• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Letter of transmittal
 Acknowledgement
 Background of the curriculum...
 List of participants
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Gainful employment
 Women and youth in the labor...
 Job opportunities and requirem...
 Personal appearance and develo...
 Job applications
 Work relationships
 Money management
 Bibliography
 Back Cover














Group Title: Bulletin
Title: Orientation to the world of work
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00080853/00001
 Material Information
Title: Orientation to the world of work a suggested guide
Series Title: Bulletin
Physical Description: vii, 143 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Division of Vocational, Technical, and Adult Education. -- Home Economics Education Section
Publisher: State Dept. of Education,
State Dept. of Education
Place of Publication: Tallahassee FL
Publication Date: 1969
Copyright Date: 1969
 Subjects
Subject: Vocational education -- Curricula -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Home economics -- Study and teaching -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 140-143).
Statement of Responsibility: Division of Vocational-Technical and Adult Education, Home Economics Section.
General Note: "March, 1969."
General Note: "This guide has been compiled to help teachers and school administrators to understand, plan, and implement programs to acquaint young people with the world of work and the personal characteristics that will help them succeed in their career choice. While the guide was designed for the use of home economics teachers ... young people with many different interests could profit from this orientation."--P. 1.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00080853
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - AHQ5983
oclc - 21321339
alephbibnum - 001631189

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page i
    Letter of transmittal
        Page ii
    Acknowledgement
        Page iii
    Background of the curriculum guides
        Page iv
        Page v
    List of participants
        Page vi
    Table of Contents
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Introduction
        Page 1
    Gainful employment
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Women and youth in the labor force
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
    Job opportunities and requirements
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
    Personal appearance and development
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
    Job applications
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
    Work relationships
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
    Money management
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
    Bibliography
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
    Back Cover
        Page 147
        Page 148
Full Text
MARCH, 1969


aHUMTOTKI T TE


A SUGGESTED


'V


A


GUIDE


I,


Is '


I


STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
TALLAHASSEE FLORIDA
FLOYD T. CHRISTIAN, Commissioner of Education


-


75G-5


ER


kD


Dc


BULLETIN


WmmD I WYO





BULLETIN 75G-5


19IER1NT1K TU


UIIE


*ERDFEi(1


A SUGGESTED


GUIDE


DIVISION


VOCATIONAL *
AND ADULT


CARL W. PROEHL


TECHNICAL
EDUCATION


Assistant Commissoner


HOME ECONOMICS SECTION


FRANCES CHAMPION,


OF


MARCH, 1969


Director









STHE FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY
S' TALLAHASSEE 82306
October 2, 1968
SCHOOL OF HOME ECONOMICS
DEPARTMENT OF HOME ECONOMICS EDUCATION

Dr. Carl W. Proehl
Assistant Superintendent
Division of Vocational, Technical and
Adult Education
State Department of Education
Tallahassee, Florida 32304

Dear Dr. Proehl:

Persuant to the terms of Project No. 569-18, five state
curriculum guides are herein submitted for your approval and
publication. The guides are divided so that curriculum
suggestions for training are clustered in subject matter
areas; namely, 1) Orientation to the World of Work, 2) Cloth-
ing, Textiles, and Home Furnishings Services, 3) Food Ser-
vices, 4) Child Care Services, and 5) Homemaker Services.

The guides are not completely comprehensive in their
coverage nor are they the ultimate in sophistication but
they should assist a teacher with planning meaningful and
sequential learning experiences for entry into the world of
work. Since a paucity of printed materials in the area of
gainful employment in home economics seems to exist, numerous
teaching aids as well as suggestions for subject matter content
have been included in the appendix in order to offer as much
assistance as possible to the teachers.

It is anticipated that these guides will assist with the
inauguration of new programs and strengthen existing gainful
employment classes in home economics in this State as well as
in the other areas of our country.

Sincerely,


Agns F. Ridley, Associae Professor
Home Economics Education








Acknowledgments


The State of Florida is most fortunate to have the

services of a large group of well-informed, professional

home economics teachers. Without their cooperation in

the classroom, the purposes of a curriculum guide would not

be realized. Nineteen teachers were most diligent in their

efforts to produce Guides that could serve as bases for

curriculum development in the various areas of gainful

employment in home economics. To these teachers should be

extended sincere appreciation for their contribution.

Not only does the State of Florida have numerous out-

standing teachers but it also has distinguished leadership

in Dr. Carl W. Proehl, Assistant Superintendent, Division

of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education, State Department

of Education who is largely responsible for the growth of the

occupational focus of home economics in the State of Florida

Miss Frances Champion, Director, Home Economics Education,

State Department of Education, has given her full support to

this three-year project. Miss Allie Ferguson who was

Occupational Specialist when the project was approved has been

a constant source of encouragement and direction for the Guides.

To the other members of the State Department of Education,

Home Economics Section, the consultants, the graduate students

and the secretary we are most grateful for their valuable contri-

butions.


iii













Background of the Curriculum Guides in

Gainful employment in Home Economics



This Guide was developed in partial fulfillment of the

terms of State Department of Education Grant No. 569-18,

July 1, 1968 June 30, 1969, under the direction of the

Principal Investigator, Dr. Agnes F. Ridley, Associate

Professor, Home Economics, The Florida State University.

During the summer, 1967, a Seminar on Gainful Employment

in Home Economics convened on the campus of the Florida

State University for the purpose of educating secondary school

teachers and county supervisors on research, current literature,

methods and teaching aids related to gainful employment in

home economics. Seventy invited participants and twenty-

three guest speakers were involved as active participants

and as spectators in learning during the three-weeks period.

During the school year, 1967-68, a course on methods

and materials for gainful employment in Home Economics was

given in five centers in various parts of the State. About

sixty-five teachers and county supervisors were enrolled

in the class which was extended over the school year.

Seventeen of the nineteen teachers involved in the production









of the Guides had attended both the Seminar and had been

enrolled in the class. (Report of Phase II describes both

the Seminar and the class in detail.)

The five curriculum guides which were produced in

three weeks are not considered the ultimate in sophistication

nor do they cover every aspect of gainful employment in

home economics. All teachers, supervisors, consultants and

others were most diligent in their persuit of excellence

therefore, all mistakes and omissions can be assigned to


Agnes F. Ridley












FLORIDA CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR ORIENTATION TO


THE WORLD OF WORK


List of Participants


Director:

Co-directors:


Participants:













Secretary:


Dr. Agnes F. Ridley, The Florida State University

Mrs. Ava A. Gray, University of Arkansas
Mrs. Jeanne H. Brinkley, Occupational Specialist

Mrs. Catherine P. Flanegan, Graduate Assistant,
Home Economics Education, School of Home
Economics, The Florida State University
Mrs. Meredith B. von dem Bussche, Graduate
Assistant, Home Economics Education, School
of Home Economics, The Florida State University
Mrs. Joyce W. Williams, Research Assistant,
Home Economics Education, School of Home
Economics, The Florida State University
Miss June L. Woodyard, Graduate Assistant,
Home Economics Education, School of Home
Economics, The Florida State University

Mrs. Shirley A. Gurney















TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page

LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.............. ................ ii

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.......................... ...... ....iii

BACKGROUND OF THE CURRICULUM GUIDE..... .............iv

LIST OF PARTICIPANTS.........,......................v

INTRODUCTION Letter to Home Economics Teachers.......l

Concept I Gainful Employment.........................2

Appendix
A. Pretest for Unit
B. Job Titles in Gainful Employment
C. Plus Values of Work
D. Employment in Major Occupational Groups
1940 1963
E. Illustrative Social Changes, et al
F. Hand-Out
G. Lesson Plant Gainful Employment
H. Bulletin Boards Don't Just Howl About
Your Problems
I. Bulletin Board: Feather Your Nest Wisely
J. Bulletin Board: Today's Showers Grow
Tomorrow's Flowers

Concept II Women and Youth in the Labor Force.......24

Appendix
A. Resource Unit
B. Home Economics Education Where We Are
C. Charts Women in the Labor Force
Every Third Worker is a Woman
D. Absence on the Job
E. What I Want From a Job
F. Supplementary Lesson Plan
G. Is There A Place for You?
H. A Look Into the Future


vii









Concept III Job Opportunities and Requirements...... 54

Appendix
A. Be The Best
B. Wanted for Employment
C. Landing a Job
D. Outline for the Study of an Occupation
E. Facts About Jobs
F. Outline for Vocational Information
G. Some Statistics on Vocational Education
H. Number of High School Graduates
Percent of Population
Retention Rates in Grades
I. Some of the 30,000 Occupations in the
United States
J. Bulletin Boards Job Opportunities Will
Increase Fastest in Occupations Requiring
the Most Education and Training

Concept IV Personal Appearance.......................76

Appendix
A. Self Inventory
B. Bulletin Boards Can You Fill These Footsteps?
C. Bulletin Boards See Yourself as Other See You
D. Personal Appearance Pointers
E. Bulletin Boards Are You Ready for Employment?
F. Bulletin Boardt 8 Steps to Beauty
G. Quiz: How Does My Posture Rate?
H. Transparenciess Posture

Concept V Job Applications.,,........................92

Appendix
A. Introduction to the World of Work
B. Mental Abilities Chart

Concept VI Work Relationships...................... 112

Appendix
A. Personality Traits and Jobs
B. Transparencies
C. Bulletin Board: Key to Good Work Relations
D. Lesson Plan: Relationships in the World of
Work

Concept VII Money Management.....,,,................136

BIBLIOGRAPHY....................................... 140










Dear Home Economics Teachers

This guide has been compiled to help teachers and school
administrators to understand, plan, and implement programs
to acquaint young people with the world of work and the
personal characteristics that will help them succeed in
their career choices. While the guide was designed for
the use of home economics teachers, it does not limit the
information solely to occupations using home economics
knowledge and skills. Young people with many different
interests could profit from this orientation.

In planning programs, we encourage you to consider the folloowings

1. Plan carefully with your administrators and guidance
personnel and solicit their support and advice.

2. Form an advisory committee as soon as your plans are
formulated.

3. Acquaint yourself as thoroughly as possible with the
job opportunities in your community and with the
career information available in your guidance
counselors' office and school library.

The degree of success you may expect in teaching gainful
employment classes will be influenced by your understanding
of the possibilities for employment for your students.
The advice of an advisory committee will aid you greatly
in this understanding. Remember that your enthusiasm and
example will be your greatest assets in putting this program
across.

For additional information on initiating an Orientation to
the World of Work course and on any extra financing you
may require, contact the Director of Home Economics or
the Occupational Specialist, Home Economics Section, Florida
State Deapartment of Education, Knott Building, Tallahassee,
Florida 32304.

Best wishes for a successful and stimulating experience.

Sincerely,


The Guide Committee









Orientation to the World of Work

Concept: Gainful Employment

Generalizations:

1. The gainful employment program in home economics contri-
butes to the employability of youth.

2. The gainful employment program in home economics benefits
the school and the community.


OBJECTIVES I CONTENT


To analyze the gain-
ful employment pro-
gram in home eco-
nomics.


Individual and mechanical arts, agricultural
courses, business education courses, dis-
tributive education courses.
1. Provide job training for students.
2. Lower drop-out rates.
3. Provide terminal education.
4. Acquaint students with world of work.











Students' Questions:

1. What is the gainful employment program?

2. How does gainful employment benefit the student and the
nations economy?

3. What job training is available through the gainful
employment program?


LEARNING EXPERIENCES


Pretest for Unit


Bulletin board showing:
1. President Kennedy bringing the idea
before the nation (1963).
2. Jobs for which this course prepares
students.

Discuss the introduction, adoption, and
role of the Vocational Education Act of
1963.


Acquaint students with other vocational
programs in the school

List contributions that vocational and
technical training have made to the economy
of the nation.
List contributions that the gainful employ-
ment program can make to the school, the
students and the community.


* _


RESOURCES


I


See Appendix A.



Education for A Chang-
ing World of Work.


Bulletin of the
National Association
of Secondary School
Principals.
or
Secure a copy of Voca-
tional Education Act
of 1963 from U.S.
Office of Education.

See Appendix E







I


To identify job
titles and descrip-
tions of jobs avail
able.














