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FRuEDEIIC FE NANDEZ CPVADP,
A NATIVE OF CUBA.
SHOWING PARTIALLY WHAT ONE OF HIS FRIENDS KNEW OF HIM AS A
SOLDIER, A GENTLEMAN, A POET, A DIPLOMAT, AN AUTHOR,
A PATRIOT AND A VICTIM.
PHkNTED FOI PRIVATE ClpULfTIOn
JAMES B. CHANDLER, PRINTER, 306 & 308 CHESTNUT STREET, PIILADELPHIA,
Entered according to Act of Congress in the year 1871, by 0. W'. Davis, iu the Office of
Librarian of Congress, at Washington.
For the following sketch I have no apology to make,
though fully aware of its imperfections. Am conscious
too, that what has been written renders me amenable
to the charge of egotism. As this could not be avoided,
"I accept the situation"- from necessity.
If any one supposes the following pages to be a sketch
of the life of Frederic F. Cavada, he will find out his
error before he reads very far. It is only a state-
ment of what I know about him, and I have prepared
it solely for the information of those gentlemen who
under the belief he was alive, aided me in trying to save
his life, that they may understand why I was so persis-
tent in the demands made upon the fourth and fifth
The life of Cavada has yet to be written, and if his
record ever falls into the hands of a biographer whose
pen is equal to that of William Wirt, when he wrote
the life of Patrick Henry, it will be charming as a
romance of real life, and instructive as a lesson. The
incidents of his life of which I have any knowledge,
cover only the short period of ten years-from July
1861, when he was commissioned as Captain in the
Union Army, to July 1871, when he was executed at
Puerto Principe. Whoever will take the trouble to
read the following pages must admit that he was a
,The sketch has at least one merit-"truth." Though
it has been prepared within three days, I have authority
for all that is said:-the originals of letters and tele-
grams, and the testimony of living men to corroborate,
if necessary, what has been written. I have not written
a word with the expectation of aiding the cause of Cuba
or bringing Spain into contempt. I have no interest in
Cuba beyond that which any man must feel for a weak
people striving to rid themselves of what they consider
a tyranny, nor have I any cause of quarrel with Spain.
Her representatives in Cuba have, it is true, killed a
brave man, in violation of what I believe to be the laws
of civilization, but this was not done by Spain. When
her War Minister was appealed to, he directed that the
charges against Cavada should be forwarded to Madrid
It is not my intention to censure or criticise even by
implication, the policy our government has adopted
towards the Cuban Revolutionists. I did not approach
General Grant or Mr. Fish as office holders, but as indi-
viduals whose intercession I sought in behalf of a brave
man, to whom fate had been unpropitious. Their
hearts prompted them to do what they did, and on
reflection I hope their judgment will not censure their
This pamphlet therefore has no literary pretensions
or political meaning,-it is purely personal. If any body
is hurt by what has been written it is his own fault.
He should not have crossed Cavada's path If he has
done so, he has learned the lesson that the jackass did
when he kicked a sleeping lion believing he was dead.
The fable says that the lion awoke, and when the jack-
ass went home, he left his ears behind him. The appli-
cation is appropriate even if the fable be false.
The criticism may be made-"why should so much
pains be taken to print a pamphlet about Cavada, and
to tell what efforts were made to save his life, when
those efforts were fruitless?" They resulted in nothing
it is true, but they were made under the belief that he
was alive on the fourth and fifth of July. They were
promoted by such men as Gen. Graham, Gen. Sheridan,
Gen. Meade, Gen. Horace Porter, Gen. Van Vliet, Moses
Taylor, Samuel Sloan, John Hoey, Edward S. Sanford
John W. Forney and Gen. Sickles. As these gentlemen
had committed themselves to Cavada's interest by one
good action promptly done, is it not probable that they
would have followed it up until they saw Cavada restored
to his friends and family?
This sketch has been prepared for their information,
and has been printed (not published) that they may
know something of the man for whose life they were
induced to intercede.
O. WILSON DAVIS.
New York, July 25th, 1871.
FREDERIC FERNANDEZ CAVADA was born in 1832,
at Cienfuegos, Cuba. His father was a native of Cuba
and died when Fred. was a mere boy. His widowed
mother soon afterwards returned with her young family
to Philadelphia, her native city. Fred. was first placed
at school in Wilmington, Delaware, and after remaining
there a few years, completed at Philadelphia all the
education he ever received.
His health was always delicate, and when an oppor-
tunity offered, his mother yielded to his wish to accom-
pany the surveying expedition to the Isthmus under
Col. Trautwine, to survey the route for the Panama
Railroad. At that time the "Chagres fever" was
unknown, and his friends hoped that a life out of
doors would build up his constitution ; they also thought
it would be a good opportunity for him to become a
civil engineer if he developed any taste or talent for the
He remained with the expedition until the survey
was completed, and returned home with Col. Trautwine.
The malarious swamps of the Isthmus had not improved
his health, but on the contrary had planted in his system
the seeds of disease which followed him through life.
His first care was the restoration of his health, and
for several years he spent a life of comparative ease,
reading, writing, sketching and thinking as inclination
prompted him. When the rebellion broke out, in April
1861, he was anxious to enlist for the "three months
service," but his health was so delicate that his physician
and friends dissuaded him from his intention. After
the developments of April, May and June, 1861, had
proved that there was to be a protracted struggle, Cavada
resolved to take part in spite of his health.
During the three months service," David B. Birney,
of Philadelphia, was Lieutenant-Colonel of the Twenty-
third Regiment of Pennsylvania Volunteers, of which
Charles B. Dare was the Colonel. The writer was
Birney's partner, and on July 15th, 1861, Birney wrote
him from camp, near Williamsport, Maryland.
I have determined to return to the service for three
"years. General Cameron (then Secretary of War,) has
" authorized me to raise a large regiment of fifteen com-
"panies, to be divided into three battalions, as in the
"French service. Colonel Dare is so far gone with the
" consumption that he will be unable to return. I will
"be the Colonel of the new regiment.
As you are aware, the term of our enlistment will
" expire in a few days, and I had hoped to be able to
"return home then, but General Patterson wishes us to
"remain longer, and the men have consented to do so.
"We may be here a month, but I do not wish in the
"meantime to delay the organization of the new regi
"ment: You had some experience in raising the pre-
"sent regiment, and why can you not take hold and
"start a new regiment to serve for three years, before
"the ardor of the boys has time to abate ?
