• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Foreword
 Table of Contents
 List of Figures
 Present status of technical education...
 Plan of the survey
 The employing units
 Employment of and potential demand...
 The in-service training progra...
 Addendum
 Appendix A: Original survey form...
 Appendix B: Covering letter of...
 Appendix C: Employer form for evaluating...
 Appendix D: Revised survey...
 Appendix E: Instruction sheet accompanying...
 Appendix F: Number of technicians...






Group Title: Technical education;
Title: Technical education : technicians for Florida industries
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00080785/00001
 Material Information
Title: Technical education : technicians for Florida industries
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Florida Department of Education
Publisher: Florida Department of Education
Place of Publication: Tallahassee, Fla.
Publication Date: November, 1959
 Notes
General Note: Florida Department of Education bulletin 79D-1
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00080785
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
    Foreword
        Page i
    Table of Contents
        Page ii
        Page iii
    List of Figures
        Page iv
    Present status of technical education in Florida and recommendations for its extension and improvement
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Plan of the survey
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    The employing units
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
    Employment of and potential demand for technicians
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
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        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
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        Page 60
        Page 61
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        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
    The in-service training program
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
    Addendum
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
    Appendix A: Original survey form - technical survey form
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
    Appendix B: Covering letter of the state superintendent of public institution
        Page 94
    Appendix C: Employer form for evaluating survey instrument
        Page 95
    Appendix D: Revised survey instrument
        Page 96
    Appendix E: Instruction sheet accompanying revised survey instrument
        Page 97
        Page 98
    Appendix F: Number of technicians by specialized categories employed by the respective industrial classifications in participating counties
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
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Full Text

November, 1959


Tedmieat


TECHNICIANS FOR FLORIDA INDUSTRIES


9 ion of Vocational and Adult Education
TE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
r mas D. Bailey, Superintendent
Tallahas see, Florida


T75.009759

O. 79l -1
FCo

Bulletin 79D-1

















UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA
LIBRARIES










TECHNICAL EDUCATION


Bulletin 79D- 1


November, 1959


TECHNICIANS FOR FLORIDA INDUSTRIES


G. W. Neubauer, PhD.
Research and Survey Specialist















Division of Vocational and Adult Education
Walter R. Williams, Jr., Director

Industrial Education Section
ThurmainJ. Bailey, Supervisor

Technical Education
Fred R. Thornton, Consultant

Educational Materials Laboratory
Thomas W. Strickland, Specialist









3'-7S.0075










FOREWORD


Florida literally stands on the threshold of the space age. The con-
quest of interstellar distance is no longer a figment of the fiction
writer's imagination, but a calculated matter of time and development.
Key figures in this innovation are the technicians who assist in plan-
ning and constructing the vehicles which will conquer the sweep and
expanse of the universe.

But technicians also contribute to the everyday life of our people by
improving the quality and variety of the products and services upon
which our evolving level of living depends. Hence, it is mandatory
that we have information concerningthe present supply of technicians
and the immediate and potential demand for their services. The study
reveals a current shortage of these specialists and indicates that the
situationwill become increasingly serious unless the schools assume
a vital role in overcoming the deficiency. With adequate facilities,
this function can be performed effectively within the present educa-
tional structure.

I should like to express my appreciation to the individuals and organi-
zations providing the information upon which this summary is based,
to cooperating state agencies, to local school administrators, and to
all others who participated inthe administration of the survey and in
the preparation of this report. As a result of such cooperative en-
deavor, the schools of Florida have been able to improve the quali-
ty of their services and to meetthe challenges by whichthey are con-
stantly confronted.


of Public Instruction









TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter Page

Foreword....................... .... ................********* i

Table of Contents................................ ......... ii

List of Figures....................... ........... .......... iv


'Present Status of Technical Education in Florida and
Recommendations for Its Extension and Improvement........... 1

The Present Program..................................... 1
Conclusions and Recommendations.......................... 3

I Plan of the Survey........ .................................. 7

Purpose of the Study..................................... 8
Planning the Survey...................................... 9
Plan of the Report....................................... 13

II The Employing Units......................................... 15

Industrial Classifications Employed...................... 15
Definitions of Industrial Classifications................ 16
Classifications of Respondents........................... 18
Classifications of Respondents by Counties............... 20

III Employment of and Potential Demand for Technicians.......... 35

Employment of and Need for Technicians by
Primary Categories..................................... 36
Employment of and Demand for Technicians
by Counties........................................... 42
Employment of and Need for Technicians by
Industrial Classification.............................. 59
Employment of and Demand for Technicians by Occupational
Classification in Participating Counties............... 65

IV The In-Service Training Program............................. 72

Provision for In-Service Training of Technicians......... 72
Desire for Extension Training of Technicians............. 78


Addendum................... ....................... ........ .... 84

Appendix A Original Survey Form............................... 89








Chapter

Appendix B


Appendix C

Appendix D

Appendix E


Appendix F


Page


Covering Letter of the State Superintendent of
Public Instruction................................

Employer Form for Evaluating Survey Instrument.....

Revised Survey Instrument.........................

Instruction Sheet Accompanying Revised Survey
Instrument...... ........... ..........................

Number of Technicians by Specialized Categories
Employed by the Respective Industrial Classifications
in Participating Counties..........................


iii








LIST OF FIGURES


Figure Page

1. Participating Counties and Number of Employing Units
Responding from Each County.................................. 12

2. Percentage Distribution of Employing Units by Industrial
Classification............................................... 21

3. Analysis of Respondents by County and by Industrial
Classification............................................... 23

4. The Number of Technicians Presently Employed and Currently
Needed and Potential Demand in One and Three Years by
Specialized Employment Categories............................ 37

5. Percent of Technicians Presently Employed and Needed and
Potential Demand by Specialized Categories................... 38

6. Number of Technicians Presently Employed and Needed and
Potential Demand by Specialized Employment Categories and
Individual Counties.......................................... 43

7. Percent of Technicians Presently Employed and Needed and
Potential Demand by Industrial Classification................ 57

8. Technician Classifications Reflecting an Immediate and One
Year Composite Need for More than Thirty Persons by
Individual Counties.......................................... 66

9. Percent of Employing Units Providing In-Service Training for
Technicians, Not Providing Such Training, and Not Providing
Information, by Employment Categories........................ 73

10. Percent of Employing Units Favoring In-Service Training for
Technicians, Not Favoring Such Training, and Not Providing
Information, by Employment Categories........................ 79












PRESENT STATUS OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION IN FLORIDA
AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR ITS EXTENSION AND IMPROVEMENT



Before examining recommendations for the extension and improvement of tech-
nical education in Florida which appear logically to evolve from the data,
it may be well to describe briefly the present status of the program in
the state together with potential developments which have been projected.


The Present Program


Post-High School Training


At the present time, most post-high school technical education of a two-
year preparatory type is being provided by the following community
junior colleges which are currently conducting the courses listed below
or which have made plans for initiating indicated offerings:


Central Florida Junior College
Ocala, Florida

Palm Beach Junior College
Lake Worth, Florida


Pensacola Junior College
Pensacola, Florida







St. Petersburg Junior College
St. Petersburg, Florida


Civil Technology


Electrical
Electronic
Registered


Technology
Technology
Nursing


Chemical Technology
Drafting Technology
Electronic Technology
Industrial Technology
Instrument Technology
Mechanical Technology
Medical Technology
Registered Nursing

Electrical Technology
Engineering Aide (Options:
Mechanical and Electrical)
Registered Nursing


The junior colleges award an Associate Degree to those students who success-
fully complete the prescribed two-year technical curriculum.

Two areas not served by junior colleges have made provision for the pre-
paratory training of technicians. These, together with the programs offered,
include:
1 -








Brevard County Center
Cocoa, Florida


Lindsey Hopkins Education Center
Miami, Florida


Electronics Technology
Drafting, Designing, and
Illustrating

Electronic Technology


In each of the above, essential technical related courses are included
in the curriculum with specialized technical laboratory offerings.

Extension training or short courses are organized in areas where employees,
primarily technicians, express a need for instruction to improve their job
performance or to keep abreast of new developments. Most extension classes
have been concentrated in the field of electronics. Typical subject titles
include the following:


Advanced Electronic Circuits
Advanced Technical Mathematics
Advanced Telephone Electronics
Analytic Geometry and Calculus
Applied Astronomy
Basic Electrical Theory
Basic Technical Mathematics
Basic Transistor Theory
D.C. and A.C. Theory
Electronic Circuits
Electronic Circuits and Concepts
Electronic Shop


Electronic Drafting
Industrial Electronics
Photography Theory
Pulse (Radar) Circuits
Servo-Mechanism Theory
Technical English
Transistor Analog and Digital
Applications
Transmission Lines, Antennas, and
Propagation Theory
Vacuum Tube Applications


Technical evening classes may be organized on a semester basis at the
junior college level if the demand is sufficiently great, while short
courses may be scheduled to meet specific group needs.


High School Training

Three secondary school centers provide two-year technical courses in their
curricula for high school youth. These centers, together with the courses
offered at each, include:


Dixie Hollins High School
St. Petersburg, Florida

Miami Central High School
Miami, Florida


Electronics Technology


Advertising Arts and Design
Architecture
Electronic Technology
Machine Technology






Pensacola Technical High School Chemical Technology
Pensacola, Florida Drafting Technology
Electronic Technology


Applied science and mathematics are important sequences in the technical
curricula which also include typical general education offerings required
for a high school diploma. Secondary students majoring in a technical
area receive a type of instruction which prepares them for entry into
technical occupations or for additional specialized training in a junior
college, a technical institute, or an engineering school.


Conclusions and Recommendations


The following conclusions and recommendations summarize significant trends
in technician employment and in the immediate and potential demand for the
services of these specialists by counties as synthesized from the data.
Numbers included in parentheses accompanying each summation refer to those
pages in the report which contain a more detailed elaboration of pertinent
data.

1. Training programs should be provided and existing programs continued
in the areas of electronics, drafting, mechanics, electricity, construction,
aeronautics, civil technology, and instrumentation.

In the areas of electronics, drafting, mechanics, construction, aero-
nautics, and civil technology, for example, over 7700 technicians are
required immediately or will be needed in one year by firms in the seven-
teen counties (p. 42 ff.).

2. Demands in specialized areas such as electronics and drafting are
sufficiently pressing and extensive for nearly all community junior
colleges to participate in the training of necessary personnel.

It appears that high school and post-high school emphasis upon the train-
ing of electronic technicians has not been misplaced, for they represent
over one-third of the total number of employed specialists reported and
nearly one-third of the immediate and potential demand.

Brevard, Dade, Okaloosa, Orange, Palm Beach and Pinellas counties accounted
for nearly ninety-one per cent of the employed electronics technicians
reported, and each of the above six counties indicated a composite
immediate and one-year demand for over 150 additional specialists in this
area. Firms in Sarasota County also identified a need for over 150
individuals who had been trained in electronics, while Alachua County
employers estimated they would require between 101 and 150 during the
same period (pp. 36, 54, 55).


- 3 -







The second largest category in terms of employment and demand was that of
drafting technicians. Three counties Dade, Hillsborough,and Pinellas -
accounted for nearly sixty per cent of those employed, but demand was
more widespread.

Dade and Pinellas counties each indicated a composite need immediately
and in one year for over 150 drafting specialists, while Alachua, Escambia,
Hillsborough, Leon, and Orange counties estimated demands ranging between
sixty-one and one hundred for the same period, and Brevard, Broward,
Okaloosa, and Sarasota counties projected individual needs for between
thirty-one and sixty persons trained as- drafting technicians (pp. 36, 53).

3. Other demands such as those for construction, aeronautical, civil,
and instrument technicians appear to be confined to certain geographical
areas of the state.

Dade and Hillsborough counties reported nearly seventy-five per cent of
all construction technicians employed and they also accounted for a con-
siderable proportion of immediate and potential demand.

The former indicated needs requiring over 150 individuals while the
latter's assessment ranged between sixty-one and one hundred. Broward
and Escambia counties each identified demands requiring the services of
thirty-one to sixty specialists in this area (pp. 36, 39, 52). Most of
the employment of aeronautical technicians was concentrated in Dade
County as was also the greatest immediate and potential demand, a com-
posite projection exceeding 150 individuals. However, firms in Okaloosa
County also indicated modest requirements embracing from thirty-one to
sixty specialized personnel (pp. 39, 42, 51).

Leon County, because of the state agencies located in Tallahassee,
expressed a need immediately and in one year for well over 150 civil
engineering aides (p. 69), and Pinellas County firms projected a
requirement for sixty-one to one hundred instrument technicians during
the same period (p. 137).

4. It is imperative that a balanced state-wide program of technician
training be established and maintained and that instruction not be
limited to technical occupations in industries engaged solely in defense
work.

In spite of the pressing demand for electronic technicians, it should
not be assumed that all essential technician training need s are being
satisfied by the provision of an instructional program for these special-
ists.

In addition to the needs elaborated above, there is an extensive demand
for mechanical and electrical technicians and a more limited requirement
for chemical and metallurgical specialists.


- 4 -







Mechanical technicians constituted the third largest group in terms of
employment, Brevard, Dade, Okaloosa, Orange, and Pinellas counties
accounting for eighty per cent of the total. Brevard and Dade counties
each registered an immediate and one-year demand for over 150 individuals,
while the requirements of firms in Pinellas County for the same period
were estimated at between 101 and 150. Alachua County projected needs
involving sixty-one to one hundred mechanical technicians, and Okaloosa
and Orange counties each anticipated requiring from thirty-one to sixty
such specialists (pp. 36, 55, 56).

Brevard, Broward, Dade, Orange, and Palm Beach counties employed over
ninety-eight per cent of the electrical technicians reported, with over
fifty per cent of the total being found in Brevard and Orange.

Dade County indicated a composite need immediately and in one year for
101 to 150 such personnel, while Alachua, Broward, Okaloosa, Orange and
Palm Beach counties each projected demands involving thirty-one to sixty
individuals (pp. 36, 53, 54).

Although limited demands for chemical and metallurgical technicians were
evident, these have not been summarized for inclusion. Detailed analyses
of the need for chemical specialists may be found on pages 39, 51 and 52
of this report and for metallurgical technicians on pages 39, 56 and 59.

5. Local surveys of a more intensive character should be conducted in
participating counties as well as in those not involved in the study to
identify further technical occupational areas in which training is
needed and desired.

It should be emphasized that the present survey has concentrated only
upon seventeen selected counties of the state and was of limited extent
in a number of these, namely, Alachua, Duval, Leon, and Orange.

6. A need exists for studies to determine the types of preparation
which the various kinds of technicians should possess and the areas of
instructional concentration which should be emphasized in establishing
and revising technical curricula.

This study has been concerned exclusively with the employment of tech-
nicians, the present and potential demand for their services, the in-
service training provided and the extent of employer interest in
additional in-service preparation and upgrading through the public
schools. A need is evident for additional information concerning tech-
nical job descriptions, job responsibilities, and industrial education
requirements.

7. Technical extension offerings or short courses should be made avail-
able for employed specialists in those areas and industries recognizing
the need for such preparation.

It is evident that establishments employing over ten technicians are


- 5 -








vitally interested in the provision of in-service training for their
technical personnel (p. 78). However, this appraisal should not be con-
strued as precluding the provision of appropriate training for employees
of smaller enterprises desiring and having need for such instructional
programs.

8. Further studies should be conducted for purposes of identifying more
accurately the needs of technicians employed in medical and dental
occupations.

The present survey has been concerned only incidentally with employees in
these occupational categories.

9. Provision should be made for technical training in secondary schools,
community junior colleges, and in ungraded programs.

In addition to some in-plant training,preparatory technical instruction
at present is offered or will soon be provided in a number of community
junior colleges, in several high schools, and in two ungraded technical
centers. Because of the number of technicians required and the range of
responsibilities represented, these sectors of the educational structure
may make significant contributions to the preparation of such personnel.




Ensuing chapters of the study include a more extensive analysis of data
upon which the conclusions and recommendations outlined above are premised.

w


- 6 -








What, then, is a technician that so much concern should be expressed over
his lack and so much time, money, and attention should be directed to his
preparation? The question is an easy and a logical one to propound, but
answering it is a different matter. It was found early in the study
that people used the term"technician" as if it possessed a common
connotation. However, it was soon learned that a "technician" is many
things to many people; that the word is freely bandied about in dis-
cussion, but that common agreement concerning its meaning is difficult to
obtain.

For purposes of this study, and after extended discussion and analysis,
a technician was defined as an individual who performs a job of a sub-
professional character requiring a mathematical or semi-engineering
background, and who usually does work involving more theory and technical
knowledge than manipulative skill. Most individuals immediately con-
cerned with the study accepted this definition, but agreement regarding
its adequacy was by no means unanimous. However, experience indicated
that it served quite satisfactorily as a conceptual constant in designing
and conducting the survey.


Purpose of the Study

The study was intended to serve several purposes, all of them quantitative
in character. Before embarking upon a program of technician training, it
was felt that a wealth of essential information was needed. How many
technicians, for example, were employed in particular industries in
selected counties of Florida? Was this number adequate or were additional
technical personnel required? As accurately .as these needs could be
projected, how extensive was the future demand for technicians? In what
areas, if any, did needs appear to be concentrated? Did a demand for
further training exist or were technical employees adequately prepared?
In the event there was evidence of a need for training, was it being met
by employers or did industry desire that additional training programs
be provided?

These were some of the questions which this study was designed to answer.
The purposes of the investigation, therefore, may be stated as follows:

1. To determine the number of technicians employed by
particular industries in selected counties of the state

2. To delineate the occupational areas in which these
technicians are employed

3. To ascertain if the supply of technicians is presently
adequate

4. To explore the potential demand for technicians in one
year and in three years


-8-







5. To discover the extent to which technicians are being trained or
upgraded by the firms in which they are employed

6. To determine if additional training programs are needed or desired
by industry.

It was hoped the study would indicate if additional technician training was
necessary or desirable and, in the event a need was disclosed, the occu-
pational areas and the geographic regions in which it should most logically
be provided with the aid of Title VIII funds.


