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Title: Plumbing job operation sheets,
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00080787/00001
 Material Information
Title: Plumbing job operation sheets,
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Florida Department of Education
Publisher: Florida Department of Education
Place of Publication: Tallahassee, Fla.
Publication Date: AUgust, 1968
 Notes
General Note: Florida Department of Education bulletin 72F-10
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00080787
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Main
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Back Cover
        Page 22
        Page 23
Full Text










BULLETIN 72F-10


AUGUST, 1968


,ls'~ ~


THE STATE
OF

7-


DEPARTMENT
EDUCATION



tate Superintendent


TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA


PLUMBING

JOB

OPERATION

SHEETS






BULLETIN 72 F 10


AUGUST, 1968


P L U M B I N G
J1O B O P E R A T IO N S H E E T S


DIVISION OF VOCATIONAL,
TECHNICAL, AND ADULT EDUCATION

CARL W. PROEHL, Assistant Superintendent


AGRICULTURAL

EDUCATION SECTION

C. M. Lawrence, Director















PLUMBING


J 0 B 0 PERATI 0 N SHEETS








Prepared by
Carl E. Beeman
Assistant Professor of Agricultural Education
University of Florida




Published b/y*
Agricultural Educatidc Department
Instructional Materials Service
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida




and




Florida State Department of Education
Division of Vocational, Technical, and Adult Education
Agricultural Education Section
Tallahassee, Florida
1968


*Reproduced from materials developed and published
by the Agricultural Education Department
Subject Matter Service, Mississippi State University





JOB OPERATION SHEET PLUMBING


JOB: #5


MATERIALS NEEDED:

TOOLS NEEDED:


Measuring, marking, and cutting pipe (galvanized or black)

Galvanized pipe, cutting oil

Pipe vise, pipe cutter, three-cornered file, try square, ruler or
measuring tape

PROCEDURE ( step by step )


STEP


APPROVED PROCEDURE


1. Measuring pipe







/


2. Marking pipe


3. Preparation for
cutting





4. Making the cut


1. With ruler or tape measure length of pipe desired.
Length of pipe should equal the distance between the
face of the fittings plus the few threads which enter
the fittings.
NOTE: FOR THE PIPE UP TO 1" ALLOW k" TO ENTER EACH FITTING.
FOR PIPE ik" to 3", ALLOW 3/4" FOR EACH FITTING.
CAUTION: IN ANY JOB SOME SPACE IS ALWAYS TAKEN UP BY
FITTINGS. CHECK THE AMOUNT TO BE ALLOWED BY
ACTUAL MEASUREMENT OF FITTINGS OR STANDARD TABLES.

1. When exact length of pipe needed is determined, mark
with edge of three-cornered file.

1. Fasten pipe in hinged pipe vise so mark is approximately
4" from vise.
2. Open pipe cutter and slip over pipe.
3. Tighten pipe cutter by screwing in handle until small
cutting wheels are snug against pipe, on mark.
4. Place a few drops of cutting oil on the mark.

1. Turn pipe cutter around pipe, screwing handle of pipe
cutter k turn each revolution until pipe is cut off.
2. Check for squareness of cut.
_NOTE ALL PIPE SHOULD BE REAMED AFTER IT IS CUT.


Questions:


1. Why shouldn't pencil and chalk marks be used in marking pipe?
2. How many inches should the line to be cut be placed from the jaws of the
vise?

References:

Farm Mechanics Text and Handbook, by Phipps, McColly, Scranton, Cook.
pp. 654-655.
Farm Shop Skills, by Sampson, Mowery, Kugler. pp. 161-162.
How to Install Plumbing, by Sears, Roebuck and Company. p. 18.









Pipe Size


1. HOW TO DETERMINE LENGTH
OF PIPE NEEDED. Courtesy
Sears, Roebuck and Com pany.


Distance Pipe Is Screwed Into Fitting
Standard Fitting Drainage Fitting


/ W
/ 1/2
3/4/ 1/2

hA" %" %"

2" 3/4" /8"
3" /"
4" 1"

EXAMPLE
The face-to-face measurement is 5
feet. If 3/4-inch pipe is being used, the
chart shows that 1/2-inch is needed for
engagement with the fitting at one
end. If both ends are to be engaged
with a fitting then twice this, or 1
inch of extra length is required. Total
length of pipe will be 5 feet 1 inch.