To compare the
labor force of
yesterday to today.


See Appendix f "Job Titles in Gainful
Employment."
















See Appendix D

Today, over 10 million young workers between
16 and 24 are in. the labor force but 3 million
of these have not completed high school and
are working at unskilled jobs.











As a technological economy expands, the largest
increase in jobs will occur in occupations
that require the most education and training.
Technology has created an unemployment rate of
6 percent and 18 percent of this group is
out-of-school youth. As technology destroys
jobs, it also creates new ones; however, the
newly created jobs are not likely to be filled
by the displaced workers unless they have the
educational potential for the new job.


CONTENT


OBJECTIVES






RESOURCES


LEARNING EXPERIENCES


I


List job titles that are available through
gainful employment and discuss job descrip-
tions.

Make a survey of home economics related jobs
which are available in your area. Committee
of students develop the survey form and
compile information to present to class.







Study graphs comparing figures representing
this year with earlier figures.
1. Number in the labor force.
2. Number of youth in the labor force.
3. Number of women in the labor force.

List implication of the increasing numbers.

Discuss how today's accelerating and changing
technology has placed a greater emphasis on
education and training than ever before.
Include creation of new jobs through techno-
logy.

Film: Automation. Explores problems connec-
ted with the revolutionary development of
automation.




Bulletin Board. See Appendix F. and G.










Supplementary Lesson Plan


Bulletin Board Ideas


Ridley, pp. 133-134,
101. (Copy in Appendix)
B
















Florida State Employment
Service










Automation Available
from Educational Films,
Florida State University
84 minutes, would require
2 class periods for
viewing.


Venn.


pp. 18-20.


Technology and You,
16 mm color, 13 min.




Appendix H.

Appendix I, J, K.









A. Pretest for Unit


1. What do you plan to do after graduation?

2. If you get a job, how much do you think you will be able
to earn?

3. How much training will you need for the job?

4. Who will train you?

5. How much will the training cost if you must pay for it
yourself?

6. What chances for advancement are there?

7. How many years of your life do you think you will work?

8. How many children would you like to have?

9. Do you think wives should work?

10. Are women considered to be equal to men? Give reasons.

11. Could you live on your income if necessary?

12. If you were hiring people for this job, describe the
type of person you would hire.

13. Are there more married or unmarried women workers in the U.S.?

14. Has your mother worked? Is she working now?

15. Do you think it is hard to work and take care of a family?

16. Do you feel that women with small children should work?

17. What does your father think about women working?

18. What fringe benefits would you like to have if you work?

19. What protections do workers have (laws)?

20. What does status mean to you?

21. How can one plan for success in the world of work?








APPENDIX B

JOB TITLES IN GAINFUL EMPLOYMENT


Child-Care


Principal
Cook, Dietitian
Maintenance Worker
Bus Driver
Nursery School Helper
Teacher
Babysitter

Food

Managers, Department Heads
Dietary Workers, Aides
Dietitian
Supervisor, Director
Multiple Services
Route Salesman
Salesperson, Cashier
Secretary
Cooks, Assistant Cooks
Bakers
Hostess
Waitress
Salad Maker
Kitchen or Food Service Helper
Dishwasher
Maintenance Helper
Sandwich Maker
Cleaning Boy, Maid, Porter

Housing and Home Furnishings

Interior Decorator or Designer
Florist
Displayman, Artist
Manager, Assistant Manager
Supervisor
Sales Representative
Floor Covering Consultant
Salesperson
Estimator
Installation Men
Multiple Services
Cutters and Assemblers


Housing and Home Furnishings

Refinisher
Seamstress
Deliveryman, Boy
Presser
Draperyman
Floral or Flower Arranger
Table Girl
Cleaning Person
Designer Craftsman
Upholsterer

Clothing and Textiles


Plant Foreman
Manager
Supervisor
Buyer
Tailor
Multiple Services
Week Worker
Service Worker
Fitter
Seamstress
Processors, Spotters
Piece Workers
Salesperson
Delivery or Route Man
Stock Girl or Worker
Clerk
Counter Girl, Marker
Presser, Finisher
Dry Cleaner
Shirt Operator
Washer, Wash Man
Maid





G. PLUS VALUES OF WORK


GENERALIZATION


1. One's work expands
the social values
of the individual.


TEACHING AIDS


Social Valuess

Rectitude rightness of principle of practice


Respect -


for work itself no matter how menial
for the merits of work
for human dignity (of other workers)
self esteem
self respect leads to respect of others


Enlightenment knowledge about past
present and future relative to
problem solving
decision making
money management
expanded knowledge to include things
cultural; music, art, theatre, literature

Power Ability to make decisions which affect
one's self

Independence only way to become independent
from parents is to be able to support
one's self

Education introduction to world of work as
sell as world of ideals

Skills development of marketable skills changes
perception of self development of
manual skills changes attitude toward
education---
development of speech skills
development of mental skills
development of social skills


Flannel Board

1. Use outer 1/3
of half circle.






Economic Security improved training can help
students progress up economic ladder
Minimum wage jobs can be stepping
stones (rung in the ladder)


Affection work contributes to ability
to give and receive love
acceptance by peers and teachers
funds for clothing, grooming, fun
bolstering sense of belonging
widening of environment job serves
as meeting place for new acquaint-
ances.


2. Add second 1/3
of circle.


2. One's work has
positive influence
on one's family.


3. One's work contri-
butes to the better-
ment of the community
as a whole.


Well Being ability to earn a living
contributes to other social values.

Social Values learned from work influence
family ("I, too, can become")

Ability to earn reaches far into the future
for families
--Ability to give rather than to receive
--Invigorates potential for growth
--Meaning more than "success"
--Develops family solidarity


Values learned from work bring about 3. Add last segment of
involvement in civic and community affairs circle.
release of moneys spent on welfare and
crime to be used to improve society
through research, services, etc.


With marketable skills students can acq uire plus
values of


Love and








D. Employment


by Major Occupational Groups

1940 and 1963


Number (000 omit Percent Dist

Major Occupational Groups 1940 1963 1940 1963

Total Employed 45,166 68,809 100.00 100.00

Professional Workers 3,345 8,263 7.4 12.0

Farmers and Farm Managers 5,144 2,396 11.4 3.5

Proprietors, Managers and Officials
(except farm) 3,749 7,293 8.3 10.6

Clerical and Kindred Workers 4,612 10,270 10.2 14.9

Salesworkers 2,905 4,356 6.5 6.3

Craftsmen, Foremen and Kindred Workers 5,056 8,925 11.2 12.9
Operatives and Kindred Workers 8,631 12,506 19.1 18.3
Service Workers 5,570 9,031 12.3 13.1

Farm Laborers and Forement (4848) 3,090 2,219 6.8 3.2

Laborers (except farm and mine) 3,064 3,551 6.8 5.2


Sources Estimates for 1940 are derived from decennial data of the U.S. Bureau


of the Census. Data for 1963 was obtained from Table
February 1964 issue of Employment and Earnings.


A-19 of the





E. Social Changes


Personal Needs


Responsibilities of the Vocational Counselor
____ ____ ____ ____ I-


to the individual


to the community


1,Rapid technological Adaptability; accept stimulate and encour- affect changes in
change new learning experiences age development of school curriculum!
for individual flex- critical thinking; ac- help teachers see how
ibility quisition of new know- they can best fulfill
ledge and skills; their role.
awareness of sources
of job information


2. Increased specializa- evaluation of values, Provide counseling Provide parents with
tion; intensive train- interests and abilities services and infor- information concerning
ing for many jobs development of specific nation at the right students' abilities and
skills time (soon enough and capabilities;
often enough)
Encourage industry to
provide accurate job
information


3.Increased job common- Good general education Emphasize importance
ality'; (difficult to background ( 3 R's) of liberal educational
distinguish yourself background
and advance)


4.Greater complexity of Acquisition of good Help set realistic Work with peer groups
the social world; more social skills; (under- goals based on know- (direct them to role
demands on the individ- standing of differen- ledge of personal models)
ual. tiation of roles and characteristics, the
knowledge adequate for social world and the
resolving role con- world of work.
flicts)









5. Change in basic
structure of society
(mobility, urban-
ization, anonymity
in work and personal
life)


6. Social revolution-
greater emphasis on
civil rights


7. Greater role of
government (social
security, federal
aid programs)


Develop and maintain
strong personal iten-
tity


Encourage individuals
to understand their
own drives and motives


I I


Knowledge about per-
sonal rights and how
to obtain them


Provide information abo
for learning about civi
cedures


I 4 I


How to be
citizen


a "good"


Awareness of oppor-
tunities offered by
government


Provide information to
know" (sources of infor
programs, how to get in
correctly fill out forr


Stress to parents the
need for stable family
environments

Inform parents of
"helping" agencies



ut educational opportunities
1 lwa and justice pro-


keep citizens "in the
nation about government
formation, how to
s)






F. HAND OUT

Through gainful employment classes, home economics has the opportunity

to serve our society by providing students with the type of education which

can best serve both the individual and society.

Gainful employment in home economics is an important part of the school

curriculum due to the following conditions in our society today:

1. The dual role of women. An ever increasing number of women are

filling the role of wage earner as well as homemaker.

2. The decrease in need for unskilled workers. As our technology

advances, fewer unskilled workers will be employable, whereas the demand

for skilled workers will increase.

3. Growth in the service occupations. Among skilled workers, the

demand for employable persons in the service occupations has increased and

many of these occupations are directly related to home economics.

A. A steadily increasing number of families are willing to

pay for and use the services of trained persons to perform household

tasks.

B. Since women are assuming the dual role of homemaker and

wage earner, they often need persons to assist them with care of the

home, with clothing maintenance, with meal preparation and service,

and with the care of children.

C. Due to longer life expectancy, more elderly people need

trained persons as companions, shoppers or housekeepers.

D. An increasing proportion of individuals and families get

their meals in public facilities, away from home.

4. The unserved needs of youth. A number of young people in our

schools today are not receiving the type of education which best fits their

abilities and needs for the future.






THE FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY 1-
SCHOOL OF HOME ECONOMICS
DEPARTMENT OF HOME ECONOMICS EDUCATION


G. LESSON PLAN

Title: Gainful Employment

Objectives:

To develop an understanding of the gainful employment program in home
economics.
To recognize changes in the labor force.
To gain an understanding of the job titles and descriptions of jobs
available.
To correlate students' experiences and skills learned in general home
economics with specific employment in the world of work.

Generalizations:
The gainful employment program in home economics contributes to the
employability of youth.

Learning Experiences:

I. Introduction:
Begin class today by introducing the concept of "gainful employment
in home economics." The concept will probably be best understood by
comparing "home economics for homemaking" and "home economics for
employment." (See attachment.) Use the chalkboard or a handout for
making this comparison.

II. Discuss the introduction, adoption, and role of the Vocational
Education Act of 1963. (See attachment.)

III. With the aid of the home-made filmstrip projector, consider the needs
satisfied by gainful employment. (See attachment.) This might also
be presented on flipchart, acetates, or-the chalkboard.

IV, Have students make a survey of jobs using home economics knowledge
and skills available in your area. If time does not permit, teacher
could provide class with this information. However, under any
circumstances, have class first think for themselves of all the
possible jobs available.

V. Discuss how today's accelerating and changing technology has placed
a greater emphasis on education and training than ever before.
Include creation of new jobs through technology.

VI. To evaluate the students' understanding of the gainful employment
program, have students list contributions that the gainful employment
program can make to the school, the students, and the community.

Visual aids: Bulletin board "Is There a Place for You in our World of Work?"

References: "Pilot Training Programs in Home Economics," American Vocational Assn.
"Orientation to the World of Work."
Bulletin of the National Association of Secondary School Principals,
Vol. 48, No. 296.





ATTACHMENT

American Vocational Association, "Pilot Training Programs in Home Economics."

As an increasing number of women enter wage earning occupations and at
the same time continue to meet the responsibilities of homemaking, home
economics education finds its responsibilities and obligations amplified.

The proficiency with which women perform as homemakers and wage earners
will help determine the quality of their homes and family life and their
effectiveness in the world of work. Many of them need help to meet successfully
the challenge.