Do this, and I will send you the requisite authority.
"If you go to work in earnest, you should have the
"regiment almost ready by the time we return. A
"majority of the men in the present regiment will, I
"think, re-enlist for three years. If they do, many of
"them will return with me. After these are added to
"the men you raise, the new regiment should be ready
"to take the field in a few days after my return. This
"will prevent us from loafing about Philadelphia."
On this suggestion I acted, and on the seventeenth day
of July, 1861, rented the Girard House for a recruiting
office. It was the second largest hotel in Philadelphia,
and happened at the time to be vacant. Owing to the
liberality of George G. Presbury, Esq., the lessee, the
rent was nominal.
The location and size of the recruiting office attracted
some attention, and in a few days there were numerous
applicants from among the young men of Philadelphia,
for positions as line officers in the new regiment. As
the writer was entirely ignorant of military matters,
and as the applicants were equally ignorant, the posi-
tion of both parties was somewhat embarrassing. The
only criterion which, under the circumstances, it was
possible to adopt, was previous knowledge of the appli-
cant, and in the absence of this, then a decision could
only be made from impressions produced by personal
appearance and a few moments conversation.
On the twentieth day of July, 1861, a delicate look-
ing young man entered the business office of the writer,
and asked for a position in the Twenty-third Pennsyl-
What position ?" was the question.
Answer-" First or Second Lieutenant"
"Do you live in Philadelphia ?"
"Born here ?"
"In Cuba, but educated here."
What knowledge have you of military matters ?"
"None whatever, but I think I could soon qualify
myself for a subordinate position. I will, of course, de-
fray my portion of the expense of raising my company,
if I can get a position."
"Can you go to work at once ?"
"Yes, and I have already about a dozen men who
have promised to go in my company."
What's your name ?"
What is your business ?"
"Nothing. I was engaged on the survey of the
Panama Railroad, but since I returned home, have been
unable to do any work on account of my health."
"Do you think you could endure the exposure of a
I do not know, but have made up my mind to try it."
The quiet, but resolute manner of my new acquaint-
ance, his ready and pertinent answers, and his general
appearance, so impressed me that I felt I had drawn a
prize. After a few moments reflection, I said:
"You can go as captain if you wish to ?"
Cavada replied: "I should like to do so very much,
but did not expect it. As you do not know me, per-
haps you would like to have letters from my friends to
tell you who I am."
"Never mind who you are. I think you will do.
Do not trouble yourself about the letters, but go to
work. Take a room in the Girard House and raise your
company as soon as possible."
He did so, and in three days his company was full
and ready to be mustered into the service.
SERVICE AS CAPTAIN.
The "three months" Twenty-third Pennsylvania
Volunteers returned to Philadelphia on August 17th,
1861. About six hundred men of the new regiment
met their future comrades at the Baltimore depot, and
escorted them to the headquarters of the new regiment.
The next day, Lieutenant Colonel Birney put all the
men in camp at the corner of Nicetown Lane and Lamb
Tavern Road, about four miles from the city, and began
to organize the new regiment.
On Sunday, August 20th, the Secretary of War issued
an order requiring all companies that had been mustered
in, to come to Washington. Birney went down early
on Monday, August 21st, with all the men who were
in camp, and completed the organization of the regiment
at the Capitol.
When the regiment went to the Peninsula under
McClellan, Cavada was detailed for duty as engineer.
His talent for sketching and his knowledge of topo-
graphy made him more useful, to the Generals under
whom he served, as an engineer than as a line officer.
Part of his duties on the Peninsula were performed in
balloons which, it will be remembered, were then used
as the eyes of the Army of the Potomac. After the
Peninsula campaign he served with his regiment during
the campaign under General Pope during August, 1862,
and subsequently was in the battle of Antietam under
General McClellan, September 17th, 1862.
During the fall of 1862, the "One Hundred and
Fourteenth Regiment of Pennsylvania Volunteers" was
organized and Cavada was commissioned as Lieutenant-
Colonel. He served as such at Fredericksburg in Decem-
ber, 1862, under Burnside, and at Chancellorsville in
May, 1863, under Hooker.
At the battle of Gettysburg, July, lb63, Cavada had
command of the regiment, the Colonel being absent.
The regiment was in the Brigade of General Charles
K. Graham, and in the Division of General Birney, all
which were in the Third Corps, commanded by General
Sickles. General Meade was in command of the army.
To all these Generals, Cavada was well known. How
they appreciated him will appear subsequently.
At the battle of Gettysburg, Cavada and his Brigade
Commander, General Charles K. Graham, were captured
and taken to Libby Prison, at Richmond, Virginia.
Cavada remained a prisoner of war until January,
1864, when he was released on parole. Even in Libby
Prison he could not be idle. He cheated the long hours
of their weariness by writing sketches of prison life,
and illustrating them with designs from his pencil. As
there was no stationer's store attached to the prison, he
was compelled to write these sketches and draw the
designs upon the margins of newspapers and such other
scraps of paper as fell in his way.
When he was released, these multifold manuscripts,
written on both sides of the sheet escaped confiscation,
because they were concealed between the shoes and
stockings of the author and such of his comrades, who
had taken an interest in his authorship, as were willing
to incur the risk of further detention by concealing such
documents upon their persons. According to the rules
of the prison they were contraband of war.
These sketches and illustrations were in 1864, pub-
lished by King & Baird, of Philadelphia, in a book en-
titled "Libby Life." It is not, perhaps, quite equal
as a literary production to "Picciola or the Prison
Flower," by X. B. Saintine; but then it must be remem-
bered that Saintine was a scholar while Cavada was
only a soldier; besides this, Chillon," where Saintine
was imprisoned, was clean and comparatively so healthy
a spot, that a "prison flower" could exist there, while
the atmosphere of Libby," where Cavada spent his
term, was destructive not only of vegetable, but nearly
all animal life. Only a small portion of the prisoners
who were caged there ever survived, and they had for
companions of their imprisonment numerous members
of animated creation too repulsive to describe, and not
possessing the attraction which the prisoner of "Chillon"
found in the little flower.
On his return to Philadelphia, emaciated by con-
finement, Cavada learned that in his absence, his Colonel
had charged him with cowardice at the battle of Gettys-
burg, though, as already stated, the Colonel was not
present during any portion of the engagement. Among
other allegations, it was said that Cavada had permitted
himself to be captured.