2. ALLOWANCE FOR FITTING.
Courtesy Sears, Roebuc.,k
and Company.


I --< Z- en Af ,- ^ l / Y4rVA. w;:f/, rf/e7


3. MEASURE LENGTH OF PIPE NEEDED.


WHEEL


5. CUTTING PIPE.


LOCKING LEVER


4. SECURING PIPE IN VISE.


Fe Fac-T-F*ace*







JOB OPERATION SHEET PLUMBING WORK


JOB: #6 Threading pipe

MATERIALS NEEDED: Galvanized or black pipe, lard oil


TOOLS NEEDED:


Rachet pipe die, pipe vise, wire brush, hammer, rags


PROCEDURE ( step by step )


STEP


1. Getting ready to
thread pipe


2. Preparing the pipe
for threading





3. Cutting the threads


APPROVED PROCEDURE


1. Assemble all tools and materials convenient to pipe
vise.
2. Select size die for pipe to be threaded.

1. Clean pipe free from dirt, rust, etc.
2. Ream inside of pipe.
3. Remove all burrs and rough edges from end of pipe to
be threaded.
4. Secure pipe in vise leaving about 6 inches on end to
be threaded.

1. Assemble stock and die set.
2. Apply lard oil or thread cutting oil to die and
insert guide over end of pipe.
3. Turn stock to right applying pressure inward.
NOTE: WHEN DIE BECOMES ENGAGED ON PIPE, INWARD PRESSURE
CAN BE DISCONTINUED.
4. Oil pipe frequently just ahead of die with lard oil.
NOTE: SOME DIES HAVE HANDLE WITH OIL RESERVIOR. THE OIL
IS RELEASED BY PRESSING A RELEASE VALVE.
5. Continue threading until one thread shows outside of
die, for pipe not over 1 inch in diameter.
NOTE: FOR LARGER PIPE, THE NUMBER OF THREADS SHOULD BE
INCREASED.
NOTE: NEVER TURN DIE BACK AND FORTH WHILE CUTTING THREADS.
THIS WILL RUIN THE THREADS.
6. Back die off carefully by turning to left.
NOTE: IF DIE CATCHES, TURN FORWARD AGAIN TO DISLODGE
METAL CHIPS.
7. Remove pipe from vise, tap with hammer to remove
loose particles.
8. Wipe off excess oil with rag.
9. Smooth end of pipe with file, if necessary.
10. Clean and store dies.


CAUTION: POOR THREADS MAY BE CAUSED BY POOR DIES, NOT ENOUGH OIL, OR UNEVEN
PRESSURE ON HANDLES OF DIE STOCK.

Questions:
1. What may cause poor threads?
2. What kind of oil should be used when threading pipe? Why?
3. What direction is the rachet die turned when threading a pipe?
4. How far should-the pipe be threaded?

References:
Farm Mechanics Text and Handbook, by Phipps, McColly, Scranton, and Cook. p. 656
How to Install Plumbing, by Sears, Roebuck and Company. p. 20.





























0


1. USING RATCHET-TYFE DIESTOCK.


2. USING RIGID-TYPE Di;, OCK.
Courtesy Sears, Rce .ck and Company.






JOB OPERATION SHEET PLUMBING


Reaming Pipe


MATERIALS NEEDED: Galvanized pipe


TOOLS NEEDED:


Pipe reamer, pipe vise, file


PROCEDURE ( step-by-step )


STEP


APPROVED PROCEDURE


1. Preparing pipe
for reaming







2. Reaming the
pipe


1. Cut piece of pipe to be reamed.
NOTE: WHEN PIPE IS CUT, THE CUT END WILL BE CRIMPED OR
ROUGH ON INSIDE OF PIPE.
2. Insert pipe in pipe vise, with cut end protruding about
4" from vise jaws.
NOTE: THERE ARE TWO TYPES OF REAMERS: ONE THAT FITS INTO
A BRACE RATCHET, ONE THAT IS MADE IN ONE PIECE, EQUIP-
PED WITH A RATCHET HANDLE.

