EMPLOYMENT RELATED EDUCATION
IN THE SUNSHINE STATE
Division vocational and Adult Education
THE STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
Thomas D. Bailey, Superintendent
,,. A ,_, ...... ,- . .... ....
EMPLOYMENT RELATED EDUCATION
IN THE SUNSHINE STATE
G. W. Neubauer, PhD.
Research and Survey Specialist
Illustrated by R. W. Sinclair
Division of Vocational and Adult Education
Walter R. Williams, Jr., Director
Educational Materials Laboratory
Thomas W. Strickland, Specialist
Florida has changed during the past decade. The spectacular increase
in population, the growth of industry and tourism, the rise in sales and
services have brought extensive modifications to the state's occupational
structure. Indeed, many people are working at jobs which did not even
exist in 1950.
The vocational education program, operating through the public schools
of Florida, is responsible not only for adjusting to these changing demands,
but for anticipating as accurately as possible the evolving needs of a largely
C unpredictable future but one stamped with promise.
This review is a progress report concerning the effectiveness of vocational
education in meeting the problems of the decade just passed. It demon-
strates strengths as well as weaknesses, tasks partially completed and jobs
well done. Above all, it shows a record of solid growth and facility to cope
with the knotty challenges lying ahead.
With the continued support of every citizen, vocational education and the
related services will play an increasingly vital role in Florida's economic
Development and in improving the well-being of her people.
CONTENTS ........................................................... ii
LIST OF FIGURES .................................................... iv
LIST OF MAPS ....................................................... vi
LIST OF TABLES ..................................................... vii
VOCATIONAL AND RELATED EDUCATION IN FLORIDA IN THE YEARS AHEAD ..... 1
Vocational Agriculture ................................ 2
Business, Distributive and Cooperative Education ......... 5
Home Economics ........................................... 9
Industrial-Technical Education ........................... 14
Industrial Arts .......................................... 19
General Program Goals .................................... 22
I. OPPORTUNITIES IN FLORIDA THROUGH VOCATIONAL AND RELATED
EDUCATION ......................... ........................... 25
Population and Employment Trends ......................... 25
Vocational Education in Florida .......................... 29
II. VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION ............................ 37
Growth in Enrollment and Number of Departments ........... 37
Types of Classes ......................................... 38
Program Development ....................................... 41
Unit Allocation ........................................... 43
Future Farmers of America and New Farmers of America ..... 44
Value of the Program ..................................... 44
III. HONE ECONOMICS EDUCATION ..................................... 46
In School and Adult Programs ............................. 46
Enrollment Growth ........................................ 47
Program Growth and Location .............................. 48
Non-Vocational Enrollment ................................ 51
Unit Allocation .......................................... 51
Home Projects ..................................... .... 52
Future Homemakers of America and New Homemakers
of America ........................................ .... 52
IV. VOCATIONAL BUSINESS, DISTRIBUTIVE AND COOPERATIVE
EDUCATION .................................................... 54
High School Cooperative Programs .......................... 55
Adult Programs and Enrollments ........................... 55
High School Enrollments .................................. 58
High School Business Education ........................... 60
Number and Location of Counties Providing Programs ....... 61
Unit Allocation .......................................... 61
Diversified Cooperative Training Clubs and Distributive
Education Clubs of America ............................... 65
V. INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION ......................................... 67
Recent Industrial Development ............................ 67
Purpose of Industrial Education and Kinds of Programs .... 68
Extension Programs ....................................... 69
Preparatory Programs ..................................... 69
Other Training Agencies ................................. 69
Comprehensive Enrollment Growth .......................... 71
Enrollment Growth and Student Distribution
in Industrial Education .................................. 73
Number and Location of Programs .......................... 74
Selected Extension and Preparatory Courses Provided ...... 74
Unit Allocation .......................................... 77
Trade Education Clubs .................................... 78
VI. TECHNICAL EDUCATION UNDER THE NATIONAL DEFENSE
EDUCATION ACT ................................................ 80
Technical Education Under Title I of the
George-Barden Act ......................................... 80
Technician Training Under NDEA ........................... 80
Preparatory and Extension Enrollments and
Areas of Training ......................................... 81
Counties Providing Training, and Unit Allocation ......... 83
VII. PRACTICAL NURSE EDUCATION .................................... 85
Development of Practical Nursing Education in Florida .... 85
Kinds of Training Provided and Enrollment Growth ......... 86
Extent of Program and Factors Hindering Expansion ........ 87
Unit Allocation .......................................... 89
VIII. INDUSTRIAL ARTS ............................................... 90
Related Arts in the Elementary School .................... 90
Industrial Arts in the Junior High School ................ 90
Industrial Arts in the Senior High School and for Adults 91
Enrollment Growth ...................................... 91
Size of Program .......................................... 92
Unit Utilization ......................................... 92
APPENDIXES .......................................................... 95
I. VOCATIONAL PROGRAMS IN 1959-1960 ............................. 95
II. RELATED NON-VOCATIONAL PROGRAMS IN 1959-1960 ................. 105
LIST OF FIGURES
1. Per Cent of Growth Over 1950 in Total Vocational
Enrollments at Selected Intervals, 1951-1960 ............... 31
2. Per Cent of Increase Over 1950 in Instructional Units
Approved for Vocational Education at Selected Intervals
During the Decade 1950-1960 ................................ 32
3. Per Cent of Change in Vocational Agriculture Enrollment,
1950-1960 .................................................. 37
4. Per Cent of Change in Enrollment of All Day and Young
and Adult Farmer Classes by Years, 1950-1960 ............... 42
5. Per Cent of Increase in Instructional Units Approved for
Vocational Agriculture, 1950-1960 .......................... 43
6. Per Cent of Increase in Vocational Homemaking Education
Enrollment, 1951-1960 ..................................... 47
7. Per Cent of Increase in Vocational Homemaking Programs,
1950-1960 ................................................. 48
8. Per Cent of Increase Over 1951 in Day School and Evening
and Part-Time Enrollments, 1951-1960 ..................... 49
9. Per Cent of Increase in Unit Allocations for Vocational
Homemaking Education, 1951-1960 ......................... 51
10. Per Cent of Change in Adult Distributive Education
Enrollment Based Upon the 1950 Figure and in Day and
Evening Business Education Enrollments in Terms of
1957 Enrollment ............................................ 56
11. Per Cent of Change in High School Enrollment in
Distributive Education, Cooperative Business Education,
and Diversified Cooperative Training ....................... 58
12. Per Cent of Change in Total Enrollment in Vocational
Business, Distributive and Cooperative Education, 1957-
1960 ......................................... 60
13. Enrollment in Industrial Education by Types of Courses
in Selected Years, 1950-1960 ............................... 70
14. Per Cent of Students Enrolled in the Various Types of
Industrial Education Programs and Vocational Business
Education in Selected Years, 1950-1960 ..................... 72
15. Per Cent of Increase in Enrollment in Industrial Education
and Proportions of Total Represented by Preparatory and
Extension Programs in Selected Years, 1950-1960 ............ 73
16. Number and Per Cent of Increase in Units Allocated to
Industrial Education, Exclusive of Practical Nursing and
Technical Education 1950-1960 .............................. 78
17. Enrollment in Preparatory and Extension Classes in
Practical Nurse Education, by Years 1951-1960 ............ 86
18. Enrollment Growth in Industrial Arts, Grades 7-12,
Between 1955 and 1960 ..................................... 92
LIST OF MAPS
Counties Participating in Programs of One or Two Reimbursable
Vocational Services, 1959-1960 ................................. 34
Counties Participating in Programs of Three or Four
Reimbursable Vocational Services, 1959-1960 .................... 35
Counties Supporting Programs of Vocational Business
Education, 1959-1960 ........................................... 36
Counties Having No Programs, One, or Two Programs of
Vocational Agriculture, 1959-1960 ............................. 39
Counties Having Three or More Programs of Vocational
Agriculture, 1959-1960 ........................................ 40
Counties With Vocational Homemaking Programs 1958-1959 ......... 50
Counties With Diversified Cooperative Training, Cooperative
BUsiness Education and Combination Programs, 1959-1960 ......... 62
Counties With Combination Programs of High School Distributive
Education and Diversified Cooperative Training and Counties
Having All Programs, 1959-1960 ................................. 63
Counties With Adult Evening Business Education, Day Business
Education, and Distributive Education Programs, 1959-1960 ...... 64
Counties With Industrial Education Programs, 1959-1960 ......... 76
Counties Providing Technician Training Programs Under
NDEA, 1959-1960 .............................................. 84
Counties Providing Practical Nurse Education, 1959-1960 ........ 88
Counties Providing Industrial Arts Programs, 1959-1960 ......... 93
Related Non-Vocational Programs by Counties, 1959-1960 ......... 113
LIST OF TABLES
I. Number and Per Cent of Workers Employed in Selected
Basic and Service Industries and Employment Shifts,
by Per Cent of Change ..................................... 28
II. Enrollment in Instructional Areas of Vocational
Agriculture by Years, 1950-1960 ............................ 41
III. Most Widely Offered Industrial Occupational Training
Areas, Types of Programs in Which Provided, Number of
Counties Offering Training, and Number Completing
Course, 1959-1960 .......................................... 75
VOCATIONAL AND RELATED EDUCATION IN FLORIDA IN THE YEARS AHEAD
Numerous changes occurred in Florida during the decade just passed. The
population increased more than three-fourths and personal incomes mounted,
adding to the demand for products and services. Industry joined agri-
culture and tourism as an important economic prop. Electronics and satellites
kept the eyes of the nation glued to ....
the space frontier. Farming engaged
a smaller proportion of the gain-I
fully employed, but investments in NUMBER OF STUDENTS
agriculture and the value of farm SO
products soared. The number and THOUSANDS E
NUMBER OF STUDENTS
,5I GRADE 7 & 8
GRADES 9 & 10
GRADES 11 & 12
HIGH SCHOOL EHROLL&IMT IN VOCATIONAL EID.
CATION BY SERVICES PRW3OCTED TO 1965
1949 1954 1959 (Est.)
1950 1955 1960 1964
1965 proportion of women in the labor
ENOLIMEW IN GRADES 7-12 AT SELECTED INTER- force increased considerably,
changing the character of many
VALS FIC 1950 TO 1960 WD PROJECTED TO 1965 homes. Of immediate importance
to many educators was the growth
in junior and senior high school enrollments which went up almost one and a
third times and are expected to jump at least another one-third by 1965.
Vocational education and the related services reflected these challenges as
they occurred. In turn, they suggest bases for the projected program
modifications which follow.
To meet the changing needs of farmers during the next decade and of persons
employed in occupations related to agriculture, the following goals are
projected which it is believed will strengthen the program and better ad-
just it to emerging demands.
Provide adequate classrooms and shops for all departments. The areas of
instruction for which provision must be made are animal husbandry, crops,
horticulture, agronomy, farm management and economics, and agricultural
Additional space will be needed in the farm mechanics shop if adequate
training in the maintenance and repair of farm equipment is to be provided.
According to preliminary data obtained from the 1959 Census of Agriculture,
Florida farmers reported ownership of nearly 40,000 tractors of all types,
over 36,000 trucks, and just under 42,000 automobiles. In addition, smaller
numbers of grain combines, corn pickers, pick-up balers, and forage harvesters
were in use. Indeed, it is estimated that the investment required per farm
worker ranges from $15,000 to $50,000 depending upon the type of agricultural
production emphasized and the kind and amount of equipment needed.
Hence, because of the importance of maintenance and repair activities,
shop space which was formerly adequate may need to be enlarged to accommodate
the growing demands being placed upon it. It is felt that 2400 sq. ft. is
the minimum in which farm shop activities can be conducted and that from
3000 to 6000 sq. ft. of space is desirable for carrying on an effective
program for day students, young farmers, adult farmers, and adults enrolled
in specialized short courses.
Obtain appropriate kinds and quantities of shop tools, equipment, and
materials. Units of instruction in farm power and machinery, farm buildings
and conveniences, farm electrification and processing, soil and water
management, and agricultural construction and maintenance are taught in the
farm mechanics shop. If the program in these areas is to be effective, the
necessary equipment and instructional supplies must be made available.
Develop a fruit and ornamental nursery plot for each vocational agriculture
department in the state. The raising of nursery products, cut flowers,
plants and florist greens, and vegetables and seeds are becoming increasing-
ly important agricultural specializations. In 1959, sales of these products
grossed more than $51.6 million for Florida farmers.
Secure land laboratory plots which are large enough to satisfy instructional
requirements and provide for boys not having access to other land. In some
instances school construction has absorbed areas which were formerly a part
of the land laboratory. In others, the need for additional playground space
for a growing school population has restricted land available for the use
of agriculture students. A minimum of ten acres is required for demonstra-
tions and instructional supervision, while programs in which forestry or
beef and dairy cattle raising are emphasized will need considerably more.
Improve teacher-training programs and recruit more teachers from among the
state's vocational agriculture students. Program growth resulted in the
addition of sixty-four vocational agriculture teachers between 1950 and
1960. Upon the basis of projected increases in pupil enrollment and the
direction of agricultural development in the state, it is believed that an
average of five new teachers will be needed annually during the next decade,
increasing the total by approximately fifty.
Organize formal local advisory committees for each department, having
members who have been approved by appropriate county school administrators.
Many teachers in the present 196 departments have such committees, but
others depend upon an informal organization which meets infrequently and
has developed no program of organized assistance.
Make school guidance counselors aware of the importance of agriculture to
the state's economy so that the program may serve all students for which it
is intended. The number of farms in Florida is decreasing, but they are
growing in size and value of product. According to the 1959 Census of Agri-
culture, the state had 12,445 fewer farms in 1959 than in 1954. Over 3300
of this number, however, were reclassified because of a change in the
census definition of the term "farm". Therefore, the real loss was 9142,
a decline of 16 per cent.
Most of the drop occurred in the category having gross sales of less than
$2500 worth of agricultural products annually. Middle income farms those
with sales ranging from $5000 to $9999 declined 13 per cent in number
while the total of farms having an annual sales figure exceeding $10,000
rose by one-fifth.
In 1954, Florida farms averaged approximately 316 acres in size and were
valued at $114.50 per acre. Five years later the average had reached
340 acres and the value per acre had doubled. During the same period the
average value of land and buildings per farm jumped from approximately
$28,500 to $68,100, and gross income of farmers in 1959 reached the $825
million mark. Hence, instead of declining in importance, agriculture re-
tains a highly significant place in the state's economy. To ensure that
it does not become a second-rate enterprise in the decades ahead, counse-
lors must be encouraged to enroll only those students who are interested
in and who can profit from instruction in vocational agriculture. Included
in this group should be an appropriate proportion of high caliber pupils
who are interested in the application of science to agriculture and who
may desire further agricultural training in college.
Adjust teacher loads to increase instructional effectiveness. A number
of factors are involved in achieving this goal. Among these are the number
of day school students enrolled, the number of Young and Adult Farmer classes
for which the teacher is responsible, and the number of Adult Vocational
Agriculture classes to be supervised.
An ideal teacher load is considered to be forty-five day school students,
a class of fifteen Young Farmer students and another class of fifteen Adult
Farmers, a total of seventy-five individuals. It is believed that an ad-
ditional teacher should be added when the number of day school students en-
rolled in a vocational agriculture department increases by approximately
It is hoped that by 1970 each department will have a minimum of one Young
Farmer and one Adult Farmer class and that each teacher will average at
least one Adult Vocational Agriculture class. The latter are short courses
primarily concerned with specialized areas of farming such as farm mechanics,
citrus culture, the growth of ornamentals, and marketing problems. They
are under the supervision of the regular teacher of vocational agriculture
but are taught by specialists in the areas in which instruction is given.
One of the specialized areas to be emphasized is farm welding. It is hoped
that each instructor will teach or supervise at least one welding class
annually. If the average class size is ten students, approximately 2000
farmers will be reached each year of the decade.
Efforts should be made to increase enrollments in Young and Adult Farmer
classes. In 1959 approximately one in thirty farm operators was taking
such a course.
Make periodic surveys of local communities to locate the most favorable
placement opportunities in which students may gain specialized farm ex-
perience and additional technical information. Typical of the types of
placement opportunities to be explored are those on dairy farms, in
ornamental nurseries, and on highly mechanized farms or those using a
variety of specialized equipment.
Provide agricultural instruction in junior colleges. Basic courses in
agriculture should be available for junior college students who plan to
obtain a baccalaureate degree in agriculture from a four-year institution,
while terminal Young Farmer courses should be offered for those who do not
expect to continue their formal preparation. It is hoped that agriculture
will be introduced into the curriculum of at least one junior college
annually during the next decade.
Remain abreast of new managerial, productive, and technological practices
and base instruction upon the latest scientific information. Magazines,
brochures, monographs, and research reports are among the media in which
current developments in agriculture are described. In addition, agri-
culture teachers in each district should visit nearby agricultural ex-
periment stations periodically to observe experimentation in progress.
Undoubtedly this is an ambitious program. But with careful planning for
step-by-step accomplishment, and with the help and cooperation of school
administrators, teachers, representatives of agricultural organizations,
and other interested citizens, it can be achieved. The continuing follow-
up study of former day-school students shows that approximately four in
ten are engaged in some form of agricultural production or in closely re-
lated activities. Through concerted effort, the program of vocational
agriculture can be adjusted to meet the needs of even a greater number of
students and adults, thereby extending the quality and kind of service
Business, Distributive and Cooperative Education
The per capital income of Florida citizens rose 54 per cent between 1950
and 1959. Trade, services, and related industries were the principal
sources from which this income was derived.