These reports naturally produced a revivifying effect
upon the invalid soldier, who attempted to get an ex-
planation from his Colonel. Failing in this, he fool-
ishly challenged him. By some means these facts
became known to General George Cadwalader, who was
at the time in command at Philadelphia. As duelling
was in violation not only of the Laws of Pennsylvania,
but of the rules of the service, the General determined
to put a stop to any further proceedings of the sort.
The first step he took was to direct his Adjutant-
General to forward a notice to Lieutenant-Colonel Cavada
that he must consider himself under close arrest within
the precincts of the Continental Hotel, so long as he
remained in Philadelphia.
This order Cavada showed to the writer a few hours
after its receipt, who took him to General Cadwalader's
headquarters and introduced him. After an inspection
of his personal appearance, the General relieved him
from "close arrest," because he did not think Cavada
a very dangerous man in the condition his health was
at the time, and because he thought that it would be bet-
ter for the service for Cavada to spend his leisure time
in trying to repair his health, so that he might be able
to go to duty in the field whenever he was exchanged.
A STAFF OFFICER.
During the month of March, Cavada was duly
exchanged, but his delicate health and the depressing
effect produced upon his spirits by the reports of his
cowardice, had decided him to resign his commission.
He made known his intention to his friends, who dis-
suaded him from his purpose, by offering to secure him
a position on the Staff of General Birney, then in com-
mand of a division in General Hancock's Corps. This
position was secured and Cavada served on General
Birney's Staff during General Grant's campaign from
Fredericksburg to Petersburg.
General Birney died in October, 1864. After his
death Cavada resigned, having determined to go to
Cuba, and perhaps South America, to try to recover
UNITED STATES CONSUL.
After his resignation had been accepted, Cavada made
arrangements to leave the country. One afternoon as
the writer was hurrying home from his office, to prepare
to go to Washington at 4 o'clock, on business, he met
Cavada, who said:-
"While I am away I do not wish to be idle, and I
think I could serve the government during my absence
in some way, perhaps in a semi-diplomatic capacity.
"Many complicated questions have arisen in South
America. In some of these the government may be in-
volved. I think I understand these questions, and may
be of service to the State Department if I go to South
America. If on my return to Cuba, I find the state of
things existing which I am told exists there, I will
remain in Cuba. In this event I know I can serve the
"I want no office, but would like before I start to
have an interview with Mr. Seward."
The reply was:-
Cavada, I know-nothing about South American ques-
tions or Cuban affairs, but if you want to see the Secre-
tary of State, I think I can procure an interview for
you. I do not know Mr. Seward personally, but I know
many gentlemen who are acquainted with him. I am
going to Washington at 4 o'clock this afternoon, and the
best thing you can do is to go with me."
Cavada answered-" I will meet you at the depot."
He. did so, and we went to Washington. The next
morning we went to the State Department, and fortu-
nately met in the corridor, Edward S. Sanford, Esq., of
New York. I introduced Cavada to him and telling him
what we wanted, he immediately procured us an inter-
view with Mr. Seward which lasted about an hour.
When we took leave, Mr. Seward said-" Colonel, I
am very glad to have seen you. I will think of your
suggestions and if I can make use of your services, you
will hear from me."
In a few days, Cavada received from the State depart-
ment the appointment of Consul for the United States
at Trinidad de Cuba.
Shortly after his arrival he wrote the following letter,
which it must be remembered was written only for a
friendly eye, without any expectation that it would be
seen in print:
January 17th, 1865.
O. WILSON DAVIS, ESQ.,
I send enclosed the lines, founded upon the incident at
General Birney's grave, which you expressed a desire to
see. I think their only merit consists in the endeavor
to perpetuate an incident which proves how much honor
is due to the memory of our lamented friend.
The sketch of the battle on the North Anna is very
crude, but an intelligent artist might so arrange it as to
present a fair picture of the action without departing
much from local correctness in the details. I had in-
tended drawing it out for you, together with some others,
before leaving Philadelphia, but I was so much indis-
posed for several days previous to my departure, that I
felt utterly unfit to undertake it.
I am happy to be able to say that since my arrival
here, my health has improved wonderfully. I hope by
the coming spring to return to the States with fully re-
newed strength and in better spirits.
The public mind here is deeply engrossed with the
political events which are following each other so rapidly
in the American Republic. Although not altogether
unprepared for the lively interest taken in the war, I
was nevertheless, not a little surprised to find this ele-
ment of social excitement so extensively developed.
Every one appears fully awake to the importance of the
issues at stake. The abolition element is, strange to
say, not limited to those who are not slave-holders, even
some of the large slave owners being numbered among
the proselytes of the new faith. The ultimate extinc-
tion of the institution of slavery over the whole Western
Hemisphere, seems to be accepted as an inevitable sequel
to its extinction in the United States. The colored
population of this Island are not in the dark as to these
great issues. Slavery, once abolished in the American
Union as the resolution of the great problem which is
now being evolved there, it will be scarcely possible that
Cuban slavery, so near a neighbor to American liberty,
could be maintained intact. The opinion seems daily
to be losing ground, that the white race cannot labor in
the fields of Cuba. The strongest argument upon which
this theory was based, seems to have been the fact that
the white race never had labored in the fields. The
admission of the physical superiority of the negro in this
respect is neither a safe one to the institution of slavery,
nor to the permanent domination of the white race in
intertropical climates. Would not a different system of
physical education render the white laborer as imper-
vious to the malignant effects of the sun as the African ?
This question begins to attract considerable attention
here since the outbreak of the rebellion. "Let us be
regenerated," say some, "or we are lost."
I doubt if the various movements of the armies, and
their probable results, are discussed and speculated upon
even in the States with more warmth and interest than
they are here. There are many enthusiastic "Federals,"
who are constantly engaged in violent controversies
with the rankest sort of Confederates." After the late
glorious victories of Thomas, and the splendid military
promenade of Sherman, the "Secesh" kept themselves
considerably in the back ground, and although the with-
drawal of the Butler-Porter expedition from the waters
of the Cape Fear, encouraged them to come feebly forth
again to the charge, we trust that before long we may
compel them to bury their arguments and expectations
beyond the hope of resurrection.
It may appear surprising to you that there should
exist here such warm sympathies with the Union cause.
