• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Foreword
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Informal services
 Data gathering
 The testing program
 Orientation
 Counseling
 Placement and follow-up
 Organization and administratio...
 Appendix 1. Information source...
 Appendix 2. Sample anecdote
 Appendix 3. Follow-up survey...
 Appendix 4. Post card follow-up...
 Appendix 5. Guidance certification...
 Appendix 6. Use of the Florida...
 Florida cumulative guidance record,...
 Back Cover














Group Title: Its Bulletin
Title: A handbook
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00080852/00001
 Material Information
Title: A handbook better guidance,better schools
Series Title: Its Bulletin
Physical Description: 86 p. : form. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- State Dept. of Education
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1959
Copyright Date: 1959
 Subjects
Subject: Educational counseling   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographies.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00080852
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - AHE3384
oclc - 01810410
alephbibnum - 001530021
lccn - a 59009889

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
    Foreword
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Informal services
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Data gathering
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    The testing program
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
    Orientation
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
    Counseling
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
    Placement and follow-up
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
    Organization and administration
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
    Appendix 1. Information sources
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
    Appendix 2. Sample anecdote
        Page 79
    Appendix 3. Follow-up survey letter
        Page 80
        Page 81
    Appendix 4. Post card follow-up form
        Page 82
    Appendix 5. Guidance certification requirements
        Page 83
        Page 84
    Appendix 6. Use of the Florida cumulative folder
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
    Florida cumulative guidance record, grades 1-12
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
    Back Cover
        Page 92
Full Text







































bulletinLLETN 62




STAT~id DPAlRTMENT
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BETTER GUIDANCE

BETTER SCHOOLS

BULLETIN 62
1959

STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
Tallahassee, Florida
THOMAS D. BAILEY, Superintendent


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Copyright 1959

FLORIDA STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION

TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA












Foreword


N EVER BEFORE has there been so much interest in guid-
Sance programs for our public schools. The report of the
White House Conference of 1950 emphasized the importance
of guidance by pointing out that the American public cannot
have the kind of schools it wants unless it provides guidance
services to all children. The more recent Conant report, The
American High School Today, is even more emphatic. Conant
not only lists improvement of guidance and counseling as his
first recommendation; it is clear that the other twenty recom-
mendations cannot be carried out unless guidance specialists
are available to the schools in adequate numbers.
This is the Florida State Department of Education's first cur-
riculum bulletin on guidance. It is an attempt to provide defini-
tions and information to many different people, both within
education and without. Recognizing that teachers, administrat-
ors, and parents are all involved in program planning, the au-
thors of Better Guidance: Better Schools have sought to explain
the goals and techniques used by guidance counselors as they
carry on their special role in the school.
In 1941 a State-wide committee developed a very fine cumula-
tive record folder which has been used extensively both in
Florida and elsewhere. During recent years there has been a
request from the schools for a revision of that folder. Such a
revision is included in this bulletin. No drastic change has been
made, but the experience of these past eighteen years has in-
dicated that some items could be deleted and others expanded
or revised.
The actual preparation of this guide was carried out in a
summer workshop conducted at the University of Florida in
the summer of 1958. Dr. David Lane, Associate Professor of







Education, University of Florida, and Dr. Victor B. Johnson,
Assistant Director for Guidance and Testing, State Department
of Education, were jointly responsible for the workshop ac-
tivities.
Participants were:


Naomi S. Stevens
1135 S.W. 9th Avenue
Gainesville, Florida
Dixie Jean Allen
Guidance Counselor
Leesburg High School
Leesburg, Florida
William L. Almonrode
Rockledge Elementary School
Rockledge, Florida


Laura H. Galbraith
Guidance Counselor
Santa Fe High School
Alachua, Florida
Lucille M. Harper
Classroom Teacher
Finley School
Gainesville, Florida
Clara Lowder
Dean of Girls
Plant High School
Tampa, Florida


Many other school people in Florida have contributed to
the bulletin, particularly in connection with the cumulative
folder revision.
Members of the State Department of Education giving as-
sistance were J. K. Chapman, Howard Jay Friedman, and John
McIntyre.
I am proud to present this Department of Education bulletin
as another in the published series of curriculum guides and
sincerely believe that its suggestions for improvements in guid-
ance programs will result in improved schools.





THOMAS D. BAILEY
State Superintendent of Public Instruction










Table of Contents


Foreword ............................................ ii

Introduction .......................................... 1

Informal Services ....................................... 4

Data Gathering .......................................... 13

The Testing Program .................................. 21

Orientation .......................................... 33

Counseling .......................................... 42

Placement And Follow-Up .............................. 53

Organization And Administration ......................... 59


Appendixes

Information Sources ..................................... 73

Sample Anecdote ................ ...................... 79

Follow-Up Survey Letter ......... ......................... 80

Post Card Follow-Up Form ............................... 82

Guidance Certification Requirements ...................... 83

Use Of The Florida Cumulative Folder .................... 85


Insert

Florida Cumulative Guidance Record-Grades 1-12

iii












CHAPTER 1


Introduction


T HE PURPOSE of Better Guidance: Better Schools is to pro-
vide assistance in the development and improvement of
guidance programs in Florida. It is written with the hope that
administrators, teachers, supervisors, and counselors will find
in it both stimulation for their thinking and concrete, practi-
cal suggestions as they work in their schools to provide this im-
provement in guidance programs.
Because of the great variety of terminology used in school
work, it is difficult to get titles or terms that will mean the same
things to all of our teachers. Hence the reader should recog-
nize that the titles used in this handbook are less important
than the functions that are being described; if a particular
paragraph in the handbook says that the guidance worker or
the counselor is to carry on a certain kind of activity, there is
no implication that a person with this title is necessarily the
only one who can do it. It is much more important that the
school see to it that the function is carried on by someone. It
goes without saying, of course, that whoever this someone is
should be qualified to carry on the activity, particularly if it is in
an area in which special competencies are involved.
There has been no attempt to deal with the subject of guid-
ance as completely as it might be covered in a textbook. The
committee responsible for the publication took as its task the
presentation of pertinent information and procedures with par-
ticular attention to their implementation in Florida settings. The
guide is therefore selective rather than exhaustive, and the read-
er is urged to refer liberally to the bibliography and appendix
for references to detailed discussion on any particular point.







For a considerable time there has been a demand from the
schools that the cumulative record form be revised. This re-
vision has been accomplished and is incorporated in this bulletin.
It is suggested that faculty groups study the revision thorough-
ly and give particular attention to the recommendations of the
committee as to how the folder can be used most effectively.
It will be obvious to the reader that the bulletin was written
by several different people. Those responsible for editing have
chosen to leave this variety of writing styles unchanged rather
than attempt to force a sterile conformity of style simply to
achieve internal consistency.

There is a bibliography at the end of each section. The de-
tailed appendix and bibliography at the end of the bulletin may
in some cases duplicate the listings at the end of the chapters
but will not always do so. The assumption is that many people
will read individual chapters without necessarily reading the
entire bulletin. The bibliography at the end of each chapter
is recommended for the added study of the topics covered in
that particular chapter.

Financing

As many readers know, the Minimum Foundation Program
of 1947 set up the guidance service financing within the struc-
ture of Administrative and Special Instructional Service (ASIS)
Units. These units are earned on the basis of one for every
eight teacher units earned through ADA or average daily at-
tendance. Guidance counselors constitute one of the 17 dif-
ferent kinds of service specialists that must be provided out
of the ASIS units or out of local funds. Since most schools are
not large enough to earn more than 3 or 4 ASIS units, and
since principals, librarians, and music people are among some
of the essential or most frequently needed people on a school
staff, guidance counselors are not often provided for under
ASIS units. It is clear that under the present financing struc-
ture a school that wants a guidance counselor must either as-
sign this function high priority under its ASIS quota or man-
age somehow to provide for it out of local funds. It is our hope
that this bulletin will help to reveal the very real values which
guidance can contribute to the total school program so that







school faculties will be stimulated to take a fresh look at possible
ways of financing guidance services.
One of the promising possibilities for financial aid is the
federal program under Title V-A of the National Defense Edu-
cation Act of 1958. The 1958-59 moneys are available without
matching, but the 1959-62 allotments must be matched dollar
for dollar. If the full authorization is received, Florida may
have available $318,000 per year for expansion of guidance serv-
ices. It is important to recognize that the federal program is
designed to provide added services, not to underwrite existing
ones. Continuation of efforts toward adequate local and state
support of guidance is vital.













CHAPTER 2


Informal Services


T- THILE MANY GUIDANCE SERVICES are designed to
VVhelp the student understand himself, informational serv-
ices are primarily concerned with helping him to understand
his environment and the opportunities it offers. Informational
services provide educational and vocational materials to stu-
dents. All students are faced with developmental tasks, choices,
and plans which have to do with their educational, vocational,
social, and personal lives. The purpose of informational serv-
ices is to assist the student in making choices and plans more
intelligently and realistically.
It is assumed that every school will select some method
of presenting information which can be put into effect immedi-
ately and also make long-range plans for including others later.
A wide selection of materials is available. In addition to the
professional publications devoted specifically to guidance pur-
poses, there are many incidental sources which should not be
ignored. These include both fictional and non-fictional publi-
cations on all grade levels. Even though the term "sugar-
coated occupational information" has been applied to career
novels, counselors, teachers, and librarians may often wish to
recommend them to those students who are not easily persuaded
to read factual material. The important factor is that the ma-
terial be authentic, accurate, and up to date. Teachers, ad-
ministrators, librarians, and guidance personnel share the re-
sponsibility for obtaining and disseminating all guidance ma-
terials. More interest may be stimulated among students if
special exhibits including posters, pictures, and book-covers
are attractively displayed throughout the school.








Educational And Occupational Information
One of the most important decisions facing a student today
is the choice of an occupation. While the individual needs a
high degree of freedom in making this choice, he also needs
assistance in delimiting the unknown. If certain materials are
made available and adequate guidance is possible, the student
may be helped to gain a sense of competence and direction. It
is important that he receive the right kind of help as the need
arises. Early exploration on a broad scale may lead to recog-
nition of more specific needs as the student matures. Oppor-
tunities may be given the student to explore all phases of work
including:
1. Advantages and Disadvantages
2. Education and Training
3. Limitations
4. Demands and Special Tasks
5. Qualifications
6. Related Fields
7. Opportunities for Advancement
There are many pamphlets written on how to get along with
others and on how to get and-what is often more difficult-
keep a job. A great variety of vocational literature should be
kept available for the student as he advances through school,
for the study of occupations is an essential means by which the
student is led to think deeply about himself in relation to his
future. He needs general data regarding educational and vo-
cational opportunities and specific knowledge regarding areas
of work.
To go to college or not is a big decision. Concise informa-
tion about all colleges should be available so that the interested
student may write for additional information. Provisions should
be made for the slow learner and for the potential drop-out
in junior high school. The student should be assisted in ex-
ploring job areas for which he may be best fitted by nature and
training. If the student has made a definite choice of a voca-
tional goal, in some instances he will remain in school for the
sole purpose of pursuing it-even to the extent of working
through many requirements which are distasteful to him. On
the other hand, a student who has no developing interest and
is not encouraged to have one, is likely to become increasingly








indifferent and even hostile in many aspects of his life, both
in and out of school.

Elementary School Activities
The viewpoint of elementary students about occupations
needs to be understood. We are aware that stated occupational
goals in the elementary school are, typically, in the fantasy
stage. However, we must not overlook opportunities for sup-
plying occupational and educational information. Indeed, fantasy
often leads to constructive planning and action. In recognizing
a definite enthusiasm which a child expresses, the teacher is
promoting free growth of the child's interests. Information at
the elementary level may serve to acquaint the pupil with the
contributions of various occupations to the community. From
wholesome attitudes the child progresses toward more clearly
defined interests. Some suggested activities include:
1. A classroom unit of social studies comprising general
coverage of occupations in the community
2. Invitations to parents to visit the class and talk about
their occupations
3. Visits by community resource people, such as fire-
men, lawyers, bankers, doctors, patrolmen, and den-
tists to discuss their occupations. (The discussion
may be more meaningful if pupils have formulated
questions in advance.)
4. Field trips to dairies, fire stations, public libraries,
bakeries, and similar places
5. Art work on theme on "When I Grow Up"

Junior and Senior High School Activities
Educational and occupational information services and ac-
tivities in junior and senior high schools are quite varied. They
range from the occasional and casual information provided stu-
dents by homeroom and classroom teachers when opportunities
arise to the formal and carefully planned Career Day, College
Days, or Vocational Opportunity Campaign Week. The follow-
ing are brief discussions of general occupational information
practices carried out in many Florida secondary schools.








Special Course Or A Unit In Another Subject
In order to stimulate interest, some schools offer a special
course in occupations. This course will have its greatest value
if it is presented early enough so that the student may plan
his high school program to fit his broad occupational goal. Thus,
the eighth or ninth grade is suggested as a good place to in-
troduce this course. It is important that the teacher have a
thorough understanding of the course's content and purpose.
The value of an occupations course will depend in large measure
on the degree to which it is planned to meet the special needs
of this particular school and its community. The course should
provide for the interests of the advanced student and meet the
needs of the slow learner as well. If occupations are considered
as a unit in another subject, that unit should be planned thor-
oughly and presented carefully. If the unit is finished just
prior to registration for the next school year, it may help the
student in making his future plans. Also, every teacher can
contribute to this guidance program by providing occupational
training information pertinent to his subject. If individual coun-
seling services are available, the student should be informed
about these when a question arises involving a decision about
a field of work. Many students may make considerable progress
toward planning and decision-making through the exchange of
ideas in group discussion.

Study Day
Some schools in Florida set aside one day every two weeks
as a Study Day, in which clubs meet, make-up tests are given,
field trips are made, and opportunities are provided to do ad-
vanced work. This is a time when career consultants and col-
lege and business school representatives may meet with in-
terested students. A senior survey is conducted at the beginning
of the school term in order to make plans for the year. One
or two consultants may meet with a group for one class period
each Study Day. This plan avoids class interruptions, since the
Study Day is planned so that the student may make his schedule
for the day, and no regular classes are held.

Field Trips
Before undertaking field trips to various places of work, the
student should have an opportunity to discuss with the teacher








what to expect, the things to look for, and the individual sug-
gestions he will be asked to make toward class activities result-
ing from such trips. Field trips may be used at any grade
level. Further information about planning field trips will be
found in State Department of Education Bulletin 22-F, Why
Take A Field Trip?

Visual Aids
The term visual aids covers a variety of topics. However, in
discussing information services, the term is used to include films,
slides, filmstrips, concrete objects for display or demonstra-
tion (such as implements of trade and scale models), posters,
and pictures for tackboards. Much of this material can be ob-
tained free of charge from a number of sources.
If the school does not have projectors and other equipment
necessary for the presentation of these aids, steps should be
taken to obtain them. Visual aids materials in vocations should
be organized for use by all school personnel.

College Days Or Conferences
A survey may be made to develop a list of colleges in which
students are interested. College representatives may then be
invited to the school on a scheduled day or night. On these
occasions the students may discuss their college programs with
the representatives and make plans to visit the colleges.

Career Day
Many schools use Career Day to inform students of the oc-
cupations which are open in the community. It is a day set
aside to bring into the school outside consultants representing
a variety of vocations. A preliminary survey may be made
to discover student interest in various occupations. From the
survey a definite schedule may be set up in order that students
may attend several of the conferences. Usually, Career Day
is limited to seniors. Some schools, however, allow the ninth,
tenth, and eleventh grades to attend these conferences. Some
schools may find this plan effective; others may discover that
their students are not motivated sufficiently to make it a worth-
while practice.








There are schools that use a different technique. The stu-
dents are assigned to work in various places of business or pro-
fessional offices during a school day. They will observe the
same hours as the employer, have lunch with him, dress proper-
ly for the occasion, and attend any scheduled staff conferences.
Some students receive pay for their services, and many later
obtain regular employment as a direct result of the Career
Day experience. This day may be a student-planned activity,
with the aid of administrative and guidance personnel. A
careful evaluation should be made so that future days may be
planned more effectively and beneficially.

Career Clubs
As an extracurricular activity, career clubs can provide
orientation for future occupations. Future nurses' clubs, future
teachers' clubs, and science clubs can give excellent training
and exploratory experiences. Students enrolled in these clubs
may find opportunities to work in a local hospital, or they may
assist teachers in a classroom. With the aid of an interested
faculty advisor many interesting activities may be planned. These
activities might include special speakers or follow-up studies
of former club members who are employed in an occupation
related to the club's special interests.

Exploratory Work Experiences
When a student expresses an interest in a particular job,
it may be possible to help him secure part-time or summer try-
out work in his field of interest. While many occupations do
not lend themselves to exploratory experiences for beginners,
it is often possible to find related work which permits observa-
tion of the occupation in question. For these experiences to be
meaningful to the student, he should be helped to plan in ad-
vance and to evaluate the experience periodically.