The growth of tourism contributed greatly to the expansion of incomes in
occupations related to trade and services. In 1950, for example, it is
estimated that 4.7 million tourists visited the state. Nine years later
the total exceeded the 11.3 million mark for an increase approximating
140 per cent.
A 1957 breakdown of tourist spending indicated that fifty-three cents of
every dollar went for food and lodging and another twenty-one cents for
clothing, gasoline, and auto repairs. Hence, nearly seventy-five cents of
each tourist dollar was spent directly or indirectly for services of a type
for which training is provided in business and distributive education.
Another indication of the importance of training in the distributive and
related occupations is the 54 per cent growth in retail sales between 1954
and 1958 resulting from population increases, more tourists, and rising
To meet the growing need for distributive and clerical workers in the years
ahead, the following steps must be taken.
Promote new and existing programs of business and distributive education
for high school students and adults. Between 1950 and 1960, the number
of adults taking distributive education courses rose from 5700 to nearly
15,900 while high school enrollments in these subjects changed only slightly.
On the other hand, enrollment in vocational business education for adults
declined somewhat between 1957 and 1960 while the number of students in
cooperative business education classes rose from 145 to 386. However,
99,000 pupil periods of high school business education were recorded dur-
ing the 1959-1960 school year, indicating that many students were inter-
ested in business courses for vocational as well as non-vocational reasons.
Though the number of high school students in cooperative education almost
tripled between 1950 and 1960, these programs are expected to reach larger
totals in the future. In 1950, for example, 2 per cent of the state's
eleventh and twelfth graders were enrolled in cooperative programs. By
1960, the figure had almost reached the 4000 mark, representing 4 per cent
of the total number enrolled in the last two years of high school. Even
if the proportion taking cooperative courses does not increase, provision
will have to be made for an estimated 5700 pupils by 1965.
In addition to increasing school enrollments, other factors will contribute
to the growth of cooperative programs. Among these is the rising educational
level of sales and sales-supporting personnel over half of whom were high
school graduates in 1960. Another is the growth of job opportunities in the
fields of business and distribution and the availability of part-time employ-
ment in these and related occupational areas. Additional specialized pro-
grams in cooperative business education and cooperative distributive edu-
cation will be introduced to meet this growing demand.
It is anticipated that the effectiveness of an experimental vocational office
education program will be demonstrated and will lead to its adoption in a
number of communities. In the new program, which is confined to high
school seniors, vocational work will be concentrated in a class period three
hours in length. During this time the student will receive specific occu-
pational training and also the related instruction needed by a beginning
Provide more comprehensive preparation for teacher-coordinators so that
they may assist guidance counselors in selecting students best suited for
training in business and distributive occupations. One of the most diffi-
cult tasks confronting guidance counselors is that of remaining abreast of
requirements in the many occupations in which high school graduates are
employed. In fact, it is a virtual impossibility. Hence, the counselor is
compelled to rely on the judgement of other individuals such as teacher-
coordinators who are directly concerned with specialized employment demands
in smaller groups of occupations.
However, if teacher-coordinators are to provide adequate help, they must
in turn have broad but thorough preparation and be well versed in the re-
quirements of local business and distributive establishments. Only then
will it be possible to screen students effectively and enroll only those
having the requisite aptitudes and career interest.
To strengthen the teacher-education program, provision has been made at
the University of South Florida for a full-time teacher educator in
distributive education. This person will provide training for coordinators
of cooperative education programs and also for evening part-time instructors
of distributive education. In addition, he will establish an undergraduate
program for preparing teacher-coordinators of cooperative education.
Employ more teacher-coordinators in large schools to maintain individual
relationships between pupils, coordinators, training agencies, and the school.
The ratio of teacher-coordinators to students in all cooperative programs
in 1960 was approximately one to twenty-three. This was a somewhat higher
figure than in 1950. In that year teacher-coordinators in cooperative dis-
tributive education were individually responsible for approximately four-
teen students while in 1960 they had a student load averaging twenty-six
The ratio of students to teacher-coordinators in diversified cooperative
training also very nearly doubled between 1950 and 1960, rising from one
to twelve to one to twenty-three. Only in the cooperative business edu-
cation program did the student-teacher ratio remain relatively constant.
These teacher-coordinators in 1957 averaged eighteen pupils each while
their 1960 individual loads approximated twenty students.
If the same proportion of eleventh and twelfth graders continue to enroll
in cooperative programs and the student-teacher ratio is held to the 1960
level, the present total of 169 coordinators will need to be increased to
approximately 245 by 1965 to accommodate the growth in enrollment in the
upper two grades of high school. On the other hand, if the student-teacher
ratio is to be lowered or if the proportion of trainees rises above the
present 4 per cent level, the number of teacher-coordinators will have to
be increased proportionately.
Promote business and distributive education in community junior colleges
and increase the number of post-high school programs. Courses in secretarial
practice and general business were widely offered by junior colleges. This
probably resulted from their potential for immediate application upon gradu-
ation as well as their transfer value in applying for admission to a more
advanced institution. Specific courses in retailing, salesmanship, and
merchandising, however, were given in less than half. The development of
further terminal offerings in distributive education, particularly in co-
operative programs, would provide additional employment opportunities for
graduates preparing for supervisory and pre-managerial positions.
The number of counties providing day business education programs for adults
declined from fourteen to twelve between 1957 and 1960. During the same
period the number offering adult evening business education programs rose
from nineteen to twenty-three while the counties supporting distributive
education for adults increased from twelve to fourteen. Hence, fewer
than one in five had business education courses for adults during the
regular school day, one in three gave evening business education courses,
and one in five provided adult distributive education programs. If the
needs of adults for training in office and distributive occupations are
to be met, training programs in these instructional areas must be more
Provide more and a greater variety of services in business and distributive
education for adults. The proportion of service industry workers employed
in wholesale and retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and in
personal service and miscellaneous occupations declined between 1950 and
1959. However, in spite of a relative proportionate drop, the number work-
ing in these occupations increased by nearly 220,000. Almost half of this
total were employed in wholesale and retail trade. The proportion working
in government jobs doubled during the same period, recording a jump in
number of 147,000.
In the past it has been customary to offer individual courses in instructional
areas such as real estate, banking, management, and supervisory training.
Because of the abundance of material to be taught and the varying needs of
the students enrolled, it is anticipated that a sequence of courses will be
developed in these and similar business and distributive fields.
In addition, closer liaison will be established between the school and
trade associations such as the restaurant and hotel associations which are
interested in promoting vocational training. Efforts will also be made to
enlist the support of local branches and outlets of national distributive
organizations in educational projects of a type in which the parent organ-
izations are interested. Typical of these enterprises are the National
Sales Executive Club, Sears-Roebuck and Co., the American Petroleum Insti-
tute, and the Winn-Dixie stores.
To make business and distributive courses available to greater numbers of
adults, more instructional centers will be used and offerings will not be
confined to a single school. In short, every effort will be made to take
courses to the people as their needs and interests are determined.
Promote courses designed especially for women in business and distributive
education. The decade saw a considerable increase in the employment of
women. In the Jacksonville, Tampa-St. Petersburg, and Miami metropolitan
areas, for example, the number working in non-manufacturing occupations
rose from 135,200 in 1955 to 193,350 in 1960. Nearly four in ten of the
1955 total were employed in wholesale and retail trade, but the proportion
had declined to 35.8 per cent by 1960. However, correspondingly higher
proportions were working in the remaining service industries including
transportation, communication, and public utilities; finance, insurance,
and real estate; personal service and miscellaneous occupations; and
Hence, it is evident that training opportunities in clerical, sales, and
office occupations should be expanded and that greater attention should
be directed to the training of women for non-manufacturing employment.
To achieve these goals, it may be necessary for two or more vocational
services to develop joint training programs.
Management will be encouraged to call upon instructors of adult classes and
high school teacher-coordinators for help in identifying job areas especially
suitable for the employment of women. In addition, it is believed that
supervisory training will increasingly reflect school-management cooperation
and that business and distributive education people will be requested to
serve in a consultative capacity on personnel matters involving the
employment of women.
Essentially, women require three types of specialized training. They must
have a fund of salable skills to prepare them for employment. They must
have refresher training when they re-enter the labor force after their
families are grown. They must also have opportunities to take short
courses which prepare them for seasonal jobs or for work during periods
of high employment. It is anticipated that training programs will be
established or modified to meet these needs.
Promote training for management in business and distribution and for owners
of small businesses. Upon the basis of estimated employment in 1959,
approximately 65,150 supervisors were working in business, trade, and
service establishments in the state. If each had enrolled in a single
supervisory training class consisting of twenty students, approximately
3250 classes would have been required. As employment in these occupations
increases, the number of supervisors will grow and the heed for supervisory
training will become increasingly acute. Attention will also be given
to providing additional services to owners of small businesses through
individual courses and the establishment of a greater number of small
business management clinics.
As training programs mature, it will become apparent that comprehensive
programs instead of individual courses are needed for employment in many
business and distributive occupations. In addition, it will be evident
that training must take into account the ability and experience levels of
the individual trainees. Some will require elementary preparation while
others will profit from more intensive work involving greater job responsi-
bility and initiative. But all must receive the kind of training for which
they are best suited or the benefits of the program will be lost.
Over 23 million women were working outside the home in 1960 according to
data provided by the U. S. Department of Labor. More than half were
married and many had children under seventeen years of age. The average
age of women workers rose from thirty-two to more than forty between 1940
and 1960, and about half of all women between forty-five and fifty-four
were in the labor force in 1960.
These factors have brought about significant changes in the home. But
other social phenomena have also helped to alter the responsibilities of
individual family members. Among these are the lower marrying age, popu-
lation increase and mobility, the growing number of older people, greater
numbers and kinds of products and services, the movement of families to
cities and suburbs.
According to preliminary census reports, America had at least 45 million
families in 1960. It is believed this figure will grow another seven
million by 1970 and that the trend toward larger families will continue.
Increased urbanization coupled with other influences accompanying industri-
alization and population growth have affected Florida families also.
Nearly three-fourths of the population were urban dwellers and over three
in four households were located in urban areas. Urban families averaged
3.02 individuals per household while rural families remained somewhat
larger with 3.4 members per family.
Though differences are becoming less pronounced, certain rural family needs
vary from those of urban households. So also do certain of the influences
affecting farm and city families. But in a time of profound social change,
homemaking education is responsible for meeting the needs of rural and city
families alike and of helping both adapt to present demands.
In rising to the challenge, homemaking education will be modified to ac-
complish the purposes indicated.
Strengthen certain aspects of the present program. The present secondary
school homemaking program should be further developed and provision made
for rising enrollments. Approximately 16 per cent of the students in grades
9-12 took vocational homemaking in the 1959-1960 school year. An additional
10 per cent in grades 7-12 were enrolled in non-vocational homemaking
classes. The combined total, therefore, included approximately one in five
of all junior and senior high school pupils.
The proportion reached by vocational offerings represented a 2 per cent
increase over the 1949-1950 ratio and was the same as that in 1957-1958.
Hence, even if the proportion enrolled in vocational homemaking in 1965 does
not grow beyond the present figure, the number of pupils will climb to ap-
proximately 52,500 while the non-vocational total rises to 55,500 for a
combined sum approaching the 110,000 mark.
To meet the needs of this growing number, it will be necessary for teachers
to develop a curriculum for effective living in the 1960's. This can be
done through continuation of in-service courses and workshops in which in-
structional improvement and program modification are emphasized.
One problem which teachers face is developing FHA activities that correlate
closely with classroom instruction. Another is organizing classroom and
laboratory work so that it changes as the needs of students change. Still
another is devising a plan in which homes are visited while parents are
available for consultation and which provides for appropriate reimbursement
for visitations carried on after school hours. Every effort will be made to
find satisfactory solutions to these and similar problems so that junior
and senior high school youth receive homemaking education reflecting to-
Additional flexibility will be provided in the curriculum of the adult
program through helping teachers develop and revise courses for adult
students. Many are interested in clothing construction and special
food preparation, but courses such as the older child and adolescent,
family consumer buying, and family economics should also be emphasized.
Orientation in adult homemaking programs together with refresher courses
and workshops will be held to help teachers improve their instructional
programs and to acquaint them with resources upon which they may draw for
aid in instructional organization and program development.
Efforts will be made to provide substitute teachers for adult classes who
are employed by the hour. In effect, these substitutes will serve as
interns who may eventually qualify as instructors of adult classes.
Provide homemaking education for groups not now adequately served. En-
rollment in adult courses during the 1959-1960 school year approached the
18,000 mark. However, large numbers who needed the instruction and could
have profited therefrom were not reached.
Among these were many homemakers employed outside the home whose hours of
work and family responsibilities did not permit attendance at organized
classes over extended periods. In the years ahead, this number will
probably increase and provision must be made for them.
Some indication of the extent to which women are entering the labor force
is obtained from a comparison of female employment in the three metropolitan
areas for which data have been collected. In 1955, over 159,000 were work-
ing in Jacksonville, Tampa-St. Petersburg, and Miami. By 1960, the total
had reached 221,000 for an increase approaching the 62,000 mark and a climb
of 39 per cent in five years.
Planned programs are also needed for unemployed homemakers, for those having
part-time jobs, and for women preparing for the dual role of employment out-
side the home and homemaking. Attention will be given to helping slow
learners in high school and to providing certain adults with intensive in-
struction in certain aspects of homemaking for immediate use. Household fi-
nance, managing the home, short cuts in meal preparation, and care of
clothing for the family are among the types of short, concentrated courses
which should be provided.
Slightly over one in five of Florida's total population is fifty-five
years of age or over. In 1950, 22.6 per cent of the women had reached or
passed the age of fifty-five while the 1960 proportion was over one in four.
Programs should be developed which will benefit these homemakers whose
children are grown, who are in retirement, or who are alone.
Surveys will be made to determine additional groups for which home economics
education should be provided. However, a number of these can already be
identified. Short term television courses and classes sponsored by organ-
ized groups in the community will help young homemakers. Similar classes
of short duration can be offered for the benefit of mobile home occupants
through existing organizations in trailer parks. Homemakers in depressed
areas and those who are handicapped can probably best be served by a series
of planned home visitations. The latter will also benefit from television
demonstrations and discussions.
It is hoped that a number of full-time teachers will be employed to develop
programs specially tailored to the requirements of these groups. Other
duties which they will assume include:
1. Working individually and in small groups with other homemakers need-
ing special attention
2. Conducting short, intensive workshops of value to Parent-Teacher
Associations and other community and neighborhood clubs and organ-
3. Making surveys to determine what is being done by other community
agencies specifically interested in the home
4. Participating in community programs and promoting homemaking edu-
5. Presenting talks and demonstrations as requested
6. Teaching classes on an hourly basis upon request
7. Providing a follow-up service on class drop-outs
8. Attending to requests for additional classes or services.
By means of these and related activities, it is believed that most of the
homemaking needs of specialized groups in the community can be met.
Provide additional high school homemaking teachers and secondary and adult
programs which prepare people to render community services related to
homemaking. Each of the 474 secondary teachers of vocational homemaking in
1959-1960 was responsible for approximately seventy-eight students while
every non-vocational homemaking teacher had about 136. Hence, the 774 high
school home economics instructors had an average teaching load of 100 pupils.
If the same pupil-teacher ratio is maintained with the larger student body
of 1965, a total of approximately 1080 teachers will be needed. An esti-
mated 675 will work in the high school vocational program and the balance
will teach non-vocational classes.
Numerous opportunities exist for including secondary and adult curriculum
units in local training programs for college graduates who have not taken
home economics, helping to ready them for paid or voluntary service in the
community. Typical are units in child care, household finance, and home
care of the sick. These are valuable in preparing for participation in a
community homemaker's service or for giving non-professional aid in nursing
homes and day nurseries for children.
Provide homemaking education in more junior colleges. Terminal and uni-
versity parallel home economics courses were taught in three junior colleges
in 1959-1960. Representative offerings included elements of nutrition,
clothing selection and construction, and foods. When funds become available,
courses will be offered in additional junior colleges so that more students
have an opportunity to study homemaking for immediate use or in preparation
for more advanced work.
Provide help and facilities for identifying potential homemaking instructional
personnel and aid in planning and conducting teacher education programs.
Efforts will be made to develop necessary policies in vocational homemaking
education to promote such programs with vocational funds.
More adequate guidance will be needed if students having the greatest
potential for teaching home economics are to be identified. In addition,
scholarships such as that in Family Living sponsored by the A.A.U.W. and
in other homemaking areas by the A.H.E.A. and the F.H.E.A. will be needed
if deserving students are to have an opportunity to use their abilities
In-service teachers also are sometimes prevented from taking advantage of
scholarships which they have been awarded because they are unable to leave
homes and families for extended periods of study. Therefore, there is
considerable need for in-service training conferences for teachers in local
areas and for the employment of specialists in particular aspects of home-
making who can give refresher courses and work with teachers locally in
keeping instruction current.
To remedy these deficiencies, efforts will be made to find additional
scholarship-sponsoring groups, to employ needed specialists, and to pro-
vide in-service education through local workshops and conferences.
Conduct surveys to evaluate existing programs and to determine the need for
additional offerings and personnel. During the coming years secondary and
adult programs will be evaluated so that existing courses may be revised
and additional programs planned to meet emerging needs.
