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Title: On-farm and village level research : an approach to the development of agricultural and rural technologies
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Title: On-farm and village level research : an approach to the development of agricultural and rural technologies
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Creator: Biggs, Stephen
Publisher: CIMMYT
Publication Date: 1978
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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
    Summary
        Page 1
    On-farm and village level research
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Bibliography
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
Full Text



/6. 797


ON-FARM AND VILLAGE LEVEL RESEARCH :


AN APPROACH TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURAL

AND RURAL TECHNOLOGIES*






by






Stephen D. Biggs


Economist, CIMMYT


ASIAN REPORT NO. 6


July 1978




* Paper prepared for the Symposium of Economic Problems in
Transfer of New Technology, Indian Agricultural Research
Institute, New Delhi, August 1978

Copies of this paper are available from
INTERNATIONAL MAIZE AND WHEAT IMPROVEMENT CENTRE (CIMMYT)
c/o ICRISAT Liaison Office, 23 Golf Links, New Delhi 110003(India)


5
3rS
C-,












SUMMARY





Much of the recent literature on the problems in
transfer of technology, constraints on the adaption
of high-yielding varieties, problems in establishing
agricultural and rural technology research systems
reflects, amongst other things, that an analysis of
the practical problems of farmers and poor people
in rural areas was not the starting point of many
past research efforts.


In this paper a multidisciplinary approach to
research is proposed by which field observations and
analysis are seen as the starting point for the
establishment of research priorities. The paper
discusses how research priorities might be established
and how on-station and on-farm research could be inte-
grated. It also draws attention to the existence of
informal research and development (R&D) systems in
rural areas and to the necessity for integrating
these informal systems with the formal systems so as
to produce a strong indigenous capacity.









. .. 2 ...


Introduction

In recent years considerable progress has been made in
developing new biological, chemical and engineering
technologies for increasing Ireturns to limited resources
in rural areas.i'I The way, in which the benefits of new
technologies have been distributed has depended upon
existing socio-economic structures.

Increasingly government .planners .are becoming concerned with
problems associated with the transfer of technology, con-
straints which limit the adoption of new technology; the need
and problems of establishing agricultu al and :rural technolo"
R&D systems and iin ways :to ensure that it is the rural poor
who benefit from technological change.

However, the very way in which these c s are expressed
reflects, amongst other things, that researchers and
planners have not seen the actual practical problems of
farmers and other poor people in rurallareas as the necessary
starting point for any research strategy and that generally
there already exists an informal R&D system.

While much has been written about the.need for applied,
collaborative, multidisciplinary'problem solving research,
and for researchers and planners to start and then keep in
close contact with the actual problems of rural people, it
appears difficult to achieve this--goal. In this paper a
framework is suggested which might be useful to multidisci-
plinary groups vho are working on technological and institu-
tional problems for reducing poverty in rural areas of Asia.

Framework for National and Decentralized Research Systems
Figure 1 represents a framework for organizing the parts of
a decentralized R&D system.








* 3 ..


Framework for national and decentralized search systems


SfAgricultura
Environment


and rural New knowledge
S technology and -
markets


INFORMAL RESEARCH
AND DEVELOPMENT
(R&D) SYSTEM


1. Field observations
-* and analysis : :


'U


Review of 2..- Listing .of .problems by
past written agroclimatic zones,
reports ,economic zones and:by
.socio-economic groups


1-J ____


Development
objectives

Future produc-
tion and utili-
zation potential


S .


Available research
resources

Cost and benefits -
-of alternative re-
search strateerc ie

--.--3'
4. On-station
research


S 6. Development and
extension programs


3. Establishing research
priorities
and
Allocation of research
resources


5. On-farm and village
: level research
a) surveys
b) technical trials
c). monitoring and
feed-back systems


- ----~


--


i


-


--









... 4 ...


There are two major interconnected systems in the diagram.
The first we call the informal or private system and the
second is the formal or public system.