1. Using either type reamer, insert reamer into end of pipe.
2. Hold reamer in straight line with pipe.
3. Apply pressure on reamer and turn clockwise until inside
burrs are cut off.
NOTE: DO NOT CUT MORE THAN IS NECESSARY SINCE THIS WILL
WEAKEN THE FIRST THREADS ON THE PIPE.
4. Smooth end of pipe with file.


CAUTION: THE FLOW OF WATER IN PIPE THAT IS NOT REAMED WILL BE GREATLY REDUCED.


Questions:


In which direction does the reamer turn?
Why should caution be taken in not over reaming the pipe?
Why will unreamed pipe reduce the flow of water?


References:

Farm Mechanics Text and Handbook, by Phipps, McColly, Scranton, Cook. pp. 655-
656.
Farm Shop Skills, by Sampson, Mowery, Kugler. pp. 159-160.
How to Install Plumbing, by Sears, Roebuck and Company. p. 20.


JOB: #7










0


T-HANDLE, SPIRAL FLUTE


TAPERED. SQUARE SHANK,
STRAIGHT FLUTE


' TAPERED, T-HANDLE SHANK,
STRAIGHT FLUTE


TAPERED, ROUND SHANK,
STRAIGHT FLUTE


1. TYPES OF PIPE REAMERS.


3. USING REAMER WITH BRACE
RATCHET. Courtesy Sears,
Roebuck and Co0s any.


2. USING T-HANDLE SPIRAL
FLUTE REAMER.


Er






JOB OPERATION SHEET PLUMBING


JOB: 8B

MATERIALS NEEDED:

TOOLS NEEDED:


STEP


Assembling Copper Tubing and Copper Fitting (Flared)

Copper tubing and fittings

Flaring tool, vise, hammer, oil, reamer, file

PROCEDURE (step-by-step)


APPROVED PROCEDURE


1. Preparing
tubing for
flaring


2. Flaring
tubing








3. Connecting


1. Slip a sleeve nut onto section of copper tubing.
NOTE: SIZE OF NUT CORRESPONDS TO SIZE OF TUBING.
2. With a reamer, remove burrs from tubing.
3. If necessary after removing burr, file tubing slightly.

1. Place tubing in vise, preferably one with friction clamps.
NOTE: WRAP TUBING WITH HEAVY CLOTH OR LEATHER TO KEEP FROM
MARRING TUBING.
2. Apply a few drops of oil to flaring tool.
3. Insert flaring tool into end of tube and center carefully.
4. Strike flaring tool with hammer until end of tubing is
flared to outside diameter of flaring tool.
NOTE: SOME FLARING TOOLS COME WITH TUBING HOLDER. THIS ELIMI]
THE USE OF A VISE.


NATES


Place flared end of the tube over fitting.
Run sleeve nut up into position and tighten with proper type
wrench.


CAUTION: BURRS MUST BE EXTRACTED, OTHERWISE FLOW OF WATER WILL BE RESTRICTED.

Questions:


Why should
Why should
What means


tubing be filed, if needed, after burrs have been removed?
oil be applied to flaring tool?
can be observed to tell when tube has been flared correctly?


References:

The Wise Handbook of Home Plumbing, by Ralph J. Wolf, p. 35.
How to Install Plumbing, by Sears, Roebuck and Company, pp. 21-22.














TYPICAL FLARE-TYPE FITTINGS



FLARING ADAPTERS UNION 90
TOOL 900
ADAPTING Ts ADAPTING I.



900 L

1. FLARE-TYPE FITTINGS.

Courtesy Sears, Roebuck
and Company.


TUBE CUTTER 1 8 IN.
TO 1 IN. CAPACITY


2. FLEXIBLE COPPER TUBING.

Courtesy Sears, Roebuck
a.nd Co ~pany.


