UPERVIWnED RO9D SERWVCE:
STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
FLOYD T. CHRISTIAN, Commissioner of Education
CARL W. PROEHL, Assistant Commissoner
HOME ECONOMICS SECTION
III I!II~IEFOOD SEEV I I1
THE FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY
.) October 2, 1968
,CCMOOL OF HOME ECONOMICS
TMENT OF HOME ECONOMICS EDUCATION
Dr. Carl W. Proehl
Division of Vocational, Technical and
State Department of Education
Tallahassee, Florida 32304
Dear Dr. Proehl:
Persuant to the terms of Project No. 569-18, five state
curriculum guides are herein submitted for your approval and
publication. The guides are divided so that curriculum
suggestions for training are clustered in subject matter
areas; namely, 1) Orientation to the World of Work, 2) Cloth-
ing, Textiles, and Home Furnishings Services, 3) Food Ser-
vices, 4) Child Care Services, and 5) Homemaker Services.
The guides are not completely comprehensive in their
coverage nor are they the ultimate in sophistication but
they should assist a teacher with planning meaningful and
sequential learning experiences for entry into the world of
work. Since a paucity of printed materials in the area of
gainful employment in home economics seems to exist, numerous
teaching aids as well as suggestions for subject matter content
have been included in the appendix in order to offer as much
assistance as possible to the teachers.
It is anticipated that these guides will assist with the
inauguration of new programs and strengthen existing gainful
employment classes in home economics in this State as well as
in the other areas of our country.
Agnes F. Ridley, Associate Professor
Home Economics Education
The State of Florida is most fortunate to have the
services of a large group of well-informed, professional home
economics teachers. Without their cooperation in the class-
S room, the purposes of a curriculum guide would not be realized.
Nineteen teachers were most diligent in their efforts to pro-
duce Guides that could serve as bases for curriculum develop-
ment in the various areas of gainful employment in home econo-
mics. To these teachers should be extended sincere appreciation
for their contribution.
Not only does the State of Florida have numerous out-
standing teachers but it also has distinguished leadership in
Dr. Carl W. Proehl, Assistant Superintendent, Division of Voca-
tional, Technical and Adult Education, State Department of
Education who is largely responsible for the growth of the
occupational focus of home economics in the State of Florida.
Miss Frances Champion, Director, Home Economics Educa-
tion, State Department of Education, has given her full support
to this three year project. Miss Allie Ferguson Who was Occupa-
tional Specialist when the project was approved has been a
constant source of encouragement and direction for the Guides.
To the other members of the State Department of Education,
Home Economics Section, the consultants, the graduate students and
the secretary we are most grateful for their valuable contributions.
Background of the Curriculum Guides in
Gainful Employment in Home Economics
This Guide was developed in partial fulfillment of the
terms of State Department of Education Grant No. 569-18, July
1, 1968 June 30, 1969, under the direction of the Principal
Investigator, Dr. Agnes F. Ridley, Associate Professor, Home
Economics, The Florida State University. During the summer,
1967, a Seminar on Gainful Employment in Home Economics convened
on the campus of The Florida State University for the purpose
of educating secondary school teachers and county supervisors
on research, current literature, methods and teaching aids re-
lated to gainful employment in home economics. Seventy invited
participants and twenty-three guest speakers were involved as
active participants and as spectators in learning during the
During the school year, 1967-68, a course on methods and
materials for gainful employment in Home Economics was given in
five centers in various parts of the State. About sixty-five
teachers and county supervisors were enrolled in the class which
extended over the school year. Seventeen of the nineteen teachers
involved in the production of the Guides had attended both the
Seminar and had been enrolled in the class. (Report of Phase
II describes both the Seminar and the class in detail.)
The five curriculum guides which were produced in three
weeks are not considered the ultimate in sophistication nor do
they cover every aspect of gainful employment in home economics.
All teachers, supervisors, consultants and others were most
diligent in their persuit of excellence; therefore, all mistakes
and omissions can be assigned to
Agnes F. Ridley
FLORIDA CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR FOOD SERVICES
List of Participants
Dr. Agnes F. Ridley, The Florida State University
Mrs. Ava A. Gray, University of Arkansas
Mrs. Jeanne H. Brinkley, Occupational Specialist
Mrs. Ethel Blanchard, Colonial High School,
Mrs. Ruby Cannon, Home Economics Supervisor,
Palm Beach County
Mrs. Elizabeth Harrington, Colonial High School,
Mrs. Inez Mack, Lake Shore High School,
Richard Almarode, Director, Teacher Training for
American Hotel and Motel Association, Educational
Miss Doris Wilkes, Coordinator of Hospitality
Mrs. Bonnie B. Greenwood, Research Assistant (Ph.D.)
Mrs. Judith Dowell, Graduate Assistant (Ph.D.)
Mrs. Catherine Flanegan, Graduate Assistant (M.S.)
Mrs. Meredith von dem Bussche, Graduate Assistant (M.S.)
Mrs. Shirley A. Gurney
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL . . . . ii
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS . . . . . iii
BACKGROUND OF THE CURRICULUM GUIDE. . . v
LIST OF PARTICIPANTS . . . . vii
INTRODUCTION Letter to Home Economics Teachers. . 1
Basic Aids for Food Service Teachers
Student Requirements for Food Service Course
Competencies for Food Service Workers
Criteria for Judging Student Readiness for
Employment in Institutional Food Services
Supervised Food Service Work Student
Evaluation Sheet for Food Service Worker
Concept I Orientation for Food Service Workers. . 12
A. Some Criteria for Various Phases of
B. Front of the House Do's and Don'ts for
Waitresses, Bus Boys, Cashiers, Managers
C. Work Evaluation Devices
D. How and Where Time is Wasted
E. Transparency Masters
F. Poem: Who Can Live Without Dining
G. Poem: The Indispensible Man
Concept II Personal Qualities for Job Success .. 29
A. Personal Appearance Daily Good Grooming
B. A Good Service Worker
C. Check List for Waitress' Personal Habits
D. Check Sheet Personal Hygiene and Personal
TABLE OF CONTENTS--Continued
Concept III Sanitation and Safety in Handline Food 34
A. Food Poisoning
B. What is Meant by Sanitation?
C. Transparency Masters on Safety
E. Work Chart Housekeeping Duties
Concept IV Basic Information for Food Preparation. 54
A. Quantity Food Preparation
B. Identification of Small Equipment in
Quantity Food Laboratory
C. Terms and Abbreviations
E. Measures, Sizes of Can, Symbols and
F. Examples of Motion and Time Shortcuts
Concept V Preparing and Cooking Food . .
A. Bakers Station . . .
B. Dessert Station. . . .
C. Salad Station . . .
D. Vegetable Station.. . . .
E. Meat and Soup Station. . .
F. Sandwich Station . . .
G. Beverage Station . . .
A. Motion Savers and Preparation Techniques
B. Judging Sheets
1. Judging Sheet Quick Breads
2. Score Card Quick Breads
3. Score Sheet Yeast Breads
4. Cost Sheet for Quick Breads
5. Score Card for Evaluating Beverages
6. Meats Judging Sheet Roast
7. Judging Sheet Sandwiches
8. Score Card for Sandwiches
9. Dessert Judging Sheet
10. Scorecard for Plain Layer Cake
11. Scorecard for Double-boiler Frostings
Cost Sheet for Boiled Frostings
12. Evaluation Sheet for Salads
13. Score Card for Salads
TABLE OF CONTENTS--Continued
14. Score Card for Cookies
Judging Sheet for Making Rolled Oats
Cost Sheet for Rolled Oats Drop Cookies
15. Score Card for Cooked Vegetables
Concept VI Menu Planning . . . 150
A. Menu Planning
B. Suggested Meal Pattern and Type of Service
C. The Function of Food in Nutrition
D. Example of Organization for Meal Preparation
Example of Weekly Job Description Chart
for a Meal
E. Cost Sheet Stockroom-Inventory
Concept VII Serving Food . . . 162
A. On-the-Job Observation Checklist
BIBLIOGRAPHY. . . . . . .169
Dear Home Economics Teacher:
This guide has been compiled to help teachers and school admini-
strators to understand, plan, and implement programs to train
workers for the food service industry. The training may aid the
workers to seek employment in cafeterias, hospitals, school lunch
rooms, restaurants, and short order cafes. A trainee might also
seek employment as a bakery assistant, caterer, food demonstrator
or in a food processing plant. The main purpose of the program
is to acquaint the students with the broad field of food service
and the career opportunities open to them.
Since training situations will vary, the guide has been organized
in a way that will make it adaptable to many situations. Much
information has been supplied in the appendix sections that
should be helpful to teachers. Therefore, we recommend that the
teacher review the entire guide to get an overall view of the
possibilities before proceeding with her plans.
In planning programs, we encourage you to consider the following:
1. Plan carefully with your administrators and guidance
personnel and solicit their support and advice.
2. Form an advisory committee as soon as your plans are
3. Keep firmly in mind that you are not teaching another
year of Foods and Nutrition but are teaching competencies
4. Collect a set of basic reference books, pamphlets, and
other materials to supplement this guide. As you look
through the resources column, you will be able to see
which references you will find most helpful for you.
The degree of success you may expect in teaching gainful employ-
ment classes will be influenced by your understanding of the
possibilities for employment for your students. The advice of
an advisory committee plus your participation in professional
food service meetings will aid you greatly in this understanding.
Remember that your enthusiasm is your greatest asset in putting
this program across.
For additional information on initiating a Food Service Program
and on financing a laboratory, contact the Director of Home
Economics or the Occupational Specialist, Home Economics Section,
Florida State Department of Education, Knott Building,
Tallahassee, Florida, 32304.
Best wishes for a successful and stimulating experience.
The Guide Committee
BASIC AIDS FOR THE FOOD SERVICE TEACHER
1. Evaluation Form (See Appendix.)
2. Student Agreement Form (See Appendix.)
3. Criteria for Various Phases of the Food Service Course
4. Fults, Anna Carol, Workshop for the Preparation of Home
Economics Teachers to Teach Wage Earning Programs in Food
Service. Carbondale, Illinois: Home Economics Education,
Southern Illinois University, 1965.
5. Folsome, Le Roi A., Instructor's Guide for the Teaching of
Professional Cooking. New Haven, Conn.: Culinary Institute
of America, Inc., 1967.
6. Apprentice Manual for Culinarians, Vol. I. New Haven, Conn.:
Culinary Institute of America, Inc., 1966.
7. Smith, Evelyn, A Handbook on Quantity Food Management.
Minneapolis, Minn.: Burgess Publishing Co., 1955.
8. "The Professional Chef", Chicago, Ill.: Institutions
9. Kotschevar, Lendal H., Standards, Principles, and Techniques
in Quantity Food Production. Berkley, Calif.: McCutchon
Publishing Corporation, 1966.
10. Quantity Food Production. Chicago, Ill.: National Restuarant
Association (no date).
11. Overhead Projector
12. Filmstrip Projector with slide attachment
13. Tape Recorder
14. Record Player
15. Motion Picture Screen
16. Attendance at professional food service meetings as well
as other professional meetings
STUDENT REQUIREMENTS FOR FOOD SERVICE COURSE
1. Students are required to fill out a Student Application
2. Students are to be selected for this class.
3. A health card is required by each student.
4. Parental approval is required to obtain a health card and
to participate in field trips.
5. A file folder is required for each student to file his own
progress in the program.