Informal Research and Deielopment System
This is represented by the.boxes and set of arrows starting
with the agricultural and rural environment;and leading to
field observations and analysis. .When analysis on problems
is carried out by village people:it leads to.new knowledge
on technology and modes of transactions of good and
services. This knowledge goes directly back into the rural
environment. The :fact that; there: exists a viable, multi-
disciplinary problem solving..R&D system made up of farmers,
village artisans:, good extension.agents and, other people
living in rural areas is frequently.not recognized or
fully utilized by researchers engaged Iin the formal system*.
Farmers and other village people are always experimenting.
in order to adjust to changing conditions. We only have to
look at the fertilizer application rates used by many
farmers to see that these are often more relevant to in-
creasing household welfare, net revenue and reducing risk
than the fertilizer recommendations made by some extension
agents based on experiment station r sponse functions, with
little or no consideration given to7 sk or other factors
which determine the rational decision making of farmers in
rural environments. As regards farm and village level
agricultural engineering technology, it has frequently been




* For a discussion on how indigenous and informal
technology might be useful to development see the paper
by Howes










S.. 5 ...


farmers, artisans, rural blacksmiths.and other entre-
preneurs in rural industries and service sectors who have
done much of the R&D work in the past. Even a quick look
at the useful adaptions of-,itrigation equipment and the
development of water and other rental markets in Uttar
Pr.adesh, Bihar and Bangladesh shows that the informal
system has played'a-major role in conducting relevant R&D
for promoting timely, accessible irrigation water (Clay,
Ahmed and Coward). In U.P. and Bihar it was farmers who
mounted diesel engines on' ullock carts to serve several
tube-wells, thereby increasing the use of scarce capital.
in Bangladesh it was farmers who started to use drinking
water handpumps to provideassured irrigation water. It
was also.village people who quickly evolved a market for
the seasonal hiring out of handpumps: for irrigation
purposes (Ahmed)*.

In the case of tractors and threshers .it has often been
rural people rather than researchers, in the formal R&D
system who have made the necessary adaptations and
modifications to equipment.and developed viable procedures
for maintenance :and the renting out of services.






* As some small farmers could not afford to buy handpumps
this type of renting arrangement was one of the ways by
which the benefits of technology suitable for small
farmers were channelled to those elites of the rural power
structure who controlled capital. Sometimes the rentmore
.than covered the .,total cost of the tubewell. in one season.
(Biggs, Edwards and Griffith)









... 6 ...


For our analysis the point is to recognize that the
informal R&D system exists. It is therefore in-
appropriate to think in terms of establishing an R&D
system as if this system is not already there.

A more useful approach is to find out how the indigenous
system works, what it produces and for whose benefit -
and to complement it by a formal R&D system when and
where necessary. It seems an unnecessary waste of scarce
research resources in the formal system not to maximize
the contirbution which the informal system can made to
technological change. By the same token many development
projects and extension programmes could be made more
effective if there was a direct feed-back from this
informal system into their programmes. So often in the
past extension personnel have been told to make recommenda-
tions to farmers which both farmers and the extension
agents know are unsuitable to the local conditions, while
they have not been encouraged to observe and promote
locally developed technologies.

Formal Research and Development System
Whether by a conscious process of planning, intuition,
or by luck it would appear that many successful
technological developments in the formal R&D system have
gone through the following stages given in the diagram
1. Field observations and analysis
2. A listing of problems by agroclimatic zones, economic
zones and by socio-economic groups
3' Establishing research priorities and the allocation
of research resources
4. On-station research
5. On-farm and village level research







... 7 .




By setting out the stages like this, we do not wish to
imply that research should be rigidly organized in this
way or that one stage has to wait until the previous stage
is complete. Tn.fact such a specification of functions
would probably do more to stifle innovative behaviour on
the part of researchers than to promote it. Rather
these, and the associated boxes on the diagram, might be
seen as a check list of elements which have been,
implicitly taken into account by a successful researcher
or an R&D system in the past. This "rational recbn-
stru.ction'" of past decision making might be useful for
understanding what has taken place in the past and for
planning the future allocation of research resources in
a formal R&D system.