3. TUBE CUTTER.


4. FLARING TOOL.


5. ASSEMBLING FITTING ON TUBING. Courtesy Sears, Roebuck and Cospany.


0





JOB OPERATION SHEET PLUMBING


JOB: 8-C


Assembling Copper Tubing and Copper Fitting (Soldered)


MATERIALS NEEDED: Copper tubing and fitting, rosin core solder


TOOLS NEEDED:


Tubing cutter, steel wool or emery cloth, blow torch, or propane
torch, rags, reamer


PROCEDURE (step-by-step)


STEP


APPROVED PROCEDURE


1. Preparing
materials
for solder-
ing

2. Applying
flux



3. Assembling
fitting and
tubing

4. Heating
tubing




5. Soldering











6. Soldering
second
connection

CAUTIONS:
1. WHEN WORKING


1. Remove burrs from tubing; clean tubing and fitting (both
inside and outside) using steel wool or emery cloth until
shiny.


1. Apply non-corrosive flux to both tubing and fitting.
NOTE: FLUX FREES SURFACE OF OXIDES AND PROMOTES THEIR UNION.
CAUTION: DO NOT USE ACID CORE SOLDER, OR ACID FLUX ON COPPER
TUBING.

1. Slip fitting onto tubing, giving it a few turns to distribute
the flux evenly over all portions of the metal to be soldered.


1. Apply blow torch or propane torch flame to fitting until
flux begins to boil from edge of fitting.
2. Test for sufficient heat by dropping a bit of solder on
fitting.
NOTE: SOLDER WILL MELT INSTANTLY IF SURFACE IS HOT ENOUGH.

1. Remove flame and place solder on edge of fitting at points
of contact with tubing. Use enough solder to make a strong
seal.
NOTE: THE AMOUNT OF SOLDER SHOULD BUILD UP EQUAL TO SIZE OF TUBE.
2. Feed melting solder onto the fitting until no more is drawn
into seam.
NOTE: WHEN SEAL IS COMPLETE, A RING OF SOLDER WILL APPEAR AROUND
THE FITTING.
3. Wipe excess solder off with rag or stiff brush, while still hot.
4. After solder has cooled, remove discoloration on fitting or
tubing, using steel wool for abrasive.

1. Wrap wet rag around joint already soldered.
NOTE: WET RAG WILL KEEP THE FINISHED JOINT FROM MELTING WHEN THE
PIPE IS HEATED IN PREPARATION FOR NEW JOINT.


WITH BLOW TORCH, SHIELD NEARBY FLAMMABLE MATERIALS WITH ASBESTOS BOARD.


2. BE CAREFUL NOT TO MOVE THE CONNECTION WHILE IT IS STILL HOT. THIS MIGHT CRACK JOINT.

Questions:
1. Why should tubing be polished with steel wool or emery cloth?
2. What kind of flux is applied to tubing and fitting? Why can't we use acid flux?
3. How can you test for sufficient heat?
4. Why shouldn't connections be moved while still hot?
References:
The Wise Handbook of Home Plumbing, by Ralph J. Wolf, p. 35.
How to Install Plumbing, by Sears, Roebuck and Company, pp. 21-22.









TYPICAL SOLDER-TYPE FITTINGS




UNION T
go* L
90 9om f(AdaNng)

SDUCING
P A dating) ADAPTER L Coupling
DROP-EAR g0 L

ADAPTER



FLUSH END 45 L
DROP-EAR BUSHING CAP REDUCING T
L

1. SOLDER-TYPE FITTINGS. Courtesy
Sears, Roebuck and Company.


V-CUT IN WOOD BLOCK
SLOTFOR SAW


3. USING HACKSAW TO CUT
TUBING. Courtesy Sears,
Roebuck and Company.


RIGID COPPER
TUBING


FLEXIBLE COPPER
TUBING






2. RIGID AND FLEXIBLE COPPER
TUBING CAN BE SOLDERED.
Courtesy Sears, Roebuck
and Company.


4. APPLYING FLUX AND FITTING
CONNECTION. Courtesy Sears,
Roebuck and Cospa.ny.


5. SOLDERING TUBING IN HORI-
ZONTAL POSITION. Courtesy
Sears, Roebuck and Company.


6. SOLDERING TUBING IN VER-
TICAL POSITION. Courtesy
Sears, Roebuck and Company.








JOB: 9-A

MATERIALS NEEDED:

TOOLS NEEDED:


STEP


JOB OPERATION SHEET PLUMBING

Installing a Sink Trap (Half-S Trap)


Half-S trap (complete)