Planning the Survey

The study was sponsored jointly by the Vocational Division of the State
Department of Education, the Florida Employment Service, and the Florida
Development Commission. During its initial stages, a series of meetings
with representatives of the various services concerned was held in which
purposes were clarified, difficulties were anticipated, procedures were
assessed, and a tentative survey instrument was developed.

It was felt at this time that the study should be concerned not only with
the numbers of technicians employed, but also with their duties and respon-
sibilities as outlined by their employers. In addition, the initial in-
strument included a variety of instructional areas such as algebra,
trigonometry, chemistry, and drafting from among which employers were
requested to select those believed to be prerequisite to employee pro-
ficiency. Further items included a request for information concerning
the highest training level completed by employed technicians, the general
types of responsibilities in which they were utilized, and the states
from which they came. An example of the original survey form is included
in Appendix A.

After the instrument was completed, a representative county was selected
in which to conduct a pilot study. The county was chosen because it
represented a diversification of industry, some of which was closely
associated with the defense effort while the relationship of another
segment was more remote. In addition, it included a military installation,
the civilian technicians of which were to be included in the survey.

The local director of vocational and adult education was requested to
select a random sample of industries and to conduct the survey by means
of a series of personal interviews. Accompanying each survey form was a
covering letter signed by the State Superintendent of Public Instruction
explaining the purpose and the importance of the study and enlisting the
aid of each employer contacted (Appendix B). A comment sheet for employers
was also included (Appendix C). It contained a number of questions pertinent
to the survey instrument and requested criticisms and suggestions which
might be incorporated in improving it.


- 9 -







Upon the conclusion of the pilot study, a meeting of the Survey Advisory
Committee was held in Tallahassee. This committee consisted of repre-
sentatives of the three services involved in the study, selected local
directors, and additional interested school personnel. The purpose of
the meeting was to analyze the results of the pilot study, to re-evaluate
the survey instrument, and to assist in revising it in light of the
criticisms encountered.

The report of the local director conducting the trial survey and informa-
tion included on the criticisnr sheets suggested that a simplification of
the instrument was necessary if any measure of response from industry was
to be forthcoming. Essentially, too much time was required to secure the
data desired.

The consensus of the committee was that the initial study should be
concerned with quantitative aspects of the situation, and that the
collection of qualitative data (e .g., job duties and responsibilities,
kinds of training required, and comparable types of information) be
reserved for later investigations of particular industries.

Consequently, the survey form was completely revised and, in the process,
considerably shortened, assuming the form illustrated in Appendix D. It
was also suggested that the various questions be arranged on an IBM card
to facilitate filing and correlation of data, a view in which the
committee concurred.

In revising the instrument, it seemed that the greater number of tech-
nicians could be subsumed under nine principal occupational categories,
namely, aeronautics, agriculture, chemistry, construction, drafting,
electricity, electronics, mechanics, and metallurgy. For those who
could not be so categorized, two additional spaces were provided on the
form in which employers were asked to identify the remainder. A variety
of additional technicians was thus included whose titles are summarized
in the section of this report concerned with the employment of tech-
nicians and in Appendix F.

Employers were asked to enumerate the number of technicians who are
presently employed in each category and to indicate further personnel
who could be employed if these were available. In addition, they were
asked to project their needs, as nearly as these could be anticipated,
for one year and for three years. Admittedly, a three-year projection
is a hazardous undertaking. Many unforeseen and uncontrolled factors may
combine to negate anticipated demand, as numerous employers pointed out.
However, it was felt that, though conjectural, such projections would
have value in suggesting trends in long-term training needs, and most
employers responded by hazarding tentative requirements.


- 10 -







In no instances were employing units asked to identify themselves although
they were requested to indicate the principal products, services, or
activities which they manufactured, maintained, or in which they were
engaged.

Two additional questions were included on the survey form. Employers were
asked if they sponsored an in-service training program for employed tech-
nicians and if they favored extension training for their technical employees
during the non-working hours of these individuals.

After the revision had been completed, it was submitted to the State
Technical Education Advisory Committee for further reaction. All committee
members are industrial representatives and it was felt that they would be
in a peculiarly appropriate position for subjecting the instrument to a
final critical scrutiny. Except for minor modifications in the definition
of the term "technician", they approved the revised version.

It was felt, however, that because of the extent of change involved,
another pilot study should be conducted and the field experiences of the
interviewers analyzed. A second county was selected, and the local
director conducted a series of interviews, utilizing the revised instru-
ment. A minimum of ambiguity was reported, but a number of minor changes
in phraseology resulting in additional clarification were incorporated.

In selecting the counties for participation in the study, attention was
directed to the types of industries represented, to the degree of industrial
diversification obtaining, and to the presence of military installations.
Title VIII funds, it will be recalled, are intended primarily for the
training of technicians for defense industries, so particular attention
was directed to counties in which such establishments were located.
However, related industries were not ignored, and provision was also made
for aspects of agriculture believed to involve technicians. In this
manner a total of seventeen counties, or just over one-fourth the state
total, were identified. Participating counties are shown on the accompany-
ing map (Fig. 1) together with the number of employing units responding
from each county.

The aid of the local directors or their representatives was enlisted in
establishing the specific employing units in each county to be contacted.
The local directors were informed of the technician categories which had
been established and of the types of industries (e.g., electrical, elec-
tronics, utilities, communications, construction, manufacturing, etc.)
with which the study was concerned. They were requested to utilize what-
ever local resources were available (e.g., telephone directories, chambers
of commerce, service organizations, trade associations, tax assessment
rolls) in determining the industries in their respective counties which
should be represented. They were also encouraged to include any other
employing units which they believed should be incorporated because of the


- 11 -
























CODoL COUNTY \Il
A LSCAMBIA
S OKALOOSA
C BAY
D L.ON I-
f DUVAL.
ALACHUA O
6 VOLUSIA
H ORANer. L
J BRLVAR1-
K POLK /
L 4tLLSBOROUGHM
M PIN4LLLAS
N SARASOTA
0 PALM BLACH Z
P ISBRWARD
k, DADE.
R MONROL-
p 6E


FIGURE 1: PARTICIPATING COUNTIES "
AND NUMBER OF EMPLOYING UNITS S
RESPONDING FROM EACH COUNTY


- 12 -







type of product or activity involved or the service maintained. In this
manner a mailing list of the principal industries and of the military
installations in the various participating counties was developed. In
addition, a member of the Technical Education Advisory Committee provided
the director of the study with the names and addresses of many of the
principal engineering and architectural firms and consultants in the
respective counties, making possible numerous further contacts in this area.

A number of local directors expressed a desire to conduct personal inter-
views in some of the industrial establishments in their counties as a
means of familiarizing themselves more thoroughly with activities which
were in progress. In such instances, they were encouraged to collect the
necessary information by means of personal visitations, using the survey
instrument as a guide. The remaining firms were contacted by mail with
the local director serving as a liaison person in his county in the event
that questions of interpretation arose.

It was recognized that comparable information was being obtained by means
of two dissimilar devices. However, it was felt that the benefits to be
derived from personal visitations by interested individuals more than
offset any procedural variation involved in the collection of data in
those instances (8% of the total) in which personal interviews were
involved.

Further assistance and publicity were provided by representatives of the
Florida Employment Service and the Development Commission through news-
paper releases and through contacts with individual employers and with
employers' associations in the counties concerned. In a number of
instances, employment service personnel and area supervisors of Industrial
Education were of invaluable assistance in securing pertinent information
concerning the employment of technicians in a particular community. There-
fore, the study may be regarded as a cooperative enterprise involving three
state services and certain of their local representatives.

In conducting the survey, one follow-up contact by mail was made of the
respective establishments which had not responded to the initial request
for information. As a result, numerous additional responses were received.
These have not been treated separately in the presentation and analysis
of the data.


Plan of the Report

Chapter I has described the purposes and organization of the study.
Chapter II is concerned with an analysis of respondents by the products
manufactured or the activities in which they were engaged. Chapter III
deals with the present employment of technicians and current demands for
their services. In addition, anticipated requirements in one year and


- 13 -








three years are discussed in terms of the categories which have been
identified. In Chapter IV the current status of technician in-service
training programs is examined and the demand for extension training is
explored. Preceding Chapter I is a summary of the existing program
of technical education together with tentative recommendations for its
extension and improvement which evolve from the data.













*3













S*


- 14 -











CHAPTER II


THE EMPLOYING UNITS


Employing units were classified into categories on the basis of the prin-
cipal products manufactured, the primary services maintained, or the
chief activities in which the establishments were engaged. Classifi-
cations employed in categorization were modifications of those contained
in the Standard Industrial Classification Manual, a 1957 publication
prepared by the Technical Committee on Industrial Classification of the
Office of Statistical Standards, Bureau of the Budget.


Industrial Classifications Employed

The principal divisions utilized were Mining; Contract Construction;
Manufacturing; Transportation, Communication, Electric, Gas, and Sani-
tary Services; Government; and Services. After the initial classifi-
cation, the categories were modified somewhat because of the number of
industrial establishments engaged in particular types of activities
receiving emphasis in the study.

Both non.electrical and electrical machinery manufacture, for example,
are included in the Manufacturing Division of the Manual, but they have
been combined into a single category and separately identified for in-
dividual treatment in this study. The same procedure has been followed
in the case of primary metal industries and those engaged in the fabri-
cation of metal products. These have been joined into a single category
arbitrarily labeled Metal Fabrication and Processing. Because of the
-number of engineering and architectural firms and consulting services
responding, these, too, have been separately classified although they
are normally included in the-Services category.
j
The number of firms engaged in research and experimentation in the areas
of electronics, nucleonics, and astronautics suggested an individual
classification labeled Engineering and Research, and military reser-
vations* also received a classification separate from the civil respon-
sibilities included in the GovernmentD division.





*In the treatment of military installations, this study is concerned
only with the employment of civilian technicians and not with military
personnel.


- 15 -








Hence, the fourteen categories employed in the survey are as follows:
(1) Architectural and Engineering Services; (2) Communication,
Transportation, and Public Utilities; (3) Contract Construction;
(4) Engineering and Research; (5) General Manufacturing; (6)
Government; (7) Machinery Manufacturing; (8) Metal Processing and
Fabrication; (9) Military Installations; (10) Mining; (11) Sales
and Distribution; (12) Services; (13) Miscellaneous and Undetermined
Establishments, and (14) Other Enterprises.

Also of invaluable assistance in classifying employing units was the
Directory of Florida Industries, produced by the Florida State Chamber
of Commerce, and the 195b supplement to that Directory. The industrial
classification system utilized in both publications is similar to that
employed in the Industrial Classification Manual, simplifying the process
of assigning particular establishments to their appropriate categories.

In a number of instances it was found that a particular company might be
classified in any of several categories. For example, in the case of
firms engaged in the mining of phosphate and the production of chemicals,
a company may be classified under Mining or the manufacture of Chemicals
and Allied Products. In such instances, classifications were made in
terms of the employer's statement concerning the principal activity in
which the firm was engaged. In no case, however, was an employing unit
entered in more than one category.

During the course of the survey, a total of 1016 employing units were con-
tacted by mail or personal interview. Responses were received from 585
for a return rate of 57.6%, a figure representing slightly under three
of five firms contacted. Of the total response, forty-seven replies, or
slightly over eight per cent, were the result of personal interviews.


Definitions of Industrial Classifications

Before discussing the categories into which the respective employing units
were classified, it may be well briefly to explain the diversity of activi-
ties included in each category. The descriptions which follow are adapted
from the Standard Industrial Classification Manual.

Architectural and Engineering Services Establishments primarily concerned
with the performance of professional services in the areas of architecture
and engineering, exclusive of those engaged in research and experimentation
in electronics, nucleonics, and astronautics, are included in this category
which is ordinarily a part of the Services Division.

Communication, Transportation, and Public Utilities This category in-
corporates enterprises concerned with the provision of communication
services;'the transportation of freight and passengers; the distribution
of electricity, water, steam, and gas; and with services related to these
activities.


- 16 -









Contract Construction Included in this division are establishments pri-
marily engaged in the construction of buildings, highways, dams, bridges,
air fields or comparable types of enterprises, and those concerned with
specialized types of construction such as carpentry, plumbing, painting,
and electrical work.

Engineering and Research Enterprises included in this category conduct
research and experimentation in electronics, nucleonics, and astronautics
as, for example, in the area of missilery, and they are concerned with the
analysis and application of data derived from such experimentation.

General Manufacturing This division includes firms engaged in the mechan-
ical or chemical transformation of organic or inorganic materials into new
products, or which are concerned with the assembly of components so long
as the product is not a structure or fixed improvement. Such plants
usually employ power-driven machinery and materials-handling equipment.
Activities which are normally considered a part of the Manufacturing
Division but which have been identified for separate treatment in the
present study are indicated above.

Government This division incorporates most federal, state, and local
governmental functions of a legislative, executive, or judicial nature.
For purposes of this study, however, military installations have been
classified separately as indicated above.

Machinery Manufacturing For purposes of this study, machinery manufacture
includes enterprises engaged in the production of machinery and equipment
of a mechanical nature as well as those producing machinery, apparatus, and
supplies for the generation, storage, transmission, transformation, and
utilization of electrical energy.

Metal Processing and Fabrication As indicated above, both of these areas
are normally included in the Manufacturing Division. In this study, how-
ever, they have been combined into a single category for individual treat-
ment. Included in this classification are establishments engaged in the
refining and initial processing of ferrous and non-ferrous metals and those
manufacturing basic products such as castings, forgings, and wire from such
metals. Also included are firms which fabricate these metals into various
products such as tinware, hardware, fabricated structural products, stamp-
ings, and a vareity of other metal manufactures not elsewhere classified.

Military Installations This category includes Army, Navy, and Air Force
installations utilizing the services of civilian technical personnel.

Mining Incorporated in this division are establishments primarily engaged
in the extraction of minerals occurring in a natural state. Also included
are supplementary operations such as quarrying and milling which are often
required to prepare the material for marketing.


- 17 -








Sales and Distribution Enterprises involved in this category are con-
cerned7-wth selling merchandise to retailers, to additional users, or to
other wholesalers. Also included are retail establishments selling mer-
chandise for personal, household, or farm consumption and rendering services
incidental to the sale of such products.

Services This division includes enterprises engaged in rendering a wide
variety of services to individuals and business establishments.

Miscellaneous and Undetermined Establishments Miscellaneous establish-
ments include those not readily categorized in other divisions, while
Undetermined enterprises are those which could not be readily classified from
statements regarding their principal products or activities.

Other Enterprises* For purposes of this study, establishments included
in this category are those which provided no information, which indicated
the questions were not applicable to the types of activities in which they
were engaged, or which were no longer in business.


Classifications of Respondents

Following is a list of the employing units responding. They are classi-
fied in terms of the products which they manufactured, the principal
services rendered, or the primary activities in which they were engaged.
The number in parentheses at the left of each categorical designation
represents the sum total of firms or installations included in that cate-
gory, while the number in parentheses at the left of each subdivision
within a category indicates the number of establishments included in that
subdivision.

The percentage at the right of each categorical identification indicates
the proportion of total respondents included in that classification. The
percentages at the right of the subdivisions within a category indicate
the proportion represented by each subdivision of the total number of firms
or installations within the particular category in which that subdivision
is included.

(204) Architectural and Engineering Services (34.9%)

(25) Communication, Transportation, and Public Utilities (4.3%)

(1) Railroad (4%)
(81 Air (32%)
(8 Communication Services (32%)
(8) Utilities (32%)



*The latter category, it should be noted, is not included in The Standard
Industrial Classification Manual or the Directory of Florida Industries.


- 18 -





(78) Contract Construction


(46) Building Construction (58.9%)
(11) Construction other than Building
Construction (14.2%)
(21) Special Trade Contractors (26.9%)
(25) Engineering and Research (4.3%)
(97) General Manufacturing (16.6%)
2) Ordnance and Accessories (2.1%)
15) Food and Kindred Products (15. %)
(1) Textile Mill Products (1%)
(2-) Apparel (2.1%)
(3 Lumber and Wood Products (3.1%)
(3 Furniture and Fixtures (3.1%
(4 Paper and Allied Products (4.1%)
(2) Printing, Publishing, and Allied
Industries (2.1%)
(31) Chemicals and Allied Products (32%)
(2) Leather and Leather Products (2. 1%)
(8) Stone, Clay, and Glass Products (8.2%)
(19) Transportation Equipment (19.5%)
(5) Professional, Scientific, and
Controlling Instruments (5.2%)
(12) Government (2.1%)
(4) Federal Government (33.3%)
(3) State Government (25%)
(5) Local Government (41.7%)
(65) Machinery Manufacturing (11.1%)
(26) Machinery, except Electrical (40%)
(39) Electrical Machinery, Equipment,
and Supplies (60%)
(21) Metal Processing and Fabrication (3.6%)
(3) Primary Metal Industries (14.3%)
(18) Fabricated Metal Products (85.7%)
(11) Military Installations (1.9%)
(1) Mining (.1%)
(14) Sales and Distribution (2.4%)


- 19 -


(13.3%)







(10) Services (1.7%)

(2) Electrical Maintenance and Repair (20%)
(7) Medical Services (70%)
(1) Educational Services (10%)

(9) Miscellaneous and Undetermined Establishments (1.5%)

(3) Miscellaneous (33.3%)
(6) Undetermined (66.7%)

(13) Other Enterprises (2.2%)

It should be noted that by far the greatest proportion of responses over
one-third of the total were received from architectural and engineering
firms and consulting services. The next largest group (16.6%) were classi-
fied in the area of General Manufacturing. When the firms engaged in
Machine Manufacturing (11.1%) and Metal Processing and Fabrication (3.6%)
are added to the Manufacturing total, the composite accounts for almost
another one-third (31.3%) of the respondents. In effect, therefore,
Engineering and Architectural Services and the Manufacturing Division in-
clude two-thirds (66.2%) of all respondents participating in the study.

