BULLETIN 75, 1968
LMMiB CIVIL DEFENSE
IN FLORIDA SCHOOLS
STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
FLOYD T. CHRISTIAN, .t-ate Superintendent
State Department of Education
Floyd T. Christian
Expanding and increasing responsibilities of the public school
system in the United States bring into focus the need for additional
information and training in personal survival, as the potential
dangers of the twentieth century, both natural and man-made,
increase in number and in degree.
Alert to this responsibility, the Courses of Study Committee
authorized the writing and publication of a curriculum guide, to
assist Florida teachers in training their students in the various areas
of civil defense. The resulting guide suggests ways in which civil
defense concepts and methods may be incorporated into existing
curriculum, in a variety of subject areas, at each level of education
from the primary grades to adult education classes.
The guide is offered as another step in Florida's continuing effort
to provide the quality of education needed and deserved by every
student in our state.
Floyd T. Christian
State Superintendent of Public Instruction
5 7 5-. 0 0 o57
Publication of Bulletin 75, A Guide: Civil Defense in Florida
Schools, is the result of the combined efforts and resources of a
number of people in Florida, who are concerned with this phase
of the curriculum and with this service to Florida's school children.
Members of the state curriculum guide committee, who have
worked on the production of this bulletin, are given special acknowl-
edgment for their contribution. They are: Dr. Leo L. Boles, Miami,
Chairman; Mr. Coke L. Barr, Jacksonville; Mr. Roy E. Bell, Lake
Worth; Mrs. Virginia Benson, Orlando; Mrs. Zelma Carr, Holt;
Dr. Patricia Carter, West Palm Beach; Mr. Robert A. Croft, Winter
Haven; Mr. George B. Marcus, Greensboro; Mrs. Lucille Payne,
Starke; Mr. Neal F. Robertson, Fort Lauderdale; Mr. Donald C.
Thomas, Daytona Beach; Mr. Herbert M. Wright, St. Petersburg.
Dr. Earl Weldon, President, Seminole Junior College, served as a
consultant to the committee.
Dr. George S. Davis, Jr., State Coordinator of Civil Defense Adult
Education until his death in 1967, originated the plan for developing
State Department of Education staff members who have partici-
pated in producing the guide include Mr. J. H. Fling, Director of
Adult and Veteran Education; Mr. Julian Morse, Coordinator,
NDEA Title III; Mr. Colon Blue, Supervisor, General Adult Edu-
cation; Mr. James Sanderson, Consultant, Civil Defense Adult
Education; Mr. Rex Wright, Coordinator, Civil Defense Adult Edu-
cation; Dr. Joseph W. Crenshaw, Assistant Superintendent, Curricu-
lum and Instruction; Mr. Tom Culton, Consultant, Curriculum;
Mrs. Ruth Chapman, Editor; Mr. Oakley Hightower, Director,
Publications and Textbook Services; Mr. Ray O'Keefe, Specialist,
Graphic Arts; Dr. James T. Campbell, Associate Superintendent.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Foreword ...................---------------- --------- i
Acknowledgments .............----------------------- ii
Table of Contents ..............------------------- ---- iii
Chapter I-Introduction ..............................------------------ 1
Philosophy and Principles of Survival Education .-............-....... 1
Purpose of the Guide .......-....--......... --. ---------...---- 2
Objectives of Personal Survival Education ...........................------- 3
Chapter II-Responsibilities for Survival Education .--...---......... 5
The Community ...........-........ ............... 5
The Parent ......-------- ---------.......--..--- 5
The School .............--- --------------------- 6
The Administrator ........... ..........----------------- 6
The Teacher .......------.......------------------- 7
The Student ............. -------------- ---------- 7
Chapter III-Survival Information for the Teacher .................... 9
Natural Disasters .................-.. ---------..--------- 9
Man-made Disasters ... ----------------~.~.~.............. 11
Shelter .........-...... ----------- ------------- 18
Chapter IV-Instructional Programs in the Public Schools .-...... 20
The Primary Grades .---..-....................... --------- 20
The Intermediate Grades ................... ...-..............-- 23
The Junior High School ...----..-..... .....------............-- 28
Senior High School and Community College .............................--------39
Adult Education ...- ..............------------------------. 43
Bibliography ..---------------...................------ .. 47
At the end of World War II there was high hope for peace
throughout the world. Instead, we have seen the world divided into
diametrically opposed political philosophies, and the development
of weapons that dwarf anything used in World War II.
Many people still believe that the United States is protected by
the vast oceans on the east and west and by friendly nations on the
north and south. But the space age has eliminated the last of
the natural barriers of protection the United States has enjoyed
in the past. With missiles and supersonic aircraft, every area in the
United States is vulnerable to enemy attack. Every city and town
in the nation is a potential target.
Along with the threat of enemy attack, there is the ever present
danger of disasters caused by nature, and by the negligence of man.