Vocational Opportunity Campaign Week
One week may be set aside to emphasize vocational op-
portunities. By careful appraisal of interests, aptitudes, abilities,
and personality traits, career choices are made more realistic.
This may to some degree be accomplished by having every stu-
dent rate himself on a checklist of interests, abilities, and per-








sonality traits and asking him to list tentative choices in order
of preferences. From these findings a tabulation may be made
of interests in different fields. People who are successful in
their chosen profession may then be called in as leaders and
career consultants. This kind of program is probably more
effective if the leaders answer questions from the group instead
of giving formal talks. Recordings may be made for use in
English and other classes. The students may use the informa-
tion obtained from the consultants in conducting discussions.
A suggested topic might be "Have I Chosen My Career?" Some
students may prefer to visit a business or profession for an In-
dividual conference. Others may wish to do research in the
library. In both of these activities the information can then
be shared with the group through class reports.
Community Occupational Survey
Of special interest to seniors may be a survey of community
occupations. With the help of administrators, counselors, and
teachers, the seniors make a study of important facts about the
vocations available in their community. The collecting of facts
about the areas of work and the preparing of briefs will be
of great help to the students. The survey may help the seniors
to decide whether opportunities related to their occupational in-
terests are available in the local community.
Libraries
The library is one of the main arteries for distributing educa-
tional and vocational information, but the pulse should beat
throughout every classroom. The librarian plays an important
role in this part of the guidance program. With the assistance
of administrators, teachers, and guidance workers, she can
stock the files and shelves with authentic and current materials.
She can keep students and teachers informed about new books,
pamphlets, films, and filmstrips, acquaint new teachers with
what is available, direct the reading of many students who ask
for suggestions, encourage individuals to use the files, and point
out interesting magazine articles.
Shelves or display racks labeled "Educational and Voca-
tional Materials" may encourage pupils to browse and find some-
thing of interest that might be overlooked in the regular files.
An attractive bulletin board will stimulate further reading.







Many other things may be done in the library to attract and
to create interest so that students will be helped to understand
the world of work. It should be emphasized that it is the
responsibility of each teacher to do his part to help students
become aware of the values of the library and of ways to use
its resources to best advantage.

Armed Forces
Practically all boys are faced with military service, and many
girls choose it as a career. The armed forces provide a variety
of opportunities for educational and vocational advancement. If
students are helped to learn about these before they enter the
service, they can plan their service experiences more fruitfully.

Schools can help by getting free, current military career in-
formation from representatives of the various branches of the
armed forces. Then if a senior survey is made to determine the
branches of services in which they are interested, representatives
from each department can be scheduled to visit the school to meet
with the different groups of students. Parents may also be
invited to these meetings.
Representatives of the armed forces may be invited to par-
ticipate in a Career Day, a Study Day, or any other time
designated by the school. These people are eager to visit schools.
If scheduling is done early in the school term, it will eliminate
much correspondence, many phone calls and visits by recruit-
ment personnel, and it will reduce class interruptions to a
minimum.

Bibliography
American Council on Education. Helping Teachers Understand Chil-
dren. Washington 25, D. C.: The Council, 1945.
Andrew, Dean C., and Downing, Lester N., ed. 120 Readings in Guid-
ance. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1955.
and Willey, Ray DeVerl. Administration and Organization of
the Guidance Program. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1958.
Are We Neglecting Vocational Guidance? Guidance Services, State
Board for Vocational Education, Guidance Division, Carson City,
Nevada: Vol. VI, No. 2 (February, 1957).
Baer, Max F., and Roeber, Edward C. Occupational Information: Its
Nature and Use. Chicago: Science Research Associates, Inc., 1951.
Brayfield, Arthur H., ed. Readings in Modern Methods of Counseling.
New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, Inc., 1950.
Chrislen, T. E., "Selected Sources of Occupational Information." Na-
tional Association of Secondary School Principals Bulletin. 34:91-107
(May, 1950).








Colorado Criteria for Evaluative Study of Guidance Services, Check
List of Observable Practices, Part II. Office of Director of Guidance
Services, Colorado State Department of Education and Curriculum
in Guidance and Personnel Services, College of Education. Denver:
University of Colorado, January, 1956.
Colorado Criteria for Evaluative Study of Guidance Services, Evalua-
tion of Observable Practices, Part III. Office of Director of Guidance
Services, Colorado State Department of Education and Curriculum
in Guidance and Personnel Services, College of Education. Denver:
University of Colorado, January, 1956.
Commonwealth of Virginia, State Board of Education. Guidance Hand-
book. Richmond: State Department of Education, 1951.
Fine, Sidney A. "What is Occupational Information?" Personnel and
Guidance Journal, 35:504-509 (May, 1955).
Forrester, Gertrude. Methods of Vocational Guidance. Boston: D. C.
Heath and Co., 1944.
Occupations. New York: H. W. Wilson Co., 1948.
Hamrin, S. A. Initiating and Administering Guidance Services. Bloom-
ington, Illinois: McKnight and McKnight Publishing Co., 1953.
"Jobs for You in the U. S. Navy." Bureau of Navy Personnel. Washing-
ington 25, D. C.
Jones, Arthur J. Principles of Guidance and Pupil Personnel Work. New
York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., 1951.
Lorvenstein, Norman. "Senior Study Careers," Occupations, 30:99-101
(April, 1952).
Malouf, Phelon. "The Plan Sheet, A Guidance Technique," The Per-
sonnel and Guidance Journal, 33:451-455 (April, 1955).
McKinney, William B. "Another Slant on Career Days," Occupations,
30:534-535 (April, 1952).
New Hampshire Public Schools. Guidance Service Handbook. Concord:
New Hampshire State Department of Education, June, 1950.
Paulson, Blanche B. "A Chicago Course Called 'Careers,'" Occupations,
29:591-594 (May, 1951).
"Results of the 1956 Iowa Senior Occupational Survey," State of Iowa
Division of Vocational Education. State Dept. of Public Instruction.
Des Moines, Iowa: O. I. G. S. No. 28 (Rev. June, 1956).
Shartle, Carroll L. Occupational Information. New York: Prentice Hall,
Inc., 1953.
Splaver, Sarah. "The Career Novel," The Personnel and Guidance
Journal, 31:371-372 (March, 1953).
Traxler, Arthur E. Techniques of Guidance. New York: Harper &
Brothers, 1957.
Your Place in the Florida Sun: Florida Job Guides for Young Workers.
Florida State Employment Service, Florida Industrial Commission,
1956-57 Edition.












CHAPTER 3


Data Gathering


O NE MAJOR SERVICE of a guidance program is the gather-
ing of data. This includes securing, recording, and inter-
preting information about individual students. These data are
needed in order to help students select desirable educational
experiences, to help them make wise educational and vocational
choices, and to help them solve their problems and achieve an
understanding of themselves.
Information about students is obviously to be handled in a
strictly confidential manner. Care should be taken that informa-
tion that is available to the non-professional members of the
school staff is sufficiently innocuous so that no student is hurt
by the revealing of the data. In this connection it must be
remembered that very often the agencies that are in touch with
the school will want to look at cumulative folders and other
evidences of pupil performance. Courts may order records in
certain cases, and one cannot count upon "privileged commun-
ication" in most cases. It is hardly necessary to point out that
all professional members of the staff who use the cumulative
folder should use it with great discretion.

Types Of Information
While there are many opinions as to what types of specific
information should be obtained about a student, there is little
question that in all cases the data should be objective and factual.
As a basis for effective guidance, at least the following general
kinds of information should be obtained:
1. History 4. Aptitudes
2. Health 5. Interests
3. Achievement







History
The historical data should include name, home address, date
of birth, place of birth, sex, authority for birthday, names of
parents, their occupations, marital status, and church preferences.
The number and ages of brothers and sisters will help give a
better picture of family life. Additional useful information in-
cludes parents' economic status, student's relationships with
members of his family, his cultural environment, languages
spoken in the home, and the type of community in which the
home is located. A record of former consecutive addresses may
be of help to the guidance worker to show the mobility of the
family.

Health
The mental and physical health conditions of the student are
of importance to the guidance worker. They may provide a
valuable and important clue to the student's problems. All
abnormal health facts pertaining to vision, hearing, speech, and
personality disturbances should be recorded on the cumulative
folder for use by the guidance counselor and teachers.


Achievement
In order to have an effective guidance program it is neces-
sary to keep an up-to-date record of a student's growth and
progress. This will include past and present achievement in
academic work, social adjustment, and physical development.
It is desirable to supplement class grades with records based
on standardized tests. In Florida the achievement tests most
commonly used at the elementary level are in language arts,
reading, and arithmetic. At the secondary level achievement
tests are typically used in the areas of English, mathematics,
natural sciences, and social studies.


Aptitudes
One of the chief functions of the guidance worker is to help
the student make wise educational and vocational choices. In-
formation is needed to help the counselor assess each pupil's
capacities and his potentialities for various areas of work. The








term aptitude test is applied to: (1) tests of general academic
ability and (2) tests predictive of special abilities important in
various vocations. These test results will reinforce the guidance
worker in his counseling with the student about educational and
vocational plans. Clues to students' aptitudes may also be obtain-
ed from data about their accomplishments in and out of school.

Interests
A record of student activities should be kept in order to
establish an interest trend. Many students change their interests
often during their secondary school years. Special interests and
hobbies engaged in at an early age may, however, provide clues
to later vocational choice. Another method for helping students
appraise their interests is found in standardized interest inven-
tories. These are discussed further on page 22.

Techniques Used For Gathering Data
Among the many techniques used for obtaining information
about students are the following:

1. Interviews
2. Questionnaires
3. Home Visits
4. Tests
5. Anecdotal Records
6. Autobiographies and Diaries
7. Health Histories
8. Sociograms

Interviews
One of the most effective methods of gathering data is the
interview. Interviews may be conducted to obtain information
not only from students but also from parents, other relatives,
and friends of students.
One of the distinctive advantages of the interview as a data-
gathering method is that it affords opportunities for checking on
the validity of information obtained elsewhere. The interviewer
who is sensitive to feelings and attitudes can find ways of per-
ceiving whether his questions are understood. He is in a position








to encourage further explanation of answers which are not clear
or which suggest additional useful data. The interview affords
greater opportunity to encourage the cooperation of the person
from whom information is being obtained than is true of other,
more impersonally handled data-gathering methods.
As is true of most guidance techniques, however, there are
limitations and possible pitfalls as well as advantages. Interview-
ers must constantly guard against distorting or misinterpreting
information because of their own preconceived ideas. For ex-
ample, temporary uneasiness on the part of a student in the
unfamiliar interview situation does not necessarily mean that he
is a chronically "nervous child." Or the social, economic, or
ethnic group from which he comes does not necessarily justify
generalizations about him. All people have biases. Teachers and
guidance workers have a responsibility to try to recognize them
and prevent them from interfering with their clear understand-
ing of the people with whom they work.
In preparing for an interview it is usually desirable to obtain
as much information as possible about the student. In some
cases, of course, the teacher or counselor may wish to use the
first interview as a fresh starting point. Not all interviews are
necessarily planned conferences. Casual contacts with students,
their families, and friends may often yield information which
can be of use to the teacher or counselor. Judgment as to the
value of any data acquired in this manner is the responsibility
of teachers and other counselors.
Since information from an interview may become a part of
counseling data in the cumulative folder, records should be made
of the face-to-face conference, especially the student-teacher
interview. Such records might include:
1. A comment on whether the student is participating in the
interview on his own initiative or has been referred
2. The individual's statement of his problem
3. Statements of the main things that happened in the inter-
view
4. Notes on follow-up steps taken and results
5. Observations concerning poise, manner, appearance, and
mood of the student during the interview (information, it
will be noticed, which can be obtained only from a face-
to-face relationship).








In interviews with other persons concerned with the student,
the teacher or counselor must be careful in the interpretation
of information received. Value judgments will often be expressed
by the person being interviewed. The interviewer will want to
elicit examples of specific behavior, which may or may not sup-
port the value judgments.
In order to encourage maximum cooperation in an interview
and at the same time obtain accurate information, the interview-
er strives to convey a feeling of warmth, acceptance, and sincere
interest, but at the same time he maintains an objective point of
view. Even though he may feel sympathy, concern, or sometimes
annoyance or even anger, he tries to keep from being involved
in the feelings of the person he is interviewing in any way that
weakens his ability to see the situation clearly and rationally.
For a further discussion of factors involved in interviewing,
the reader's attention is invited to Chapter 6, Counseling.

Questionnaires
In order to secure the sociological information needed for the
cumulative record, a questionnaire is often used. Such informa-
tion is often more reliable if supplied by parents rather than
students, particularly in the elementary school. The question-
naire ought to bring out facts about family background and other
personal information. The following questions, among others,
may prove helpful:
1. How many schools have you attended previously?
2. What subjects do you like best? Why?
3. What subjects to you dislike? Why?
4. Do you have a special place for study at home?
5. How much time do you spend on your studies at home?
6. Do you play a musical instrument? If so, what instru-
ment?
7. To what school clubs do you belong?
8. Do you plan to go to college?
9. Have you chosen the college that you would like to attend?
10. Have you chosen a vocation? If so, what is it?
11. If you have not made a definite choice, what are some of
the vocations you have considered?
Each school should design the questionnaire to fit its own
situation. It may be filled out in the homeroom in high schools,








provided specific directions are available and understood. The
purpose of the questionnaire should be explained so that students
will feel that their privacy is being respected. The information
from the cumulative folder will in all probability parallel that of
the questionnaire.

Home Visits
A visit to the student's home by the teacher may reveal im-
portant information not easily obtained otherwise. Visitation is
a more direct and satisfactory technique than a telephone con-
versation or a note to the parents. In some cases it is advisable
to schedule a home visit when both father and mother are pres-
ent. Helpful information can often be gathered about students
from incidental out-of-school contacts.
Objections to home visitation are often raised by school peo-
ple, many of whom maintain that it is impossible to visit enough
homes to make the effort worthwhile. The experiences of many
Florida school people tend to refute this argument. There are
counties that have planned programs of visitation in which 99%
of the homes have been successfully reached, and there are other
individual schools that achieve similar results. It is important to
recognize that even the best plans will take time to reach fruition,
and early disappointments should not result in abandonment of
a sound program.

Anecdotal Records
The anecdotal record consists of a series of descriptions of
observations made of the student in his daily activities. An ade-
quate sampling of behavior involves recording of observations
taken from a variety of situations. Records from several teachers
will give a more accurate picture than those from one teacher
alone. Reports should include only enough to illustrate an indi-
vidual's characteristic patterns of behavior, to show his progress
toward accomplishing particular developmental tasks, to reveal
the adjustment problems that he faces, and to portray his re-
actions to crises and other events of special significance to him.
The number of anecdotal comments to be recorded may vary
among schools or even within one school. Faculty policy will
determine the extent to which detailed records are needed. In








any case, it seems obvious that if an adjustment problem is press-
ing it will be necessary to record observations more frequently
than otherwise.
A good anecdote tells exactly what the pupil does, with a
concise description of the situation and the circumstances under
which the behavior occurs. To increase validity, it is desirable
to record observations as soon as possible after the event takes
place. (The Appendix contains a sample anecdotal record.)

Autobiographies And Diaries
Many school personnel find that autobiographies and diaries
from students contribute data which are difficult to obtain from
other sources. These documents are often inserted in the cumu-
lative folder or kept in a separate file for reference purposes.
Some teachers find it more practicable to make separate notes
of significant information, discarding the original composition at
the end of the academic year.
Some data which may be obtained from autobiographies and
diaries are:
1. Mobility and Activities of Student's Family
2. Current Interests (especially valuable in planning pres-
entation of subject matter)
3. Individual Habits and Activities
4. Attitudes
5. Aspirations
The present discussion relates to the use of diaries and auto-
biographies as fact-finding techniques. It goes without saying
that any more intensive use, such as for personality analysis,
should be reserved for those staff members who are skilled in
the use of such psychological techniques.

Health History
The student's detailed health history is kept on a separate
insert sheet in the cumulative record folder. Instructions for
acquiring and recording these data may be found in Florida De-
partment of Education Bulletin 4-D, A Program of Health Serv-
ices for Florida Schools. Summary items from this detailed
record, plus any additional health notes, will be included under
the "comments" section of the cumulative folder.