6. Former teachers' evaluations are required for each student
before being selected for the class.
7. Uniform dress and grooming are required.
8. A three-ring loose leaf notebook is needed for filing all
hand-out sheets, recipes, notes, etc. (to be kept at school
9. Parental permission is needed for some work-experience
suitable to school and student.
COMPETENCIES FOR FOOD SERVICE WORKERS
Practice good habits of personal hygiene and grooming.
Use sanitary techniques for handling food, equipment and utensils.
Maintain clean, orderly work stations and equipment.
Store foods properly.
Dispose of food wastes properly.
Use and move equipment correctly in carrying out assigned tasks.
Wear clothing that is conducive to safe performance on the job.
Follow safe practices for prevention of accidents, report safety
hazards and suggest safety precautions.
Follow appropriate procedures in reporting accidents and injuries.
Use fire fighting equipment correctly.
Organize time, motion and work habits to achieve efficiency on
Organize equipment and food supplies for efficient use.
Handle food, equipment and supplies correctly to avoid unnecessary
waste and breakage.
Work effectively in cooperation with other personnel.
Use body motions to reduce fatigue and promote work efficiency.
Select equipment items appropriate to task.
Observe safety precautions in operating and cleaning equipment.
Follow directions in the effective use of mechanical equipment.
Operate, clean and maintain large equipment.
Plan own work under direction of supervisor.
Recognize and report faulty operation of equipment.
Clean work stations effectively.
Follow written directions on standard recipes and production
Use scales and measures accurately.
Serve food items attractively and efficiently.
Assume a pleasant manner in relations with others.
Prepare food and food products for storage.
Use sanitary procedures in storing food and maintaining storage
Choose food storage units appropriate to type and intended use
of food item.
CRITERIA FOR JUDGING STUDENT READINESS FOR EMPLOYMENT IN INSTITUTIONAL
By: Ava A. Gray, Assistant Professor, Vocational Education,
University of Arkansas
This device may be used by both the student and the instructor.
1. Personal characteristics
Clean and appropriate dress
Meets local and state health regulations for health
Courteous and friendly
Uses correct English
Dependable and prompt
Tact in dealing with supervisors, co-workers and
people being served
Willing to cooperate
Ability to carry out instructions
Ability to work without supervision
Accurate and persistent
Attentive, interest in learning
Alertness to safety measures
Ability to accept constructive criticism
Truthful and honest
Exhibits self control in emergencies
2. Personal skills
Demonstrates understanding of policies, rules, and
regulations of local institutions nursing homes,
hospitals, school lunch rooms, others
Demonstrates ability to work cooperatively and
effectively with supervisor and co-workers
Demonstrates understanding of methods of preparing,
cooking and serving all types of food
Demonstrates ability to prepare nutritious meals
Demonstrates understanding of eye-appeal in serving
Demonstrates ability to plan the sequence of work
Demonstrates understanding of basic safety precautions
and acceptable procedures in handling accidents
Demonstrates ability to use time and energy-saving
Demonstrates ability to care for and properly use
equipment--refrigerators, stoves, storage spaces,
serving areas, utensils, dish washing machines
Demonstrates understanding of the cost-time factor
in preparation and serving foods
Demonstrates understanding of nutrition and hygiene
in methods for care and storage of food-refrigeration,
Demonstrates understanding of principles of sanitation
in selection of cleaning agents and in techniques used
to maintain clean work and storage spaces
Demonstrates increasing ability to evaluate products
Demonstrates understanding of personal hygiene and
sanitation in handling foods preparing, cooking,
storing, and serving
Demonstrates ability to adapt to new work, new schedules,
SUPERVISED FOOD SERVICE WORKER
Date of Birth Weight Height
Describe any physical limitations
Do you have a driver's license? Car?
Do you have any religious or physical reason for not obtaining
a Health card?
state why, if so
What hobbies do you have?
Have you received any school or community honors and/or awards?
If yes, describe
Estimate how many times you have been absent this year
List any of the following subjects you have taken and their
grades: Art, Foods, Typing, Foreign Language. Indicate if
you have had one or two years of it.
COURSE NUMBER OF YEARS GRADE
Have you discussed this application with your faculty advisor?
Parents? Parent's name
List two teachers at this school for references:
What clubs or school activities have you participated in?
Page 2, Education (continued)
Describe your plans after graduation on the reverse side of this
Describe your present class schedule:
Home room teacher_____________
Have you ever been employed?
Name of firm
If so, list latest job first.
Length of time
Do you have a job now?_
Do you intend to continue working
during school year?
If so, Name of Business
I understand that this is an application for enrollment in the
Supervised Food Service Workers course, and if I am selected I
will accept the responsibilities required by both the school and
the employer. I understand that I must secure a Health Card,
and complete a period of intern training before I can receive
Signature of Applicant
EVALUATION SHEET FOR SUPERVISED FOOD SERVICE WORKER
1. Applicant is a junior or senior Yes No
2. Applicant has obtained parental approval to enter
the class Yes No
Educational History: 9th grade 10th grade
1. Average math grade A B C D E A B C D E
2. Average English grade A B C D E A B C D E
3. Grade point average A B C D E A B C D E
4. Average Citizenship grade A B C D E A B C D E
5. Reading level A M B*
7. Vocation in which student has expressed an interest
A-above average M-median or "on grade level" B-below
Attendance History for Grades 9 and 10
1. Number of tardy referrals, if any
2. Average absences per semester or year
Student eliminated because:
Ratio too low_
Any other reason, explain
All of the above
Concept: Orientation for Food Service Workers
Generalizations: The food service industry has contributed to
the general improvement of the health of the nation.
Understanding the work involved in food services increases the
skills of the worker.
Career opportunities are limited only by the person's interest
Understanding the different types of food service and their
interrelation can be an employment asset as well as a selective
device for the worker.
Understanding the policies of a business helps employees to
become a part of the organization.
Given a list of 27
food service occu-
pations, the learner
must be able to
identify and list the
ties of 10.
Food Service Occupations.
1. Chef is in authority in a kitchen.
He is in a kitchen. He is in complete
charge of all food preparation and
supervises the serving of foods. He
may have one of the following titles:
Executive Chef, Head Chef, Chef
Steward, Sous-Chef, or Working Chef.
2. Second cook-makes all stocks, soup,
bouillons, jellied consommes and
sauces. He also prepares boiled
dishes; stewed, braised and smothered
dishes; all combination creamed dishes
and all special a la carte and chafing
3. Soup cook-makes all soup stocks, soup
consommes and bouillon. He also boils
hens for chicken broth and makes fish
stock for chowder. This job may be
combined with the Second Cook's.
4. Broiler Cook-broils steak, chops,
chicken, fish, lobster, bacon, ham,
liver, sweetbreads, tomatoes, mushrooms,
mixed grill, veal, kidneys, and chicken
liver en brochette. Quite often the
roast and broiler stations are combined
and the cook who is assigned to either
must be thoroughly trained for both jobs.
1. Do I need to know many jobs if I am only interested in being
2. What do I need to know to be a salad girl?
3. Will I be paid while I am learning?
4. How long will I have to work before I become manager?
View slides or filmstrip New Horizons
in Food Service (National Restaurant
Assoc.) Career Opportunities in Food
Outline the main points of a member
of advisory committee when he gives
overview of careers in food service.
List opportunities and specific jobs
for which training will be provided
in this course.
Analyze the importance of training
in order to become more employable
and as preparation for advanced
positions. (What if I do become
trained and what if I do not?)
Read and discuss The Work That Play
Write a short paragraph briefly de-
scribing the area of food service
that interests you most at this
time and explain why. What do you
like about the job? What do you
dislike about the job? How do you
think you are suited for this job?
How do you think you are unsuited
for this job?
The Professional Chef,
Readers Digest, May
The Professional Cook.
New Horizons in Food
5. Vegetable Cook-directs the preparation,
cleaning and cooking of all vegetables.
6. Fry Cook-works at centers around deep
fat frying, omelettes, eggs, fritters,
all kinds of potatoes, au gratin dishes,
spaghetti, special pancakes and crepes
suzette. All fresh and frozen vegetables
are cooked on this station if no vege-
table cook is on the staff. After he
has gained a thorough knowledge of the
station routine, he is eligible to be-
come Head Fry Cook, Second Cook, Cold
Meat Man or NIght Chef.
7. Cook's Helper-cleans and prepares vege-
tables and fruits, sets up relish dishes,
makes cream sauces, places food on plates
and similar duties. The Cook's Helper
may be promoted to Vegetable Cook or Fry
8. Swing Cook-relieves all cooks on all
stations one day each week. The head
swing cook relieves the cooks on the major
stations, and the assistants relieve those
on minor stations. The usual procedure
of Head Swing Man is to Second Cook.
9. Garde Manager (cold meat dept.)-oversees
the breading of meat, fish, croquettes,
and seafoods. He prepares salad dress-
ings, cocktail sauce and all other cold
sauces; he prepares meat, fish and sea-
food salads, parboils sweetbreads, cooks
shrimp, prepares and decorates all cold
food; makes appetizers, canapes and
10. Pastry chef-supervises the pastry depart-
ment, writes the dessert menus, requisi-
tions materials, schedules the work for
his assistants, decorates cakes, makes
ornamental pieces, works on new recipes
and figures production costs.
11. Assistant Pastry Chef-under the direct
supervision of the Pastry Chef and is in
full charge of production. He makes all
cakes, cookies, pies, puddings, pastry
and other items which are found on the
12. Baker-bakes all the breads, rolls, hot
breads and muffins. He regulates temper-
ature of ovens, sets and punches the
dough and has full responsibility for
the operation of the bakery department.
13. Baker's Helper-assists the Baker in
scaling off ingredients; prepares bake
sheets, muffin tins and bread pans;
keeps bread cloths and bread boxes clean
and keeps the bake shop in sanitary
14. Butcher-cuts and bones all beef, lamb,
pork and veal; cares for and cleans
associated meat products and smoked
15. Fish Butcher-takes care of and cleans
fresh and salt water fish, lobster,
shrimp, oysters and other seafoods.
16. Chicken Butcher-cleans and prepares
17. Oyster Man-cares for and opens shells
of oysters and clams; takes care of
bulk oysters and cuts and prepares
lobsters and shell seafood for cook.
18. Additional jobs directly associated
with the preparation and service of
food include: sandwich maker, salad
maker, pantry worker, cake decorator,
food checker, food purchaser or buyer,
waiters, hostess, lunch counter waitress,
dish washer, pot washer, caterer, stock
List and explain Refer to competencies in Appendix.
needed by food
LEARNING EXPERIENCES RESOURCES
Divide into two buss groups to develop Home Economics Occupational
a list of competencies needed for food Education Training Guide
service workers. Progressive disclosure for Food Services,
of competencies on transparencies. University of N. Y.
Set up food service dictionary.
A: SOME CRITERIA FOR VARIOUS PHASES OF THE COURSE
-Should have special interest in food service as a career.
-Should have potentiality for becoming qualified for entry
into the field.
-Should have plans to enter food service work.
-Should be of sufficient age for work experience phase.
-Should have approval of parents for participating in the
-Should have good health.
-Should have good school record with good attendance record.
-Should have special interests, abilities, and training in
the area of food and nutrition.
-Should have some work experience in food service (if possible).
-Should have ability to organize and coordinate.
The facilities for class and laboratory
-Should have adequate space and equipment for class,
demonstrations and laboratory experiences.
-Should have access to the demonstration and use of some
quantity food equipment.