Whether seasonal or freakish, such natural disasters may occur in
heavily populated or sparsely settled areas, causing inconvenience,
damage, and loss of life. Even with advance notice of possible
danger, precautions taken hurriedly, at the last minute, usually fall
short of what could or should have been done well in advance of
the earliest warnings. The hurricane threat each summer and fall
is a good illustration of how prepared citizens minimize the effects
of the hurricane while the unprepared depend on luck to protect
Whatever the geographic location of the community there is no
immunity from natural disasters. Therefore, every community, and
all of its institutions, should be prepared to meet the problems
resulting from a disaster, regardless of its cause or nature. Since it
is impossible to predict all the events of a given disaster, the greater
the degree of preparation, the greater the ability to cope with it.
Philosophy and Principles of Survival Education
Man has progressed from the stone age to the space age. His
future is as promising as his past has been glorious. At the same
time he is faced with fears, dangers, and tensions resulting from the
possibility of natural and man-made disasters. If man is to continue
his progress, he must survive the effects of the disasters he faces.
In the event of disaster, preparedness is the key to survival.
Civil defense is planned and organized action to survive dis-
aster. It operates through the basic principles of cooperation for
mutual protection--by individuals, groups, communities, and the
nation as a whole. Only through such cooperation can a community
cope with the panic that can result from enemy attack or a major
The children and youth in this country constitute a significant
proportion of the total population. They also comprise that part
of the population which will be the nation for the next two gen-
erations. The young people of the United States and Florida must
play an important and vital role in preparing to meet disaster,
either man-made or created by nature, whenever it occurs.
School attendance laws compel parents to turn over to the teacher
the immediate control of their children and the concomitant respon-
sibility for their safety for a large part of the time. Therefore, the
teacher, whether at the kindergarten or graduate level, shares
the tremendous responsibility of protecting youngsters from disaster
today and preparing them for their own protection tomorrow.
The school is a vital part of the community and should carry its
share of civil defense responsibilities, with a coordinated program
scattered or disseminated through various subject areas throughout
all the grades. At all age levels, there are important activities in
which children can develop the proper attitude toward survival,
and acquire the skills necessary.
Knowledge of how to survive natural and man-made disasters is
available. Children and youth should become acquainted with this
knowledge. It is the educator's responsibility to teach this infor-
Purpose of the Guide
Teachers have indicated they need and want guidance and
assistance with the following:
1. Identifying what is to be taught and placing it at appropriate
age and grade levels.
2. Determining the most effective methods for teaching the
3. Obtaining resources.
A successful school civil defense program requires administrative
guidance and the full cooperation of personnel at all levels of edu-
cation. The personnel functions cover the entire school organization
from the State Department of Education to the students.
Because of the geographic relation of the school to a target area,
responsibilities are not uniform in all schools under all conditions.
Therefore, each individual school must determine the solutions to
problems such as shelter, evacuation, recreation, or support. School
civil defense programs are developed by:
1. The acceptance of civil defense as an essential part of present
2. Integration of civil defense education into the curriculum.
3. Planning for an effective civil defense program.
The purpose of this guide is (1) to assist the teacher in gaining
the knowledge needed to guide students in meeting emergencies
without fear or panic; and (2) to offer suggestions to the teacher
on how to present material so that survival information can be
inserted smoothly into the present curriculum.
Chapter 3 details some of the facts on natural and man-made
disasters, but this guide is not meant to be a text from which a
teacher will teach survival education. Rather, it is a guide for the
teacher to use in the development of activities for bringing this
material to the students.
The teacher should organize the instructional phase, giving con-
sideration to the objectives to be accomplished. Problems should be
anticipated, content considered for each level, outcomes for the
grade level identified, and resource information secured. Then
the teaching of survival education can be woven into the total
The success of such teaching will depend greatly on the initiative
and creativity an individual teacher can use. Many teachers will be
able to go far beyond the minimum suggestions offered in this guide.
Objectives of Personal Survival Education
1. An understanding of world issues which involve Florida and
a survival education program.
2. A scientific understanding of the dangers of wartime and
3. An understanding of the individual's relationship to disaster.
4. An understanding of the protective measures which have been
developed to combat the effects of a disaster.
5. The development of the skills necessary for survival in emer-
1. To develop in the student a respect for human life.
2. To help the student to recognize his obligation to assume a
fair share of the common responsibility in planning for and
dealing with disaster.
3. To develop in the student self control and self direction.
4. To increase the student's understanding of the psychological
nature of fear and how to deal with it in himself and others
so that he may act more rationally and less emotionally under
5. To add to the student's awareness of the psychological prob-
lems that may result from group living in confined quarters
under minimum comfort conditions for an indeterminate
length of time and under unpredictable circumstances.
6. To teach the student the principles of first aid and other
knowledge which will help him to act wisely and resourcefully
to aid himself and others in the event of an emergency.
1. To understand the need for survival training and their re-
sponsibilities to themselves and their country.