Hack saw, 12" to 14" adjustable wrench, slip and lock-nut wrench,
measuring tape or ruler

PROCEDURE (step-by-step)


APPROVED PROCEDURE


1. Preparing
trap for
installation

2. Installation
of half-S
trap















3. Connecting
house and
sewer side
of trap







Questions:


1. Disassemble trap by hand, laying each piece in order of assembly.



1. Working first with outlet side of trap, place loose-head
coupling over tail piece of sink.
2. Place metal friction washer and rubber washer over tail piece
and slide house side of trap over tail piece.
3. Screw loose-head coupling to the top part of trap and tighten
by hand.
4. Screw nipple onto sanitary T in wall. Nipple should project
at least k" through wall. Slide wall flange over sewer side
of trap.
5. Place loose-nead coupling, metal friction washer, and rubber
washer over sewer side of trap.
6. Insert upper part of trap into nipple.
NOTE: WHEN UPPER PART OF TRAP HAS BEEN PUSHED IN FOR ABOUT 3/4"
to 1", THE UNION NUT ON SEWER SIDE OF TRAP SHOULD BE
DIRECTLY OVER END OF HOUSE SIDE OF TRAP.
7. If projection of trap into nipple is more than 1 inch, saw
off some of end, using hack saw.

1. Place rubber washer in seat prepared for it in collar of trap.
2. Slip union coupling over collar and rubber washer, and screw,
hand-tight to bottom part of trap.
3. Inspect job; if all connections appear to be in line, and
if there is no strain or bent tubing in any place, tighten up
all couplings.

NOTE: USE A 12" TO 14" ADJUSTABLE WRENCH.
4. Test trap by running water into it.
5. Slip wall flange into place so that it fits against wall.


1. What is the first step in preparing to install half-S trap?
2. How many inches should nipple, which has been screwed into sanitary T, project
through wall?
3. What should be done if the projection of the trap into the nipple is more than
1 inch?

References:

The Wise Handbook of Home Plumbing, by Ralph J. Wolf. pp. 177-178.
How to Install Plumbing, by Sears, Roebuck and Company. p. 43.










METAL RUBBER


Hi0IWALL
FLANGE
TRAP




1. HALF-S-TRAP TO WALL DRAIN LINE.
Courtesy Sears, Roebuck and Company.


S ON LAVATORY


~ mnu


2. S-TRAP TO FLOOR DRAIN LINE..
Courtesy Sears, Roebuck and Company.






JOB OPERATION SHEET PLUMBING

Marking and Cutting Cast Iron Pipe


MATERIALS NEEDED: 1 length of cast iron pipe


TOOLS NEEDED:


Ruler or measuring tape, hammer, cold chisel, chalk, sheet of
typing paper or paper towel, 2" X 4" board, hack saw, three-
cornered file


PROCEDURE ( step-by-step )


STEP


1. Measuring pipe





2. Marking around
the pipe













3. Preparation
for cut

4. Making the
cut







5. Check pipe
for cracks


APPROVED PROCEDURE


1. Measure length of pipe needed with ruler or measuring tape.
2. Allow additional length for hub.
NOTE: HUB ALLOWANCES ARE AS FOLLOWS: 2" PIPE 2k", 3" PIPE 2-3/4",
4" PIPE 3".
3. Mark exact length of pipe needed with file.

1. Wrap sheet of paper or paper towel around pipe with edge of
paper parallel to mark.
NOTE: MAKE SURE THE EDGE OF PAPER IS PARALLEL UNTIL IT GOES A-
ROUND PIPE AT LEAST ONCE.
2. Line edges of the paper around pipe and tighten.
NOTE: HOLD PAPER AROUND PIPE WITH ONE HAND AND MARK WITH THE
OTHER.
3. Take chalk and hold sideways (flat) between fingers.
4. Use zig-zag, back and forth motion, over edge of paper and
point to be cut on pipe.
NOTE: LET CHALK MARK EXTEND AT LEAST 1 INCH ON PIPE.
5. Proceed marking all around the pipe pressing rather firm
on the chalk.
6. Remove paper.

1. Lay a piece of 2" X 4" flat on floor and place pipe across it.
2. Adjust pipe so mark on pipe appears at the edge of 2" X 4".