The food service establishments cooperating with work experience
-Should meet state and local health and safety requirements.
-Should have liability and other protection.
-Should meet requirements of federal, state and local laws
concerning hours, wages, work conditions, etc.
-Should maintain high standards of food service.
-Should have management and staff who are interested in
and willing to cooperate with the program.
Suggested Guide for Training Program for Food Service Workers,
B: FRONT OF THE HOUSE DO'S AND DON'T FOR WAITRESSES, BUS BOYS,
1. Greet all customers and seat them at a clean table; if table
is not clean, request that customers wait until it is clear-
ed and cleaned so you may check booths and chair seats for
2. If waitress does not wear name badge, she may say, "Good
morning, my name is Mary. May I take your order please or
shall I bring your coffee while you decide?" SHE SHOULD
ALWAYS BRING A MENU IF ONE IS NOT PRESENTED BY THE HOSTESS
AT TIME CUSTOMER IS SEATED. (Some places still leave menus
at each table or booth, but it is more difficult to keep
track of new customers and menus soil easily.)
3. First on the list when the waitress returns must be a glass
of water for each person! If customers wanted coffee, it
may be brought on same tray.
(We say "tray." There has been great laxity in how food has been
served. A tray indicates that you adhere to sanitary practices
and do not handle dishes or food carelessly! It also saves steps
and spills. If tray is not used, special training should be given
on how to carry an order and how to handle dishes when you clear
4. Place mats represent an extra cost but in restaurants where
they earnestly seek to stress cleanliness, a mat is used.
You may place silverware on a napkin beside the plate but,
when the napkin goes to the customer's lap, where does the
silverware go? Frequently the cloth used to clean the
table does not leave the customer wishing to pick up silver-
ware from that table! Perhaps the table was clean when you
entered but what about papers, money, pencils, purses and
HANDS that have rested on that table unknown to us? THIS
IS A POINT FOR MANAGEMENT TO CONSIDER; IF PLACE MATS ARE
NOT USED, THE EMPLOYEE WILL HAVE TO TRY TO COMPENSATE EVEN
MORE WITH HIS OR HER ATTITUDE TOWARD CLEANLINESS. Takes
5. When setting up the table, follow the standard rule and you
will offend no one:
Napkin, salad fork, dinner fork and with salad bowl
at tip of fork -- dinner plate followed by knife
with edge toward plate and then spoons. Water glass
goes at tip of knife and cup at top of spoon. Napkin
opens like a book with edge toward plate.
Space will dictate how closely you can follow the basic rule.
Serve everything from the left except beverages. Remove all
dirty dishes and food service plates from the left...except
beverage and silverware to right of plate.
6. Do not stack dishes on top of one another at the table!
Remove and place on large tray or into conventional pan
provided for this. All dirty dishes, silverware and
service plates should be removed before bringing dessert,
after-dinner coffee or after-dinner drinks.
(When guest sees a neat, clean table, an air of relaxation sets
in and he may suddenly want dessert so he can linger longer.
Dessert is "extra profit" for the house and this is your oppor-
tunity to be a fine salesman or saleslady. Also, it shows your
hospitality charm. It's like saying, "Don't go; we like you."
A previous mishap or lower-than-usual quality of food may be
glossed over at this point; maybe the manager will "treat" the
guest to dessert.)
7. Be sure order has been served with proper item to each
person. Check that water glasses are full and inquire
about more coffee. If condiments are necessary or in
order, produce them at once. Excuse yourself by saying,
"Remember, my name is Mary if you need service." (And,
the waitress should remember that if the customer has
had to CALL her, it is not proof of adequate service...
however, things do arise that are no fault of waitress.)
Never deposit order on the table and then disappear or
refuse to glance that way as you go about to order other
tables. Some folks refuse to ask.... they simply never
return. Some are too timid to request additional portions
or added services; if we could pamper them a little, they
would think we were the greatest! Also, DON'T THINK THAT
MEN ARE THE ONLY ONES WHO TIP FOR SERVICES!
8. Do not go empty handed.. or empty headed. Customers notice
that you waste time, steps and energy. Learn to work your
way along the route; learn to combine your projects.
Remember, YOU ARE WORKING FOR YOU! The more people you can
handle efficiently the more apt you are to gather tips.
And, you will impress the boss .with your value as a go-
getter waitress. Others will also be wishing to sit in
your section the next time they visit.
(One essential skill for a waitress is a good memory and it can
be cultivated. Practice the little game that help you s-t-r-e-t-c-h
your memory: cards, scrabble, crossword puzzles, etc. Then you
can reel off names, orders, favorite dishes and services.)
9. A good waitress senses what the customer wants of her. Is
it a mere friendly "hello" and good service? Is it a word
or two of comment on the family he brought? Is it recog-
nition for his bowling or golf score? Maybe a comment on
his long absence? The last one may should like a compliment
to you, but it may make him feel as though you disapprove
of his absence and he feels that is his own business! It
is a clever waitress who knows how to be business-like in
her friendly comments and yet not push herself personally
into the meal of the patron. NEVER SIT DOWN WITH THE
CUSTOMER WHO IS EATING! NEVER STAND OVER HIM! These are
the delicate touches of "public relations" and display real
talent amongst waitresses as well as secretaries, telephone
operators, elevator operators, sales people, etc.
S M I L E. Even a misspoken word or poor gesture is for-
given if we smile and apologize. Much is implied in the
facial expression. We do not refer to giggles or idiotic
grins which result from lack of confidence or intelligence.
It refers to genuine happy interest in other people. A
serene expression on the face is a good exchange for the
constant grin. A relaxed and confident attitude with a
gentle hello convinces the customer you are glad he arrived
at that moment.
Courteous behavior and simple "thank you" are all they
expect of food service personnel. No one respects a public
servant who "bows and scrapes" and acts like he is beneath
an average man. WE ARE ALL EQUAL AND VERY NECESSARY TO THE
WORLD when we do our job well and with dignity. If you are
treated with disrespect, review your own general attitudes
and actions first! If you are sure you are dignified and
correct, then IGNORE THE SOURCE. Be beyond the reach of
the insulting customer! We find them in offices, on trains,
at airports, at political rallies. BUT FINE PEOPLE ARE AT
A PREMIUM** BE ONE OF THEM!
C: WORK EVALUATION DEVICES
Name of Trainee
Name and Title of Evaluation
Suggested Performance Rating for Trainees in Food Service Work
The following device may be completed by the trainee, supervisors
of on-the-job experiences and the instructor.
For each skill performed by the trainee the evaluator should
check in the appropriate column the quality of work completed and
indicate any comments to further explain the rating given. It is
suggested that trainees continue practicing skills on which they
rate "seldom" or below until the "usually" level or above is
reached. The trainee may also check her own performance using
General Skills Applicable to all Food Service Workers
Never Seldom Usually Always
1. Is neat and clean in dress
2. Maintains cleanliness and good
3. Maintains good physical health
4. Is loyal to superiors and the
5. Acts courteously toward guests,
co-workers and management
6. Cooperates and works well with
7. Is willing to accept supervision
8. Is dependable and honest
9. Displays interest and industriousness
10. Works deftly and quickly
11. Accepts and observes rules and
12. Shares work and helps other workers
13. Understands basic nutrition and
applies this information to her work
14. Practices principles of safety, good
sanitation and cleanliness
15. Other skills
Skills of a Waitress
1. Sets table correctly
2. Performs cleaning jobs well and
3. Keeps sidestand neat and orderly
4. Uses good management techniques in
5. Greets all guests graciously and
6. Presents and interprets menu
7. Takes and assembles order correctly
8. Gives needed attention to guests
9. Serves meal correctly
10. Presents check correctly
11. Handles problems and emergencies
12. Other skills
Skills of a Hostess
1. Is appropriately dressed and
2. Greets all guests graciously and
3. Presents and interprets .menu
4. Performs duties of a waitress
5. Supervises dining room personnel
6. Sees that dining room is in order
7. Makes sure guests are being
8. Handles problems and emergencies
9. Takes care of reservations and
other arrangements carefully
10. Performs clerical duties carefully
11. Other skills
Skills of a Salad Girl
1. Keeps supplies on hand and in good
2. Prepares salads, appetizers,
garnishes and other foods accord-
ing to accepted standards
3. Fills orders quickly and skillfully
4. Is economical in use of food and
5. Uses and cares for equipment care-
6. Employs good management principles
7. Shares space and equipment with
8. Other skills
Never Seldom )Usually AlwaysJ
Never Seldom Usually Alwa,
Skills of a Lunch-Counter Waitress
1. Performs sidework correctly
2. Greets guests graciously and
3. Presents and interprets menu
4. Takes and assembles order
5. Prepares foods and beverages
according to accepted standards
6. Serves food correctly
7. Gives needed attention to guest
8. Presents check correctly
9. Handles problems and emergencies
D: HOW AND WHERE TIME IS WASTED
1. Changes without advance notice
2. Unnecessary talking and visiting
3. Failure to maintain steady pace on the job
4. Failure to ask questions when orders are not clear
5. Late for work
6. Late in starting work
7. Slowing down near end of shift; quitting early
8. Trying to work when not physically fit
9. Failure to follow instructions
10. Not keeping tools and equipment handy and in order
11. Forgetting where tools, equipment and utensils were left.
12. Using wrong or defective tools, equipment or utensils
13. Doing personal work without permission
14. Not reporting promptly when work is done if other work is
to be assigned
15. Taking more time than needed when completing reports and
16. Mistakes, necessitating doing work the second time
17. Taking time to do a better or finer job than necessary
18. Lack of cooperation among workers
19. Failure to ask for help when needed
20. Improper care of operation of machines resulting in lower
output or breakdown
21. Failure to report repairs promptly
22. Failure to keep floors, aisles and tables clear, clean
23. Waste motions due to unsystematic personal working habits
24. Lack of suitable clothing when exposed to heat, cold or
weather, causing frequent interruptions for relief
25. Waiting around, when not necessary, for tools, equipment
or utensils to be repaired
COOL DOWN- 4
and s/y a A
MAKE CERTAIN -
he deserves /
TALK 70 HIM-/
inpr iv e l
i-NINl SNCE M OTHERS
*Emp/oy ee experiences cAn r/
2-ONE WHSE ORE1
*Correcfion 1 personnq"
4 Supervisor "loses fOceO
5-DONE WITHOUT CHECKING
*ThinW s Sdi uhjusly-hot deserved
*Fure:ftdA is put oh thAespof
4-LEAVES FEEUNG OF
-oErs o rs
-Loss of production
-Liakdifq to wacidenfs
F: WHO CAN LIVE WITHOUT DINING?
We may live without poetry, music and art;
We may live without conscience, and live without heart;
We may live without friends; we may live without books;
But civilized man cannot live without cooks.
We may live without books--what is knowledge without grieving?
We may live without hope--what is hope but deceiving?
We may live without life--what is passion but pining?
But where is the man who can live without dining?
G: THE INDISPENSABLE MAN
Sometimes, when you're feeling important
Sometimes, when your ego's in bloom
Sometimes, when you take it for granted
You're the best qualified in the room--
Sometimes, when you feel that your going
Would leave an unfillable hole,
Just follow this simple instruction
And see how it humbles your soul.
Take a bucket and fill it with water
Put your hand in it--up to the wrist;
Pull it out, and the hole that's remaining
Is the measure of how you'll be missed.