Contract Construction (13.3%); Communication, Transportation, and Public
Utilities (4.3%); and Engineering and Research (4.3%) accounted for well
over half of the remainder. The other categories absorbed the employing
units approximately twelve per cent of the total not included in the
above analysis. It is interesting to note that slightly over three per
cent (3.2%) of all responses were included in the categories labeled
Miscellaneous and Undetermined Establishments and Other Enterprises. Fig.
2 indicates graphically the percentage analysis of respondents by categories
into which they have been classified.


Classifications of Respondents by Counties
Following is an analysis of the composition of respondents in all parti-
cipating counties. Classifications are listed in the same sequence as
above with the number of firms and the proportion of the total responding
from each county which these represent indicated in parentheses at the left
and right respectively of the division headings. It will be noted that all
divisions are not represented in each county. No effort has been made to
determine the proportional part of the divisional total which each sub-
head represents. However, the number of firms in each subhead has been
indicated in parentheses. The figure at the right of the county name is
the total number of responses received from that county. A graphic
analysis of respondents from each participating county by the divisions
into which they have been classified is provided in Fig. 3.


- 20 -




P F. R C
N l. o Is 0


K- W, T
s o30 35 4,
I I a


AR C HITECTURLE
E.NGINE.E.RING


GL6 E. RA L.
MANUFACTURING


CONTRACT
COMWTRUCTION


MACHINE.
MANUFACTURE-


E. NG IN E. R I N 4
RE.5 ELARCH


COMMUNICATE ION
TRAM5POkRTATION
PUBLIC UTILITIES

METAL PROCESSING
* FABRICATION



SALF-S DISTRIBUTION


OT R
E.NTE.R PRI 3E.5



GO V E.RNMF-NT


MILITARY
IN.5TALLATION5


5 L R VIC E-.. 5


MI SCL. LLAN E.OUS
UNDE.TERM INE.O
L.STABLIa N W. NT S


MINING


FIGURE. Z: PERCENTAGE. DISTRIBUTION OF
EMPLOYING UNIT 5Y INDUSTRIAL CLASSIFICATION


- 21 -







AIACHUA COUNTY (2)
(1) Architectural and Engineering Services (50%)
(1) Machinery Manufacturing (50%)
(1) Electrical Machinery, Equipment, and Supplies

BAY COUNTY (5)
(1) Communication, Transportation, and Public Utilities (20%)
(1) Utilities
(2) General Manufacturing (40%)
(1) Paper and Allied Products
(1) Chemicals and Allied Products
(2) Military Installations (40%)

BREVARD COUNTY (30)
(2) Communication, Transportation, and Public Utilities (6.7%)
(1) Communication Services
(1) Public Utilities
(1) Contract Construction (3.3%)
(1) Construction other than Building Construction
(16) Engineering and Research (53.3%)
(2) General Manufacturing (6.7%)
(1) Ordnance and Accessories
(1) Transportation Equipment
(2) Government (6.7%)
(2) Federal Government

(5) Machinery Manufacturing (16.7%)
(1) Machinery, except Electrical
(4) Electrical Machinery, Equipment, and Supplies


- 22 -




FIGURE. 5: ANALYSIS OF RE5PONDENT5 BY COUNTY
AND BY INDUSTRIAL CLASSIFICATION
5 CA LA CO U A W, 0 SAY COUNTY
O^BCOUNTY 02 AYCUT


zL o m l
ARCM. 4 MACM
E.NG*R. MFG.
3LRVICLS
I W 0 V SX T RI A L.


on W VA PA
GL-NL. MIL. COMM. TRANSP.
MFP. INSmy. ( PUB. UTIL.
C LA 5 S IPICAT I O M S


BRE.VARD


COUNTY


..M.' ,. MAC. COMM. si..I'L SoWV. CONT. MiL. oTHER
SR'SCM. M .TRAMS. MPG. CONST. INST.
I PUB. UtTIL.
INDUSTRIAL. C LAS SIFICATION S


B R 0 WA R O


COUNTY


110


100


90

It
180



L 70


I60
0

50



I





zo


10


D A D E.


COUNTY


- 23 -


150
120o


ARC4H. EM'R. MACH. GKML. COMM. TR. GOV'I. MU TAL ROC.
SLtV. M PG. MPG. PUS. UTSL. 4 P-AB.
INDUSTRIAL CLASSIFI CATIONS


A. ARCH. 4 ENG'R. SERVICES
B. CONTRACT CONSTRUCTION
C. GENERAL MANUFACTURING
D. MACHINE MANUFACTURING.
E. SALES + DISTRIBUTION
F. METAL PROCESS. 4 FABRICATION
6. COMM. TRANSPORTATION I PUB. UTIL.
H. MILITARY INSTALLATIONS
J. 5E. RVIC LS
K. MISCELLANY .OUS
L. OTHE.LR


A B C. D E. F G H J K L





F I GURE.


35: CONTINUED


q DUVAL
SC 0 U NTY


egI


ARCH.
EMGR. 3ERV.
I N


MILIT. OTH..R
INST.
D U 5 T R I A L.


V)



0
-5

.70


LE-ON COUNTY


ARCH4 CONT. GOV'T.
ENG'R.SERV. COST.
C L A S IPICATIONS


E5 CAMBIA


COUNTY


G-ltJ'L. ARCH4
MFG. ENG'R
SERVE.


ARCH 4 CO
.lNG R. CO
SE.RV.


10 MONRO
COUNT

5

al
IN ST.
IN


COMM. SERV. CONI
TRANSR CONS
SPUB.
UTIL.
N DU TRIAL


. MAC 14
T. MFG


4 Pus. UTtL.
INDUSTRIAL L.


I OKALOOA
COUNTY


---H. PA Wa


MACH.
MPG.
A L


METAL
PROC
0 FAB.


IIIL.. SALES
INST. 4 015T.


MISC. OTHERS


C LAs SIFICAT IONS


MILL 5 BOROUGH


COUNTY


VA I m r a In m


NT.


E.
Y


10
IL

0
d0
20o


DU


ENG'R.
SRES.
TRI


PALM


. MACH. METAL,
MPS. PROC. 4
FAIS.
C LA S 5 IFI


COMT. GOV'T. OTNR
CONST.
C LA SS


MIL. 5AL.&S
INST q DIST.

CATION s


MISC.


-" ORANGE-
LE COUNTY


ARa. GUB 1L MA. oruz


ARc-M.4 GWN'L MACH. OTHER
-NGR SKRV. MFG. MFWG.
SF I C AT I0 N S


COUNTY


GEN'L. COMM GOV'T. M
MFG. TRAN3R M
P PUB UTIL.
INDUSTRIAL
24 -


ACH.
FG.


l 1_ .. A ig 0 M I


S ERV.,


COUNT. ENG'R MISC. OTNER
CONST. R'SC14


CLA 3SIFICATION


GEM'L. COMM GOV'T
MFGn TR AlP


SE-AC H


ARCH 4
E-NG'R
SE-RV.


0 m H H H N PI 0 m m m





FIGURE.


3:


CONTINUED


11.hh .4. .1


e m
O -






20.O


PIN ELLA3


GEN'L. MACH. METAL ARCH N
MFG. MFG. PROC4 FAB. E. G'R.
5 IRV.
INDUSTRIAL CLA


POLK


GEN'L. MACH.
MFG. MFG.


METAL ARCH
PROC. FAB. ENG'R.
SERV.


COU N'TY


COMM. ENG'R.
TRAN5., R'SCL.
PUB.UTILC.


5SIF ICAT I ON S


COUNTY


CONT. MINING 5ALE-5
CONST. 4 DIST.


MISC.


INDUSTRIAL L






SARAS OTA
C 0 U NTY


V)
ft


C LAS 5 IF IC NATIONS






VOLU 5 IA
COUNTY


O ARCH
z2 NG'R. SERV.
CLASStIFICA-TIONS5


- 25 -


Misc. OTHER


5V

01


MACH. ARCH. ~


MACH. ARCH.
M FG. -.NGR SERV.
INDUSTRIAL


M U m w m. ._-m m in.








(1) Military Installation (3.3%)
(1) Other Enterprises (3.3%)

BROWARD COUNTY (36)
(14) Architectural and Engineering Services (38.9%)

(3) Communication, Transportation, and Public Utilities (8.3%)
(1) Air Transportation
(1) Comiunication Services
(1) Public Utilities
(-4) General Manufacturing (11.1%)
(1 Chemicals and Allied Products
(1) Transportation Equipment
(2) Professional, Scientific, and Controlling
Instruments

(3) Government (8.3%)
(3) Local Government
(11) Machinery Manufacturing (30.6%)
(4) Machines, except Electrical
(7) Electrical Machinery, Equipment, and Supplies
(1) Metal Processing and Fabrication (2.8%)
(1) Metal Fabrication

DADE COUNTY (241)
(128) Architectural and Engineering Services (53.2%)
(6) Communication, Transportation, and Public Utilities (2.4%)
(6) Air Transportation

(53) Contract Construction (21.9%)


- 26 -







(33) Building Construction
(4) Construction other than Building Construction
(16) Special Trade Contractors

(17) General Manufacturing (7.2%)
(7) Chemicals and Allied Products
(10) Transportation Equipment
(12) Machinery Manufacturing (4.9%)
(1) Machinery, except Electrical
(11) Electrical Machinery, Equipment, and Supplies

(7) Metal Processing and Fabrication (2.9%)
(7) Metal Fabrication
(2) Military Installations (.8%)
(11) Sales and Distribution (4.6%)
(1) Services (.4%)
(1) Electrical Maintenance and Repair
(1) Miscellaneous and Undetermined Establishments (.4%)

(3) Other Enterprises (1.3%)

DUVAL COUNTY (15)
(13) Architectural and Engineering Services (86.7%)
(1) Military Installation (6.7%)
(1) Other Enterprises (6.7%)

ESCAMBIA COUNTY (53)
(12) Architectural and Engineering Services (22.6%)
(6) Communication, Transportation, and Public Utilities (11.3%)
(1 Railroad Transportation
(3 Communication Services
(2 Public Utilities


- 27 -







(5) Contract Construction (9.4%)
(4) Building Construction
(1) Construction other than Building Construction
(15) General Manufacturing (28.3%)
(2) Food and Kindred Products
(2) Lumber and Wood Products
(2) Paper and Allied Products
(1) Printing, Publishing, and Allied Industries
(5) Chemicals and Allied Products
(2) Stone, Clay, and Glass Products
(1) Transportation Equipment
(2) Machinery Manufacturing (3.8%)
(2) Machinery, except Electrical
(2) Metal Processing and Fabrication (3.8%)
(1) Primary Metal Industries
(1) Fabricated Metal Products
(1) Military Installation (1.9%)
(1) Sales and Distribution (1.9%)
(6) Services (11.3%)
(1) Electrical Maintenance and Repair
(4) Medical Services
(1) Educational Services
(1) Miscellaneous and Undetermined Establishments (1.9%)
(2) Other Enterprises (3.8%)

HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY (54)
(17) Architectural and Engineering Services (31.5%)
(2) Communication, Transportation, and Public Utilities (3.7%)
(1) Communication Services
(1)-" Public- Utilities


- 28 -






(14-) Contract Construction (25.9%)
(8) Building Construction
(3) Construction other than Building Construction
(3) Special Trade Contractors
(12) General Manufacturing (22.1%)
(4) Food and Kindred Products
(1) Paper and Allied Products
(3) Chemicals and Allied Products
(4) Transportation Equipment
(2) Government (3.7%)
(1) Federal Government
(1) State Government
(2) Machinery Manufacturing (3.7%)
(1) Machinery, except Electrical
(1) Electrical Machinery, Equipment, and Supplies
(2) Metal Processing and Fabrication (3.7%)
(2) Metal Fabrication
(1) Military Installation (1.9%)
(1) Sales and Distribution (1.9%)
(1) Miscellaneous and Undetermined Establishments (1.9%)

LEON COUNTY (5)
(3) Architectural and Engineering Services (60%)
(1) Contract Construction (20%)
(1) Building Construction
(1) Government (20%)
(1) State Government


- 29 -






MONROE COUNTY (3)

(3) Military Installations (100%)

OKALOOSA COUNTY (11)
(1) Contract Construction (9.1%)
(1) Construction other than Building Construction
(6) Engineering and Research (54.5%)
(1) Government (9.1%)
(1) Federal Government
(2) Machinery Manufacturing (18.2%)
(2) Electrical Machinery, Equipment, and Supplies
(1) Other Enterprises (9.1%)

ORANGE COUNTY (10)

(3) Architectural and Engineering Services (30%)
(3) General Manufacturing (30%)
(1) Ordnance and Accessories
(1) Food and Kindred Products
(1) Stone, Clay, and Glass Products

(3) Machinery Manufacturing (30%)
(3) Electrical Machinery, Equipment, and Supplies
(1) Other Enterprises (10%)

PALM BEACH COUNTY (29)

(5) Architectural and Engineering Services (17.3%)
(3) Communication, Transportation, and Public Utilities (10.3%)
(2) Communication Services
(1) Public Utilities


- 30 -







(2) Contract Construction (6.9%)
(2) Special Trade Contractors
(1) Engineering and Research (3.4%)

(5) General Manufacturing (17.3%)
(l) Chemicals and Allied Products
(4) Stone, Clay, and Glass Products
(3) Government (10.3%)
(1) State Government
(2) Local Government
(3) Machinery Manufacturing (10.3%)
(2) Machinery, except Electrical
1) Electrical Machinery, Equipment, and Supplies

(3) Services (10.3%)
(3) Medical Services
(1) Miscellaneous and Undetermined Establishments (3.4%)

(3) Other Enterprises (10.3%)

PINELIAS COUNTY (59)
(4) Architectural and Engineering Services (6.8%)
(2) Communication, Transportation, and Public Utilities (3.4%)
l) Air Transportation
1) Public Utilities
(2) Engineering and Research (3.4%)
(21) General Manufacturing (35.6%)
(2) Food and Kindred Products
(1) Textile Mill Products
(2) Apparel
(1l Lumber and Wood Products
(3) Furniture and Fixtures


- 31 -






(1) Printing, Publishing, and Allied Industries
(3) Chemicals and Allied Products
(2) Leather and Leather Products
(1) Stone, Clay, and Glass Products
(2 Transportation Equipment
(3) Professional, Scientific, and Controlling Instruments
(19) Machinery Manufacturing (32.2%)
(12) Machinery, except Electrical
(7) Electrical Machinery, Equipment, and Supplies
(7) Metal Processing and Fabrication (11.8%)
(2) Primary Metal Industries
(5) Fabricated Metal Products
(4) Miscellaneous and Undetermined Establishments (6.8%)
(2) Miscellaneous
(2) Undetermined

POLK COUNTY (26)
(1) Architectural and Engineering Services (3.8%)
(1) Contract Construction (3.8%)
(1) Construction other than Building Construction
(16) General Manufacturing (61.6%)
(6) Food and Kindred Products
(10) Chemicals and Allied Products
(2) Machinery Manufacturing (7.8%)
(2) Machinery, except Electrical
(2) Metal Processing and Fabrication (7.8%)

(2) Fabricated Metal Products

(1) Mining (3.8%)

(1) Sales and Distribution (3.8%)
(1) Miscellaneous and Undetermined Establishments (3.8%)
(1) Other Enterprises (3.8%)


- 3a -







SARASOTA COUNTY (5)


(2) Architectural and Engineering Services (40%)

(3) Machinery Manufacturing (60%)

(1) Machinery, except Electrical
(2) Electrical Machinery, Equipment, and Supplies


VOLUSIA COUNTY (1)

(1) Architectural and Engineering Services (100%)


A number of interesting comparisons may be noted concerning the employing
units from the respective counties participating in the study. Though
firms engaged in General Manufacturing were found in ten counties, almost
eighty-four per cent (83.5%) were concentrated in half of these, namely,
Dade, Hillsborough, Escambia, Pinellas,and Polk.

When Machinery Manufacturing and Metal Processing and Fabrication are added
to the Manufacturing category, the same five counties with the addition of
Broward County account for over eighty-four per cent (84.2%) of all manu-
facturing enterprises responding.

A total of twenty-six firms in nine counties indicated they were engaged
in manufacturing non-electrical machinery. However, over sixty per cent
of these (61.5%) were located in Broward and Pinellas counties with nearly
half (46.2%) found in Pinellas County alone. In the manufacture of elec-
trical machinery, equipment, and supplies, three counties Broward, Dade,
and Pinellas were particularly prominent, accounting for approximately
sixty-four per cent of the firms reporting they were engaged in those
activities. Nearly three of every ten plants (28.2%) so occupied were
located in Dade County, while Broward and Pinellas counties each accounted
for almost one of every five.

The manufacture of food and kindred products was reported by fifteen firms
in five counties, but two of these Hillsborough and Polk accounted for
two-thirds of the total. Thirty-one establishments in eight counties in-
dicated they were engaged in the manufacture of chemicals and allied
products, but over seven in ten (70.9%) were concentrated in Polk, Dade,
and Escambia counties. Transportation equipment, primarily of an aeronau-
tical and marine variety, was manufactured in six counties, but over half
of the plants reporting were located in Dade County, and another twenty-one
per cent were found in Hillsborough County. Firms fabricating metal pro-
ducts were reported in six counties with Dade and Pinellas counties
accounting for two-thirds of the total.


- 3.3. -







Three-fourths of the companies reportedly engaged in air transportation
were located in Dade County, while employing units occupied with medical
services were reported from Escambia and Palm Beach counties.

Firms performing architectural and engineering services responded from
thirteen of the seventeen counties, but five of these Dade, Duval,
Hillsborough, Escambia, and Broward included over ninety per cent of
the participants, with Dade County alone accounting for almost sixty-
three per cent (62.8%) of the total.

Engineering and research in electronics, nucleonics, and astronautics was
reported from Pinellas, Palm Beach, Brevard, and Okaloosa counties, but
eighty-eight per cent of the responses were received from Brevard and
Okaloosa counties.

