi; in 1929 none of
these birds apparently visited the island. Some unforseen disaster must have over-
taken them during that year for I have no record of having seen any of these birds
in the course of my tours to the other islands. During 1931-1932 a few of these fly-
catchers have again visited Nsadzi.
The spotted fly-catcher is one ot the most active of all our visitors to Uganda;
its appetite is enormous and must account for a considerable number of insects dur-
ing the course of a day.
Permanently resident fly-catchers seen from time to time on the islands:-
Soot Fly-catcher-(Melancornis pammelaina).
Rufus -(Stizorhina vulpina).
Broad billed Fly-catcher-(Alseonax epulatus).
S, -( ,, ansorgei).
S -( ,, lugena).
Wattle-eyed ,, ,, -(Platystira cyancanyanzae).
,, -( ,, jacksoni).
Frog-mouth ,, ,, -(Smithornis shapei.
Fly-catcher --(Terpsiphone emini).
Fly-catcher -(Trochocercus bedfords).
Blue crested Fly catcher-(Elminia longicauda).
WAGTAILS (known to the Baganda as Namunza):
This small group of birds, which is sufficiently familiar to every observer
because of its well-known habit of jerking its tail when on the ground, is a visitor
to the island and no less than four migratory species occur there.
The Ash-headed Wagtail (Molacilla cinereicapilla) may be seen round the
clearings of native plantations and on the landings during the months of August to
The Yellow Wagtail (M. sulphurea) has been observed on Nsadzi during
the months of May to September.
The Grey Wagtail (M. campestris) has been observed on Nsadzi during October
The Black-headed Wagtail (M. melancephala) has been observed during the
months of May to September.
It is interesting to note that on Tabliro Landing, Nsadzi, I came across two of
the grey wagtails wading in the water close to the shore; these birds were making
vigorous occasional stabs with their beaks into the water. One of them was shot
and I was surprised to find, on opening up the stomach, that it contained a number
of small fish fry.
I am not certain if the white wagtail occurs on Nsadzi; I may have confounded
it with the ash-headed wagtail or with the English wagtail (Motacilla varrelli).
Wagtails permanently resident on the islands are:-
Motacilla vidus, M. flava, M. longicauda, M. melanope, M. mnelnocephala.
NIGHT-JAR (known to the Baganda as Olubugabuga):
This bird is often termed the goat-sucker because of the idea, which was
formerly held by many people and is a common belief among the natives of Uganda,
that these birds are in the habit of sucking goats, sheep and cattle. The habits of
the night-jar are nocturnal but they can be seen on the wing in search of insects
long before it is dusk.
Numbers of these birds can be observed on Nsadzi Isle flying in and out of the
forest glades. It is interesting to record that on the east side of Nsadzi a night-jar
was seen about five p.m. in the intervals between its short and abrupt flights peck-
ing at some decayed branches about nine feet above the ground. This place was
visited the next day and during my search (it had been raining during the evening
and the next morning) a number of tsetse flies were seen resting on the underside
of the branches of the same tree. Many hundreds of trees and branches have been
investigated in wet weather and palpalis can nearly always be found taking shelter
in cracks on the undersides of the branches at a distance of from six to nine feet
from the ground. I am led to believe that fly take shelter under such branches
during the night and in wet weather, and not under leaves as suspected.
The European night-jar (Caprimulgus europacus) visits the island during the
months of October to March.
The night-jar permanently resident on Nsadzi is Caprimulgus natalensis.
SWALLOWS AND SWIFTS (known to the Baganda as Mtayi):
On the foreshore of the lake these birds can be seen at all times flying
low or merely skimming the water surface, chasing lake flies and other insects that
swarm abundantly in such places; in open forest glades they are also numerous. We
have one swallow and one swift which visit the islands in very large numbers and
they can be seen from early in August until February, namely:
The European swallow (Hirundo rustica,
,, ,, swift (Apus apus).
The permanent residents observed on the islands are :-
Swallows: Hirundo angolenis, H. puella, H. senegalensis.
Swifts: Cypselhs niansae, C. africanus, C. maximum, C. pekinensis.
Warblers are very numerous (n the islands, many of them are migrants from
Europe, but the group is too numerous to mention in detail. Their food mainly
consists of insects and they haunt bushes usually of Miuvuvmze, Kinsambwe and
Luzibaziba. Fly are nearly always to be found in the vicinity of these bushes and I
have no doubt that the warblers account for many individuals.
Twenty different types of warblers are found on the islands and nine of these
are visitors, the most interesting be'ng the Marsh Warbler (Acrocephalns palustria)
observed on Nsadzi during November and leaving in March.
(To The Editor, "The ,Uganda Journal.")