2. To gain a knowledge of the dangers accompanying both
natural and man-made disasters.
3. To acquire the knowledge necessary to enable them to cope
with both immediate and long-term dangers.
FOR SURVIVAL EDUCATION
The fact that no area in the United States is immune to possible
total nuclear attack or to destruction from natural causes is reason
enough for all communities to have a responsibility in preparing
for disaster. Coordination of effort and cooperation of many groups
must be utilized in the promotion of a civil defense program if it is
to be effective in the three basic areas:
The responsibility of the city or community is to:
1. Operate its civil defense system and make necessary mutual
assistance pacts with neighboring communities.
2. Provide adequate staff and facilities for civil defense training.
3. Take part in the state program of organized mobile support.
Within the local organization, divisions and functions may follow
the plan outline for federal and state organization. Divisions and
functions peculiar to the needs of the community may be substituted
or added. Each mayor or chief executive is responsible for civil
defense in his city and for coordinating it with programs in other
cities and with those of county or state organizations.
Ways in which the community may serve are numerous. Some
communities will be able to afford more services and be more
creative in their approach to the problem than others. Each com-
munity should however, assume those responsibilities that are within
The meeting of the requirements of survival education are most
effective when the parent will intelligently carry out his responsi-
bility in the application of knowledge to help his child attain a
sound set of values.
The parent is in the place of responsibility to:
1. Give guidance in the development of survival attitudes, habits,
and practices in the home.
2. Provide an adequate environment for the development of
necessary skills in the meeting of the needs presented by a
3. Develop a sense of confidence in the child so that should
disaster occur he would be a responsible individual in meeting
that disaster with reactions conducive to survival.
The responsibility of the parent also includes being a part of the
school team and participating in school and community programs.
It is then that a common purpose will evolve and give unity and
direction to the many efforts toward survival.
A successful school civil defense program requires administrative
guidance and full cooperation of personnel at all levels of education.
During the past few years it has been found that, in many
instances, initial interest in the program was high but tended to
diminish. If the full import of the startling facts about the effects
of nuclear weapons and natural disasters were kept uppermost in the
minds of teacher and students alike, a vigorous interest in the pro-
gram could be sustained.
Each member of the school organization needs to realize the
seriousness of the problem and to recognize his individual responsi-
The education of the whole child has been set as the ultimate
goal of the school. One of the most important factors influencing the
attainment of that objective is the mental, physical, social, and
emotional health of the child. Survival education is an important
part of each of these areas; therefore, it should be an integral part
of the total school curriculum.
The principal is responsible for supervising and administering the
operation of his school. This responsibility includes providing for
the safety and protection of the school population, facilities, and
vital records. He is responsible for developing, organizing, and oper-
ating the school civil defense program. Planning must be based on
the fact that the school may have to operate independently in an
emergency; therefore, each building should have its own civil
The principal, as the school civil defense coordinator, may appoint
an assistant to handle details connected with implementing the
school plan. The important responsibilities are summarized below.
1. Confer with school superintendent and local civil defense
director to determine the role of the school in the community
program, including an understanding as to what emergency
use will be made of the school facilities by the community
civil defense leaders.
2. Carry out policies of the superintendent and board of educa-
tion in administering school civil defense.
3. Appoint a school civil defense advisory committee made up of
parents, school representatives, members of civic organizations,
and local civil defense personnel.
4. Utilize services of the local civil defense organization in con-
ducting a school shelter survey.
5. Install an emergency attack warning system.
6. Arrange for procurement and safe storage of civil defense
supplies and equipment.
7. Integrate appropriate civil defense instruction into subject
It falls to the teacher to make sure that all students learn to con-
duct themselves properly in time of emergency. Instruction must be
adjusted to fit the needs and capacities of the students.
Teachers should not serve in an official civil defense capacity
during school hours. Outside of school hours they may wish to serve
as civil defense instructors, training coordinators, consultants, or as
members of the community organization. Teachers should:
1. Keep currently informed about the civil defense plan of the
school and the teachers' role in its operation.
2. Know and understand the effects of and survival techniques
for natural disasters and nuclear, biological, and chemical
3. Provide integrated instruction and practice for students in the
techniques of survival.
4. Prepare students to maintain confidence and morale in emer-
5. Maintain student personal data name, address, parent or
guardian, telephone number, etc. This list, together with
written emergency instructions, should be available to sub-
The task of the teacher is a challenging one, for he is one of the
key persons in this undertaking. The teacher has it within his realm
to help pave the way for survival in the face of disaster.
Integration of civil defense education into the elementary school
curriculum will help prepare pupils to accept responsibility for civil
defense when they reach high school age. Elementary pupils can
take part in shelter and evacuation drills, and learn how to protect
themselves under emergency conditions. They should develop con-
fidence in the effectiveness of school civil defense and in their own
ability to take care of themselves.