At the top of the diagram we again start with the rural
community. It is made up of natural resources and other
agroclimatic factors, institutional characteristics includ--
ing the distribution of land and other forms.af productive
wealth and methods for the distribution of.income,
relative factor and product prices, and existing agricul-
tural and rural technologies. To go from here to a listing
of problems it i-~hiece"grry to observe, investigate and
analyse various parts of the rural environment. However
it would appear that much formal research is undertaken
without even a quick preliminary, multidisciplinary
survey of existing conditions in rural areas. In addition,
on-going monitoring systems in rural areas are not generally
seen as an essential feed-back mechanism to the on-station
research process. Typically, applied scienttists undertake
surveys of soils, insects, rusts, hydrological conditions,
etc., while economists and social scientists undertake
socio-economic household surveys andr other social studies.









S.. 8 ..


Unfortunately it is rare that the two groups co~b.in
to pool ideals and methodologies to identify and ana-
lyIs technical and institutional research priorities .....
Notwithstanding thia, :there are few people who would
say that social and technical issues can be separated
from one another. We seem to have a situation -There, on
the one hand, it is easier for social scientists.to
criize applied scientists after technical R&D decisions
have been taken and research conducted, but often have
little to offer when asked to contribute to the pragmatic,
time bounded operation of getting on and making R&D
decisions. On the other hand we have situations where
applied scientists have gone ahead and taken decisions
.which have far reaching economic and social implications
which might have been improved by a social science
input.

In addition, most disciplines (whether in the technical or
social sciences) often, ha~e criteria of academic e-:cellence
as their modus operandi, which do not necessarily take int,.
account the opportunity cost of allocating scarce time,
professional staff and -other research resources.to
academic problems and a concentration on minute quantitative
detail, rather than tackling the applied problems faced by
the poor in rural areas.

This situation is'changing acn social scientists are giving
attention to the tiay in which they can make a .positive
contribution to th e diagnosis of problems and the research
work of breeders and agronomists. In this regard a short
piece by Werge (19 t), a development anthropologist
involved in teacin', Invi"egati- ethods, a.t the-










.. 9 ..


International Potato Institute, Peru, is useful. He
describes their training program which includes, among
other things, the teaching of technical scientists how and
when to use, six survey techniques : formal interviews,
observation (participant and non-participant) group
interviews, tracer interviews, single-visit survey with
questionnaires, and multiple-visit surveys with
questionnaires. In addition he describes 'how the'exPlicit
setting up of a hypothesis by scientists l .h states
what they think is the problem or situation helps
fucus attention on diagnosing the specific problem, its
causes and the possible alternative breeding, engineering
or other ways of addressing the problem.

Once field observations have been taken and analysis.
conducted it is possible to continue to the second part
of the process : the listing of problems. There are
three major criteria for identifying specific problems
:,(a) ecological zones (climate, soils, altitude, etc.)
(b) spacial economic zones (prevailing relative input
and output prices, closeness to markets, general
use of products, etc.)
c. ) socio-economic group (farmer tvith large or small
holding size,sharecroppers, village atisansa
agricultural labourers, etc.)