New legislation has committed home economists to an understanding of
what has been done and what can be done in this area. In this light, various
programs of practical interest are presented here.

In general, the wage earning programs differ from those designed for
homemaking preparation. The former places emphasis on developing particular
or related skills to a marketable point and on development of personal qualities
and attitudes important in securing and holding a job.

The establishment of such a program can be justified only when evidence
determines that there are job opportunities. While all communities need
programs for instruction in homemaking, wage earning programs should be created
only when the job market requires additional workers.

Training for wage earning occupations which utilize home economics knowledge
and skills may be offered in any of the following settings: (a) upper secondary
grades, (b) a post-high school program serving high school graduates and drop-
outs in area schools or vocational-technical schools, (c) the junior or commu-
nity college, and (d) adult education programs.

As programs for gainful employment are determined by available occupational
opportunities and the needs and abilities of the persons to be trained, there
will be great variation in the programs offered in the different states.

IT NEEDS TO BE DONE

It needs to be done because some 26 million young people will enter the
labor force between 1960 and 1970 a far greater number than any this country
has had to educate, train,and fit into the labor market during a comparable
length of time.

Yet, we are confronted by the disturbing estimate that one-third of
the young people beginning work in the 1960's may not have completed high school.

It needs to be done because of the nearly 12 million boys and girls in
high school today only 1.8 million are receiving any kind of vocational education.
(About half of this number is in home economics!) Yet, out of every ten fifth
graders today, only six will finish high school and only two will go on through
college.

It needs to be done because of the increasing population in urban areas
which has created a special need for preparation for employment.

It needs to be done because when potential high school dropouts are
offered a program preparing them for wage earning they usually stay in school.






17
It needs to be done because currently there is a very high ratio of
unemployment, especially in the group of young people under 25 years of age.
Furthermore, boys, as well as girls, can benefit from training available in
home economics programs at the 13th or 14th year or in adult classes. Students
might be prepared to earn a living as a: food service worker in a hospital,
cafeteria, or industrial plant; school lunch manager, interior decorator's
assistant; laboratory tester; visiting homemaker; management aid in low rent
public housing project; companion to older persons; family dinner service
specialist, or homemaker's assistant.

It needs to be done because vocational programs are not preparing people
for a sufficient variety of jobs. For example, the Panel of Consultants on
Vocational Education found in one study that the ratio of vocational enrollment
to the subsequent occupational distributor in wholesale and retail trade was
one to 200, and in manufacturing and construction, 2 to 444.

It needs to be done because unskilled jobs today account for only five
per cent of all United States employment. During the 1960's, an average of
some 2.5 million jobs will be eliminated each year by automation.

It needs to be done by home economics because 84 per cent of the women
and girls receiving federally aided vocational training in 1960-61 were enrolled
in home economics classes.

It needs to be done because a 25 per cent increase of women workers is
expected by 1970. Although the population growth is expected to provide
sufficient numbers of persons to meet future labor requirements quantitatively,
the complex nature of many jobs will place new emphasis on the quality of the
labor force. The demand will be greatest for those possessing the needed
training and experience.








ATTACHMENT

Bulletin of the National Association of Secondary School Principals, Vol.
48, No. 296, p. 33.


HOME ECONOMICS FOR HOMEMAKING


HOME ECONOMICS FOR EMPLOYMENT


Total curriculum is broad in scope Curriculum is based on the job
and content, analysis of a specific occupation.



Attitudes and behavioral development Emphasis is placed on the develop-
necessary to strengthening family ment of attitudes and behavior
well-being are stressed, necessary to secure and hold a job.



All students are accepted because Qualities and aptitudes are the
of the belief they can benefit from basis for selecting enrollees in
the program. a specific job-oriented program.



Marriage and maintaining a home are Programs are established only
common to practically everyone, so when evidence shows sufficient
programs are justifiable in all job opportunities are available
communities, for placement of trainees.



Counseling is an aid but not necessary. Vocational counseling service is
necessary to help the teacher in
determining needs, employment
opportunities, and placement of
students in the most satisfactory
program.



Advisory committees have not been a The establishment of a local
"recommended" requirement, advisory committee helps
determine work available and
to advise and evaluate the
specific emphasis of the training
program.







ATTACHMENT

It is important that we look upon work not solely as a means of
supplying our physical needs but rather as satisfying many needs in many
different ways. Cleeton (1) has outlined these as follows:

(1) The need for food, air, and moisture.
(2) The need for bodily well-being.
(3) The need for activity.
(4) The need for mating.
The love of family, a sublimated form of sex drive, which is
made evident by providing food, clothing, housing, etc., for
them, is the most powerful force in human motivation.
(5) The need to share thoughts and feelings.
(6) The need for dominance.
Even though some jobs do not provide for control over other
persons, mastery of machines and materials is another form of
dominance.
(7) The need for self-determination.
(8) The need for achievement.
(9) The need for approbation.
Every person is pleased when he, as an individual, his
actions, his work, or the things he has produced are admired
by others.
(10) The need for ideation.
Man is, basically, a thinking animal and has a natural
curiosity about things going on about him.







20
4. Some masculine views of women's role as related to:

Administrative ability -- women not innately endowed.
Careers -- if real ability,they should go ahead; however, women
should be homemakers first.
Length of time they will be employed -- shorter time than they think.
Absentee problem -- greater with women workers.

5. Problems related to women's changing role

Girls confused about what their role will be need help and guidance.
Flexibility and adaptability required by changing world needs to
be developed.
Lower status of "homemaker role" and over-emphasis on materialistic
aspects of home and family life need to be critically examined.
Continuous education for wife-mother-employed person role needs
to be developed.

Learning activities and experiences:

1. Read a statement concerning the "role of women", discuss meaning,
define role.
2. Write two lists on chalkboard -- Then and Now. List characteristics
of women's role. Discuss major changes and ask students to write five
reasons for the changes. Read aloud, combine.
3. Make a bulletin board on the roles of women at the turn of the century,
present time, and in 1970 or later.
4. Show charts based on statistics in Appendix.
5. Clarify vocabulary -- status, industrial revolution, credit, mass
media, role.
6. Discuss what statistics say to students as the women of 1970.
7. Discuss "How old will you be in 10 years? What will you be doing?
Do you believe that women's place is in the home? How many of your
mothers work?"
8. What conclusions do you draw from the things we have said about women?
9. Explain the meaning of "Wives carry three jobs."
10. Interview several working wives and mothers. Find out why they work and
how they feel about working.
11. Interview several husbands of working wives and mothers. Find out their
attitudes about their wives working.
12. Discuss the challenges facing the high school girl today. Have a minister
or counselor speak about the problems of a rapidly changing world and some
possible solutions.




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Orientation to the World of Work

Concept: Women and Youth in the Labor Force

Generalizations:
1. The occupational revolution has resulted in large numbers of
women and youth entering the labor force.
2. Lack of mobility and stability of women and youth in the labor
force contributes to an intermittent work pattern.
3. Current technological changes require training and retraining
in order to hold a job.
4. Problems created by work often affect the decision of work.


OBJECTIVES CONTENT


To identify problems
particular to women
who work.


At one time, women worked only when it was an
economic necessity. Today, women work for
this reason and many others. Women once felt
that they could not run a marriage and a
career successfully but today, women can have
both due to labor-saving devices and the pro-
duction of goods and services being done out-
side of the home.

There are 26 million working women now com-
pared to half that number before World War
II and 30 million are predicted by 1970.
Forty five per cent of all women between 18
and 64 are working now and by the 1970's,
fifty per cent of this group will be em-
ployed. Sixty per cent of all working women
are married and 1 out of 3 married women is
working.











Students' Questions:
1. How have women's roles changed since the turn of the century?

2. What are the characteristics of women in the labor force?

3. Why do women work today?

4. What are the particular problems of single and married women
workers?

5. What does the employer expect of his women employees?




LEARNING EXPERIENCES RESOURCES
I~~ | Ilo


Compare the role of women at the turn of th
century with the role of women today.

Write two lists on chalk board. Then and
Now. List characteristics of women's roles
Discuss major changes and reasons for chang



Draw papers from a hat revealing statistics
in regard to women in the labor force.

Talk by vocational guidance supervisor
to talk regarding characteristics of women
in the labor force

Collect information from women's magazines,
1960-68, in school library about working
wives and mothers. Use Readers Guide to
locate.


Opportunities in Cloth-
inAg, p. 9. Appendix A.

Illinois Teacher, Vol. 2.





Opportunities in Clothing,
p. 9.

See Apendix B.
Consult Readers Guide
in school library for
articles on working wives
and mothers.


Appendix C.








OBJECTIVE ONTEN


To state orally
what is expected
of women employees
in dress, attitude,
etc.


A girl who starts to work at 18 may work 44
years if she remains single or 35 or more
years if she marries but remains childless.

Problems of married workers:
1. Maintaining the home
2. Providing special and regular activities
for all family members
3. Marketing and preparing meals
4. Providing for care of children
5. Planning specific time to be with children
6. Planning time for self-improvement and
relaxation
7. Remembering husband (;)
8. Transportation
9. Appropriate clothing for job

Problems of single workers:
1. Finding a place to live
2. Adapting to a new community
3. Maintaining good health
4. Making new friends
5. Improving self
6. Developing a financial plan

The employee represents a cash investment to
the employer. Therefore, he has a right to
expect the following things from his employees:
1. Efficiency and cooperation
2. "A day's work for a day's pay"
3. Knowledge to perform the job
4. Promptness
5. A desire to learn
6. Neatness and accuracy in work


OBJECTIVES


CONTENT








LEARNING EXPERIENCES RESOURCES
4


Interview working women to determine problems
associated with the dual role of working
and keeping house. Committee of students
develop a form for recording interview
and compiling findings.

Invite a panel of working women to visit class
and discuss possible ways of solving these
problems. Committee of students compile
information from interviews.

Class analyze problems and possible solutions
to identify which could be alleviated through
education.

Prior to class discussion, students compile
list of ways to meet problems of single
workers. Make class compilation as each
is discussed.






Have a carefully selected employer come to
class and speak on what he expects of an
employee. Students compile a list of
questions to send to employer so that he will
have a structure for his remarks.

Hold mini-dramas showing special problems
employers encounter in supervising women.
Analyze as a group why such problems exist.


Management Problems
of Homemakers Outside
the Home











Readers Guide in school
library for references
to single workers.







Opportunities in Cloth-
ing, p. 26

See Appendix D


See Appendix E


RESOURCES


LEARNING EXPERIENCES








I .


To list reasons
why women work.















To analyze the im-
portance of youth
in the labor force.


Age and marital status, education, race or
ethnic origin and place of residence will
determine whether or not a woman works,
Women work:
1. To earn additional spending money (high
school girl)
2. To put their husband through college
3. To support a fatherless family
4. To help husband or relative in their
business
5. To make use of a saleable skill (a
teacher, doctor, etc.)
6. To support herself only
7. To provide extras for her family

By 1970, 23 percent of the 86 million in the
labor force will be workers under 25. These
young workers have accounted for nearly half
of the labor force's growth during the 1960's.
In the 14-24 year old group, the percent of
increase in the labor force between 1960 and
1970 will be 45 percent.

Presently more than 1 million young men and
women have left school and are not at work.
At any given time, 30 percent of the high
school dropouts will not be employed and even
the high school graduates have an unemployment
rate of 15 percent.

A problem concerning youth with jobs is under-
employment; young people with high school
education find themselves "stuck" in dead-end
jobs which cause frustration and a high rate
of job turnover (job turnover rate for
workers under 22 is the highest rate.) Youth


CONTENT


OBJECTIVES








LEANING XPERENCE RESURCE


Make a list or reasons why people work,
placing particular emphasis on women and
youth.

Talk to parents to find out why they chose
the particular job and location in which
they are now employed.









List characteristics of today's youth. Studs
the special problems associated with youth
in the labor force.

Special student report on drop-outs; who,
why, when; problems.

Debate: Education is the best answer
to unemployment.






Students write original short stories
about youth who left school and the
effect of this decision on the family
happiness, life success.


Womanpower, pp. 19-21.
Appendix F














Occupational Informa-
tion for Florida
Schools, p. 7.


Man, Education and
Work, pp. 12-23.