Closer articulation is desirable between the junior and senior high school
homemaking programs. Approximately 23 per cent of the eighth graders took
homemaking in 1958-1959. The next year almost one in four of the ninth
grade students was enrolled in a vocational home economics class while
lesser proportions took vocational courses in the upper three grades of
high school. In view of the large number of pupils enrolling in the home
economics program in the ninth grade, it is very necessary that duplication
of teaching content be held to a minimum and that courses build upon the
foundation established in earlier grades.
By means of such surveys, the need for additional supervisory and in-
structional personnel can be demonstrated as student enrollment increases.
Therefore, studies and surveys will play an important part in determining
future directions with respect to program planning and county and local
Meeting the demand for trained construction, manufacturing, and service
personnel during the next decade will not be easy. The state is well
balanced industrially. No single industry employs a large proportion
of the workers engaged in manufacturing. But this only adds to the problem
of the industrial educator. Instead of offering a relatively limited
program it is necessary to provide a variety of courses to meet a diversity
of industrial needs. In addition, training must be provided in the con-
struction trades and in numerous service occupations reflecting the needs
of a growing population. Hence, the problem of anticipating future demands
and of initiating appropriate educational programs for meeting them is made
Five production areas absorbed most of the workers employed in the state's
new industrial plants established between 1956 and 1959. These were the
manufacture of transportation equipment, the processing of food and kindred
products, the production of electrical machinery and equipment, the manu-
facture of ordnance, and the fabrication of metal products.
In 1959, the largest single employer of new workers was the ordnance industry
followed closely by firms manufacturing electrical machinery and equipment.
Plants engaged in metal fabrication were third with industrial engineering
and research companies a close fourth.
To meet the needs of new and existing industries and the demands of craft
and service occupations, it is believed that the following steps must be
Explore the possibility of establishing cooperative industrial training
programs. The proportion of plants, both large and small, and of new
industrial workers in rural counties has increased steadily since 1956.
Most of the 1959 gain in plants and expansions occurred in rural areas.
Twenty-seven counties, twelve of which were classified as rural, had
trade preparatory programs in 1960. To facilitate program development in
other such areas which do not have enough industry to support specialized
classes, it may be practicable to permit students, individually or in
small groups, to include on-the-job industrial training, supervised by
school personnel, in their school programs. A similar arrangement might
also be used to provide specialized training during the latter stages of
certain preparatory programs.
Provide more day trade preparatory programs. It is estimated that the
number of skilled workers in the nation must increase 24 per cent during
the next decade if production goals are to be met. In Florida, however,
it is believed that the number enrolled in apprenticeship training will
remain relatively constant or may even decline if the construction industry
does not maintain its previous level of activity.
The enrollment in apprenticeship training programs increased steadily be-
tween 1950 and 1959. But in 1960 the total dropped more than 580, re-
flecting the slow-down in building and production. Should this decline
continue, it will be necessary to place greater emphasis upon day trade
preparatory programs if students are to receive and refine employment
Provide more high school preparatory programs to accommodate the growing
enrollment, and more adult programs for training and re-training older
workers. In 1950, slightly over 43,300 students were enrolled in the
eleventh and twelfth grades. Ten years later the 97,000 figure was neared
and the total is expected to pass 100,000 in 1961 and 140,000 in 1965.
Between 1955 and 1960, approximately 5 per cent of all eleventh and
twelfth graders were enrolled in Type A and B day trade preparatory courses.
During that interval the figure rose from 2800 to 4850. If the proportion
remains constant, provision must be made for approximately 7100 high school
trainees in 1965.
In addition, increased numbers of adults will require Type A and B or Type
C training to prepare for new employment or re-employment. These, to-
gether with young adults who do not complete high school, will constitute
a considerable training potential.
Approximately one in three students entering the seventh grade in 1953 did
not complete the twelfth grade while approximately three in ten of those
who were seventh graders in 1955 did not graduate. If the drop-out rate
remains relatively constant, approximately 120,000 of the total entering
the seventh grade between 1956 and 1960 will leave before graduating from
high school. Many of these will not have salable skills and many others
will be inadequately prepared to enter the labor market. If they are not
to swell the ranks of the unskilled, whose services are in lesser demand,
they must have training opportunities which will enable them to use their
abilities more effectively.
Provide more training opportunities for girls and women. A national in-
crease in the employment of older and younger women is projected for the
decade. In keeping with this trend, it is believed that further training
opportunities for women will need to be provided in a variety of occupations
Data on the employment of women in Jacksonville, Miami, and Tampa-St.
Petersburg indicate that the number employed and the proportion of the
labor force which they represent increased between 1955 and 1960. In
March, 1955, approximately 159,200 were working. Five years later the
total had climbed to 221,000. Twenty-four thousand, or approximately 15
per cent of the 1955 total, were engaged in manufacturing. By 1960,
however, the proportion had declined to 12.5 per cent although the number
had risen to 27,650.
In 1955, women employees made up 32.9 per cent of the labor force in the
three metropolitan areas; five years later they constituted 33.8 per cent
of the employed total, a proportion which the nation is expected to attain
Among the occupations in which more women will probably be employed are
drafting; data processing; commercial art; industrial occupations such as
machine operation, electrical assembling, and apparel manufacture; personal
service vocations like cosmetology and dry cleaning; and related health and
technical occupations such as laboratory technology, X-ray technology, and
Extend industrial supervisory training. Automation, together with other
technological developments such as the use of new materials, and changes in
construction procedures have created a need for more specialized training.
Whereas formerly the craftsman was expected to possess a generalized
battery of related skills, there is today an increasing need for single-
skilled operators and technicians.
Changes in the style and requirements of Florida construction, for example,
have resulted in a decline in emphasis upon traditional woodworking skills
and growth in the importance of masonry and the roofing trades, air con-
ditioning and heating, and commercial landscaping.
As a result, supervisory responsibilities are changing to keep pace with
technological developments. Upon the basis of estimated employment in
1959, approximately 75,000 supervisors were working in business, industry,
and service trades in the state. If each had been enrolled in a single
supervisory training class, approximately 3750 classes would have been
Provide more in-service training for a growing number of teachers. Between
1950 and 1960, the number of day preparatory instructors rose from 259
to 551 and evening trade extension teachers increased from 456 to 617 be-
tween 1957 and 1960. If additional day and evening programs are provided,
more instructors will be needed. These will come primarily from industry
and will need training in instructional procedures. As a result, more
extensive in-service training will be required, including university
courses and instructional improvement programs conducted by local super-
A variety of new offerings together with more effective state and local
supervision will be necessary to meet growing manpower requirements and to
provide specialized training in new and changing vocations. In addition,
teachers and supervisory personnel will be required to maintain closer
liaison with industry so that the instructional program is effective and
accurately reflects industry's needs.
Eliminate many old courses, revise others, and introduce new offerings.
Automation and the use of new materials and procedures will result in
considerable program reorganization and revision. Among the instructional
areas which may decline during the decade are railroad workers' training,
cabinet making and millwork, certain graphics areas, commercial fishing,
painting and paper-hanging, and tailoring.
Other occupations, however, will assume increasing importance though the
nature of the responsibilities may change and they may become more complex.
Machine tool occupations provide a typical illustration. Where an occasional
machinist formerly worked to tolerances of several thousandths of an inch,
the increasingly rigorous demands of precision manufacturing require special-
ists whose accuracy is measured in micro-tolerances.
Occupational areas in which larger numbers of people will be employed
include aircraft mechanics; air conditioning and heating; electronics and
the electrical trades; drafting and design; health occupations; and public,
repair, and personal service occupations such as law enforcement, auto-
motive mechanics, radio and TV repair, and cosmetology.
Increase terminal offerings of junior colleges, especially post-high school
technical and vocational industrial courses. At present, junior colleges
are providing only limited training for vocational industrial or service
occupations such as masonry, cosmetology, food services, electrical work,
and carpentry. However, industrial-technical courses are more widely
Following are some of the technical curricula provided and the number of
junior colleges in which they are taught.
Curriculum Number of Junior Colleges Providing
Electronic Technology 4
Medical Technology 2
Drafting and Design Technology 2
Instrument Technology 2
Mechanical Technology 2
A variety of other technologies are included in the curricula of single
junior colleges. Among these are construction and design technology,
air conditioning and refrigeration technology, aviation technology,
chemical technology, construction technology, data processing technology,
industrial technology, industrial management, and courses for engineering
and mathematics aides.
Non-credit courses in cosmetology are taught in three junior colleges and
food service training in two. Vocational trade offerings of single junior
colleges include fashion design, licensed practical nursing, art for ad-
vertising and industry, automotive mechanics, shoe repair, electrical ap-
pliance repair, radio and TV repair, woodwork, tile setting, and police
service and criminology.
A considerable variety of technical and vocational industrial courses is
offered. It is hoped the number will grow as junior college programs are
adjusted to accommodate demonstrated community need.
More effective occupational guidance. One of the most pressing problems
confronting industrial educators is the selection of appropriate students
for vocational classes. Unless they have interest in and aptitude for
the occupations for which they are being prepared, there is little likeli-
hood that students will profit from the training. Hence, it is imperative
that guidance personnel and vocational instructors make every effort to
realistically evaluate student potential before they are enrolled in vo-
cational classes, and that such evaluation be in terms of trade and in-
It is equally imperative that students possessing the necessary ability and
interest to succeed in craft and technical occupations be encouraged to
explore such training if the need for skilled workers during the next decade
is to be met. It should be emphasized that vocational guidance is an
integral part of educational guidance and that it should begin early enough
to give greater meaning to the student's educational choices.
Develop appropriate instructional materials. As new courses and areas
of training are introduced, suitable instructional materials will need to
be developed through the cooperation of local instructional and supervisory
personnel, representatives of the industries, crafts, and trades concerned,
and the State Department of Education.
Increase the number of licensed practical nurses and people employed in
related health occupations. "Nurses for a Growing Nation", prepared by
the National League for Nursing, identifies a number of reasons for a
national increase in the demand for licensed practical nurses during the
next ten years. The same factors are operating in Florida, supplemented
by at least one additional consideration which makes the demand more
Reasons for national growth of the program include (1) an increase in
population, (2) longer life expectancy and an increase in the incidence
of degenerative diseases resulting from extended life expectancy, (3) new
developments in medical science, (4) expansion of public health and community
services, and (5) public demand for more health services.
In addition, Florida has a large number of practical nurses for whom licensing
requirements were waived because of practical experience or who received
licenses as a result of out-of-state endorsement. As these people retire
they must be replaced, primarily by graduates of practical nursing schools
in the state.
A ratio of one licensed practical nurse to one registered nurse has been
indicated as desirable for the nation. The proportion in Florida in 1960
was approximately one active practical nurse, including those licensed
by waiver, for every 2.7 active registered nurses. Merely closing the
present gap between practical nurses and registered nurses would require
the licensing of approximately 1400 practical nurses annually for the next
Other problems which must be met. Securing qualified instructors for
preparatory trade and technical training courses will be one of the most
difficult problems encountered in industrial-technical education. Quali-
fied people are frequently able to command industrial salaries consider-
ably higher than those of public school teachers. If such differentials
are to be minimized, local salaries must be increased with state and local
monies or by means of salary supplements obtained through industrial grants.
Local school administrators must come to recognize that the cost of an
industrial-technical program cannot be compared with the expense of con-
structing and equipping a typical classroom. If the program is not to
lag and is to meet the requirements of industry, it must be adequately
housed and equipped with machinery which is representative of that
used in industry.
It is anticipated that the movement of younger people from farming to
urban areas will continue although the development of industry in certain
rural regions might retard the trend. The introduction of industrial-
technical education programs in additional rural counties will give students
in those counties a chance to learn specialized skills having immediate
industrial or service applications in whatever communitLes they might live.
Between 1955 and 1960, approximately 17 per cent of Florida's secondary
school students were taking industrial arts. Though the proportion varied
only slightly from year to year, total enrollment jumped 22,000 during
the period as a result df growth in the number of students. If that ratio
remains constant, approximately 88,000 will be enrolled in 1965.
During the coming years, industrial arts will reflect scientific advances
giving rise to automated production and to other changes in manufacturing
and construction. Technological developments will create new jobs and
new products. These, in turn, will require new skills and more competent
workers. The instructional emphasis upon scientific industry provides
capable students with a valuable background of skills and knowledge which
may later be applied in more technical courses.
In addition, industrial arts provides general preparation for a variety of
professional and pre-professional careers. The number of students who
will continue their education in a junior college or a four-year institution
is certain to increase. These will receive high school instruction which
makes possible a wiser vocational choice and which may be used in terminal
training or professional preparatory programs.
But all students will not become technicians nor will all attend college.
The largest group will find employment in a variety of trades, sales or
service occupations, and in the home. For these, too, industrial arts can
be highly beneficial. Work with tools and materials furnishes a practical
approach to many problems of the home and job and develops competence
having recreational as well as vocational applications.
Hence, industrial arts is for college-bound youth and those who will enter
the crafts, trades and services; for future housewives and clerical workers;
for prospective sales people and day laborers. In short, it makes a con-
tribution to the full range of abilities from those of the honors student
to the boy or girl requiring remedial assistance.
To meet such a variety of needs, however, certain adjustments will be
necessary in programs, laboratories, and facilities.
Develop flexible programs. Course outlines in the instructional areas will
reflect various ability levels. Instead of developing a single course in
electricity, for example, the teacher will provide instructional content
designed to meet the needs of students with differing interests and talents.
Hence, a more capable student may concentrate upon a different learning
sequence than one of lesser ability. In addition, he may broaden or
intensify his study. At the same time the less interested or talented pupil
will work upon problems which he can master and will not be discouraged
or retarded by requirements which he is unable or unwilling to meet.
Instructional areas will need to be organized and new areas of emphasis
developed in keeping with changes in industry. It is believed that
woodworking and handcrafts at the secondary level will decline in importance.
Metalwork, electricity and electronics, power mechanics, and drafting, on
the other hand, will be increasingly emphasized.
In addition to reorganization of the respective instructional areas, it is
believed that more attention will be given to integrating industrial arts
with other subjects. At present, many concepts acquired in English, mathe-
matics, science, and the social studies are applied in industrial arts.
But a greater effort will be made to develop problem-solving procedures in
cooperation with other subject-matter teachers. It will be recognized
that most problems are not the unique province of particular subjects. In-
stead, they have ramifications in many courses. An adequate solution will
include all these considerations and will involve cooperative instructional
In advanced courses, the project will increasingly become an experimental
solution to a problem instead of an end in itself. In many cases it will
continue to have real practical value. But its use as a learning device
will be determined by the nature of the problem to be solved. Instead of
directing the scope and sequence of learning, it will be molded to the
requirements of the individual student and the group.
While the project is being constructed, more time will be spent in learning
scientific and mathematical principles employed in the production and
processing of materials, thus moving industrial arts from the periphery
of general education toward its core.
Plan adequate laboratories. It is believed that shops will become labora-
tories in more than name and will serve as centers for creative student
research and experimentation. If this goal is to be accomplished, however,
students must have easier access to industrial arts facilities so that ex-
perimental solutions may be developed to problems identified in this and
In addition, more space and a greater variety of equipment will be needed
together with adequate time for student experimentation. A longer school
day with more instructional periods and more flexible student schedules
is desirable. But highly versatile and well-prepared teachers will also
be needed who understand the relationship of industrial arts to other
subjects and who are able to help students plan solutions to related
Relate guidance and industrial arts more closely. Industrial arts gives
better insight into certain specialized student abilities and interests
than many other subjects. In their classwork, students learn certain
skills and understandings required for employment and gain experience in
handling some of the tools and materials used in industry. As a result,
they have a better basis for making decisions concerning the kinds of jobs
which interest them.
Hence, it is believed that in the coming years talents and desires identi-
fied in industrial arts classes will more often be combined with other
information used by guidance counselors in helping students select
further academic, vocational, and technical courses in keeping with their
Other requirements. However, certain other requirements must also be met
if industrial arts is to perform its purpose. Instructional supervision
and coordination must be emphasized and provision made for more adequate
local and state financial support, including the use of federal funds if
necessary. In addition, teacher preparation must be adjusted to changing
demands through expansion of physical facilities and improvement in program
offerings. This is the only way in which teachers can be prepared to
assume their extensive responsibilities.
Industrial arts may serve several purposes for other groups such as
adults and out-of-school youth. It provides an understanding of tools
and machines for those who lack experience with these devices. It helps
to identify special abilities which may be developed in further industrial
or technical training. It plays a part in vocational therapy and rehabili-
tation. Therefore, it may serve as a prerequisite for vocational prepara-
tion for youth and also provide for more enjoyable and worthwhile activities
for a growing number of adults.
General Program Goals
Numerous program modifications have been projected which apply to individual
services. Several themes with broader implications, however, continue to
recur. In substance, concerted frontal attack on the following common
problems is suggested.
1. Provide additional training opportunities for groups not now being
adequately served. Many girls and women working outside the home
are included together with older people and those in semi-retirement,
the mentally and educationally retarded, the physically handicapped,
the unemployed, and workers needing re-training.
Accomplishing this task may require the development of a cross-
service program which is geared to the training needs of some of
these specialized groups.
2. Provide a greater variety of programs and courses together with
adequate laboratories. Again it may be necessary to cross sectional
lines in developing experimental programs to meet particular
3. Improve guidance and counseling services to aid in student selection.
Additional emphasis should be placed upon vocational guidance in
the total program of educational guidance and upon sustained follow-
up of graduates, drop-outs, and placements.
4. Improve preparatory and in-service training for teachers. Campus
courses should be periodically reviewed and revised and more local
training conferences and workshops emphasizing instructional im-
provement and course and curriculum development and modification
should be provided.