You may splash all you please when you enter
You can stir up the water galore;
But stop and you'll find in a minute
That it looks just the same as before.
The moral of this quaint example
Is to do just the best that you can;
Be proud of yourself, but remember,
There is no indispensable man!
Concept: Personal Qualities for Job Success
1. Certain personality traits, if cultivated, help lead to job
2. Each person's behavior is influence by the attitudes, values,
and interpretations of his environment that he has accum-
ulated through hLs experience.
3. Since technological changes, advances in science, and im-
proved communication and transportation will cause the
worker's role to change, he must be adaptable to these
4. Neat, clean personnel inspire, confidence in safe food.
5. The personal appearance of the worker contributes to the
impression customers receive of the business.
To identify persona:
for job success.
Desirable qualities to cultivate:
1. Neatness and orderliness in work
2. Cleanliness and good grooming
3. Responsible behavior
4. Acceptable social skills
5. Acceptance of criticism
7. Knowledge of own errors
9. Management of time and energy
12. Respect for property of others
6. An employee should recognize that he assumes certain respon-
sibilities for his employer which are beyond his prescribed
7. An efficient worker will manage his time so that he has adequate
diet and sufficient sleep.
1. How do I know when I am well groomed?
2. How do I know what is more than my duty?
3. What is an attitude?
Introduce unit with filmstrip: Tagline f<
List desirable qualities for food service
Checklist sheet for self evaluation of
these qualities. (See Appendix) Use
checksheet periodically for self-improve-
Analyze importance of these qualities and
develop a plan for self-improvement.
Write proverbs that can be a part of per- I
sonality development such as: Laugh and the
world laughs with you.
Hear advisory board members explain job
opportunities and competencies needed in
their particular occupations.
Read article and write a paragraph stating
agreement or disagreement and reason why.
oA A job training filmstrip.
Criteria for Judging
Student Readiness for
Employment in Institu-
tional Food Services.
See Appendix,_ )
You Don't Change A
Personality. (See Appen-
PERSONAL APPEARANCE DAILY GOOD GROOMING
Cleanliness Indicates Professionalism
1. Hair net and/or headband on in neat, attractive manner
2. Hair clean and glossy, neat above collar, in appropriate style
3. Pleasant smile accompanied by an alert, interested attitude
4. Clean teeth and breath kept sweet with daily and in-between
5. Clean, spotless, pressed uniform of style prescribed by "the
6. Little jewelry: wedding rings, watch, name tags or special
7. Daily bath, good deodorant, no strong perfume
8. Clean apron, cuffs or collars as required
9. Clean, soft skin; manicured nails with clear or neutral polish
10. Good foundation garments and immaculately clean under-clothing
11. Correct skirt line
12. Long stockings free of runs; seams straight; seamless preferred
13. Sturdy shoes with low heels; oxfords give better health, less
14. Neatly polished shoes in good condition
15. A clean sweater...if one must be worn. They detract from
professional look and leave doubts in the mind of the guest.
An attractive, well-designed vest or jacket to suit the decor
would remove need for sweater.
North Dakota Restaurant Association, 1015 Broadway,
Fargo, North Dakota 58102
A GOOD SERVICE WORKER
Fundamentals for the Good Worker:
1. Good physical health
2. Well groomed--hair, hands, uniform, shoes, stockings and
make-up should be suitable for the girl
3. Knowledge of what you should do before you go on duty
4. Ability to show your good manners
5. Willingness to serve
6. A pleasant personality that will inspire confidence
You should be able to go to your job without bringing your private
worry, fear, hate, or anger with you. Any worker that brings his
private troubles to work gives only a part of himself to the job.
The working girl or boy needs vibrant health and energy. A high
protein diet will give extra energy. Plenty of sleep is a neces-
sity. With anything you do, always have enough sleep, and
especially if you work. Arrange your social life so that you have
time for adequate sleep and food. Learn your job so well that you
are relaxed while working.
A daily shower or bath, well groomed hair and hands, a proper and
neat uniform, well polished shoes, neat and clean stockings, and
make-up just right for you are musts for an effective worker.
Don't display such unpleasant habits as fussing with your hair,
coughing or sneezing carelessly, and picking at your face or nose.
These are habits to be avoided at all times when in the presence
of food that others will eat.
Tasks to be performed by workers are always assigned in a well-
operated establishment. Know what you are expected to do and, if
necessary, spend some of your "off-duty time" learning your job.
Good manners are good habits. Always conduct yourself so that
people like to be with you. A friendly manner is contagious.
Smile as you approach people with a good purposeful manner; then,
a customer will know that you wish to serve him.
This material was taken from the Kentucky Guide where it has been
adapted from "The Correct Waitress," by S.B. Dietz, Ahrens Book Co.,
CHECK LIST OF WAITRESS' PERSONAL HABITS
(From North Dakota Restaurant Association)
Do not comb hair, repair makeup, or adjust clothing in the presence
of customers, salesmen or delivery boys, in the kitchen or at the
service center. Go to the restroom provided for the employees. Do
this at regular intervals such as your lunch period and coffee break.
Carry a kleenex or napkin in your pocket for emergencies. Wash hands
immediately before touching food or dishes.
Check your hands and nails frequently; your customers do!
Handle all dishes and silverware gracefully and gingerly by the
handles only. Touch as little as possible of china.
Strive to be graceful in your walk and gestures. This means reducing
the body movements in number and accent. Move stealthily as a tiger
in the forest.
Be soft spoken. It is more personal and patrons like it.
Do not exchange jokes or tidbits with other personnel in the dining
room; do not waste time of the chef or kitchen help with conversation
about your personal life. You could be a bore!
If you socialize with other personnel, do it after hours on your own
time (not because the boss begrudges you a little "break" but because
he wants you to enjoy the best reputation in town!). The customers
sense when employees are wasting time and it interferes with their
own schedule. They are not only paying for the food but the time you
are supposed to devote to their services. YOU OWE THEM YOUR UNDIVIDED
ATTENTION, and they know it.
Watch the placement of your hands on glasses and cups. This is one
of the major complaints from the public. Your hands may have been
washed moments before, but they don't know that. Also, you handle
the tip money, take cash, and can transmit germs most innocently.
Pick up and organize materials as you go along. The bus boy may be
swamped and your thoughtfulness toward him is noticed by customers;
it displays your basic personality. THE EYES OF TEXAS ARE UPON YOU
AT ALL TIMES: they have nothing to do but wait and look!
Practice your simple arithmetic! To be in error is just human, but
when the customer catches an error on the bill the waitress must
apologize. If you don't care for apologies, learn to be more
accurate and avoid the necessity. It also reminds the customer that
you are intelligent and polite beyond the point of food service.
No gum chewing or eating as you walk about the floor...any more than
the customer should go out eating the balance of his dessert.
Know something about your city and state or special tourist area.
Strangers need information.
FINALLY: IT DOES TAKE INTELLIGENCE TO BE A GOOD WAITRESS!
Not everyone could make it.
CHECK SHEET PERSONAL HYGIENE AND SAFETY
1. Do you wash your hands with soap and water?
a. Before beginning a particular job?
b. Before handling food materials?
c. After every visit to the toilet?
d. After using a nose tissue?
e. After touching body, hair and face?
f. After cleaning fingernails?
2. Do you wear a clean, washable uniform?
3. Do you wear a hair net or a cook's cap?
4. Do you refrain from the use of tobacco while on duty?
5. Do you use disposable tissues when you blow your nose?
6. Do you cover your nose and mouth with disposable tissue
when you sneeze?
7. Are your fingernails short and clean?
8. Do you clean your fingernails before beginning work?
9. Do you bathe each day and use a deodorant regularly?
10. Do you work when you have a cold, cough or sore throat?
11. Do you handle food when you have a cut, burn or any
skin diseases on your hands?
12. Do you wear comfortable yet substantial shoes while
13. Are your shoe heels correct height and not "run over?"
14. Do you keep your hair clean and appropriately styled
for your job?
15. Do you keep your breath free from halitosis?
16. Do you wear clean underclothes and socks each day?
17. Do you select a well constructed chair or stool when
18. Do you refrain from using "wild" smelling perfume when
19. Do you select substantial stool or ladder when reaching
higher than "easy reaching?"
20. Do you believe in having a good physical examination
and keeping your health card up to date?
21. Do you remove jewelry while working?
// / /
/ 7 / 7
/ / / /
/ / / /
/ / / /
Concept: Sanitation and Safety in Handling Food.
1. Cleanliness contributes to professionalism.
2. Safety of food is determined by the natural characteristics
and protective coverings, by the procedures used in the
production and processing, and by the sanitary measures used
in handling and storing.
3. Practice of safety regulations required by local ordinances
4. A knowledge of first aid techniques is needed by food service
5. Technological developments that result in changes in the
nature of food and food products often bring a need for
changed procedures in food handling and storage.
6. Proper food storage and preservation methods contribute to
retention of the initial nutritive value, safety, and sensory
qualities of fbod.
To demonstrate essen-
tial sanitation prac-
Contact county health department to see if a
sanitarian is available for class instruction';
if not, follow course outline.
Essential sanitation practices:
1. Personal cleanliness, good grooming.
2. Care of the hair.
3. Habits which avoid spreading disease
such as colds.
4. Sanitary practices related to tasting
food, dishwashing, food storage and care
of work area.
5. Use of disposable gloves when hands have
cuts or sores.
7. Correct use of equipment and appliances enhancesthe effectiveness
of the worker and reduces replacement and repair.
8. Knowledge of the characteristics of materials used in the con-
struction of equipment aids in determining correct use and care.
9. A knowledge of equipment terminology improves communication.
1. Why should I.have my hair cut?
2. Why do I have to wear a hairnet?
3. Why do I have to have special shoes and uniforms?
4. Why can't I cook today?
5. What will happen if I don't put it in the refrigerator?
6. We don't do it at home; why do I have to do it here?
7. Why should I take this cutter apart?
Discuss a list of terms used in sanitary
food handling. (See Appendix.)
Invite health inspector to discuss state
and local food service regulations. Student
make list as he talks.
Hand out check sheet of "Personal Hygiene
and Safety Practices." Let each check
for personal weaknesses. (See Appendix.)
Observe the growth and development of
bacteria Consult County Health Depart-
Observe demonstration on and practice
correct methods of hand washing for
Check sheet in Appendix.
County Health Department.
Sanitary Food Ser-
vice NAVMED, p. 1333.
To illustrate handling
foods in a sanitary
To demonstrate skills
and knowledge needed
to provide sanitary
Importance of strict sanitary control in
I. A. Prevention of spoilage and contamination
B. Temperature for safe refrigeration.
C. Temperature for keeping foods hot.
D. Techniques for handling foods.
Types of food poisoning.
Methods of prevention.
1. Terms which apply to procedures, equipment,
and materials that are commonly used in
a. Procedures-scrub, rinse, scald, dry,
b. Materials detergents, soap, scouring
materials, waxes, dust cloths, brooms,
brushes, mops, pails, sponges,
2. Cleaning schedule and procedures:
b. Kitchen wall, floors.
Students list agents which transmit diseases.
Discuss the importance of health examination
for protection of self and public.
Evaluate films on food-born diseases by means
of a form which students will develop.
Dramatize the proper way to handle silver,
glasses and china, stressing the importance
of sanitary practices with both clean and
Secure parents approval for obtaining a health
card and making field trips. Take field
trip to health department to secure health
card. Health department representative can
stress importance of health card.
Take field trip to several (3) food service
businesses to observe sanitation practices.