1. (a) To cut service-weight pipe, use a hack saw and make
1/16" cut all around pipe.
(b) To cut extra-heavy pipe, file around the pipe on the
mark to scratch surface and provide a guide line.
2. With hammer and cold chisel, using your knee to turn pipe,
make a light cut all around pipe.
3. Continue cutting around pipe, striking chisel harder each
time you go around until pipe breaks off.

1. Tap pipe with hammer at each end. If you get a clear ring,
pipe is sound. If not, pipe is cracked, and not worth using.


NOTE: WHEN PIECES OF PIPE UNDER 5 FEET ARE NEEDED, USE DOUBLE-HUB PIPE. WHEN PIPE
IS CUT, EACH END WILL HAVE A HUB.

Questions:
1. What are the additional lengths in hub allowances for 2", 3" or 4" pipe?
2. Why should chisel be tapped lightly in making first cut?
3. After cutting, how can pipe soundness be determined?

References:
The Wise Handbook of Home Plumbing, by Ralph J. Wolf
How to Install Plumbing, by Sears Roebuck & Company, p. 18


JOB: #10












I_ I Z '. I.e .rn /rk


1. MEASURING AND MARKING CAST-
IRON PIPE.


2. USING PAPER TO GET STRAIGHT
LINE AROUND PIPE.


-rou\\ pipe


4. PAPER WRAPPED AROUND PIPE.


3. FOLDING EDGES OF PAPER
AROUND PIPE.


.C h k
nI4v# als
*^-.'': 5l :*:.'


5. MARKING PIPE WITH CHALK.


6. CUTTING WITH COLD CHISEL.
Courtesy Sears, Roebuck
and Comp any.


7. CUTTING SERVICE WEIGHT
PIPE WITH HACKSAW.
Courtesy Sears, Roebuck
and Company.


8. USING HAMMER TO BREAK SERVICE
I;EIGHT PIPE AFTER SCORING
WITH HACKSAW.
Courtesy Sears, Roebuck
and Company.


.& length


Waassa=


0


0


ope

fl ..............


S A/'e werk
Shere


Ell" -Z.








JOB OPERATION SHEER PLUMBING


Caulking joints


MATERIALS NEEDED: 2 cast iron pipes (one spigot end, one hub end), oakum


TOOLS NEEDED:


Yarning iron, hammer


PROCEDURE ( step by step )


STEP


1. Preparing joints
for caulking









2. Caulking the
joints


APPROVED PROCEDURE


1. Clean hub and spigot end of joints to be caulked.
2. Place pipe in proper position.
NOTE: NOT MORE THAN k" FALL PER FT. OF PIPE SHOULD BE
GIVEN. (TOO MUCH FALL IN A SEWER LINE WILL CAUSE
THE LIQUIDS TO DRAIN TOO FAST AND LEAVE SOME OF
THE SOLIDS.)
3. Insert spigot end of one pipe all the way into hub end
of other pipe.
4. Center the spigot end of the pipe in the hub.
5. Secure the pipes with straps or braces.

1. With oakum in one hand and yarning iron in the other
hand, place oakum around spigot and into hub opening
of joint.
2. Using yarning iron, pack the oakum firmly into joint
as it is placed around the joint.
3. Using a hammer and yarning iron, pack the oakum until
it is tight and uniform completely around the joint.
NOTE: FILL JOINT WITHIN 1" OF TOP OF HUB. (1 OZ. OF OAKUM
PER INCH DIAMETER OF PIPE IS REQUIRED.)
4. Check to see that oakum is tight and uniform before
leading.


CAUTION: MAKE SURE OAKUM IS PACKED TIGHTLY AND EVENLY, AS THIS MAKES THE WATER-
TIGHT SEAL.

Questions:

1. Why should the spigot end of the top piece of pipe and the hub end of the
bottom pipe be clean and completely dry?
2. Why should metal strips be attached around the pipe to the framework?
3. How far from the rim of the hub should the oakum come?
4. How many ounces of oakum are needed for each 1 inch diameter of pipe?

References:

The Wise Handbook of Home Plumbing, by Ralph J. Wolf. pp. 42-43.
How to Install Plumbing, Sears Roebuck & Company. p. 18.