If Cuba belongs geographically to America, why should
she belong politically to Europe ? This question natur-
ally suggests to the Cuban the fact that one day their
Island must attach itself to the destinies of the Ameri-
can family. Commanding as it does the waters of the
Gulf of Mexico, which furnishes the seaboard of the
Gulf States, possessing splendid harbors and rich lands,
and counting its negro slaves by hundreds of thousands,
it would no doubt be destined to fall a prey to Southern
policy and Southern cupidity should the Confederacy
establish its independence. But it is not overlooked
here that the doctrine of State Rights in accordance
with which such a Confederacy must be framed, would
involve the constant peril of disunion and of anarchy,
and in such an event what could be the ultimate fate of
Cuba but that of St. Domingo and Jamaica? It would
be too dangerous to try such a political experiment here,
a country where the negro population outnumbers the
But this letter has already trespassed enough upon
your time. I am apt to forget that Cuban politics and
Cuban interests are not so interesting to others as they
are to myself.
Very truly your ob't servant,
F. F. CAVADA.
"The sketch of the battle on the North Anna" refer-
red to in the foregoing letter, was a drawing prepared by
Cavada at the request of the writer, who was then en-
gaged upon the "Life of General Birney." The book
was subsequently published, but without any sketches
of battles in which Birney had been engaged, as had
been originally designed, so that the drawing sent by
Cavada was never used.
The incident upon which Cavada based the verses
referred to in the foregoing letter, occurred at the grave
of General Birney, who was buried in "Woodlands
Cemetery," Philadelphia, not far from the "Satterlee
Hospital." The hospital was then filled with conva-
lescent soldiers, principally from the army of the Potomac.
After the troops which formed the funeral escort, the
citizens, and the family had returned home, the writer
remained at the grave to see that the workmen of the
cemetery performed their duty properly. When the
work was nearly completed, he saw through the dim
twilight a soldier on crutches, who was intently watching
the grave diggers. He said to him, "my man, what
are you doing here ?"
He replied, I served, sir, under General Birney, and
lost my leg in front of Petersburg. The stump has not
yet healed, so that I could not attend the funeral, but
I got leave of absence from the hospital to come over
After some further conversation the soldier hobbled
away and the writer subsequently related the incident
to Cavada. After he had gone to Cuba, I heard of
the verses and had asked for a copy, which was en-
closed with the sketch of the battle on the North Anna."
They were the following:
The solemn sounds were hushed;
The martial music and the tolling bell,
The plaintive beating of the muflled drums,
And the echoed volleys of the funeral guns;
And from the new made grave, where slept
The hero of many battles, all were gone-
All save one, for as the twilight came
Shrouding the silent grave-yard in the pall
Of falling night, there lingered still
An humble soldier leaning on his crutch.
Oh, who shall say what stirring thoughts they were
That stayed him at his chieftain's grave!
The thrilling memories of the battle field,
The rattling musketry, and the cannon's sound,
The deadly struggle and the desperate charge,
And the proud form of him who slept
The everlasting slumber in the new made grave,
Dashing through the blinding battle smoke,
The manly voice that urged him in the fight,
The flashing eye and waving sword,
And the noble face that when the day
Was won; these all in the dim twilight
Were bending over him.
This humble, war bruised veteran was the last,
The noblest mourner at the grave that day;
And the silent prayer he offered
Went up to plead at Heaven's golden gate
For him who was the soldier's friend.
A long way lie had come-a long way-
Limping on his crutches through the idle crowd
Which thronged to gaze upon the funeral pageant-
A long way, to breathe his sincere prayer
O'er the noble dead, and shed upon the grave
This touching tribute of a soldier's heart.
TROUBLE IN HIGH QUARTERS.
During 1865, the writer removed to New York. One
evening he met E. S. Sanford, Esq., at the Fifth Avenue
Hotel. Mr. Sanford was evidently laboring under some
excitement, and reproached me for having asked him to
introduce Cavada to Mr. Seward.
I replied: "Sanford, don't get excited; tell me what
is the matter."
He said: "I introduced your friend, Cavada, to Mr.
Seward at your request. It now turns out that he is a
coward, and proofs to that effect have been forwarded
to the State Department. You must fix this thing."
I answered: I will fix it. Cavada is no coward. He
is'not only a brave man, but a gentleman. His error
consists, perhaps, in thinking too much of big things,
disregarding small ones. I will see that Cavada and
you both stand right with the State Department."
The promise thus made was duly performed, as the
following will show:
CONSULATE OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA,
TRINIDAD DE CUBA, April 17th, 1866.
O. WILSON DAVIS, ESQ.,
Once more I am called upon to express my thanks to
you for important favors, for I am assured that the com-
munications you sent to Washington were strongly con-
ducive to the favorable termination of my difficulties at
the Department of State. They must have been deemed
weighty evidence indeed to counteract the misrepresen-
tations of my enemies.
I trust that some day it may be my good fortune to
give a more thorough expression to the gratitude for
kind offices which places me so deeply in your debt.
I am, sir,
Your very grateful and sincere friend,
FREDERIC F. CAVADA,
U. S. Consul.
He held the position of Consul of the United States
at Trinidad de Cuba from the fall of 1864 until Feb-
ruary, 1869, when he resigned to take part in the Cuban
revolution. This is some evidence that Mr. Seward,
who was Secretary of State during this entire period,
paid but little attention to the charges that had been
lodged in the State Department, though it is evident
he examined them.
A GENERAL IN THE CUBAN ARMY.
After Cavada resigned the consulate, he was commis-
sioned as General of the Cuban army for the District of
Trinidad, and was subsequently appointed Commander-
in-Chief of the Cinco-villas, which included Trinidad,
Cienfuegos, Sagua, Villa Clara, Remedios and S'to.
Espiritu. When General Jordan returned to the United
States, Cavada was appointed Commander-in-Chief of all
the Cuban forces, with the title of Chief of the General
Staff. His new duties took him from the Cinco-villas
Department to Camaguey, where he established his
headquarters. His brother, Adolpho, who had been in
command of the Cienfuegos District, was appointed to
succeed him in the command of the Cinco-villas.
The campaigns of Cavada cover the operations of the
past two and a half years in the Cinco-villas Depart-
ment. It consisted of hard fighting without intermis-
sion. The men, though scantily and badly armed and
clothed kept the Spaniards at bay, defending their posi-
tions in the mountains with wooden cannon, &c., captur-
ing several Spanish garrisons and fortified places, con-
tinually harassing the enemy and doing all that the
most indomitable energy and heroism could do unsup-
ported and unaided.