RESOURCES


LEARNING EXPERIENCES

















A Resource Unit


AN INTRODUCTION TO THE WORLD OF WORK


A Resource Unit in Preoccupational Exploration of
Wage-earning Opportunities and Related Information
for Secondary Homemaking Students





Prepared by
Jean Farmer, Amphitheater High School, Tucson, Arizona
and
Xenia Haushalter, Catalina High School, Tucson, Arizona


for

Home Economics Workshop
under the direction of
Miss Rua Van Horn and Mrs. Lois Farone

TEACHING HOME ECONOMICS CLASSES ORIENTED
TO WAGE EARNING













Arizona State College at Flagstaff
in cooperation with
Arizona State Department of Vocational Education
Summer, 1965








PREFACE


More rapidly than we realize, the role of the American woman has changed,
and the change will continue at an even faster pace in the future. This pattern
has been brought about by the vast socio-economic changes that have taken place
in our country.

Such factors as more goods and services that free women from time-consuming
household chores, increased education, longer life span, earlier marriages, com-
munity activities which decentralize families--all contribute to the fact that
more and more women are entering the labor force and remaining in it for a
longer period of time.

Girls growing into womanhood now will have to learn to carry two roles.
According to statistics, the average girl in school today will work in wage-
earning occupations for twenty-five years of her life. In order to carry the
dual role of wage-earner and homemaker, girls should have training in the art
and science of homemaking as well as training for the world of work. They
should be made aware of the importance of maintaining the stability and soli-
darity of the home while fulfilling this dual role.

Lee A. DuBridge in Autonm Jion and Technological Change explains our techno-
logical society by the following: "...the multiplicity of electronic devices
now used to control industrial processes, to monitor the quality of the product
and adjust the machine and correct for deviations, to compute in advance the
rate at which materials and parts of particular types should be fed into a com-
plex assembly line, and to continue the process of taking over more and more
of the repetitious processes formerly done by hand--and performing them with a
delicacy, precision and speed that human hands could never match." Advances
such as this have resulted in employers looking for people with a higher level
of education and more sophisticated skills to perform the more cognitive work
functions.

Change is the order of the day, and workers must realize that continuing
education is a necessity if one is to remain employed. A man's occupation in
American society is his single most significant status-conferring role. Whether
it be high or low, job status allows the individual to form some stable concept
of himself and his position in the community.

Eighty to ninety percent of the juvenile cases in our courts come from the
ranks of the unemployed youth. The woman in her forties, her children grown,
feels the need for new identification found only in holding a job. Our modern
economy hires only more mature people, and since adults themselves measure status
in terms of jobs, the job becomes the symbol of acceptance into the adult world.
This crucial importance of the job to the individual in American society must be
borne in mind in a discussion of man, his work and his education, and is a chal-
lenge to prepare our youth for this society.

Recent federal legislation has been trying to fill the gaps in our educa-
tional system by underwriting, sometimes completely, sometimes partially, the
needs in our educational program for training for wage-earning occupations.





32



Of great significance is the Vocational Education Act, Public Law 88-210,
which provides monies to be matched by the state to be used in setting up classes
based on home economics skills and oriented to wage earning, pre-employment
training.

Amphitheater and Tucson District One do not offer such classes at the present,
and it is our intention to work out a resource unit to cover one semester (or it
may be broken up and parts used as the occasion arises in homemaking) to fam-
iliarize our students with the world of work, and aid them in making plans to
utilize their full potential in a suitable job.

Perhaps too, this will start the ball rolling for initiating somewhere in
the community, classes for training students in wage-earning occupations based on
home economics skills.







PART I

Introduction:

"The changing role of women in American society may be the mark of the
twentieth century--greater even in impact than the technology-automation
revolution.

"Early marriages, better health of women, greater longevity of women,
mobility of population, shortages of skilled manpower, shifts from rural to
urban living and changing concepts of man have all combined to produce a new
society, a new education and newer roles for women." *

Generalization:

When girls and young women see the changing pattern of the role of women,
when they understand the reasons for these changes and what is predicted for
their futures, they will be more likely to think seriously about their own re-
sources and begin to plan their lives in a more realistic way.

Behavioral changes:

1. To know about the role of women of a generation ago and to understand
the socio-economic factors that were responsible for creating this role.
2. To realize what changes have brought about the role of today's women
in relation to status, home, marriage and children, and wage-earning
occupations.
3. To grasp the significance of changes that are predicted for the next
ten years, and the way in which they may affect the role of women.
4. To realize that many men do not agree with the present trend of
thinking concerning the triple role of women.
5. To know that many problems relating to the changing role of women
remain to be solved.

Learnings:

1. Role of women, past generation

As related to status
Wife-mother role was most respected
Women felt it was their place to perform duties of this job to
the best of their ability

As related to the home
Women performed all tasks of the household--cook, laundress,
seamstress, gardener, housekeeper
Few electrical appliances





* Conference Proceedings, Department of Vocational Education: A New Look at
the Vocational Purposes of Home Economics Education, Urbana, University of
Illinois, 1963








As related to marriage and children
Women married later, more maturity brought more stability, women
less self-centered

As related to wage-earning occupations
Few had jobs and most wanted homes and the responsibility of
nurturing a family

2. Role of women today

As related to status
Status has been raised
Women seeking equality with men as a result of "women's rights"
movements, urbanization, industrialization, more education
Women gained entry into most employment fields, voting rights,
increased pay, better working conditions

As related to the home
Search for self-fulfillment, not tied to homes, more goods and
services available to the homemaker today give her more free
time, the use of credit facilitates purchase of equipment

As related to marriage and children (see Appendix for effects of
changed status on marriage)
Women now play three roles--wife, mother, wage-earner (to meet
financial needs or gain self-satisfaction)
More decentralization of families, more divorces, earlier
marriages coupled with lack of maturity for role to be
assumed

As related to wage-earning occupations (see Appendix for statistics)
Most women work at some time in their lives
Increase in employment of older women

3. Role of women in the future

As related to status
There will be a conscious effort to raise the status of all women
Status of persons in service jobs will have to be raised in order
to recruit

As related to the home
Increased goods and services will free women even more

As related to marriage and children
Need to work to strengthen family ties
Earlier marriage increasing
Must learn to live a life that is fair to herself, her family,
her career and her community responsibilities.

As related to wage-earning occupations
Three million more women will leave housework for work outside the
home by 1970
Need for more training, fewer unskilled workers
Will spend more years in the labor force than their mothers








4. Some masculine views of women's role as related to

Administrative ability -- women not inately endowed
Careers -- if real ability they should go ahead;
however, women should be homemakers first
Length of time they will be employed--shorter time
than they think
Absentee problem -- greater with women workers

5. Problems related to women's changing role

Girls confused about what their role will be --
need help and guidance
Flexibility and adaptability required by changing
world needs to be developed
Lower status of "homemaker role" and over-emphasis
on materialistic aspects of home and family life
need to be critically examined.
Continuous education for wife-mother-employed person
role needs to be developed

Learning activities and experiences:

1. Read a statement concerning the "role of women",
discuss meaning, define role.
2. Write two lists on chalk board --Then Now List
characteristics of woman's role. Discuss major
changes and ask students to write five reasons
for changes. Read aloud, combine.
3. Make a bulletin board on the roles of women at the
turn of the century, present time, and in 1970 or later.
4. Show charts based on statistics in Appendix
5. Clarify vocabulary--status, industrial revolution,
credit, mass media, role.
6. Discuss what statistics say to students as the women
of 1970.
7. Discuss "How old will you be in 10 years? What will
you be doing?
8'. What conclusions do you draw from the things we have
said about women?
9. Explain the meaning of "Wives carry three jobs."
10. Interview several working wives and mothers. Find out
why they work and how they feel about working.
11. Interview several husbands of working wives and
mothers. Find out their attitudes about their wives
working.
12. Discuss the challenges facing the high school girl
today. Have a minister or counselor speak about the
problems of a rapidly changing world and some
possible solutions.







B. HOME ECONOMICS EDUCATION--WHERE ARE WE AND A
LOOK TO THE FUTURE*

Elizabeth Simpson, Acting Chairman
Department of Vocational-Technical Education
College of Education
University of Illinois, Urbana

Challenges in curriculum development in home economics are at all levels:
elementary, junior high school, high school, post-secondary, adult and professional.
Challenges exist with respect to all aspects of our program: pre-vocational,
home and family living, occupational, pre-professional, and teacher education.

At the secondary level, there are three major purposes which home
economics serves: (1) education for homemaking and family life, (2) education
for employment in occupations involving home economics knowledge and skills,
and (3) pre-professional education. These three purposes are related to terms
of program content. There is a large body of knowledge and skills common to
all three aspects, as well as certain knowledge and skills unique to each.
Uniqueness is largely in terms of applications and depth rather than in the
nature of the content. The fact of the large body of common content has
important implications for curriculum development.

At the post-secondary level, technical education programs are developing
rapidly. Home economics has exciting opportunities here but we need to
respond with greater alacrity and a keener sense of commitment.

In adult education, we find some of our chief challenges in the plight
of the poor. Consumer education--nutrition--improvement of home environment--
child care and guidance--management of resources. These are the areas of need.
These are the areas where we can serve.

Keeping in mind program purposes in home economics education, it might
be helpful to view directions of,program offerings in terms of six major
bases for curriculum decisions:

.. conditions of society and related needs
.needs of students
.needs related to the local situation
.. developments in the education field
.. content and organization of the subject field, and
.. philosophical bases

Let us look first at some social conditions that suggest needs for
home economics educations.


*Prepared for presentation at First Annual Vocational, Technical and Adult
Educators' Conference, Home Economics Session, Jacksonville, Florida, August
7, 1968.







No attempt will be made to delineate all of the social conditions with
implications for programs in home economics, but suppose we look at some. In
particular, the statistics concerning women in the labor force suggest challenges
to curriculum-makers in home economics.

.. Women make up over 35 per cent of the total labor force.

.. Approximately 40 per cent of all women in the United States work
outside the home; the projection for 1970 is. 50 per cent.

.. This figure is now upped to 50 per cent if you omit the "young mother"
group.

.. Working mothers represent 38 per cent of all the women who work
outside the home.

.. Half of America's women bear their last child at about age 30 --
hence with present life expectancy, they have over half of their
adult lives free of childbearing and with the possibilities for
gainful employment.

.. In 1965, eight per cent of the children of working mothers were
expected to take care of themselves while their mothers were at work.

.. The one-parent family is a sharp reality of the American way of life.
In 1965, more than six million children, nearly one in ten, were
living in one-parent homes. Since then, the number has increased
with startling rapidity. A large proportion of these children have
working mothers trying desperately to provide for their care and needs.

.. Women tend to receive lower income and lower earnings than men.

.. Working wives tend to spend more for clothing, beauty care, and
other grooming than do non-working wives.

What are some of the implications of the foregoing statistics? Certainly,
a need for education for the dual role of homemaker-wage earner. Programs for
youth and adults are needed to increase employability and improve family living
through preparation for the dual role. Such programs should meet the following
criteria:

1. Emphasize human relationships in both family and employment situations;
principles of management, including decision making, goals, values, standards,
and nature and use of resources; budgeting and consumer education; physical well-
being through nutrition, adequate housing, sanitation, safety; personal qualities
related to employability; and child care and guidance.

2. Give attention to the various roles in which individuals function
and help students learn to meet the sometimes conflicting demands of these roles.

A social fact of our times is the great awareness of the needs of the
disadvantaged. Emphasis on the areas of home economics mentioned, particu-
larly emphasis on child development, care, and guidance, might do more to
break the poverty cycle in many families than instruction of any other nature.







38
We can no longer assume that appropriate ideas about parental responsibility
for children will be learned as a matter of course in the home. Too many
evidences in our society indicate abdication of this responsibility, or
attempting to fulfill it by over-indulgence.

Our concern for young people means concern for all young people. A
program is bound to look good if its students are selected for their
intelligence, high level of motivation, and potential for placement in high-
status jobs. But we cannot judge the success of an educational endeavor in
the simple terms of where a student stands at the end of his training program.
The only moral basis for evaluation is the value that the educational
experience adds to the individual--where he stands after a training program
in relation to where he stood at its beginning. This concept is an essential
one for the educator who is interested in serving all youth.