: :,' Sociogram :
Sociograms are a source of relatively temporary information
that can be very helpful to teachers interested in understanding
their pupils. Elementary teachers especially, since they are
with a group of children for a considerable period of time, will
want to have information about the interpersonal relationships
of individuals in the school group.
Each aspect of behavior should be studied through the use
of a separate sociogram. For example, one may wish to examine
choices that pupils will make when they are asked to select
someone with whom they would like to work. In this case the
results will focus on the work aspect of group behavior. The
sociogram developed for this purpose will not necessarily produce
the same results as one that might be made for play situations.
In developing a sociogram the teacher usually asks each
child to indicate his first three choices among the members of
the class. The basis for choosing may be which children one
would like most to work with, or as playmates, or in any of
several other relationships. The results are charted, and the
teacher gets a picture of which children are sought after and
which ones are excluded by their classmates. It is important to
recognize that choices may change rapidly, especially among very
young children.
Bibliography
Andrew, Dean C., and Downing, Lester N., ed. 120 Readings in Guidance
Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1955.
-- and Wiley, Ray DeVerl. Administration and Organization of the
Guidance Program. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1958.
Brayfield, Arthur H., ed. Readings in Modern Methods of Counseling.
New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, Inc., 1950.
Commission on Teacher Education. Helping Teachers Understand Chil-
dren. Washington 25, D.C.: The Commission, 1945
Commonwealth of Virginia, State Board of Education. Guidance Hand-
book. Richmond: State Department of Education, 1951.
Detjen, Mary E. Ford, and Detjen, Erwin W. Home Room Guidance
Programs for the Junior High School Years. New York: Houghton
Mifflin Co., 1940.
Driver, Helen Irene. "Small-Group Discussions as an Aid in Counsel-
ing," School Review, 59:525-30 (December, 1950).
Jones, Arthur J. Principles of Guidance and Pupil Personnel Work.
New York: McGraw Hill Book Co., Inc., 1951.
New Hampshire Public Schools. Guidance Service Handbook. Concord:
New Hampshire State Department of Education, June, 1950.
Provisional Manual for Use With Cumulative Record Folders. Depart-
ment of Public Instruction, Vocational Educational Division.
Dover, Delaware: Bulletin #327 (December 14, 1951).
Traxler, Arthur E. Techniques of Guidance. New York: Harper & Bro-
thers, 1957.
Willey, Ray DeVerl, and Andrews, Dean C. Modern Methods and Tech-
niques in Guidance. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1955.
20













CHAPTER 4


The Testing Program


ESSENTIALLY, A STANDARDIZED TEST is an objective
measure of a sample of behavior. Test results form only a
small part of the information known about a student. Data gath-
ered in many other ways are needed as a basis for developing a
more meaningful picture. Standardized tests do not take the place
of locally made tests but do supplement them with results that
can be compared in numerical or statistical terms. Such a com-
bination of information about an individual is an important basis
for effective guidance.

For convenience, tests are classified or grouped as to the
kinds of behavior which they sample. One form of classifica-
tion of standardized tests is as follows:

A. Achievement Tests
The current trend in testing is to consider the achieve-
ment test as a measurement of understanding of concepts
in a broad area of knowledge. This concept is a de-
parture from the traditional view that achievement tests
should measure specific information acquired in subject
matter fields. Those achievement tests which combine
these purposes are designed to obtain a measure of
factual knowledge acquired and of the ability to apply
that knowledge in practical situations.
B. Intelligence and Scholastic Aptitude Tests
Intelligence is thought of as an individual's capacity to
learn. It is becoming increasingly clear that there is no
one general intelligence, but that there are several in-
telligences, each relating to a different kind of learn-








ing skill. Thus, scholastic aptitude is in reality a par-
ticular kind of intelligence which deals with the ability
to learn typical academic materials and concepts.

C. Special Aptitude Tests
In keeping with the concept of the existence of dif-
ferent kinds of intelligence, it is recognized that there
are special aptitudes which are not measured by the
traditional intelligence tests. Tests have been designed
to measure specialized aptitudes in areas such as art,
music, and mechanical skills.

D. Interest Inventories
Although interest inventories are properly included in
testing programs, it is important to recognize that tech-
nically they are not tests. That is, they do not measure
ability or skill; nor will the questions yield answers that
are right or wrong. Interest inventories, as their name
implies, measure the conscious interests of a person at
a given time. They are helpful in guiding students when
used together with tests and other guidance techniques.

E. Personality Questionnaires
Personality questionnaires, like interest inventories, are
not tests in the strict sense. They are, rather, measures
of a student's view of his personal adjustment, which
may sometimes enlarge the student's understanding of
himself. They are often designed to deal with problems
of social acceptance, finance, religion, family, and sex.
As is the case of the interest inventory, it is important
to recognize that these instruments measure current at-
titudes, not necessarily permanent ones, and that this
fact places a limitation on their usefulness.
The first consideration that those responsible for developing
a testing program will want to take into account is the status of
existing programs, such as the State-wide testing at the ninth
and the twelfth grade levels and the minimum county program.
At the high school level, test selection will also be influenced by
decisions regarding other tests, such as the General Aptitude
Test Battery given by the Florida State Employment Service,
The National Merit Scholarship Examination, The College En-








trance Board Examinations, and the State scholarship examina-
tions for teachers and nurses. Only after thorough considera-
tion of the total program can decisions be reached as to selec-
tion of tests, dates for testing, and other questions of planning
and administration.

Why Measure?
When the potentialities and accomplishments of pupils are
known, the school and the pupils are in an adequate position to
plan and achieve their educational goals. The goals most directly
related to testing procedures include:
1. Educational and Vocational Counseling
2. Curriculum Revision
3. Individual Analysis
4. Identification of Exceptional Children
5. Evaluation of Teaching

There is a need for accurate and reliable information about
student abilities, achievement, interests, and other character-
istics. This information plays an important part in planning
for college and for vocational objectives, working out individual
schedules, and promoting successful academic progress. Test-
ing can be of considerable aid to the counselor as he works with
students in these areas. For instance, the ninth grade testing
program in Florida provides information about potential col-
lege success in time to help pupils prepare for college with an
appropriate high school course of study. Prior to the inaugura-
tion of the ninth grade program, comparative state-wide informa-
tion was not available until late in the twelfth grade, often too
late to be of any help in individual student guidance.

Curriculum Revision
When used in a discriminating manner, standardized tests
can make a significant contribution to curriculum revision. Tests
may be particularly helpful to the faculty that is revising its
total course of study. Individual teachers may use test results
for the improvement of their own instruction. Since curriculum
is usually defined as the actual experiences that children have
in school, it is important to recognize that there is a difference
between curriculum and course of study. Whichever frame








of reference is used, tests can play a useful part, but it is likely
that different tests and different approaches to measure out-
comes will be necessary, depending on which point of view
prevails.
It is obvious that testing can be used inappropriately in
curriculum revision as in other areas. For instance, one would
not want to judge a course of study or a curriculum on the
basis of achievement tests alone. Only by measuring achieve-
ment in relation to ability of the achievers can the school hope
to get a realistic appraisal of how suitable the present program
is to the needs of students.

Individual Analysis
No matter what position one takes on the question of group-
ing children for instruction, it is obvious that some grouping
decisions must be made. As schools make these decisions, it is
likely that they will get considerable help from tests. Measures
of readiness, academic ability, and achievement will aid the
teacher and administrator in assigning children to appropriate
groups.
As schools attempt to place children in the most appropriate
situations for learning, each child must be evaluated for place-
ment. A group test will provide information that will imple-
ment this placement for the great majority of children. However,
there will be some, particularly those of high and low ability,
who will need individual testing for assessment of actual po-
tentialities. If the current interest in education of gifted chil-
dren is to lead to constructive planning, it is vital that the
schools recognize that the first step in identifying the gifted is
an adequate overall testing program.

Administration Of The Testing Program
The administration of the testing program involves general
and long-range planning by county and school committees as
well as specific planning for the actual administration and scor-
ing of tests.

County General Planning
Since the schools in Florida are organized on a county basis,
the county administrative staff has a responsibility for making







sure that each school has. an adequate .testing program.- 'In most
counties this responsibility has been carried on by a county-wide
testing committee composed of representatives from each school.
This committee plans the scope of the testing program and makes
recommendations for the kinds of tests to be used, the grade
levels to be tested, methods of administration, and the time of
year for tests to be given.
The methods of administration of the county testing program
may be determined by the testing committee. Some counties
have utilized a testing team composed of county personnel;
others have made each school responsible for the administra-
tion of all tests. If there is a county testing team, it should
work closely with individual school faculties.

Local School Planning
Each school will have to decide what its testing program
will be on the basis of its county minimum program, if there
is one, and with regard to its own need for additional tests to
improve its assistance to students.
A testing committee is desirable for setting up and planning
the details of a testing program. If the individual members of
a faculty have had experience or are interested in improving
their knowledge of testing, they can administer the tests in
their homerooms or classrooms. The testing committee and
the faculty may decide that a team approach will give more ac-
curate results. This testing team then administers all group
standardized tests given in the school.
The principal and testing committee will set up definite
dates for each test. The time of year in which some tests are
given will depend on the uses to be made of the results. State
and national tests are set according to a predetermined schedule.
In planning the overall testing program, the committee will
decide the sequence of the tests so as to interest the students
and get their full cooperation. A fairly easy test should be
given first, followed by a more difficult test. The last test should
be a relatively short and pleasant one.

Specific Planning
In the administration of each test, there are certain things
that need to be done by the testing committee:








1. The purpose of the test must be explained to the faculty.
2. The testing team or teachers must study the test and the
Manual of Directions.
3. A sufficient number of good proctors is a necessity. A
rule of thumb for determining how many are needed is
one for every 20 to 30 students. Their functions are to help
administer the test by giving out and collecting materials,
to provide sharp pencils when needed, to answer any
legitimate questions students may have after the direc-
tions have been read but before the test begins, to be
alert to the problem of deficient materials such as a blank
page in a test booklet, and to observe the students for
any behavior out of the ordinary.
4. The examiners should try to create a favorable atmos-
phere for testing by giving the students some idea of
what they will do, how long it will take them, and how
the results will help them as individuals.
5. The physical facilities for the test should include ade-
quate space, light, ventilation, desks, and freedom from
noise and interruptions.
6. The preparation of the test materials and supplies, in-
cluding pencils, scratch paper, and stop watches, should
be done ahead of time so that there will be no confusion
at the time of the test.
7. The general preparation of students for the test can be
assured by having the classroom teachers discuss with
students the need for the test and its objectives. A mimeo-
graphed announcement giving all pertinent information
can be handed to the students to take home to their
parents.
8. The manner in which the scoring of tests is organized
is extremely important. Since the test results are bene-
ficial to the whole school program as well as to individual
students, the scoring should be done as a cooperative
effort. Most of the group tests are easy to score by hand.
Even when machine scoring is available, some hand
work is necessary in preparing the final results. The
importance of accuracy in scoring cannot be overempha-
sized, and double-checking the results is recommended.








If it is worth time, effort, and money to give a test, it
is worth making sure that the results are accurate.


The Interpretation Of Test Results
Careful testing of the student and an equally careful com-
putation of the results of such testing will be rewarding to the
degree that certain basic practices are followed in recording and
applying these results. Paramount among the important con-
siderations affecting recording of test results is clarity. A plan
of systematic recording should be adopted, so designed as to
insure proper interpretations of test results. Information con-
cerning all measuring tools and techniques used should be re-
corded. A summary of test results should be recorded on the
cumulative folder. The tests should be recorded by types and
in chronological order.


Methods Of Expressing Test Scores
There are certain accepted methods of expressing test scores.
The principal ones are described below:
1. Intelligence Quotient
This score is obtained by dividing a student's mental
age by his chronological age and multiplying the result
by 100. If the student's chronological age and his mental
age are the same, his I.Q. will be 100, or average. If his
mental age is more than his chronological age, his I.Q.
will be above average, and if lower than his chronological
age, the I.Q. will be below average. These results rarely
indicate more than potential for academic learning. Broad-
er concepts of "intelligence" are not indicated by I.Q.
scores alone.
2. Grade Equivalent
Grade equivalents may be used to compare the pupil's
score with the expected norm in terms of grade level.
For example, in the sixth grade a grade equivalent of
6.0 indicates the expected achievement at the beginning
of the school year; 6.9 (six years-nine months) is the
expected achievement at the end of the school year. If
a student takes a test in the ninth month of his sixth








grade, and he makes a score of 7.1, his grade equivalent
will be that of the seventh grade, first month; thus, his
level is slightly above the expected class norm of 6.9.
Grade equivalent ratings may be used effectively to show
long-range comparisons of actual accomplishments with
average attainments.
3. Percentile
Percentile scores show in terms of percentages how an
individual rates in comparison with the appropriate group
of the population upon which the test was standardized.
Thus, if an individual ranks at the 90th percentile, it
means that only 10 per cent of those with whom he is
compared equal or exceed his score, while 90 per cent
fall short of this rating. By the same token, a score at
the 30th percentile means that the student's score ex-
ceeds the scores of 30 out of 100 and is lower than the
scores of 70 out of 100. The percentile is the score most
often used in reporting results to parents and students.
While the percentile is a readily understood and conven-
ient technique, it has certain limitations important in the
accurate interpretation of percentile scores. The principal
limitation of the percentile score results from the fact
that small differences in raw scores account for larger
percentile differences near the average of any distribu-
tion of scores than is the case of higher or lower in the
distribution. Thus, a score at the 60th percentile may
reflect a very minor difference from the 50th percentile
in terms of increase in actual number of test items correct-
ly answered, whereas a score at the 90th percentile will
probably reflect a much larger raw score increase over
the 80th percentile. The implication for test users is to
be wary of assuming that percentile differences reflect
significant and reliable differences in ability without ade-
quate evidence. One illustration of this principle of "wari-
ness" may be found in the Kuder Preference Record pro-
file sheet, on which interest scores are considered signi-
ficantly high or low only when they are above the 75th
or below the 25th percentile. These are arbitrary points
of demarcation, but they serve as a general guide to
caution.








4. Standard Score
This index is not as immediately clear in meaning as is
the percentile, but it too indicates an individual's posi-
tion in respect to the total range and distribution of
scores. The standard score shows how far a particular
score lies above or below the mean of a distribution in
terms of standard deviation. The standard deviation is
the average of all deviations from the mean. If the dis-
tributions of scores on two or more tests are approximate-
ly normal, standard scores derived from one distribu-
tion may be compared with those derived from others.
Standard scores must ultimately be given percentile
values to express their full significance. As an index of
relative rank, the standard score is preferred by many
test users over the percentile. This is because the stand-
ard score represents a fixed and uniform number of
units throughout the scale, whereas the percentile is
a position of rank in a group, and therefore percentile
scores do not represent equal units of individual dif-
ferences.
5. Stanine
The stanine represents the scores from a student's tests
arranged on a scale of nine points. On a bell-graph, the
placement of high and low scores from 1 as extreme low
to 9 as extreme high (with 5 as average) gives a visual
image of the approximate work level of a student in re-
lation to his grade or age group. This method makes
possible a combining of scores from several different
kinds of tests.

Cautions In Interpreting Test Scores
The weaknesses of any standardized test are implicit in
its title. A standard method can rarely, if ever, cover highly
individualized situations. While this limitation applies to all
standardized tests, its influence may be minimized by a care-
ful weighing of all factors which might alter interpretation.
Achievement tests, for example, often contain questions about
material which is not included in the actual subject-matter
experiences of the particular student. As another example, the
grade equivalent score should not be interpreted too literally.








A high grade equivalent in English does not have the same
meaning as a high equivalent in math, since the two subjects
differ so widely. An eighth-grader with a 10th grade math
equivalent is rarely able to solve 10th grade math problems;
he is simply a superior student of 8th grade math. On the other
hand, a 10th grade equivalent in English may well indicate
understandings on a 10th grade level in reading, vocabulary,
and other phases of English, since these are more easily ac-
quired in informal learning experiences in and out of school.
There is a tendency on the part of some school personnel to
use test results as absolute methods for judging and grouping.
Such a viewpoint can defeat the essential purpose of the test-
ing program and could possibly do serious harm to the scholastic
program of many individuals. For example, if a tenth-grade
student has a very contemplative nature and methodical work
habits, to the point of sharply lowering his scores on timed tests,
and yet reads and comprehends the works of Whitman and
Thoreau, he would be poorly represented by standardized test
scores alone. While such extreme cases are not in abundance,
inaccuracies are possible to some degree with all students. Low
scores may indicate that something is wrong, but further in-
vestigation will be needed to identify what is wrong.
Even though standardized test results cannot be used as
absolute determinants, scores do serve as valuable indicators
of a student's abilities in relation to a normal expectancy for
his class group. This suggests that the testing program should
be adapted primarily to the local school situation, that is, that
students be studied in relation to their immediate peers.
A composite picture of students' standardized test scores
and comparisons may be formed by an evaluation of these data
accumulated over a period of years. Only by doing this can
a teacher or guidance worker draw meaningful conclusions in-
volving consistent patterns of a student's abilities. When this
picture has been developed, the teacher may make plans to meet
the individual's needs and capacities with greater confidence.
The instructional staff should be furnished guidance in the
use of test data. They should know the potential values of the
results and the techniques whereby the greatest benefit can
be derived from these data.