At the commencement of the insurrection, he was
badly wounded by the accidental discharge of a gun that
fell from the hands of one of the sentinels, and for three
months endured the most excruciating torment and suf-
fering. During this time, he was concealed in a cave
in the mountains with a few of his trusty friends to
This is not the place, however, to discuss his cam-
paigns in Cuba. They will doubtless be written here-
after by one more competent to do them justice. Any
attempt to sketch them with the information that has
been received would be a failure.
On July 4th, 1871, about eleven o'clock, A. M., the
writer was walking up Broadway to keep an appoint-
ment, and stopped at a cigar store kept by Victor Giraudy,
at 815 Broadway, to buy a cigar. Giraudy is a Cuban,
and knew that I had been acquainted with Cavada. He
showed me the following dispatch in the New York
Herald of that date:
THE WAR IN CUBA."
CAPTURE OF GENERAL CAVADA AND ADMIRAL
OSORIO BY THE SPANIARDS.
HAVANA, JULY 3rd.
"The Spanish Gunboat Neptuno captured the insurgent
General Fredrico Cavada, while he was trying to leave the
Island. He was taken to Puerto Principe for trial. His
execution is certain."
"The Neptuno also captured the Cuban Admiral Osorio,
who was made famous by capturing the Spanish Coaster
Commanditore. Osorio was taken to Neuvitas for trial.
Three more insurgent leaders on Cayo-Cruz, where
Cavada was captured, were surrounded by Spanish sea-
men and troops and killed."
Though I had read a morning paper, the foregoing
dispatch had escaped my attention. After I read it,
Giraudy and the friend who had entered the cigar store
with me, expressed the opinion that Cavada had already
been shot, because they both knew that he and other
Cuban leaders had nearly a year before been tried in
their absence by Spanish Court Martial at Havana, and
had been sentenced to be shot or garroted whenever
captured. At first I was inclined to agree with them
in this opinion, but after reading the dispatch carefully,
I came to a different conclusion. The dispatch stated
that other insurgent leaders captured at the same time
"were surrounded by Spanish seamen and troops and
killed." Besides this, it was stated that Cavada was
taken to Puerto Principe for trial."
Why should this be, except from the fact that Cavada
had been Commander in Chief?" If for this reason, he
was not shot whlen captured, as others were, but was sent
to Puerto Principe for trial, would not a journey to the
place of trial and the trial itself occupy several days?
These questions I answered satisfactorily to myself in
the affirmative, and determined at once to make an
effort to save his life. I believed that there was at least
a chance of his being alive on July the fourth, and de-
termined to make the most of this chance without delay.
Knowing that personally I could do very little, I
naturally thought of such men among my acquaintances
as could and would aid me. As it was the Fourth of
July, a national holiday, I knew that such of them as
lived in New York and adjacent cities, would not be
accessible at their places of business either personally or
by telegram, but I resolved to make the most that I
could of the means at hand.
EFFORTS TO SAVE HIS LIFE.
My first thought was to communicate with Cavada's
family in Philadelphia, to let them know I was ready
to co-operate with any movement they might make,
and I telegraphed them. They were, however, absent
from the city, and the special messenger from the
telegraph office, in Philadelphia, was unable to ascertain
My next thought was of General Sickles, our Minister
at Madrid, with whom I had the good fortune to be
acquainted, and who had known Cavada personally.
About one, P. M., (but about six, P. M., in Spain,) I
sent the following dispatch:
NEW YORK, July 4th, 1871.
To GENERAL DANIEL E. SICKLES,
United States' Minister,
Frederic Cavada, Lieutenant-Colonel under you at
Gettysburg, now General of Cuban army, has been
captured by the Spaniards. Can he be saved ?
O. WILSON DAVIS,
Fifth Avenue Hotel.
My next thought was to see some of the Cuban Junta,
but I knew none of them personally. Returning to
Giraudy's cigar store, I asked him where any of the
members of the Junta could be found. He sent his
brother with me to Hilario Cisneros, Esq., No. 406
West Twenty-third Street, one of the vice presidents of
the Junta, whom I saw. As he spoke English imper-
fectly, and as I could not speak a word of Spanish, Mr.
Giraudy acted as interpreter. Mr. Cisneros manifested
great interest in the matter, expressed his belief that
Cavada was still alive, and offered on behalf of the Junta
to defray any expenses that might be incurred by the
movement, which he sincerely hoped might be successful.
He did not, however, make any practical suggestions,
and after conversing with him, through the interpreter,
a few minutes, I took leave.
Soon after leaving Mr. Cisneros, I met a friend who
has a large acquaintance with foreigners residing in New
York. After he had heard my story, he suggested that
I should see General Charles K. Graham, who, he said,
had just gone to the Army and Navy Club.
On the mention of his name, I remembered that Gen-
eral Graham was the very man I wanted. He has not
only a big heart but a good head, and beside this, he had
been Cavada's Brigade Commander and his fellow prisoner
at Libby." I went in search of him and found him
just leaving the Club house on his way to dinner, and
telling him my errand, he said-" I saw the dispatch in
the morning papers, and have spoken to General
Franklin, to Major Bundy of the New York Mail, and
to others, we are to have a special meeting of the Third
Corps Union to-morrow morning, and will take some
action on behalf of Cavada."
I replied,-" General, a town meeting of any kind
will not do in this case-to-morrow may be too late."
He said-" I know it, but what else can I do ?"
I replied,-"We must, if possible, get General Grant
to act without delay. He is a soldier, and if we can lay
the case before him properly, I am sure he will do some-
thing and that speedily, without regard to the rules of
diplomacy or international law. Though I never spoke
to him, I know that he did not shoot or permit any one
to shoot General Lee or any other rebel officer when they
were caught. He will not permit the Spanish authorities
in Cuba to shoot Cavada, if it can be prevented. He and
Sickles are the only two men in the world who can
save Cavada. Sickles has already been appealed to, and
we must reach General Grant-Come with me to the
telegraph office at the Fifth Avenue Hotel, and we will
determine on our way there what is to be done."
As we rode to the hotel, Graham said-" General
Sheridan is in town, I saw him this morning, and think
he his stopping at the Fifth Avenue-let us see him, I
know him and think he will help us."
We saw General Sheridan at the hotel. After the
case was stated to him, he said without hesitation-" I
will do all I can to aid you. I do not wish however, to
embarrass the President, but if you see him, tell him that
I hope he will do all in his power, officially, to save
Cavada's life. I believe that he will do it, but I do not
want to ask him to do anything, as I do not know
whether any complications could arise from such action.