All youth are not being served. About 28 per cent of youth drop out of
high school before graduation.

The needs of dropout-prone youth, the alienated, and the disadvantaged
offer challenge as we develop curriculum materials in home economics. In
home economics,we are concerned with the vitally important matters of everyday
living, with interrelationships, with decision-making, with the values that
motivate in all of the practical areas of life. Through our work with young
people in these areas, we have a remarkable opportunity for helping them
improve the quality of living for themselves and for their families-to-be.





APPENDIX C


WOMEN IN THE LABOR FORCE

UNDER 25
YEARS


1o0


80


60


40


20


0


_-& I I


1950


1960


Source: American Women, page 11.


EVERY THIRD WORKER IS A WOMAN
(Percent of all workers)


8o% 78% 76%
-- 73$g
68% 66%
Men





0omen 24% 27% 2% 4


20%. 22/ -


.y"tU


1j.ou


Source: American Women, p. 28.


25-44 YEARS








45 YEARS AND
OVER


I I


I I


1920


1930


194


I I


- ^-V


7.v


thst.)i.970





Appendix


Statistics for Part I
and Part IV


1960


Every third worker is a woman, or 1/3 of all workers are women.


Two-thirds of all women
workers are married.


workers are married,


or two out of every three women


1960 Age of women 1962 Women Predicted 1970
in the population Ages % in Labor Ages % in Labor
Force Force
14-17 9% 14-17 4% 14-19 28%
18-24 15% 18-24 17% 20-24 45%
25-34 17% 25-34 17% 25-34 37%
35-44 19% 35-44 23% 35-44 45%
45-54 12% 45-54 22% 45-54 55%
55-64 12% 55-64 13% 55-64 43%
65 & over 14% 65 & over 4% 65 & over 11%


Figures given by Miss Rua Van Horn

April 1964 Womens Bureau. Major occupations in which women are employed


Clerical . . . . . . . .
Service (not domestic) . . . .
Operatives (manufacturing) . . .
Professional and technical . . .
(includes 1 million teachers, 6%)
Household workers . . . . .


. . . 31%
. . . 15%
. . . 15%
. . . 13%

. . . 10%


Median annual income fulltime women workers, a
Median income fulltime household workers .


11 fields


. . . $3,446.00
. . . 1,107.00


Median annual income fulltime domestic non-white.. ... .. 962.00


Average age of all women workers 41 years
Average age of all women workers 10 years ago 35 years


QQ 0

YOH-




41
Appendix




D. Absence on the Job


1. How many days have you been absent this semester?

2. What were your reasons for absence?





3. If you earned $1.25 an hour, and were absent for an 8-hour day, how
much would you:

a) Lose in a day?

b) Have lost for the semester so far?


4. If you were an employer, how would you feel about people who were absent
from work very often?








5. Could your attendance record be improved?


Signature






ACTIVITY SHEET NO. 5

WHAT I WANT FROM A JOB

DIRECTIONS: Study the left-hand column and then rate yourself in the center columns as to how important each
job reward is to you. Then study the right-hand column to find what types of jobs are most likely to offer you the
job rewards you want.



JOB REWARDS VERY MODERATELY NOT TYPICAL JOBS
IMPORTANT IMPORTANT IMPORTANT



Some professions; large businesses and
1. High income farms; high level sales work; profes-
(over $15,000 a year) sional athletics; some jobs in entertain-
ment



2. Middle Income Most professions and businesses; skilled
($5,000$15,000 a year) trades; some sales and technical work;
jobs in entertainment



3. Modest or lower income Clerical; unskilled and most semiskilled;
(below $5,000 a year) some sales



Government work; jobs with large corn-
4. Security panies having employee benefit plans;
jobs in unionized industries




5. Risk or adventure Prospecting; overseas construction or
other jobs abroad; starting a business



6. Interesting end varied re-
Investing end vaed re- Jobs in advertising, entertainment; most
sponsibillties; chance to
exprcis initiative and professions; some outside sales; some
exercise Initiative and skilled trades
skilled trades
make own decisions



7. Short hours Most factory and routine office jobs





8. Vacations Longest in government work of all kinds




9. High standing in the cm- Jobs requiring high degree at skill and
High standing n the co- education
education
munity







WHAT I WANT FROM A JOB

Continued


VERY MODERATELY NOT
JOB REWARDS IMPORTANT IMPORTANT IMPORTANT TYPICAL JOBS



Policemen's and firemen's jobs; armed
10. Early retirement forces; some dangerous jobs, such as
mining



1. Lght, easy work Routine assembly lobs; light sales jobs;
many clerical jobs



Surveying; forestry; wildlife manage-
12. Outdoor work meant; greenhouse, nursery, landscape
work; tree surgery; orchard and farm
work



13. Pleasant working con- Modern factories; offices; supermarkets;
editions air conditioned stores


Repair work of most kinds; sales work;
4. y o installation of machineryor appliances;
14. Variety some office lobs, especially In smaller
companies



Routine filing jobs; assembly jobs; rou-
15. Same duties every day tin farm lobs
tine farm jobs



Tailoring and dressmaking; cabinet
16. Chance to be creative making and carpentry; jobs In commer-
cial art, advertising, publishing; interior
decorating



17. Chance to be alone Forestry; some laboratory jobs; job as
night watchman



Sales work; social service work; recep.
18. Chance to be with people tionist jobs; jobs as doctor's or den.
tist's assistant




44



F: LESSON PLAN: Women and Youth in the Labor Force Judy H. Dowell

Objectives:

To understand the nature of the problems particular to women who work.
To acquire knowledge of the increasing importance of youth in the labor
force.
To become aware of factors influencing the decision to work and problems
associated with work.

Generalizations:

The occupational revolution has resulted in large numbers of women and
youth entering the work force.
Lack of mobility and stability of women and youth in the labor force
contributes to an intermittent work pattern.
Current technological changes require training and retraining in order
to hold a job.
Problems created by work often affect the decision to work.

Learning Experiences:

I. Introduction: "The striking characteristic of the United States
labor force of this century has been its stability as a proportion
of the population. This has been true in spite of the great changes
in the internal composition, that is, the declining male partici-
pation and the rising female participation rate. Some circumstantial
evidence suggests that the drop in participation rates among men
over 45 years of age may be due to some extent to the entry of better-
trained women who are available at somewhat lower wages. Also, the
decline in the participation rates of young males and their
longer school attendance, might be related to this same competition,
or perhaps to the help of working women in paying the cost of their
education. Despite the many statistics which can be found in this
area, there are many fictitious statements concerning women that are
in the labor force."

II. Have class divide themselves into six groups and each group draw from
a hat a paper on which has been written a fictitious statement con-
cerning women that are in the labor force. Each group will have a
short conference and then present their statement and discussion to
the class. (See attachment for fictitious statements.)

III. Have teacher lead a general discussion on why women work. (See
attachment.) As important points are brought out, write them on
the chalkboard.

IV. Using graphs portrayed on a flipchart (see attachment.), compare
the percent of women in the labor force with that at the turn of the
century. Also, using graph, point out the rising need for education
by women of all ages.










V. Invite a small panel of working wives and "non-working" wives to
discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each situation. Have
student be moderator. Have panel mothers formulate their opinions
on the effect of a mother working on:
1. Division of labor of household tasks
2. Psychological effect on the husband
3. Personality and welfare of the children
Be sure to leave time for questioning and discussion.

VI. Estimate the job-related expenses of wives working such as: extra
clothes, transportation, meals, household expenses, increased income
taxes, child care help, beauty care, etc.

VII. Have teacher lead discussion on characteristics of today's youth.
Consider the special problems associated with youth in the labor
force. (See attachment.) To conclude lesson, have students try
to outline a plan for how a youth can meet the future successfully.

Visual Aids: Bulletin board "Women Can Hold Their Own in the Labor Force."
(See attachment)

References: "American Women: Report on the President's Commission on the
Status of Women, 1963."
Kemp, Barbara H. "The Youth We Haven't Served." Office of
Education, 1966.
Turner, Marjorie B. Women and Work. Los Angeles: University
California, 1964.

ATTACHMENT:

Turner, Marjorie B. Women and Work, Los Angeles: University of California,
1964, pp. 8, 20-23, 42-45.

WHY DO AMERICAN WOMEN WORK?
The reasons women work are no more complex than those of men. Women
work to assure physical survival, for personal motives, and because of
external factors. Long has examined these economics and non-economic factors
at some length. He found that marital status, possession of children,
husbands' earnings, and education are more important determinants of whether
women work than mere availability of work or level of earnings. Thus, though
the general reasons for working are the same, certain factors such as marital
status are more decisive in determining whether a woman works than in the
case of a man.

1. Physical survival. Many women who work must do so. Many are
unmarried, with dependents, either children or close relatives, and
thus are forced to work. In 1963, 4.6 million women in the labor
force were heads of families.
2. Personal motives. Like men, a woman may work to be able to consume
or display, to achieve wealth or status, to avoid boredom or lonliness.
She may work because she enjoys her work, or she may simply desire
to earn at least minimum social security benefits.








A study by the Survey Research Center at the University of Michigan
found that two-fifths of their population reported that both the head of
the spending unit and the wife were covered by Social Security; this cover-
age may have been an important reason for her working. In surveys made by
several unions a quarter of the women members who were married and separated,
or divorced, gave the education of their children as one of their main reasons
for working. It is characteristic of our attitudes toward women that we ask
why she works at all, rather than why she choses one type of employment over
another.

FACT, FICTION, AND HALF-TRUTHS
The National Manpower Council has found ample fiction but little factual
information to characterize women employees further.

A. Fiction: Women are high-cost employees. It is true that when
women are hired for the first time, it may be necessary to provide
separate rest rooms and cleaner, more agreeable working conditions,
or perhaps to reorganize the work in such a way that heavy tasks
can be reallocated. The Council concluded that costs are negligible
in the few cases where they occur. Employers believe costs are sex-
linked when they are more probably occupationally-linked.

B. Fiction: Because of labor turnover of women, investment in their
training is wasted. The grounds for this belief are weak. A study under
auspices of the Social Science Research Council showed that among groups of
men and women comparable in terms of age, marital status, length of time in
the labor force, and migration patterns, in a given period women held about
the same number of jobs as men did. The real point is that American workers,
men and women, are highly mobile, especially in times of high employment.

Further, the SSRS study indicated that job-leaving by men and women is
concentrated in particular occupational groups. Age and length of service
are also significant determinants, for men as well as for women.

C. Fiction: Women do not make good supervisors. Where women have been
utilized as supervisors of men and women, assuming careful selection, adequate
training and the support by their superiors necessary to any effective super-
vision, they have demonstrated their ability to perform this function, accord-
ing to the Manpower Council.

D. Fiction: The low occupational status of women is due solely to the
reluctance of male employers to promote them. On the whole, women are less
desirous of and less well prepared for promotion than men. This situation
may result in part from the pervading necessity of women workers to divide
their loyalties between job and home. Furthermore, the discontinuity of
their work careers often prevents their acquisitions of as much seniority,
experience and skill as men. They also tend to enter occupations offering
restrictions in opportunities for advancement, or to take factory jobs out of
the lines of progression. Sex labeling takes its toll. Women remain un-
prepared for promotion, believing such opportunities are not available.

Moreover, women may fail to consider their attachment to the labor force










a permanent one, regardless of how many years they work. Negro women, who
constitute more than 12% of the female labor force, accentuate the pattern
of low occupational status because of both inadequacy of training and racial
discrimination. Finally, given that nature of the labor market, it must be
expected that untrained men as well as women will continue to fill jobs of
low economic status, when they can find work at all.

E. Fiction: All women share a relatively high sickness rate. Women
as a group show a greater tendency toward work absence than men. Not all
women, however, share the same high illness rate. There are apparently
significant differences in absence rates due to menstruation and illness
among women in white-collar and manual work, women from different racial and
ethnic backgrounds, and older and younger women.