5. Provide more terminal vocational programs in junior colleges.
Curricula of junior colleges should include a wider selection of
vocational courses for people who are currently employed or who
want and need training to became employed. In addition, there is
a need for more extensive and varied post-high school programs in
6. Use objective measures for evaluating outcomes and determining needs.
Surveys and other evaluative instruments should be used to assess the
need for new courses, revise existing offerings, eliminate those
which are obsolete, and determine program effectiveness.
The achievement of these goals will be a long and challenging step forward.
But through concerted effort they will be accomplished and the vocational
and related services will discharge even more effectively their responsi-
bilities to the citizens of Florida.
I. OPPORTUNITIES IN FLORIDA THROUGH VOCATIONAL AND RELATED EDUCATION
Vocational education prepares people for jobs and upgrades them in their work.
Hence, courses vary widely in type and content. They reflect the demands of
principal employment areas and try to meet anticipated employment needs.
In a state which is changing as rapidly as Florida this is not an easy task.
In 1950, for example, tourism was the state's largest single source of income.
A decade later, however, it had been joined by agriculture, construction, manu-
facturing, trade, finance-insurance-real estate, and the production and pro-
cessing of timber and minerals as increasingly significant sources of income
and employment. In addition, federal expenditures provided work for large
numbers of Florida's growing population.
All these developments have important implications for the direction which
vocational education will take in the future. However, other general factors
must be considered in developing a perspective for assessing the present status
and potential contribution of the several vocational and related educational
services. Among these are (1) the distribution and concentration of Florida's
population and jobs, (2) the age distribution of the state's citizens, and (3)
the principal sources of livelihood of the state's labor force and apparent em-
Population and Employment Trends
Startling developments in population and employment have occurred in Florida
in the past ten years. These necessitate a re-examination of vocational edu-
cation and the related services of industrial arts and non-vocational business
and home economics education to determine if such courses are adequately ful-
filling their purposes. In 1950, the population of Florida approximated three
million persons. This figure represented an increase of 46 per cent over the
1940 total. By 1960, however, the number had risen to approximately five
million (4,951,560), an increase of almost 79 per cent over the 1950 figure.
Population Concentration and Distribution
Population growth, of course, was not uniformly distributed. Some sections of
the state exhibited much heavier concentrations of people and more rapid rates
of growth than did others. This phenomenon was conditioned by earlier develop-
mental trends, but it also heralded changes having significant implications for
For purposes of examining some of these trends, the state has been arbitrarily
divided into three sections, corresponding roughly to the types of agriculture
practiced in each. The northern counties comprise half the total and contain
approximately one-fourth (27%) of the people. All of the panhandle counties
are included in this area which continues across the peninsula on a line marking
the southern boundaries of Levy and Marion counties, the northern and western
boundary of Lake County, and the southern boundaries of Clay and St. Johns
The central section contains one-third of the counties. It follows a line
marked by the southern boundaries of Sarasota, De Soto, Highlands, Okeechobee,
and Indian River counties. The remaining one-sixth of the counties constitute
the third major portion of the state.
The interior counties of the most northerly section are characterized primarily
by general farming. However, Jacksonville, the state's third largest metro-
politan area, is located at the eastern extremity, and the industries and
military installations of Escambia and Okaloosa counties diversify the economy
of the western portion of the panhandle. In 1950, slightly over one-third
(35%) of the population was concentrated in this area, but the proportion has
since declined to approximately one-fourth. The area as a whole exhibited a
growth rate approximating 35 per cent during the decade, a figure one-third of
that demonstrated by the southernmost counties. It should be noted, however,
that all of the counties with declining populations are located in this region.
So also are two of the state's ten most densely-populated counties (Duval and
Escambia) and one of the ten (Okaloosa) exhibiting the sharpest population
The central area contains almost 40 per cent of the state's population, a pro-
portionate increase of 3 per cent over 1950. It has almost doubled in popu-
lation during the past ten years with a growth rate approximating 91 per cent.
Included are the counties comprising the citrus belt, a region which also con-
tains many fine beef and dairy herds. It contains five of the state's ten
most populous counties, namely, Hillsborough, Orange, Pinellas, Polk, and
Volusia, and includes the Daytona Beach, Orlando, Lakeland, and the Tampa-St.
Petersburg metropolitan areas. The region also contains four of the ten counties
having the highest growth rates. One of these (Brevard) almost quadrupled its
population with an increase of 370 per cent in ten years.
The population of the southern, or third, region more than doubled during the
decade, growing by approximately 110 per cent. It contains slightly over one-
third (34%) of the population, a figure representing a proportional increase
approximating 5 per cent. The area is characterized by truck and vegetable
farming and contains much grazing land. Three of the state's most densely-
populated counties (Broward, Dade, and Palm Beach) are included together with
five of the counties exhibiting the most pronounced population increases in the
last ten years. In addition to its agricultural resources, the section con-
tains the Miami metropolitan area comprising nearly a million individuals. It
also includes numerous smaller population centers ranging along the Atlantic
and Gulf coasts.
Trends in population and employment concentration are further reflected in the
major metropolitan centers of the state. With one exception, the ten most
populous centers in 1950 retained their positions in 1960. The single exception
was Hialeah which was not included in the 1950 group. The remainder were Ft.
Lauderdale, Jacksonville, Miami, Miami Beach, Orlando, Pensacola, St. Petersburg,
Tampa, and West Palm Beach. Two of these are located in the northern tier of
counties, three in the central section, and five in the south.
Age Distribution of Population
Another general factor influencing the types of vocational and related edu-
cational programs provided is the age distribution of the population.
In 1950, approximately one in three (34%) of the state's citizens was under
twenty-one years of age, 37 per cent were between twenty-one and forty-four,
one in five was between forty-five and sixty-four, and less than one in ten
(9%) was over sixty-five. According to recent census data, the proportions
had altered somewhat by 1960. In that year, those under twenty-one accounted
for nearly four in ten (38%) of the total with the group between twenty-one
and forty-four constituting almost another one-third (31%). The forty-five
to sixty-four classification included over one-fifth (21%) of the population
while the over sixty-five proportion increased to slightly more than one in
Hence, it appears that the younger and older age groups grew in relative size
while the proportions comprising the bulk of the labor force declined some-
Principal Sources of Livelihood and Employment Trends
A third factor influencing vocational education offerings is the principal
sources of income and employment of the state's labor force and shifts in
employment trends. Table I identifies some of the principal occupational
areas and indicates the growth and shift in the number and proportion of
workers employed in each during the past two decades.
The proportion of persons working in basic industries has been declining
steadily while that employed in the service industries has increased corre-
spondingly. Basic industries are those utilizing natural resources in the
creation of further wealth such as food stuffs, automobiles, and clothing.
Service industries include those concerned with providing services for con-
In 1950, approximately one in three persons was employed in a basic industry,
but the figure had declined to slightly over one in four by 1959. The number
of farm operators and laborers has not kept pace with population growth. This
group now constitutes approximately 8 per cent of the total labor force, a
proportion nearly attained by construction workers. The proportion employed
in manufacturing rose 1 per cent, indicating that employment in this area was
increasing more rapidly than population growth.
Though the number of people working in wholesale and retail trade grew by 43
per cent, the rate of increase did not keep pace with the rate of growth of
the labor force. However, employment in trade and personal service occupations
varies considerably in terms of the time of year in which employment estimates
Number of Workers e
!2!2 ---22- (Int.)
117,024 123,194 139,850
80,033 108,325 198,900
44,046 90,528 118,650
256,15 3 38,229 57,00
256,134 338,229 457,400
S 1a 217
35 8 12.
1.06 31 T
. 9 T
Wholesale & Retail Trade
Trans., Coma., & Pub. Util.
Finance, Ins., & Real Estate
Personal Service & Misc.
NUMIER AND PER
CET OF WORKERS EMPLOYED IN MSIE BASIC AND SHERVItCE IES
AMD EFWLOIDMHT SHIFTS, BY PER CHI (W CHANGE
a,.,.--..S -. '-eflrfe :- *' .^ '-. Atfr*.: ',*
Only in the area of government has there been a pronounced advance in the
employment rate. The number of employees increased by 283 per cent while the
proportion of the total laboring force represented by this figure more than
doubled. This phenomenal increase, however, may probably be accounted for by
advances in military technology and the accompanying development and ex-
pansion of military installations such as those at Cape Canaveral and Eglin
A more refined analysis of the "Other" classification in Table I would result
in a readjustment of totals in specific employment categories. Undoubtedly,
a number of smaller manufacturing firms and business and service establish-
ments employing a limited number of workers have been included in the former
classification and are not represented in the category describing their real
In reviewing the general population and employment factors influencing programs
of vocational and related education, it appears that all sections of the state
experienced considerable population growth. However, the most pronounced
advances occurred in the central and southern portions. The proportion of the
population under twenty-one years of age increased from approximately two in
six to two in five while the segment in the laboring force declined from 56
per cent to one in two, and the ratio of those over sixty-five grew. The pro-
portion of workers in basic industries continued to decline. Agriculture
registered the greatest drop and manufacturing showed a slight increase. The
proportion in most service industries remained relatively constant except for
government which recorded a phenomenal jump and trade which declined some-
what. In general, however, an increasing proportion of workers are finding
employment in occupations associated with the service industries.
Vocational Education in Florida
Vocational education in Florida consists of four principal service areas. These
are vocational agriculture; vocational distributive, business and cooperative
education; vocational homemaking; and industrial education. A number of related
services including non-vocational business education and industrial arts edu-
cation are further subjects contributing to student choice of practical work.
The functions of each of the sections will be discussed in the portions of this
report dealing with the respective services.
Vocational education is sponsored jointly by the local, state, and federal
governments. However, no federal funds are used for the support of business
education, non-vocational homemaking, and industrial arts. The latter services
1Most of the employment data for 1959 are based upon March statistics, but
June data were employed in some instances.
are conducted entirely with local and state funds.
Federal support for vocational education is provided by the Smith-Hughes and
the George-Barden acts. Title VIII of the omnibus National Defense Education
Act provides for the establishment of technical education programs and en-
courages the promotion of area vocational schools. Its provisions are identi-
cal with Title III of the George-Barden Act.
According to provisions of the George-Barden Act, federal monies are allocated
for the support of the respective vocational services upon the basis of a ratio
established between various segments of the state population and comparable
sectors of the national population. For example, funds for vocational agri-
culture are apportioned in terms of the ratio of the farm population of Florida
to the total farm population of the nation. The ratio of the total population
of the state to the national population is the basis for allocating funds for
distributive and cooperative education. Home economics funds depend upon the
ratio of the rural population of the state to the rural population of the
country. Funds for the support of trade and industrial education are based
upon a formula involving the ratio of the non-farm population of the state
to the non-farm population of the United States.
To be eligible for federal funds, the state or local community, or a combi-
nation thereof, must match the federal appropriation dollar for dollar. How-
ever, the state and local governments may add any additional sums needed to
meet the needs of the respective counties and communities.
As the population increases, federal appropriations also increase. But federal
and matching funds have not kept pace with community needs in Florida and it
has been necessary to supplement these totals with additional state and local
monies. In 1947-1948, federal expenditures accounted for approximately 17 per
cent of the cost of vocational education in the state. This proportion de-
clined to 10 per cent in 1951-1952 and to 9 per cent in 1956-1957. However,
the state's allocation in the latter year included the cost of business edu-
cation and the diversified cooperative training program. In 1958-1959, the
proportion of federal support dropped to 8 per cent, but in 1959-1960 it rose
again to approximately 10 per cent of the total cost.
State and local funds supporting vocational and related education are ap-
portioned and administered in the same manner as those for general education.
Minimum Foundation Program special vocational instructional units and funds
are allotted in terms of average daily class attendance and the number, rank,
and experience of employed teachers. Such a unit is usually defined as a
minimum of 900 hours of class instruction or its equivalent with a class size
averaging fifteen students.
Though Florida ranked tenth in population in 1959, the vocational program was
the sixth largest in the country, enrolling 133,893 individuals in federally
reimbursed programs. In addition, over 45,000 others were taking courses
140 NUMBER OF
120 O I
100 IGH SCHOOL hKOLW1M
1950 1951 1953 1955 1957 1959 1960
NIGH SCHOOL ND ADULT tOCATIOAL IROLUI TS
AT SBiLTED INTERVALS, 1950-1960
supported only by state and local funds. This is a far cry from the 6,378
students enrolled in 1927 and the 17,956 participating a decade later. By
1947, enrollment had more than doubled, reaching a total of 36,475. Since
1950, the Minimum Foundation Program has played a significant role in program
development and growth has been particularly spectacular, rising from 83,697
in that year to 140,524 in 1955 and to 179,434 in 1959 for an increase more
than doubling the 1950 figure. Fig. 1 indicates the approximate percentage
.. fG. t Prm C OF GRNOIE OY 1950 I T!OTL VOCATIONAL
SWRDLLUB AT SiLECTED IZTXALI, 1951 1900.
of growth at selected intervals during the decade.
Enrollment grew approximately 4 per cent between 1950 and 1951 and climbed
nearly 33 per cent by 1953. In 1955, the total rose to a figure 68 per cent
above the 1950 level. It continued to increase steadily until 1960, reaching
highs of 94 per cent in 1957 and 114 per cent in 1959, but dropped to 101 per
cent in 1960.
Increase in Instructional Units
The number of Minimum Foundation Program special instructional units approved
for use by the respective counties also reflected the rising enrollment trends.
In 1947-1948, the year in which the Minimum Foundation Program went into effect,
a total of 558 special vocational instructional units was approved. By 1950,
the figure had reached 735, an increase of approximately 21 per cent. In 1955,
it had climbed to 1114 and by 1960 a total of 1458 was granted. Fig. 2 illus-
trates the percentage increase in instructional unit approvals at selected
intervals during the past decade.
FIG. 21 PER CONT or INCREAS OVER 19 0i I iSTIRCTIOILu
UNITS APPROVED YOR VOCATIONAL EDXXATION AT SMEMOTD
INTmRALS WORKING THE DECADE 1950-1960.
Unit approvals for vocational education increased at a relatively uniform
rate during the decade, almost doubling between 1950 and 1960.
Geographic Distribution of Vocational Education Programs
A total of 940 programsI was provided by the respective vocational services
in the sixty-seven counties during the 1959-1960 school year. However, this
figure does not include 107 high school and adult vocational business edu-
cation programs nor 113 high school diversified cooperative training programs
which are not reimbursable from federal funds. Twenty-seven of the counties,
or 40 per cent of the total, conducted programs representing all the services,
while fifteen others, or just over one-fifth (22%), took part in three. An-
other twenty-two, or one-third, benefited from the activities of two services,
and all the counties participated in the program of at least one vocational
Three counties -- two in the "Big Bend" area and one in the southwest -- had
programs representing only one vocational service. Two services provided pro-
grams for many northern and panhandle counties and for a cluster in the south-
central section. Three services were represented in blocks of northeastern
and northwestern counties and in a handful scattered through the central and
southern portions of the state. Most of the counties having programs repre-
senting the four vocational services were located in the north-central section
and along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts while a few in the extreme northern
and northwestern tier of counties were also included.
In addition to reimbursable vocational courses, twenty-six counties, or more
than one-third, provided vocational offerings in business education which were
supported entirely from state and local funds.
Though enrollments in reimbursable vocational programs have increased steadily
during the past decade, they have not quite kept pace with the population in-
crease. All the services have program representation in the more densely-
populated counties while a number with smaller populations support the pro-
grams of three services. Where only two vocational areas are included, the
offerings are usually agriculture and homemaking. The counties supporting a
single service provide classes in homemaking. In addition, most of the counties
in which the four reimbursable services are represented also have vocational
1Schools employing one or more instructors in one vocational service are con-
sidered to have one program. However, a center employing instructors in two
or more vocational services is considered to have two or more programs (e.g.,
a school employing two agriculture teachers is regarded as having one agri-
culture program; if a distributive-cooperative teacher-coordinator is also
employed, the school is considered to have two vocational programs).
COUNTIES PARTICIPATING II THE PR-OGRAM "
OF ONE REIMBURSABLE VOCAFTOIAL SERVICE,
COUNTIES PARTICIPATING IN PROGRAMS OF
TWO REIMBURSABLE VOCATIONAL SERVICES,
COUNTIES PARTICIPATING IN PROGRAMS OF ONE OR TWO
REIMBURSABLE VOCATIONAL SERVICES, 1959-1960
COUNTIES PARTICIPATING IN PROGRAMS OF
THREE REIMBURSABLE VOCATIONAL SERVICES,
COUNTIES PARTICIPATING IN PROGRAMS
OF FOUR REIMBURSABLE VOCATIONAL SERVICES,
COUNTIES PARTICIPATING IN PROGRAMS OF THREE OR FOUR
REIMBURSABLE VOCATIONAL SERVICES, 1959-1960:
COUNTIES SUPPORTING PROGRAMS OF
VOCATIONAL BUSINESS EDUCATION, 1959-
COUNTIES SUPPORTING PROGRAMS OF VOCATIOIALL
BUSINESS EDUCATION, 1959-1960
II. VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION
In 1959, the receipts of state farmers showed a gross income of $825 million,
the highest on record. This represented an increase of 13 per cent over the
proceeding year and 61 per cent over the 1950 figure. The state's 45,100
farms occupied 15.3 million acres, or 44 per cent of the total land area, a
loss of 8 per cent in acreage since 1949. A part of this drop, however, was
due to a redefinition of the word "farm" in the 1959 Census of Agriculture.