Just state the facts to the President and let him act in
his own way. I know him and suggest this as your
From subsequent developments I have reason to
believe that General Sheridan telegraphed to General
Grant in Cavada's behalf.
We next went to the telegraph office in the hotel and
sent the following dispatches:-The operators, Messrs.
J. W. Burnham and C. H. Brown manifested great
interest in what we were doing, and did all in their
power to get the telegrams "through" without delay.
General Graham had been in correspondence with
General Sickles, and knew that he was absent from
Madrid. Only the day previous he had received a com-
munication from him. The first dispatch was to London.
NEW YORK, July 4th, 1871.
To B. F. STEVENS,
U. S. Dispatch Agent,
Where is General Sickles? Very important. Answer.
CHARLES K. GRAHAM,
Fifth Avenue Hotel.
It was ten P. M., in London, and we did not antici-
pate a reply until the next day.
NEW YORK, July 4th, 1871.
To GEN. HORACE PORTER,
Long Branch, N. J.
General Cavada, formerly Lieutenant-Colonel of the
One Hundred and Fourteenth Pennsylvania Volunteers,
lately Commander-in-Chief of the Cuban army, has been
captured by the Spanish authorities. He served under
my command during the Rebellion and was a good
soldier. His brother ,was likewise on General Hum-
phrey's staff. Can anything be done to save his life ?
CHARLES K. GRAHAM,
President Third Corps Union,
Fifth Avenue Hotel.
NEW YORK, July 4th, 1871.
To COL. Jon W. FORNEY,
General Cavada, late Lieutenant-Colonel of the One
Hundred and Fourteenth Pennsylvania Volunteers has
been captured. Telegraph the President and Secretary
of State to save his life if possible. Get some leading
citizens to unite with you. Lose no time and spare no
CHARLES K. GRAHAM,
O. WILSON DAVIS.
Operator will forward to Col. Forney if he can ascer-
tain where he is.
NEW YORK, July 4th, 1871.
To GEN. G. G. MEADE,
Cape May, N. J.
General Cavada, late Lieutenant Colonel of the One
Hundred and Fourteenth Pennsylvania Volunteers has
been captured. Will you telegraph the President to
have his life spared if possible ?
CHARLES K. GRAHAM,
Fifth Avenue HotJe.
By the time the foregoing dispatches had been sent,
it was 6.30 P. M. and we separated, with the under-
standing that I would call at General Graham's house
before bed time should any answers to the dispatches be
received. We also agreed that if the developments of
the evening seemed to demand it, we would go to Long
Branch during the night, so as to see General Grant
early/in the morning.
About 7 P. M., I went again to the Fifth Avenue
Hotel. On the way, met Mr. Moses Taylor and told
him what had transpired. He said he thought every-
thing had been done that it was possible to do. He ex-
pressed the most cordial wishes for the success of the
measures which had been adopted, and said he would
do anything in his power to aid in saving Cavada. If
I would only tell him what to do, he was ready to act,
and if I thought his influence would be of avail, he
offered to sign any telegrams I might write to any per-
son he knew. If I wished to see him later, I was to
call at his house before bed time.
During the evening, the city was the scene of the usual
Fourth of July excitement. The municipal authorities
had provided fireworks at several places, and among
others near the Fifth Avenue Hotel, so that I was unable
to see any one while the exhibitions were in progress.
Only one reply to our dispatches was received during
the evening-the following:
CAPE MAY, July 4th, 1871.
CHARLES K. GRAHAM,
F~th Avenue Hotel, N. Y.
I have telegraphed the President.
GEO. G. MEADE.
This was received about 10 P. M. About 9 P. M.,
I had accidentally met James P. Lacombe, Esq, who
offered to aid me in the exertions I was making, and
said he would go with me to Long Branch that night
We went to General Graham's house, and after con-
sultation decided it would be better to postpone any
attempt to see the President until the next day.
On July fifth, the following dispatch was sent before
10 A. M.
NEW YORK, July .5th, 1871.
To GEN. STEWART VAN VLIET,
Long Branch, N. J.
Enable O. W. Davis to get an interview with the
President about General Cavada, late Commander of
the Cuban army, who was captured by a Spanish gun-
boat on Sunday. Davis will come to Long Branch to-
day and see you.
The following had also been prepared:
New York, July 5th, 1871.
HON. HAMILTON FISH.
Garrison's, N. Y.
General Frederic Cavada, late Commander-in-Chief
of the Cuban army, was captured on Sunday by the
Spanish authorities while he was trying to escape to
this country. He served in the Union Army during
the rebellion, and though a native of Cuba, is an
American citizen. Will it be possible for the Govern-
ment to ask the postponement of his execution at least,
until he can see his family.
Mr. Taylor said he would sign and send the above
with pleasure, but thought that if signed by the Hon.
Samuel Sloan, who lived at Garrison's, it would have
more effect. Mr. Sloan reached his office about 10 30
A. M., and added to what I had written;
I desire this not only for the reasons stated above,
but as a personal favor."
"Operator please deliver promptly."
The telegram thus amended was forwarded without
About 9 A. M., I had written the following:
New York, July 5th, 1871.
EDWARD S. SANFORD, ESQ.,
Frederic F. Cavada,
whom you in 1865 had appointed Consul at Cienfuegos,
Cuba, has been, as you know, Commander-in-Chief of
the Cuban army. The papers yesterday contained a
telegram from Havana, saying he had been captured by
I am trying to get the President to interfere so as to
prevent his execution long enough to enable his friends
to try to save him. General Sheridan, General Meade
and others are helping. Can you not do something?
I am going to Long Branch to-day. Have telegraphed
General Sickles at Madrid.
O. WILSON DAVIS,
No. 7 Murray Street.
This was sent to Mr. Sanford by Mr. Lacombe, who
reported (about the time Mr. Sloan sent off his dispatch,)
that he had seen Mr. Sanford as he was. leaving his
office to go to Long Branch, who said he would do all
he could, and on his arrival at Long Branch would
interest John Hoey, Esq., and others. This he did.
After ascertaining that General Grant was not coming
to New York that day, and arranging to have all tele-
grams forwarded, Mr. Lacombe and I went to the foot
of Murray Street, and found that the Long Branch boat
had gone at 10.30 A. M.,-half an hour earlier than
usual, in order to accommodate such persons as wished
to attend the races, which were then in progress.