High school students, on the other hand, can take an active part
in the school civil defense program. Teen-age boys and girls adapt
easily to emergency conditions and fit readily into a variety of jobs.
Many civil defense tasks can be performed by properly trained
The following are some of the civil defense duties for which high
school students can volunteer:
1. Help care for and entertain younger children.
2. Assist the physically handicapped.
3. Act as messengers.
4. Perform auxiliary duties as fire wardens, room wardens, first-
aiders, stretcher bearers, home nurses, loading zone monitors,
and reception area guides.
5. Perform clerical duties.
6. Operate amateur radio or school telephone switchboard.
7. Assist in serving meals or on a clean-up detail following mass
8. Serve as parking lot attendants at reception areas.
FOR THE TEACHER
As indicated in Chapter 1, this guide is not intended as a textbook
for a course in civil defense or survival education. However, it is
felt that the teacher developing courses of study in this area should
have a knowledge of the characteristics of various disasters and
their effects on a community.
Many sources of information on this topic are available to the
teacher wishing to develop competency in this area. The course
titled "Personal Survival in Disaster," offered as a part of the local
adult education program, is highly recommended for teachers and
administrators, as well as for parents and other citizens.
There are many examples of natural disasters, and a study of
their various causes will show that no section of the United States
is completely immune to disaster.
By dividing the United States into four sections we find the North-
east threatened with severe winters, spring flooding, tornadoes, and
hurricanes. Some areas have recorded earthquakes, and forest fires
are an ever present summer hazard.
The Southeast is faced with summer and fall hurricanes, spring
and summer tornadoes, flooding, and forest fires.
The Northwest must meet the problems resulting from forest fires,
tornadoes, earthquakes, and drought.
The Southwest prepares for floods, fires, tornadoes, earthquakes,
and a hurricane now and then.
Each disaster has certain unique characteristics, as described
1. May strike any part of the United States.
2. Duration of threat is relatively short.
3. Covers a small area ranging from X to 1 mile in width and
15 to 20 miles in length.
4. Cannot be predicted as to exact time or place of occurrence,
but conditions are being identified as to areas of favorability
(a) From high velocity surface winds of up to 500 miles per
hour which overturn buildings or dash them to the ground.
(b) From the explosive action caused by the sudden lowering
of atmospheric pressure on the outside of buildings.
(c) From the violent upward rush of air near the center of
the storm, strong enough to lift vehicles off the roads,
carry grazing animals into nearby pastures, and transport
smaller objects for many miles.
1. Usually born in the Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean, or Gulf of
Mexico, and generally affect the entire Eastern Seaboard.
2. Duration of the hurricane may begin with a gradual but steady
build-up of wind velocity as long as 12 to 18 hours in advance
of the "eye" or center of the storm, but may end within six
hours after the eye passes.
3. May cover an area as small as 50 to 75 miles in diameter but
may extend over an area 500 miles in diameter. The hurricane
may carry its destruction over a path of many hundreds or
even thousands of miles in length.
4. Predictability is possible and conditions have been identified
for development of the storm area. When the storm path
becomes apparent and approaches a land mass, a "hurricane
watch" is announced 30 to 36 hours before the storm is pre-
dicted to hit. "Hurricane warnings" are issued when winds of
75 miles per hour or higher, or rough seas and dangerously
high tides are expected within 24 hours.
(a) Property damage and loss of life due to the strong winds
and high water. Water damage is usually greater than
(b) Winds are strong enough to blow houses over, uproot
trees, and fill the air with flying debris. However, in
hurricane belts many structures are built to specifications
that will withstand the effects of wind forces in a hur-
1. It is estimated that a great number of earthquakes occur each
year, but only a small percentage are strong enough to cause
serious damage. Two-thirds of the earthquakes in the United
States have occurred on the Pacific Coast, but some have been
recorded in the western interior, south central, and eastern
sections of the country.
2. Duration of a quake is short, lasting only a few seconds or a
very few minutes.
3. Earthquakes are unpredictable, largely because the ultimate
causes of strong and destructive earthquakes, involving deep
ruptures of the earth, have not been established.
4. The greatest damage occurs during the short shock period.
In earthquake belts many structures are built to specifications
that will withstand the effects of earthquakes. Otherwise, there
is not much that can be done to prevent damage, but with a
severe earthquake, advance civil defense planning can save
lives and make adjustment easier after the tremor has passed.
1. The main river basins and lowlands all over the country are
subject to floods.
2. Except for flash floods, floods can be forecast sufficiently in
advance to allow for emergency actions to take place before
flood waters reach an area.
3. Some related dangers exist during flooding, such as outbreaks
of insects and disease.
Other Natural Hazards
1. Although not a threat to Florida, sudden blizzards cause loss
of lives. A blizzard carries the combined effects and hazards of
extremely cold weather, strong winds, and blinding snow.
2. The major dangers which result from blizzards are the intense
cold weather and the breakdown of transportation due to poor
visibility, drifting snow, and icy roads.