Over thirteen per cent of all responding firms were engaged in contracting.
Forty-six of these were concerned with building construction and almost
ninety per cent (89.1%) of that total were located in Dade and Hillsborough
counties. Of the eleven reporting firms occupied with types of construc-
tion other than the erection of buildings, seven, or almost two-thirds
(63.6%), were found in the same two counties. A comparable situation
prevailed in the case of special trade contractors, ninety per cent of
those responding being from Dade and Hillsborough counties. Dade County,
however, represented by far the heaviest concentration of special trade
contractors, accounting for over three-fourths (76.2%) of the total
reporting.

Eleven military installations were reported from seven of the seventeen
participating counties. The military establishments were rather widely
distributed throughout the state although nearly half (45.5) were located
in the southern portion.


- 34 -











CHAPTER III


EMPLOYMENT OF AND POTENTIAL DEMAND FOR TECHNICIANS


The 585 enterprises participating in the study employed a total of 11,987
technicians. In addition, they indicated a current need for 3546 and
estimated that in one year they would require 5387 and in three years
6220 additional technically trained personnel. Of the number presently
employed, nearly eighty-five per cent (83.9%) were classified into nine
principal categories, namely, Aeronautics, Agriculture, Chemistry, Con-
struction, Drafting, Electricity, Electronics, Mechanics, and Metallurgy.
A tenth category "Other" was introduced to accommodate technical
personnel whose responsibilities did not suggest classification into any
of the above categories.

To aid in classifying technicians, employers were provided with a series
of definitions of the above categories. A drafting technician, for
example, was defined as an individual who "drafts from specifications;
sketches proposed devices; prepares technical illustrations, and makes
accurate scale drawings of mechanical devices." The definitions were
included in the instruction sheet which accompanied the survey instru-
ment. A sample of the instruction sheet is included in Appendix E.

In reviewing present employment of technicians and in assessing the present
and potential demand for their services, employers were asked to specify
the number which they presently employed as well as those which were
needed and which could be employed if they were available. In addition,
they were requested to project their potential need for the coming year
and for the next three years. Numbers of employers indicated that their
three-year projection was a highly tentative figure which would be
affected by numerous factors whose significance could not be accurately
determined at the present time. Nevertheless, many hazarded estimates
of considerable value for assessing potential training requirements.

In reviewing the estimated demand for technicians in three years, another
factor needs to be considered. In some instances, it is believed, the
three-year projection represents a composite of potential demand in one
year and in three years. Though the instructions specified that individuals
employed or needed were not to be duplicated in the respective columns,
certain responses appeared to contain an aggregate of anticipated require-
ments. Nevertheless, the estimates of future need should have considerable
value in indicating those areas in which technician training facilities
might well be established.


- 35 -








In this chapter the employment of and the need for technicians will be
discussed in terms of the following: (1) categories of primary responsi-
bility; (2) categories of responsibility by individual counties; (3) cate-
gories of responsibility by industrial classification; and (4)' categories
of responsibility by industrial classification within the respective
counties. Fig. 4 indicates the number of technicians employed and needed
in each of the nine occupational categories and also the total otherwise
classified. In Fig. 5, the percentage of the total employed and needed
in each category is represented.


Employment of and Need for Technicians by Primary Categories

It will be noted that over thirty-six per cent (36.6%) of all employed
personnel reported are classified as electronic technicians, and that
nearly one in three of those presently needed is also in that category.
The requirement in one year and in three years remains quite uniform, being
34.9% and 29.5% respectively for these periods. It appears, therefore,
that in terms of present employment as well as anticipated need, nearly
one in three technicians has or will have major responsibilities in the area
of electronics.

Drafting technicians are the second most popular group in terms of present
employment and projected demand. -Over thirteen per cent (13.2%) of all
technical personnel reported were drafting technicians and nearly fifteen
per cent (14.7%) of those currently needed are in the same category. In
terms of future requirements, over seventeen per cent (17.2%) of those who
will be needed in one year will be drafting technicians while the pro-
portion mounts to almost one in five (19%) of the total whose employment
is anticipated in three years.

Mechanical technicians make up the third largest segment of the employed
group, accounting for over one in ten (10.5%) of the total reported. In
addition, they constitute 10.7% of the group which is in current demand.
It is estimated that they will continue to comprise over one in ten (10.1%)
of the technician total needed in one year, but that the demand will drop
somewhat in three years, registering slightly over seven per cent (7.5%)
of total anticipated need.

Electrical Technicians constituted almost nine per cent (8.7%) of the
employed total reported. Five per cent of current demand was concentrated
in this area, a-figure which does not vary markedly for one year or three
years, being 4.3% and 4.5% respectively. It is interesting to note that
if the number of employed electrical and electronic technicians is com-
bined, these two groups account for nearly half (45.3%) of all employed
technicians reported. A composite of the two in terms of present and
potential need indicates that over one of every three technicians required
should be well versed in the principles of electricity and electronics.

Construction technicians constitute 7.1% of the employed total reported, but
nearly eight per cent (7.8%) of those presently in demand. The proportion


- 36 -






FIGURE 4: THE. NUMBER OF TECHNICIANS PRESENTLY
EMPLOYED AND CURRENTLY NEEDED AND POTENTIAL
DEMAND IN ONE. AND THREE YEARS BY SPECIALIZED
EMPLOYMENT CATEGORIES


NUMBER
0 a50 smoO TiO l0o 1500
1 1 1I


OF
8000


TECHNICIAN.
2500 3000 J300 44 42sc
I I I I


S --. i *i I I | I I i I I




LE, CTRONICS .,... ........ .. .....


DO)RAPTINS



WtMEC1AMICAL

0

L ELECT ICAL

1-


CONSTRUCTION



AERONAUTICAL



SCHE-MICAL.


PRESENTLY
EM PLOYLED
I I
MEE.DEDO OW

I*';''*:':*'*.':****'.*:*;:;'j
WMEEDED IKM
ONE. YEAR

NE..E.DED IN
THREE YEARS

L E G F. W D


o
AGRICULTURAL



A METALLURGICALr


OT H E.R.


- 37 -


11111. 11 fiffi IIIII I





FIGURE 5: PERCENT OF TECHNICIANS PRE.SE.NTLY
EMPLOYED AND NEEDED AND POTENTIAL DEMAND
BY 5PE.CIAL1ZED CATEGORIES


PR eSE LN TLY
p L R c


EMPLOYL.O
F. N T


PRESENT I POTENTIAL DEMAND
P R C E. M T


40 35 30 25 ZO IS
I I I I A I


| I I I I im l ul n I i m m al I I I I I


////////////J//////////////////////////// ". ". *".:"*.** **" it *".":" .'I *.''I"':."'''t''"'"'f'"*. ": *"".*-..*:"
SL E.1C 1T1R O NIIIC SII
E L L C TR ON IC S


10 5 0 5 10 IS 20 25 30 35
I I I I I I I I I I


////////////// ":'*:*.*:*:*.*:**:* :*"":';' ;***'** *:*.**'

D R A F T I N G



M E. C-HA NICAL



EL E..CTR ICAL



I
CON5R TRUCTIOC i



A E-LRONAUTICAL


C H


AG RIC


M E-TA


LTURAL


P R 5E.NT LY
L-MPLOYED
I I
NL.E.DE NOW

i::.'..:. "..::.:.-..:'::1
WLE.DE.O INk
ONE. YFLAR

NEL-eDED IN
THRILL YEARS
L LEG E-N D


CAL


0 T H E- R


- 38







continues to rise, however, accounting for 10.3% of anticipated requirements
in one year and 13.5% of the projected need in three years.

Aeronautical technicians made up slightly under five per cent (4.7%) of the
employed total, but over ten per cent (10.26) of the number currently in
demand. The need in-one year was 2.9% of the total reported, rising to 4.7%
of projected requirements in three years.

Chemical technicians constituted slightly under two per cent of the employed
total, a figure which did not vary appreciably when current need or require-
ments in oner year and three years were taken into consideration. Agricultural
technicians made up one per cent of the reported total and approximately one-
half that figure in terms of projected need. Metallurgical technicians ac-
counted for less than one per cent of the employed specialists as well as of
those currently in demand and those who will be needed in one year and three
years.

Over sixteen per cent (16.1%) of the employed technicians reported were
classified in the "Other" category, a figure which rose to seventeen per
cent of present need and 17.7% and 18.1% respectively of requirements pro-
jected for one year and for three years. Following is a list of the types
of technicians included in the "Other" category together with the number
presently employed and needed and those whose services will be in demand in
one year and three years.

Presently Needed in Needed in
Employed Needed One Year Three Years

Surveyor 170 25 36 41

Survey Chief 2 1

Computer 11 1 8 13

Structural Architect 3

*Architectural Engineer 42 12 39. 9

Electrical Designer 1 1 1 1

*Engineer 33 8 10 13

Engineering Aide 421 430 483 605

*Civil Technician 78 5 73 62

Civil Designer 9 1 4

*Employment or need was indicated but the numbers involved were not specified
by-all firms. Hence, the totals in these instances are greater than the
figures recorded.


- 39 -









Structural Technician

*Mechanical Draftman

Electrical Engineer

Structural Designer

Wood and Metal Designer

Concrete Designer

Tool Designer

Designer

Plumbing Designer

Industrial Engineer

Civil & Architectural Technician

Field Technician

Air Conditioning Technician

Refrigeration Technician

Mathematician

Mathematics Aide

Instrument Technician

Plater

Plastics Technician

X-Ray Technician

Laboratory Technician

Veterinary Technician

*Food Inspecter

Planner & Estimator

Concrete Inspector


Presently Needed in Needed in
Employed Needed One Year Three Years

2 4

4 4 6


9

1

40

4

53

15

2

5

2

27

1

1

19

200

4



52

8
- 4o -











Service Technician

Propulsion Technician

Instrumentation Technician

Supply Technician

Opto-Mechanic

Meterological Technician

Safety Technician

Production Supervisor

Operator

Analyst

Physical

Chemical

Dye

Textile

Time Study Observer

Research Technician

Physical Science Aide

Operations Analyst

Maintenance Scheduler

Management Analyst

Production Controlman

Production Methods & Standards
Specialist

Production Specialist


Employed

18

20

76

2



62

3

18

78

59


Presently Needed in
Needed One Year

3


Needed in
Three Years

8


- 41 -







Presently Needed in Needed in
Employed Needed One Year Three Years

Fieldman 5 1

System Control Operator 4 1

District Distribution System
Operator 4 1

Meterman "A" 5 2

General Technician 30 10 3

Typist 4

Clerical Technician 8

Office Technician 1

Administrative Personnel 64

Supervisory Personnel 20 1

Building Superintendent 1

Kind not Specified 74 49 58 66
Totals 1925 605 956 1132


It will be-noted that in a number of instances personnel not ordinarily
considered technicians are a part of the list. They have been included
because of their identification and enumeration by employers.


Employment of and Demand for Technicians by Counties

Fig. 6 indicates the number of technicians employed and needed in the
respective occupational categories in each of the seventeen participating
counties.

Aeronautical Technicians

A total of 567 aeronautical technicians was reported as presently employed
with 365 in current demand and 157 and 297 needed in one year and three
years respectively. Of the employed group, over sixty-two per cent
(62.2%) are working in Dade County while 122, or 21.4%, are occupied in
Broward County, and slightly over eight per cent (8.1%) or forty-six,
are located in Okaloosa County.


- 42 -














































E.M P LOY MF.NT
A L ACIHUA


CATEGO
COUN


FIGURE. 6: NUMBER OF TECHNICIANS PRESENTLY
EMPLOYED AND NEEDED AND POTENTIAL DEMAND
BY SPECIALIZED EMPLOYMENT CATEGORIES AND
INDIVIDUAL COUNTIES.






PRESENTLY NE.IOE.O NLE.OE.D IN MN.E.O.D I1N
E.MPLOYLD MOW ONE. YEAR THREw. YEA
5 L E.r E. N D

S:: z
p l o-
z



Is- -





I-b
^ N -< ^ ^ L

Ir


ETY
TY


E. M P LOYME.NT
8 AY CO


RS


CAT rGORI E.
U NTY









FIGURE. 6


CONTINUED


PRESENTLY
EMPLOYED


NEL.DE.D
NOW


L.E.OED IN MIE.EDD IN
I. YEAR THR-.ELf-
YEARS
L E-6 E.G N D


Q.
4.1
V^


E.MPLOYMLNT


CATE GORILE.


E.i P
BR


BRE.VARD COUNTY


(JO M .
LOYMEANT
0 W A R D


' ," .., o

CATE.G OR lES
C OUN TY


N
ON


ISO0


140


z
(120

U
2 I00



180-


IL
060-









FIGURE. 6: CONTINUED


PRE.SLNTLY
.MPLOYE.D

lEE.DED IN
ONE. YEAR


NO W

NEEDED IN
TWRE. YUE


G650

600

11 550
Z
500

Z 450

U 4oo

1-i


E. M P L. O Y M E.NT
D A D E- CC


CAT E. GORIE.S
U N'T Y


E.MPLOYME.NT CATEGORIES
DUVAL COUNTY


L E- G E. ND


C 150




so-


-r -
U

z40-

u35 -

-30



o
li- 25
0





2,


0









FIGURE.
V7///77/// I I
PRE.SENTLY NEED
EMPLOYED NOW

N LED.O IN M4 LEDE.D IN
ONE. YEAR THREL. YEARS
LL E. 6 ND


6: CONTINUED
140-1O


150


110


90

80


S60
0


4;1 N, i


E. M P L OYME.NT
EF 5 C A MBIA


CAT ELGORIE.S
COUNTY


E. M P LOYM ENT
HILL5BOROUGH


CAT E.GORI F-S
COUNTY


Ul ZOO2

150"

100-

Z r, n


'4..
0










FIGURE.


6: CONTINUED


V///////777=
PR .SENTLY
EMPLOYED

NtEOE.D IN
ONL YEAR


25


20,


15-


10I


NE.ELDED
NOW

NELfDED IN
THREF. YEARS


C


0


E EMPLOYMENT CATEGORIES
L EO N COUNTY


E. MPLOYM E.NT
MON ROE-


,- C" /%,

CATLEGORILS
C 0 U NTY


(0 ---
z





P-
IL Zoo-

I 200-
O

ul
bo



-oo-
:3

z


C OUNTY








FIGURE. 6: CONTINUED


PRESENTLY
EMPL.OYELD
L E. G E


500

S450

u 400
2
-1 550

I05


I:
uj 150
co
100


250


I
NEILO.ED
NOW
.NO


NE.B.OE.l IN
ONE. YEAR


4.50


400


2 350


, 300

I250

1-


150


ul 100


250
z


NEDE.O IN
THREE. YLARS


4-
4/


EIL M P LOYME.N-
OKAL005A


CAT E.GORIE.5
COUNTY


4 C,
V. 4,
4. V
Q 4/


E. M P LOYME.NT
ORANGE


4

0


C AT E. GORI5
COUNTY










FIGURE. 6: CONTINUED


PRESENTLY
EMPLOYED


NEEDED NEEDED IN NEEDED IN
NOW ONE YEAR THREE. YEARS
L E. G E. N D


500-


450-


400-


350-


300-


4,
4.


'?- C~


E.MPLOYME..NT CATEGORIES
PALM BE.AC4 COUNTY


E. M PLOY M EN T
P IN E.. LLA5


C AT E G 0RIE.S
C OU NTY


1479




















.


150-


100-


50-


0-


400.


I 1


4.
4-


'2-
4'


L


I-


l







FIGURE.


6: CONTINUED


z
4

u35.

So30.

- 25.


E.M P LOYVME.NT
P OL K C


W lZO-
< 11O -

u
-100
- -
800




1--
70-
IL
0 GO-
O-
50-
oQ

50-
3-


a0

A? AIL
.< c C'd
4IV 4 ~


CAT E. GO RI E.S
COUNTY


C.1 4q

EMPLOYMENT
SARA50TA


CATEGORIES
COUNTY


PRESENTLY
EMPLOYED

NE.E.DF-D IN
ONE. YEAR
L E. G


4l- 0-

I'*10-
IL
0

w 5


20
CN.
e2 O


NRLDED
NOW

NEEDED. IN
THRE.L YEARS
E- N D


EMPLOYMENT CATE.GORl.3
VOLU51A COUNTY







Nearly eighty-eight per cent (87.5%) of present demand is concentrated in
Dade County with another eleven per cent (10.9%) reported from Okaloosa
County. These two counties, therefore, account for over ninety-eight
per cent of the current requirement for aeronautical specialists. Dade
County respondents anticipated a need for 67.5% of those required in one
year and for nearly eighty per cent (78.2%) of the total in three years.
These figures constitute 106 and 232 individuals respectively. 'Broward
County employers expected to need nearly fifteen per cent (14.6%)
of the total required in one year and almost seventeen per cent (16.8%)
of that needed in three years, while Orange County respondents indicated
an anticipated demand for 6.4% of those required in one year. Hence,
present and potential need for aeronautical technicians appears to be
concentrated primarily in Dade, Broward, Okaloosa, and Orange counties.

Agricultural Technicians

A total of 122 employed agricultural technicians was reported while an
additional twenty specialists were needed at the present time and a
projected demand for twenty-five and thirty-eight in one year and three
years respectively was indicated. Fifty per cent of those employed were
reported from Escambia County with another 26.2% working in Polk County
and 17.2% in Hillsborough County. Thirty-five per cent of present need,
however, was concentrated in Polk County while Orange and Broward counties
each indicated a demand for fifteen per cent of the total and Hillsborough
County accounted for another twenty per cent. Employers in the latter
county indicated they could absorb sixty-four per cent of those needed
in one year and nearly fifty-eight per cent (57.9%) of the total required
in three years. Needs in Polk County accounted for over half the remainder,
suggesting that Hillsborough and Polk counties could probably employ eight
of every ten agricultural technicians required in three years.

