Front Cover
 CIMMYT's Asian Regional Economics...
 CIMMYT Asian Reports

Title: CIMMYT's Asian Regional Economics Program
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00080822/00001
 Material Information
Title: CIMMYT's Asian Regional Economics Program
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Biggs, Stephen
Publisher: ICRISAT Liaison Office
Publication Date: 1979
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00080822
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 189750736

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    CIMMYT's Asian Regional Economics Program
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    CIMMYT Asian Reports
        Page 6
Full Text

CIM4 T's Asian Regional Economics Program 0C0


Stephen D. Biggs

January 1979



A. Regional Research Support Program

B. Local Projects

1. On-farm Kharif Maize Research, Uttar Pradesh, India.

2. On-farm Kharif Maize Research, Bihar, India.

3. On-farm Rabi Mrize Research, Bihar, India.

4. An Integrated Wheat Research and Production System,

5. Developing Triticales for the Himalayan Hills, Uttar Pradesh

6. Maize Processing, Marketing and Utilizatio n in Asian country


S.T Regional Economist,
in ICRISAT Liaison Office, 23 Golf Links, New Delhi 110003, India.

1 --



Stephen D. Biggs


The objective of the Asian Regional Economics Program is to work
with national and decentralised multi-disciplinary research systems in
Asian countries especially as they relate to the production and distri-
bution problems of wheat, maize and triticale. The rationale for the
Program is that in many parts of developing coua ries known genetic, chem-
ical and engineering technologies are not being fully utilized in the
agricultural sector. Reasons for this are:

a. New technologies have not been developed or adapted for the circumstan-
ces under which most farmers are presently operating or are likely to be
operating in the future.

b. Genetic technology with high yield potential has not spread because
the necessary complementary research and development on agronomy, engineer-
ing techniques and management practices ha-e" not been conducted in farmers'
fields and not appreciated as an integrated part of genetic crop improve-
ment programs.

c. Insufficient attention has been given to the need for strengthening
national and decentralised integrated production n4 yesBearch programs,
for example, programs which focus on the specific needs of farmers and
other rural people in different agro-climatic and socio-economic environ-
ments. Without strong local systems for developing and adapting technolo-
gies for local conditions, the potential contributions of the International
Agricultural Research Centres and other sources of knowledge cannot be
fully realized.


The approach of the program is to work directly with local multi-
discipline: groups of technical and social scientists in identifying, draw-
ing up and implementing programs and projects. In this the programiworks-
with CIMMYT's wheat and maize programs, especially he Asian Regional Maize
Program and with International agencies such as the International Agricultural
Development Service (IADS).


A. Regional Research Support Progra

Because the need for effective multi-disciplinary analysis and

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projects far outstretched the availability of knowledge and methods
to conduct such research, the Asian program has two major thrusts. The
first is a Regional Research Support Program., This includes a) Visiting
and making contact with local ecicnti ts. b) Circulatlng to interested
scientists and research administrators information, documents etc., using
amongst other thiingn, a CIMMPT Asian Report Series (list of reports atta-
ched) c) Helping to arrange regional workshops on such topics as Developing
Triticales for the Himalayan Hills and aize Utilisation in Asian Countries,
and d) Promoting linkages between research groipp in Asia and between them
and CIMr T's headquarters in Meico.

B. Local Pros~acts

The second thrust of the program is tc work closely each year with
a small number of local multi-disciplinary projects. From these indige-
nous projects, it is expected that methods, procedures of analysis etc.,
will evolve which will be relevant to cther groups of multi-disciplinary
scientists in this region.