Man himself is frequently responsible for disaster. Through negli-
gence or by willful acts, man-made disasters result in destruction of
life and property to as great a degree as natural causes. Such man-
made disasters originate in both peaceful and military pursuits. In
similar manner, pupils in school are exposed to potential hazards,
some of which can develop from routine school activities and others
from influences outside of school jurisdiction. The latter may be of
either civilian or military origin, such as falling aircraft or increased
deposits of radioactive dust.
The threat of fire is probably the most widely recognized potential
hazard, particularly one out of control. If the burning is confined to
a single house, it probably will result in an isolated case of property
destruction. However, when fire strikes a whole neighborhood, it
may result in considerable loss of life and property.
Due to the nature of the catastrophe, large proportions of build-
ings and their occupants are endangered by each occurrence.
Explosions occur instantaneously, without warning, and may or may
not be accompanied by fire.
The cause of explosion has a bearing upon the types of injuries
which are likely to result. Thus, the concussion or blast effect, flying
glass, falling brick and other structural materials, and fire could all
accompany a single incident; or each could occur alone. All can
The blast and heat effects are similar to those of any explosive
but on a much larger scale. The amount of energy they release is
thousands of times as great as that produced by the most powerful
TNT bombs. Their explosion is accompanied by highly penetrating
invisible radiation, intense heat, and light. The substances which
remain after the explosion are radioactive and capable of harming
There are three types of bursts, depending on the location, of a
Air burst produces the most widespread damage. Its initial radia-
tion is a definite personal hazard for one or two minutes. Many
people can be severely burned by the heat (thermal radiation)
unless they are protected, but the greatest damage and number of
injuries result from fire and falling buildings.
Surface burst causes less damage and fewer casualties from blast
and fire than air burst, but the radiation hazard is increased because
huge quantities of earth, sucked up into the mushroom cloud,
become radioactive and fall back to the earth (fallout) and cover
large areas with lethal contamination for great distances downwind.
Subsurface burst damages a small area, but the fallout of radio-
active dust or moisture is increased. In an underwater burst, blast
damage is less than in an underground burst.
The almost instantaneous release of energy by fission (A-bomb)
or fusion (H-bomb) of atoms in a nuclear explosion is accompanied
by the production of extremely high temperatures. Much of this
heat is absorbed by the air around the burst, with the result that
the air becomes heated to incandescence.
The burst begins to appear as a fireball a fraction of a second
after detonation. Energy continues to be released and, as the tem-
perature of the air through which it passes is raised, the ball of fire
increases in size. In a fraction of a second the temperature reaches
that of the sun (18 million degrees) with a light that is many times
brighter. As the fireball grows, a shockwave (blast) develops in
the air, and in 10 seconds the wave travels about 12,000 feet. By
this time the fireball has risen to an altitude of 1,500 feet.
Nuclear radiation starts at the instant of detonation and continues
for about 90 seconds, the greatest amount being emitted during the
first few seconds. This radiation consists of highly penetrating
neutrons and gamma rays and less damaging beta and alpha
The fireball rises and becomes dimmer as the doughnut-shaped
cloud begins to form. Because of its high temperature and low
density, it rises at a surprising rate of speed. In rising, it is cooled
by temperature loss, expansion, and mixing of its gases with the
surrounding air. As the fireball cools, parts of it condense, forming
water droplets and metallic smoke made up of solid particles.
At first particles are carried upward by the rising fireball, but
after a time they begin to fall. A rising and falling column of smoke
then forms, composed of water droplets and fission products. This
column is the stem of the mushroom cloud.
Another phenomenon is the formation of the icecap. This cap
appears at the top of the mushroom and sometimes seems to flow
down over the sides. It is composed of small ice crystals formed
when gases above the mushroom expand and are cooled, causing
water vapor in the air to freeze.
A nuclear detonation has four characteristic effects blast, heat,
immediate nuclear radiation, and residual radioactivity.
The shock wave (blast) produced by an air burst causes the
greatest damage. Widespread destruction results from air blast and
pressure which push out at terrific speeds.
An atomic bomb of nominal size (Hiroshima type) exploded
over flat terrain, produces wind velocities of approximately 1,000
miles per hour at ground zero (point directly below the bomb when
it is detonated) and 200 miles per hour one mile away. Intense pres-
sure sets up the leading edge of the air blast (shock wave), which
is like a giant hammer capable of producing great destruction.
Effects are the same with the hydrogen bomb, but on a larger scale
and covering a much wider area.
The hydrogen bomb test at Eniwetok atoll in the Pacific in
November, 1952, (a tower detonated burst) produced a fireball
3, miles in diameter. The radius of total destruction was 3 miles;
radius of heavy to medium damage 7 miles, and of light damage
10 miles. The blast left a crater 1 mile wide and 175 feet deep.