Observe demonstration on accepted procedures
in housekeeping practices. Examine materials
Films: State Health
of Salmonella Infec-
Board of Health.
To analyze safety
practices in an in-
To demonstrate skill
washing dishes by
machine and by hand.
Safety in the kitchen!
3. Food spills.
5. Muscle sprain.
Correct use and care of equipment!
1. Taking equipment apart.
2. Cleaning methods.
3. Putting parts together.
4. Storing pieces of equipment.
5. Handling pieces safely while working with
6. Cleaning with correct detergents.
7. Oiling equipment.
best practice in washing dishes includes
Scrape and remove leftover food and waste
from soiled dishes. Waste should be put
through an opening in the soiled dish
table leading to a garbage receptacle
underneath or into a garbage disposer.
2. Pre-rinsing in luke warm or cold water
to remove food particles or soil which
otherwise may "bake" on during the washing
3. Wash in clear water 140 degrees (except in
hand washing)containing a good soap or
detergent for at least two minutes.
After viewing films discuss and list important
points on black board.
Accept individual housekeeping responsibilities
on a rotating basis and refer to a chart for
Identify the use of each item needed in a
First Aid Kit or cabinet.
List and discuss safety regulations required
by local ordinances.
Teacher explains and demonstrates correct use
and care of cleaning equipment and methods
of cleaning. Divide students into committees
to discover and explain to class how each
safety hazard can be avoided.
Observe posters or transparencies which point
out safety hazards.
Prepare a list of safety rules to be observed
in laboratory. Post in proper places in
classroom. (See Appendix)
Have fire extinguisher representative demon-
strate preventive measures and ways to con-
trol small fires, and other means of fire
Develop bulletin board on safety entitled,
"This Could Be You."
Study, demonstrate, and discuss the correct
use of a dishwasher in order to insure
Develop a list of detergents needed for a
Work in small groups to gain practical
experience and skill-in operating a dish
Example of Work Chart
Duties (See Appendix)
Example of Housekeep-
ing Duty check sheet.
low To Clean Every-
How to Manage A
Restaurant, pp. 305-
Films: State Board
In Hot Water.
Dishwashing By Hand.
Our Health in Your
4. Rinsing in clean water at 170 degrees or
higher for at least two minutes. This
treatment will sanitize the dishes which
should then be removed and allowed to dry
in the air.
5. Soaking which often may come first is also
needed in washing pots and pans, silver,
or dishes with heavy coating of food or
6. Stress safety practices at all time. Stress
the key points in dishwashing the "how
and why" proper detergents. The students
should be aware of every unit of dish-
washing to be sure that all sanitary re-
quirements are met.
Duties of dishwasher:
1. Prepare dishes for washing.
2. Load properly.
3. Add proper detergent.
4. Follow proper procedure for using and
caring for the dishwasher.
5. Safety precautions.
Consult health authorities to make sure that
the method complies with sanitary regulations.
Dish Washing By Hand:
A three-compartment sink in needed.
Baskets are needed.
A hose with spray nozzle is needed for rins-
Washing Kitchen Utensils:
Two types of pot-washers:
1. A cabinet in which pots and pans are re-
volved and subjected to pressure sprays
of hot detergent solutions. The soiled
food particles and run-off can be connec-
ted to a disposer.
2. Operates on the immersion principle. This
unit is mounted to the side of the pot
sink with a pump outlet and inlet cut
into the side of the sink. A pump pro-
vides a current of hot water which swirls
through the hot water, keeping it in con-
Analyze the steps in dishwashing as to pro-
per sequences and give reasons for the
On chart or bulletin board, list the steps
used when washing dishes by hand.
Students work in small groups to gain
practical experience in hand dish washing.
Examine washed utensils to see if they are
free from grease, discoloration, and soap.
Food Service In
Industry, pp. 168-190.
Food Service In
County Health Depart-
FOOD POISONING can happen in your lunch room. The possibility
is always present in any food service operation, ready to occur
if vigilance is relaxed. It can be prevented with an understand-
ing of a few well-established controls and by keeping them in
ESSENTIAL POINTS TO REMEMBER
Two things should be kept in mind:
1. Refrigeration does not destroy bacteria but merely checks
2. Adequate heat kills bacteria but does not destroy the
toxin or poison that some types of bacteria produce in
foods. Low acid foods need special care, especially if
they are minced, moist or handled a great deal. Foods
such as fruits, juices, and relishes seldom cause food
poisoning. Commonly used foods which have been the source
of bacterial food poisoning include pot pies, poultry,
poultry stuffing, meat, fish, sausage, cream pies, creamed
dishes, custard-filled pastries, salads, meat products,
sandwiches, cream-filled pastries, tenderized hams and
TYPES OF FOOD POISONING
1. Staphylococcus bacteria produce a toxin or poison that
causes a food intoxication form of poisoning. These
bacteria are found in air, water, milk and sewage but
main sources are the skin and intestinal and respiratory
tracts of animals, with the transmission of food from boils,
infected cuts, coughing and sneezing of people who handle
food. Only a few hours at room temperature are needed to
produce the toxin which, once formed, is not affected by
2. Salmonella is caused by bacteria that are mainly intestinal
parasites of man, or animals and birds with contamination
of food coming from infected animals or by coming in con-
tact with infected rodents or humans. Appearance and taste
of food may seem normal.
3. Streptococci, mostly of human origin, produce an infection
type of food poisoning when the bacteria are eaten in large
numbers. Sanitation prevents contamination. Do not allow
people with infections or diseases to handle food. Require
regular medical examinations for food handling workers.
Clean preparation tables and equipment carefully, keeping
in mind that bacteria can live long periods in cracks and
on rough areas. Keep dogs and cats out of food preparation
areas. Protect your premises from insects and rodents.
Handle food rapidly. Use containers, covers and other
barriers to prevent food from becoming contaminated. Re-
frigerate food immediately after it is cooked (if it is not
to be served within a short time) to check the growth of
bacteria. Delaying refrigeration until food reaches room
temperature will allow bacteria to grow more rapidly.
Refrigerate leftovers as soon as possible. Chill perish-
able foods rapidly and hold them at 400F. or below. In
freezing foods, chill or freeze them so that center temp-
erature is reduced to 400F. or below within four hours.
4 HOURS -- TOTAL TIME IS LIMIT
Do not allow turkey or other poultry dressings to stay more
than four hours at temperatures between 500 and 120 F.
Never stuff poultry and let it stand without refrigeration.
Do not allow left-over poultry meats, dressing and gravy
to remain at room temperature. Refrigerate them as quickly
as possible. Before serving again, re-heat them so that
every part of the leftover food reaches 1650F.
*North Dakota Food Service Curriculum Guide for Vocational
Home Economics Program.
EQUIPMENT TO BE CLEANED BY WHEN SPECIAL INFORMATION
Food Service Curriculum Guide for Vocational Home
Economics, North Dakota.
Perhaps this chart needs an additional column for check-
ing when the task has been completed and when and by
whom it was performed.
WHAT IS MEANT BY SANITATION?
This means it is important:
1. To keep you clean.
2. To keep the food clean.
3. To keep the equipment clean.
4. To keep the kitchen and dining
WHY IS SANITATION IMPORTANT?
YOU MUST KEEP YOURSELF CLEAN
Sanitation refers to keeping
Because germs or bacteria
are all about you.
1. On your body
2. On your hair
3. On your hands
4. On your face
5. On your clothes
Because bacteria must be kept away from food to prevent spoilage
and food poisoning.
YOU MUST KEEP FOOD CLEAN
Because unclean equipment makes food unclean, YOU MUST KEEP
Because clean surroundings usually mean food is clean, YOU MUST
KEEP THE KITCHEN AND DINING AREA CLEAN.
1. If the kitchen and dining area are clean, this usually means
the employees care about sanitation.
2. A clean kitchen is a more pleasant place for work.
3. A clean dining room is more attractive for customers.
For one thing, this means for you
to keep your work area neat in
WHAT IS MEANT BY KEEPING
KEEP FOOD AND PAPER OFF THE FLOOR
Do you have enough waste containers in convenient loca-
tions -- in the kitchen, diswashing area, dining area,
storage rooms? If not, ask for them.
This means for you to keep the floor swept and the work
1. See that spilled dry food is swept up immediately.
2. See that spilled moist food is wiped up immediately.
There should be no large scale dry sweeping while food
is being prepared. Dust rises in the air and will fall
on the food and on work tables.
This means for you to keep your hands and your clothing
ALWAYS WASH YOUR HANDS with soap and hot water after you
sweep and wipe up spilled food.
ALWAYS WEAR CLEAN, FRESH APRONS and change them when they
When your hands are clean, when food is clean, when equipment is
clean, fewer germs and bacteria will be present and sanitation
will be improved.
These are the main reasons your supervisor wants you to keep
1. To get rid of germs.
2. To keep them from increasing in number.
YES, IT IS VERY IMPORTANT FOR YOU TO KEEP THINGS CLEAN.
CLEANING SCHEDULES ARE
The dietician or the food
supervisor is responsible
for preparation of a clean-
ing schedule to guide
1. The schedule should be posted in the kitchen or work area.
2. The schedule serves as a reminder for definite assignments
of work to be done.
3. The schedule should make good use of time available in the
afternoons or during other slack times.
4. The schedule should provide the following information:
Who is to clean what equipment?
What equipment is to be cleaned daily?
What equipment is to be cleaned weekly, monthly,etc.?
A SAMPLE FORM
EQUIPMENT TO BE CLEANED BY WHEN SPECIAL INFORMATION
Hot Food Tables
Growing in the presence of free oxygen.
Growing in the absence of free oxygen.
Without permitting bacterial contamination.
A rod-shaped form of bacterium.
Destructive to bacteria.
Preventing bacterial growth, but without
A disease in which the causative agent
may readily be transferred from one person
to another directly or indirectly.
To soil or render insanitary water, food,
milk, or eating and cooking utensils by
introduction of micro-organisms and/or
filth and foreign materials.
The shell-like protective outer covering
of the larval form of the tapeworm and
Cleansing agent, such as water, soap or
a synthetic substance.
An agent that frees from infection by
killing bacteria or other micro-organisms,
usually a chemical.
A toxic substance produced within an
organism and not excreted.
Pertaining to the objects, influences,
and conditions that surround us.
A toxic substance given off by a micro-
organism and hence found outside the
Causative agent (of an infectious disease)
so small that it will pass through the
pores of the finest porcelain filters.
Storing, preparing, cooking, and serving
of all foodstuffs. Also includes washing,
sanitizing, handling and storing of
equipment and utensils.
Same as disinfectant.
Invasion of the tissues of the body by
harmful, or pathogenic organisms.
Consume (eat or drink).
Any chemical substance used for the
destruction of insects.
An early stage in the development of
A growth of many cells, larger than
bacteria or yeast, or organic matter. It
resembles other plants. May be either
harmful or good.
Human body wastes (feces and urine) used
as fertilizer in certain areas of the
Deriving its nourishment from some living
animal or plant upon which it lives and
which acts as a host; not necessarily
Not only parasitic but also causing disease
to the host.
Rendered impure or unclean; for example,
a water supply polluted by introduction of
Safe for human consumption (said of water)
Preventive treatment for protection
The process of decay accompanied by a
A genus of bacteria-like, parasitic
micro-organisms. Typhus and Q fever
caused by rickettsiae.
A phase of environmental health embracing
the principles and practice of cleanliness.