Parents and students should be familiar with the types of
tests given and the purposes of each. The results of the stu-
dents' tests should be explained to both students and parents.
This may help overcome distorted opinions and frustrations
which are caused by misinterpretation of test results.

Evaluation
In order to know to what extent the testing program is meet-
ing the needs of the students and to be sure that it is ful-
filling the five major purposes listed in this chapter, continuous
evaluation is essential.
For example, follow-up surveys (discussed in Chapter 7)
provide information which can contribute to the usefulness
of tests in educational and vocational counseling. Has the test-
ing program made a contribution to vocational guidance in
that students have made better choices and are more satisfied
with and more successful in their jobs? Is there evidence that
those going to college have benefited by wiser choices in their
selection of a college or university? Are there fewer or more
failures in college? Are more students completing college work?
Another area in which the contribution of the testing program
needs to be evaluated is curriculum revision. The strengths and
weaknesses of student achievement in different areas are indi-
cated by test results. If the revision has been made because of
evidence based on these results, studies must be carried on in
order to see how results compare after curriculum revision. Have
all or some of the gaps been filled? Have the weaknesses been
strengthened? Have other weaknesses appeared?
Only two of the purposes have been dealt with here. In
the total evaluation the others will be of equal importance and
may be evaluated in the light of the objectives of the individual
school.
Evaluation is a means of checking on effectiveness and of
finding points at which the program may be improved. It pro-
vides security to the staff by giving everyone an opportunity
to know what tests are given and for what purposes. Some
other considerations are important in evaluation:
1. Are the scores interpreted in relation to all other known
facts?








2., Is there time to use the results of all tests selected and
.are they being used?
3. Can the expense of purchasing, correcting, recording, and
interpreting results be justified for each test?
4. Are proper interpretations of results given parents and
students?
One way in which evaluation may be done is to have a test-
ing committee from the faculty make an intensive study
of the program and report its findings to the entire group. This
committee may consist of volunteers or may be appointed by the
principal. It should function during the entire school year or
even longer. Any changes in the testing program should be
made with the consent and participation of the staff.

Bibliography
Anastasi, Anne. Psychological Testing. New York: The MacMillan Com-
pany, 1954.
Buros, Oscar K., ed. The Fourth Mental Measurements Yearbook. High-
land Park: Gryphon Press, 1953.
Connecticut State Department of Education. Education For Gifted
Children and Youth. Bulletin No. 77. Hartford: The Department,
1957.
Elicker, Paul E., ed. "The Education of Handicapped and Gifted Pupils
in the Secondary School," The National Association of Secondary
School Principals, 39:3-10 (January, 1955).
Freeman, Frank S. Theory and Practice of Psychological Testing. Re-
vised edition. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1955.
Froehlich, Clifford P. and Benson, Arthur L. Guidance Testing. Chicago:
Science Research Associates, 1948.
Indiana State Department of Public Instruction. "Some Considerations
For A Testing Program." Bulletin, Vol. III, No. 5. Indianapolis: The
Department, 1957.
Leake, James D. and Durost, Walter N. Curricular and Instructional
Implications of Test Results. Test Service Bulletin No. 75. New
York: World Book Company.
Lennon, Roger T. Planning A Testing Program. Test Service Bulletin
No. 55. New York: World Book Company.
Ross, C. C., and Stanley, Julian C. Measurement in Today's Schools.
3d edition. Englewood Cliffs:, Prentice Hall, Inc., 1954.
Rothney, John W. Guidance Practices and Results. New York: Harper
& Brothers, 1958.
Super, Donald E. Appraising Vocational Fitness by Means of Psychol-
ogical Tests. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1949.
Thorndike, Robert L. and Hager, Elizabeth. Measurement and Evalua-
tion in Psychology and Education. New York: John Wiley and Sons,
Inc., 1955.












CHAPTER 5


Orientation


ORIENTATION is the process of helping an individual to be-
come acquainted with and comfortable in a new environ-
ment. In this bulletin the term is used to mean acquainting
students with the problems of entering school during transition
periods preschool, junior high, senior high, junior college -
entering a school during the school year, or changing school
environment, i.e., moving from one town, state, or country to
another.
Orientation is a continuing process that goes on during the
year as well as at the beginning of a school year. For instance,
it cannot be assumed that all students are ready to understand
fully the information given them during orientation sessions at
the beginning of school. Also, new or transfer students need in-
formation similar to that given those who enter school in Sep-
tember.
A carefully planned program is important throughout the
year. It can be most effective if it is conducted by a team made
up of representatives of the administration, guidance workers,
teachers, and students. Each teacher must understand and take
an active part in the implementation of the program.

Why Orientation?
Students entering a new phase in their education are faced
with many problems. For example, the student who has held a
position of importance in a small school has many adjustments to
make as he finds competition for leadership keener in a larger
school.
In the same way a child entering school for the first time, as







well as a teenager entering college, may have some feelings of
fear and insecurity. It is basic to human growth that an individual
can develop and learn only to the degree that he is secure, happy,
and accepted by his group. The result of this acceptance will be
reflected in his capacity for taking advantage of all the opportu-
nities the school has to offer. This in turn can affect the morale
of the whole school.

What Should A Good Orientation Program Include?
A well-planned orientation program to help a student under-
stand himself and the school will include information about:
A. Educational Offerings
B. Extracurricular Activities
C. School Regulations and Traditions
D. Physical Plant
E. School Personnel and the Help They Can Give
F. Use of the Library
G. Community Resources Available (churches, recreation
centers, youth groups)

Elementary School
At the elementary level, guidance functions are primarily
the responsibility of the classroom teacher. In carrying out these
responsibilities, guidance workers and school psychologists give
considerable help. An orientation program is begun near the
end of a school year, when preschool children and parents are
brought into the classroom, and is continued as a basic part of
the curriculum throughout the year. Just as it is important to
help a child have good feelings about himself and the school,
it is important to help a parent understand the experiences his
child will have in school Parents can be a source of helpful
suggestions, understanding, and support to the teacher. As a
child comes to school, he brings with him certain fears. Picture
the freckle-faced little boy who visits the classroom and tiptoes
quietly to a desk. Wide-eyed and solemn, he says, "I'm gonna be
quiet 'cause I don't want a bad restapation."
Orientation experiences at this level serve to acquaint parents
with the school program and facilities. They also help parents







transfer a share of their protectiveness to the school. Such acti-
vities get the child off to a good start in learning to work and
play with others, share with others, make decisions, think and
create, and live happily in a new group situation.
The following orientation activities point up possible action
in helping parents and children:
1. Organizing meetings for parents before registration for the
purpose of presenting information such as that contained
in a school handbook or calendar of events (A natural
outgrowth of this might be parent-teacher conferences
and home visits by the teacher.)
2. Planning a get-together of class parents early in the year
for an informal discussion of educational objectives and
classroom procedure
3. Selecting a Parent of the Week and inviting him to visit
the classroom any time during the week to observe a
school day
4. Making photographs of children at work to be used in
explaining the school program (Parents may make the
photographs and lead the discussion.)
5. Sending written invitations to parents of preschool chil-
dren to come to the classroom at an appointed time (Each
class member might have as his responsibility the welfare
of one newcomer.)
6. Inviting the principal, librarian, cafeteria manager, and
other staff members to the classroom
7. Developing social studies units about the school
8. Making a point of selecting children to act as special help-
ers to other children who arrive during the school year
The elementary school has a responsibility in orienting its
departing students to junior high school. Some of the above
suggestions may be adapted for this purpose. It may be helpful
to consider suggestions from the following section in planning
activities for these children.

Welcome to Junior High!
The jump from elementary to junior high school involves a
difficult transition for a child. In most instances this means going








from a one-classroom, one-teacher atmosphere to the world of
departmentalization. This giant step can be exciting and chal-
lenging, or it can be an altogether fearsome experience.
One begins to perceive the extravagance of adolescent imagi-
nation and to realize the extent to which rumors can spread when
he hears a shy sixth-grader ask during an orientation visit, "Does
the principal really have an electric paddle?" Misinformation
and distorted perceptions must be replaced with a thorough
knowledge of and enthusiasm for the new school to which the
student is going. This can be accomplished through a series of
well-coordinated orientation activities, such as:
1. A visit to the elementary school by the principal, guidance
worker and student leaders. The junior high students may
be former graduates of the school. This visit is usually
initiated by the school guidance worker, who enlists the
aid of teachers and students in carrying out this activity
and other orientation procedures. In the absence of a
designated guidance worker the responsibility may fall to
junior high teachers or to an orientation chairman. Ele-
mentary pupils will profit more from this visit if they
have had the opportunity ahead of time to look over print-
ed materials explaining the junior high curriculum and
other pertinent information, copies of the school hand-
book, yearbook, newspaper, and map of the campus. From
this advance literature, the younger pupils will be better
able to carry on a worth-while discussion with junior high
students.
2. A spring tour of the school building, or, wherever feasible,
actual classroom visitation for an entire day. No matter
how brief, such a tour satisfies curiosity as to how
large the building is, where the library, cafeteria, and
basketball courts are located, and whether the teachers
at least look human.
3. Pre-testing of prospective junior high pupils to assist in
placing them. If the elementary pupils have all had the
same test, it will furnish the junior high with a compara-
tive measure as one aid to proper placement.
4. Conference of elementary and junior high teachers. If a
conference in the spring is arranged for, a general discus-







sion of cumulative records and their uses, the junior high
program, and other information of mutual interest will
greatly enhance the communication between the staff
members of elementary and junior high school. If prac-
ticable, a similar conference of a more specific nature
should be arranged after the first grading period in the
fall.
5. Meeting with parents of new students. This activity may
very well be part of a PTA program designed to increase
and strengthen parent interest in the school.
6. Special day before school opening in September for new
junior high students to attend school. Although a few
pupils and parents may object to being short-changed on
their summer vacation, it is more likely that they will
welcome the opportunity to meet their teachers and go
through a quick schedule.
7. "Get-Acquainted" parties for all new students. These
mixers are usually handled with ease by the student coun-
cil or service clubs in the school.
The foregoing suggestions and many others which have proved
successful throughout the State can help make the student feel
welcome as he enters junior high school. The need to assume
further responsibility for orientation occurs when the student
is preparing to leave junior high. Through the cooperative ef-
forts of junior and senior high schools this exodus may be helped
to become a calm and natural one.

The Senior High School
The senior high school orientation program has multiple re-
sponsibilities. It must plan to orient new students coming from
the junior high feeder schools, new students entering during
the year, and senior students getting ready for their further
educational experiences. Planning and cooperation are neces-
sary to help students feel at home in a new school situation.

Problems Students Face
The problems faced by a student entering a high school for
the first time are diverse and very real to him. Some of the
most difficult problems from the student's viewpoint are:







1. The feelings of fear and loss of prestige which arise when
he goes from a school where he was in a top grade to a
school where he is now in the lowest grade
2. The necessity for choosing among the many elective sub-
jects available (These make it necessary and important to
give more thought and planning to the future.)
3. Unfamiliarity with the new school building and campus
4. The need for meeting graduation requirements
5. Acceptance into clubs and groups
6. The task of learning the regulations, traditions, appropriate
study methods, and standards of conduct of the new school
7. Getting acquainted with his new teachers
8. Becoming adjusted to the community as a whole
The degree of success with which these problems are handled
will determine how well and quickly a student adjusts to his new
school. Almost always the dropout rate is directly related to the
effectiveness of the orientation program.

Coming From Junior High School
Helping an incoming student make a successful transition to
high school is an orientation process which complements the
efforts made by junior high schools to prepare students for this
adventure, and also parallels the procedures discussed earlier
in this chapter in the sections on elementary and junior high
orientation programs. The reader will readily find ways of
adapting many of the suggestions offered in the section entitled
Welcome To Junior High! to the situation confronted by the
student entering high school. Some additional procedures, parti-
cularly appropriate to the high school level, are:
1. Individual conferences or group meetings at which parents
meet administrators, teachers, and counselors (This may
be an Open House or Parents' Night.)
2. Assistance by counselors or teachers in registration for the
high school years
3. Assignment in September of a Big Brother or Big Sister
to each new student to advise and help him through the
year







4. Special social events at the beginning of the school year,
such as coke parties and a welcome dance
5. Special assemblies for the new students to meet members
of the faculty and administration and student leaders
(These functions may make use of films, filmstrips, and
slides showing school activities. School songs and yells
may be demonstrated and extra-curricular activities ex-
plained.)
Orientation continues throughout the year. This continu-
ing process may be accomplished by means of regular assemblies,
homeroom programs, the pages of the school newspaper, and
special units in subject classes.

The New Or Transfer Student
The new or transfer student who enters school during the
year has even more problems to face than the student coming
from junior high school. Many good practices are being used
by schools to help the new student over the hurdles. Some
of these are:
1. Distributing the handbook and other printed information
about the school
2. Introducing the student to the principal, counselor, li-
brarian, student leaders, and others to whom he can go
for help
3. Providing student council member to accompany him to
all his classes and to introduce him to teachers and stu-
dents
4. Having teachers offer special help before and after school
5. Making help available from honor students
6. Providing for follow-up in two or three weeks by the
school counselor
7. Getting in touch with youth and adult agencies in the
community to help the new student and his family be-
come acquainted more quickly

Going To College
The increased emphasis on the importance of doing well
in college has made senior high schools more aware of their








responsibility in this area. Students need a good academic
background, but they also need to make a successful transi-
tion to college life in general. Some of the activities which can
be helpful to college-bound seniors are:
1. Special English classes can help them prepare for college
methods and standards.
2. College clubs can be organized in which catalogs are
collected and admission requirements, costs, and avail-
able scholarships are studied.
3. College Days or College Nights can be arranged, when
representatives of the colleges in which the students are
interested come to talk with them and their parents.
4. Visits to colleges for a day or week end can be planned
with opportunities to become acquainted with the actual
campus.
5. In the course of counseling students about results of
such tests as the College Entrance Examination Board
Tests and the senior "Placement" Tests, helpful informa-
tion about college life can be given.
6. In schools where there is no organized College Day,
representatives of different colleges may visit the school
to talk to interested students.
7. College catalogs and information about scholarships should
be made available to seniors by the use of posters, special
bulletins, and other visual aids in the homerooms, the
library, or other central location.
8. Teachers and counselors need to help students individ-
ually and in groups by giving them information about
colleges and by answering questions.

Conclusion
A good orientation program is basically one that helps a
student adjust to his new environment as quickly and smooth-
ly as possible. Such a program will result in better school
grades and in better morale on the part of the individual as
well as the student body as a whole. Continual evaluation of
the orientation program by teachers and students should be
made each year, and changes put into effect as they are needed.








Bibliography
Arthaud, R. E. "Fairview Holds Visiting Day," Montana Education,
33011 (May, 1957).
Cook, T. E. "Orienting the High School Freshman," Ohio Schools, 33:12-
13 (May, 1955).
Kaplan, Arthur A. "Orienting the Seventh Grader," California Journal
of Secondary Education, 31:204-8 (April, 1956).
Lanza, A. "Audio-Visual Techniques and the Orientation Program,"
Journal of Business Education, 31:36-7 (October, 1955).
McCune, I. E. "Mama Starts Me to School," Pennsylvania School Jour-
nal, 106:8 (September, 1957).
Mennes, Arthur H. "Orientation of New Students to High School,"
School Review, 64:64-6 (February, 1956).
Mosher, Howard H. "Orienting for the New School," American School
Board Journal, 131:29-31 (August, 1955).
Peck, A. Daniel "Bridging the Gap," The Instructor, 66:7 (May, 1957).
Peters, Herman J. "Orientation-The Land of Ohs and Ahs!," School
Activities, 27-28:21-22 (September, 1956).
Smith, Arthur and Josse, Jane. "Some Social-Psychological Aspects of
the High School Orientation," Journal of Educational Sociology,
31:99-106 (November, 1957).
Spalding, H. G. "Orientation of Transfer Students to Their New Schools
and Communities," National Association of Secondary School Prin-
cipals Bulletin, 41:150-3 (April, 1957).
Warters, Jane. High School Personnel Work Today. New York: Mc-
Graw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1956.











CHAPTER 6


Counseling


COUNSELING is frequently called the heart of the guid-
ance program. All too often the implication seems to be
that counseling is the only important guidance service and also
that it is a very special activity that only the "specialist" can
assume. Thus, many school people are intimidated into avoid-
ing counseling of any kind, even when they are quite com-
petent to perform the requested service adequately.
Counseling is an activity that takes place in many settings
at many levels of competence. When a teacher talks informally
with a student about his college plans, he is counseling. When
a counselor discusses vocational plans with a student in a
scheduled interview, he is counseling. When any member of
the staff of a school attempts to help a student solve a personal
problem, he is counseling. In other words, for the purposes
of this bulletin, the term counseling is not limited to high-level
consultations between a trained specialist and a person in trouble
but includes a wide variety of person-to-person interactions.
Counseling is a kind of helping relationship in which two
people try to communicate about plans, decisions, feelings, and
attitudes in which one of the two people is personally involved.
One of the two has decisions to make or problems to resolve;
the other has resources. The one who is using his resources
to help the other puts aside his own problems for the time be-
ing. The one who is being helped is encouraged to enjoy the
luxury of paying full attention to himself.