The first hydrogen bomb successfully dropped from an airplane
was detonated May 21, 1956, at a height of some 10,000 feet over
the Bikini atoll. It packed nearly five times the power of all bombs
dropped by the American forces during World War II. The heat
of the fireball which followed the actual explosion was 12,000,000
degrees, and the heat of the blast would have inflicted third degree
burns on exposed skin 15 miles away. Within one-half hour after
the blast the bomb cloud of vaporized coral, sand, and water was
25 miles high and spread laterally over an area of 100 miles.
Regardless of the size of the nuclear weapon used, damage effects
are generally regarded as falling into four zones: zone A--area
of complete destruction; zone B area of severe damage; zone C
- area of moderate damage; and zone D area of partial damage.
These areas are also called A, B, C, and D rings in some publications.
Thermal radiation (heat) adds to the damage from a nuclear deton-
ation by igniting combustible materials. Exposed persons in the blast
area receive severe burns. Twenty-five per cent of the human casual-
ties in the Hiroshima attack were caused by thermal radiation. The
light from thermal radiation is particularly destructive to the eyes
if a person looks directly at the initial explosion.
Since thermal radiation is absorbed and dissipated during the
first few seconds following a nuclear explosion, a little solid material
will provide flash bur protection, even close to ground zero.
Shelter greatly reduces the hazard from bum and blast effects
beyond the central target area. Clothing, or almost any kind of
shelter, reduces the danger of direct burs, although clothing and
structures might be ignited. Shelter materially reduces the hazard
of blast injury by protecting against flying or falling debris. The
shelter provided by ordinary buildings is inadequate within the cen-
tral area surrounding the point of explosion of a large nuclear
weapon. For this reason, the federal civil defense administration
recommends evacuation of central areas of target zones on early
warning of approaching attack.
When a nuclear weapon is exploded close to the ground, thousands
of tons of earth are sucked upward, sometimes to heights of 80,000
feet or more. The metallic elements in the soil become irradiated
and it is this material that serves as a carrier for fine particles of
highly radioactive material from the bomb. The amount of earth
carried up by the fireball will depend on the height of the burst
and size of the bomb. Particles later fall back to earth as radioactive
The activity of these radioactive particles begins to drop off at the
instant of detonation. This decrease in radioactivity is called decay.
Many fission products and isotopes produced by nuclear explosion
decay so rapidly that there is practically no radioactivity left in them
by the time they reach the earth. Other fission products such as
plutonium and uranium continue to be active for a long period of
time. Long life, however, means that their production of radio-
activity is slower than that of the more intense and shorter-lived
Radioactive materials deposited during fallout may or may not be
visible, but would be revealed by radiation detection instruments
such as Geiger counters. Any falling dust or ash that can be seen
downwind within a few hours after a nuclear explosion should be
regarded as radioactive until measured by detection instruments.
Biological Aspects of Radiation
It is inevitable that death will occur from a nuclear attack within
the primary and secondary target areas. Because of the type of
weapon and its effects produced by blast, heat, and radiation,
no amount of shelter will save people in these areas.
However, the number of people living within such areas amounts
to only 7 to 10 per cent of the population, whereas the remaining
90 to 93 per cent of the population lives and works outside of the
target areas and would not experience any effects from the blast
or heat produced. Yet, since the radiation aspect of the bombs does
not remain centered in the area of major destruction, it is a direct
danger to the rest of the country. Without shelter the remaining
population could be wiped out by radiological fallout.
It is difficult to understand that something we cannot see, feel,
taste, smell, or hear could be so damaging to the human body.
So it should be helpful to establish a basic understanding of what
we are dealing with. In 1895 a German physicist, W. K. Roentgen,
discovered that unknown radiations were mysterious enough for
them to be called x-rays, "x" designating the unknown nature of
the rays. It was later determined that these so called rays were
highly energetic light rays and thus became known as high energy
radiation. Other causes if ionization were found in high speed
electrons, called beta rays, and still another type of particle called
the alpha particle. X-rays and gamma rays are released at such
high speeds that even though they collide with other atoms (elec-
trons) they are slowed very little. Most of the beta rays produced
by atomic disintegration are capable of passing through only thin
layers of aluminum or about 15 feet of air. The alpha particle is not
an efficient penetrator; a sheet of paper suffices to stop most such
particles. However, in living tissue the extent of their penetration is
not negligible, especially if their source is inside the body.
The disintegration of atomic nuclei poses a novel type of biological
problem, since atoms involved change from one chemical element
into another. Should an atomic ray or particle hit the cell nucleus
the chemical change which occurs within the cell could prove fatal
to that cell.
Sources of Radiation
Natural sources all life is continuously exposed to high energy
radiations. Such "natural" or background radiations are present
everywhere, though their intensity is generally very low.
Man-made radiations- in addition to the rock bottom minimal
exposure, mankind is and probably will continue to be exposed to
some radiations from man-made sources. Sources of man-made
radiation are radioactive fallout, medical, and industrial programs.