Destruction of all bacteria and other
micro-organisms by chemical or physical
Growing best at high temperatures, i.e.,
50 C. or over.
A waste product given off by an organism;
it gets into food, it contaminates it and
may cause illness in people who eat the
Organisms smaller than bacteria that grow
in living tissue and may cause disease
in animals and plants.
A group of small, single-celled plants,
oval in shape and several times larger
than bacteria. It causes fermentation
which is useful in making certain products.
Concept: Basic Information for Food Preparation
1. Consistent practice in food preparation develops good habits,
skills and techniques.
2. Technological developments that result in changes in the nature
of food and food products often bring a need for changed pro-
cedures in preparations and cooking.
3. Preparation of food requires a knowledge of what constitutes
an acceptable standard.
To identify terms
which are involved
in the preparation
Correct use or standard recipes
1. Weight and/or measures used in large
2. Interpreting and following directions
3. Methods of making correct measurements.
4. Relation of accurate measurements and
correct procedure to quality of
A formula or recipe should include
1. The name of the dish to be prepared.
2. The formula number that has been
assigned, if one.
3. The yield or number of portions in
4. A list of all ingredients based on
the sequence of preparation steps,
weight or volume measurement (or
both) should be given.
5. a. cooking temperature
b. cooking time
6. Methods of service, including
1. Why do I have to have a special measuring cup?
2. Do I have to have the exact weight?
3. Why do I have to read the recipe first?
4. Why do I have to have everything together before I start
following the recipe?
View film to become familiar with terms.
Study different standarized quantity
recipes to become aware of information
in recipe and understanding of
1. symbols 5. equipment
2. abbreviations 6. weight
3. terms 7. measurement
4. directions 8. temperature
Do appropriate exercises on abbrevia-
tions, weights, measures, equivalents,
recipes, terms and symbols.(See Appen-
Play the game of "College Bowl" in
View filmstrip Measuring Accurately.
Demonstrate measurement techniques and
reasons for accurate measurements.
Film: Terms and What They
Bulletin #233, Standardi-
zing Recipes for Institu-
Guide to Modern Meals,
pp. 138, 143-329.
a. portion size if not otherwise indi-
cated in yield.
b. garnish and other factors such as
method of plating, etc.
7. Additional factors such as alternate
service or garnish, method of holding
for service and related information.
A working knowledge of standard measures
and weights is essential for food service
workers engaged in the preparation and
portioning of food products.
Weight measurement is usually more accu-
rate than volume measurement and often
easier to use when proper scales are
Students need to know how to transpose
the capacity of canned food containers.
Use of equipment
1. Select piece of equipment most appro-
priate for the job.
2. Understand precautions in operating
a. Protection of worker.
b. Protection of equipment.
c. Storage of equipment.
Practice measuring techniques by preparing
a recipe that includes many such techniques.
Keep a recipe file and study carefully the
table of weights, measures, abbreviations,
equivalents and substitutions.
Compare weights vs. measurements. Demon-
strate using a quantity recipe. Emphasize
proper techniques of mixing, measuring,
selecting equipment and safety.
Adjust a given recipe according to quantity
Demonstrate the use of scales pointing out
difference in weights of various ingredi-
ents. Example sifted and unsifted flour.
Hand out sheets on can sizes. (See Appendix)
Display small equipment and appliances,
stress the use, care, advantages and
disadvantages of each
Discuss equipment in terms of safety,
time and energy saving methods.
Prepare a bulletin board display showing
pieces of small equipment.
Explain the importance of having the
right piece of equipment for a specific
Study operation manuals for each piece of
equipment. Emphasize the precautions
involved in the operations.
West,Wood and Harger
Good Service in Insti-
Food Service in Industry
and Institution, pp. 48-
QUANTITY FOOD PREPARATION
Skill in cooking is an art. Poor cooking is usually the result of a lack
of interest in food preparation. Perhaps all people cannot be "best" cooks,
but anyone who really wants to learn can be a good cook.
To begin with, it must be clearly understood that food cooked in large
quantities can be just as good and as wholesome as food prepared in small
quantities -- such as at home. The goals are basically the same:
1. To make food look and taste good.
2. To conserve food and food values.
3. To avoid plate waste.
To develop skill in the technique of quantity cookery, the following steps
1. Use a standardized quantity recipe.
2. Select and purchase quality foods.
3. Measure accurately using standard measuring equipment.
4. Cook the food according to directions on recipe.
5. Serve the food attractively using standard serving equipment.
USE THE RIGHT RECIPE
School lunch workers should have and use a well-organized file of
standardized recipes. A standardized recipe is one which has been tested
for quality and yield, so that following it will always produce the same
results. Most recipes are set for servings of 50 or 100. Many provide
space for recording the amounts of ingredients needed for each individual
food service operation.
Following Directions Carefully on tested recipes will help:
1. Increase the acceptability of foods served.
2. Prepare a good food product each time.
3. Prepare the same, number of portions each time.
4. Control food costs.
5. Save time and energy.
Although we have stressed some of the important reasons for using tested
recipes for food preparation, there are other important factors.
COOKING THE FOOD
The experienced worker has learned that the actual cooking of food is
just ONE STEP in successful food preparation. The cooking should take
place only after a tested recipe has been selected and studied,
quality food has been purchased, and the correct equipment has been used for
weighing and measuring ingredients. The best tested recipe can produce a
successful product only when the directions are carefully read and followed.
In preparing all foods it is wise to learn and use the methods which are best.
1. Conserve food values.
2. Retain volume and flavor.
3. Retain original appearance and color.
As a rule, it is a good idea to leave food in as large pieces as possible
for cooking. When cooking on top of the stove, it is usually best to cook
quickly in a covered container, using a minimum amount of liquid. Vitamins,
such as Vitamin C, are destroyed when the foods are overcooked. Much food
value is also lost from re-heated leftover foods--an important reason why
leftovers should be reduced to a minimum by using available food quantity
guides to prepare foods only in the quantity needed.
EQUIPMENT IS IMPORTANT
Accurately measuring and carefully following directions on standardized
quantity recipes are important practices for successful quantity food
1. Standardized measuring equipment
should be used for liquids.
2. Scales are most accurate for
measuring large quantities of dry
3. Use the largest measure possible--
such as one gallon instead of
4. Use standard measuring spoons and
cups--do not rely on the accuracy
of tea cups or spoons designed for
After carefully reading the recipe, save time and energy by assembling at
your work area all the equipment needed to accurately measure and weigh the
ingredients to be used. Provide proper utensils for mixing foods--do not
use hands. Use tasting spoons for sampling foods. When selecting pans
for cooking, remember they may also be used for serving. With this in mind,
it is wise to learn how many servings may be obtained from each pan.
Learn how to use your available large equipment to its best advantage.
1. Steam equipment cooks food quickly
and retains food values.
2. Oven cookery conserves time and effort,
enabling workers to perform other jobs
while food is cooking.
COOKING WITH STEAM
The following suggestions, when followed, will help to obtain good results whel
cooking with steam:
1. When steaming food, very little water
is needed; thus, food value is conserved.
2. Vegetables, such as potatoes, should be
graded for size before cooking to assure
3. Peel thick-skinned vegetables as thinly
as possible. Valuable nutrients are found
just under the skin.
4. Slice long root vegetables lengthwise.
Cutting crosswise causes important food
components to drain out more readily
5. Vegetables may be seasoned before or
after cooking. When seasoning is added
before steaming, it should be distributed
evenly. Avoid spilling salt inside the
steamer. Injury to the metallic surface
6. Thaw solid pack frozen vegetables before
steaming, or cut into small cubes 1-1/2-2".
Vegetables such as peas, corn, succotash,
mixed vegetables need not be thawed.
7. Vegetables should be cooked slightly under
the "done" state. This will help prevent
overcooking, which is the most prevalent
mistake encountered in steaming practice.
Cooking time varies according to the type of steamer used and amount of
steam pressure available *(pressure is slightly faster than freeventing
type), according to the age and size of the vegetables, and type of con-
tainer used. Shallow pans are slightly faster than tall ones; the perfo-
rated types are slightly faster than the solid.
*Follow instructions given you by the manufacturer of your steamer.
B: IDENTIFICATION OF SMALL EQUIPMENT IN QUANTITY FOODS LABORATORY
(Mark an X by the item or items you cannot identify)
spatula, small, medium,
large meat knife
utility butcher knife
serrated utility knife
cake or pie knife
meat carving or slic-
nest of dry measuring
bain marie pots
nest of measuring
rotary hand beater
tote trays or boxes
flat beater for mixer
wire whip with beater
hook beater for mixer
jelly roll pans
square cake pans
round cake pans
fruit pie pans
cream pie pans
tube cake pan
steam table pan
lock and lift pan
lock and lift
cake cooling rack
egg poaching pan
spring cake pan
dry measuring cup
C: TERMS AND ABBREVIATIONS
This is a list of terms frequently used in many recipes that may be of help
cook by dry heat; usually done in an oven.
moisten meat or other foods while cooking to
add flavor and prevent drying out.
cook in water or other liquid in which bubbles
rise continually breaking on the surface
(212 degrees F.).
brown meat or vegetables in a small amount of
coat with fine dry bread crumbs.
cut food into fine pieces.
mash, rub or work one or more foods until soft
cut into cubes or squares.
sprinkle or coat with flour or other fine
Equivalent................. Equal to and may be substituted for or used
Garnish.................... To decorate and make food more attractive.
Graduated.................. Standardized measuring utensils marked to indicate
specific measures or amounts.
i.e........................Abbreviation for "that is".
Internal...................In the middle or thickest part of a food, etc.
Knead ......................To manipulate with a pressing motion accompanied
by folding and stretching.
Level ......................An exact or even measure.
Marinate................... To treat with a marinade (an oil-acid mixture is
usually a kind of salad dressing)
Parboil.................... To boil until partially cooked.
Plump ...................... To soak dried fruits in hot water for a short time
Portion.................... A specified measure or serving.
Portion Control............ Using correct size scoop, spoon, cup, etc. to
insure uniform servings and number of servings,
as called for in a recipe.
Recipe .....................Directions for preparing a certain food or dish.
Reconstitute............... To make again, restore to original state.
Saute' .....................To brown quickly in a small amount of fat turning
Scald...................... To heat a liquid to just below the boiling point.
Sear .......................To brown the surface of meat by a short applicatic
of intense heat; used to develop flavor and
Simmer..................... To cook in a liquid at a temperature of about 185
degrees F.--just below boiling. Bubbles form
slowly and break below the surface of the liqui
Steam...................... To cook in steam with or without pressure.
TERMS AND ABBREVIATIONS Continued
Stew........................To simmer or boil in a small quantity of liquid.
When applied to meat, simmering temperature
Stir .......................To mix food materials with a circular motion.
Stock ......................A liquid in which meat and sometimes vegetables
have been cooked.
Undiluted.................. Full strength, nothing added.
Variation.................. To change the original product or recipe by
adding another ingredient or changing in some
Yield ......................To produce or to make a definite number of
servings or portions of a specified size.