The first two are straightforward. For example, a.
triticale (a cross between wheat'and rye) bireding and
agronomy programme designed to develop grain for household
consumption by subsistan:c small'farmers in the fitiAlayan
hills would be very different from R'& designed to
serve the needs of commercial farmers in Argen-ina where
they have soils with a high aluminium content. It is the










... 10 ..


third set of issues which are more complex and deinmnd
even 'ore the collaboration of technical. and social
scientists'for their analysis. This -criterion is in
recognition that different social-economic groups generally
have different technical and insttutional problems. For
example, the problems of large farmers can be very different
from those of small farmers. A small farmer might have
little land, and pay high interest rates on capital
borrowed from money lenders, but have plenty of household
labour which has a low opportunity cost (i.e. few alterna-
tive productive employment opportunities). On the other
hand, a large farmer has land, better access to cheaper
credit but has to pay the market wage for labourers. In
addition, larger, wealthier farmers are in a better
position to take risks as regards production, consumpt..on
and other household activities. These differences mean,
amongst other things, that technology (especially agronomy
and agricultural engineering) which is -esigned to meet
tbl problems of one soco-economic group of farmers, may
bre :ite n suitable for. another group. In fact, some kinds
of lb.iou-: displacing technology may increase the problems
of small farmers and the landless without necessarily
increasing.crop production per unit of scarce national
resource. ,

The other input at this stage is a revi'bw ''bpa-st
Written reports. In many situations the pay-offs would
be high to time -spent in actively searching out, reviewing
and drawing out the implications fdr applied technical
research of past reports. As the review would be problem
orientated it would entail covering academic as well an
non-academic sources. At the end of this stage we have a










... 11 ..


a list of problems being faced by different groups of
rural people. However, once we have this list, the
question Is raised : which and whose problems will
take priority? There are many more problems to be
solved in rural areas than can be addressed by the
available scarce manpower, time and other
resources.

Establishing of Research priorities and allocation of
research resources
This is the most important part of the system (Box 3)
and the political environment influences the way in which
research resources are allocated to various uses. Besides
the list of problems from Box 2 there are four other
'major inputs to be taken into account when allocating
research resources.

First : Development Objectives : In the Indian Draft
Five Year Plan 1978-83 it states "....the principle
objectives of planning should now be defined as achieving
within a period of ten years :
S.- (a) the removal of unemployment and significant under-
employment;
(b) an appreciable rise in the standard of living of
the poorest section of the population;
(c) provision by the state of some of the basic needs
of the people in thee income groups like clean
drinking water, adult literacy, elementary
education, heAlth care, rural roads, rural housing
for landless and minimum services for the urban slumi,'
"The employment objective depends crucially on
increased labour absorption in agriculture and allied
activities." (India, 1978)











... 12 ...


Them national development goals give an ovrrail guideline
for determining the ranking of problems. For example,
these goals mean that research resources should not
be allocated to the development of labour displacing
techniques for agriculture and allied activities, unless
it can demonstrated that the productivity of scarce national
resources cannot be increased in any other way.- Likewise,
a national commitment to small farmers, to rural women,
to the hill areas, etc., aa means that research funds
are allocated to solving the poverty problems of groups
who have little wealth or economic power. At the level
of, the individual research institution the specific
objectives of the Institution must also set the stage
for whose problems are to receive priority. As regards
national human nutritional needs, Ryan (1977) has
described how breeding for increasing the protein or
carbohydrate yield of cereals ;'can be competing goals.
It is clear that .each country and region has to identify
which goal is relatively more important as.there can be
conflicts between criteria.

The second input at this stage rates to the future
production and utilization potential of the technology.
This involves looking at the technology over time and
making projection of relative input and output prices.
For example, in an analysis of the potential for improved
wheat- var-ietie-, one would have to examine the cropping
patterns in which wheat .was expected to fit, and how the
crop would be competitive in the use of scarce resources
vis-a-vis other crops and cropping patterns. On the
utilization si-da one would havP to make projections
about the composition of the demand for wheat products










... 13 ...


and their expected prices. If these types of
calculations are not made then it is possible that a
technology is developed which will not be competitive
either on the production side or on the utilization
side. Few studies which have estimated tha internal
rates of return to public investment in agricultural
research have described just how past research
administrators made theJe projections. High rates of
return on research investment could indicate that they
had a good mehod. It could also indicate that they
were lucky* To make these projections is a difficult
undertaking. However, even crude analysis at the early
stages of ,research .investments would help to ensure that
there is a good chance that the technology will be
competitive in the harsh reality of the rural
environment in the future.