There are two kinds of biological radiation effects and radiation
damage. One kind consists of physiological or somatic effects--
changes produced in the individuals or persons exposed to radiation.
Such effects are seen as leukemia, and perhaps other malignancies.
About 50 per cent of adult human beings exposed to 400 or 500 r
(roentgens) of radiation die of an acute illness within a few weeks.
This radiation illness or radiation syndrome begins with nausea,
vomiting and characteristic changes in the white blood cells, whose
number in the blood rapidly falls below normal. Later on there
appear a high fever, reddening and hemorrhages in the skin, loss
of hair, misshaped fingernails, ulceration of the mouth, throat and
intestines, and finally death. Those in whom the symptoms are less
severe may recover after a prolonged convalescence. With exposures
of up to 300 r, symptoms may range from no visible illness to mild
cases of radiation illness. After 400 r of radiation, as the amount
increases the symptoms range from mild to severe, from sickness
Cause of death every diagnostic symptom of radiation sickness
involves a cell system in which cells are constantly dividing: blood
cells, hair and fingernails, lining of intestines, mouth, throat and
upper layer of skin, are continuously replaced by cell division.
After 500 r of radiation, enough cells are apparently destroyed to
make repair impossible and death is the consequence.
The other kind of effects and radiation damage are genetic effects,
which appear only in the descendants of exposed individuals. An
adult Drosophila fly can withstand irradiation one hundred times
more severe than that which is lethal to man. Flies so treated become
sterile, but they develop nothing like the human radiation syndrome.
Why is the fly so resistant? The answer is that in most adult insects
there is very little cell division. The cells in the adult body are
fixed in number. But, there is an exception the reproductive
organs. There divisions do occur, and we find that germ cells are
destroyed by much lower radiation exposures than the body itself
can withstand. The result is sterility of the exposed fly. It is likewise
expected that children and infants, especially embryos during early
stages of pregnancy, are more vulnerable to radiation injury than
adult persons. Cell division is a requisite for growth. The dose of
radiation lethal to children and infants is not known, but probably
lies below 400 r. Irradiation of pregnant mothers may cause mis-
carriages, still-births, or the birth of deformed children, exhibiting
more or less grave physical abnormalities. All this may well be
related to the more numerous cell divisions occurring in fetal and
infant bodies. Therefore, with these known biological facts, radiation
protection is vital to the survival of individuals, and even more vital
to the protection of the growing children of pre-school and school
Within radiological fallout there are found the seeds of its own
destruction. The story of fallout is, very briefly, as follows.
The explosion of atomic bombs and super bombs generate numer-
ous unstable and radioactive isotopes of many chemical elements.
At ground zero, metallic soil elements and nuclear radiations of the
bomb are vaporized by the intense heat and produce a large column
of hot gases. This is the typical mushroom shaped cloud that has
become so familiar. As this mass of hot gases climbs into the
atmosphere, the vapors cool and condense into solid, dust-like
particles which are scattered by the wind. Fallout is the radioactive
dust that falls back to earth from about 30 minutes after the
Even as fallout is formed its destruction begins. For each seven-
fold increase in time, the radioactivity is reduced by a factor of ten.
Thus, most of the radioactivity in a fallout cloud will have decayed
itself within the first 8 hours of the initial explosion. The reduction
of radioactivity is known as decay.
RADIOACTIVE DECAY RATE
One hour after explosion H+1 1,000 r/hr.
Seven hours later H+8 100 r/hr.
About 2 days later
(7 hrs. x 7, or 49 hrs.) H+49 10 r/hr.
About 2 weeks
(49 x 7 or 343 hrs.) H+343 1 r/hr.
The decay of radioactivity is based on the fact that each radio-
active element has a half-life. The half-life of a radioactive element
is the length of time required for one-half of the substance to
decompose and lose its radioactivity. Thus, although fallout is
highly dangerous, it is not permanent. Among the unstable and
radioactive isotopes generated by a nuclear explosion, two are
worthy of special mention- Strontium-90 and Cesium-137. A
major characteristic of both elements is that they are absorbed and
retained in the bodies of plants, animals, and men. Strontium-90
is particularly important since it is absorbed and utilized by the
body in a similar manner as calcium. Strontium-90 has a half-life
of 28 years; Cesium-137 a half-life of 27 years. Both of these radio-
active atoms are also produced in large amounts and, because they
decompose rather slowly, continue to give off dangerous, high
energy radiations for a long time.
In summary, then, people in the path of fallout can survive by
understanding the nature of its danger and capitalizing on its
weaknesses of decay, time, and distance. The greater the distance
between you and the source of radiation the safer you are. The
greater the time it takes fallout to reach you, the weaker it will
be, and the longer you can protect yourself from it the safer you
To many, the concept of shelter protection has been interpreted
as permanent underground living. Nothing could be farther from the
truth. We have seen the factors in overcoming fallout through
utilizing time, distance, and decay. Shelter adds another defensive
weapon for its defeat mass and shielding.