Chemical Technicians

A total of 214 employed chemical technicians was reported from the seven-
teen participating counties and a current need for sixty-five was
indicated. In one year, however, expressed demand will have reached
ninety and in three years employers anticipated requiring 123 additional
individuals. The largest proportion of the employed group was located
in Brevard County which reported 27.6% of the total. Escambia County
accounted for approximately half that figure, or 13.5%, while Pinellas
and Polk counties indicated identical proportions of 11.2%, and Dade,
Orange, and Hillsborough counties employed 10.3%, 9.8%, and 7% respectively
of the total.

Greatest present need, however, was concentrated in Pinellas County which
registered a demand for nearly thirty per cent (29.2%) of the total
currently required. Dade County was second with an indicated requirement
of 21.4%, followed closely by Escambia County employers who expressed a
need for 18.4%. Polk County registered a demand constituting 10.8% of
current requirements.


- 51 -







Pinellas County anticipated the greatest need in one year with a figure
-representing nearly one-third (32.2%) of the total demand at that time.
Potential requirements in three years, however, declined to approxi-
mately one-fourth (24.4%) of the demand. Escambia County, which expressed
-a need for 18.9% of the total in one year, anticipated requirements
approaching twenty-seven per cent (26.8%) of the number needed in three
years.

Further demands were relatively diverse. Brevard County, for example,
expressed a need for 11.1% of the total in one year, a figure which rose
to 17.1% in three years. Dade County's requirements encompassed 8.9%
of the group in one year and three years respectively, while Polk County
needed almost eight per cent (7.8%) in one year, but approximately six
per cent (5.7%) in three years. Orange and Sarasota counties indicated
a need for 6.7% and 5.6% of the total in one year and anticipated no
significant increases in three years.

Construction Technicians

As might have been surmised, construction technicians were reported
from nearly all the participating counties and expected increases in the
need for their services were equally as uniform. A total of 844 employed
specialists in this area was recorded with nearly sixty-three per cent
(62.7%) of that number reported from Dade County. Employers in
Hillsborough County accounted for eleven per cent of the total while the
other counties registered the remaining twenty-five per cent. The current
demand for personnel in this area was remarkably consistent, Dade County
indicating a need for 62.8% of the total presently required and Hills-
borough County reporting a demand for 12.2% of that total. Only Broward
County registered a marked need over current employment, accounting for
3.9% of those presently employed but 8.6% of the number currently needed.

It was indicated that 277 construction technicians were presently in
demand and that the figure would rise to 555 in one year and to 843 in
three years. Nearly seventy-one per cent (70.8%) of the demand in one
year was reported from Dade County while a need for 8.8% of the total
was expressed from Hillsborough County and for 4.5% from Escambia County.
Combined, these three counties accounted for nearly eighty-five per cent
of the anticipated demand for construction technicians in one year.
The situation with regard to expected requirements in three years was
very similar. Dade County employers reported over three-fourths (76%)
of the need anticipated at that time while Hillsborough and Escambia
counties recorded identical proportions of 4.2%, and Okaloosa County
followed closely with an expected demand for 3.7%. Hence, these four
counties registered almost ninety per cent (88.1%) of the projected
need for construction technicians in three years.


- 52 -








Drafting Technicians

As in the case of construction technicians, drafting specialists were
reported from every county and a potential need for additional personnel
was almost equally as widespread. A total of 1585 employed drafting
technicians was reported and a current additional demand for one-third
of that figure was expressed. Anticipated requirements in one year
reached a total of 926 individuals and in three years rose to 1185.
Current employment and current demand traced relatively parallel patterns
in that counties employing the greatest number of drafting technicians
also indicated the greatest proportion of need for additional personnel.
Dade County, for example, employed nearly a third (31.7%) of those
reported and registered a demand for almost forty-five per cent (44.8%)
of the total currently needed. Nearly one of every five (19.7%) was
located in Pinellas County and the present demand for additional per-
sonnel from that area amounted to 12.5% of the total. Employers of
Hillsborough County accounted for 8.5% of the employed group and 5.7%
of those in current demand. Consequently, the above three counties
recorded almost sixty per cent of drafting technician employment and
sixty-three per cent of the present need in this specialization.

In terms of anticipated demand in one year and three years, several of
the same counties are included. Nearly thirty per cent (29.6%) of the
expected need in one year was reported from Dade County, while the
proportion in three years rose to 34.2%. The needs of Pinellas County
remained very consistent, registering 23.1% of the total in one year
and 23.7% in three years. Employers of Hillsborough County recorded
5.6% of the total demand expressed for one year and 4.7% of the require-
ments anticipated in three years. Leon and Orange counties recorded
7.7% and 7.1% respectively of the need expected-in one year while the
demand of Leon County employers in three years remained at 7.6% of the
total. Hence, Dade, Pinellas, Hillsborough, Leon, and Orange counties
accounted for nearly seventy-five per cent (73.1%) of the expressed
need in one year and the former four counties registered over seventy
per cent (70.2%) of that anticipated in three years.

Electrical Technicians

Current employment and potential demand for electrical technicians do
not reflect strictly uniform patterns. In a number of instances counties
presently employing significant numbers do not express an appreciable
need for additional personnel while employers in certain other counties
anticipated a considerable growth in demand in one and three years.

A total of 1051 employed electrical technicians was reported and a current
demand for an additional 181 was indicated. In one year, employers
anticipated 233 more would be needed, a figure which rose to 286 in three


- 53 -







years. The counties reporting the highest levels of employment included
Orange, Palm Beach, Dade, Broward, and Brevard respectively, but those
expressing the greatest current need were Dade, Palm Beach, Okaloosa,
Brevard, Alachua, and Orange.

Employers in Orange County recorded thirty per cent of present employment,
but only six per cent of current demand while Alachua County represented
far less than one per cent of present employment, but 6.6% of immediate
expressed need. Nearly eighteen per cent (17.6%) were employed in Palm
Beach County which expressed a need for slightly over twelve per cent
(12.1%) of the total. Less than sixteen per cent (15.8%) were located
in Dade- County, but the needs of employers in that area represented
44.1% of the total current demand. Almost thirteen per cent (12.8%)
were reported from Broward County which indicated no present demand, while
Brevard County accounted for over one in.five (22.3%) of those employed
but needed slightly under one in ten (9.3%) of the additional personnel
in current demand. Okaloosa County, on the other hand, registered less
than five per cent (4.2%) of current employment, but the immediate needs
of employers in that county exceeded ten per cent (10.4%k of the total
expressed requirements.

The demand situation in one and three years involved the same counties
but not necessarily in the same sequence. Dade County needs topped the
list with nearly one-fourth (24%) and over one-fourth (25.5%) of anticipated
demand in one and three years respectively concentrated in that county.
The needs of Broward County employers represented 4.7% of the total
shortage anticipated in one year, but their demands in three years
increased to 17.4% of the total. The anticipated shortages of Palm
Beach County employers in one and three years were highly consistent,
representing 12.4% and 13.9% respectively of the totals indicated for
these periods. Okaloosa County employers indicated a need for 11.1%
and 10.8% of the additional personnel anticipated in one and three years,
while Alachua County expected to employ 8.5% and 10.4% of the increased
number required. Brevard County's need represented 11.5% of the total
in one year and dropped somewhat to 8.7% of that anticipated in three
years. Orange County, on the other hand, required well over one in
ten (13.3%) of the group needed in one year, but the demand anticipated
in three years was negligible. The composite need of these seven
counties, therefore, represented over eighty-five per cent of the
expressed requirement for electrical technicians in one year and in
three years.

Electronic Technicians

It will be recalled that electronic technicians represent the largest
single group of employed specialists as well as the greatest number of
those in current demand and of the ones who will be needed in one year
and three years. A total of 4390 employed electronic technicians was
reported and a current need for 1102 additional specialists in this area
was expressed. To this demand should be added the 1884 individuals


- 54 -







whose employment is anticipated in one year and the 1836 who will be
needed in three years.

Current employment and need among electronic technicians were concentrated
in many of the same counties that were concerned with electrical tech-
nicians. Included among these were Palm Beach, Brevard, Okaloosa, Orange,
Pinellas, and Dade counties. Over a third (33.6%) of the employed group
was reported from Palm Beach County, but current demand for additional
personnel amounted to only 2.2% of the total need expressed. Brevard
County employed over one in five (22.3%) of those recorded, but registered
a present demand for over one in four (27.2%) of the total currently
needed. Okaloosa and Orange counties with 10.3% and 9.3% respectively
of present employment also recorded a demand approaching twenty per
cent with the former expressing a need for 13.1% of the total currently
needed and the latter requiring 6.6% of that group. Pinellas County
registered 8.1% in terms of current employment and 9.2% of present
demand, while Dade County accounted for 7.3% of the employment total
and for over one in four (26.3%) of those who are currently in demand.
The composite employment figure of the above counties accounted for more
than nine of ten (90.9%)of the employed electronic technicians reported
and their shortages represented 84.6% of current need.

Projected demand in one year and three years followed a comparable
pattern. Palm Beach County, for example, registered nearly one-fourth
(24.3%) of the need anticipated in one year and over one-fourth (26.8%)
of that expected in three years, while Brevard County projected require-
ments amounting to 22.4% of the total in one year and 13.3% in three
years. Okaloosa and Orange counties anticipated an identical need -
10.9% in one year, but in three years the former expected to require
the services of almost one in five (19.2%) of the electronic technicians
who will be needed at that time, while the latter's expressed demand
dropped to 6.8% of the total. Pinellas County anticipated the utilization
of 15.8% of those needed in one year and 8.2% of the total in three years,
while Dade County's requirements dropped to 2.4% in one year and rose
again to 6.9% of the group required in three years. Though Sarasota
employers accounted for only 1.7% of current employment among electronic
technicians, immediate and projected need was established at the 7.9%,
6.2%, and 7% levels. Exclusive of Sarasota County, the above counties
reflect well over eighty per cent of the demand in one year and three
years while the inclusion of that county raises the figure to approxi-
mately ninety-three per cent in the former instance and to eighty-eight
per cent in the latter.

Mechanical Technicians

Mechanical technicians represent the third largest group of employed


- 55 -







technicians reported by employers. At the time of the survey, 1256 were
working and an additional 381 could have been employed had they been
available. Upon the basis of employer projections, the need will be
increased by 551 in one year and by 468 in three years.

Over one-third (33.7%) of the employed total were located in Brevard
County while 17.3% were employed in Dade County. Pinellas and Orange
counties accounted for almost identical proportions, reporting 10.5%
and 10.4% of the group respectively, while Okaloosa County registered
8.1% of the total. Together, these five counties employed eight of
every ten mechanical technicians reported by the various employing units.

In terms of current need, Brevard County again led the group, employers
of the county indicating they could employ almost two of every five
(38.5%) who were in short supply. Dade County followed closely,
registering 35.6% of the need. Trailing at a considerable distance
were Alachua and Pinellas counties which recorded immediate shortages
of 7.8% and 5.7% respectively. When their needs were combined, these
four counties accounted for nearly ninety per cent (87.6%) of the current
demand for mechanical technicians, but the composite requirements of
Brevard and Dade counties alone represented nearly seventy-five per
cent (74.1%) of the immediate deficiency.

Brevard County employers also projected the most extensive needs in one
year and three years, accounting for 38.2% of the shortage in one year
and 21.5% of the total in three years. It was expected that Dade
County's requirements would show an appreciable decline in one year,
registering only 7.6% of the total, and would rise somewhat in three
years to a figure of 11.7%. Pinellas County demands rose sharply in
one year, reaching 22.5% of the total, and then were expected to decline
in three years to 8.1%, while Alachua County employers indicated an
anticipated deficiency of 7.2% in one year and a rise to 10.6% in three
years. The same four counties reported slightly over seventy-five per cent
(75.5%) of the expected shortage in one year, but only a little over
fifty per cent (51.9%) of that anticipated in three years. Okaloosa
County employers added 18.1% to the three-year total while Broward and
Escambia counties increased it further by 8.9% and 6.6% respectively to a
composite figure of 85.5%. It seems apparent, therefore, that employers
in a greater number of counties anticipate the utilization of mechanical
technicians in three years, or, that as the needs of larger firms in
more densely populated areas are satisfied, the requirements of other
establishments begin to reflect more significantly.

Metallurgical Technicians

Metallurgical technicians were in smallest demand by employers partici-
pating in the survey. A total of thirty-two were reported employed with


- 56 -









FIGURE. 7:


too SO


PERCENT OF TECHNICIANS PRESENTLY EMPLOYED AND
NEE.DE.D AND POTENTIAL DEMAND BY INDUSTRIAL CLASSIFICATION


PR ESEFNTrLY EMPLOYED
PL-RCNT
80 70 60 SO 40 30 z0 10
S i tII t


PRESENT POTENTIAL DEMAND
PERCENT
10 0 30 40 So so 70 80 .90 100
I I I I


A E. RONA U T I C A L


A G R I C U L T U RA L


C H F- M I C A L


PRESENTLY
FLMPLOYE.D
L-


D R A F T I NI


mE.LDE.O NEEDED It
MOW OM-L YEARR
E. G E- N D.


NfE.-ERD. IW
TRF.LE- YEARS






FIGURE. 7 CONTINUED


PR.SE.NTLY EMPLOYED
P EL R CE T
100 SO 80 70 60 50 40 30


10 0


PRESENT I POTENTIAL
P E. R C E- N T
10 20 30 40 50 60


DEMAND

70 80 90 100


E. L E. C T R I C A L


E. L E- C T R O J I C.


M E. C H A N I C A L


M ETALLU R GICA L


O THE.R TE. CHNICIANS


PRE.SE.NTLY NEEDED NELDE.O IN NEEDED IN
EMPLOYED NOW ONE YEAR THREE YEARS
L E- G E- N D








fifteen of these being located in Dade County. Both Hillsborough and
Pinellas counties employed six while three were occupied in Polk County
and two in Broward County. An immediate need for twenty-five additional
personnel was registered with seventeen of these being required in Dade
County, four in Pinellas County, three in Hillsborough County, and one
in Polk.County.

It was anticipated that the services of ten additional individuals would
be required in one year. Hillsborough and Broward county employers each
indicated an expected deficiency of three while it was believed that two
would be needed in Pinellas County and one in Polk County. Of the
twelve required in three years, Hillsborough and Pinellas counties each
accounted for four while Broward County employers expressed a need for
three and Polk County indicated a potential deficiency of one.

The employment of and the need for technicians classified in the "Other"
category is reviewed below in conjunction with an analysis of technician
placement and need by industrial classification and also in Appendix F.


Employment of and Need for Technicians by Industrial Classification

It may be interesting to note the industrial classifications in which the
largest percentages of technicians were employed and those in which it
was believed the greatest numbers would be needed. Fig. 7 provides this
information by industrial classification and technician categories.

Aeronautical Technicians

It will be observed that Military Installations and the Communication,
Transportation, and Public Utilities classification each employ well
over a third of all aeronautical technicians reported and that the
remainder are divided almost equally between Engineering and Research
and manufacturers of Transportation Equipment. Military Installations
registered over two-thirds (67.3%) of the immediate shortage while the
other three types of enterprises indicated above recorded a need for the
remainder. Nearly half the demand (45.2%) in one year was concentrated in
the Communication, Transportation, and Public Utilities division while
another one-third (35%) was identified by manufacturers of Transportation
Equipment. The situation in three years was expected to be quite similar.
However, over half the need (53.5%) was anticipated by manufacturers of
Transportation Equipment while over forty per cent (41.4%) was projected
by the Communication, Transportation, and Public Utilities classification.

Agricultural Technicians

Nearly nine in ten (86%) of the agricultural technicians reported were
employed by manufacturers of Chemicals and Allied Products while manu-
facturers of Food and Kindred Products accounted for another seven


- 59 -







per cent (7.4%). An immediate need was indicated for twenty individuals,
nine of'whom were desired by manufacturers of Chemicals and Allied Pro-
ducts and four each by Food and Kindred Products manufacturers and the
Federal Government. A need for the remaining three was expressed by the
Machine Manufacturing industry. It was anticipated that five agricul-
tural technicians would be required in one year and that the figure would
rise to thirty-eight in three years. Manufacturers of Chemicals and
Allied Products expected to employ sixteen of those needed in one year
and twenty-three of the thirty-eight required in three years. The
Federal Government indicated a need for five agricultural specialists
in one year and for eight in three years while Food and Kindred Products
manufacturers required the remainder.

Chemical Technicians

The employment of and the need for chemical technicians was somewhat
more diverse as Fig. 7 indicates. An employment total of 214 chemical
specialists was reported and an immediate demand for sixty-five additional
personnel was indicated. Nearly thirty per cent (29%) of those presently
employed were working in firms engaged in Engineering and Research while
more than one-fifth (22.4%) were employed by manufacturers of Chemicals
and Allied Products. Over one in ten (10.8%) was concerned with the
manufacture of Food and Kindred Products and nearly one-tenth (9.4%)
were engaged in the production of Ordnance and Accessories. Seven per
cent were employed by Primary Metals producers while six per cent were
working at Military Installations. The remaining four per cent were
engaged in the manufacture of Paper and Allied Products.

Over one-third (35.4%) of those presently in demand were required by
producers of Chemicals and Allied Products and another one-fourth
(27.6%) were needed by Food and Kindred Products manufacturers.
Military Installations constituted the next largest handicapped classifi-
cation, indicating a deficiency of 15.4%. The remaining shortages were
found among firms engaged in Engineering and Research, in the manufacture
of machinery and the fabrication of metals, in Medical Services, and in
enterprises engaged in Miscellaneous Manufacturing.

A need for ninety chemical technicians was indicated in one year and for
123 in three years. Nearly seventy per cent of the demand in one year
was concentrated among manufacturers of Chemicals and Allied Products,
Food and Kindred Products, and firms engaged in Engineering and Research
which reported anticipated deficiencies of 31.2%, 20%, and 17.8%
respectively. The same industrial classifications expected the most
serious shortages in three years as well, accounting for sixty-one per
cent of the anticipated need. Remaining requirements were distributed
among various types of manufacturing enterprises and Medical Services.