Vocational agriculture is designed to meet the needs of persons over fourteen
years of age who are farmers or who are preparing to enter farming or other
agricultural occupations. The course work is organized around the practical
farm problems of students. It is sufficiently flexible to adjust to farming
requirements and other agricultural employment opportunities in the various
communities having programs. In addition, the instruction lasts long enough
to develop needed farming skills and abilities.
Growth in Enrollment and Number of Departments
During the school year 1959-1960, a total of 196 departments enrolled over
1950 ENROLLMENT: 100 BER CENT
1955 1956 1957 158 1960 W196
3I PER CIT OF CHOIGI IN TOCFJIOKNL AGRL.
'URE InOLmWT, O1950 1966.
13,500 students. Since 1947, agriculture enrollments have nearly doubled,
rising from 7,102 to 13,563 for an increase approximating 91 per cent. Most
of the growth (63%) occurred between 1947 and 1950 during the early years of
the Minimum Foundation Program. By the latter year enrollment had passed
the 11,500 mark.
In Fig. 3, the percentage increase since 1950 is shown. The number of students
in 1951 dropped 5 per cent below the 1950 level, but the loss was more than
recovered in 1952 when it rose 11 per cent above the 1951 low. Gains ranged
between 5 per cent and 8.5 per cent until 1956 when a 19 per cent increase
was registered. A drop of 10 per cent occurred the following year, but since
1957 enrollment has risen once more to a level 17 per cent above the 1950
Growth in the number of vocational agriculture departments lagged somewhat be-
hind the increase in enrollment. In 1944, the program consisted of 112 de-
partments. By 1947, a total of 118 were in operation, an increase of approxi-
mately 5 per cent. Between 1947 and 1950, the number rose more than 40 per
cent, reaching a total of 167 in the latter year and 196 in 1960. Hence,
during the period in which enrollments nearly doubled, departments increased
by approximately two-thirds. Since 1950, however, increases in the number of
departments have closely paralleled enrollment growth. Both recorded gains of
approximately 17 per cent during the decade.
The 189 departments in 1959 were located in sixty of the state's sixty-seven
counties. Nearly half (49%) were in the northern counties which are character-
ized by diversified farming. The citrus and cattle section in the center of
the state included 42 per cent of the programs and the southern region con-
tained the remaining 9 per cent. Four of the counties not possessing depart-
ments were in the northern area and the remainder were in the south.
Types of Classes
Several different types of classes are provided. These include All-day,
Young Farmer, Adult Farmer, and special Adult Vocational Agriculture classes.
All-day classes are organized for high school boys who are fourteen years of
age and over, who wish to become farmers or workers in agri-business, and who
have an opportunity to conduct a farming program under the supervision of a
teacher of vocational agriculture. Course content is based upon the super-
vised farming programs of the students and reflects the need for rural develop-
ment and leadership. In short, vocational agriculture is for those who need
it and can benefit from it.
Instruction in Young Farmer classes is intended to meet the needs of farmers
who are between sixteen and twenty-four years of age. The course of study is
continuous and varies in terms of the needs of those enrolled. Class in-
struction is timed to coincide with the seasonal farming problems of students.
The course for Adult Farmers also continues from year to year. It is modified
II] "NO PROGRAMS
COUNTIES HAVING NO PROGRAMS, ONE, OR TWO PROGRAMS*
OF VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE, 1959-1960
Schools Employing More Than One Agriculture Teacher
Are Considered To Have One Program.
i11I1III Ml 0 OR FOUR PRAMS
*IM OR MOM OROGRMS
COUrTIES BAVInG THREE OR MORE PROGRAMS*
OF VOCATIONAL AGRICULTIUE, 1959-1960
Schools employing more than one agriculture teacher are
considered to have one program.
in terms of the skills and improved farm practices required by enrollees. Each
class member is expected to vary some aspects of his productive or managerial
procedures by planning and adopting new work practices.
Special Adult Vocational Agriculture classes vary in scope and length. They
are open to anyone who may take Young Farmer or Adult Farmer classes. In-
structional content is usually concerned with the development of new skills.
It is based upon a specialized unit or problem in production, processing,
marketing, farm mechanics, or improvement of the home and farm. Each student
is required to plan and adopt improved practices within the scope of the in-
structional unit. He learns whatever new operations and skills are needed to
accomplish his purpose. Types of units in which specialized instruction is
given include electric and acetylene welding, food processing, farm machinery
operation, terrace construction, and land drainage.
All-day classes and those for Young and Adult Farmers are taught by the regular
teacher of vocational agriculture. Special Adult Vocational Agriculture
courses, however, are the responsibility of specialists having a minimum of
three years of experience in the occupational area which they teach.
The Agriculture Section is also responsible for administering the Veterans
Vocational Agriculture Institutional On-the-Farm Training Program. It is
operated through a contract between the Veterans Administration and the State
Board for Vocational Education. The trainees are supervised locally by the
vocational agriculture teacher, and local farm shops, classrooms, and library
facilities are used. The program enrolled 5475 trainees in 1947-1948. In
1958-1959 a total of 155 students was recorded as veterans completed their
High school students constitute the greatest proportion of the total enrollment.
Table II shows the change in the number of secondary school and adult trainees
during the past decade.
ENROLLMENT IN INSTRUCTIONAL AREAS OF VOCATIONAL AGRICUIURE
BY YEARS, 1950-1960
"Type of Class
Year All-day Young & Adult Farmer Totals
1950 10,091 1,465 11,556
1951 9,798 1,181 10,979
TABIE II (cont'd)
Year All-a Young & Adult Farmer
1953 11,067 1,484
1954 10,872 1,497
1955 11,009 1,111
1956 12,194 1,511
1957 11,050 1,411
1958 11,333 1,52e6
1959 12,008 1,539
1960 D -, A f1 .",.
In Fig. 4, 1950 enrollments have been used as the base for con
data to percentage gains and losses for the years indicated.
1950 fMo MT 100 PER CaT
.S. I I _.
., 404m w nn ,,M ,Tfl:,,g- .m 2
A-! : -o ..L. , . .
.. .. l- .. -- .. . .? W.j. 1 n .. -
Between 1947 and 1950, enrollment in All-day classes rose 65 per cent while
evening enrollments increased 48 per cent. Since 1950, however, growth has
not been uniform. After an initial dip of 3 per cent in 1951, enrollments in
Day classes rose almost steadily. They reached a peak of 21 per cent in 1956
and nearly comparable highs in 1959 and 1960.
Enrollment in classes for Young and Adult Farmers declined 19 per cent between
1950 and 1951. It rose again in 1953 and 1954 until it surpassed the 1950
figure. After further drops in 1955 and 1957, it increased in 1960 to a level
12 per cent above that of the 1950 base. Ten special Adult Vocational Agri-
culture classes were approved during the 1959-1960 school year. Enrollments
in these courses have not been included in the table but the number of classes
is expected to double during the coming year.
Some of the variation in out-of-school enrollments is probably accounted for
by changes in the number of active departments and by the tendency to place
less emphasis upon adult classes when secondary enrollments are rising faster
than agriculture teachers are being employed.
Instructional units approved for vocational agriculture increased in number
by approximately one-fourth between 1948 and 1950. In the latter year, 161
were approved. During the past decade, the total rose by 40 per cent,
reaching the 200-unit level in 1955 and rising to 226 in 1959-1960.
1950 APPROVALS: 100 PER CENT
1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1g55 195 1957 1958 I1959 0
FIG. 58 PRt CENT OF InCRFAS IN INSTRWUTIOIAL UMO
APPROVED FOR VOCATIONAL AGRBICLTURE, 1950 1960.
In Fig. 5, the percentage of annual increase since 1950 is represented. Unit
approvals have risen steadily but at a declining rate since 1956.
Between 1950 and 1956, allocations increased by 30 per cent. Since 1956,
however, they have risen only 10 per cent. It would appear that programs are
being developed in communities with smaller student populations and in new
schools which have not yet reached their maximum enrollments, thus accounting
fo' the increase in unit approvals over total enrollment. In addition, Young
Farmer and Adult Farmer classes have been growing and special Adult Vocational
Agriculture classes have been initiated. All require further instructional
units or fractional parts thereof.
Future Farmers of America and New Farmers of America
The Future Farmers of America and the New Farmers of America are organizations
of high school students who are interested in becoming established in a farming
business. Chapter activities are integral parts of the vocational agriculture
program of the school.
The primary purposes of these organizations are to (1) develop competent, ag-
gressive, rural, and agricultural leadership; (2) create and nurture a love
of country life; (3) strengthen the confidence of farm boys and young men in
themselves and their work; (4) create more interest in the intelligent choice
of farming occupations; (5) encourage members in the development of individual
farming program and establishment in farming; (6) encourage members to improve
the farm home and its surroundings; (7) participate in worthy undertakings for
the improvement of agriculture; (8) develop character, train for useful citizen-
ship, and foster patriotism; (9) participate in cooperative effort; (10) en-
courage and practice thrift; (11) encourage improvement in scholarship; and
(12) provide and encourage the development of organized rural recreational
Among the projects in which FFA and NFA chapters engaged during the past year
were livestock improvement, farm mechanics, farm electrification, soil and
water management, and farm safety. The 196 departments had a total of 209
chapters. Of this number, 154 were FFA chapters and the remainder were members
A number of wood-using industries in the state support an FFA forestry camp.
It was attended by nearly 275 boys who received a week of instruction in
forestry practices through the cooperation of the Florida Forest Service. As
part of their forestry activities during the year, FFA members planted over
three million pine seedlings. In addition, they acquired two new chapter
forests, bringing the total to sixty-four which cover an area of approximately
Value of the Program
In a continuing follow-up study of Day students it was found that 26 per cent
were engaged in some form of agricultural production and another 12 per cent
were employed in closely related activities. Hence, nearly four in ten were
in agriculture or in agri-business.
Another indication of the value of the program is found nl the immediate benefits
received by students as an outgrowth of instruction. An analysis of the fi-
nancial results of the supervised farming program last year showed that student
profits greatly exceeded the total cost of the program to the state.
Most of the state's counties contain departments of vocational agriculture.
Enrollment almost doubled between 1947 and 1960 while the number of new de-
partments increased by two-thirds. Secondary enrollments rose almost steadily
during the decade, but the number of Young and Adult Farmer trainees varied
considerably. Unit allocations increased, reflecting enrollment growth and
the provision of new adult courses. FFA and NFA activities were valuable
supplements to the instructional program which, studies indicate, is proving
of immediate and long-range benefit to many youth and adults.
III. HOME ECONOMICS EDUCATION
The goal of homemaking education is the improvement of home, family, and
community life. Florida's rapidly growing population has created challenges
in human relationships which demand the greatest ingenuity if they are to be
Since 1950, the population has increased almost 79 per cent. Older communities
have enlarged and new ones have evolved to accommodate these numbers. In the
process, many problems of housing, feeding, clothing, and personal and social
adjustment have developed. Homemaking education emphasizes the importance of
desirable human relationships and provides a type of practical education which
makes students more effective members of their homes and communities.
In School and Adult Programs
- Dr CLASSES
EVENING & PART.-TWI CLASSES
1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960
NWZBER OF STUDENTS ENROLLED IN DMr, EVEING, AND PALT-T-IM
VOCATIONAL HRMALKING CLASSES, 1951-1960
The in-school, or day program, is designed to meet the homemaking needs of
high school pupils who are no less than fourteen years old or are in the ninth
grade. The course of study includes instruction in child care and development;
clothing and textiles; food and nutrition; health, home safety, and home care
of the sick; housing; personal, social, and family relationships; and consumer
problems and home management.
A minimum of two years of homemaking is provided whenever possible, including
the one year required in the secondary school. In a vocational program, it
is recommended that a third and fourth year be offered in which content from
the above areas is adapted to the increased maturity level of the students.
All pupils are urged to participate in related school and community activities.
In addition, they are encouraged to plan and complete home projects which con-
tribute to personal and family well-being. These are carried on under the
supervision of the teacher in addition to their regular course work.
Adult programs of homemaking education are of two types -- the evening school
program and the part-time program. Youth and adults sixteen years of age and
over who are not enrolled in the regular day school may participate in the
adult evening program. Part-time students, however, may be fourteen years old.
The program of instruction provides training which enables students to become
better family members by developing and using more effectively the material
and human resources of the family.
Short units or longer courses in the various areas of homemaking are offered,
and advanced classes are also provided. As in the day-school program, the
instructor periodically visits the homes of her students to help them relate
class instruction more closely to home problems.
A day-school vocational teacher must hold a bachelor's degree in home economics
from a college or university meeting the requirements established by the State
Board for Vocational Education and must satisfy the certification requirements
prescribed by the State Board of Education. Such a teacher may also teach in
the adult program. However, in lieu of a college degree and providing other
certification requirements are met, a teacher of adults may substitute a compre-
hensive background of homemaking experience particularly emphasizing the
specialized area to be taught.
1951 EMROL : 100 PER CET
"Mu6 urMW 1057 11958 .1959 O1960
a r nawasU 33 VOaMasEmaw n. =UK==a uxaxz wUaMam IgLe-IO.
Enrollment in vocational homemaking classes has risen almost steadily during
the past decade. In 1947, over 14,000 persons were included in the program;
by 1951, the total exceeded 25,000 for an increase approximating 90 per cent.
Fig. 6 shows the cumulative percentage growth between 1951 and 1960 based
upon the 1951 enrollment figure.
Between 1951 and 1955, enrollment almost doubled. The rising trend continued
after 1955 but at a less pronounced rate, reaching a peak in 1959 and declining
to a level 104 per cent above the base figure in 1960. However, between 1947
and 1960 it increased almost 300 per cent.
Several reasons may be identified to account for this growth. Among these
is the increasing secondary school population. A course in homemaking edu-
cation is required of all girls prior to graduation from high school. Hence,
as secondary school enrollment rises, the number of girls taking homemaking
education also goes up.
A factor influencing the size of adult programs is the increase in population
and its changing character. More people are making Florida a permanent home.
Many of these, together with temporary residents, find that homemaking
offerings are interesting and valuable. In addition, the quality of in-
struction exhibited by teachers of adult classes and the interest which they
create are reflected in class sizes.
Changing economic conditions also influence enrollment by affecting student
purposes. When incomes are depressed or restricted, adults are interested
in learning ways to make every dollar count, while periods of prosperity
often generate demands for courses in further home beautification and personal
and family improvement.
Program Growth and Location
1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958
FIG. 71 PER CWT OF INCREASE IN VOCATIONAL ENCMUAKING PROGRAMS, 1950-1960.
While enrollment advanced at a rapid pace, new programs were introduced more
slowly. In 1950, a total of 189 adult and secondary school vocational pro-
grams was in operation. A decade later the figure had risen to 327, an in-
crease of 73 per cent. Fig. 7 shows the percentage of growth by years based
upon the number of programs in 1950.
Though the number of programs jumped 13 per cent between 1950 and 1951, the
ten-year advance has not been so pronounced, averaging approximately 6 per
In 1959, half the counties, located primarily in the north but also extending
down the center of the state, had from one to three programs each. Nineteen,
or approximately one in four (28%), supported four to six while one in ten
(9%) had seven to nine programs, and eight counties (12%) had more than nine.
Between 1947 and 1951, day-school vocational enrollment increased 81 per cent,
climbing from 9,000 students to almost 16,500. During the same period, evening
school and part-time students rose in number from 5000 to well over 10,000, a
jump of 104 per cent. Fig. 8 shows the cumulative percentage increase over the
1951 figure during the past decade at both instructional levels.
LV .. . .. . M ................ . . . .. . .
1954 &M 2M 23" IM IM,
Day-school enrollment advanced almost steadily during the decade. It rose
sharply in 1954 and again in 1959-1960 until it reached a high of nearly
37,000 students, a 124 per cent increase over 1951. Evening and part-time
.. . .. . .
... ... ... ... ...
; ,AFA r I Y Nx
ONE TO THREE PROGRAMS
FOUR TO SIX PROGRAMS
SEVEN TO NINE PROGRAMS
OVER NINE PROGRAMS
COUNTIES WITH VOCATIONAL HOMEMAKING PROCRAM1*,
Schools employing more than one vocational homemaking teacher are
considered to have one program.
enrollments rose more steeply during the decade. The 19,700 student total
in 1953 was almost double the 1951 figure while the 1956 peak of 27,000 rep-
resented a jump of 163 per cent over 1951.
A factor accounting for the variation in evening and part-time enrollments
was the number of instructors available for teaching adult classes. In
addition to regularly-certified teachers, individuals with specialized ex-
perience in various aspects of homemaking education may be approved to teach
adult courses. This number varies by years and communities in terms of the
specific homemaking skills in which training is needed and desired.
However, the drop of 8200 adults between 1959 and 1960 resulted largely from
the "freeze" upon special vocational instructional units imposed by the 1959
legislature as an economy measure. It represented a decline of approximately
one-third (31%) and brought adult enrollment to a level somewhat below that of
1953. Some of the most popular courses were eliminated as a result of the
"freeze". Uncertainty regarding the approval of others resulted in further
In addition to the vocational enrollment, many day-school students take home-
making education as a non-vocational elective course. In 1954, the number
was 28,800. By 1960 it had reached almost 41,000, an increase of 42 per cent.
Hence, during the past school year, a total of 95,500 students was enrolled
in all phases of vocational and. non-vocational homemaking education.