Certainly a high sickness rate is not peculiarly and permanently female.
A Public Health Service study of worktime lost because of illness or injury
between July, 1959, and June, 1960, showed an average of 5.6 days lost by
women and 5.5 days by men. A United States Civil Service Commission study
of sick leave records for 1961 also found little difference between men and
women. What difference exist, mifit be attributible to the fact that women
federal employees are concenti ted in the lowest salary levels, where absences
are more common, to men as well as women.

F. Fiction: Family status is unaffected by a woman's job. Most psycho-
logists and'sociologists have assumed that the status of women workers is more
likely to be a function of their husbands' or fathers' occupations than of
their own, but some believe that married women contribute to the status of
their families in important ways.

For one thing, a wife's earnings will give access to status symbols such
as schooling, housing, furnishings, automobiles, vacations and so on, which
are largely a matter of income. This may be important to the husband,
especially when he is becoming established in a business or profession, or
as a means of obscuring his own lack of financial success. On the other hand,
her working may imply that her husband is not doing well in his work and thus
may lower the family status.

The position the woman holds may have some status implications for her
family. Often, her job status will be lower than her husband's, but the
effect of this may be overcome by the additional income she earns for this
family. On the other hand, she may have a white-collar job and her husband
a blue-collar job. Especially for Negro women has there been a wider range
of occupations open than that available to Negro men.

The labor force entry of more and more middle- and upper-class women
of extensive education probably will bring about the achievement of equal
job status with their husbands. In any case, the wife's participation in the
labor force will remain a powerful determinant of family status.

WHY GAINS HAVE NOT BEEN GREATER
The reasons usually advanced for women's poor showing in the professions
range from cries of discrimination to accusations that American women are









either interested in or incapable of sustained career commitments. Both
factors are clearly involved.

A. Discrimination. It seems likely that discrimination has been a
real barrier to a woman's achievement of a medical education which would
permit her to practice medicine or dentistry. Medical education in the
nineteenth centruy was segregated education; at the University of Michigan,
for example, duplicate lectures were arranged on embarrassing subjects.
Even now, discriminatory quota systems are allegedly operating in many medical
schools.

As recently as 1962, the last legal barrier to equal opportunity for
women in the federal service was removed. With few exceptions, applicants
are now certified without regard to sex. Previously, a study showed that
of the requests to the Washington office of the Civil Service Commission,
941 of the three highest regular grades were for men only. At the behest of
the President's Commission on the Status of Women, the Civil Service Commission
asked that requests for certification of one sex only be accompanied by reasons.
Rather dramatically, the requesting agencies dropped the specification of sex.

Interviews with public employment service personnel, conducted under the
auspices of the Commission on the Status of Women in 1963, revealed that wide-
spread resistance to the employment of women in accounting, engineering,
science and architecture still existed.

B. Characteristics of women. Many people think that the characteristics
of women, or of their role in society, account for their poor representation
in the professions. In their competition for a mate, which comes ever earlier
in our society, women presumably lose their interest in education and in a
career. Eli Ginzberg believes that this may be reflected not so much in grades
as in the selection by women of easier courses in college and in their dis-
inclination to make special investments as serious students. Early childbearing
further diminishes a young woman's interest in or hope for a career. Alva
Myrdal has suggested that marriage represents one of the havens from competi-
tive productivity.

Since work is essentially competitive in business management and the
professions, and since advancement often depends upon the willingness to
travel or to relocate, these occupations may require too great sacrifices
from women who still view work as supplemental to their major responsibilities
of wife and mother. In short, in view of social custom, her own preferences,
and the demands upon her, a woman may simply not aspire to professional status
which requires long years of training in law, medicine or the sciences. The
National Science Foundation fears this condition will continue to inhibit
entry into science, which now virtually requires the doctorate.

Another factor is that young women and even mature women are misinformed
or uninformed regarding the probability of their working. It is possible
that if intelligent young women understood the real world of work and knew
about the women whose lives show that work and home are not necessarily con-
flicting goals, they would become interested in professional careers. Further-
more, as the president of Radcliffe College warns, girls need backing in their








aspirations at crucial times, perhaps as early as the fourth grade.

In any case, the "silent revolution" of the role of women in paid employ-
ment is far from complete. Ginzberg cheers the passing of the old image of
a woman's role as being limited to making an adjustment in marriage. Yet, the
new image is blurred. Early insight regarding the nature of the sex-labeled
world is reinforced by advice from counselors and teachers. Ginzberg believes,
however, that the changing world or work will inevitably have an important
impact on women's pattern of adjustment. Woman will come to realize that she,
like man, lives in a world characterized by opportunity and choice.

ATTACHMENT:

Kemp, Barbara H. "The Youth We Haven't Served", Office of Education, pp. 1,
3, 4, 6.

Who are the socioeconomically handicapped youth of the United States?
In general, they are the children of low-income parents who live in our affluent
society but do not share its benefits. To draw a composite picture of these
young people who are in this condition would be impossible. Each is an indi-
vidual, with his own individual aspirations, capabilities, interests and dreams.
But common to them all and setting them outside the mainstream of American life
is the limitation on their opportunities to develop their potentialities to
the fullest. This limitation is the result of their family income and educa-
tional and occupational background, and, in many cases, of their racial or
national origin. These factors play decisive parts in producing a group differ-
ence. This, in turn, negates the concept of equal opportunities; and the cycle
of cultural, educational and economic deprivation is set in motion.

In spite of our mounting prosperity, the number of families which make
up the world of poverty is declining very slowly. Between 1947 to 1956, when
incomes were growing rapidly and unemployment was low, the number of poor
families in our nation declined from 32% to 23%. During this period from 1957
through 1962, when growth was slower and unemployment was substantially higher,
the number of families living in poverty fell less rapidly to 20% of all families.
There is evidence that in a large proportion of these families poverty is being
transmitted from one generation to the next. Those born into it may never find
their way out unless society breaks the cycle by providing education and employ-
ment and by adopting a more enlightened attitude in human relationships.

Children of poor families of low social status all too often find themselves
rejected by the adult world into which they were born. Frequently, the economic
circumstances of their parents make them unwanted at birth. In some cases, the
fathers desert their families because they are not able to support them adequately
or are unwilling to accept responsibility; in other cases, the fathers remain
as nominal heads of the family but vent their frustrations in what seems to
their youngsters to be harsh or unjust actions. Mothers cannot always give
their children the care and affection they desire and need because the burden
of merely holding the family drains their emotions.

To such young people, the forces of law and order also seem unreasonable.
Innocent wandering and exploration may be mistaken for delinquency and misbe-









havior. Possession of money and visits to stores may be regarded as grounds
for suspicion. School systems have rejected them by failing to plan curricu-
lums and to provide materials which meet their needs and capacities. More
seriously, the community has rejected them by failing to provide enough schools,
teachers, guidance counselors, playgrounds and play space and job opportunities.
Finally, society has rejected them by narrowing their future opportunities and
by thus limiting their aspirations.

Summarized below are some of the adverse conditions which many of our
disadvantaged young people have to contend with, particularly in an urban
setting.

*Overcrowded home conditions which do not permit privacy or personal
development.
*A tendency for them to stay within their immediate environment and thus
remain unfamiliar with areas beyond their neighborhood boundaries.
*Little experience with successful adult "models" whom they can look up
to.
*A scarcity of such things as books, instructive toys, pencils and paper,
and the inability of anyone in the home to explain their use.
*Parents who do not have time or knowledge to teach their children or to
help them acquire information and good experiences.
*A slum environment which lacks variety and stimulation for a healthy life.
*A lack of successful experiences, which conditions them for failure and
demoralizes them to the extent of creating a negative self-image and low
estimate of their own competencies.
*Not enough youth organizations to meet their needs or to which they can
belong.
*A lack of sufficient funds to provide proper dress to meet the exigencies
of weather or teenage fashion trends.
*An education which does not meet their need for occupational training
and frequently seems unrelated to their world.
*Discrimination and segregation, often resulting in feelings of hostility,
humiliation, inferiority, self-doubt, self-hatred, all of which impair
self-development.

With a world of disorganization surrounding them, often living in appalling
conditions of filth, dilapidation, neglect and violence and with few adult
behavior models to emulate, these young people must also cope with the usual
problems of adolescent teenagers.

The socioeconomically handicapped student in the classroom manifests one,
often more than one, and sometimes all, of the following characteristics:

*Low-level reading ability
*Limited formal vocabulary and poor speech construction and diction
*Relative slowness in performing intellectual tasks
*Poor health and poor health habits
*An anti-intellectual attitude
*Indifference to responsibility
*Non-purposeful activity, much of which is disruptive
*Limited experience of the sort schools assume most of their students have





51



had with their families; for instance, contact with social, cultural,
and governmental institutions
*A failure syndrome resulting from apathy and lack of self-confidence.




. 15


Tk, e ea


PI ce


JORIK


WORLD


For


You


In


S


Th e









H:o









Orientation to the World of Work

Concept: Job opportunities and requirements.

Generalizations:

1. Knowledge of possible job opportunities and requirements
contributes to one's ability to make a considered choice
for job preparation.


OBJECTIVES CONTENT

To be able to locate
and identify job
opportunities avail
able in the commun-
ity.


6 Ways of Getting a Job


High school placement bureau or others.
Friends and relatives.
Personal solicitation.
Employment agencies, private and public.
Commercial advertising.
Letters of application.











Students' Questions:

1. What job opportunities are available in the community?

2. What are the various ways of getting a job?

3. What are the methods of locating job leads?

4. How can one determine job requirements?


LEARNING L, ERI ;NCES


I t


Survey community for possible job opportun-
ities. Consult local or state employment
services for additional suggestions.


Obtain resource persons from each of the
areas of greatest need to discuss job
opportunities in their specific areas.

Bulletin board, "You Are Wanted," showing
newspaper clippings from the want ads.

List methods of locating job leads.

Student assignment: Students should start
collecting newspaper articles, magazine
articles, etc. that are concerned with
different occupations and their requirements
This should be kept in a notebook and turned
in at the end of the unit.


RESOURCES


Dictionary of Occupa-
tional Titles.

Local employment agency,
personnel.

Resource people from
community.

See Appendix B.


Six Ways to Get A Job,
pp. 43-51.


See Appendix C.


--*13







OBJECTIVES


CONTENT


To compare the jobs
available in the
community with those
in other geographic
areas.






















To identify job
requirements.


One out of every six jobs in the U.S. is loca-
ted in just three states of the fifty, Calif-
ornia, Texas and Florida.

The United States population has been moving
westward and southward in recent years. Today
industry doesn't have to sit near a coal seam
or where there is water power or a big city.
The-technology of fuel, power, and transporta-
tion is changing that situation.

Some occupations are carried on only in one
community or area.
1. Space research.
2. Mining centers.
3. Chemical and rubber centers.
4. Textile centers.
5. Furniture centers.
6. Steel and automotive centers.
7. Oil centers.





The most desirable jobs in Florida require at
least a high school education. This fact
makes us aware of another important factor
which affects our job opportunities-- EDUCATION.
EDUCATION BROADENS A PERSON'S FIELD OF CHOICE.


_ ___ _I __~I_






LEARNING EXPERIENCES


RESOURCES


Compare job opportunities in relation to
geographic area in the U.S.


With the class, make a list of the various
occupations which are found only in their
area or a few others. What are some indus-
tries which could never locate in your commun
ity? What are occupations which are found
everywhere?


Study occupations which would be suitable
for women. Keep a running list of all
occupations available for women today.

Plan a career day to explore home economics
related job opportunities and job require-
ment of each job.

Each student will make a detailed study of
one job. Have a committee of students
develop a detailed outline to follow.




A Resource Unit
Transparency Originals


i


Changing Education
for a Changing World
of Work, pp. 9-10.


Dictionary of Occupa-
tional Titles lists
17,452 jobs and their
requirements.
See Appendices D, E.
& F.
Appendix G, H, I, J.







OBJECTIVES CONTENT

In order for a man to be well-groomed he
should check the following points:
1. Body and teeth clean and free from odors.
2. Skin clear, not oily, and freshly shaven.
3. Hands have a cared-for-look*
4. Hair neatly trimmed, cleaned, and combed.
5. Underwear clean.
6. Shoes shined.
7. Socks clean and not wrinkled at ankles.
8. Shirt fresh daily.
9. Suit pressed, trousers creased.
10. No spots on clothing~
11. Tie harmonizes with shirt and suit.
12. Clothing fits occasion and is odorless.