With reference to Doctor Williams' note in the July number of the Journal, in
which he states that "the breeding grounds of Abdim's stork appear to stretch right
across the continent somewhat north of Uganda", I would like to point out that this
bird actually nests within Uganda.
In February of the present year I had a small breeding colony in West Nile
District under observation for a few days.
The birds were nesting in a huge lone dry-area mahogany (Khaya Senegalansis
A. Juss.) near Maracha. A pair of kites silverss migrans) and at least ohe pair of
pied crows (corvus albus) were nesting in the same tree.
W. J. EGGELING.
ST. LEONARD'S, LARGS, FIFE.
8TH AUGUST, 1934.
(To The Editor, "The Uganda Journal.")
Will any of your readers kindly please explain to me through the Journal, how
the grasshoppers (Ensenene) lay their eggs, how they hatch out, and in which
countries do they prefer to lay their eggs.
It is a mystery to me and I think to most of my Baganda fellows. I do not
know the breeding places of the grasshoppers and whence they come to this
country every year. Many of the old Baganda tell us that they come from the clouds
when it rains during the season in October or November, which tale I do not be-
lieve to be true.
I am, Sir,
R. M. K. KASULE.
KAGADI, BUYAGA. P.O. MUBENDE,
31ST JULY, 1934.
(To The Editor, "The Uganda Journal.")
Sir Albert Cook, in his second interesting lecture on early days in Uganda
made reference to the entry of the Protectorate into the Postal Union in 1902. It
may be of interest to your readers to know that postage stamps were in general
use some years previous to that year. The first, known as "Missionary Stamps",
were, as Sir Albert said, typewritten by the Revd. E. Millar at Mengo about
March 1895, in the December of which year British East Africa entered the Postal
Union. These early stamps may probably be the first and only ones for which no
actual cash was paid. They were paid for with cowries, the lowest charge being
5 c. and the highest 60 c. These typewritten stamps, with variations in price and
appearance, continued in use until the November of the following year when they
were replaced by issues printed by the Revd. F. Rowling at Luba's in Usoga, and
annas and rupees took the place of cowries. These issues were later controlled by
the Collector at Kampala. In 1898 what may be looked upon as Uganda's first real
postage stamps appeared. These were printed in London by Messrs. De La Rue
When British East Africa entered the Postal Union its postal services
were controlled by an English P.M.G. who was also, at the same time, Postmaster
for Zanzibar. The Transport Department of those early days undertook the
conveyance of mails from Mombasa to Ndi where there were met by Wakamba
runners from Machakos. The next stage took them to Kikuyu and thence to Elda-
ma Ravine and here they were taken over by the Uganda Government. From
Mombasa to Eldama Ravine the mails averaged 20 days in transit and the
remainder of the journey at least another week. The average quantity of mail
carried was about 30 bags and mails arrived once monthly.
E. G. SMITH.
I3TH SEPT. 1934.
Some Notes on the Northern Islands of Lake ieoterta.
By G. D. HALE CARPENTER, D.M.
(Journal of Animal Ecology, Vol. 3, No. I, pp. 9r-o14, May 1934.)
Prof. Hale Carpenter, well-known for his thoroughness, must be congratulated
on bringing together so attractively and lucidly the valuable results of many years
of painstaking interesting investigations, in the course of his study of the bionomics
of the tsetse fly among the northern islands of Lake Victoria.
The paper is conveniently summarised in Section VII. Attention is properly
drawn to the fact that Uganda, though geographically considered as part of East
Africa, actually has a pronounced western influence in its fauna and flora, which is
conspicuous on certain of the western islands of Lake Victoria.
The diversity of the islands' climate-the extremes being at the eastern and
western ends of the chain-and its striking influence on the flora is also stressed, and
it is curious to note that in the political division the island of Dwaji, botanically
akin to Sese (including Kome and Damba), should be included in the Buvuma group.
The beauties of the Sese archipelago are by no means exaggerated, but un-
fortunately at present facilities for visiting this attractive region are singularly lack-
ing. So far, with the exception of the activities of the various official workers whose
efforts have been centred around the tsetse fly, trypanosomiasis and reclamation,
this very interesting northern island group has been astonishingly neglected by the
scientific investigator, and there is no doubt that the results of comprehensive, or-
ganised collecting on each island and islet will amply repay the time and expendi-
ture entailed. Dr. Carpenter indicates some of the achievements which the research
student could reasonably expect.
The allusion to the situtunga is all too brief and there could have been included
with advantage an account of the relations between man and beast when it was
found possible to repopulate many of the islands in 1923.