Unfortunately the numerous examples of agricultural
engineering technology and some crop varieties, which
have been developed at research institutions but have
never been adopted by rural people, bear witness to
the lack of consideration of these factors in the
past.

The next input at this stage is the matrix of expected
benefits and costs to alternative research strategies.
.There. are a large number of ways of identifying research

,- ; r -- ... ,.. .. .. .. ...

* By the same token where the4e have been low or negative
rates of return to research investments, it does aot
necessarily indicate that the research administrators did
not take the best decisions under the, prevailing
circumstances.
..............










. .. 14 .


goals and of achieving a given research objective. One
has only to listen to the .lively debates amongst
professional plant breeders to realise that each
breeding strategy has its strengths and.weaknesses, and
each strategy has different demand on scientific man-
powerresearch station facilities, workshops, transport,
etc. Although it is difficult to predict the costs and
payoffs to each strategy it is important to explicitly
recognize what alternatives exist and to present an
argued case for. why one strategy is more cost effective
than another. As in the case of projecting future input
and output prices for the products of a technology this
is no easy task. However, it needs to be done unless
research administrators are to adopt -an unlimited
budget approach luxury which most low income countries
can not afford. Of course the important point to.note
'here is that choices are made between research strategies
and that what might have beenctsuitable strategy in one
country 'for specific problems may not be relevant to another
country where there are different problems and research
resources. At this stage it is important to recognize what
can and what cannot be qualified and not to apply quantitative
analytical rigour where it is nonsense to do so.

The fourth input is the level and skills of available
research manpower, vehicles, equipment facilities., and
other resources. These factors limit --the -choice eof
' research strategies 'which might be us~d."- -As we have
'discussed earlier some of the most underutilized'
research resources available to the formal-'R&D system
are the multidisciplinary skills. Inventiveness,
financial and other resources which are already part









... 15 ...


of the informal R&D system. A way to use these
neglected research resources leads us to the next
part of the discussion where research is divided
into two parts :
(a) on-farm and village level research, and
(b) on-station research

On-station research
We include in this category experiment station research,
laboratory research, library research, etc. A great
deal has been written on this subject and many of the
formal R&D systems devote most of their energies to this
area. We are not questioning that this work has an
important role to pay in technological development,
however, it is only useful to the poorest groups in
rural areas if :
(a) it is directed by a multidisciplinary empirical
analysis of the causes of their problems;
(b) it is integrated with on-farm and other types
of applied research at the village level;
(c) it is integrated with the existing informal
R&D system, and
(d) it is integrated with government extension
systems and planning agencies.

In the past these conditions have not always been
met. Because of this we will look more closely at
the on-farm.and village level.research, as this type
of research has the possibilities of not only giving
high payoff-s to scarce research resources, but also
as acting as A-.:catalyst in achieving the above
objectives.








... 16 ...


On-farm and village.level research
The basic philosophy of this approach is that the
prblrems of farmers, and other people living in rural
areas can only be identified, analysed and solutions
found if the research is started and stays linked into
the rural environment*. Consequently it is necessary
that the research starts by technical and social
scientists jointly conducting agronomy and other surveys
in the village environment. Naturally during this process
of problem identification and of suggesting possible
solutions, the scientists drawn down on their knowledge
of technology and methods which exist outside the village
envirPrnment. In addition the researchers may also start



* Multidisciplinary on-farm research has been conducted at
CIMMYT for some years. In addition n it has been conducted
in the sub-continent for at least twenty years. For
example, the on-farm varietal and fertilizer trials in
Bangladesh (then East Pakistan) were started as long ago a-
1957 (East Pakistan, 1963). The description here is just
one view of some of the important elements in this
approach to research. As with'all applied research
systems the ideas, techniques and methods are being deve-
loped and adapted alli the time in different locations and
social systems in the light of experience. Some of the
CIMMYT publications which illustrate parts of this
approach in more detail are given in the bibliography
(CTM!UT, Izuno, Palmer 1977, Palmer 1977a, Perrin et ali
Stilwell and Shibata, Violic et al,Kenya 1977).