These local projects include various type of on-farm and village
level research. For example, different types of "ur-.v.- and sets of on-
farm trials. They also include policy orientated ,r!ja-ctr to nrslyse such
topics as the present and future effective demand for maize, the establish-
meat of wheat and triticale research prio.:?iies, and methods to strengthen
integrated research and production systems. The following is a list of
current local projects:

1. On-farm Kharif Maize Research. Uttar Pradesh India.

During the 1978 Kharif (monsoon) eeso n, the co-ordinated multi-
disciplinary mazie program at the G.B. Pant Ur3i.vrlity of Agriculture and
Technology, Pantnagar, Nainital, U.P., undertook an 'rh-farm research prog-
ram in the Ltwo major maiSe growing districts of U.P. (Moradabad and Buland-
shahr). Varietal (composites), fertilizer and verification trials were laid
out and production plots planted. As a result of extensive flooding this
year many trials and production plots gave .little or no:yield and differen-
tial responses to fertilizer applications were not observed. The observatio-
nal and survey research included the use of an -:'luotatory questionnaire at
the pre-survey stage and later a special purpose survey of a random sample
of farmers to gather afrono.-y and t" ** put and output data. -nf rmntion
from the trials and surveys has been analysed. Sc,: of the implications and
conclusions written up in the report are:

a) On-station researchirograms:

i. In the..normal breeding program more emphasis should be placed on tassel
and silk emergence synchronisation to prevent plant barrenness. The extreme
stress conditions of this year demonstrated this problem.

ii. There should bc a shift of the plant brei dnr.g program from Pantnagar to

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the research station at Bulandshahr because this station better repre-
sents the agro-climatic conditions of the major Kharif Maize growing
areas of U.P.

b) On-farm research:

i. The on-farm varietal, fertilizer, verification and production plot
trials should be continued because this year's inform.ti-~: rc.fl-ects only
one of the conditions which make up the possible decision-tiaking environ-
ment for farewrs.

ii. A closer look should be taken of the current farmer practices for
farm yard manure and chemical fertilizer application as many cultivators
are already applying significant levels of nutrients.

iii. A special survey should be started to investigate maize storage and
utilisation practices. From preliminary observations this year it appears
that there may be significant crop storage losses. In addition, farmer
maize utilisation patterns and practices have im-licaLions for future
technical research priorities as well as for .marketing and price policy
programs. This survey is c-rrently ndrway,

iv. An innovator survey of large and small farmers should be initiated
to investigate what varieties, fertilizer rates, types of soils, sources
of water etc., are actually being used by those farmers who are presently
: tt!ng high yields. The reason for this purposive survey is to learn
from farmers and others in the "informal" research system, the results of
their research and experimentation, so that the "formal" R & D system may
complement rather than duplicate the adaptive research already conducted
and verified by farmers.

c) Ex:tensiona grams

i. One of the outcomes of this year's on-farm research is an understanding
by researchers for why farmers have not extensively adopted improved maize
varieties and the full package of recommended practices. Under difficult
conditions local varieties do as well as improved var.ctleu.

ili Fertilizer recommendations should be lowered because under thenormal
risky conditions in which farmers operate existing recommendations are too
high for rational risk averting farmers to adopt even when there is no exc-
essive flooding.

iii. Recommendations concerning insecticides and fungicides should be mini-
mized because under present insect and disease conditions and the cost of
plant protection chemicals these subjects are relatively unimportant for U.P.


2. On-farm Kharif Maize Research, Bihar, India.

In 1978 a similar program to the Kharif Maize Research program at
Pantnagar was conducted by the multi-disciplinary maize program at the
Rajendra Agricultural University, Dholi, Bihar. On-farm trials and farmer
surveys were conducted. The analysis is being written up and the impli-
cations drawn for future research programs and extension agencies.

3. On-farm Rabi Maize Research, Bihar, India.

During the 1978-79 rabi (dry winter) season on-farn varietal
fertilizer, density and sugarcane/maize trials are being conducted. A
large scale survey of maize growers is currently underway in Bihar and it
is hoped that a little of that information will be used in establishing
future maize research priorities for the area. In addition, an innovator
survey is to be conducted this season. Hybrid Rabi Maize is especially
important in Bihar because it can give high yields (4-5 tonnes per hectare)
when suitably irrigated, fertilized and managed. For farmers who are
currently getting high yields, the innovator survey seeks to establish
times of planning, irrigation sources and management methods and other
agronomy practices. This data will be used to determine the economic
comparative advantage of maize (and its associated cropping patterns) with
other competing rabi crops such as wheat.