1951 OMIT 0I fS: 100W CM
1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960
FIG. 91 PMR GMr or IarI I WIN T ALLOCAfIOM TOR
OCJA!ZOUL w uCM3 1W*AZ, 1951-160.
While the number of vocational students doubled between 1951 and 1960 (and in
1959 reached a high 128 per cent above the 1951 figure), unit allocations did
not quite keep pace, increasing by 94 per cent during the period. In 1948, a
total of 152 units was approved. By 1951, the figure had risen to approxi-
mately 227 for an increase of 49 per cent, while by 1960 it had climbed to
440. Hence, between 1948 and 1960, enrollment jumped 215 per cent while unit
allocations rose 189 per cent.
Fig. 9 shows the cumulative percentage increase in vocational homemaking unit
allocations during the past decade based upon the 1951 allotment.
Though the number of units allocated to the adult homemaking program was
frozen at the 1959 level, those approved for use in the day-school vocational
program were not restricted. Hence, the 6 per cent increase in 1960 corre-
sponds to the rise of 6 per cent in day-school vocational enrollment.
Home projects are an integral part of vocational homemaking education. They
permit application in the home of skills and understandings acquired in the
laboratory. All pupils in the vocational program are required to carry on
directed home experiences related to classroom instruction, while home projects
for non-vocational students are optional but recommended.
In 1960, a total of almost 91,000 projects was completed. More than six in
ten were concentrated in three instructional areas. One-fourth were con-
cerned with Food and Nutrition, another one-fourth with Clothing and Textiles,
and approximately one in eight with Housing. Other areas in which projects
were developed included Consumer Buying; Personal, Social, and Family Relation-
ships; Health, Home Safety, and Home Care of the Sick; Child Care and Develop-
ment; Personal Improvement; Home Management; and Gardening.
Future Homemakers of America and New Homemakers of America
Most of the homemaking programs, whether vocational or non-vocational, include
a chapter of the Future Homemakers of America or the New Homemakers of America.
Membership is open to all students who have had or are taking homemaking edu-
cation. Chapter activities are considered to be vital parts of the instructional
program. The purpose of these organizations is to help individuals personally
and to improve the quality of their contributions to family and community
The objectives established to serve as guides in achieving the goals of the
organizations include the following: (1) to promote a growing appreciation of
the joys and satisfactions of homemaking, (2) to emphasize the importance of
worthy home membership, (3) to encourage democracy in home and community life,
(4) to work for good home and family life for all, (5) to promote international
good will, (6) to foster the development of creative leadership in home and
community life, (7) to provide wholesome individual and group recreation, and
(8) to stimulate further interest in home economics.
During the past year 228 FHA chapters in the state had a membership of 10,128
while the 100 NHA chapters had over 4300 members.
All of the state's sixty-seven counties have vocational homemaking programs.
Most are conducted in the secondary school, but a number also hold adult
evening or part-time classes. In addition, many day-school students take
homemaking education as a non-vocational elective. Day-school enrollments
grew markedly during the past decade, but have been topped by increases in
the adult evening program. However, further development of the adult program
has been restricted by the 1959 "freeze" on instructional units. During the
decade, the number of programs increased more than 70 per cent and unit
allocations approximately 95 per cent to accommodate enrollment growth. FRA
and NHA are student clubs designed to contribute to the achievement of home-
making goals. Membership is voluntary and in 1960 included approximately
one in five of the day-school students enrolled in vocational or non-
vocational homemaking classes.
IV. VOCATIONAL BUSINESS, DISTRIBUTIVE AND COOPERATIVE EDUCATION
In 1959, approximately one in five employees in the state was working in
wholesale and retail trade. Another 4 per cent were in finance, insurance,
and real estate. Hence, nearly one in four had jobs in trade or finance and
investment. In addition, numerous others worked in offices or were employed
as clerical workers in other types of business. Another large group worked
in a variety of hotel and motel service occupations, including the $1.5 billion
tourist industry. Still another large number were business managers or pro-
prietors of small businesses. Vocational business, distributive, and cooper-
ative education classes are offered in many of these occupational areas.
A 1960 report of the Florida State Employment Service identified job oppor-
tunities in selected business and distributive vocations. Stenographers,
secretaries, typists, bookkeepers, commission salesmen, and waitresses were
in definite demand. Vacancies also existed for general office clerks, sales
personnel, service station attendants, and cashiers, but there was no shortage
of such employees. In some sections of the state a surplus of sales people
and certain types of clerical workers was indicated and the need for hostesses,
receptionists, and stock clerks was reported to be limited.
1000 300 6000 o00 10000 12,000 14,000 16,000 18,000 20,000 22,000 24,000
EVE. BUS. ED.
*DAf BUS. ED.
UROLMNR I 0CATIKAL XM08IMS, DISTIMUTIME
A=D OOPERAIVE ZECATIO, 1260a
High school and adult business education courses provide training in skills
and related subjects fqr persons who are working in office occupations or who
will soon obtain such employment. Distributive education includes instruction
in areas such as merchandising, buying and selling, and wholesaling. It is in-
tended for people who are engaged in the distributive occupations or expect to
be so employed. The secondary and adult distributive education program receives
some assistance from federal funds, but business education does not.
High School Cooperative Programs
Cooperative education is confined to high school students at the present time.
It is a procedure by which training in business, distributive, and diversified
occupations is provided. It consists of specialized in-school training offered
in cooperation with business and industrial establishments in the community,
and is intended for students who wish to become employed in these occupations
after they graduate from high school. Cooperative education includes cooper-
ative business education (CBE), diversified cooperative training (DCT), and
distributive education (DE).
The cooperative business education program provides specialized in-school
preparation on a cooperative basis, using community resources for on-the-job
training of seniors who wish to become employed in office occupations while
still attending high school.
Diversified cooperative training is designed as a terminal vocational program
to train eleventh and twelfth graders of employable age in a variety of
occupations by using business and industrial establishments in the community
as training agencies.
Distributive education is a vocational cooperative program having as its pur-
pose the training of high school juniors and seniors of employable age in the
field of distribution, including wholesale and retail sales and/or service
occupations. Approved distributive businesses in the community cooperate by
providing on-the-job training for student learners.
Students enrolled in a vocational, technical, or regular high school are eli-
gible for cooperative education. They must be at least sixteen years of age
and be legally employed for an average of fifteen hours weekly in a business,
distributive, or diversified occupation under an agreement between the school
and employer. Training is given in skilled or semi-skilled occupations offer-
ing opportunities for advancement.
Adult Programs and Enrollments
Two types of adult classes are offered. These are evening extension classes
and part-time extension classes. Evening extension courses are held during
the non-working hours of the students and include evening business education
and distributive education. Part-time extension classes meet during the
working day and constitute the day business education program. Adult classes
are for trainees who are at least sixteen years old. They must have legally
left the full-time school and be employed or be reasonably sure of work in
the occupation in which they are receiving instruction.
Evening and part-time extension distributive education classes enrolled 645
adults in 1947. By 1950 the number had grown to more than 5700, an increase
approaching 800 per cent. In 1951 the total almost doubled again with an en-
rollment exceeding 11,000. In 1952 an abrupt decline occurred, and the
7I9. 10. s, BUOWOFCXm IN ANX IHSTRIBUTIYZ EDWATD MLLUM
lAUD MW U 1950 n13 MND IfN D AIM EwMM IWSnMBS NDICATM
NULIMRnT3 INIn OF 1157 U3WOLIU~e
downward trend became even more pronounced in 1953 when the number of en-
rollees was only approximately two-thirds the 1950 figure. As shown in Fig. 10,
growth has been extensive since then, reaching levels 265 per cent and 255 per
cent above the 1950 total in 1958 and 1959 respectively, and registering a
gain of 178 per cent above the base figure in 1960.
1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 195A 11W 19M
WOMI= 31 AIM! DISTRMIBTIVZ aucWTOr (M) CASSM
(NWWIMD & PAHf-TME)
During the 1956 school year, the Vocational Distributive and Cooperative Edu-
cation Section was enlarged to include adult day and evening business edu-
cation. Both are vocational programs, but they are non-reimbursable from
federal funds and depend entirely upon state and local support. Prior to
1957 they were included in the Trade and Industrial Education Section. In the
move to clarify the organizational structure of vocational education in the
state and because they are more closely related to distributive education, the
vocational business education programs since 1957 have been an administrative
part of distributive and cooperative education.
1 Bl 19 11 S
ma -g U '-
In 1957, the enrollment in adult vocational business education courses was
42,500. A year later it had climbed 5 per cent to approximately 44,700. In
1959, it was nearly 43,500, but by 1960 it had dropped to 41,600, a figure 2
per cent below the total for 1957.
Enrollment in adult distributive education courses jumped sharply in 1957 and
1958 with increasing emphasis upon program promotion, but declined in 1959
and 1960 because of administrative adjustments and the loss of qualified
teachers to business establishments which paid them better salaries.
High School Enrollments
1950 1951 1952 1950 1954 1955 195* 1957 1956 19o5i 1U
'ma zu rn ] ca s n rimM orMx aou Cu ar (n) Assm .
High school cooperative, distributive education classes in 1947 enrolled 412
students. By 1950 the total had risen to 639, an increase of 55 per cent.
In 1951, however, it dropped to 519, but rose to 808 in 1952. During the
=Ti!mmT 101~r (1950 ELIMMi 1W)0
(1956 WMLi~ 0)
M Om ma zm WCASI & DZUDIU
epulanm !flhMM (IMe inMOUUM ----- M.-
1015 N urn,
a.O Me &
... _. ----- -- ----- ---- ----- ------- ------
&*a iM 1,54 I I 107 IM Mlo
WMWMN*. u.~tf U-w A~TZII M Mu=rI W
- 4 1 -
next three years no high school distributive education was offered and only
diversified cooperative classes were held. In 1956, the distributive edu-
cation program was reintroduced with an enrollment of 316, a figure which
jumped to 500 a year later. For the next two years it continued to grow, en-
rolling 586 students in 1958 and 707 in 1959, but dropping to 683 in 1960.
Hence, the growth over 1956 marks a cumulative increase of 116 per cent as
shown in Fig. 11.
Cooperative business education
has shown steady growth since
its introduction in 1956.
During the first year the pro-
gram attracted forty-seven
students. In 1957 the number
tripled and in 1958 it reached 100
245. In 1959 a total of 337
was enrolled and in 1960 the I In
figure was nearing the 400 1956 1957 19 1959 1900
mark. G SCOL O B uu BIX
EBC:AT! (Cn) uiwu,
training has been the largest
cooperative program. Until 1956 it was a part of the Trade and Industrial
Education Section. In that year it was transferred to the enlarged Dis-
tributive and Cooperative Education Section together with the vocational
business education programs supported by Minimum Foundation Program state
and local funds. Enrollment in 1956 was almost 2350, but it declined slightly
the next year to 2326. In 1958 it neared the 2450 level and by 1959 another
one-hundred students had been added. The largest jump occurred in 1960 when
the total rose to 2866 for an aggregate increase of 22 per cent over the 1956
2 0 0 0-
1951 1952 193 1954 1955 156 1957 19S8 1959 1960
mmiBSinf COOP huITE TRIIM (D11) =M a[a
During the current school year (1960-1961), one-third of the 3800 students
enrolled in cooperative education are studying office occupations. Another
third are taking distributive training and slightly over one in four is in
an industrial training agency or one of still another type.
Over 550 of the students in office occupations courses were interested in be-
coming general office clerks. More than 350 others were taking secretarial
training, nearly 200 wished to become clerk typists, and over 100 were
specializing in bookkeeping.
Well over 900 distributive education students were taking retailing and re-
lated service training while another 125 were preparing to work in food
service occupations. Lesser numbers were receiving training as cashiers,
service station attendants, domestics, and in other distributive occupations.
Nearly 335 of the pupils having other 'vocational goals wished to enter medical,
dental, and related service occupations, while over 600 were being trained in
various crafts, trades, repair services, and miscellaneous vocations.
Distributive education is primarily an adult program with respect to enroll-
ment. In 1957 a total of 62,700 adults and high school students was enrolled
in all business, distributive and cooperative programs. Of this number 95 in
100 were adults. The same proportion of the 68,800 total in 1958 and of the
67,300 students in 1959 were out-of-school trainees. Hence, in spite of the
growing number of students in high school cooperative programs since 1956, the
combined high school and adult figure has declined in the last two years, re-
flecting the trend in adult enrollments. Fig. 12 shows the aggregate percentage
variation in the total program between 1957 and 1960.
IMBs 12a VW tage Of MSANGE amaguMARff URA RUmZan& 3B2gaVu=W,
ara04MrM An G 0P3ERhM EDUCAT=A, 1957-9M0.
High School Business Education
In addition to those enrolled in the adult vocational program, many high
school students take business education courses as electives. Among the
classes offered are typewriting, general business, bookkeeping, filing, short-
hand, office practice, business mathematics, business English, and business
law. In 1959, a total of more than 87,000 pupil periods in these courses was
reported. In 1960, the figure had jumped to nearly 99,000. Pupil periods,
however, are not the same as separate individuals. In some instances the same
student may be taking typewriting and shorthand, accounting for two pupil
periods but a single enrollment. The business education program is operated
with Minimum Foundation Program state and local funds, and the state consultant
for business education assists all business education teachers in developing
and conducting their programs.
Number and Location of Counties Providing Programs
In 1960, a total of twenty-three counties or approximately one-third, had
high school and adult programs of vocational business, distributive and co-
operative education. Another seventeen had only high school programs while
still another had only an adult program. Hence, vocational business, dis-
tributive and cooperative education was available in approximately six in
ten (61%) of the state's sixty-seven counties.
A total of 150 cooperative programs was in operation in 1960. Of this number
113, located in thirty-nine counties, were diversified cooperative training
programs. In twenty-four counties, diversified cooperative training was the
only type of cooperative program provided. Cooperative business education
was offered in thirteen counties, but in only one was it the sole cooperative
course. Eighteen high school distributive education programs were provided
in eleven counties together with diversified cooperative training and/or
cooperative business education. Twelve additional courses, classified as
diversified cooperative training, were in reality combinations of distributive
education and diversified cooperative training.
Sixty-four adult distributive education programs were provided in fourteen
counties. Among the instructional areas included were business organization
and management; supervision; employee training; retailing; banking, insurance,
and real estate; and hotel, motel, and restaurant employee training. Courses
ranged in length from a single class period to one semester depending upon
the breadth and specialization of the content.
Twenty-three counties offered seventy-three adult evening programs in business
education. Eleven of these also provided fourteen day programs while another
offered day business education for adults but no evening program.
Prior to 1956, units in vocational business, distributive and cooperative edu-
cation were a part of the total allocated for trade and industrial education.
In 1956, the new section was established and approximatelyeighty-eight special
instructional units were approved. In 1957, the number rose to 231, including
seventy-five units allocated for office occupations. An 8 per cent increase
in 1958 brought the figure to 250. In 1959, a total of 276 was approved and
in 1960 the figure was 272, representing increases of 19 per cent and 18 per
cent respectively over the 1957 allotment.
Hence, though the percentage increase in unit approvals between 1957 and 1958
was not quite equal to total enrollment growth, allocations rose in 1959 after
1ii|1i|||||i;11 DCT ONLY i
DCT & CBE
COUNTIES WITH DIVERSIFIED COOPERATIVE TRAINING*,
COOPERATIVE BUSINESS EDUCATION AND COMBINATION
*Some DCT programs are joint DCT-DE programs.
The number in each county shows the total number of
high school programs in the county.
DCT & DE l
COUNTIES WITH COMBINATION PROGRAMS OF HIGH SCHOOL
DISTRIBUTIVE EDUCATION AND DIVERSIFIED
COOPERATIVE TRAINING* AND COUNTIES
HAVING ALL PROGRAMS*, 1959-1960
*Some DCT programs are joint DCT-DE programs.
**The number in each county shows the total number of
high school programs in the county.
6u ---------- .-
EVENING BUSINESS EDUCATION ONLY
EVENING BUSINESS EDUCATION ONLY
DAY BUSINESS EDUCATION ONLY
illilililll1 EVENING & DAY BUSINESS EDUCATION
EVENING BUSINESS & DISTRIBUTIVE EDUCATION
I .... ALL PROGRAMS
COUNTIES WITH ADULT EVENING BUSINESS EDUCATION,
DAY BUSINESS EDUCATION, AND DISTRIBUTIVE
EDUCATION PROGRAMS 1959-1960
The number in each county refers to the total number of adult
programs in the county.
adult enrollments had begun to decline. However, the high school phase of the
program continued to expand. Both unit allocations and total enrollment de-
clined in 1960, although diversified cooperative training and cooperative
business education showed gains in the number of students enrolled.
Diversified Cooperative Training Clubs and Distributive Education Clubs of
The Florida State Federation of DCT Clubs and the Florida State Association
of DCT Clubs at the present time are composed of high school students en-
rolled in distributive education, cooperative business education, and diversi-
fied cooperative training. However, separate clubs for cooperative business
education and distributive education have been organized in some schools, and
the present constitution of the DCT Club Federation is being rewritten to in-
clude all cooperative education clubs. Increasing emphasis in these organi-
zations is to be placed upon leadership training.
The objectives of a DCT club are: (1) to promote growth and better understanding
of business, industrial, and distributive education in the school, community,
and state; (2) to stimulate cooperation between employers, trainees, and the
school; (3) to accomplish some worthy civic project during the year; (4) to
bring employer-employee groups together annually through banquets and other
activities; and (5) to develop leadership and scholarship.