How Justify Counseling?
There are certain assumptions which underlie any attempt
to counsel a student. These assumptions are implicit in counsel-







ing, whether or not the counselor is fully aware of them. They
are partly philosophical assumptions, ideas which men hold but
cannot prove, and partly psychological assumptions, ideas which
men propose and hope someday to prove. Some of the main
assumptions upon which the counseling or helping relationship
is based are these:

1. Every human being has worth. This is an axiom which
underlies social and political democracy and most of the
religious and humanistic traditions. It follows from this
axiom that people who work with others (students, for
example) in a helping relationship try to discover the
worthiness in those they are serving. This is sometimes
difficult, especially when the student is using unattrac-
tive ways of asserting himself or of gaining attention or
is suspicious of the person trying to help him. The im-
plications for counseling are many. One is that the coun-
selor must be patient. Another is that the counselor must
strive to recognize his own biases and try to control them.
2. Behavior is caused. Every act of behavior, including
sudden, impulsive acts and seemingly irrational acts, has
an underlying reason or reasons. Frequently, it is im-
possible to discover the reasons. One implication for
counseling is that we gain nothing by merely condemning
a breach of discipline or an attitude which is out of line
with the socially accepted pattern. This is not to say that
the counselor condones unacceptable behavior, but rather
that he can be much more effective in helping the student
find the best path if he tries to understand the student
and help him understand himself.
Another implication for counseling is that one must
search for the patterns of behavior by putting together
the pieces in the jig-saw puzzle of behavior. The coun-
selor does not make judgments based on a single act
but rather takes note of each act as a clue to the larger
pattern.
3. People can learn and grow and develop only to the ex-
tent that they feel secure and accepted. Since counsel-
ing is a process which encourages individuals to learn
to understand themselves (just as classroom teaching is







primarily -a process in which people are encouraged to
learn about various aspects of the world they live in),
it follows that the counselor needs to do all he can to
create an atmosphere in which the counselee can feel
secure and accepted. If the counselor or teacher who
is talking with an individual student can make the stu-
dent feel that he is not going to be lectured to, or punished,
or threatened; that he is going to be listened to within
reasonable limits of available time; that the counselor
sees him as a worthwhile person, even if some of the
things he has done and some of the attitudes he has
taken are not acceptable-then a solid basis for the
counseling relationship has been established.
4. Each of us behaves and feels and reacts to situations ac-
cording to the way he perceives himself and the world
around him. By perceives is not meant just our visual
images, but our understanding of all that is happening
to us. Often these perceptions are different from the ob-
jective reality. From this it follows that a counselor can
be much more helpful to a student if the counselor
can find ways of getting as close as possible to the stu-
dent's way of seeing his world and himself.

Counseling Procedures
It is hoped that the foregoing discussion will provide some
general assistance to teachers and guidance workers in carry-
ing out the counseling process. While it is beyond the scope
of this bulletin to attempt an exhaustive discussion of counsel-
ing procedures, the following suggestions may be useful guides.
The references at the end of this chapter and the suggested
readings listed in the Appendix contain further material on
this subject.
1. In order to help the student feel comfortable and secure
enough to talk freely about himself, the counselor can
reduce the initial tension by showing his friendly in-
terest in an informal, casual manner. There is no specific
formula, but opening small talk which suggests itself
spontaneously and is consistent with the counselor's typi-
cal behavior is appropriate. Forced comments and prob-
ing questions usually defeat their own purpose.








2. When possible, arrangements should be made so that
counseling takes place in physical comfort and freedom
from distracting activities, interruptions, or the possi-
bility of eavesdropping. When formal appointments are
made, the counselor should be prompt, since tardiness
is often perceived by the student as lack of interest or
a sign that he is not considered important. Conditions
under which students wait for appointments should be
pleasant and comfortable and as private as possible.
3. In the actual interview, the counselor should phrase his
questions and comments in such a way as to encourage the
student to tell his story in his own words. For example,
one might say, "Tell me about how this situation looks
to you." rather than "What grades are you getting this
semester?" Sometimes, of course, a student will be
puzzled by a wide-open invitation to talk. The counselor
can help him get started by suggesting a general topic,
such as his home life or his school interests. This affords
help but at the same time gives some freedom to the
student.
4. Since the goal of counseling is to encourage self-under-
standing on the part of the student, the counselor needs
to create a climate in which the student is free to ex-
plore his real feelings and get beneath the surface of
the rationalizations and cliches which so often interfere
with self-knowledge. This does not mean probing the
unconscious or performing psychotherapy. It does mean
listening to the whole story with patience and calmness.
It also means helping the student become aware of his
own values rather than imposing one's values on him.
Even a question of educational or vocational choice often
involves doubts and fears and other feelings which can-
not be resolved by information or advice alone. When
students present problems which the counselor feels he
cannot handle or when signs of severe emotional dis-
turbance appear, the counselor will recognize his own
limitations and arrange to get help from more appropriate
sources.
5. In addition to the exchange of ideas which takes place
through words, the counselor and student communicate








important feelings and attitudes through "sub-verbal"
behavior. This means that the counselor needs to ob-
serve the student's manner and actions and also to be
aware of his own. Bodily squirming, nervous tics, tone
of voice, signs of vocal tension, and facial expressions
are examples of the clues by means of which both coun-
selor and student reveal and communicate their feel-
ings. The counselor can learn much about the student by
observing these signs and can respond to these messages
even on those occasions when the verbal channel is
blocked.

The Role Of The Guidance Counselor
The role of the guidance counselor is to help the individual
learn to understand and accept himself, his capabilities, apti-
tudes, and 'interests and to help him implement this self-under-
standing in making plans. Here the subject matter to be dealt with
is a human being-much more emotionally-charged content than
that found in a regular school subject. Thus, the counselor, in as-
sisting pupils in the solution of their problems and in helping
them achieve self-direction, realizes that his scope of activity
extends far beyond the person-to-person relationship. He real-
izes that he cannot be an all-knowing specialist who is isolated
from the other members of the faculty but that he must work
in close cooperation with all school services in order to provide
for better understanding of the child. In this role, the counselor
realizes the value of teacher-counselor conferences on pupil prob-
lems. He also recognizes the usefulness of case conferences in-
volving the teacher, pupil, parent, and counselor for joint study
of all available data and as a basis in making recommendations
for pupil progress.
The classroom teacher may be considered as the point of
contact in detecting and dealing with student problems. The
counselor will often refer pupils to various sympathetic and un-
derstanding teachers for counseling on educational progress and
social adjustment, and he will continue cooperative action with
such teachers on behalf of the pupils' development. A typical
circumstance in a high school may arise, for example, when the
history teacher, who doubles as the track coach, is better able
to help the school's champion sprinter achieve a more success-








ful solution to his academic problems than is anyone else on
the staff.
Another illustration is the case of pretty, blonde Mary Ann,
yearbook editor for her senior year. When her father dies in
January and her plans for college seem to go up in smoke, she
naturally turns to the publications sponsor, Miss Johnson, whose
judgment and understanding she has grown to admire and re-
spect. Miss Johnson encourages Mary Ann to discuss her situ-
ation and her feelings about it. Miss Johnson learns from Mary
Ann that her financial problems are complex and do indeed
seem to prohibit her from making any further plans toward en-
tering the university in the fall. Realizing the need for further
help, the teacher turns to the school counselor. The counselor,
after verifying the student's academic aptitude, invites Mary
Ann and her mother in for an interview. Attempts are made
for Mary Ann to obtain a part-time job for the spring to be fol-
lowed by summer employment. Immediate steps are taken
to help her apply for scholarship assistance at the university.
Although in some instances the teacher could have followed
through to the end on a student problem of this kind, the teach-
er cannot always meet all student needs and at the same time
fulfill his regular classroom functions.
In some situations the counselor will feel that his skills are
inadequate to handle a given problem. In such cases, consul-
tation and referral sources should be utilized. The case of Jean
illustrates this point. Jean was referred to the counselor by a
teacher who called attention to the girl's excessive absences
over a long period of time. In a series of conferences, the coun-
selor learned that Jean was under great emotional stress brought
about by serious conflicts between her parents. These conflicts
stemmed from Jean's father's loss of work, the resultant strain
on the family budget, and the mother's recent attempt at sui-
cide. Realizing the girl's feeling of despair and being aware
that other agencies were needed, the counselor enlisted the aid
of the school social worker and the nearby child guidance clinic.
The referral to specialists with different skills seemed neces-
sary in this case.
The counselor is often delegated responsibilities which make
it possible for him to assist in securing information helpful in
curriculum revision and in evaluating the effectiveness of the








school's total program. However, it is generally recognized
that the counselor is not to be given administrative or disciplin-
ary duties that might impair the effectiveness of his relation-
ships with pupils. The counselor has a responsibility to help
prevent misbehavior and to deal with it when it occurs. How-
ever, his role can be played more effectively if he is free to
help the student gain insight into the sources of his unaccept-
able acts. This cannot be done if he is responsible for ad-
ministering punishment.
It is now apparent that there are many interrelationships
that should be at work in the counseling process if the guidance
program is to be an effective one. The counselor who clearly
demonstrates his competence in dealing with these relation-
ships will fill an important role in helping children understand
themselves and their problems.

The Training Of A Guidance Counselor
The professional training requirements for certification as
a guidance counselor in Florida are set forth by the State De-
partment of Education. The reader is referred to the Appendix
for a list of these requirements. The training includes a basic
program of courses designed to help a teacher perform success-
fully the duties of a guidance counselor. These courses are
built on a foundation of several years of successful experience
in classroom teaching.
In addition to the professional training needed, the guid-
ance counselor should have certain personal qualities that will
enable him to work effectively with other members of the school
family. In general, these qualities are the same personal char-
acteristics and attitudes found in successful classroom teachers,
such as the need to be emotionally mature, to have a wide
range of interests, to be enthusiastic about one's work, to have
a genuine interest in young people as individuals, and to have
the ability to inspire confidence. A principal who wants
to develop a good guidance program in his school will encourage
interested teachers to become certified in guidance.
While it is true that all members of the faculty will con-
tribute to a successful guidance program, trained counselors are
needed to provide professional leadership. However, it must
be remembered that even when well-qualified, trained per-







sonnel are selected for guidance work in a school the at-
titude of the principal toward the program is very important.
He is the key person whose backing and enthusiasm can help
the guidance worker and the faculty carry on a successful,
growing program.

The Role Of The Classroom Teacher In Counseling
The classroom teacher sees the student every day. He has
the opportunity to know him intimately, to discover his strengths
and his weaknesses, and to help him develop his abilities to
their fullest. A teacher can use his academic subject as a
means of establishing close personal contact with his students.
Boys and girls in a class know when the teacher is interested
in them, in helping them with any problems they may have.
A favorable classroom climate makes it easier for a student to
go to his teacher for help or advice or to talk over problems.
It is a rewarding experience for a teacher when he takes
advantage of these opportunities to learn to know his students
better. Of course, as he works toward such understanding, he
may often feel the need for help in working with his students.
When this happens, one of the persons he consults is the guid-
ance worker. The help he receives may be in the form of test
results, family background information, or inventories of in-
terests. Or it may be simply reassurance from the guidance
worker that he is doing the right thing.
In order to provide effective guidance, teachers need to
understand the needs, interests, and abilities of their students.
When a student seems to be slipping back rather than going
forward, the teacher asks "why?" and begins checking to see
what is causing the trouble. He may have a conference with
the student, with the guidance worker, and in some cases, with
the parents.

The Teacher And Parents
The relationship between the classroom teacher and the
parents of his students should be one of close cooperation. Both
teacher and parent are interested in the growth and develop-
ment of the child. Both must have respect for the part played
by the other because they have a joint responsibility in helping







the pupil attain his educational and vocational goals. Their
mutual interest in the child places parent and teacher in a
friendly working relationship where neither praise nor blame
is the issue. The teacher's willingness to understand reasons
behind certain behavior becomes significant. His attitude is
of major importance in conveying to parents his faith in the
child as a person of integrity.
Some of the following questions may serve to point up areas
for exploration as the teacher and parents work together.
How does the parent define the problem?
Has he any idea how the problem began?
What action has been taken in the home?
How does the parent think the child feels about this action?
What does the parent think the teacher and school can do?
What can the school and the home do together?
Thoughtful discussion based on such questions may seem to
progress slowly, but hunches developed in such a manner are
more likely to lead to successful action than are plans dic-
tated by the teacher.

The Role Of The Administrator
As the administrative head of a school, the principal is
responsible for seeing that counseling can take place. There
is common agreement that he has the following responsibilities:
to help formulate and to clarify the purposes of guidance
to support the guidance program enthusiastically
to appoint the person or persons responsible for organization
of the program
to assist the staff in working out the details of specific pro-
gram functions and staff relationships
to provide the supplies, equipment, and materials essential
to the program
to assume major responsibilities for the public relations as-
pects of guidance services








to take leadership in developing a state of readiness on the
part of the faculty and community for specialized guid-
ance services before providing the school system with a
special guidance worker
to arrange necessary financing of the program
to set up procedures for evaluating the program

Conclusion

Counseling, then, takes its place as an integral part of the
guidance program, interdependent with other equally important
activities. Counseling occurs in many settings and is carried
on by all of the members of the school family. It deals with
various student needs and problems. This chapter has attempted
to set forth the principal assumptions on which counseling is
based and to discuss some of their implications. The roles of
counselor, teacher, and administrator in the counseling pro-
cess have been described, and some attention has been given to
counseling procedures. The reader's attention is directed to
the references at the end of this chapter and to the Appendix
for further treatment of this topic.


Bibliography
Bordin, Edward S. Psychological Counseling. New York: Appleton-
Century-Crofts, 1955.
Brayfleld, Arthur H., ed. Readings in Modern Methods of Counseling.
New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1950.
Calls, Robert, Polmantier, Paul C. and Roeber, Edward C. A Casebook
of Counseling. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1955.
Curran, Charles A. Personality Factors in Counseling. New York: Grune
and Stratton, 1945.
Driscoll, Gertrude P. Child Guidance in the Classroom. New York:
Teachers College, Columbia University, 1955.
Failor, Clarence W. "Distinguishing Marks of Counseling," Occupa-
tions, 30:260-263 (January, 1952).
Garrett, Annette. Counseling Methods for Personnel Workers. New
York: Family Welfare Association of America, 1945.
Hamrin, Shirley A. Chats With Teachers About Counseling. Blooming-
ton, Illinois: McKnight & McKnight Pub. Co., 1950.
Hughell, Wilma and Lance, Gerald G. "Student-Parent-Counselor Con-
ferences," Personnel and Guidance Journal, 31:509-512 (May, 1953).
Jenson, Ralph E. "Student Feeling About Counseling Help," Personnel
and Guidance Journal, 33:498-503 (May, 1955).








Leonard, Edith M., Van Demon, Dorothy D. and Miles, Lillian E.
Counseling With Parents in Early Childhood Education. New York:
MacMillan, 1954.
Lloyd-Jones, Esther M. and Smith, Margaret R., ed. Student Person-
nel Work as Deeper Teaching. First edition. New York: Harper
& Brothers, 1954.
Lorenzen, Stanley H. and Tolson, Andy. "How Can We Provide Effective
Counseling Services for Students in the Junior and Senior High
Schools," National Association of Secondary School Principals Bul-
letin, 41:34-38 (April, 1957).
MacDonald, Loretta M. "Measuring the Effectiveness of Counseling,"
Clearing House, 30:116-117 (October, 1955).
Matthewson, Robert H. "The General Guidance Counselor," Personnel
and Guidance Journal, 32:544-547 (May, 1954).
McKinney, Fred. Counseling for Personal Adjustment in Schools and
Colleges. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1958.
Pepinsky, Harold B. and Pepinsky, Pauline N. Counseling: Theory and
Practice. New York: Ronald Press Co., 1954.
Porter, Elias H. An Introduction to Therapeutic Counseling. Boston:
Houghton Mifflin, 1950.
Roberts, Andrew D. "The Cooperative Personnel Approach for the
School Psychologist," Occupations, 30:599-600 (May, 1952).
Rogers, Carl R. Client-Centered Therapy; Its Current Practice, Im-
plications and Theory. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1951.
Strang, Ruth. The Role of the Teacher in Personnel Work. Fourth
edition, revised and enlarged. New York: Bureau of Publications,
Teachers College, Columbia University, 1953.
Tyler, Leona E. The Work of the Counselor. New York: Appleton-
Century-Crofts, 1953.
Warters, Jane. Techniques of Counseling. New York: McGraw-Hill,
1954.