4. An Integrated Wheat Research and Production System, Bangladesh.

The BAngladesh program is divided into two major parts. At the
national level support is being given to the existing integrated wheat
research and production system by strengthening the linkages within and
between the following :

a) On-station research, on-farm research and extension programs.

b) Various institutions inthe""formal:" R & D system and research
conducted in the "informal" R & D system.

c) Technical and social scientists, and research administrators and

d) The problems of the rural poor who need jobs to obtain food and of
those who control land and other resources in rural areas.

A Bangladesh Wheat Newsletter, a Wheat Research Priorities Workshop and
various multi-disciplinary on-farm research programs, involving several
departments and institutions, are some of the current activities in the
Bangladesh Wheat Program.

At the farm level a wheat agronomy and a wheat innovator survey

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At the University this year a stock-taking excercise is also
in -';a--:->n to summarize the lessons and impJicatfri'r. of pi'ze'diou triticale
r-esearch and the data from t .l.ler' demonstration and mini-kit programs
in the U.P. hills.

In addition to the cvordinatad on-farm and on-station research
propramr at Pa..icnn"i', research on the development of triticales for the
Himslayan hills is also in progress in other Northern ':'-ii States,
Sr.l I and other-countries in this r:i,.. In -the last week of April 1979,
a l.i oai.J Workshop, cr:ct.n-, e.t:u- on the development of t:riticales for
hill a areas, bn rr. act s e;..:t.l, Ut.. Much of the workshop will
be devoted to the sharing of epcrietces of reearachero var-in on similar
.:o'l-w- discussing ways to establish effective communicatioae nad link-
ages between researchers developing triticales for hill areas end visiting
the or-farn research program and experiment stations in the Nainital hills.

6. Mage "roce.siang, {srkottn; an!l UzL.TfLaLion in Asian CvtrAit's.

Currently an economic study is underway which is looking closely
at the present and future level and c.-rro3itiao of demand for maize in
India. The research is being conducted in close collaboration with the All
India Coordinated Maize Program and the industrial users of maize products.
In particular, the study is investigating under what price and other cond-
itions, maize can be competitivA xith alternative crops and products for
human consumption, starch production, livestock feeds and export markets
etc. intd upon the likely level :niid composition of future demand, impli-
cations are beinr drawn for national and sub-national maize production and
research prograrr..

Front 19th to 22nd March, 1979 a workshop focusing on raize proce-
Cs-iF., marketing and utilization n Asian countries is being held in Delhi.
'id main participants will be senior research administrators, planners
.xnd economists who influence the direction of content of maize production
and research programs.


Available from:
CIMMYT, c/o ICRISAT Liaison Office, 23 Golf Links, New Delhi (India)


1. Integration,of the Agricultural Production System in Planning
and Executing a Production Program by Ernest W. Sprague, May 1978.

2. Developing an On-farm Testing Program for Maize in India by
Takumi Izuno, May 1978.

3. Planning Rural Technologies in the Context of Social Structures
and Reward Systems by Stephen D. Biggs, May 1978.

4. An On-farm Research System: Two Papers on Maize Research in
Pakistan by A.F.E. Palmer, July 1978.

5. Social Science Training for Regional Agricultural Development
by Robert Wer-c, July 1978.

6. On-farm and Village Level Research: An Approach to the Development
of Agricultural and Rural Technologies by Stephen D. Biggs,
July 1978.

7. Wheat Production with Employment: Priorities for Wheat Research
in Bangladesh by Stephen D. Biggs, September 1978.

8. Generating Technology for Traditional Farmers: A Multi-diaciplinary
Methodology by Peter E. Hildebrand, October 1978.

9. Maize in Asian Cropping Systems: Historical Review and Considerations
for the Future by Takumi Izuno, January, 1979. (Forthcoming)

10. Technology Generation, Verification and Dis ase.ination in Corn by
Antonio Mercado, January 1979. (Forthcoming) .

Other Materiala Available

From Agronomic Data to Farmer Recommendations: An Economics Training
Manual by Richard K. Perrin, Donald L. Winkelmann, Edgardo R. Moscardi
and Jock R. Anderson.

Maize Training in the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
(CIMrOT) by A. Violic, F. Kocher, T. Stilwell and E. rHoscardi.

This io CISMYT 1978

CIMPOT Review (current issue)

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