JOB: #11A






















1. PROPER FALL FOR CAST IRON PIPE 1 INCH TO 5 FEET.
(NOTE: POSITION PIPE BEFORE CAULKING)
Courtesy Sea.rs, Roebuck and Company.




N-.s Hub-
n i ~ ~-1,


I-S-Foot Laying Length---r


2. PARTS OF SINGLE HUB CAST-
IRON PIPE. Courtesy Sears,
Roebuck and Company.


3. CAULKING VERTICAL JOINT WITH
OAKUM. (NOTE HOW YARNING IRON
IS BEING USED.)Courtesy Sears,
Roebuck and Company.


4. CAULKING HORIZONTAL JOINT
WITH 9AKUM.Courtesy Sears,
Roebuck and Company.


5. METHOD OF ASSEMBLING FITTINGS.
Courtesy Sears, Roebuck and
Company.


0







JOB OPERATION SHEET PLUMBING WORK


JOB: 11-B

MATERIALS NEEDED:

TOOLS NEEDED:


Leading Cast Iron Joints

Lead, 2 cast iron pipes (one spigot end, one bell end)

Gasoline fired furnacemelting pot, ladle, joint-runner, in-
concave caulking iron, out-concave caulking iron, offset iron,
hammer

PROCEDURE (step-by-step)


STEP


APPROVED PROCEDURE


1. Preparing
horizontal
joints


2. Preparing
the lead


3. Pouring the
lead in joint







4. Removing
joint-runner

5. Packing lead
in joint


1. Attach a joint-runner around the inner pipe at the open end
of the joint to close all but a small hole leading into the
joint.
NOTE: VERTICAL JOINTS DO NOT REQUIRE A JOINT RUNNER.


1. Melt enough lead at one time to lead several joints.
pound of lead per inch diameter of pipe is needed.
2. Place lead in melting pot and proceed to melt.


One


1. When the lead is molten, heat the ladle in melted lead so
that it will not be cold and thus cause the lead to solidify.
2. Dip the ladle into the melting pot and scoop up a ladle full
of lead.
3. Pour lead quickly into the joint.
4. Fill the joint completely until a bead forms above the spigot.
NOTE: THE BEAD SHOULD PROTRUDE ABOUT 1/8" to 1/4" ABOVE THE RIM
OF THE BELL.

1. Remove the joint-runner from around the horizontal joint as
soon as lead is cool.

1. Place the end of an in-concave caulking iron on the lead and
tap It gently with a hammer.
2. Place the end of an out-concave caulking iron on the lead
and tap it gently with a hammer.
3. Tap the caulking iron lightly around the joints several times,
then proceed to tap hard. Continue tapping until you are
sure the lead has been forced in all around the joint,


CAUTION: EACH JOINT MUST BE FILLED WITH MOLTED LEAD AT A SINGLE POURING.

Questions:
1. Why should the ladle be heated? How?
2. Why must each joint be filled with molted lead in a single pouring?
3. Why shouldn't the caulking iron be struck too hard at the beginning?
4. Why should the ladle be moved around joint when pouring?

References:

The Wise Handbook of Home Plumbing, by Ralph J. Wolf, pp. 42, 42, 44.
How to Install Plumbing, by Sears, Roebuck and Company, pp. 18-19.





Date Due


i A.


Returned


1. TOOLS USED FOR LEADING JOINTS.
13. PLUMBER'S GASOLINE FURNACE.
14. CAST-IRON MELTING POT.
15. POURING LADLE. 16. ASBES-
TOS JOINT RUNNER. 17. YARN-
ING IRON. 18. RIGHT AND LEFT
HAND CAULKING IRON. 19.STRAIGHT
CAULKING IRON.


3. PACKING LEAD WITH CAULKING
IRON.


5. METHOD OF HOLDING FITTING
IN POSITION FOR LEADING
JOINTS.


Du-


p


2. POURING HOT LEAD IN VERTICAL
JOINT.


4. POURING HOT LEAD IN
HORIZONTAL JOINT.


6. METHOD OF HOLDING SEVERAL
FITTINGS IN POSITION FOR
LEADING JOINTS.


O eS) efrS, Ro buck nd Comsony.


0


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