Deeming it important to see General Grant with as
little delay as possible, in order that we might be sure
our plans had not failed, we took a tug-boat, the General
Rosecranz," and went to Sandy Hook, where a locomotive
which was in waiting, took us without delay to the
Branch, where we arrived less than one hour and forty
minutes from the time we left New York. On reaching
the West End Hotel, we found the following telegram:
Madrid July 5th, 1871.
To O. WILSON DAVIS, ESQ.,
War Minister has telegraphed Captain General to.
examine Cavada's case and report.
Mr. Adee was in charge of the Legation in the absence
of General Sickles.
This was encouraging and was a quicker response to
the request made to General Sickles, about eighteen
hours previously, than we had anticipated. It yet
remained, however, to ascertain what, if any, action
had been taken by our government. Fortunately we
met Messrs. John Hoey and Edward S. Sanford at the
hotel. Mr. Sanford had, as he promised, explained the
case to Mr. Hoey, who expressed his willingness to
render any assistance in his power. I asked him to go
with us to the President's cottage and.procure us an
interview. This he said he would do with pleasure,
but his presence was entirely unnecessary. He had
just left the President alone, and knew that he would
We drove at once to General Grant's cottage, and
when we asked to see him, were told that he wished to
be excused, as he was about to take a drive with his
family. I requested the messenger to say that our
business was urgent and involved a matter of life and
death. General Grant immediately saw us and I said
to him, General, our business relates to General
He replied, "I have received telegrams from General
Meade and other gentlemen on behalf of Cavada, and
have already acted in the case."
I felt instantly that our success was sure and it was
useless to prolong the interview.
I said, "Cavada's friends, sir, thank you for your
prompt action. I will detain you no longer."
We returned to the hotel where we soon met General
Van Vliet, who was in search of us. After telling him
what had been done, he said he would go and ascertain
what action General Grant had taken. When he re-
turned to the hotel, he reported that early in the morning,
after the receipt of the telegrams about Cavada, the
President's Private Secretary had, by his order, tele-
graphed to the Secretary of State to ask that the execu-
tion of any sentence imposed upon Cavada by the Cuban
authorities, should be postponed until the circumstances
of the case could be inquired into.
This was confirmed by the following dispatch, a copy
of which was sent us from New York, during the evening,
by General Graham.
LONG BRANCH, July 5th, 1871.
To GENERAL CHARLES K. GRAHAM,
Care of 0. W. Davis,
The subject of your telegram has been referred to
the Secretary of State.
We subsequently ascertained that the Secretary of
State had telegraphed the request of General Grant to
the Spanish Minister at Washington, who, in turn, had
telegraphed by cable to the Captain General of Cuba.
My efforts thus far having been successful, I felt that
Cavada, if alive, would be saved, but being somewhat
doubtful of his chances, if tried in Cuba by court mar-
tial, I determined to make an effort to have him sent
to Madrid for trial, hoping through the agency of Gen.
Sickles and others, the King of Spain might be induced
to show Cavada some leniency. He was, it is true, a
"rebel," in the widest sense of the word, but I remem-
bered that all Christendom had condemned Napoleon
for ordering the execution of Andreas Hofer, the Tyro-
lean Chief, as the meanest act he ever performed as
General or Emperor, and though I could call to mind
many rebellions, both successful and unsuccessful, since
the revolt of the Tyrolese, I could not remember another
instance during the present century, at least, of the
execution of a rebel Commander-in-Chief. Though I
knew that the rapidity and certainty of Spanish ven-
geance had been almost proverbial, I hoped that the re-
volution in Spain, which had resulted in placing the
son of the King of Italy upon the throne, would inau-
gurate in Spain some of the principles of modern civili-
zation and Christian humanity.
Entertaining these views which were, perhaps, inten-
sified by my interest in Cavada's case, I resolved not to
act hastily, but to take the time for reflection which I
believed the postponement of the execution of the sen-
tence that had been passed upon him by the authorities
of Cuba would afford me. To this end I thought it
would be the proper plan to interest as many influential
persons as possible in the case, believing that thus it
might be possible to induce the American Government
to demand that his 'trial should take place at Madrid,
instead of Cuba.
The next morning, July sixth, when returning to New
York, I met A. J. Drexel, Esq., of Philadelphia, whom
I knew to be a personal friend of the President, and be-
gan to put in operation the plan I had determined upon
by interesting Mr. Drexel in the case. This was easily
done, for he had known Cavada personally, and saying
that he approved of my views, promised to do all in his
power to carry them out.
The next day, July seventh, the following dispatch was
PHILADELPHIA, July 7th, 1871.
To GEN. CHARLES K. GRAHAM,
Five hundred miles from home when your dispatch
reached me. Just returned. Will write the President
to-day on the subject.
JOHN W. FORNEY.
On the same day Col. Forney wrote to Gen. Graham
a letter in which he said, Please tell Davis and the
other friends of Cavada that they will not rely on me in
The next day, July eighth, I received the following
LONDON, July Sth, 1871.
To 0. WILSON DAVIS,
Attorney at Law,
No. 7 Murray St., N. Y.
All possible done for Cavada at Madrid by Adee. I
have also appealed personally by cable to Serrano for
To which I replied:
NEW YORK, July Stl, 187 L.
Thanks for what you have done. Will it be possible
to have Cavada sent to Madrid for trial?
O. WILSON DAVIS.
The morning papers of July eleventh, contained
among the "Associated Press" dispatches the following :
EXECUTION OF CAVADA.
'HAVANA, July 10th.-Cavada was executed on the
first inst., at Puerto Principe.
S:I: :l *
This had a dispiriting effect, but I could not believe
it to be true. The dispatch from the same quarter
dated Havana, July third, stated that Cavada had been
captured and sent to Puerto Principe for trial, while
this dispatch stated his execution had taken place on
the first. Between the two, the discrepancy was such
that one or the other must have been false. Besides
this, I had learned from a reliable source that passengers
by steamer from Havana, which left there on the fifth
of July, stated that a rumor was prevalent in Havana,
before they left, that Cavada was to be brought from
Puerto Principe to be garroted in Havana. If this were
true, then Cavada must have been alive on July fifth
when the Captain General received dispatches both from
Madrid and Washington.