BAKING POWDER....................... 1 tsp. is equal to 1/4 tsp. baking
soda plus 1/2 tsp. cream of tartar
BUTTER OR MARGARINE ................1 stick (1/4 lb.) equals 1/2 cup
CAKE FLOUR .........................Use 1 cup less 2 tbsp. of all-purpose
flour when substituting it in re-
cipes calling for 1 cup of cake
flour. Replace with 2 tbsp. corn-
CORNSTARCH ......................... 1 tbsp. is equal to 2 tbsp. flour
COCOA .............................. 3 tbsp. cocoa plus 1 tbsp. fat is
equal to 1 oz. or 1 square of
CREAM .............................. 1 cup whipping cream makes 2 or more
cups after whipping
EGGS ............................... 96 fresh eggs are equal to 1 No. 10
can dry eggs
HONEY .............................. 1 cup to substitute for 1-1/4 cups
sugar plus 1/4 cup liquid
SHORTENING ......................... 1 lb. is equal to 2 cups
SOUR MILK .......................... 7/8 cup milk plus 1-1/2 tbsp. vinegar
is equal to 1 cup sour milk
SUGAR, BROWN .......................1 lb. is equal to 2 cups solid pack;
3 cups light pack
SUGAR, CONFECTIONERS (Sifted)...... 1 lb. is equal to 3-1/2 cups
SUGAR, GRANULATED................... 1 lb. is equal to 2-1/4 cups
THICKENING ......................... 1 tbsp. quick cooking tapioca is equal
to 1 tbsp. cornstarch or 1-1/3 to
1-1/4 tbsp. flour
WHIPPING MILK ...................... 1/2 cup dry milk plus 1/2 cup ice
water is equal to 3 cups whipped
milk. (1 tsp. lemon juice or
vanilla plus 1 or 2 tbsp. sugar for
YEAST* ............................. 1 lb. compressed yeast is equal to 24
cakes; 1 cake compressed is equal
to 1 package dry; 1 lb. dry yeast
is equal to 2 to 2-1/4 lbs. com-
pressed. (Dry yeast varies in
weight according to brand)
CONVERSION TABLE FOR ACTIVE DRY YEAST
ACTIVE DRY PACKAGE MEASURE WARM WATER (100-115)
1 1 tbsp. 1/4 cup
4 1/4 cup 1 cup
8 1/2 cup 2 cups
16 1 cup 4 cups
*Water temperature is very important. Active Dry Yeast must always be
softened in warm water (100-115). The bowl used should be brought to
the same temperature.
1. For best results, add yeast to the water; do not add water to the
2. Add the measured amount of Active Dry Yeast to the water without
stirring. Allow to soak 3 to 4 minutes while measuring or
weighing other ingredients. Stir until dissolved.
Note: Do not hesitate to use generous measurements
of yeast. Remember to subtract the dissolving
water from that shown in the recipe.
*Temperature is important. Since yeast is a living plant, too much
heat can kill the yeast action, while not enough heat can slow it
down. For best results, soften Active Dry Yeast in warm (not hot)
water (100-1150 F.) and compressed yeast in lukewarm water (950 F.)
To test temperature of liquid (if thermometer is not available), drop
a little on inside of wrist--warm, not hot, water feels comfortably
E: MEASURES, SIZES OF CAN, SYMBOLS AND OVEN TEMPERATURES
CONTENTS OF CANS FRUITS AND.VEGETABLES
Average New Weight
No. 303 16-17 oz.
No. 2 1 lb. 4 oz.
No. 2-1/2 1 lb. 13 oz.
No. 3 (cylinder 46 oz.) 2 lbs. 14 oz.
No. 10 6 lbs. 9 oz.
SUBSTITUTING CAN SIZES
1 No. 10 can--5 No. 2 cans
1 No. 10 can--4 No. 2-1/2 cans
1 No. 10 can--2 No. 3 cylinders
1 No. 10 can--6 No. 303 cans
12 cups (3 qts.
Dipper No. 8--1/2 cup
(See USDA recipe cards
for Ladle measures)
---- edible portion
---- as purchased
TERMS COMMONLY USED TO DESCRIBE OVEN
200-300 very slow
450-500 very hot
500-525 extremely hot
*Taylor Oven Temperature Thermometer
Size of Can
F: EXAMPLES OF MOTION AND TIME SHORTCUTS
1. Vegetable Preparation.
a. Do not cut anything in the hand that can be cut on a
board or table.
b. Large cutting boards and French knives save time in
c. For hand cutting of vegetables and fruits, line up a
handful (example celery) on a board and cut through
all at once instead of one at a time.
d. Use two knives instead of one in chopping many vege-
e. Use kitchen shears to cut vegetables for salads and
radish tops. Snip tails, then hold radishes over
washing pan and cut radishes from tops.
f. Use slicer attachment on mixer for slicing potatoes,
g. Use grater attachment on mixer for grating carrots
h. Add dry milk powder to potatoes that are to be mashed
instead of reconstituting milk first.
i. Rub hands with fat before preparing squash or other
fuzzy vegetables. This prevents roughness and irri-
tation of hands.
2. Fruit Preparation.
a. Chop canned fruits and fruit cup in wooden bowl with
chopper. If chopper is not available, use sharp can.
b. Dampen raisins with water. They will go through the
food chopper without sticking.
c. Oranges peel more easily if hot water is poured over
3. Baked Products.
a. Use dry mixes for puddings, cake, biscuits, etc. pre-
pared in advance.
b. Weigh instead of measuring.
c. Measure all dry ingredients first, then fats, then
liquids to avoid pan washing.
d. Use correct tools to save time--measure in largest
size such as 1 quart, not four cups; 1 Tbsp. rather
than 3 tsp.
e. For variety roll biscuit dough in triangular or
square shape, then cut in smaller square, diamond,
etc.; saves reworking and rolling dough and handling
f. Either scoop muffin mixture into tins or pour from
bent #10 can.
F: EXAMPLES OF MOTION AND TIME SHORTCUTS Continued
g. Drop biscuits and cookies are time savers. Cookie
dough that is rolled by hand and chopped with baker's
scraper is fast.
h. Use Quick Roll Recipe that can be rolled directly
i. In making hamburger rolls, first roll one layer of
dough very thin. Brush with butter lightly. Fold
over thinly rolled layer on top and cut both layers
j. To measure honey or other sticky substance, grease
measuring cup first.
k. Use rubber plate scraper to clean batter out of bowls,
1. Cut cake before frosting.
m. Use two hands instead of one whenever possible, such
as cutting with two cutters, picking up with both
4. Other Management Hints.
a. Know measurements of pans, scoops and ladles. Label
size, if possible, on pans with magic marker.
b. Avoid carrying items from one place to another--use
dolly or dray.
c. Keep work areas neat and clean.
d. Learn to watch and study your movements. Cut down on
the number of movements necessary in operation. Try
to shorten distance hands travel. Keep body in balance
to lessen fatigue. Always work with both hands.
e. Keep equipment in good condition.
f. Maintain good lighting, comfortable working temperature,
order, cleanliness, etc.
g. Remain open-minded to new ideas.
70 Food Services
Concept: Preparing and Cooking Food.
1. Knowledge and understanding of the organization necessary
for the activities involved in the preparation, arrangement,
and handling of food helps food service personnel to be
more efficient in their work.
2. Practice in judging standard products and work experiences
increases evaluative skills and techniques.
3. If a food service establishment is to be successfully
operated, it is necessary to initiate and maintain good
working relations with all persons with whom contacts are
Sub-concept: Bakers Station
To make a variety Quick breads are a type of baked product
of breads, having flour as the basic ingredient and a
quick reacting agent.
Three types of batters used in quick breads.
1. Pour batter.
2. Drop batter.
3. Soft dough.
Pour batter is a quick bread; 1 part liquid
to 1 parts flour.
Drop batter is a quick bread of 1 part liquid
to 2 parts flour.
Soft dough is a quick bread of 1 part liquid
to 3 parts flour.
Variety of flour determines how it is used and
Types of flour.
1. Whole wheat flour.
2. All-purpose plain flour.
3. All-purpose self-rising.
4. Cake flour.
5. Baker's flour.
6. Enriched flour.
7. Potato flour.
1. Why do we have to do it this way?
2. Do we have to eat this?
3. What is that?
4. Do I have to make it that size?
5. Are we going to cook today?
6. Are we going to eat today?
7. Why can't I look at it?
8. Where do I put it?
9. What does this mean?
LEARNING EXPERIENCES RESOURCES
Through demonstrations, reference work,
discussion, films, filmstrips, etc. learn
methods and information needed for pre-
paring quick breads.
Practice preparing quick breads. Evaluate
products according to standards for quick
breads. Work on weak points until salable
skills are developed in quick breads.
Food for Better Living,
pp. 58-82, 89-101.
Quick bread study
questions on trans-
parencies (See Appendix)
Filmstrip: Muffin Making
Guide to Modern Meals,
Family Meals and
Cooking for Food
Managers, pp. 50-58.
Variations in ingredients used in addition
to the common ingredients contribute to the
wide variety of quick breads.
A leavening agent is the ingredient used in
quick breads to make them rise during baking.
Baking powder plus liquid = carbon dioxide.
Baking soda plus liquid plus acid carbon
Air is a leavening agent such as in angel
Steam is a leavening agent such as found in
popovers and cream puffs.
Quick breads are cooked by oven, grill, pan
frying and deep fat frying.
Kinds of quick breads:
1. Biscuits plain milk, butter milk.
2. Loaf breads.
3. Muffins plain, variation.
6. French toast.
7. Hush puppies.
List of vocabulary words for quick breads:
6. Leavening agent.
LEARNING EXPERIENCES RESOURCES
Quantity Food Pro-
duction, pp. 383-398.
Large Quantity Re-
cipes, pp. 61-67.
Mealtime, pp. 474-475.
Food for Fifty.
Field trip to bakery to observe the duties
and responsibilities of bakers.
Review and apply rules and procedures of
cleanliness and sanitation for food service
Points to remember:
1. Standards of products.
2. Selection and storage of ingredients.
3. Holding time for various quick breads.
4. Preparation of ingredients.
5. Preparation of quick breads according to
6. Use and care of equipment and supplies.
7. Attractive service of quick breads and
8. Preparation and/or application of all
9. Cooperation with other kitchen personnel
in use of space.
10. Management of time, energy and materials
in making of quick bread.
Flour for yeast breads must have high gluten
Variation of flour mixture determines the
Bread flour (high protein) may be plain, rye,
whole wheat, etc.)
Flour for sweet yeast dough consists of 80%
bread flour and 20% cake flour.
100% bread flour is used for puff pastry.
Correct kneading of yeast breads helps to pro-
duce small cells.
A baker learns he must provide four things to
make yeast react well:
1. Live yeast.
3. Correct temperature.
Through demonstrations, reference work,
discussion, films, filmstrips, learn methods
and information needed for preparing yeast
Practice preparing yeast breads. Evaluate
products according to standard yeast breads
and rolls. (See Appendix.)
Divide into couples to select methods of
shaping and varieties to make.
Have students work on weak points until they
develop salable skills in yeast bread cookery.
Take a field trip to a large commercial bakery
to see yeast products made.
pp. 15-21, 22-37.
Quantity Food Pro-
duction, pp. 393-431.
for Culinarians, pp.
Food For Fifty.
A baker's vocabulary has specific definitions
used only in his field of work such as:
1. Bread dough means "lean."
2. Sweet dough means "rich."
3. Slack dough means "thin."
4. Firm dough means "stiff."
5. "Benching" means to let the dough rest 10 to
20 minutes on baker's bench so dough will
relax before shaDinr.
6. "Punch" means folding dough over in bowl
and letting gas expel.
7. "Make-up" means shaping rolls or bread to
proper size for standard product.