Reemphasize points made on appropriate dress
for the job interview and remember that they
apply to appearance on the job.

To compare the Advantages of good posture:
affects of good 1. Gives a feeling of confidence.
and poor posture 2. Builds good health.
on one's appear- 3. Improves speech.
ance. 4. Proper body allignment results in good
visual and physical appearance.
5. Says to others that you care about them.



Good Posture Checkpoints:
1. Weight should be carried on balls of the
feet.
2. Knees should be slightly flexed,
3. Abdomen should be flat*
4. Shoulders should be back,
5. Head held high.
6. Chest held high.
7. Hips should be tucked under.
8. Chin should be at right angles to the neck.
9. Arms relaxed at the sides.







RESOURCES


LEARNING EXPERIENCES


View filmstrip (Grooming for Boys) 'Strictly
Business."

Invite a junior executive or personnel
manager to discuss proper male attire, pro-
per manners and carriage, etc.

Have each student do a self-evaluation and
a follow-up improvement project.





Physical education teacher talk on good pos-
ture and demonstrate ways to improve posture.
Practice posture exercises for a period of
time.

Analyze posture and make suggestions for im-
provement. Construct a posture improvement
plan.

Take snapshots of students in class to show
correct and incorrect posture. Evaluate thei:
posture.

Use a spotlight on a student behind a sheet
to show correct and incorrect posture.
Student should be dressed in bathing suit.
Evaluate silhouette.

Person from modeling agency give talk and
demonstration to class on correct way of
sitting, walking, or standing.


t


Young America Films, Inc.


Call Me Mister, pp. 3-4,
100-193.


Executive Profile, pp.
39-105.

See concept on job
application.

Guide to Beauty, Charm
and Poise, pp. 348-56.

Thresholds to Adult
Living, pp. 118-20.

Charm, pp 3-33.

Executive Profile,pp40-44
Call Me Mister, pp. 355-
358.


Posture on Parade.








I


To list the effects Bodily cleanliness, what you eat, exercise,
of good health sleep and rest and posture affect the health
habits and proper and appearance of teenagers.
diet on one's
energy and appear- Daily care is necessary to maintaining
ance. healthy teeth. Rinse the mouth with water
or mouth wash if brushing is impossible.
Have regular dental checkups.

Irreversible damage can be caused by not
supplying the body with the nutrients needed
by the cells. The objective of losing weight
is to burn off excess fat and not rob the
cells of the nutrients necessary to maintain
body chemistry.


OBJECTIVES


CONTENT








LERIGEPRENE EORE


View filmstrip:
(11 min.)


Improving Your Posture


Quiz on filmstrip Rate Yourself on Posture

Show transparencies on correct and incorrect
posture.

Bulletin Board: "How Do We Rate" use snap-
shots of girls taken on correct posture.


School or community health nurse talks to
class regarding how health habits and proper
diet affect appearance and cleanliness.

Study the relationship of mouth hygiene and
health to grooming. Read "Your Health and
Grooming" in Teen Guide to Homemaking.


In relation to nutrition, emphasize advan-
tages and disadvantages of fad diets; e.g.,
liquid diets, diet pills, etc.


Coronet Films, Inc.












Thresholds to Adult
Living, pp. 105-117.


Teen Guide to Home-
making, pp. 30-47.


Guide to Beauty, Charm
and Poise, pp. 391-408.

Call Me Mister, pp. 359-
375.


LEARNING EXPERIENCES


RESOURCES
















BE THE BEST
by
Douglass Malloch



If you can't be the pine on the top of the hill,
Be a scrub in the valley--but be
The best little scrub by the side of the rill;
Re a bush if you can't be a tree.

If you can't be a bush, be a bit of the grass,
And some highway happier make.
If you can't be a Muskiee", then just be a bass,
But the liveliest bass in the lake.

We can't all be captains, some have to be crew,
There's something for all of us here;
There's work to be done, and we've all got to do
Our part in the way that's sincere.

If you can't be a highway, then just be a trail,
If you can't be the sun, be a star;
It isn't by size that you win or you fail;
Be the best of whatever you are.


(Printed in Planning Your Future, p. 10.)




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OUTLINE FOR THE STUDY OF AN OCCUPATION





I. Use of this occupation to the world

A. Does the product of this work meet a need or a want?
B. Could we do without the services of the worker in this field?
C. About how many workers in the United States are engaged in
this occupation?

II. Duties of a person engaged in this occupation

A, What does the worker do in the course of a day?
B. Do his duties change from day to day, or do they change at
different seasons of the year?

III. Working conditions with respect to hours of work, health, safety, etc.

A. What are the hours of work and the opportunities for vacation and
recreation?
B. Is employment secure and steady, or are there many layoffs?
C. Are the working conditions and surroundings pleasant?
D. Are there any dangers to health and safety?
E. Does the worker do the same thing all day, or is there a variety
of things to do.
F. Does the worker work alone or with other people?

IV. Education and special training necessary

A. How much general education is needed--elementary school, junior
high school, senior high school, or college?
B. Is apprenticeship or trade school training necessary?
C. Is a long period of professional preparation necessary?
D. What schools, if any, offer the special training needed?
E. How much will this training cost?
F. How much time must be spent on the job in order to learn it well?

V. Personal qualifications needed

A. Are any special aptitudes or personal qualities necessary--for
example, aptitude in drawing or music, the quality of patience,
a liking for people?
B. Are there any particular physical requirements, such as good
eyesight, a certain height or weight, or great endurance?

VI. Payment to be expected

A. What are the average yearly earnings of workers in this occupation?
B. At what rate of pay do they start, and what income may they expect
later?









C. Are there provisions for profit sharing, pensions, and sick
benefits?

VII. Opportunities for promotion or advancement

A. To what better positions does the occupation lead?
B. Is the occupation overcrowded?
C. Is the number of workers in the occupation growing or decreasing?

VIII. Workers' organizations

A. Are there organizations, such as unions or associations, to
which the worker can belong?
B. What are the purposes of the organizations and the requirements
for membership in them?

IX. Advantages and disadvantages

A. In finding information about the first eight topics of this
outline, what have you discovered about the advantages of this
occupation?
B., What are the disadvantages of this occupation?


#17 Planning Your Future pp. 125-26


I I I







FACTS ABOUT JOBS

QUESTIONS JOB # 1: JOB #2: JOB #3:



YOUR QUALIFICATIONS AND THE JOB:

1. What special abilities does the job call
for?

2. What education or training does the job
call for?

3. How many years (after high school)
will it take?


4. Can you get the training or schooling
needed in your own town?

Within your own state?


5. Will you need a special license or
certificate?

6. Will you be expected to join a union?


7. Which personality traits are most help
ful for the job?

WHAT THE JOB OFFERS YOU:

8. Does this job call for you to make use
of your special qualities?

9. Will the job give you personal satis-
faction?


10. Is the salary good?


11. Would you be provided with sick bene-
fits, retirement, regular vacations, and
other extra advantages?

12. Are there opportunities for travel or
study in this job?








QUESTIONS JOB #1: JOB #2: JOB #3:



13. Are the chances for promotion good?


14. Will experience on this job help you to
get a better job later?

WORKING CONDITIONS:

15. Will the job require you to meet the
public?

16. Will you be working by yourself?


17. Will you be doing mostly physical work
that requires little thought?


18. Will the work be physically tiring?


19. Does the work have variety?


20. Would you be required to make im-
portant decisions?


21. Will you be working chiefly indoors?


22. Will the work involve any hazards to
your health or safety?

23. Is the work area noisy, dirty, or un-
desirable?


24. Will your hours of work be regular?


25. Will you have to be out of town or
away from home much of the time?


26. What special advantage does this job
have to offer?





































Summarizing your answers

After you have found out as much as possible
about the jobs you think you would like, select
the one you like best and record your findings on
the Occupation Brief on the next page. No doubt
you will find this information very helpful to you in
planning your future. Your answers may also in-
terest some of your classmates. Perhaps you will
want to compare your findings with theirs.


To discuss

Porter has lived on a farm all of his life. He
likes the outdoor life and would like to run a dairy
farm or a chicken ranch some day. His father's


farm in Georgia is small but provides a sufficient
income for the family. Porter has taken several
courses in agriculture in high school and now wants
to go to the nearby state agricultural college for a
couple of years. Porter's father thinks this would
be a waste of time and money. "There's nothing
like practical experience for a farmer, son," he
says. "You should get a job."

What do you think of the advice Porter's father
has given him?

How could Porter find out whether a dairy farm
or chicken farm would be a sensible venture in his
part of the country?


QUESTIONS JOB #1: JOB #2: JOB #3:



ABOUT THE FIELD OF WORK:

27. What are the opportunities for your sex
in this field?

28. Are jobs available in your local com-
munity?

29. Do jobs in this field have periods of
lay offs or reduced hours?


30. Is there a large turnover in this job?

31. Are there demands for workers in this
area during periods of peace as well as
during war?
32. Will the job have a future-a steady or
increasing demand for workers in this
occupation?








F. OUTLINE FOR VOCATIONAL INFORMATION


JOB PROSPECTSs Is there a demand for workers? Is the
prediction for employment in this occupation to
increase or decrease?

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE WORKs What is a typical work day,
week, month or year? What are the things a worker
may have to do in this occupation--the pleasant
things, the unpleasant things, the big and little
tasks, the important responsibilities and the less
glamorous tasks?

QUALIFICATIONSt AGE. What are the age limits for entrance
and retirement?
SEX. Are there reasonable opportunities for both
male and female? Is this predominantly a male or
female occupation? Is there more active demand for
one than the other?
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS: Are there minimum or maximum
requirements for height and weight? If so, what
are they? Are there any other measurable physical
requirements, e.g. 20/20 vision, freedom from color-
blindness, average or superior hearing, physical
strength, depth perception, etc.
INTERESTSs Have there been any vocational interest
tests validated against workers in the occupation?
APPTITUDES: Has there been any research on aptitudes
required, e.g. intelligence quotient, percentile rank
on specific tests of mechanical aptitude, clerical
aptitude, finger dexterity, pitch discrimination,
reaction time, etc.

UNIONSs Is the closed shop predominant? If so, what are
the requirements for membership? Initiation fees?
Dues? Is the number of members limited?

DISCRIMINATIONs Are there any groups discriminated against
by employees, unions, or training institutions?

PREPARATIONt What is indispensable and what is desirable?
What kind of preparation and how much is required to
meet legal requirements and employers' standards?
How long does it take? What does it cost? What
is included? Is elimination high during the training?
What kind of high school or college program should
precede entrance into the professional schools?
What subjects must or should be taken? Where can
one get a list of approved schools? Are there any
provisions made for apprenticeship or other on-the-
job training? Is experience of some kind prerequisite
to entrance. Must one finish the training in order
to derive benefit from it, or is the completion of
a part of the course of any value?









ENTRANCE: How does one go about getting his first job?
Taking an exam? Applying to employers? Registering
with employment agencies? Joining a union? Saving
to acquire capital and opening his own business.

PROMOTIONt What proportion of workers advance? After
how long and after what additional preparation and/
or experience? Are there any related occupations to
which this may lead?

DISTRIBUTION AND NUMBER OF WORKERSt Is there a concentration
of workers in certain areas or are they distributed
over the U.S.? Where? Why? Can a person practice
this occupation anywhere he may wish to live? Do
conditions in urban and rural areas differ? How?

EARNINGSt What are the average figures on earnings by
week, month, or year? What is the range of the
middle 50 per cent? Are earnings better in certain
branches of te occupation or in certain larts of
the U.S.?

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGESs What do workers say they
like best and dislike most about their jobs?
Are hours regular or irregular, long or short? Is
there frequent overtime, night work, Sunday, or
holiday work? Are vacations guaranteed?
Is employment steady, seasonal, or irregular? Does
one earn more or less with advancing age?
Is the working lifetime longer or shorter than
average, e.g., professional athletics?
Are the skills acquired transferable to other occupations?
Is the work hazardous? What about accidents, occupation-
al diseases?
In comparison with other occupations requiring about
the same level of ability and training, in what ways
is this one more or less attractive?