Ohn-farm research has, included trials for the following :
'" Varieties., fertilizer, weed control methods, plant den&i-
ties,: time of planting, insect~control ad well as other
c' .-: .- "ural practices Isuch, as ,a.sjed bed preparation and zero
o tll.lae -,fethods-. -D e nstr~atofI it- -~eriffceations trials,
' --prthrction plots and production alternatives trials
'also often make up a part ,of .the programme.'










.. 17 ..


to give scientific rationalization for sound local
practices and knowledge. Consequently this approach
does not turn its back on formal science and the
work of the experiment station, qui:e the opposite,
it is a way to use and evaluate available scientific
knowledge and the skills of scientists, against the
criteria of its relevance t addressing problems in
rural areas.

To illustrate the on-farm and village level approach
we will look at on-farm research on maize.*

The approach has three critical components :
(a) initial surveys, monitoring surveys and special
problems surveys
(b) on-farm trials
(c) a dynamic feed-back mechanism whereby results
of surveys and trials are used in the fonllowing
years.

The basic steps in the procedure are :
(a) identify through informal and formal surveys
critical technological problems as received by





The approach can be generalized to other areas of
rural technologies. In the case of an "indivisible"
rural technology such as deep tube-wells it is nece-
ssary to conduct village level research on the
rental seytems., co-operatives or other institutional
Ii- parts of innovation process. Thr*-a- ac type of
action research has been conducted for many years
at the Academy of Rural Development, Comilla,
Bangladesh.









... 18 ..


the farmer*. For example, kharif maize growers
,in U.P. are concerned with having varieties that
have a high yield potential. However, they also
want a short duration crop which, not only increases
returns to scarce resources per unit of time, but
also reduces the risk associated with growing that
and other crops in the cropping pattern. As wheat
and potatoes are seen as the most important crops
each year, any improved maize variety must not
impinge on growing these crops;
(b) establish criteria for determining which on-farm
research trials will have the highest pay-offs during
the next season. For example, is there a need for
a varietal trial? If so, which varieties should be
included? Similarly out of large range of possible
agronomy trials which ones, and what levels of
treatment, should be undertaken?

In this process one should not necessarily start by
setting up trials which have been established
elsewhere, because' the whole.'approach is to identify
:w:': hat'are the critical local problems. These may or
may not be the same in different locations. One way


*These need not be large complex surveys to have import
resiuts. For example, the Indian Small Farmer Develop-
vt::-:ment: Agency which-focuses on the poble. of poorer
farmers came as a result of a small survey by the
aidmi'ni strsioi in:h the Ko6i region of Bihar (1969). We
also know that a visit to a,rural environment by an
experienced person with a perceptive eye can generate
b; eter' analysis' than badly coAneivei and implemented
:* .: o : -urv eys' 1 ,: $ ?









. 19 *..


to set priodties is to talk to farmers and to
draw up partial budgets for the crop to identify :
(i) what are the relatively important problems
and costs, and which are relatively unimportant.
Which inputs are the most limiting on produc-
tion potential;
(ii) whatrinputs are available to the farmer but
are underutilized. For example, a small
farmer may be able to increase yields YyLC_qC&_i
C- < labour intensive methods for ringing
plant densities up to an optimal level. This
might not be a favourable avenue for large
farmer research because the costs of hiring
labourers to do this may not be covered by
the increased revenue.
(c) set up a number of on-farm varietal and agronomy
trials and describe how the results are to be used
at the end of the season. There seems little
point in conducting problems solving applied research
unless one has given careful thought to how the
results will be shared with farmers and extension
agents.