On page 94 the striking effect on the flora of the increase in the number of situ-
tunga, consequent on splendid isolation, is described, as well as mention that "clear-
ance of the undergrowth must have had an adverse effect upon the tsetse".
It is known that on certain islands repatriation could not be attempted until a
very marked reduction in situtunga numbers had been effected. Control operations
are said to have taken an enormous toll, which is believed to have ,totalled many
thousands, but the extent of the slaughter will never be known, as no records were kept.
It appears from Dr. Carpenter's remarks that subsequent increase of the tsetse
flies, and extension of their range, are probably a direct result of the elimination, or
reduction to a negligible quantity, of the situtunga in many localities. "The rela-
tion of situtunga to tsetse on the islands is intimate," but Dr. Carpenter does
not complete the story, and omits the important sequence of events which followed
the return of the inhabitants.
Your reviewer cannot pass without comment the reference to Major R. Meinertz-
hagen's statement that on Nkosi islet the situtunga "were larger than typical
mainland forms." Dr. Carpenter is evidently surprised at this for he says, "The
increased size of animals living crowded on a small island seems very remarkable."
Personal investigations carried out during 1927, 1928 and 1929, revealed the
Nkosi situtunga as a markedly smaller animal than the mainland representative, and
it is concluded that the pronounced dwarfing is due either to the lack of some
necessary constituent or to the general unsuitability, and possibly shortage, of the
Section III on Glossina is particularly interesting and illuminating. There are
so many points of importance that it is impossible to allude to all, but the remarks
in connection with the blood preferences of G. palpalis are worthy of the closest
It is curious to find that this species of tsetse is most adapted to feeding upon
reptilian blood, and 'even where situtunga were plentiful the blood of this mammal
was found to be only a third as popular as that of reptiles.
The hippopotamus plays an unimportant role, its food value to palpals being
as low as four per cent. Some of the conclusions reached by Dr. Carpenter do
suggest that an appreciable reduction in the crocodile hosts'might equally effect a
reduction in tsetse flies. No mention is made in his paper of crocodile breeding-
grounds which most certainly play a prominent part in tsetse distribution, and as
there is a definite breeding season on the Victoria Nyanza between August and
December, October/November being the peak period, there are further important
avenues of research which might be profitably followed.
The description of the incidence of male tsetse flies, the more inquisitive
and enterprising sex, its relation to the number of crocodiles present as well
as to the extent of the tsetse population, and the general notes on the bion-
omics and behaviour of this extraordinarily interesting and troublesome insect
all merit more than the passing glance of the reader.
Notes concerning fish and fisheries are conspicuously absent. It is an obvious
omission, for without an island population there could have been no opportunities
except of a casual nature for the study of this important section of the vertebrate
Finally, Dr. Carpenter's paper should appeal equally to layman and scientific
student and is thoroughly recommended. If,adverse comment is possible it is that
he might have written more.
Even with siich-a fascinating paper, it is not easy to add anything to the com-
prehensive review written by C. R. S. P.
The general ecological study of the islands of Lake Victoria is both of great
scientific interest and of practical importance. The study of the climate and vegeta-
tion of these islands forms parts of the work, now in progress in Kenya, Uganda and
Tanganyika, to elucidate in greater detail the factors influencing tsetse population
and activity. Prof. Carpenter's remarks are of economic value because they are
another step forward in the work of which he was so distinguished a pioneer.
The invasion and spread of a butterfly from the drier eastern territory to the
western (and once more humid) islands recalls the lamentations, which are now so
frequent, of those who fear for the dessication of Africa.
The resemblances between the mimetic butterflies and their models on the
different islands are of especial interest. It is notable that the same mimetic species
varies from island to. island according to the species, pattern and numbers of the
models. Can anyone, after reading Prof. Carpenter's most interesting paper, still
assert that the theory of mimicry is merely due to the fertile imagination of armchair
G. L. R. H.
Die Kolonisation Ugandas.
By HORST BRENDEL.
r15 pp. Grossenhain. 1934. (1)
In this unpretentious little work, which was presented as a thesis to the Faculty
of Philosophy of the University of Leipzig in 1933, Dr. Horst Brendel traces the
economic development of Uganda to the present day.
That such a well-balanced picture should have been produced without the ad-
vantages of any personal acquaintance with the terrain is no mean performance. In
its compilation a very wide field of authorities has been laid under contribution and,
as one merely random example of the author's faculty for evaluating his evidence,
it is remarkable that he should have appreciated the share of the Baganda
administrative "agents" in opening up the outlying districts of the Protectorate
during the decade 1900-09.
Concerned as he is with the presentation of facts rather than of opinions, the
author's method, which is characterized by that intense industry and thoroughness
(1) This book is available for loan to.members of the Society on application to the Hon-