8. "Rounding" means shaping bread in round
ball and letting gas escape.
9. "Proofing" means letting breads and rolls
rise under temperature controlled boxes.
!Standard rolls and breads depend on the
accurate proportions of dough and skill in
Points to remember:
1. Standard of products.
2. Selection and storage of ingredients.
3. Holding time for various yeast breads.
4. Preparation of ingredients.
5. Preparation of yeast breads according to
6. Use and care of equipment and supplies.
7. Attractive arrangement of yeast products
using other foods to enhance flavor, etc.
8. Cooperation with other kitchen personnel
in use of space, equipment, etc.
9. Management of time, energy and materials
in making yeast breads.
LEARNING EXPERIENCES RESOURCES 77
Plan a Bake Sale of quality products.
Review and apply rules and procedures of
cleanliness and sanitation for food service
Sub-concept: Dessert Station
To make desserts. Introduction:
Desserts are very popular foods that offer a
final touch of satisfaction to a meal. Sweet-
ness is the most common characteristic of
desserts. The nutritive value of desserts
varies according to the particular ingredients.
However, the chief contribution of desserts to
the diet is calories due to the high sugar
content of most desserts. Desserts are classi-
fied into five types according to the ingre-
dients and method of preparation:
5. Biscuit, cake, and pastry desserts.-
1. Sweet foods served at the end of a lunch
or dinner are called desserts.
2. Among the simplest and easiest desserts
to serve are the fruit desserts.
1. The form in which fruits are purchased
determines the type of storage needed.
2. The food value of fruits varies with the
kind of fruit.
3. Food values and appearance of fruit are
affected by preparation procedures.
Fruit served raw and well chilled is refresh-
ing and appetizing and has a natural sweet
flavor. Examples are oranges, grapefruit,
apples, peaches, pears, grapes, and berries
of all kinds. For variety several different
fruits cut into small pieces may be mixed
together as a fruit cup.
Read reference material on desserts.
Develop a glossary using the following words:
Classify desserts according to ingredients
and methods of preparation.
List on chalkboard four forms in which fruits
Explain the term "processed fruit."
Discuss how nutrients and appearance are
affected by preparation methods.
Demonstrate ways to prevent the darkening of
Compare nutritive values of fresh, canned,
frozen, and dried fruits.
Observe qualities of fresh and cooked fruit.
Develop a score sheet for judging desserts.
Divide class into three groups and prepare
Figure cost of products.
Guide to Modern Meals,
Quantity Food Production,
Mealtime, pp. 483-505.
Food Preparation, p. 133.
The Professional Chef,
Quantity Food Production,
Hows and Whys of Cooking,
Instructor's Guide For
The Teaching of Pro-
fessional Cooking, pp.
Desserts in Color.
Canned and frozen fruits may be served at any
time and are especially handy when fresh
fruits are out of season. Canned fruit are
refreshing if chilled before serving.
Frozen fruits must be defrosted either com-
pletely or with some bits of ice still remain-
Dried Fruit are more concentrated in flavor
than fresh fruit. Several kinds of cooked
dried fruit mixed together and served as a
dessert is known as a "compote."
Desserts containing a high proportion of milk
contribute nutrients to the diet since milk
contains most of the nutrients needed by the
Before retail sale, milk is processed to pro-
duce a variety of milk products in forms
which will 'keep over long periods of time.
The freshness of eggs is affected more by
storage than the age of the egg.
1. Thickening liquids with gelatin results
in a variety of gelatin desserts.
2. Whipping a partially firm plain gelatin
jelly contributes to the fluffiness of the
product and is called a whip.
LERNN EXPERIENCES RESOURCES I
Classify the different kinds of milk desserts
and list the forms in which milk is available.
Discuss nutrients found in milk.
Observe demonstration on milk cookery noting
Collect pictures of custards and puddings for
eye appeal. Divide into groups to prepare
milk desserts with variations. Repeat ex-
perience later if necessary for milk cookery.
Filmstrip: Go, Grow,
Glow with Carnation.
National Dairy Council
Poster, Phamplets, Books,
Give reports on "Why Eggs are Used in Desserts"
and "Ways to Retain the Freshness of Eggs ."
Discuss principle to follow in making gelatin
3. Adding unbeaten egg whites to gelatin mix-
ture followed by rapid heating when par-
tially firm results in a sponge like
quality known as a sponge or snow.
4. Adding gelatin to soft custard results in
a smooth, compact texture dessert.
5. A spongelike, velvety texture dessert re-
sults from adding whipped cream to a cus-
tard-base gelatin dessert.
1. Frozen desserts vary from light to heavy
according to their ingredients and are
made either with or without stirring
during freezing process.
2. Frozen desserts of high quality are firm
but not hard, have a fine smooth texture,
and desirable flavor.
Cookies are sweet and have flavors similar to
the flavors of cakes. Cookie ingredients are
similar to cake ingredients except that there
is little or no liquid called for in cookie
recipes which results in cookie dough being
much thicker than cake batter. Cookies can
be made into an infinite number of shapes and
designs and decorated suitably for all occa-
Information on Cookies:
1. Cookies are classified as drop, rolled,
refrigerator, molded, pressed or bar.
2. The ingredients used in making cookies
are the same as those in making cakes.
3. The mixing of ingredients for cookies is
similar to the method of mixing butter
LEARNING EXPERIENCES RESOURCES
Practice making various gelatin desserts.
Evaluate products and figure cost using cost
sheet. (See Appendix.)
List qualities of a standard frozen dessert,
including (a) the effect of stirring a frozen
dessert during the freezing process and (b)
why some desserts thicken before freezing.
Arrange bulletin board on frozen desserts.
Practice preparing frozen desserts. Evaluate
products. Summarize work on desserts.
Review basic principles of cookie preparation
Look up difinitions:
1. All-purpose flour.
4. Short texture.
Discuss six types of cookies, the method of
preparation, uses and storage. Select and
make standardized quantity of each type of
cookie. List characteristics of a standard
Evaluate for appearance and taste.
Figure the cost. Compile cookie recipes.
Review and apply the rules and procedures
of cleanliness and sanitation for food
The Art of Making
Cookies Plain and Fancy.
Betty Crocker Cookie
Guide to Modern Meals,
Workshop for the Prepara
tion of Home Economics
Teachers to Teach Wage
Earning Programs in Food
Services, pp. 219-233.
I Kinds of Cookies:
How to make them
Bar Bake in shallow pan and
cut into squares.
Drop Drop from spoon onto
Rolled Roll dough thin, cut
into shapes, bake on
Refrig- Roll up dough, chill,
erator cut thin slices, bake on
Filled Place filling between
cut-out circles of cookie
Classification of pastries:
A. One-crust pie
1. Cream or meringue-lemon meringue.
2. Soft pies pumpkin.
B. Two-crust pies.
1. Fruit pies cherry.
Pies are one of America's favorite desserts.
There are many types of pies such as cream,
meringue, soft (custard), chiffon, parfait
and speciality pies. A good pie is only as
good as the pie crust. The pie crust is
usually plain pastry; however, cookie crumbs,
coconut and other ingredients are sometimes
used. Pies are made with either one or two
crusts. Crust is sometimes baked before the
filling is added or is baked with the filling.
The nutritive value of pies varies according
to thetype of filling with the crust contribu-
ting starch and fat giving pies a high calorie
value. Most pies are considered a heavy
dessert and are usually served following a
LEARNING EXPERIENCES RESOURCES
Review kinds of flour and shortenings used
during study of bread making deciding best
to use for pastry making.
Experiment: Use different ingredients in-
cluded in the mixing of pastry such as:
1. Soft fat.
2. Solid fat.
4. Ice and hot water.
Show correct mixing and over-mixing of pastry
Bake correctly and bake to show shrinkage.
Demonstrate ways of designing the top crust
Use correct methods of making, placing and
baking pie meringues.
Practice making fruit pies both freezing
before baking and making, baking, and then
freezing. Evaluate keeping ability, etc.
cooking for Food Man-
agers, pp. 69-71.
Workshop for the Pre-
paration of Wage Earning
Programs in Food Service,
Food Preparation Manual,
Food Preparation, pp.
Guide to Modern Meals,
Foods for Fifty
Quantity Recipes, pp. 304-
Foods for Better Living.
The kind of crust used is related to the type
of pie filling.
Pie crust, plain pastry and pie dough are terms
used to describe the dough commonly used for
the base of pies made of fat, flour, water,
Most fruit and soft pies are poured into an
unbaked pie shell and the dough and filling are
baked at the same time.
For cream and meringue pies the cooked filling
is added to the baked pie shell which is made
of plain pastry, graham cracker crumbs,
cookie crumbs, coconut or cereal crumbs.
The method of mixing the ingredients for plain
pastry is related to the flakiness or mealiness
of the crust.
Rubbing the flour and fat together until they
become pieces of dough the size of marbles
before adding the water and salt results in
Rubbing the flour and fat together in the
mixer until the particles are the size of peas
before adding the water and salt result in
Carefully chosen ingredients contribute to a
good quality pie crust.
Lard and vegetable shortening are the fats
commonly used for pie crust.
Soft wheat or pastry flour requires less fat
to produce a good pie crust.
Salt improves the flavor of pie crust.
Using ice water or other chilled liquid hardens
the shortening resulting in a more flaky crust.
Thorough mixing of ingredients increases ten-
derness but the best amount of mixing is deter-
mined by the choice of ingredients, temperature
and the degree of mealiness or flakiness pre-
Mixing the salt with the water results in a
satisfactory blending of the salt.
Overmixing tends to produce a tough pie crust
which shrinks excessively.
Flakiness is promoted by not mixing too much,
using cold shortening and liquid and by cutting
shortening into small pieces before adding to
Rolling the ball of dough on a floured board
into a think layer flattens the strands of
gluten and tiny pieces of fat and seals the
air in between these layers.
Air and steam from the water used are the
leavening gases in plain pastry.
Chilling pie dough for 10 to 20 minutes con-
tributes to greater ease in rolling.
Rolling pie crust as near as possible to the
size of the pan to be used reduces the amount
of trimmings to a minimum.
Rolling from the center of the flattened ball
of dough to the outside results in a more even
thickness of the dough from center to outside
The thinner the pie crust, the more quickly
browning and burning results.
Use trimmings from one pie crust in the bottom
crust for another pie by rolling into the
center of the dough.
Careful placing of the rolled pie crust into
the pie pan so that it does not stretch aids
in reducing shrinkage of the crust.
The type of crust and filling determines the
baking time and temperature.
Baking fruit pies at moderately high tempera-
tures (400 to 4250F) aids in preventing a
soggy bottom crust.
One-crust pies with a custard filling require
a lower temperature (3500F) for cooking the
Baking pastry dough at a high temperature
(4250F) results in producing steam and expand-
ing air which pushes the layers of gluten and
fat apart quickly before the gluten proteins
become coagulated this making the dough tough.
Cream pie fillings are puddings (see dessert
information sheet) which are cooked and poured
into a pre-baked pie shell.
Whipped cream and meringue are commonly used
toppings for pies.
Well chilled cream, whipped and sweetened with
confectioner's sugar, results in a satisfactory
topping to spoon lightly onto a chilled pie.
Gradually adding sugar while beating egg
whites results in a meringue.
Baking meringue topping on cream pie prevents
weeping, a watery layer that forms between the
meringue and the pie filling when the meringue
Spreading the meringue over the filling to the
edges of the crust aids in preventing shrinkage
of the meringue.