(d) -subject--the resultes-to. economic, and .isk..aversion
analysis for different groups of farmers;
(e) identify a number of. discrete production alternatives
which appear relevant to the farming environment of
different groups. of farmers;
(f) in ,the'.next season plant a trial of' production
alternatives* on farmers fields, so that farmers


This is sometimes called a verification trial








.., 20,...



:' ':! with;different resource endowments., production and
consumption objectives, etc., can appraise which
of the :alternatives.- is, moes:t, suitable. to their
: t i t t u tioi ;
"(g): evaluate the contribution of. the formal R&D system
b- "by --:ini',' ,wht-ich technologies and cropping practices
*are adopted;
(h:)Y rJtabli.sh next year's research .priorities foz on-
st *' titon research:,and. for: on-farm. research based
upon experiences of the previous year's conZinous
contactt with farmers in their own environment, a
'. monitoring survey in the location, and -an assessment
of the results of the on-farm trials.,

Some of, .the advantages of this approach are :
(a), it.takes away the whole idea that there is a single
Technology (i.e. a simple improved variety and a single.
package of recommended practices) which i ready for
all farmers to adopt, and that all that iq needed in
S for it'*to:'be demonstrated to farmers. :The.reality
: in rural areas is that: production activities and
problem are: very, location:and farmer group.
Specific, due not- only to: ecological reaspsns but
alsbo t s'cio -ecbnomic -causes;..
(b)i r.-: Cerchers come in contact with the. real problems
'f t:`' c -a"C t r ..c., .,; ha~v, to: donsTi :... viable
production alternativess in.: the actual, evirpinment
of' farii'eres rather than under, artificial.. czerrch
Staf' ori- ndi.tion : "-, : :. ,-p.,^

(c) the dnri-'farm tr rch can be- fully i.n.tegrated into the
extension sy8't e:-m-i-.:;tIn fact xster' on ;.ata can be
"'":!~ ~ ~~ ~~ ":" ; .. L ''"








... 21 ...


trained by setting up and conducting these types
of trials. (Palmer 1977)
(d) by the very nature of the location of the research,
relevant technological innovations from these
activities are already in the village community
and will'be automatically passed on by farmers
watching the progress of the trials;
(e) it will induce bringing together the existing
informal R&D systems and the formal R&D system.
If members of the formal system are to be evaluated
against the criteria of presenting technology which
is adopted by farmers, they will, in their own self
interest, start to observe what farmers and village
artisans are doing-and seek toutilize the products
of this informal research. The results of such
integration will be a strong indigenous research
capacity to meet rural development problems.

Concluding remarks
One of the implications of the voluminous literature
on the problems of designing rural and agricultural
technologies to benefit the rural poor, is that
existing R&D systems have not, as a first requirement,
analysed the specific technical and institutional
Problems of their clients. This paper describes one
approach to how integrated groups of technical and social
scientists might change .this situation. However, as dis-
cussed elsewhere (Biggs), in the final analysis it will
depend upon the structure and rewards in the formal R&D
system as to whether scientists see that it is in their
interest to start with, and stay linked into, the problems
of the rural poor when conducting research.











... 22 ..


SAhmed..,,B;.U..: -and .E.:W1 Coward, Jr. 1977
": Vil large : Technology and Bireaucracy. : Irrigation
Development in ,Bangladesh"..
Journal of the Bangladesh Academy for Rural Development
Vol. 7(1), July

Ahmed Nizam U., 1975
Field Report on Irrigation by Handpump Tubewells"
S; cyclostyledd. report).: Dacca, USAID,

Biggs, Stephen D., 1978
"Planning Rural Technologies in the Context of Social
Structures and Reward System", Journal of Agricultural
S. Economics, (U.K.) forthcoming (Also CIMMYT Asian Report
N- o'. 3).