To place the matter beyond doubt, however, efforts
were made to telegraph by cable, (in cipher,) both on the
eleventh and twelfth days of July, but they were unsuc-
cessful, because the authorities have control of all the
telegraph offices in Cuba, and do not permit any commu-
nications "in cipher" even between the operators of the
company. Many of Cavada's friends, however, con-
tinued to believe that lie was alive on July fifth, and
their belief was sustained by the following publication
in the New York Times of July fifteenth.
SPECIAt DISPATCH TO TIE NEW YORK TIMES."
Washington, July 14th.-The report of the execution
of the Cuban General Cavada, Julyfirst, must not be
too confidently believed until it receives further confir-
It was after that date that Consul General Hall made
efforts at Havana from our Government looking towards
his release, and Mr. Hall understood that he was alive
at that time, if not, the Spanish officers must themselves
have either been deceived or deceiving. Advices from
Mr. Hall may be expected by mail in a few days.
As the Times is known to be an administration journal,
many of the friends of Cavada willingly believed that
the correspondent's story was authentic, but their hopes
were blasted by the following extract from a letter which
appeared in the same paper on Friday, July twenty-first.
FROM OUR OWN CORRESPONDENT.
HAVANA, Saturday, July 16thl, 1871.
DEATH OF CAVADA AND OSORIO.
The following interesting particulars of the capture
and execution of the late Gen. Frederico Cavada and
Osorio have been related to your correspondent by an
eye-witness, who saw and spoke with both, and wit-
nessed the compliance with the fatal sentence of Spanish
Court-Martial. Osorio had left the interior of the island
some months ago, in company with Bernabe Varona,
alias Bembeta, the young Cuban General who lately
arrived in New York, Osorio being in a most miserable
state of health, and a mass of sores and eruptions from
a kind of scorbut, which is causing such terrible ravages
among the insurgent Cubans, and also from the effects
of an unhealed wound. Osorio refused to state how he
had been left behind by Bembeta, and simply announced
that such had been the fact. He was hid in the woods
and cared for by some Cubans, who could not furnish
him with anything beyond the bare means of subsis-
tence until Gen. Cavada came along and kindly offered
to take him to Nassau or any other secure place, a boat
being then in waiting for the latter gentleman and
another, supposed to have been Mr. Francisco Aguilera,
Ex-Vice-President of the Republic. Everything went
well. They were not seen by any Spanish troops, and
they reached Cayo Cruz in safety, embarking immedi-
ately in a two oared boat, and headed for the light-house
on the English key, known as Cayo Lobos, (Wolf Key.)
When in plain sight of the light-house a very stiff breeze
arose, which tossed their boat to and fro, and with the
strong counter-current made the efforts of the rowers
useless, and drove them back toward Cayo Cruz. Cavada
seeing the futility of the attempt to reach Cayo Lobos,
then ordered the rowers to return to Cayo Cruz, the boat
skimming like a swan over the surface of the water, by
the aid of wind and current. At this moment they were
sighted by the gun-boat Vigia, and shortly after the ex-
peditionists had landed on the key, the Spanish marines
were after them. The three other men escaped easily,
but Cavada was too weak to proceed rapidly, and hie was,
at the same time, sufficiently generous not to leave Osorio
to his fate. The marines sighted them, and an hour
after landing they were prisoners in the hands of the
Spaniards, who treated them well during their stay on
board, the officers giving them provisions and clean
clothing. The gun-boat steamed away toward Nuevitas.
When the prisoners arrived at Nuevitas, their emaciated
appearance and their wretched health excited general
pity, and your informant having known both in former
years, offered them his services, but as they had been
provided with suitable clothing by the commander of
the Vigia, they declined further aid. Cavada asked for
writing materials, and wrote letters to the insurgent
S Generals, Salomi, Hernandez, Villamli, Penco, Lico,
several others, and to his brother, the Cuban General,
Adolfo Cavada. Perhaps no man was so much hated
by the Spaniards as Cavada, who had earned the soubri-
quet of the FIRE KING." Cavada was taken to Puerto
Principe on the morning of the thirtieth, and executed on
the afternoon of the first. He met his fate like a hero,
without bravado or cynicism. Tranquilly he conversed
with some friends, and when the fatal hour came he
marched, smoking a cigar, erect and proud to the place
of execution. When he arrived there he took off his
hat, flung it on the ground, and in a loud tone of voice
cried, Adios Cuba, para siempre. (Good-by Cuba, for-
ever.) A volley was heard, and Frederico Cavada
ceased to exist. Hie persistently refused to see a Catholic
priest or to confess, stating that he was not a Catholic
either by conviction or practice, which so incensed the
priest that he refused to allow the corpse to be buried in
consecrated ground, and only after a long and bitter quar-
rel with the Spanish commander, Brig. Gen. Zea, was
the matter adjusted. Zea threatened to bury Cavada
himself, and send the priest to Havana as a prisoner.
The Spanish Post-Captain at Nuevitas, Jacoba Aleman,
had in the meantime telegraphed to the Admiral as to
what to do with Osorio. The Admiral replied: He
has been sentenced already by a Naval Court as a pirate,
and the punishment for pirates is to swing at the yard-
arm." But the Spanish Captain had no executioner, so
he took it upon himself to have Osorio shot, instead of
hung, and the sentence was carried into effect on the
morning of the sixth. The shooting party was drawn up.
Osorio knelt on the bowsprit of the Neptuno. The officer
in charge of the party had given instruction that when
he raised his sword the men were to get ready, and
when he dropped his sword, to fire. He raised his
sword, when one of the marines fired, the bullet enter-
ing Osorio's head and coming out of the mouth, produc-
ing instant death. The others, of course, did not fire,
and the body was taken ashore and buried, Osorio hav-
ing accepted the services of the priest and confessor.
Thus the curtain falls on this tragedy and the specta-
tors have all gone home. The waves will soon wash
out Cavada's name from the sands of the beach on
which he wrote it. Even during the present generation,
he will soon be forgotten except by his devoted mother,
his faithful wife and orphan child, and perhaps a few
others; but when the history of his native Island is
written, his name will appear as that of one who suffered
manfully, struggled heroically and died bravely as a
martyr to a cause, which in his infatuation, he believed
to be of more value than his life. History always
more and more impartial as she grows older, will forget
his passions and his errors lie will always stand among
the statues which time sculptures, a brave man and a
martyr in the cause he espoused. Those who have had
their names linked with his in an honorable way, may
consider themselves fortunate.
IL _I-- I ~
I L I------~ r