In 1960, a total of 124 clubs was affiliated with the Florida State Federation
of DCT Clubs and twenty-eight belonged to the Florida State Association of
DCT Clubs. They included students in diversified cooperative training, co-
operative business education, and distributive education. The combined dues-
paying membership was 3330.
Distributive education students are eligible for membership in a separate
national organization known as the Distributive Education Clubs of America
(DECA). Club activities are designed to encourage group participation, develop
leadership, and promote career study, and are a significant part of the dis-
tributive education instructional program. In 1960, seven distributive edu-
cation clubs, with a membership of 140 individuals, were associated with the
Vocational business and distributive education is primarily an adult program.
However, many high schools cooperate with local business and industrial es-
tablishments in providing instruction in clerical, sales, and related services
through cooperative education. One-third of the counties have high school
and adult programs and another one-fourth offer only high school courses.
Evening business education is the most widely-established program for adults
while diversified cooperative training classes have the largest number of high
school students. Total adult enrollment has declined since 1958, but high
school totals have shown an almost steady increase. Unit allocations have
approximately paralleled program development and reflect the recent drop in
High school cooperative enrollees may become members of their local DCT clubs
and high school distributive education students may also join DECA, a national
organization designed to promote leadership and stimulate interest in pre-
paring for a career in the distributive occupations.
V. INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION
The industrial foundation of Florida's economy is growing rapidly. Between
1950 and 1960, manufacturing employment rose more than 90,000 for an increase
exceeding 90 per cent. During the same period the number of construction jobs
grew by one-third, providing employment for over 28,000 additional workers.
The largest employment gains in manufacturing and construction occurred in
Dade, Orange, Pinellas, Escambia, and Polk counties respectively.
Recent Industrial Development
Since 1956, the state's industrial expansion has been particularly spectacular.
Between 1956 and 1959, the number of new and expanded manufacturing plants
reached a total of 2777, creating an expected increase of more than 106,000
jobs-. However, these establishments were not uniformly distributed. Seven in
ten were found in seven counties, namely, Broward, Dade Duval, Hillsborough,
Orange, Palm Beach, and Pinellas. Nearly one-half (46%) were in the three
southeastern counties of Broward, Dade, and Palm Beach.
In 1959, a total of 783 plants was established or enlarged. Of these, 152,
or approximately one in five, were located in the northern counties. Escambia,
Bay, and Okaloosa counties claimed thirty-one, while Duval County had forty-
five. The remaining one-half were scattered through most of the other northern
counties. Of the 287 firms located in the central portion of the state, 197
were concentrated in Hillsborough, Orange, Pinellas, Polk, and Volusia counties,
while 323 of 344 establishments in the south were found in Broward, Dade, and
Palm Beach counties. Over one in five of the new plants and expansions was
located in a rural county compared to a previous high of 14 per cent in 1958,
and anticipated employment was almost double that of 1958.
In 1959, one in five industrial employees worked in a plant which manufactured
or processed food and kindred products. Another one in five was employed in
the production of lumber and wood products, the processing or fabrication of
stone, clay, and glass, or the fabrication of metal products. Many of these
were producing a variety of construction materials.
Additional jobs created in new and expanded plants between 1956 and 1959
paralleled this trend. Approximately 16 per cent of total expected employment
and nearly one in three of the new and expanded plants were concerned with
the fabrication of products from wood, stone, clay, glass, and metal, while
one in five of the jobs created in 1959 and one-third of the new plants were
manufacturing these products.
Expected employment in the manufacture and processing of food and kindred
products over the four-year period did not keep pace with the established
employment level in food production. However, over one in ten expected jobs
and 8 per cent of the new plants were concerned with food processing and manu-
Nearly one in five of the jobs developed between 1956 and 1959 was in the
electrical machinery and ordnance groups, primarily in the fields of electronics
and missiles. The proportion in 1959 was still higher, the 6800 jobs in the
combined groups accounting for over one in four of those created.
The production of transportation equipment such as ships and boats employed
7 per cent of all Florida manufacturing workers in 1959. It also accounted
for 11 per cent of the new jobs between 1956 and 1959 although the proportion
has declined sharply during the last two years.
The Florida Employment Service identified a number of occupations in which
there was a shortage of workers in the fall of 1960. Included among these
were automotive mechanics, upholstering, drafting, cabinet making,TV repair,
sheet metal work, machine shop work, diesel mechanics, power sewing machine
operation, cosmetology, and cooking and baking.
In a number of crafts, job openings existed but there was no shortage of em-
ployees. Among these trades was that of electrician, carpenter, painter,
plumber, meat cutter, combination welder, aircraft radio mechanic, mason,
plasterer, boat builder, and woodworking machine operator.
There was a surplus of aircraft and aircraft engine mechanics, linemen, and
millwrights, and in some sections of the state the supply of carpenters,
painters, plumbers, electricians, welders, and other construction workers
was greater than the demand.
Purpose of Industrial Education and Kinds of Programs
Industrial education provides training in most of these and other trades,
crafts, and occupations concerned with the design, production, processing,
assembly, maintenance, servicing, and repair of industrial products or
commodities. In addition, training in other vocations such as practical
nursing and those in which laboratory assistants, draftsmen, and technicians
are employed are a part of the program.
Hence, a variety of specialized training is provided in addition to that
concerned with the preparation and improvement of tradesmen and craft workers.
Included among the distinctive types are practical nursing, technician training,
supervisory training, employee education, peace officers' training, Rural
Electrification Administration job and safety training, commercial vehicle
driver training, and school bus driver and maintenance training. Though in-
dustrial arts is not vocational in purpose, it introduces students to the tools,
materials, and products of industry, and is closely related to vocational in-
Essentially, two kinds of training programs are offered in industrial education.
These are trade preparatory programs and trade extension programs. Preparatory
courses furnish instruction in the skills and understandings required for entry
into a particular occupation, while extension classes provide further training
for the worker in the vocation in which he is already employed. Extension
classes are offered during the non-working hours of employees and part-time
classes during the working day.
To be eligible for enrollment in extension courses, a student must be at
least sixteen years old, must have legally left the full-time school, and
be employed in the occupation in which he is being instructed. Courses
reflect a variety of crafts, trades, and industries together with fisheries
occupations training, fire fighting, foremanship.training, commercial food
handling, and peace officers' training. Special evening and part-time ex-
tension classes are conducted for apprentices only. In these they receive
technical and other related instruction which supplements the training ob-
tained on the job. In 1960, a total of 20,410 adults was enrolled in ex-
tension classes. Of this number 5339, or one in four, were registered
Day trade preparatory courses are of three types, namely, Types A, B, and C.
Type A and B classes are offered in full-time day schools for regularly en-
rolled students who are not employed. To be eligible, high school students
must be approximately fourteen years of age or older and must have completed
the tenth grade. Other enrollees, such as those in vocational schools and
adults, must be at least sixteen years old and must have finished the ninth
grade. Type A and B courses are identical in their goals and method of oper-
ation except that related trade instruction in Type A courses is taught in
separate classes apart from the shopwork, while in Type B classes it is pre-
sented as a part of and incidental to the regular shopwork by the trade in-
In Type A and B programs, students receive one-half day of training in a
specialized occupation for two consecutive school years. Type C classes may
be organized for shorter periods of time. No attempt is made in Type C
courses to prepare students for entry into the skilled trades or into occu-
pations requiring a period of apprenticeship. Instead, they provide a brief
period of intensive training which meets the specific requirements of a par-
ticular job. In 1960, a total of 13,716 high school students and adults
was enrolled in Type A, B, and C day preparatory programs. Of this number,
approximately seven in ten were Type A and B students and the remainder was
in Type C programs.
Other Training Agencies
Industrial plants are sometimes used as training agencies when the local school
system is unable to provide adequate equipment and supplies. In such cases,
however, the programs are under the control and supervision of local school
Part-time joint school-industry classes provide training for skilled or semi-
skilled occupations. They are intended for students who obtain part of their
instruction in vocational schools, comprehensive high schools, or day vo-
cational schools for adults and who receive on-the-job training through
part-time employment in an industrial occupation. Such students must be at
least sixteen years old, must have completed the tenth grade, and finished at
least one year of vocational shop training in the occupation in which they
are employed. In lieu of the vocational shop training, however, they may
have taken two years of industrial arts since the sixth grade.
24,000 M ALL DAY TRADE(IG SCHOOL) /// PART-TI1E TRADE PREP. & Dff TRADE(C)
M AL lll! BUSINESS ESU. & OFFICE OCCUPATIONS
22,000 | ALL D TRADE(ABLT) 39,378eE ADULT TRADE EXTENSION
1950 1951 1953 1955 1957"*** 1959 1960
"Business Education reported as a part of adult Distributive Education.
Includes Part-Time Trade Preparatory whioh became Day Trade (Type C) in 1954.
Formerly Part-Time General Continuation.
Office Occupations and Business Education moved to Distributive & Cooperative Education.
FIG. 13 ENROLLMET IN INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION BY TYPES OF COURSES IN SELECTED YEARS, 1950-1960.
Comprehensive Enrollment Growth
As shown in Fig. 13, enrollment in industrial education has varied consider-
ably. Until 1956 vocational business education and office occupations were
a part of industrial education. After that they were transferred to dis-
tributive and cooperative education. Diversified cooperative training was
also included in industrial education until 1956 after which it, too, was
included in distributive and cooperative education.
In 1950, the evening and part-time trade extension program enrolled over
13,000 adults while the preparatory program included approximately 8300
adults and over 1450 high school students. The general continuation program,
consisting of vocational business education courses, contained nearly 4500
additional students. One year later the extension program had climbed to
more than 23,100 for an increase of 77 per cent. The all-day and part-time
trade preparatory program, however, declined 16 per cent, dropping to 8224
students. During the same period, general continuation enrollment increased
by 28 per cent, almost reaching the 5700 level.
By 1953, the number of extension students had soared to more than 30,250. Of
this total, nearly half (46%) were taking business education courses. The
preparatory program more than doubled its 1951 enrollment, registering over
16,750 students for an increase over 1950 of 72 per cent. General continuation
enrollment rose to 8400, surpassing the 1950 total by 89 per cent.
In 1955, the trade extension figure approached the 39,400 mark. Almost six
in ten (57%) of the students were taking vocational business education courses
and another one in ten was enrolled in apprenticeship training. The preparatory
training program included 15,734 students while office occupations (formerly
the general continuation program) enrolled 9479, for gains of 61 per cent and
114 per cent respectively over 1950.
By 1957, vocational business education and office occupations had been trans-
ferred to business, distributive and cooperative education, leaving evening
trade extension training, including apprenticeship training, and Type A, B,
and C trade preparatory courses in industrial education. A total of nearly
34,000 students was enrolled.
Well over half (56%) were extension trainees and 17 per cent were apprentices.
Of the 15,000 taking preparatory courses, three-fourths were in Type A and B
programs and the balance was Type C trainees.
The 1959 enrollment figure was approximately one-hundred under the 1957 total,
but the relative distribution within the respective training programs remained
quite similar. Approximately 57 per cent were in the evening extension pro-
gram and 17 per cent were apprentices. Of the 14,615 enrolled in preparatory
training, over six in ten (61%) were taking Type A or B courses.
m 3 5Mo 7a00 u.uoS ugs MuMr.
H1IG SCHOOL TYPES A&B
BUMLBT III I hUBSMAL ENCATION, 195MI1M
Total enrollment in 1960 increased less than 1 per cent over that of the previ-
ous year, reaching the 34,126 figure. Six in ten were taking trade extension
courses and 16 per cent of all the trainees were apprentices. Over seven in
ten (71%) of the 13,716 students enrolled in preparatory programs were in
Type A and B schedules and the rest were taking Type C training.
1950 1951 1953
*General Continuation and Business
1955 1957 1959 1960
Education transferred to Business, Distributive and
FIG. 14: PER CENT OF STUDENTS ENROLLED IN THE VARIOUS TYPES OF INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION
PROGRAMS AND VOCATIONAL BUSINESS EDUCATION IN SELECTED YEARS, 1950-1960.
Fig. 14 shows that the proportion of high school students enrolled in Type A
and B preparatory training has risen steadily since 1955. The ratio of ap-
prentices has remained relatively constant during the past four years while
evening trade extension enrollments have increased somewhat. The number and
proportion of Type C students rose in 1959 but declined again in 1960. Four
in ten trainees in 1960 were enrolled in the preparatory program and six in
ten in extension training. Ten years earlier the figures were 36 per cent
and 48 per cent and in 1957 they were 44 per cent and 56 per cent respectively.
Enrollment Growth and Student Distribution in Industrial Education
However, a more accurate analysis of developments in industrial education is
obtained when enrollment trends are considered apart from those of services
which were once included but have since been transferred to another section.
Fig. 15 shows that exclusively industrial education enrollment increased
approximately 50 per cent between 1950 and 1960. From 1950 to 1951, it rose
nearly one-fifth, and by 1953 it had climbed another 28 per cent. Since then
it has remained relatively stable.
FIG. 151 PER CEIT OF INCREASE IN EMOLIMET IN INDUSTRIAL EICATION AND PROPORTIONS
OF TOTAL RIPRESEITED BY PREPARATORY AND EITSION PROGRAMS IN SELECTED YEARS, 1950-
In 1951, approximately seven in ten students were in apprenticeship or ex-
tension classes and one-fourth were adults taking Type A and B preparatory
training. The remainder were Type A and B high school students and Type C
adult trainees. In 1953 and 1955, apprentices constituted approximately one-
tenth of the total while extension students accounted for another 40 per cent.
The proportion of high school enrollees almost doubled during the period,
rising from 5 to 9 per cent, while the number of adult Type A and B students
jumped from one-fifth to one-fourth of the total. Type C preparatory trainees
accounted for one-fourth of the number in 1953, but for only 14 per cent in
Between 1957 and 1960, the proportion of apprentices and extension students
was relatively constant. Combined, they accounted for 56 to 60 per cent of
the total enrollment. The ratio of high school Type A and B trainees rose
slightly while adult Type A and B enrollment dropped one-third. Type C pre-
paratory students accounted for one in ten of the total in 1957 and for 17
per cent in 1959. In 1960, however, the proportion dropped to slightly over
one in ten once more.
Number and Location of Programs
Nearly two-thirds of the counties had industrial education programs in 1960.
Over one-third (25) had both extension and preparatory programs, one-fourth
(17) supported only extension programs, and one operated just a preparatory
program. A total of 130 programs were being conducted in the forty-three
counties. Fifty-four, or four in ten, were Type A and B or Type C preparatory
programs and seventy-six were extension programs.
All but two Atlantic coast counties had programs as did most of those on the
peninsula and in the western part of the panhandle. However, approximately
half the northern counties were without programs, the largest cluster being
in the "Big Bend" area.
Forty-two of the forty-three counties operated extension programs. Eighteen
had both evening extension and apprenticeship training while twenty-two had
only evening extension courses and two provided just apprenticeship training.
Of the twenty-six counties having preparatory programs, twelve had Type A, B,
and C programs. Twelve additional counties offered Type A and B training and
two others only Type C programs.
Selected Extension and Preparatory Courses Provided
According to Table III, training is provided by twenty or more counties in
each of the following occupations and vocational areas: electrical wireman,
automotive mechanic, brick and stone masonry and tile setting, cost estimating,
radio and television repair, commercial vehicle driver training, peace officers'
training, cabinet making, commercial food trade occupations, and the needle
trades, including dressmaking, tailoring, and machine operation.
Type of Program
Occupational Area Evening Trade Apprenticeship Day Trade A & B Day Trade C Total Number Com-
Counties pleting Course
No. of Counties No. of Counties No. of Counties No. of Counties
Beauty Operator 5 10 2 17 1407
Brick & Stone Mason
& Tile Setter 3 9 11 3 26 1032
Cabinet Maker 3 2 15 2 22 1283
Carpenter 8 16 5 29 20W2
Draftsman 7 9 2 18 904
Co rclal Vehicle
Driver 24 24 3696
Lineman 11 4 15 404
wireman 8 17 5 2 32 2321
Food Trade Worker
(Commercial) 14 5 1 20 2571
Machinist 4 10 2 16 834
Mechanic & Repairman
Air Cond. & Refrig. 2 7 4 2 15 956
Automotive 7 16 4 27 2939
Radio & Television 5 14 7 26 1696
Machine Operator) 3 9 8 20 1621
Plumber & Pipe Fitter 5 14 19 887
Policeman 23 23 2762
Printing Occqpations 6 1 8 15 392 t
Sheet Metal Worker 5 10 4 19 951
S Welder 10 3 4 17 655
SCst Estimator 2 2 26 146
W.' -' uM" V MIn FTERED IDMBEUIAL OCCUPATIONAL TRAINI3M AEASTIM OF MUM X
A a r caO s wr nIN TRAIING, AMD .nU kfEIT co..s, .s -
PREPARATORY & EXTENSION PROGRAMS
EXTENSION PROGRAMS ONLY
PREPARATORY PROGRAMS ONLY
COUNTIES WITH INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION PROGRAMS, 1959-1960
Commercial vehicle driver training and peace officers' training were the
evening trade extension courses most generally provided by counties. These
were followed by classes for commercial food trade workers, electrical line-
men, and welders. The apprenticeship training areas supported by the greatest
number included electrical wireman training, carpentry, plumbing and pipe
fitting, sheet metal work, and brick and stone masonry and tile setting.
The most common kinds of Type A and B training were automotive mechanics,
cabinet making, radio and television repair, and brick and stone masonry
and tile setting. Type C programs included primarily training in the needle
trades and in radio and television servicing and repair.