Bi;gs, Stephen D., Chris Edwards and Jon Griffith, 1978
"Irrigation in Bangladesh : on contradictions and under-
S utilized.potential"', (Discussion Paper No. 22) Norwich :
Overseas Development Group, University of East. Anglia,



i .:ihar," Government of, 196:9 .
S Problems of smal-l farmers of Kosi area (Pornea. and
S, 'Saharsa. Districts), P.atna, Superintendent Secretariat
Press : :

Centre Internacional de .Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo,
,(CT YT.)', .1977-.. . ,
Central valley barley study, 1976 ..
.:,: Jle:i:c;i.lif:y :Git : 'Whea', !Production .Training,, Wh,eat: Agronomy
anT-d .Ecnho:mi:c.s,,.; CIMMYT, .(unpublished). ,


; '' : : C. '. : I,' i : "







... 23 ..


Clay, Edward C., 1975
"Equity and Productivity Effects of a Package of Technology
Innovations and Changes in Social Institutions : Tubewells,
Tractors "nd High Yielding Varieties", Indian Journal of
Agricultural Economics October-December, Vol. 30(4),
pp 74-87

East Pakistan, Government of,,Services and General
Administration Depcrtiea-t,' 1967
"Technical Report of the Scheme for Rapid Soil'Fertility
Survey and Popularisation of the use of Fertilizer in East
Pakistan for the Period from 1957 to 1962". Dacca : East
Pakistan Government Press

Howes, Michael, 1978
The Uses cf Indigenous Technical Knowledge in Development
Paper for the Workshop on "Indigenous Technical Knowledge",
Institute of Development Stud!'s, Brighton, 13-14 April

India, Government of, 1978
Draft Five Year Plan 1978-83, New Delhi, Government of India
Press

Izuno, Takumi, 1977
Developing an on-farm Testing Programme for Maize in India
Paper for the All-India Coordinated Maize Improvement Project
Workshop, Gujarat Agricultural University (Anand Campus)
laay 16-20, 1977, (Also CIMMYT Asian Report No. 2)

Kenya, Government of, Research Division, Ministry of
Agriculture and the Economics Department, Egerton College
and CIMMYT, 1977
Demonstrations of an Interdisciplinary Farming Systems
Approach to Planning Adaptive Agriculural Research -
Programmes (Report No. 1, April 1977, Part of Siaya District
Pyanza Pr6vince, Kenya) Nairobi : CIMMYT Eastern African
Economics Programme, 1977









. .. 24 .


Palmer, A.F.E., 1977
"Farmers' Field Trials and Their Impact in Pakistan",
Paper prepared for National Maize Development Programme
Worskhop, Rampur, Nepal, January 4-10, 1977. (Also
included in CIMMYT Asian Report No. 4)

Palmer, A.F.E., 1977a
"Fertilizer Crops in Pakistan with examples for Maize", mimco,
(also included in CIMMYT Asian Report No. 4)

Perrin, Richard K., Donald L. Winkelmann, Edgardo R.
Moscardi and Jock R. Anderson, 1976
From Agronomic Data to Farmer Recommendations : An
Economics Traiining Manal, CIMMYT Information Bulletin 27,
Mexico City, CIMMYT

Ryan, James G., 1977
"Human Nutritional Needs and Crop Breeding Objectives
in the Indian Semi-Arid Tropics"
(Occasional Paper 13) Hyderabad ; Economics Department,
ICRISAT

Stilwell, T. and T. Shibata, 1978
CIMMYT Maize Training : Report of Selected Off Station
Experiments 1977 and Summary of Selected Experiments
1973-1977, Mexico City, CIMMYT

Voilic, Alejandro, Frederico Kocker, Thomas Stilwell and
Edgardo Moscardi, 1978
Maize Training.in the International Maize and Wheat
Improvement Centre (CIMMYT), Mexico City, CIMMYT

Werge, R., 1978
"Social Science Training for Regional Agricultural
Development", paper presented at the meetings of the
Society for Applied Anthropology, Merida, Mexico,
2-9 April, 1978, (Also CIMMYT Asian Report No. 5)




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