CHAPTER 7


Placement And Follow-Up


FOR MANY STUDENTS the culmination of their school ex-
perience is the transition from the academic world to the
world of work. This means that the placement service is an
integral part of the guidance program. Some confusion has been
caused by a variety of uses of the term placement. In this bul-
letin the term will be used to mean assistance to students in
obtaining part-time or full-time paid employment. The place-
ment service is concerned with aiding the individual during his
preparation for and transition to new employment opportunities.

Placement
The placement services in a school are a means of bringing
the school and community into closer relationship. The com-
munity's recognition of placement objectives and awareness that
the school is functioning to assist the student, not only through
the school work program but also in securing a satisfactory
job, will result in better understanding between community and
the school. As an example, the Y.E.S. movement (Youth Em-
ployment Service) -a cooperative school-community summer
employment program for young people-is growing rapidly in
Florida.
Purposes
One purpose for part-time and summer jobs is to provide
exploratory work experiences. Also, students often secure full-
time work as a result of the experience they have had on ex-
ploratory jobs.
Another value of part-time employment is that it helps de-
crease the number of school drop-outs. It is possible to de-







velop ways of anticipating potential drop-outs and of preventing
some of them. In counseling a student whose motivation to
stay in school is waning, a guidance worker may be able to
bring about better relations between the student and the school.
If the reason for leaving school is a financial one, a part-time
job may solve the problem. If a solution cannot be found and
the student withdraws, the school will not have failed this pupil
altogether if it can be instrumental in helping him get a full-
time job for which he is qualified. Sometimes the desire to
drop out of school is based on a need for independence or an
impatience to assume an adult role. Here, again, the responsi-
bility and prestige which the student may find in even a part-
time job may be sufficient to restore his desire to complete
his education.


Organization Of The Placement Service
Among the factors which determine the scope of the school's
placement service and the way in which it is organized are the
size of the school and the nature of free placement services
available elsewhere in the community. In the absence of other
community placement agencies, a small school may find itself
assuming full responsibility for placing its students. In large
cities the employment process is usually so complex that the
school cannot handle placement functions without the help of
other community agencies. The placement service in city schools
may emphasize referral to other agencies and cooperation in
providing facilities for agencies and employers in the school
building at the peak recruiting periods.
In any case, efficient organization of the placement program
is necessary. A systematic and continuous program requires
that the responsibility for organization and coordination of the
service be delegated to one person. The counselor may be
in charge, but any organizational plan should include all school
personnel. Teachers of industrial arts, business education, home-
making, and Diversified Cooperative Training, can make im-
portant contributions. Instruction in how to evaluate job of-
fers, how to make applications, effective participation in job
interviews, and ways of locating job openings may be given
within regular classes.








Cooperation is the keynote of the counseling-placement re-
lationship. Employment personnel need pertinent information
about persons to be placed, and school counselors need up-to-
date information about the local labor market and other oc-
cupational data.

Specific Placement Activities
The following are activities often included in a school place-
ment service:
1. Maintaining a central record system for registration of
students desiring work, listing their qualifications, and
keeping a file of job openings and employer contacts
2. Inviting representatives of industry to visit the school
to see students at work, such as boys in the school shop
or students in a typing class
3. Subscribing to professional and trade journals
4. Placing the school name on mailing lists for Federal, State,
and city civil service announcements
5. Informing prospective employers in the community about
the school's placement service
6. Serving as liaison between students and employment
agencies
7. Stimulating the interest of civic clubs (Students can par-
ticipate in programs to inform employers about the place-
ment service of the high school.)
8. Encouraging students and parents to seek information
about job opportunities
9. Helping faculty members to be informed of possible job
openings and encouraging them to notify the guidance
office of available jobs which come to their attention
The extent of the placement service will depend on the in-
dividual school; however, each school should accept those re-
sponsibilities which are not met by other agencies in helping
its students successfully enter the labor market.

Follow-Up
The principle that guidance is a continuous process is no-
where better illustrated than in the follow-up service, through







which the school maintains systematic contact with former stu-
dents. Educators are becoming increasingly aware of t h e i r
responsibility to these students-the drop-outs-as well as the
graduates. Administrators and teachers recognize that the de-
gree of adjustment and progress of their former students is
the test of the effectiveness of the educative process.

Reasons For Neglect Of Follow-Up
Why, then, has the follow-up service been neglected in so
many schools? The reasons usually heard include "not enough
time," "too expensive," "no one responsible for the work." Re-
ports of successful follow-up studies refute these arguments.
They show that once the procedures are organized, the time
factor is diminished. They reveal that the expense is not ap-
preciable in the light of results obtained. Finally, farsighted
administrators have assumed or delegated the responsibility for
follow-up after being convinced that the activity is worthwhile.
It is true that much valuable information is obtained through
incidental follow-up. Informal conferences and interviews with
students who return to school for a visit, information obtained
from families, friends, and teachers who maintain contacts with
former students, and reports on students received from col-
leges and employers, all furnish clues to the reactions of stu-
dents after they have left school. The obvious limitation of
relying upon information of this nature is that it gives an in-
complete and unbalanced picture. In order to secure complete
and reliable data from representative groups, it is necessary
to have periodic, systematic studies of students who have been
out of school for some time. At intervals, graduating classes
or school drop-outs can be followed up.

Purposes Of Follow-Up
The purposes of follow-up procedures include the follow-
ing:
1. To provide information useful in counseling, adult edu-
cation, and placement of former students (Teachers of
vocational agriculture have done outstanding work of
this kind by organizing young farmer groups as a way
of keeping in contact with graduates and providing them
with further guidance and training.)








2. Maintain cooperative and constructive relationships with
employers and educational institutions
3. To obtain information concerning experiences and
opinions of former students as an aid in improving in-
struction
4. To increase the holding power of the school by providing
the staff with greater knowledge of the reasons for drop-
outs

Follow-Up Procedures
Those responsible for the guidance program may be ex-
pected to assume major responsibility in providing and co-
ordinating follow-up services. The following are some of the
more important procedures:
1. Informing faculty of purposes of follow-up and encour-
aging some of the members to participate in carrying out
the details
2. Instituting a systematic plan for maintaining contact with
former students
3. Utilizing informal contacts with pupils by teachers, coun-
selors, administrators, and currently enrolled students
4. Acquainting pupils in school with the purposes of follow-
up and with the importance of maintaining contact with
the school after they leave.

The most widely used technique in the follow-up service
is the survey questionnaire. This may be in the form of a
double postcard to be mailed to former students. However,
the use of a letter in a regular envelope with an enclosed re-
turn postcard insures more nearly complete mail delivery. The
questionnaire should be accompanied by a brief explanation
of the purposes of the survey. A form which can be checked
easily gets a higher proportion of replies than does one which
requires writing out answers. Experience has shown that a
60% return is a relatively satisfactory response. Student groups
and alumni organizations can be called on to assist with follow-
up activities. A sample questionnaire will be found in the Ap-
pendix.








Another technique sometimes used in follow-up is interview-
ing graduates who have enrolled in college and students who
have gone from school into employment or marriage.
Follow-up services should be considered more than just a
mechanical method of getting facts about former students. The
information obtained can serve as the basis for continuous
evaluation of the school program and for revision of the cur-
riculum in the light of changing conditions in both the local
and the larger community which the school serves.

Bibliography
Dresher, Richard H. "Factors in Voluntary Drop-outs," The Personnel
and Guidance Journal, 32:287-289 (January, 1954).
Guidance Services for Minnesota School. Curriculum Bulletin No. 16
St. Paul: State of Minnesota, Department of Education, 1951.
Hamrin, S. A. Initiating and Administering Guidance Services. Bloom-
ington, Illinois: McKnight and McKnight Publishing Co., 1953.
Handbook for Providing Guidance Services. Springfield: State of Il-
linois, Board for Educational Education, Series A Bulletin, No. 107
(June, 1949).
Improving Guidance Programs in Secondary Schools. Sacramento,
California: State Department of Education, 1951.
Jones, Arthur J. Principles of Guidance and Pupil Personnel Work.
New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1951.
Kleiner, Julius, "Some Techniques for Better Guidance," The Personnel
and Guidance Journal, 33:34-35 (September, 1954).
Novak, Benjamin. "What Place for Placement," Occupations, 30:258-
259 (January, 1952).
Sinick, Daniel. "Placement's Place in Guidance and Counseling," The
Personnel and Guidance Journal, 34:36-40 (September, 1955).
Willey, Roy DeVerl, and Andrew, Dean C. Modern Methods and Tech-
niques in Guidance. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1955.
Wrenn, C. Gilbert, and Dugan, Willis E. Guidance Procedures in High
Schools. Minneapolis: The University of Minnesota Press, The
Modern School Practices Series, No. 1, 1950.












CHAPTER 8


Organization and Administration


YOUTH continually face problems in understanding them-
selves and in making wise decisions. On every side they are
met with increasingly complex social and economic patterns and
widening occupational opportunities. With these changes have
come greater emphasis on individual differences and the develop-
ment of programs which seek to give systematic aid to all stu-
dents. Guidance programs are developed to provide specific kinds
of services for all children, not just for those with serious difficul-
ties. This development parallels that of public education gen-
erally, since our public school system evolved as a way of meet-
ing the demand for providing specific kinds of knowledge for
all children.

Getting Started
Basic to the development of a consistent and long-range guid-
ance program is the identification of appropriate starting points.
This evaluating process is more fruitful when insights are gained
as a result of careful and critical analysis of what is already being
done and what more is needed. A desirable form of organization
provides a framework within which guidance services can be
distinguished from the instructional program, even though it is
recognized that guidance and instruction are closely related and
have common goals. Guidance services, in some degree, exist
as a part of the activities of almost every school, ready to be
discovered and utilized as integral components of a planned guid-
ance program. The objectives of a guidance program are in
harmony with the objectives of the total school program. How-
ever, it cannot be assumed that a guidance program can sub-
stitute for inadequate total school organization. The guidance








program is a group of services whose purpose is not to absorb
the activities of other departments, but to facilitate them.

Role Of Administration And Faculty
Effective organization demands that every staff member have
an understanding and appreciation of the objectives and functions
of the guidance program. While guidance services are a direct
responsibility of the administration, the involvement of staff
members and cooperation between administrators and staff are
essential elements in a sound program. The administrator sets
up guide lines for cooperation as he delegates powers and duties.
His leadership ability in providing these guide lines is increas-
ingly taxed as schools grow in size and complexity. As the atten-
tion of school personnel is expanded to integrate student needs
and curriculum, acceptance of the vital role of the guidance
service will follow. Guidance programs operate within the limits
set up by the administration. The actual guidance procedures
will develop as the staff members grow in competence to apply
them.

Cost Of Guidance Services
While the problems involved in financing a guidance program
are dealt with in greater detail later in this chapter, it may be
well to acknowledge at the outset that the development of an
adequate program will entail additional expense to the school.
Therefore, it is imperative as a basis for future growth that con-
sideration be given in the budget to providing for adequate
space, equipment, supplies, personnel, and time. Ample time
for competent individual counseling is accepted as a fundamental
component of any program. Success is dependent upon support
of administrators, competence of guidance workers, contributions
of teachers, and utilization of community resources; but the
intangible factor of prime importance in this combination is the
effectiveness of the human relationships.

Initiating And Developing A Guidance Program
Sound programs of guidance services do not mushroom over-
night or appear suddenly by administrative edict. There must
first be a careful and critical appraisal of the present educational
program with participation by all persons concerned. The school








faculty members may wish to take inventory by asking them-
selves these questions. What are the needs and problems of our
students? Are we taking care of these needs and problems?
Could we do a better job within the framework of planned guid-
ance services? As these questions are being answered, there will
be a new realization that guidance functions are already a part
of the school structure.

Beginning
Guidance is an integral part of the school philosophy. When-
ever a teacher promotes healthful school living in his classroom,
or understands and motivates the learning of a student; when
the principal counsels a misbehaving boy; when the librarian
searches for occupational information to be used by students in
a social studies class, guidance functions are being performed.
All of these instances exemplify a guidance point of view. It
would be surprising indeed if there were a school in Florida that
after such an evaluation of its educational program found itself
completely devoid of any guidance functions. The decision to
provide organized programs of guidance will have various impli-
cations for different schools, depending on the present status of
their guidance services. The decision to proceed with an orderly
development of a planned guidance program should come only
when the full faculty has recognized the need for guidance
services and has expressed its willingness to accept responsibili-
ties associated with such services. If this taking stock of school
assets has been a patient and deliberate faculty study, the deci-
sion to proceed with improved guidance services will be a
valid one.

Next Steps
The school now is in a position to undertake definite steps
toward the development of the guidance program. The first step
is the formation of a temporary pre-organizational committee.
Duties of the committee will include:
1. Suggesting tentative plans of organization and a point of
beginning
2. Keeping faculty informed on progress
3. Routing guidance articles, books, and items of interest to
all teachers








4. Arranging for talks by consultants or teachers on various
guidance problems
5. Surveying available resources in school and community
that would be helpful in developing an effective program
6. Studying guidance programs in other school systems
The guidance committee may suggest that the program be
instituted by selecting certain services for initial development
and gradually adding others as a more comprehensive program
is developed. Some services which can be considered in be-
ginning the program are:
1. Learning more about pupils through improvement and use
of the cumulative records
2. Understanding more about pupils by instituting certain
tests or planning a basic testing program
3. Assisting pupils by providing more authentic information
about occupational and educational opportunities
4. Helping pupils individually by providing counseling
interviews
5. Developing better orientation of new pupils
In getting started on a guidance program initial responsibility
should be delegated by the principal to the staff member who
he feels is most qualified. Such a person might be characterized
as follows:
1. Has a mature personality
2. Works effectively with pupils, teachers, administrators,
and parents
3. Has a thorough understanding of the purpose and scope
of the guidance program and its relation to the total school
program
4. Recognizes pupils' needs
5. Is skillful in securing pertinent information needed to
make counseling realistic in the particular community
,6. Merits the confidence and respect of the student body and
uses tact and discretion in handling confidential information
7. Meets, or is working toward meeting, state requirements
for certification (The Appendix lists these requirements.)








Staff Time, Space, And Materials
The time allotted for guidance will be determined by the
scope of the program planned in a particular school. In the be-
ginning stages, school administrators usually release a teacher
for one or two hours a day for guidance duties. As the program
grows, full-time workers are provided. The ratio of such full-
time personnel to students varies widely. One metropolitan area
employs a guidance counselor for every 175 students. One county
school board has established a policy of providing a guidance
worker for every 500 students. Another way of considering the
question of staff time is on the basis of teacher units. A ratio of
one guidance counselor for every 25 teachers has been proposed
in some quarters. This means one counselor to approximately
750 students. This ratio may at first glance seem grossly inade-
quate; however, it is not entirely unrealistic as a first step.
In planning new school buildings or remodeling old ones,
adequate space should be provided for the counselor. The coun-
seling room itself need not be large, as long as it is private and
can accommodate a desk and two chairs comfortably. If possible,
this office should be near that of the administrator, the school
nurse, and other staff members with whom the counselor has
frequent need for contact. There should be ample and conven-
iently located housing for cumulative records and other required
materials, such as test supplies. An ideal situation is one in which
the space allocated for records is in the office of the secretary
assigned to the guidance counselor. There should be a waiting
room adjacent to the counseling room where current magazines
and other materials of interest to students are readily available.
The office should be in or near the center of greatest pupil traffic
and should be easily accessible to parents and visitors.
The counselor's office should contain the reading materials
which implement the guidance program. Visual aids and charts,
college catalogs, trade and business school bulletins, and occupa-
tional pamphlets should be kept in the counselor's quarters. Some
suggested materials that will be helpful to the counselor in his
work with students are listed in the Appendix.

The Cost Of A Guidance Program
Guidance programs frequently suffer from the hampering
effects of too rigid economy. It often happens that administra-
63








tors, while agreeing in theory that the school needs a good testing
program, a staff to interpret test results, and a comprehensive
cumulative folder system, nevertheless maintain that in practice
the cost is prohibitive. Thus cost is not infrequently a crucial
determinant.
A study made by Dr. Richard D. Allen of the University of
Rhode Island throws light on this question. Dr. Allen found that
the considerable costs required for personnel, testing, and clerical
help in two Providence, Rhode Island, schools (Technical High
School and Commercial High School) were far more than offset
by the savings which resulted from the reduction in failures and
the elimination of unnecessary courses. In fact, the savings
amounted to approximately five times the additional cost of the
guidance services which made the savings possible.
A nation-wide survey indicates that a reasonable figure for
guidance service is five per cent of the total school budget exclu-
sive of debt retirement. This amount should provide for office
equipment and supplies, counselor salaries, secretarial help, test-
ing materials, informational materials, group activities directly
related to guidance, and in-service training.
Guidance services play such an important part in the school
program that they should be provided for by a separate budgetary
allocation. The amount of money apportioned will vary, depend-
ing on whether the school provides a minimum program or a
complete program with full facilities, or something in between.
At the beginning many guidance services can be provided with
modest expenditure, since much free material is available. For
example, Forrester's bibliography of occupational literature
(listed in the Appendix) indexes may free publications.