Commercial vehicle driver training and peace officers' training had the largest
number of course completions. Other trade and service occupations with ap-
proximately 1700 or more graduates included automotive mechanics, commercial
food trades training, electrical wireman training, carpentry, and radio and
television servicing and repair.
Included among the occupations in which shortages were identified and having
fewer than 1000 trainees last year were sheet metal work with 951, drafting
with 904, machine shop work with 834, and diesel mechanics with 217. A
shortage of upholsterers was indicated, but no training program for this vo-
cation was in operation although some upholstery instruction may have been in-
cluded in cabinet making.
Like student enrollment, the number of units allocated for industrial edu-
cation has varied considerably during the decade. Until 1956, when the general
continuation and business education programs were transferred to business,
distributive and cooperative education, unit allotments rose steadily, climbing
from 383 in 1950 to 577 in 1955 for an increase of 50 per cent. Much of this
growth may be attributed to a steady rise in vocational business education
enrollments although evening trade extension classes increased their numbers
as well. Practical nursing education and technical education are also a part
of industrial education. The units allotted to these instructional areas
have simply been outlined in Fig. 16. Hence, the allocations shown refer
primarily to the number of units used for trade training.
In 1957, this figure was 417. In 1958 and 1959 it rose to 464 and 476 re-
spectively, but declined to 446 in 1960. The drop, however, was more apparent
than real. Total unit allocations have risen steadily since 1957, reaching
a high of 520 in 1959 and 1960. The decrease in 1960 applied only to the
number available for trade training. Because of the growth of practical
nursing education and the expansion of technical education in 1959 and 1960,
PRACTICAL NURSING & TECHNICAL EDUCATION
1950 1952 1954 1956 1958 1960 AO A- &- LW* AWOU LV LW" &a- AVW
1951 1953 1955 1957 1959
NWber of Units Granted for Industrial Per Cent of Increase In Unit Allooations fopr Z
INneatiLo, bolumive of Praetleal dustrial Eduation, Raolusive of Praoti el n-ursi
rling mand Teohbaeal Edoeatioa, 1950- and Toolemo ml Ednatlon, 1950-1960.
FIG. 16 NIiBWER AND PER CET OF INCREASE IN UNITS ALLOCATED TO INlIDTRIAL EDUCATION,
ECLUIVB OF PRACTICAL NURSING AND TCICAL EDUCATION, 1950-1960.
fewer units were available for use in trade training. This situation was
not improved by the "freeze" as Fig. 16 shows.
Trade Education Clubs
High school students enrolled in Type A and B day trade preparatory courses
or in part-time cooperative classes providing training in trade or industrial
occupations may become members of their local Trade Education clubs. TEC
clubs are designed to accomplish the following purposes: (1) develop character,
citizenship, scholarship, and competent leadership; (2) develop an under-
standing of individual trade and industrial occupations; (3) strengthen the
confidence of club members in themselves and stimulate respect for their
chosen occupations; (4) develop an appreciation of the value of skill and
technical knowledge; (5) emphasize the importance of general education in
occupational training; (6) develop understanding in others of the importance
LO *. VA ...-
*ol *0:*. : : .
I/ 4;!! A^^^^Au-:^
of trade, industrial, and technical education; and (7) plan and participate
in worthy civic projects designed to improve the school and community.
There is no national federation of TEC clubs. However, a number of states,
including Florida, have state organizations with which local clubs are en-
couraged to affiliate. During the 1959-1960 school year, twelve clubs having
142 members were associated with the Federation of TEC Clubs of Florida.
As industry develops in Florida, industrial education is helping to meet the
present need for trained workers and is trying to anticipate future require-
ments. Nearly two-thirds of the counties have trade preparatory or trade ex-
tension programs, or both, providing training in a variety of crafts and
related occupations for adults and high school students. Unit allocations
have reflected program growth and the redistribution of services among the
respective vocational sections. An increasingly large proportion of units,
however, are being absorbed by expanding programs of practical nursing and
technical education while trade training demands are also increasing. To
promote further interest in industrial education among high school students,
local TEC clubs have been organized which affiliate with a state federation
designed to accomplish a similar purpose.
VI. TECHNICAL EDUCATION UNDER THE NATIONAL DEFENSE EDUCATION ACT
A 1959 survey of approximately forty types of industries, services, wholesale
and retail trade establishments, governmental agencies, and military in-
stallations in seventeen counties showed that the supply of technicians must
more than double during the next three years if the projected requirements of
these employing agencies are to be met.
Electronic technicians were in greatest demand. Nearly 4400 were employed,
but 3000 more were needed almost immediately. Additional shortages were
identified in the areas of drafting technology, mechanical technology,
electrical technology, construction technology, and aeronautical technology.
Though a specific need existed for further chemical, agricultural, metal-
lurgical, civil, and instrument technicians, the demand was not so pressing.
However, it was believed that more than 900 additional civil engineering
aides would be needed in 1961 and that the demand would continue to increase.
Technical Education Under Title I of the George-Barden Act
Technician training is also a part of industrial education. Until recently
it was provided entirely under Title I of the George-Barden Act. The training,
however, often consisted of relatively short courses including some related
knowledge and involving a relatively low level of technical responsibility.
Under Title I, 4260 technicians received such training between 1958 and 1960.
Of this number, 1570, or slightly over one-third, were enrolled in Type A, B,
or C preparatory programs. The remaining two-thirds were already employed
and took extension courses to upgrade themselves in their vocations. Nearly
half (46%) of the preparatory students and over half (53%) of the extension
enrollees took electronics technician training courses, while approximately
one-fourth (23%) of the preparatory trainees and 16 per cent of the extension
students enrolled in communication technician classes such as telegraphy and
radio and telephonic communications. Most of the remaining preparatory students
were trained as air conditioning, engineering, laboratory, instrumentation,
and oil and gas heating technicians. Extension courses were offered in con-
struction, engineering, and design technology, and for laboratory technicians,
cost estimators, highway engineering aides, and oil and gas heating technicians.
Technician Training Under NDEA
In 1958, the National Defense Education Act was passed. One purpose of the
act was to provide more fully for the training of highly skilled technicians
needed in defense and related industries and services. Two kinds of technician
training are offered under its provisions. These are preparatory training
lIt should be noted that Title VIII of the National Defense Education Act, which
provides for the training of technicians, is identical with Title III of the
and evening extension training.
Type A and B preparatory programs include high school students who meet the
same eligibility requirements and follow the same type of instructional pro-
gram as pupils enrolled in other industrial education classes. Type C pre-
paratory classes enroll post-high school students who meet the same age re-
quirements and follow a training schedule similar to that established for
Type C day trade preparatory classes. Extension training, on the other hand,
is available for technicians who are already employed and who want additional
instruction in areas related to their jobs.
To qualify for training as highly skilled technicians, students are expected
to furnish evidence of their ability to profit from the instruction. Such
evidence usually consists of the results of appropriate interest and aptitude
tests and previous school and employment records.
At present, technical education is provided in regular, comprehensive, and
technical high schools, in vocational schools, and in junior colleges. Type
A, B, and C preparatory curricula are available in the following areas:
Air Conditioning & Refrigeration Technology Instrument Control Technology
Chemical Technology Mechanical Drafting & Design
Electronic Communication Technology
Industrial Electronics Technology
The numerous extension courses offered in 1960 are included in the following
Aerodynamics Industrial Materials and Processes
Chemical Processes Machine Design
Electrical Circuits Manufacturing Analysis
Electronic Circuits Metal Processing
Engineering Mathematics Production Planning and Control
Preparatory and Extension Enrollments and Areas of Training
In 1959, approximately 2650 students enrolled in preparatory and extension
courses under NDEA. Six in ten of this number were preparatory students and
the remainder were in extension classes. Over nine in ten of the preparatory
students were post-high school, Type C enrollees. Fifty-six per cent of all
preparatory students studied electronics and another 30 per cent enrolled in
drafting classes. The balance, in equal proportions, took classes in electrical
and chemical technology.
Almost eight in ten (78%) of all extension trainees studied electronics while
another 17 per cent were in electrical technology classes. The remaining 5
per cent took courses in photography and drafting. Hence, three in four of
all trainees studied electronics or electricity, one in five emphasized
drafting, and 4 per cent received training in chemical technology.
Hh i EXTENSION |
ma0O r U IrUfS iM RiLLED IN NDEA TEHICIUAN TAUIG PROGMS,
Er Xns" OF PrGROMS, 1959-1960
In 1960, enrollment reached the 6000 mark with the students almost equally
divided between preparatory (52%) and extension (48%) programs. Three in one
hundred of the preparatory group were Type A and B trainees while ninety-
seven in one-hundred were in post-high school programs.
A total of 103 of the 108 gW PER CEN
high school students ex-
pected to become elec- --
tronic communications tech- T -M & PMA_ XMW
nicians while 1064 of the -- iTYPE C PRWaIPUER
Type C enrollees, or one-
third of the total, were __40
also training for this vo-
three in ten were taking ao
training classes and 0
nearly one in five (18%) C = IND PR=D uKa EL C OTn.
was studying electronic ca T= NE 1XR nRn TE=
or electrical technology. TEl TBE T22M A
The remainder was en- n
rolled in classes for A PEREPAIVAW mP MW NM L C~E AI __
production engineering technicians (8%), mechanical drafting and design
technicians (7%), instrument control technicians (2%), and air conditioning
and refrigeration technicians (1%).
Eight in ten (79%) of the extension
students were taking courses dealing "
with electrical and electronic cir-
cuits while another one in ten (9%) 0o
was studying engineering mathematics.
Five per cent were enrolled in pro- 40
duction planning and control classes
and 3 per cent in machine design. 0 -
The balance studied a variety of
additional technical subjects.
Counties Providing Training, and Unit .- N b E..B IP M N' *.
Fifteen of Florida's sixty-seven
counties include training for highly
skilled technicians in their industrial education programs under pro-
visions of the National Defense Education Act. Seven provide both
preparatory and extension courses, four support only preparatory training
and another four only extension training. Most programs are located in
or adjacent to counties which are highly developed industrially, which
include military installations, or which are centers of scientific and
industrial research and experimentation.
In 1959, a total of ten units was assigned for the training of technicians
under NDEA, but by 1960 the figure had reached thirty-five.
Lower level technician training has been a part of vocational industrial
education in Florida for the past several years. However, only since
1958, with the passage of the National Defense Education Act, has extensive
provision been made for the training of highly skilled technicians. Nearly
six in ten (57%) of all NDEA preparatory students have taken courses in
electronics, electrical, and electronic communications technology, while
eight in ten (83%) of the extension enrollees have been studying electri-
cal and electronic circuits and technology. Other technical areas emphasized
are drafting and design technology, production engineering technology,
and mechanical technology.
PREPARATORY & EXTENSION PROGRAMS
PREPARATORY PROGRAM ONLY
EXTENSION PROGRAM ONLY
COUNTIES PROVIDING TECHNICIAN TRAINING PROGRAMS
UNDER NDEA, 1959-1960
VII. PRACTICAL NURSE EDUCATION
As the population of Florida grows, increased nursing services are needed.
Part of this need is being met by the graduate practical nurse. In addition
to population growth, however, other factors have contributed to the growing
importance of the vocation. Changes in the pattern of living, the popu-
larity of hospitalization insurance, and advances in medical practice have
resulted in a change in the role of the professional nurse. She is responsi-
ble for all details of patient care and is called upon by medicine to assume
many highly skilled and technical responsibilities. Therefore, she has had
to shift some duties to the practical nurse, the person best qualified to
Development of Practical Nursing Education in Florida
In 1950, there were almost no graduate practical nurses in the state. Most
training was provided by private commercial schools which could give class-
room instruction but no hospital experience. By action of the 1951 state
legislature, the State Board of Nursing became responsible for prescribing
appropriate curricula and standards in practical nurse education. As a
result, all private commercial schools were discontinued. Even before 1951,
however, the shortage of institutional nurses had led to the establishment
of three publicly-supported training programs.
In 1951, the Kellogg Foundation began a three-year cooperative assistance
program involving a number of southern states, including Florida. With the
aid of Kellogg Foundation funds, five additional programs were established
and the number of graduate practical nurses began to increase. This small
group was supplemented by nearly 6000 others who had been licensed by
waiver, by passing the licensing examination on the basis of experience, or
by out-of-state endorsement. However, the proportion of LPN's per 100,000
population has been declining as people have retired from the occupation
and the state has grown.
In 1953, Florida had approximately 210 practical nurses for each 100,000
persons, while in 1955 the ratio was 197 to 100,000. These proportions,
however, are based upon totals which include both the active and inactive
group. When the ratio is based only upon active practical nurses, as in
1958, the proportion drops to 174 per 100,000.
In 1955, the training programs of the state graduated 6.2 PN's for each
100,000 persons in the population. Two years later the proportion had
dropped to 5.6 per 100,000, but by 1960 it had risen to 7.0 with the intro-'
auction of new programs and larger numbers of graduates. However, the latter
figure remains somewhat below the national ratio for 1958 and is considerably
below that of the southern region which had 8.3 graduates per 100,000 in 1958.
Most licensed practical nurses are employed in general hospitals, doctors'
offices, nursing homes, and mental and tuberculosis hospitals although some
engage in private duty nursing. The training of practical nurses is a part
of the industrial education program. In 1950, three training centers were
in operation, but the first students did not graduate until 1951. Six ad-
ditional programs began in 1951 and three in 1952 and 1953, bringing the
total in that year to twelve. In 1956 and 1957, five vere added and in
1960 the total was increased by four, raising the number to the present
Kinds of Training Provided and Enrollment Growth
Two types of training are provided, namely, preparatory training and ex-
tension training. Basic competencies required of practical nurses are
obtained In one-year preparatory programs. Evening trade extension courses
offer additional upgrading training for practical nurses who have not bad
formal preparation for nursing and who have been licensed by waiver. The
courses vary In length from ten to forty hours and total approximately 200
hours for the complete series.
ll m' "m 10W low 3m Im RUE
*LI 30 m-Wm -M
Enrollment in preparatory courses increased approximately 430 per cent be-
tween 1951 and 1960. As shown in Fig. 17, it more than doubled between
1951 and 1952, rising from 105 students to 220. Since then it has continued
to climb but at a more moderate pace, reaching a high of 558 in 1960. Pre-
paratory training is also provided in other health occupations, but the
enrollments are not included in Fig. 17 because they are not a part of
practical nurse education. In 1958, for example, a total of 107 dental
assistants and technicians received training, while in 1959 the figure rose
to 170 and in 1960 it was 168.
Extension enrollment has fluctuated considerably during the decade. In 1951,
publicly-supported programs were new and only 151 active practical nurses
(and nurses' aides) were enrolled. Because of the action of the 1951
legislature tightening practical nursing standards and because extension
work in practical nursing was increasingly promoted by the State Department
of Education, enrollment climbed to the 800 level during the next several
years and reached the 1100 mark in 1955. However, these figures include
enrollments in short-term courses for nurses' aides. Since 1956, the re-
spective hospitals have been encouraged to provide their own on-the-job
training for nurses' aides, a policy which was uniformly adopted in 1959.
Since 1957, enrollment in practical nurse extension courses has tended to
stabilize at a figure somewhat in excess of 400 students annually. Part of
the enrollment decline from previous years is due to the elimination of
nurses' aide training and part to the decreasing number of active PN's who
have not taken refresher courses. At present, extension work is offered in
many of the same counties annually. Hence, the same groups are benefiting
from a variety of types of supplementary training while nurses in other
counties are not being reached.
Extent of Programs and Factors Hindering Expansion
Sixteen counties, containing over three-fourths (77.2%) of the state's
population, provided programs of practical nurse education in 1960. Half
that number, with half (49.6%) of the population, had both preparatory and
extension programs. Six of the remainder had only preparatory courses and
two provided only extension training. Preparatory programs were available
in counties containing two-thirds of the people and extension courses in
those with over six in ten of the population.
One of the difficulties involved in the further extension of practical nurse
training opportunities is population distribution. Although three-fourths
of the counties are without training facilities, they contain approximately
one-fourth of the population. Hence, it is difficult in these counties to
find hospitals which are conveniently located and which are large enough to
provide adequate training facilities.
EXTENSION & PREPARATORY PROGRAMS
PREPARATORY PROGRAMS ONLY
HlilllhlII EXTENSION PROGRAMS ONLY
COUNTIES PROVIDING PRACTICAL NURSE
At present, two training programs are being administered by junior colleges,
but the courses do not carry college credit. Experiments are under way in
two rural areas. In one, an itinerant teacher provides hospital instruction
and supervision in two small hospitals. When the instructor is not present,
students are under the supervision of a staff member of the respective
hospitals. In the other, students affiliate with a large hospital in
another city to gain experience not available in the smaller institution.
The number of units allocated to practical nurse education has, of course,
increased as the program has grown. The greatest number have been allotted
for preparatory training, but at least one each year has been used for the
support of extension courses. In 1951, a total of four units was assigned.
A year later the number had more than tripled, and in 1953 it reached fifteen.
In 1954, a total of twenty was used and the figure had almost doubled by
1960 when thirty-nine were assigned.
Publicly-supported programs of practical nurse education developed during the
past decade. The three preparatory programs operating in 1950 have grown
to twenty-one in fourteen counties containing two-thirds of the state's
population. Preparatory enrollment is four times that of 1951 and extension
courses are providing supplementary training for active licensed practical
nurses, but population growth and retirement from the vocation are taxing
the supply of licensed personnel.