- 60 -







Construction Technicians

Construction technicians to the number of 844 were found in numerous
industrial classifications, but nearly seventy per cent (67.9%) were
concentrated in Building Construction and in Architecture and Engineering.
A similar pattern existed in terms of the 277 personnel in immediate
demand, Building Construction firms reporting a need for the services of
45.7% and the Architecture and Engineering classification indicating a
deficiency of 24.8%.

A need for 555 construction technicians was indicated in one year, a
figure which rose to 843 in three years. However, over three-fourths
(77.4%) of the number required in one year are needed by firms in the
above two classifications, while their anticipated requirements in three
years accounted for over eighty per cent (81.8%) of the total.

Drafting Technicians

Like construction technicians, drafting specialists were found in a
variety of industrial classifications, but nearly sixty per cent (58%)
of the 1587 reportedly employed were occupied in Architectural and Engineer-
ing firms or in Engineering and Research laboratories. When those employed
in the manufacture of Electrical Machines, Equipment, and Supplies are
added, over seven in ten (70,7%) are accounted for. The remainder were
working for a variety of industrial establishments, for governmental
agencies, or for contractors. An immediate need for 525 additional
technicians was registered with over half the demand (52%) coming from
Architectural and Engineering firms and over twenty-two per cent from
establishments engaged in the manufacture of Electrical Machines,
Equipment, and Supplies. A composite of these two classifications
accounted for nearly three-fourths of the current requirement.

Architectural and Engineering firms and those concerned with the production
of Electrical Machinery, Equipment, and Supplies, and with Engineering
and Research activities reported a need for over three of every four
(77.6%) of the 906 drafting technicians required in one year, while their
combined demand in three years accounts for approximately eighty-three
per cent of the 1185 whose services will be needed at that time. The
requirements of governmental agencies also remained relatively stable.
Currently they are employing approximately 4.5% of the total, but it is
anticipated that they will need 7.6% and 7.2% of the number who will be
needed in one year and three years respectively.

Electrical Technicians

Six industrial classifications accounted for over ninety per cent (92.2%)
of the 1051 employed electrical technicians reported in the study. Two
of these the manufacture of Ordnance and Accessories, and the Com-
munication, Trahsportation, and Public Utilities classification were


- 61








responsible for the greatest number, employing 29.9% and 28.6% respectively
of the total. Engineering and Research laboratories reported 10.3%,
Special Trade Contractors employed 9.8%-, Architectural and Engineering
firms absorbed 7.2%, and manufacturers of Electrical Machinery, Equipment,
and Supplies accounted for 6.4%. Though the number employed at Military
Installations involved only 3.3% of the total, 23.7% of current demand
was registered by this classification. An immediate need for 181 addi-
tional electrical technicians was recorded by all employing units re-
sponding. Special Trade Contractors accounted for nearly one-fourth
(23.8%) of the total while Architectural and Engineering firms and
Engineering and Research laboratories indicated identical needs of 11.6%.
Manufacturers of Electrical Machinery, Equipment, and Supplies represented
eleven per cent of the deficiency while producers of Ordnance and
Accessories registered a need for 5.5% of the group.

It was anticipated that 233 electrical technicians would be needed in one
year and 286 in three years. The demands of Architectural and Engineering
firms represented slightly over one-fifth (20.2%) of the need in one year
and exactly one-fifth of the requirement in three years while Special
Trade Contractors anticipated a need for 18.5% of the total in one year
and 16.8% in three years. Engineering and Research enterprises and
manufacturers of Ordnance and Accessories registered identical expectations
of 12.9% in one year, a figure which rose to 13.3% in three years in the
case of Engineering and Research laboratories. Manufacturers of Electrical
Machinery, Equipment, and Supplies indicated a need for approximately
sixteen per cent of the total 'in one year and for more than eighteen per
cent (18.2%) in three years. The Communication, Transportation, and
Public Utilities classification accounted for 6.4% of the total required
in one year, but projected a jump to nearly one-fifth (19.6%) of the
number needed in three years. In effect, therefore, the above class-
ifications represented well over eighty per cent of the immediate need
and of projected requirements for one year and for three years.

Electronic Technicians

A total of 4390 employed electronic technicians was reported by employing
units participating in the study. Over fifty per cent (51.7%) were
working for firms engaged in Engineering and Research activities while
nearly one in five (18.6%) were employed by manufacturers of Electrical
Machinery, Equipment, and Supplies. Three other classifications -
Communication, Transportation, and Public Utilities; Military Install-
ations; and manufacturers of Ordnance and Accessories accounted for
10.7%, 7.8%, and 7.6% respectively of the remainder. Hence, the above
five classifications employed over ninety-five per cent (96.4%) of all
electronic technicians reported. Nearly ninety per cent (89.1%) of the
demand for the 1102 additional individuals presently needed was registered


- 62 -







by Engineering and Research laboratories, Military Installations, and
producers of Electrical Machinery, Equipment and Supplies which in-
dicated deficiencies of 32.9%, 28.3%, and 27.9% respectively, while
manufacturers of Ordnance and Accessories reported a need for 7.7% of
the total.

In one year a demand for 1884 individuals was anticipated, a figure which
dropped slightly to 1836 in three years. Nearly sixty per cent (58.2%)
of the requirement in one year was registered by firms engaged in
Engineering and Research activities while an additional 22.2% was
specified by manufacturers of Electrical Machinery, Equipment, and Supplies
and 9.3% by Ordnance and Accessories producers. Over forty per cent
(43.2%) of anticipated requirements in three years involved Engineering
and Research laboratories while more than a third (33.6%) of the demand
came from Electrical Machinery, Equipment, and Supplies manufacturers.
The Communication, Transportation, and Public Utilities classification
indicated a further need for 10.3% of the total. Hence, the above cate-
gories accounted for nearly ninety per cent (89.7%) of expected require-
ments in one year and for 87.1% of those anticipated in three years.

Mechanical Technicians

Three industrial classifications, namely, Engineering and Research, the
manufacture of Electrical Machinery, Equipment, and Supplies, and the
production of Ordnance and Accessories accounted for nearly sixty-five
per cent (64.6%) of the 'employment of 1256 mechanical technicians who
were reported in the study. Two other categories Architecture and
Engineering and Military Installations employed 6.7% and 6.2% of the
number respectively, raising the total represented by the above classi-
fications to well over seventy-five per cent (77.5%). A current need
for 383 additional personnel was expressed with almost forty per cent
(39.3%) of the demand being registered by Engineering and Research
laboratories. Electrical Machinery, Equipment, and Supplies manufacturers
and Military Installations indicated requirements involving 28.1% and
14.7% respectively of the total, thus accounting for over eighty per cent
(82.1%) of immediate demand.

Well over half (56.9%) of the 551 mechanical technicians whose services
will be needed in one year could be employed by Engineering and Research
firms, and another 14.3% by Electrical Machinery, Equipment, and Supplies
manufacturers. Architectural and Engineering organizations also reported
an anticipated demand slightly exceeding seven per cent of the total
while the remaining classifications expected to utilize somewhat lesser
percentages of the number required. A need for 468 individuals was
anticipated in three years, over half of which (50.8%) originated among
manufacturers of Electrical Machinery, Equipment, and Supplies and in
the Engineering and Research classification. Other demands were scattered
among the respective categories although manufacturers of Non-Electrical
Machinery anticipated a need for 13.2% of the group and Architectural and


- 63 -








Engineering firms expected to employ 11.5% of the total, thus absorbing
over three-fourths (75.5%) of the number for which a more distant need
was expressed.

Metallurgical Technicians

Of the thirty-two employed metallurgical technicians reported, thirteen
were working in Military Installations and seven were engaged in the
production of Electrical Machinery, Equipment, and Supplies. In addition,
three were employed in each of the following activities: Building Con-
struction, the manufacture of Chemicals and Allied Products, Primary Metals
production, and Metal Fabrication. All but one of the above classifi-
cations also reported an immediate and future need for limited numbers of
additional personnel. Military Installations, for example, indicated a
current deficiency of seventeen individuals, but did not project further
requirements. An immediate need for one specialist was indicated by each
of the following: manufacturers of Chemicals and Allied Products, pro-
ducers of Electrical Machinery, Equipment, and Supplies, and firms engaged
in Metal Fabrication. Building Construction enterprises required two
additional persons and processors of Primary Metals indicated a need for
the services of three.

The Building Construction category also anticipated the employment of an
additional technician in one year and three years while manufacturers of
Chemicals and Allied Products expected to require two in one year and
another in three years. Electrical Machinery, Equipment, and Supplies
manufacturers expected to employ eight individuals during the next
three years, while the Metal Processing and Fabrication classification
expressed a need for four in one year and five in three years.

Other Technicians

A total of 1926 employed technicians, or slightly over sixteen per cent
(16.1%) of those reported, were classified in the "Other" category. This
classification is analyzed in detail in Appendix F where the number of
specialists employed in the participating counties is elaborated in terms
of their respective employment categories. However, a brief resume of
their current classification and of the immediate and potential need for
their services follows.

Nearly seventy per cent (69.7%) of the group was employed in four in-
dustrial classifications, namely, governmental agencies, Architectural
and Engineering establishments, Military Installations, and Engineering
and Research enterprises, accounting for 21.8%, 19.4%, 14.4%, and
14.1% of the total respectively. When the 11.2% who were employed in
miscellaneous manufacturing endeavors are added, the figure is raised to
over eighty per cent (80.9%). An immediate need for 606 additional
personnel was indicated with two classifications Government, and


- 64 -







Architecture and Engineering responsible for over eighty per cent
of that demand.. Governmental agencies alone accounted for seventy-one
per cent of the deficiency.

A one-year projection identified a need for 956 technicians, most of whom
will be required in three classifications, namely, Government, Architecture
and Engineering, and Engineering and Research. Fifty per cent of the
potential demand was registered by governmental agencies, while 20.3%
and 10.1% respectively were expressed by the latter two categories. A
review of anticipated requirements in three years indicates that govern-
mental agencies will absorb fifty-three per cent of the 1132 individuals
needed at that time while Architectural and Engineering firms will require
15.3% and manufacturers of Chemicals and Allied Products will employ 10.1%
of the total for a composite demand approaching eighty per cent.


Employment of and Demand for Technicians by
Occupational Classification in Participating Counties

Detailed data concerning the number of technicians employed in the various
industrial classifications by individual counties is presented in Appendix
F. However, some of the more significant trends in employment and projected
need by counties will be reviewed briefly. Fig. 8 indicates a composite
of current requirements and anticipated demands in one year by individual
counties where the total in a particular occupational classification
exceeds thirty individuals.

Alachua County

Over one-third of the 140 employed technicians were electronic specialists
and another one-fifth were drafting technicians. One-third of the demand
for the 175 currently needed was in the area of electronics while one-fifth
of the need involved drafting technicians. Slightly over fourteen per cent
of the employed group were working as mechanical technicians and a current
deficiency of 17.1% in that area was indicated. Projected needs for one
year and three years followed the same pattern. Approximately one-third
of the potential deficiency was in the area of electronics while one-fifth
was concentrated among drafting and mechanical technicians. It should be
noted also that a significant need for electrical technicians, averaging
approximately ten per cent of total requirements, was projected for one
year and three years.

Bay County

Eighty-eight employed technicians were reported, twenty-two of whom were
working as mechanical technicians while another twenty were electronic
specialists. No immediate need for additional personnel was indicated,
but it was anticipated that two would be required in each of the above
categories in one year whvle five additional mechanical technicians and
four electronic specialists would be needed in three years.


- 65 -




EZ5C AMB I A
flCON4STRUCTIOW
DRAFTING
OIKALOOSA
rl DRAFTING
(3 F-LECTRICAL L E.ON
r3 MECHANICAL
ELLECTRONIC ~jDRAFTING


ALACH~UA
ELECTRICAL

MECHANICAL
.EL.E~CTRONIC


PINELLAO
E- CHEMICAL
0 INSTRUMENTATION
MECHANICAL
DRAFTING
ELECTRONIC



PALM \
8BE.AC W


bROWARD
J I CONSTRUCTION
SILr.G.CTRONIC

\D A D EL-
E] CIVIL.
E.,LE.CTRICAL
S AERONAUTICAL.
CONSTRUCTION
DRAFTING 0
0 ELECTRONIC
\ MECHANICAL





dlIOO


BR E.VARD
tZ DRAFTING
?ORANGE. O ELECTRICAL
\ F6.Lc cTRICAL 0 ELECTRONIC
TA M CN A N I CAL MECHANICAL
SDRAPTIN G
0 E.LLCTROtJICc

HILL5SOROU1GH
0 CONSTRUCTION
DRAFTING
S5ARA50TA
[ D DRAFTING
0 EL-cTRoNIC




FIGURE- 8
TECHNICIAN CLASSIFICATIONS
REFLECTING AN IMMEDIATE.
ONE YEAR COMPOSITE. NEED
FOR MORE. THAN THIRTY
PERSONS BY INDIVIDUAL
COUNTIES


31-GO NELDE.D
61-100 NE.LLE.0
101-150 NF-r-DILD
OVLR 150 NLEEDE.D
LLEC E-N D








Brevard County

Over half of the 1943 technicians reported were employed in the area of
electronics while another six per cent were electrical technicians and
more than one of five were mechanical specialists. An immediate need for
502 additional personnel was expressed. Nearly sixty per cent of these
were required in electronics and almost thirty per cent in mechanics.
Fifty-seven per cent and twenty-eight per cent respectively of the 745
individuals required .in one year are needed in the same two categories
as are fifty per cent and twenty per cent of the 492 whose services are
anticipated in three years. In addition, fourteen per cent of the latter
group should be drafting technicians.

Broward County

Of the 697 employed technicians reported, nearly one-fourth were working
in the area of electronics while one-fifth were electrical specialists
and another one-fifth were aeronautical technicians. However, forty-one
per cent of the sixty-four individuals for whom an immediate need was
expressed should be drafting technicians while another thirty-eight per
eent should be construction specialists. In addition, one-fourth of the
169 required in one year should be drafting technicians while another
one-fourth will be needed in the area of electronics. It would be desirable
for fifteen per cent of the group to be mechanical technicians and four-
teen per cent aeronautical specialists. An anticipated need for 360
persons in three years was expressed. Of this number twenty-eight per
cent will be required in electronics, nineteen per cent in drafting,
fourteen per cent in aeronautics and electricity, and twelve per cent
in mechanics.

Dade County

The 2306 technicians reported were employed in a variety of areas. However,
twenty-three per cent were construction technicians and another twenty-two
per cent were drafting specialists while approximately fifteen per cent
were employed in aeronautics and another fifteen per cent in mechanics.
A need for 1292 additional personnel was indicated, one-fourth of whom
should be aeronautical technicians while over one-fifth should be
electronic specialists. A further eighteen per cent of the need involved
drafting technicians and fifteen per cent was concentrated in the area of
construction. Well over one-third of the anticipated requirement for 1057
persons in one year involved construction technicians while one-fourth of
the need was for drafting specialists and one-tenth for aeronautical
technicians. Projected requirements in three years aggregated 1653
individuals. Nearly forty per cent of this total should be construction
technicians and another one-fourth drafting specialists. Fourteen per
cent will be needed in aeronautics and eight per cent in electronics.


- 67 -







Duval County

Of the 140 technicians reported, nearly one-fourth were drafting specialists
while another fourteen per cent were employed in electronics and ten per
cent were mechanical technicians. Half of the sixteen persons needed
immediately should be drafting technicians while two-thirds of the twenty-
seven required in one year and in three years should be in the same
category.

Escambia County*

Slightly over one-fifth of the 304 technicians reported were employed in
the area of drafting while another one-fifth were agricultural specialists.
Approximately sixteen per cent were engaged in construction activities,
twelve per cent were mechanical technicians, and ten per cent were chemical
specialists.

An immediate need for eighty-one individuals was indicated, twenty-four
of whom were required in drafting. Half that number of chemical
technicians were in demand, eleven construction specialists were needed,
and nine electronics personnel were in short supply.

Projected requirements in one year identified a need for 134 additional
persons. Twenty-eight per cent of these should be drafting technicians,
eighteen per cent construction specialists, and thirteen per cent
chemical technicians. In addition, both electronics and mechanics will
require ten per cent of the total.

It was expected that 207 technicians would be needed in three years, over
one-fourth of whom should be drafting specialists. Other indicated areas
of need included construction, chemistry, mechanics, and electronics which
could absorb eighteen per cent, sixteen per cent, fifteen per cent, and
eleven per cent respectively of the total.

Hillsborough County

Employment and need were concentrated primarily in the areas of drafting



*The summary of Escambia County is based upon technician employment and
need as categorized by employers. Large numbers of additional tech-
nicians were reported but were not classified in the categories employed
in the study. These are indicated in the "Other" classification under
Escambia County, Appendix F, but their numbers have not been utilized
in calculating the percentages upon which the summary is based. It will
be noted that in some instances, (e.g., laboratory technicians) a size-
able number of individuals is involved.


- 68 -







and construction. A total of 393 technicians was reported, over a third
of whom were specialists in the area of drafting while another one-fourth
were engaged in construction. A third of the 105 needed immediately
should also be in the latter category and twenty-nine per cent in the
area of drafting. Nearly a third of the 162 individuals expected to be
in demand in one year should be drafting technicians and thirty- per cent
construction specialists, while over one-third of the 149 persons
required in three years should be in the former category and one-fourth
in the latter. It should also be noted that some demand for agricultural
technicians is anticipated in one year and in three years.

Leon County

Eighty-seven per cent of the 480 technicians reported were employed as
engineering aides and eleven per cent were drafting technicians. Ninety-
nine per cent of the 435 needed immediately were in the former category
along with eighty-seven per cent of the 554 required in one year and
eighty-six per cent of the 696 needed in three years. Thirteen per cent
of the anticipated demand in one year was for drafting technicians, a
figure duplicated in the projected assessments for three years.