Evaluation Of Guidance Services
The nature of the guidance program makes it impossible to
measure objectively all the aspects and outcomes of its services.
Teachers and counselors can never know the results of all their
labors. Nevertheless, a school needs periodically to evaluate its
program to determine as far as possible the degree to which the
services are accomplishing their objectives.
Before an evaluative project is started, the participation of
administrators, teachers, and counselors must be enlisted. Pur-
poses and procedures should be clearly defined. These can be








used as a basis for a faculty study. This study will afford an
opportunity for the principal and the staff to obtain a clearer
picture of the nature, scope, and effectiveness of the guidance
services. Some of the values of such a study are that it:
1. Makes staff members more fully aware of presently avail-
able services
2. Raises morale through the acknowledgment of good work
now being done
3. Recognizes further needs of pupils for more effective
assistance in their choices and adjustments
4. Provides in-service training in helping teachers to under-
stand and to accept effective guidance services and to learn
how they function.
Some techniques useful in evaluating the effectiveness of
guidance services are:
1. Observations (Through careful formulation of objectives,
comparisons of "before and after" may be obtained.)
2. Questionnaires, used with presently enrolled pupils as well
as with drop-outs and graduates (The results may be used
in discussions, either with separate groups or with com-
bined groups of pupils, teachers, parents, employers,
and officials participating. A further discussion of this
technique is presented in the section on Follow-Up in the
chapter on Placement and Follow-Up.)
3. Check-lists and standardized tests (Results of surveys with
instruments such as the various problem check-lists give
some evidence about pupil adjustment.)
4. Opinionnaires (These may be used with students, teachers,
guidance consultants, and guidance committees.)
5. Evaluative check-lists (The school may devise its own, or
it may wish to avail itself of ready-made ones similar to
the Evaluative Criteria used by the Southern Association
of Secondary Schools and Colleges. The list should consist
of provisions, conditions, and characteristics found in a
good guidance program.)
6. Studies (Cumulative records may be studied for such in-
formation as changes in pupil adjustment, causes of drop-
outs, and pupil scholastic progress.)







The techniques listed above produce certain kinds of evidence
about the results of a guidance program. There are other indica-
tors as to whether the program is accomplishing its objectives.
Some of these are:
1. The extent to which pupils voluntarily seek counseling
or other guidance services
2. The use made of pupil records by teachers, parents, col-
leges, and prospective employers
3. Records of student failures, attendance, and academic
achievement
4. Evidence of understanding on the part of the faculty, par-
ents, and public regarding purposes and functions of the
program
5. The extent to which the curriculum is adjusted to meet
individual needs and differences.
When an evaluation project is completed, all participating
staff members will want to study and discuss the results so that
a program for improvement can be planned.

The Administration Of A Guidance Program
Administering a guidance program in a public school neces-
sarily involves taking into consideration many factors. Probably
the most important of these is the over-all administrative pattern
in the State and locality. Other factors are in-service training
of teachers, the relationship between the school and the com-
munity, and the types of curriculum programs available in the
school.

Florida's School Set-Up
The administrative set-up of the schools in Florida is unique
in this country. The State Board of Education sets the general
policies and requirements, the county boards have responsibility
for all the schools within the county, and in the individual schools
the principals are in charge of operations. This form of organiza-
tion emerged as a result of the work of a citizen's committee and
the passage of the Minimum Foundations Law of 1947.
There are no independent school districts in Florida, since
the county constitutes the school district in each case. The old







multiple district plan created many problems in the organization
and administration of services. Some districts, depending on the
amount of local financing available, were able to offer more to
their students in the way of personnel and facilities than other
districts with less money. Under the county plan now in effect,
it is possible to offer all children of each county at least a mini-
mum of services and facilities. The result is better education for
all students in the state, urban, suburban, and rural.
This plan of county districts as whole units makes each county
school board responsible for setting broad policies for the admin-
istration of all schools in the county under the general policies
of the State Board of Education. The principal of each school,
therefore, is responsible for carrying out the policies of the county
school board as they pertain to his school.
The superintendent and the county school board will make
policies regarding the organization of guidance in the county
schools and will also provide for financing the program. But it
is the principal of each local school who is responsible for the
organization and administration of guidance services within his
school. The kind of program a school has will depend upon the
principal, the faculty, and the students who derive the benefits
from a good guidance program.
The structure of our state school system as it is now consti-
tuted makes for much easier organization and administration of
guidance programs at each educational level than was formerly
possible. At the state level there is a consultant in guidance and
personnel services who is available for help at, both the county
level and in individual schools. In addition to the help they get
from guidance people on their own staffs, local schools can call
on members of the county school staff for assistance in initiating
and implementing their guidance programs. This prevents dupli-
cation of services and makes it possible for schools to offer more
help to students.

In-Service Training
Training in principles and techniques of guidance is seldom
given emphasis in the pre-service education of teachers. In fact,
it is not uncommon for beginning teachers to maintain that they
have never heard of guidance. This is just one of several good
reasons for providing systematic in-service training. Of course,







since the entire staff participates in guidance services, all staff
members need an understanding of guidance fundamentals. Often
practical considerations will limit in-service training to funda-
mentals; in other situations more extensive training can be pro-
vided. Staff members with special interests and abilities in
various aspects of guidance should be encouraged to acquire
further training in colleges and universities where it is offered.
The following suggestions are offered as a guide to the de-
velopment of a program of in-service training in guidance
fundamentals:
1. Stimulate teacher interest in initiating certain guidance
practices by explaining and demonstrating the value of
these practices in teaching situations.
2. Begin a professional library in an easily accessible place,
such as the teachers' lounge.
3. Arrange to have extension courses offered. Ordinarily
these should be credit courses, with voluntary faculty par-
ticipation. The practice of "drafting" personnel into a
lengthy course is likely to bring about resistance which
can have a harmful effect on the guidance program.
4. Schedule faculty discussion of local guidance problems.
5. Arrange to use some of the sessions of the annual fall pre-
planning conference for an introduction to the techniques
of guidance services.

Public Relations.
A sound basis for a good relationship between the guidance
program and the public is a job well done. It is also essential that
the community be made aware of the activities and results of the
guidance program. This communication will depend in large
measure on the students, since it is they for whom the program
functions and since they have the most contact with parents and
with many others of the general public. Thus a program that
stimulates the interest and participation of students will be more
readily understood and accepted by the community.
In recognition of this dependence of the success of a guidance
program upon active community understanding, thought should
be given to ways of informing the public about the guidance







services. The following suggestions are a few of the many
methods which may be found effective:
1. A mimeographed bulletin may be sent to parents outlining
the purposes of the local program.
2. Parent-teacher organizations or other interested groups
may be encouraged to form an advisory group, composed
of a cross-section of citizens of the community and of
students. Such a committee can provide specific com-
munity contacts and can enrich the guidance program in
other ways.
3. Specialists in various fields of child development may be
asked to talk at meetings to which the public is invited.
4. The school principal and other members of the staff may
wish to take advantage of opportunities to discuss a grow-
ing guidance program as a part of talks they are asked to
make before various community groups.
5. Articles on significant and timely aspects of the guidance
program may be submitted for publication to local and
regional newspapers and periodicals.

Guidance And The Curriculum
The relationship between guidance and the curriculum is a
close one. Many of the considerations which contribute to a good
curriculum also apply to an effective guidance program. The
term "curriculum" as it is used here includes all learning ex-
periences planned by the school, whether they be classroom
activities or others that are sometimes called extra-curricular.
The academic phase of the program concerns itself with the
courses offered and their content, within the framework of limits
set by the state, county, and the local schools. Under the general
minimum requirements set up by the state, the county or local
school can determine its own specific requirements to meet the
needs of its students.
The principal and faculty of each school have a two-fold
obligation to the students in working with the curriculum. The
first is to determine what the students need to learn in prepara-
tion for their future lives as citizens. All members of the faculty
need to work with the principal, and with county administrators







and supervisors in attempting to determine the objectives of each
course and of the over-all curriculum.
The second obligation is to decide what the students can learn
in the light of their individual needs, interests and abilities. The
faculty can make a good start by conducting a study of how well
the courses offered have served students. Have they met the
needs of students in progressing to the next step in the educa-
tional ladder? Have the students been interested in the sub-
ject matter as presented? What reactions have parents had to
these subjects from the students at home? What do parents
themselves want their children to learn from these subjects?
By working together, the principal, faculty, parents and stu-
dents can make some estimate of how well the present academic
curriculum is meeting its objectives and what changes ought to
be made. In this planning process, it is helpful to have access
to pertinent information about the students. The results of the
testing program, for example, help to reveal areas of weakness
that need to be strengthened. The personal history of each stu-
dent, the economic background of the community in which he
lives, and an over-all picture of the grading system used are
among the important considerations in a study of the adequacy
of the curriculum and the need for curricular revision.
When all of these factors have been discussed, it is possible
to work out a program that attempts to achieve the purposes
for which it was planned. The principal plays a leading part in
this work, since he is the school's leader and serves as liaison
between the school and the people of the community and the
county school board. But it is the faculty members of each school
who must understand the principles and implications of a well-
planned program so that each student will learn, grow, and de-
velop to his fullest capacity.
The non-academic activities of a school should be planned to
meet the social needs and accord with the interests of students
in areas not covered in academic classes. Care should be taken
that the activities carried on or sponsored by the school serve all
the students and not just a select group.
If it is agreed that non-academic activities are as important
in the over-all school program as is the academic curriculum,
then provision should be made for them during the regular school








day. When activities are carried on after school and at night, a
number of students are automatically eliminated from partici-
pating because of transportation problems, after-school work, and
for other reasons. The number of non-academic activities in
which a student participates should be limited so that each
student apportions his time realistically and in accordance with
his own capacities.

The guidance worker has an opportunity to get an over-all
view of the curriculum from his meetings with parents, students,
and members of the staff. He can furnish impetus and leadership
in the study of how well the curriculum is meeting the needs of
the individual student, and ways in which it can be improved.
In making these contributions to the study and revision of the
curriculum and related aspects of the school program, the guid-
ance worker can obtain results only by working closely and
continuously with the principal and the staff.


Bibliography
Andrew, Dean C., and Willey, Roy DeVerl, Administration and Or-
ganization of the Guidance Program. New York: Harper & Brothers,
1958.
Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Guidance in
the Curriculum. 1955 Yearbook. Washington: The Association, 1955.
California State Department of Education. Improving Guidance Pro-
grams in Secondary Schools. Vol. 19. Sacramento: The Department,
1950.
Chapman, A. L., and Wilson, Little. Developmental Guidance in Secon-
dary School. New York: McGraw Hill Book Company, Inc., 1953.
Hamrin, S. A. Initiating and Administering Guidance Services. Bloom-
ington: McKnight and McKnight, 1953.
Hatch, Raymond N., and Steffire, Bicford. Administration of Guidance
Services: Organization, Supervision, and Evaluation. Englewood
Cliffs: Prentice Hall, 1958.
Humphreys, J. Anthony, and Traxler, Arthur E. Guidance Services.
Chicago: Science Research Associates, Inc., 1954.
Kearney, Milo E. "Making Guidance Effective in Elementary Schools,"
Elementary School Journal. 56: 348-353 April, 1956.
Lefever, D. V., Turrell, A. M., and Weitzel, H. J. Principles and Tech-
niques of Guidance. New York: The Ronald Press Company, 1950.
Minnesota State Department of Education. Guidance Services for Min-
nesota Schools. Curriculum Bulletin No. 16. St. Paul: The Depart-
ment, 1951.
Munson, Harold L. How to Set up a Guidance Unit. Chicago: Science
Research Associates, 1957.








New Mexico State Department of Education. A Handbook of Guidance
Services. Guidance Bulletin No. 15. Albuquerque: The Department.
Roeber, Edward C., Smith, Glenn, and Erickson, Clifford P. Organiza-
tion and Administration of Guidance Services. Revised edition. New
York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1955.
Guidance Services in the Public Schools; A Report of the Southern
States Work Conference on Educational Problems, Chairman Strip-
ling, R. O., Tallahassee: Florida State Department of Education,
1956.
Willey, Roy DeVerl, and Andrew, Dean C. Modern Methods and Tech-
niques in Guidance. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1955.
Wrenn, C. Gilbert, and Dugan, Willis E. Guidance Procedures in High
School. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1950.












APPENDIX 1


Information Sources


Publications About Colleges
Bogue, Jesse P., ed. American Junior Colleges. Fourth edition.
Washington: American Council on Education, 1956.
Brownstein, S. C. College Bound. Great Neck, New York:
Barron's Educational Series.
Burckel, Christian E. The College Bluebook. Yonkers-on-Hud-
son, New York: 1956.
Chronicle Guidance Publications, Inc. Guidance Service ma-
terials. Moravia, New York: $35 per year.
College Entrance Examination Board, Educational Testing Serv-
ice, 20 Nassau Street, Princeton, New Jersey.
College Entrance Examination Board. The College Handbook.
Princeton: Educational Testing Service, 1958.
Florida Association of Colleges & Universities. Handbook on
Florida Colleges & Universities. The Association. (Sent each
year to high school librarians and counselors.)
Good, Carter V., ed. A Guide to Colleges, Universities and Pro-
fessional Schools in the United States. Washington: Ameri-
can Council on Education, 1945.
"High School-College Articulation: A Selected and Annotated
Bibliography." Tallahassee: Florida State University Of-
fice of Educational Research and Service.
Irwin, Mary, ed. American Universities and Colleges. Seventh
edition. Washington: American Council on Education, 1956.








Lovejoy, Clarence E. Lovejoy's College Guide. New York:
Simon & Schuster, 1957.

Shosteck, Robert. The College Finder. Washington: B'nai B'rith
Vocational Service Bureau, 1955.

Publications About Scholarships
Brownstein, S. C. You Can Win A Scholarship. Great Neck,
New York: Barron's Educational Series.

Feingold, Norman S. Scholarships, Fellowships, and Loans.
Cambridge: Bellman Publishing Company, Vol. I, II, III. $20.

Florida Foundation for Future Scientists. Studies Committee.
"List of Scholarships Available to Future Scientists at Flor-
ida Colleges and Universities." Write: Dr. Woodson C.
Tucker, Executive Secretary, Department of Chemistry,
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.

Lovejoy, C. E. and Jones, T. S. Lovejoy-Jones College Scholar-
ship Guide. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1957.

Mattingly, Richard C. Scholarships and Fellowships; A Selected
Bibliography. Washington: U. S. Office of Education, De-
partment of Health, Education and Welfare, 1957.

National Merit Scholarship Corporation, 1580 Sherman Avenue,
Evanston, Illinois.
Scholarship, Loan and Student Aid Offices, Florida colleges and
universities.
Scholarship Office, State Department of Education, Tallahassee,
Florida.

Vocational Information
Dictionary of Occupational Titles. (U. S. Employment Service)
Washington: Government Printing Office.
Forrester, Gertrude. Occupational Literature: An Annotated
Bibliography. New York: H. W. Wilson Company, 1954.
Job Guide for Young Workers. (U. S. Employment Service)
Washington: Government Printing Office.








National Academy of Sciences. Career Opportunities in Biology.
Evanston, Illinois: Row, Peterson & Company.

Occupational Information for Counselors: An Annotated Bib-
liography. Washington: Government Printing Office.

Occupational Index. Peapack, New Jersey: Personnel Services,
Inc. Quarterly $7.50 per year.

Occupational Outlook Handbook. Washington: Bureau of Labor
Statistics. $4.00.

Occupational Trends. Boston: Bellman Publishing Company.

Your Future Occupation. Washington: Randall Publishing Com-
pany. $12.00 per year.

Other Sources Of Vocational Information

B'nai B'rith Vocational Service Bureau, 1640 Rhode Island
Avenue, N.W., Washington 6, D. C.

Career Guidance Index, P. O. Box 522, Largo, Florida.
Chronicle Guidance Publications, Inc., Moravia, New York.
Florida State Employment Office. Local offices.
Glamour, 420 Lexington Avenue, New York 17, New York.
Mademoiselle, 515 Madison Avenue, New York 22, New York.
National Association of Manufacturers, 14 W. 49th Street, New
York 20, N. Y.
National League for Nursing, Committee on Careers, 2 Park
Avenue, New York 16, New York.
National Vocational Guidance Association, 1534 "0" Street,
N.W., Washington 5, D. C.
New York Life Insurance Company, Education Section, 51
Madison Avenue, New York 10, New York.
Scholastic, 220 East 42nd Street, New York 17, New York.
Science Research Associates, 57 West Grand Avenue, Chicago,
Illinois.