G: SOME STATISTICS ON VOCATIONAL EDUCATION*


During the fiscal year 1967, approximately 7,000,000 persons were enrolled
in vocational education.

The following statistics show the growth in the number of people entering
the program from 1962 to 1967.


Fiscal Year
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967


Total Enrollment
4,072,677
4,217,198
4,566,390
5,430,611
6,070,059
6,880,000 (projected)


The following figures show how the enrollment was distributed:

Fiscal Year 1966
Secondary......... ............... 3,048,248
Post-secondary Schools............ 442,097
Adult Programs....................2,530,712
Youth With Special Needs.......... 49,0002

25.4% of the students in public secondary schools (grades 9-12)
were enrolled in vocational education programs

In the figures below, it can be observed as to what occupational areas
the youth were preparing.

Fiscal Year 1966
Agriculture.................... 907,354
Distributive.................. 420,426
Health.............. .......... 83,677
Home Economics (Homemaking)....l,855,824
Home Economics (Gainful)....... 41,846
Office.........................1,238,043
Technical........................ 253,838
Trade and Industrial...........1,269,051.


* "Vocational Education: The Bridge Between Man and his Work."
United States Government Printing Office, 1968, pp.5.


Washington, D.C.t










H: NUMBER OF


Pop. 17

825,000

1,489,146

2,295,822

2,862,005

3,001,111


HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES COMPARED WITH
POPULATION 17 YEARS OF AGE*


Boys

7,0664

38,075

309,376

898,000


1,129,000


Girls

8,936

56,808

366,528

966,000

1,173,000


% of 17 year old graduates

2


6.4

29.0

65.1

76.7


PER CENT OF POPULATION 5-34 YEARS OLD IN SCHOOL BY AGE, 1965*

This age group makes up 58.1% of the total population


% of age group
70.1
98.7
99.3
93.2
99.4
93.2
46.3
19.0
6.1
3.2


in school


RETENTION RATES IN GRADES, 1965*


% of age group staying in school


5
6
7
8
9
10

12
i2
Actually graduate
College 1st year


100
99.4
98.5
95.4
93.7
87.8
81.0
75.8
71.0
37.8


Digest of Educational Statistics, 1965 Edition, U.S. Department of Health,
Education, and Welfare


Year

1869-70


1889-1900

1929-30

1959-60


1963-64


Age

5
6
7- 9
10-13
14-17
18-19
20-214
25-29
30-34


Grade



































So me of *Ae 3o, oo
Wh -t personal d C
lor ecdA ?
Noew do, cbilittes ;lif
ftisti, Scieft /c,0


fte r
Fee ?


occUpatir;/s I U. S,


tics M7wiAt be rAeded

Mccdalfa/. C/erical


Co pu.tatr ad1 ee ..


For rpanspare.cy/ Discas1io


)








BULLETIN BOARD IDEA


JOB OPPORTUNITIES GENERALLY WILL

INCREASE FASTEST IN OCCUPATIONS

REQUIRING THE MOST EDUCATION AND TRAINING ...


Decline Major No Less More
Occupational Group Change than Average than
______average average
Professional
technical and
kindred workers


Service workers


Clerical workers


Skilled workers

Managers, officials,
and proprietors


Sales workers


Semiskilled workers


Laborers (nonfarm)


Farm workers


Source: Occupational Outlook Handbook, Career Information for
Use in Guidance, 1966-67 Edition, Bulletin No. 1450.
Bureau of Labor Statistics, U. S. Department of Labor.
Chart 7, page. 16.









Orientation To The World of Work


Concept: Personal Appearance and Development.

Generalizations:

1. Being well-groomed results in increased self-confidence and
respect from others.

2. Posture affects appearance and the way clothes fit.

3. Good health habits and proper diet result in energy and
enthusiasm.


- I" -


OBJECTIVES


- -1- ~ -~I,


To illustrate a well
groomed look for the
world of work.


CONTENT


- In order for a woman to be well-groomed the
following rules should be observed:
1. Body and teeth free from odors.
2. Skin clean but not oily.
3. Hair clean and attractively styled.
4. Apparel fits the body and suits the
personality.
5. Apparel is appropriate for business hours.
6. Shoes polished and well cared for
7. Make-up not obvious.
8. Clothing clean, pressed and free from
odors*
9. Underwear fresh daily
10. Hosiery fresh daily and free from runs
or holes
11. Apparel carefully adjusted and supported
by adequate foundation garments.
12. Fingernails of moderate length and neat-
ly polished*
13. Correct posture.










Students' Questions:



1. What is necessary to be well-groomed for a job?

2. What affect does posture have on appearance?

3. How do health habits and proper diet affect appearance?


LEARNING EXPERIENCES


Make a list of pet peeves about poor groom-
ing. From list, develop checklist for
girls to use in evaluating themselves.

Encourage beginning of individual improve-
ment notebook with pictures, measurements,
check sheets, and goals.

Discuss how to emphasize best features and
camouflage figure faults.

Make a time schedule for preparing for
work. Practice ways of doing your groom-
ing routine in a shorter time.


RESOURCES


See Appendix A for Self-
Inventory.



3uide to Beauty, Charm,
and Poise, pp. 3-68,
32-217.

Charm, pp. 63-225.

Business Behavior, pp.
59-93.



See Appendix B & C for
Bulletin Board Ideas


Business Etiquette,
The ABC of Making Good,
pp. 12-29.


- ---- ---.----


- --_ --_I----I






OBJECTIVES CONTENT








I


Use "Appropriate Dress and Grooming" in
Guide to Beauty, Charm, and Poise as a basis
for role playing or debate, p. 314.

Invite a representative from a local charm
school to discuss personal appearance.

View filmstrip: You and Your Grooming,
(revised).

Develop a checklist for grooming to include
specific duties to be done daily, weekly,
etc. Each girl will have a different chart.

Mini-Drama: Right and wrong dress and manners
for work.

Demonstration of correct make-up to show
proper application with emphasis on the
occasion.

Develop standards for appropriate grooming
and dress for kitchen helper, child care aide
and other home economics related positions.

Plan a clothing budget for a working girl.

Determine which clothes in your present ward-
robe could be the basis for a "Career" ward-
robe. Plan new purchases which would be
needed to complete wardrobe.


Bulletin Board: "Are you Ready for Employ-
ment?"

"A Pretty Girl is Like a Melody: and "Eight
Steps to Beauty" (have octopus in center.
Have eight steps including posture, make-up,
exercise, sitting, walking, attitudes, hy-
giene, camouflaging faults. Use stick
figures made from pipe cleaners to demon-
strate each of 8 steps).


See Appendix B



Guide for a Good Groom-
ing Program.

Young America Films, Inc.
18 E. 41st St., N.Y.


See Appendix C.


See Appendix D, E.


LEARNING EXPERIENCES


RESOURCES






Appendix A


Fill in the correct answers:

1. Is my hair clean?

2. Does my hair look neat, shiny, healthy?

3. Is my complexion clear and healthy looking?

4. Are my teeth clean and shiny? Are they in good condition?_

5. Are my fingernails clean, well shaped, free from bright
polish that is chipped, and from hangnails?

6. Are my hands clean?

7. Is my neck clean?

8. Are my ears clean?

9. Is my clothing appropriate: Is it becoming?

10. Am I positive that my clothes and body are absolutely
odorless?

11. Did I have a bath or shower this morning or at bedtime?

12. Do I hang up my clothes every night?

13. Are my shoes polished and the heels in good repair?

14. Are my shoes appropriate for business and for school?

15. Are my shoulders free from dandruff and from stray hairs?

16. Are the clothes I am now wearing in good repair?

17. Do my clothes fit well?

18. Did I take the time this morning to make the most of
my appearance?

19. Do I look fresh and wide awake?

20. Does my face look pleasant? Do I smile most of the time?

21. Do I exercise to stay trim in size and in good physical
condition?

22. Am I drinking at least eight glasses of water each day?

23. Do I try to look my best at all times, even when alone?

24. Would I be considered well-groomed?










Girls -- Check Up!

Wearing hose?

Seams straight?

Free of runners?

Fashionable skirt length?

Hair trim and smart looking?

Using moderate amount of bake-up?



Boys -- Check Up!

Shave this morning?

Hair cut this week?

Shirt-tail inside?

Shirt buttoned up?

Trousers pressed and creased?







Cm6l


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84


PERSONAL APPEARANCE POINTERS FOR THE BUSINESS GIRL


Your day's work can be grim or gay
Depends on how you do it!
Perhaps this little check list
Will help to see you through it!


Always Usually Sometimes Never


1. Wear a smile as my most important
asset.
2. Base my good grooming habits on
body cleanliness.
3. Avoid evidences of perspiration,
body odors, bad breath.
4. Keep skin free from superfluous
hair.
5. Wear under garments that are smooth,
firm, correct size and length,
and allow freedom of movement.
6. Wear foundation garments with
necessary support for the activity.
7. Use appropriate make up for the time
of day and the activity.
8. Wear a becoming hairstyle that is
appropriate and easy to care for.
9. Wear a delicate, mild perfume that
suits my personality.
10. Shape my fingernails according to
the shape of my fingers.
11. Wear nail polish that blends with
my skin tone and outfit.
12. Point up my best features through
my selection of make up, hair
style, clothing or accessories.
13. Select outer garments according
to the occasion, season and
contribution to my figure,
personal coloring and personality.
14. Wear interesting accessories that
harmonize with my costume, person-
ality, and each other.
15. Select my shoes for fit, comfort,
and to coordinate with my
wardrobe and activities.


t I













16. Select my purse in appropriate
size for my figure, to
coordinate with my wardrobe.
17. Select hosiery for the occasion
and to coordinate with outfit.
18. Keep my clothing clean and in repair,
my shoes polished and in repair,
my purse organized.
19. Look at myself in a full-length
mirror before going to work.
20. Eliminate any superfluous "bits"
of jewelry or accessories that
keep me from looking well dressed.
21. Show enthusiasm because I enjoy
my work.
22. Avoid using annoying nervous
mannerisms.
23. Keep my voice low and pleasant,
using correct grammar and
speaking distinctly.
24. Avoid "mending" make up while working.
25. Show poise in difficult situations
using good manners and courtesy.


Always Usually Sometimes Never




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HOW DOES MY POSTURE RATE?


Place the letter of the phrase in the blank beside the numbered
phrase which best completes the sentence.


1. Your
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)


posture is
The one thing people notice about you.
Not as important as your clothing selection.
Determined by your health.
The foundation on which good looks depends.


2. To maintain good posture when you climb stairs, be sure
you.
(a) Watch the steps so you won't fall.
(b) Hold the rail tightly.
(c) Maintain correct standing posture.
(d) Move slowly and deliberately.


One way to develop a graceful walk is to
(a) Walk along a straight line.
(b) Walk with books on your head
(c) Keep knees close together and toes pointed straight ahead.
(d) Swing your hips carefully.

Good posture can not be developed by
(a) Eating a well-balanced diet.
(b) Poise and practice.
(c) Daily exercise.
(d) Standing tall.

One rises gracefully from a sitting position
(a) By pushing up your weight with your arms.
(b) By planting your feet firmly side by side and
raising up straight.
(c) By using your leg muscles to push you up from the
edge of the chair.
(d) By using your leg muscles to push you up from the
back of the chair.


6. For
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)


correct standing posture your knees should
Be firmly locked into position.
Be slightly flexed and relaxed.
Be held two inches apart.
Be in line with your ankles.


7. Posture is not influenced by
(a) Mental condition.
(b) Emotional condition.
(c) Physical condition.
'(d) Financial condition.


3.





4.


5.













8. The
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)


most attractive sitting position the legs should have
Knees and ankles held close together
One leg crossed gracefully over the other
Both feet planted firmly and squarely on the floor.
One ankle crossed over the other.


9. Being able to move gracefully will not

(a) Increase your poise and self-confidence
(b) Improve others mental image of you
(c) Improve your appearance
(d) Increase effort and fatigue.


10. When
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)


you pick up an object
Bend your knees and stoop.
Bend from the waist.
Use your back muscles for lifting.
Spread feet apart for good balance.






























































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