Monroe County

Seventy-nine technicians were reported, one-fourth of whom were drafting
specialists. Fourteen were employed as electronic technicians and
thirteen were engaged in construction. Of the fourteen needed immedi-
ately, four were required for electronics work, three were expected to be
drafting specialists, and three others aeronautical technicians. A need
for ten individuals was projected in one year with three being employed
in each of the following categories: aeronautics, construction, and
drafting. It was anticipated that three additional aeronautical
technicians would be required in three years.

Okaloosa County

Sixty-three per cent of the 721 individuals reported were employed as
electronic technicians, a figure supplemented by the six per cent who
were electrical specialists. Another fourteen per cent were classified
as mechanical technicians. An immediate need for 239 additional persons
was expressed, sixty per cent of whom should be electronic technicians
and eight per cent electrical specialists. It was also indicated that
seventeen per cent of the total were required in the area of aeronautics.
Sixty-eight per cent of the 303 people needed in one year should be
electronic technicians and another nine per cent electrical specialists,
while two-thirds of the 530 required in three years should be in the
former category and six per cent in the latter. It was also anticipated
that sixteen per cent of those needed in three years should be mechanical
technicians.


- 69 -







Orange County

Forty per cent of the 1004 specialists reported were electronic technicians
and another thirty-two per cent were electrical specialists. An immediate
need for 132 individuals was indicated, fifty-five per cent of whom
should be in the former category and eight per cent in the latter. In
addition, it was noted that a deficiency of sixteen per cent existed
among drafting technicians. Projected requirements in these three
categories in one year were similar to the above proportions, amounting
to fifty-six per cent, eight per cent, and eighteen per cent respectively
of the 370 individuals needed. It was indicated that sixty-five per cent
of the 194 persons whose services were anticipated in three years should
be electronic personnel while another twelve per cent should be mechanical
technicians and a further ten per cent drafting specialists.

Palm Beach County

Over three-fourths of the 1910 technicians reported were electronic
specialists and another ten per cent were electrical technicians. The
areas-of electronics and electricity also dominated immediate and
potential demand. A current need for eighty-two persons was indicated
of which total thirty-one per cent were required in the former category
and twenty-seven per cent in the latter. Demand in one year was expected
to aggregate 523 persons, eighty-eight per cent of -whom should be
electronic technicians and six per cent electrical specialists. The need
in three years was expected to reach 572. Of this number, eighty-six per
cent would be required in the area of electronics and seven per cent in
electricity.

Pinellas County

Employment and present and potential demand were concentrated primarily
among three categories of technicians, namely, those engaged in electronics,
drafting, and mechanics. Thirty-eight per cent of the 950 reported were
employed in electronics while another one-third were drafting technicians
and fourteen per cent were mechanical specialists. An immediate need
for 222 individuals was indicated. Forty-six per cent of the demand
was concentrated in electronics, thirty per cent in drafting, and ten
per cent in mechanics. Of the estimated 783 persons required in one
year, it was believed that thirty-eight per cent should be electronic
technicians, twenty-eight per cent drafting specialists, and sixteen
per cent mechanical technicians. However, fifty per cent of the 548
individuals required in three years were expected to be drafting tech-
nicians while well over one-fourth would need to be proficient in the
area of electronics.


- 70 -







Polk County

A total of 155 employed technicians was reported. Thirty-eight per cent
were classified as mechanical specialists while one-fifth were agricul-
tural technicians, sixteen per cent were chemical specialists, and ten
per cent were engaged in drafting. An immediate need for thirty-five
additional individuals was expressed with seven each required in
agriculture, chemistry, and drafting, and five in construction and
electronics. Of the fifty-five specialists required in one year,
seventeen were expected to be mechanical technicians, ten were needed
as construction specialists, nine as drafting personnel, and seven each
as chemical technicians and electronic specialists. Anticipated demands
in three years were even more diverse. A need for sixty-three individuals
was projected, nineteen of whom should-be mechanical technicians, ten
construction specialists, and nine agricultural personnel, while eight
would be needed in drafting and electronics respectively, and seven
should be chemical specialists.

Sarasota County

As in the case of Palm Beach County, employment and need were concentrated
in two areas, namely, electronics and drafting. Nearly three-fourths of
the 104 technicians reported were electronic specialists while another
sixteen per cent were employed in the area of drafting. A total of 116
individuals was needed immediately, and it was anticipated that 158
additional personnel would be required in one year and 176 in three
years. In each instance, approximately seventy-five per cent and four-
teen per cent respectively of these toals should be electronic and
drafting technicians.

Volusia County

Reported employment and demand again were concentrated in two areas.
Nine of fifteen technicians were employed in construction and six
were drafting specialists. In terms of immediate need, these numbers
were duplicated and they varied only slightly when one-year projections
were assessed. It was anticipated that twenty individuals would be
required in three years, to be divided almost equally between the two
areas.




These, then, are the technicians whose employment was reported, the
areas in which additional personnel are needed, and the projected
demand for their services in one year and three years as indicated
by the respective employing units located within the seventeen
participating counties.


- 71 -











CHAPTER IV


THE IN-SERVICE TRAINING PROGRAM


Two additional questions addressed to the respective employing units were
included in the survey instrument. One of these was concerned with
current provisions for the in-service training of technicians and the
other assessed the interest of employers in extension classes for tech-
nicians during the non-working hours of these employees.

In analyzing the replies, it was decided to group respondents into cate-
gories in terms of the number of technicians presently employed. It was
recognized that this procedure did not always reflect the influence of
present and potential demand, but it was felt that current employment
was the most objective measure available for classifying the various
employing units with respect to size.

Respondents were grouped into seven categories, namely: (1) those who
did not employ technicians, (2) those employing from one to five such
specialists, (3) employers of six to ten technicians, (4) those employing
eleven to twenty specialized personnel, (5) employers of twenty-one to
fifty specialists, (6) those employing over fifty-one technicians, and
(7) employers providing no information regarding the number of techni-
cians employed or the types of activities in which they were engaged.
The latter category also included those firms which had discontinued
operations, which were temporarily inactive, which were of the opinion
that the study did not apply to their unique circumstances, or which were
difficult to classify because of the dearth of information provided.


Provision for In-Service Training of Technicians

It will be recalled that a total of 585 employing units responded to the
questionnaire. Fig. 9 indicates the percentage of those providing in-
service training programs for technicians at the time the survey was in
progress, the proportion not making such provision, and the per cent which
furnished no information concerning the status of their training programs.
The data are presented in terms of the employment categories outlined above.

Of the total number responding, nearly three in ten (29.9%) indicated they
sponsored some type of training program for their technical employees while
over six in ten (61.3%) made no such provision and nearly one in ten (8.5%)
provided no information.

Employing units responding which indicated they employed no personnel who
could be classified as technicians made up 14.5% of the total number of
replies. In response to the questions, however, 7.1% noted that they


- 72 -





NUMBPe..R OF
TECHNICIANS
EMPLOYEL.D


RgsPONSE.


P E_ R C E. N T


O 10 20 30 40
1 si 1 1


50 GO
I i


70 80
I I


YE.S ___


NO TECHNICIANS


N O
NO INFO.


YES
1-5 TECHNICIANS NO ....:.....:.:: .:.:.:.::.:.:.. *. '. ': .'..:..::'.:.
NO INFO


YES
6-10 TLCHNICIANS NO -:. .`. .:.:*-:. '*-:..:*:. :.:. :.*
NO INFO. j


YES
II-80 TECHNICIANS NO .... -.
NO INFO. _


Y E.S
21-50 TECHNICIANS N 0
NO INFO


OVER 51
TE.CHNICIAMS,


INADEQUATE.
INFORMATION
PROVIDED


NO


YES
NO
NO INFO


77777* .*.


.. ........... ff..*,.


TOTALS FOR ALL Y E. S
RESPOWDE.NTS NO
NO. INFO.


TOTALS FOR
R ESPON DENTS
EMPLOYING
TECHNICIANS


MO INFO . ..':.:...' '.' '. '.
NO INFO.


FIGURE 8: PERCENT OF EMPLOYING UNITS PROVIDING
IN-SE.RVICE TRAINING FOR TECHNICIANS, NOT PROVIDING
SUCH TRAINING, AND NOT PROVIDING INFORMATION SY
EMPLOYMENT CATEGORIES.
73 -






provided training programs for their employees while over three-fourths
(75.3%) did not and 17.6% included no information concerning training
provisions.

The group employing from one to five technicians constituted over forty
per cent (41.6%) of the total. Well over one-fourth of this number (27.1%)
sponsored in-service training, but nearly seven in ten (69.6%) did not
provide this service, and 3.3% offered no information.

Employers of six to ten technicians made up nearly twelve per cent (11.8%)
of the total response. Over one-fourth (26.1%) of this group also pro-
vided training programs for the upgrading of technical personnel, while
over seven in ten (71%) again made no such provision and nearly three per
cent (2.9%) did not respond to the request for information.

Over eleven per cent (11.1%) of the replies were received from employers
requiring the services of eleven to twenty technicians. Nearly half of
this number (49.2%) sponsored training programs while an identical pro-
portion abstained and 1.6% did not reply to the question.

Over half (51.5%) of the employing units with twenty-one to fifty tech-
nicians a classification accounting for 5.8% of the responses made
some training provisions for their personnel, while 42.4% did not and
6.1% failed to specify the status of their training programs.

Over eight per cent (8.4%) of the responses were received from establish-
ments employing over fifty technicians. Nearly three-fourths (73.4%)
of this group sponsored training programs for their technical personnel
while over one-fourth (26.6%) did not make such provision.

It is difficult to assess the significance of responses provided by the
seventh category which consisted primarily of firms volunteering a
paucity of information. These made up almost seven per cent (6.8%) of
the response total, but over half the group (55%) included no information
concerning their current training programs. This is readily understand-
able, however, when it is noted that firms which are inactive, which have
discontinued their operations, or which did not consider the study to
be applicable to their situations were included in this classification.
Of the number providing responses, 2.5% indicated that training provisions
were made for their employees while 42.5% replied in the negative.

It should be noted, however, that when only those enterprises employing
one or more technicians are considered a group comprising 78.7% of
the total number responding it is found that well over one-third
(36.6%) sponsor in-service training programs for technicians, slightly
over six in ten (60.6%) do not, and the proportion of non-informants
is reduced to 2.8%.

It may be interesting to review the status of particular industrial
classifications with regard to provisions for the in-service training


- 74 -







of technical personnel. It should be emphasized that the following data
are based upon firms reporting the employment of one or more technicians
and do not include those enterprises with no technical employees nor
those providing inadequate information. Hence, the responses of slightly
under eighty per cent of all participants are reflected.

Architecture and Engineering. A total of 109 Architectural and Engineering
firms responded which employed between one and five technicians. Of this
number, thirty provided in-service training while seventy-four did not and
five volunteered no information. Twenty-six required the services of six
to ten specialists, ten firms providing for their upgrading and sixteen
not sponsoring improvement programs. Ten of seventeen enterprises in
the 11-20 technician category supplied training while two in the 21-50
classification offered a comparable service. However, seven in the former
group and five in the latter provided no training and one gave no infor-
mation. Six firms employed over fifty-one technicians with half spon-
soring programs of in-service improvement.

Communication, Transportation, and Public Utilities. Twenty firms were
represented in this service classification, eight of which employed one
to five technicians. Five of these sponsored in-service training while
three did not. One enterprise was represented in the 6-10 category and
one in the 11-20 group, neither of which conducted a program. However,
three of the four firms in the 21-50 classification and all six of those
employing over fifty technicians provided in-service training.

Contract Construction. In the area:of Contract Construction, thirty-
eight firms, most of which were concerned with Building Construction,
employed five or fewer technicians. Six of this number sponsored up-
grading programs while thirty-one did not and one volunteered no infor-
mation. In the 6-10 classification, three of seventeen enterprises
sponsored training programs while two did not respond to the question.
Two of eleven firms in the 11-20 category provided for the additional
preparation of personnel as did also one of three organizations employing
over fifty specialists.

Engineering and Research. A total of twenty-three Engineering and Research
firms reported the employment of one or more technicians with nearly half
being found in the largest employment category. Nine of those indicated
the presence of in-service training programs while two did not maintain
such a service. Two of three firms in the 21-50 classification also
provided training, but the proportion dropped to two in six in the
4.1-20 employment group. Only a single establishment was reported in the
6-10 category and it did not conduct a training program. Of the two
firms in the smallest classification, one sponsored technical instruction
and the other did not.

General Manufacturing. A total of fifty-seven plants employing technicians
was reported in the General Manufacturing classification. Of this number
twenty-seven were concerned with the manufacture of Chemicals and Allied
Products, twelve with the production of Transportation Equipment, eleven


- 75 -








with the processing of Food and Kindred Products, and seven with the manu-
facture of products from Stone, Clay, and Glass.

Seventeen of the enterprises engaged in the production of chemicals employed
from one to five technicians. Six of these conducted in-service training
programs while ten did not and one provided no information. One firm in
the 6-10 group, three in the 11-20 classification, and one plant employing
over fifty specialists provided training for technicians, while one firm
in each of the intermediate categories and two in the largest employment
classification did not sponsor in-service preparation.

Among manufacturers of Transportation Equipment, four plants in the 1-5
category, one in the 6-10 classification, and three in the 11-20 group
did not offer instructional programs while three additional establishments
in the latter caregory and one in the 21-50 classification provided
opportunities for in-service education.

Five of the eleven food-processing firms two in the 1-5 category and
three in the 11-20 classification conducted improvement programs and
the remainder did not. The latter group included two processors in the
1-5 category, three in the 6-10 classification, and one in the largest
bracket. No manufacturers of Stone, Clay, and Glass products five of
whom employed from one to five technicians sponsored training programs
for their technical personnel.

One producer of Ordnance and Accessories employing over fifty technicians
provided for their training while another in the 21-50 classification did
not. An enterprise concerned with the manufacture of Scientific and Con-
trolling Instruments and one firm engaged in Printing and Publishing
sponsored in-service instruction while the remainder of those in the
General Manufacturing classification did not furnish comparable oppor-
tunities for improvement.

Government. Eleven governmental agencies were divided almost equally in
the provision or omission of in-service training. Two of those employing
one to five technicians offered such preparation while one did not. One
in the 6-10 and the 11-20 categories respectively provided no training,
while two in the latter classification conducted programs of instruction.
Of the two agencies employing over fifty technicians, one provided train-
ing and the other omitted this service.

Machine Manufacture. It will be recalled that for purposes of this study
Machine Manufacture embraces the production of Electrical Machines, Equip-
ment, and Supplies as well as the manufacture of Non-Electrical Machinery.
However, the greatest proportion of firms responding thirty-eight of
fifty-three were engaged in the production of electrical machinery and
accessories. Nearly half of the enterprises in this classification -
twenty-five of fifty-three employed from one to five technicians.
Three of those engaged in the production of electrical machinery and two
producing Non-Electrical Machines conducted programs of in-service train-
ing, while eleven of the former and eight of the latter did not provide
this service. One manufacturer of electrical machinery omitted any
76 -







.reference to the status of his training activities.


Two producers of electrical machinery in the 6-10 employment classification
sponsored courses for the upgrading of their personnel as did two in the
11-20 category. However, five in the former bracket and one in the latter
did not. In the latter group, as well, was one manufacturer of Non-
Electrical Machinery who provided training opportunities, one who gave no
information, and two who did not sponsor instructional programs. Three
producers of electrical machinery in the 21-50 category offered in-service
preparation and one did not, while one manufacturer of Non-Electrical
Machinery volunteered no information. Eight electrical machinery pro-
ducers employing over fifty technicians conducted training programs for
these personnel and one manufacturer responded negatively.

Metal Processing and Fabrication. Fifteen of the eighteen firms included
in this classification were concerned with Metal Fabrication. Of those
occupied with the processing of Primary Metals, two provided no in-service
training and one conducted an instructional program for technicians. Eight
of the fifteen enterprises engaged in Metal Fabrication required the
services of one to five technicians. Two of this number trained specialized
personnel while six did not. Negative responses were also received from
three employers in the 6-10 category, from two in the 11-20 classification,
and from one in the group employing from twenty-one to fifty specialists,
while one employer in the latter classification replied in the affirmative.

Military Installations. All but one of the eleven Military Installations
represented and that one employing over fifty civilian technical person-
nel sponsored in-service instructional programs for their specialists.

Mining. In the area of Mining, no in-service training was provided.

Sales, and Distribution. One firm, employing from one to five technicians,
did not conduct in-service training programs, but the remaining three pro-
vided this service for their technical personnel.

Services. Seven of the nine enterprises represented were concerned with
the provision of medical services while the remainder were occupied with
the maintenance and repair of electrical equipment. One of the latter
provided in-service training and the other did not. One laboratory in the
1-5, 6-10, and 11-20 classifications respectively conducted a training program
for technicians, while two in the former group and one in each of the remain-
ing categories omitted this service.

Miscellaneous and Undetermined Enterprises. Three establishments in this
classification one in the 1-5 category .nd two employing over fifty
technicians sponsored training programs while the remaining three did
not. Two of the latter were in the smallest employee classification
while one was in the 21-50 bracket.


- 77-







Generally it would appear that the larger the establishment in terms of the
number of technicians employed, the greater is the likelihood that some
form of in-service training program is in operation. However, several
significant exceptions to this inference have been noted.


Desire for Extension Training of Technicians

In answer to the question "Would your firm be interested in extension
training for (technicians) during their non-working hours?" replies again
appeared generally to reflect the size of the establishment although the
activities in which the firm was engaged were probably not without con-
siderable influence in determining the response. Fig. 10 illustrates the
proportion of participants, by the number of technicians' employed, who
exhibited an interest in such training and the percentage who were not
concerned or who provided no information.

Of the total of 585 respondents, 42.7% indicated they favored the provision
of extension training for technicians, while 45.1% withheld their approval
and 11.9% did not reply to the question.