The Guidance Centre, Ontario College of Education, 371 Bloor
St., W., Toronto, Canada.
United States Armed Forces Recruiting Officers.

Suggested Readings For Professional Library
Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Guidance in the Curriculum. 1955 Yearbook. Washington:
National Education Association.
Baer, Max F. and Roeber, Edward C. Occupational Informa-
tion. Chicago: Science Research Associates, Inc., 1958.
Buros, Oscar, ed. The Fourth Mental Measurements Yearbook.
Highland Park, New Jersey: Gryphon Press, 1953.
California State Department of Education, "Good Guidance
Practices in the Elementary School." Bulletin, Volume 24,
No. 6. Sacramento: The Department, August, 1955.
California State Department of Education, "Guidance in the
Elementary School." Bulletin, Volume 23, No. 4. Sacra-
mento: The Department, August, 1954.
Cottingham, Harold F. Guidance in Elementary Schools, Prin-
ciples and Practices. Bloomington: McKnight and McKnight,
1956. $5.00.
Cronbach, Lee J. Essentials of Psychological Testing. New York:
Harper & Brothers, 1949.
Erickson, Clifford E. and Smith, Glenn E. Organization and
Administration of Guidance Services. New York: McGraw-
Hill Book Company, 1955.

Foster, Charles. Guidance for Today's Schools. Boston: Ginn,
1957.
Froehlich, Clifford. Guidance Services in Schools. New York:
McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1958.
Gordon, Ira J. The Teacher as a Guidance Worker; Human De-
velopment Concepts and Their Application in the Classroom.
New York: Harper & Brothers, 1956.
Hamrin, Shirley A. Guidance Talks to Teachers. Bloomington:
McKnight & McKnight, 1947.







- Initiating and Administering Guidance Services. Bloom-
ington: McKnight and McKnight, 1953.

and Paulson, Blanche B. Counseling Adolescents. Chi-
cago: Science Research Associates, 1950.

Harden, Edgar L. How to Organize Your Guidance Program.
Chicago: Science Research Associates, 1950.

Hatch, Raymond N. and Steffire, Bicford. Administration of
Guidance Services; Organization, Supervision and Evaluation.
Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1958.

Helping Teachers Understand Children. Washington: American
Council on Education, 1945.

Hoppock, Robert. Occupational Information. New York: Mc-
Graw Hill, 1957.

Mathewson, Robert H. Guidance Practice. New York: Harper
& Brothers, 1955.

McDaniel, Henry and Shaftel, G. A. Guidance in the Modern
School. New York: The Dryden Press, Inc., 1956.

Ohlsen, Merle M. Guidance: An Introduction. New York: Har-
court, Brace and Company, 1955.

Shartle, Carroll L. Occupational Information. New York: Pren-
tice Hall, 1954.

Strang, Ruth. The Role of the Teacher in Personnel Work.
New York: Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Co-
lumbia University, 1946.

Super, Donald E. Appraising Vocational Fitness. New York:
Harper & Brothers, 1949.

Traxler, Arthur E. Techniques of Guidance. New York: Harper
& Brothers, 1957.
Tyler, Leona. Work of the Counselor. New York: Appleton-
Century-Crofts, 1953.
Willey, Roy DeVerl. Guidance in Elementary Education. New
York: Harper & Brothers, 1952.







-- and Andrew, Dean C. Modern Methods and Techniques in
Guidance. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1955.
Wrenn, Charles G. and Dugan, Willis E. Guidance Procedures
in High School. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press,
1950.
United States Department of Elementary School Principals.
Guidance for Today's Children. Washington: National Edu-
cation Association, 1954.
Guidance Services in the Public Schools; A Report of the South-
ern States Work Conference on Educational Problems. Ch.,
Stripling, R. O. Tallahassee: State Department of Educa-
tion, 1956.

Some Sources Of Tests
California Test Bureau, 110 Dickinson Street, Madison 3, Wis-
consin.
Educational Testing Service, 20 Nassau Street, Princeton, New
Jersey.
Houghton Mifflin Company, 432 4th Avenue, New York 16,
New York.
Psychological Corporation, 304 E. 45th Street, New York 17,
New York.
Science Research Associates, 57 W. Grand Avenue, Chicago 10,
Illinois.
Steck Publishing Company, Box 16, Austin 61, Texas.
World Book Company, Yonkers-on-Hudson, New York.











APPENDIX 2


Sample Anecdote


Today, during civics class, a written assignment was given to
be completed and handed in at the end of the class.
Bobby, who sits on the front seat of an outside row, did not
start working. He kept squirming and looking around the room.
He dropped his book, notebook, and pencil. Again he looked
around the room. No one noticed him for all were busy with
the assignment except John who sits across the aisle from Bobby.
John was talking to the teacher in the rear of the room. Bobby
got his pencil and walked to where John and the teacher were,
tripped over John's foot, walked around the room to the pencil
sharpener, which was on the front wall in front of his desk. When
the bell rang, Bobby did not have his work prepared to hand in.
The teacher asked why. He said, "Oh, you gave us too much,
and I didn't have time to do it." The other members of the class
completed the assignment.












APPENDIX 3


Follow-Up Survey Letter


Date
Dear Jeanette:

A survey of the graduating classes of 19 and 19__ is
being conducted by the high school juniors and seniors.

We are interested in knowing something about you and wish
to have you make any constructive suggestions which you feel
will help us to improve our high school.

Will you please fill in this questionnaire and return it to me
now before you forget? We are hoping to have a 100% return.
The results of the survey will be published in the local newspaper
in the near future, and we know you will wish to have a part in
evaluating and improving the school program at your Alma
Mater.
/s/ Jane Brown
(Class of )

FOLLOW-UP QUESTIONNAIRE

A QUESTIONNAIRE TO FORMER STUDENTS
OF HIGH SCHOOL
(DATE)
1. Name Telephone
(Married girls give maiden name also)
2. Address Married__ Single_
3. Employed? Where?
What are your duties?








4. Are you enrolled in school or college? Where?
5. Did our high school help you directly or indirectly to attain
your present job or attend school? How?
6. What high school subjects have helped you most?
7. What high school subjects have helped you least?
8. Could you suggest subjects which would be beneficial?
9. Suggestions for the improvement of our school:


Forms for follow-up studies may be obtained from the National
Association of Secondary School Principals, 1201 Sixteenth St.,
N.W., Washington, D. C.










APPENDIX 4


Post Card Follow-Up Form


HIGH SCHOOL
Dear Graduate:
Please fill out the attached card and return it to us. With
this information we will be better able to improve our school
program and to serve our students in their educational
careers.
Parents are urged to forward this card to their son or
daughter, if necessary.
We hope that you will reply promptly so that we may
complete this phase of our school evaluation.
Sincerely yours,
Principal

(Address of graduate on reverse side:)
Return post card:
NAME (School to type in.)
College Where?
Business School Where?
Other training school Where?
Majoring in
Working?
Type of work
If now working, do you plan to go to school later?
Where?__ Married To Whom?
What studies-and activities in high school have been of
greatest value to you?
Comments:



Address of school on reverse side:












APPENDIX 5


Guidance Certification Requirements


THESE EXCERPTS from Florida Requirements For Teacher
Education and Certification As Adopted April 3, 1951 apply
especially to certification in guidance.

Guidance
(For serving as a Guidance Counselor)
Thirty (30) semester hours are required. Of the 30 semester
hours, a minimum of 15 semester hours must be on the graduate
level. The experience requirement below must also be met. This
certification may be given on a Graduate or higher certificate
only.

(1) Guidance
An applicant must complete a minimum of 15 semester
hours (either in psychology or education) from the areas
listed, with approximately 2-3 semester hours in each
area:
(a) principles of guidance
(b) analysis of the individual (tests, records, scales,
etc.)
(c) counseling procedures
(d) occupational information
(e) administration of guidance services

(2) Related Fields
An applicant must complete a minimum of 15 semester







hours, well distributed in the areas listed below, with
at least 3 semester hours in each area.
(a) Psychology: educational psychology, psychology of
individual differences, abnormal psychology, mental
hygiene, psychometrics, applied psychology, psy-
chology of adjustment, child psychology, adolescent
psychology.
(b) Education: pupil personnel organization, diagnostic
and corrective instruction, principles of vocational
education, extra curricular activities, educational
research, curriculum, school supervision.
(c) Economics-Sociology: labor and industrial problems,
personnel management, occupational economics,
community resources, family adjustment problems,
social case work, sociology, economics.

(3) Experience
An applicant for a guidance certificate must have com-
pleted two years of successful teaching in the public
schools.
NOTE: If the applicant has earned a master's degree
with special emphasis on guidance and counseling from
an institution with a well-planned major in this field,
the pattern may vary from that described above. A
major is generally interpreted as at least 20 semester
hours. A statement to the effect that the major was in
guidance must be shown on the transcript or must be
verified by a proper school official.












APPENDIX 6


Use Of The Florida Cumulative Folder


THE REVISED CUMULATIVE FOLDER is designed for use
in summarizing data about each pupil. That is, it is assumed
that much information about pupils will be accumulated but not
recorded in full in the folder. The changes from the original
form were based upon two main factors. First were the hundreds
of suggestions from teachers, counselors, and administrators;
second was a look at how records were being used, and not used,
throughout the State. The major change involved the elimination
of several items that were not being utilized at all by the vast
majority of teachers. Space saved by these eliminations was
used mainly to provide more and larger spaces for comments.
Perhaps the most significant difference between the new fold-
er and the old is the arrangement of items. The folder is or.
ganized so that while a student is in grades one through eight
the folder is used front and back without any need for opening
(except to insert material). When the student enters the ninth
grade, the folder is reversed, and it has all secondary school
entries on what now becomes the front and back. It is hoped
that the front of the secondary section will be photographed and
used as a transcript by many schools.
Although each county will want to give its own instructions
for the folder, the following suggestions may prove helpful:


Item 1.

As indicated, many items here should be filled out in pencil,
since changes will occur quite frequently.








Item 4.
This section illustrates the fact that the folder is for sum-
maries. Copies of tests may be kept in the folder after recording.
Counties with extensive testing programs may wish to use a
separate sheet for test results.

Item 5.
Since there are only four lines for each grade, teachers should
keep anecdotal records which can be evaluated at the end of the
year for inclusion in section 5. Only those which are significant
and helpful should be recorded.

Item 9.
This space is for the use of principals when students are near
graduation.




1. NAME COUNTY SCHOOL
(LAST) (PIRST) (MIDDLE) (USE PENCIL) (U PE NCSIL)
RACE SEX_ PLACE OF BIRTH DATE OF BIRTH --DATE OF ENTRANCE
(CM) (tOUNTY) STATICE) (YEAR) (MO. I N Do. ) FROM (Y.ARt (tO.) (DAY)


U"se P-nt) PHONE


.( I(Use Peroil)
.(__ s(__)No( -)


Marital Status: Living Together Divorced Separated
Father: Deceased Remarried-
Mother: Deceased Remarried-
Pupil Lives with: Both Parents- Father Mother
Guardian


ECONOMIC STATUS of FAMILY (peril) I Auth oorit r Birth De I


19- 19 19-
Good ................ ) ( ) ( ) Birth
Moderate ..........( ) ( ) ( ) ( )Other
Low .................( ) ( ) (
Unknown ..........( ) ( ) ( ) ( )


Number Number No. in Number
Certificate ( cil Older Younger School Employed

Brothers.....
Si'ter.......


2. SCHOOL RECORD GRADES 1- 6 3. SCHOOL RECORD GRADES 7-8
YEAR .....19 19 19 19_19 -1991_ 19 19_ L 19 19_-19 19 .19 Grade_____ Year 19_ 19- Grade- Year 19_ 19-- Grade--- Year 19 19-
GRADE. _-P_ _- r_ _-_ TTerm(Weeks)...Length of Clas PeriodL Term(Weeks)- Length of Class Period- Term(Weelk)-Length of Class Period-
Term(No. Weeks_ ___ Days AbsenL- ; Chief Cause Days Absent ; Chief Cause_ Days Absent- ; Chief Cause-
Days Absent....... Po M P&od MMtro Pein M.rb
Chief Cau e. Un..t ____ __ Subjcrs Yr Unit Subectr Per d Yr. Uai Subiec P0r In 2 s
Chief Cause........ -- 2.d A-- I A.- Ws ... S m.
SUBJECTS YVai Yea y Ye.a, A A..r Ys Yer --
AJcera AAre Ar Ar se Averare Aere A-vre
Citizenship........... __ Eng Eng. Eng.
Language Arts....
Reading ...........
English ............ -
Spelling...........- -
W riting............
Social Studies ..... _____
Arithmetic ........... -- --


Promoted- .......
Retained ............ _I
Teacher... I -


Credits for Yearr....................... Credits for Year..................... for Ye.......................

Total Credits ........................... Total Credits ........................ Total Credits ........................


ro. F.G.. Iro..DI. RII ... FLORIDA CUMULATIVE GUIDANCE RECORD-GRADES 1-12


I 1


I


in the nome


Languages spoken






5. COMMENTS PHo TOGRAPH


Grade nd Teacher or Counelor
Dte I


SPECIAL INTERESTS, OBSERVATIONS, SUGGESTIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS


2




3 Grade
Av-



4




.5




6




7







8


PHO


5. COMMENTS


TOGRAPH




6. SECONDARY SCHOOL RECORD GRADES 9-12


Grade_... Year 19- 19- Gaade..-..-... Year 19-- 19 Grade-- Year 19 19-- Grade-- Year 19- 19-- Grade_____- Year 19 19
Term(Wk.)..Length of Class Period Term(Wk.)_-Length of Class Period- Term(Wk.).Length of Class Period Term(Wk.)-Length of Class Period Ter(Wk.)....Length of Class Period-
Days Absent-.; Chief Cause Days Absent....; Chief Caul Days Absent ; Chief Cause Days Abient ; Chief Cause Days Absent ; Chief Cause

SubjOcbei Us bt2cd Subjs.S Pr 1 Yt Uia Sbi ec P r In 2 Ud n Subec P t 2nd UniY Subjects p d VsUn
I I aS.. Su. S:"- Weak S..e.A %. W W. w- S... I AI











Credits for Year Credits for Year Credits for Year Credits for Year Credits for Year
Total Credits Total Credits Total Credits Total Credits Total Credits





7. GRADUATION DATA 8_. EXTRA-CURRICULAR ACTIVITIES 9. EVALUATION OF PERSONAL ASSETS


Quartile Rank: 1st ( ); 2nd ( ); 3rd ( ); 4th ( )


FLORIDA STATEWIDE 9th GRADE TESTS


FLORIDA 12th GRADE PLACEMENT TEST
T .oul P.. Enr. S.S. N.S. M.S P. r La. Sp.


CEEB VERBAL QUANT.

Date:


Activity 7

Annual............
Band..............-
...-nil


10 1 12


Comments on Special Interests, Abilities, Aptitudes, and Achievements


Basketball...
Class Officer...
Club_ Comments on Character and Citizenship
_Club-

Dramatics.....
Football..........
Otfi-r fto
Hoi Rm Further information helpful in evaluating this student for post-high school education and
Student Body..
Orchestra....
Safety Patrol.... employment
Student Co..- ------
School Paper...


Number in class


NATIONAL MERIT SCHO RSHIP QUALIFYING TEST

Date:


Number in class


v. .




10. COMMENTS

Grae and Teacher or Counselor SPECIAL INTERESTS, OBSERVATIONS, SUGGESTIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOLLOW-UP
Date FOLLOW-UP Date

9





10





11





12






11. INTERESTS

Grade Vocational Plans Educational Plans Work Away From Home Travel and Vacation Experiences Special Interests and Hobbies Home Room
Teacher
7.............
6.__________________ _______________________ ________........._...___


10.............________________ ____________________ ________
11.............I _______________ _______________ ______________
12.............________ ____________ ______________ _______________


12. WITHDRAWAL RECORD 14. CONSECUTIVE HOME ADDRESSES 15. TRANSCRIPT OF RECORDS

Year Mo. Day Cause Transferred To Records Sent To (School):
SLocation:


13. RE-ENTRY RECORD

Year Mo. Day Cause Received From


Date Sent: _Date Pupil Entered:
Records Sent To (School):
Location:
Date Sent: Date Pupil Entered:

16. REPORTS OR OTHER INFORMATION
Date Addres
Report:
Date Addre-
Report:
Date A Addre
Report:


-----------~--~----


I




.*. Date Due

"O


p 9I~



* a1

* gE


"i= "
r ,J




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