However, when replies are categorized in terms of the number of tech-
nicians employed by the respective participants, an interesting trend
becomes apparent. Firms not employing individuals who could be classified
as technicians were overwhelmingly opposed to the provision of extension
training for these personnel. Slightly over seven per cent (7.1%) favored
such an instructional program, but nearly three of four (74.1%) expressed
opposition, while 18.8% did not commit themselves concerning the wisdom
of the venture.

Employers utilizing the services of one to five and six to ten technicians
were almost equally divided in their opinions and registered their views in
almost identical proportions. In the former category 46.4% favored exten-
sion training while 47.9% objected and 5.7% did not proffer an opinion.
In the latter classification, 46.4% again favored such a program while
47.8% were opposed and 5.8% did not respond to the question.

Firms employing greater numbers of technicians registered progressively
larger proportions of favorable replies. For example, those utilizing
the services of eleven to twenty specialists were favorably inclined to
the extent of 63.1% of the total while 26.2% were opposed and 10.7%
recorded no verdict.

Two-thirds of the establishments in the next largest bracket registered
their assent as opposed to slightly over one in five (21.3%) which
responded negatively and 12.1% which provided no clue to their desires.

Nearly seven in ten (69.4%) of the firms employing over fifty tech-
nicians favored extension training for their personnel, but a proportion
higher than that in the category immediately preceding 26.5% also was
opposed, and a lesser percentage 4.1% had apparently reached no decision.


- 78 -




hJUtAmbt or~
TF.C104aClAN3
EMPLOYVLc


RESPONSE.


P E. R C E. N T


0 10 eo 30 40 s0 60 70 so
I.. .JI-I I I I I




.* *. .*iu *-"*'*"**:**:.:.",* '.- ***,:".*'::' : ':':'::.* : '.".'


YES
NO TECHNICIANS N 0
NO INFO.


Y L5
I-5 TECHNICIANS NO
NO INFO.


Y LS
6-10 TECHNICIANS NO
NO INFO.


YELS
II-20 TECHNICIANS N 0
NO INFO.


Y ES
21-50 TECHNICIANS N 0
NO INFO.


OVER 571
T E.C"NWIC IAN S



INJAlbE~UATE.
INFORMATION
PROV'IDED


" .. ... .. ....:."... ...
y//////////////////I


.^,::-:; ^


7A~


YES
N 0
NO INFO.


Y E. 5
NO
NO INFO.


TOTAL FOR ALL Y E. ...
RESPONDENTS W 0*......
NO INFO.


ToTrALS FOR
fe L-S poNlsrNITS
EMPLOYING
Tr1LCHNICIANS


NO INFO.


FIGURE. IO PERCENT OF EMPLOYING UNITS FAVORING
IN- SERVICE. TRAINING FOR TECHNICIANS, NOT FAVORING
5UCH TRAINING, AND NOT PROVIDING INFORMATION BY
EMPLOYMENT CATEGORIES
70








Sixty per cent of the group supplying only a minimum of information,
and constituting slightly under seven per cent of the total, registered
no commitment concerning the advisability of providing an instructional
program, while five per cent favored the move and thirty-five per cent
were opposed.

When only the views of firms employing technicians are considered a
group approximating slightly under eighty per cent of the total a
somewhat different consensus is projected. Over half (52.6%) were found
to be in favor of extension training for technicians while slightly over
four in ten (40.6%) opposed such offerings and 6.8% did not register an
opinion.

In presenting the following data concerning the respective industrial
classifications, only those enterprises are considered which employed
a minimum of one technician.

Architecture and Engineering. Forty-nine of the 109 firms employing from
one to five technicians favored the provision of extension training, while
fifty-three were opposed and seven did not express an opinion. In the
6-10 bracket, however, views were almost equally divided, twelve approving
such offerings and thirteen disagreeing while one remained non-committal.
In the 11-20 category, opinion was overwhelmingly in favor of the training,
thirteen firms agreeing with the venture and only one opposing it while
three provided no information. Four of eight firms in the next largest
classification favored extension programs while two were opposed and two
others did not express their views. Among enterprises employing over
fifty technicians, four supported the potential introduction of training
provisions and two indicated their disapproval.

Communication, Transportation, and Public Utilities. Two firms in the
1-5 employment classification favored extension training while six expressed
their opposition. One enterprise in the 6-10 and 11-20 brackets respective-
ly concurred in the latter view while three in the 21-50 category agreed
with the former and one had noopinion. Among the six largest firms
responding, five favored the provision of an extension training program
while one objected.

Contract Construction. A total of sixty-nine respondents employing tech-
nicians were engaged in some type of Contract Construction with by far
the greatest proportion 62.2% being concerned with Building Construction.
Attitudes toward extension training were almost evenly divided among the
firms in the 1-5 category. Eleven of those in Building Construction, two
in other types of construction, and four Special Trade Contractors approved
such instruction while twelve building contractors, three hon-builders, and
four Special Trade Contractors were opposed. Two firms engaged in Building
Construction failed to express a preference.

Views in the 6-10 category also were almost equally divided. Four Building
Construction firms, one engaged in other types of construction, and three


- 80 -







Special Trade Contractors indicated their approval, while three Special
Trade Contractors and five building contractors disapproved and one of
the latter group did not express an opinion. In the next largest category,
opponents outnumbered protagonists six to four with one firm withholding
an opinion, while the three Building Construction firms in the largest
employment classification were unanimously opposed.

Engineering and Research. Most of the laboratories participating employed
a minimum of eleven technicians and favored the provision of extension
training for their technical personnel. Among the twenty-three firms
represented, one opponent to the program was included in the 11-20 employ-
ment classification, two were found in the 21-50 category and one was
represented in the largest employment group, while another firm in the
latter classification did not express a preference.

General Manufacturing. Plants engaged in the manufacture of Chemicals and
Allied Products constituted the largest single number of respondents in
this division and they were equally divided concerning the wisdom of pro-
viding extension training for technicians. Six of those in the 1-5 category
approved the move as did four in the 11-20 group, while ten in the former
category were opposed and one in the 6-10 bracket shared that opposition.
In the largest employment classification, two enterprises favored such
instruction and one disapproved, while one firm in the 1-5, 6-10 and 21-50
classifications respectively provided no information.

Seven firms manufacturing Transportation Equipment concurred in the im-
portance of extension training while five were of the opinion that it would
not benefit them materially. Two advocates and two opponents were found in
the 1-5 classification while three additional objectors employed from
eleven to twenty specialized personnel. Single firms in the 6-10 and the
21-50 categories respectively registered their approval of the program
and were supplemented by three enterprises in the 11-20 classification.

Two producers of Food and Kindred Products employing from one to five
technicians favored an extension training program and an equal number
were opposed. An additional advocate was found in the 6-10 and the
11-20 classifications respectively along with three opponents who were
joined by another objector in the largest employment category, while one
employer in the 11-20 group did not provide the necessary information.

Three manufacturers of Stone, Clay, and Glass Products in the 1-5 category
favored the provision of extension training, but these were countered by
two opponents in the same classification and one in the 6-10 group and in
the largest employment category respectively. Scattered opposition and
approvalwere found among the remaining manufacturing establishments
although all three producers of Scientific and Controlling Instruments
and both manufacturers of Ordnance and Accessories regarded extension
training for technicians in a favorable light.


- 81 -








Government. Seven of the eleven governmental agencies represented approved
the provision of extension training while one in the 1-5 and 6-10 cate-
gories respectively was opposed and these were joined by another in the
largest -employing group. Also included in the latter category was a single
agency which provided no information.

Machine Manufacture. Producers of Electrical Machines, Equipment, and
Supplies in the 1-5 classification were evenly divided in their attitude
toward extension training, seven favoring the move and an equal number
expressing opposition, while one refrained from voicing an opinion. In
the remaining employment categories, however, sentiment was overwhelm-
ingly in favor of training provisions with a total of nineteen firms
approving instruction and four dissenting.

Among manufacturers of Non-Electrical Machinery, opposition to extension
training was concentrated in the 1-5 classification, six firms disapproving
the move and three regarding it favorably. Three additional adherents were
found in the 11-20 category and one in the 21-50 group while two firms
withheld comment.

Metal Processing and Fabrication. Two metal processors in the 1-5 class-
ification were opposed to extension training while one in the 11-20 group
approved. By way of contrast, six metal fabricating plants in the 1-5
category, one in the 11-20 group, and two in the 21-50 classification
favored the program as against two in the 6-10 bracket which were opposed
and one in the 6-10 and 11-20 classifications respectively which did not
express an opinion.

Military Installations. Ten of the eleven Military Installations approved
the provision of extension training, the lone dissenter being found in the
11-20 employrpnt classification.

Mining. The firm engaged in Mining operations was opposed to extension
training for technical personnel.

Sales and Distribution. Of the four enterprises employing technicians,
three favored extension training for specialized personnel while one, in
the 1-5 employment category, was opposed.

Services Medical laboratories constituted the preponderance of enter-
prises included in this division in which opposition to extension train-
ing for technicians was quite general. Two establishments employing from
one to five specialists favored such a program while one registered dissent
and was joined by two others in the 6-10 and the 11-20 categories
respectively. Two firms occupied with the maintenance of electrical
equipment and accessories expressed divided opinions concerning the
benefits to be derived from extension training.








Miscellaneous and Undetermined Enterprises. Single proponents of training
programs were found in the 1-5 and the 21-50 categories respectively while
the largest employment classification included two additional adherents.
Opposition by one firm was also registered in the 1-5 category and one
manufacturer in the latter group expressed no opinion.





In comparing the responses to Question 3 with those for Question 4, a
number of interesting parallels become evident. An almost uniform pro-
gression exists with respect to the provision of in-service training
and the desire for extension programs as one moves up the employment
scale. In terms of the number of respondents in each employment category,
the greatest proportion of in-service training programs for technicians
are conducted by the largest enterpriseswvhereas the smaller organizations
are far less inclined to provide such a service. A comparable situation
obtains with respect to expressed desire for the provision of extension
training. Larger establishments were overwhelmingly in favor of the
introduction of instructional programs whereas the smaller organizations
were far more evenly divided in their attitude toward the merits of such
a venture.

Among the most prominent of the industrial classifications currently pro-
viding in-service training programs for their technicians were the Communi-
cation, Transportation, and Public Utilities Division, Engineering and
Research laboratories, and Military Installations. Included among those
which were highly desirous of obtaining extension training programs were
Engineering and Research organizations, manufacturers of Electrical
Machinery, Equipment, and Supplies, metal fabricators, governmental
agencies, and Military Installations.

It should be noted, however, that the smaller firms in a particular in-
dustrial classification frequently outnumbered the larger establishments,
and urgent training needs may well exist in the latter group which are
not reflected in the needs or desires of the former.


- 83-











ADDENDUM


Responses were received from seventeen firms after the study had terminated
and while the report was being written. None of these data have been
utilized in preparing the summary. They are merely included to underscore the
continuing need revealed by the more complete analyses which comprise the
major portion of this report.

The number of respondents in each industrial classification is indicated in
parentheses at the left of the respective classifications and the number of
firms in each category is listed in parentheses at the left of each sub-
head within a particular classification.

(5) Architecture and Engineering

(2) General Manufacturing

(1) Food and Kindred Products

(1) Transportation Equipment

(5) Contract Construction

(3) Building Construction
(2) Special Trade Contractor

(2) Machine Manufacturing

(1) Electrical Machinery, Equipment, and Supplies

(1) Non-Electrical Machines

(1) Wholesale and Retail Trade

(2) Miscellaneous and Undetermined Establishments

(1) Testing Laboratory

(1) Exporter


- 84 -








The following types and numb<
and potential need for their
various industrial classific


Architecture and Engineering

Construction

Drafting

Bookkeeper

Secretary

Contract Construction

Building Construction

Construction

Special Trade Contractor

Electrical

General Manufacturing

Food and Kindred Products

Agricultural-

Transportation Equipment

Aeronautical

Chemical

Drafting

Electronic

Metallurgical

Instrumentation

Photographic


ers of technicians were employed and an immediate
services indicated by firms included in the
rtions.

Currently Needed Needed in Needed in
Employed Now One Year Three Years

1 1 2 2

14 13 19 28

1 1

1 1 1


8-10


2 52

9

41 119

4 28

20.

2 -120

12


8-10


74

12

164

39

28

166

17


- 85 -








Currently Needed Needed in Needed in
Employed Now One Year Three Years

Machine Manufacturing

Electrical Machinery, Equip-
ment, and Supplies

Electronic 1 2

Mechanical 2 37.

Non-Electrical Machines

Toolmaker 6

Wholesale and Retail Trade

Mechanical 7

Miscellaneous and Undetermined
Establishments

Testing Laboratory

Testers 20 2 4

Exporter

Aeronautical 6

Following is a summary of the various types of technicians utilized and
the number employed and needed by firms in the respective industrial
classifications.

Currently Needed Needed in Needed in
Technician Category Employed Now One Year Three Years

Aeronautical 40 2 52 74

Agricultural 24

Chemical 6 9 12

Construction 4 1 10-12 10-12

Drafting 90 54 138 192


- 86 -








Currently
Employed


Technician Category

Electrical

Electronic

Mechanical

Metallurgical

Other

Bookkeeper

Secretary

Toolmaker


Needed
Now


Needed in
One Year


Needed in
Three Years


Instrumentation Tech.

Photography Tech.

Testing Tech.

Totals


2 120


20

31iB


395


In assessing the in-service training provided for technicians
of interest in such programs, it was learned that none of the
tectural and Engineering firms offered this service, but that
it should be made available.


and the degree
five Archi-
two believed


The manufacturer of Transportation Equipment conducted in-service instruc-
tion and was of the opinion that it should be generally provided, while the
food processing establishment neither offered nor favored it.

In the area of Contract Construction, one Special Trade Contractor sponsored
in-service preparation while the other offered no such service,and none of
the three firms engaged in Building Construction conducted improvement, pro-
grams. Attitudes toward the provision of such training were equally as
negative, neither of the Special Trade Contractors favoring the offerings and
being joined by two of the enterprises occupied with Building Construction.
The third offered no information.

The producer of Non-Electrical Machinery did not sponsor in-service training
nor did he favor its provision, while the manufacturer of Electrical
Machinery, Equipment, and Supplies not only advocated it but was presently
providing such preparation.


- 87 -


166

17

4








The Wholesale and Retail Trade enterprise did not sponsor upgrading
instruction and was opposed to its provision, while among Miscellaneous
and Undetermined Establishments a testing laboratory offered it and advocated
its extension and an exporter neither conducted nor favored such training.

Of the total, three firms sponsored in-service preparation for technicians
and fourteen did not provide this service, while five favored the venture,
eleven were opposed, and one volunteered no information.


- 88 -








CONFIDENTIAL



APPENDIX A

ORIGINAL SURVEY FORM


TECHNICAL SURVEY FORM


1. General Information

A. Name of Location
Establishment City

County

B. Principal Product or Activity

Additional Products or Activities (if any)



C. Name of Interviewee

D. Position of Interviewee

2. Employment Information

A. How many civilian* graduate engineers are employed by your establish-
ment? Non-graduate engineers?______ ____

B. How many civilian technicians are employed by your establishment?
Male?____ Female?____

C. How many skilled tradesmen are employed by your establishment?

D. How many civilian engineers in your establishment are doing work which
could be performed by technicians?

E. Approximately what proportion of their time is spent on such work?

F. Approximately what per cent of your present staff of civilian tech-
nicians was obtained from the following sources?

High school training In-plant training for skilled
employees

*For purposes of this form, only military personnel on active duty
are considered to be non-civilian.
89 -








Junior college training Private technical trade schools

Four year college training

Other (Please specify)

Other (Please specify)

G. Approximately what per cent of your present staff of civilian technicians
was obtained locally? Was obtained from out-of-state?

H. What related areas of technical instruction are needed by the civilian
technicians of your establishment, and how many require each kind of
instruction?

Area of Related No. Requiring Area of Related No. Requiring
Instruction Such Instruction Instruction Such Instruction

Applied Mathematics Communications

Beginning Algebra Oral

Plane Geometry Written

Advanced Algebra Drafting

Solid Geometry Blueprint Reading

'.Trigonometry ____ Other Graphic Represen-
tation
Descriptive Geometry
Other
Calculus
Other
Cost Accounting
Socio-civic Adjustment
Other
Individual and Group Rela-
Other tions

Applied Science Job Training Information

Mechanics Orientation to Business
and Industry
Heat
Occupational Adjustment
Electricity and Mag- Information
netism
Other
Sound and Light
Other


- 90 -








Hydraulics

Chemistry

Metallurgy


I. Does your establishment sponsor
an in-service training program
for civilian technicians?


Yes


No


Strength of Materials

Other

Other


J. Would your establishment be in-
terested in extension training
for civilian technicians during
their non-working hours if such
programs were offered in local
school or junior college techni-
cal extension classes?


Yes


- 91 -




CONFIDENTIAL



3. Information concerning the Responsibilities of Civilian Technicians Employed by Your Establishment and the Training
Which They Require. All responses will be considered strictly confidential.


Column 1: List job titles of technicians.

Column 2: List number employed in each job title.

Column 3: Briefly summarize their duties.


Column 4:


Specify area of responsibility, i.e., tool
design, equipment repair, instrument
calibration, product inspection, drafting,
materials testing, technical report writing,
job training.


Column 5:



Column 6:



*Column 7:


*Column 8:


*If new or additional job titles are involved, list these under Column 1.
formation in Columns 6, 7, and 8.


Check (X) those job titles that are
difficult to fill with satisfactorily
trained personnel.

List the number of additional trained
technicians your establishment woula use
if available.

Estimate the number your firm may need
next year in each job title.

Estimate the number your firm may need
in each job title three years from now.

Opposite each title add the desired in-


(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)

JOB NO. JOB AREA OF (X) NO.
TITLE EMPLOYED RESPONSIBILITIES RESPONSIBILITY NEEDED
NOW


(7) (


NO.
NEEDED
IN 1 YR.


NO.
NEEDED
II: 3 Y'R


I




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