It will be impossible to obtain complete shielding from all gamma
rays. However, every inch of intervening material, even a pile of
magazines, will absorb some of the rays. The amount of shielding
afforded by different structures and materials can be visualized by
"protection factors." If the protection factor is 2, one-half the rays
will penetrate. If the protection factor is 10, only one gamma ray
in 10 will penetrate. So we see that it is possible to decrease the
amount of radiation exposure by the use of various shielding
materials. The greater the mass (steel, concrete, earth, wood, water,
etc.) the safer you are. Consider these facts in relation to expected
fallout and permissible dosage in humans.
It is conceivable that an area close to ground zero might receive
a maximum fallout as high as 10,000 r/hr. Considering rate of
decay, it could be assumed that a shelter having a protection factor
of 1,000, providing it did not suffer destruction by the blast, could
protect its occupants indefinitely from symptoms of radiation.
A shelter of the type advised for basements, having a protection
factor of 100, if it withstood the blast, should protect against all
symptoms if the maximum fallout were as much as 3,000 r/hr. (a
fallout rate that would only be expected near ground zero or for
a relatively short distance directly downwind from there). Such a
shelter should permit survival at even higher dosages, if adequate
treatment is given.
On the other hand, an ordinary basement unshielded by top
cover of concrete and adequate shielding over windows, and having
a protection factor of 10, would probably protect against symptoms
only in areas receiving 300 r/hr. or less of initial fallout. The first
floor of a frame house would give but an insignificant 1:2 protection.
Since no one can foretell where a bomb may fall, it is clear from
the above considerations that special shelter is an absolute necessity.
Except for areas close to ground zero (and the immediate effects of
blast, fire and radiation), a basement shelter having a protection
factor of 100 should be adequate. However, where ground is avail-
able (particularly near likely target areas) an underground shelter,
able to withstand 10 p.s.i. of overpressure and thus able to escape
much blast destruction, and having an efficiency of 1:1,000 or
1:10,000, would be far safer.
Decontamination the remaining of radioactive dust particles
may be accomplished by washing with soap and water or, in the
case of streets and buildings, by flushing with water. Contamination
on the surface of the ground may be ploughed under to make it less
effective. A vacuum cleaner can be used inside the home but the
content of the bag must be disposed of, preferably by burying
or flushing down a drain.
Shelter living will require much in the way of preparedness.
Food, water, waste disposal, medical supplies, clothing and bedding,
rescue tools, cleaning and special personal supplies, and recreation
supplies should be stock-piled prior to warnings of attack.
IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS
Earlier in this guide it was suggested that rather than develop
special courses in civil defense and survival education it would be
best to incorporate information in this area into a variety of courses
at all grade levels.
A review of the materials in this chapter should indicate that
there are numerous opportunities for the teacher to do this without
diluting or weakening existing courses. Rather, references to civil
defense and survival should make the courses meaningful to the
student in that the course material is thereby related to everyday
experiences of the student. Also, survival education, given in small
doses as suggested here, is likely to be more palatable to most
students than a heavy concentration given in special survival courses.
Exceptions to this suggestion are found with the special civil defense
course for adults and specific preparation for an expected disaster
(anticipation that a severe hurricane will strike the area).
This chapter is organized under the following five headings:
primary grades, intermediate grades, junior high school, senior high
school and community college, and adult education. However, it
should be realized that there can be considerable overlap and the
suggestions made for a particular age or grade level may well fit
into the programs for other groups.
THE PRIMARY GRADES
The school's responsibility for teaching civil defense begins with
early childhood education. Basic civil defense concepts should be
introduced at this level which will be broadened and strengthened
as the child progresses through the educational program.
The teacher must strive to alleviate fearful attitudes as concepts
of survival are related to everyday experiences and interests of the
children. The goal for primary children should be to establish a
foundation for civil defense education using accurate, up-to-date
information with an optimistic view to the future not to frighten
them with gruesome tales of disaster.
An Understanding of World Issues
World issues are in reality far removed from the experiences of
the child in early primary grades. Even here, however, the resource-
ful teacher can interject basic civil defense concepts as state and
world news events are noted in classroom discussion and experi-
ences. Teachers should work toward developing ideas of closeness
and oneness and ideas of scientific advances that tend to "shrink"
the world. Utilization can be made of such resources as television,
radio, newspapers, tourist refugees, NASA publications, civil defense
brochures, family military experiences, and pictures showing
advances in transportation and communication.
1. Construction of simple maps or "globe-spotting," showing
location of state and world events relating to civil defense.
2. Classroom interviews of refugees, military personnel, and
others who may have had experience with disaster.
3. Scrapbook of pictures showing latest developments in trans-
portation and communication.
4. Use of films and other audio-visuals pertinent to this topic.
Understanding The Individual's Relationship To Disaster
It is important for man to have an understanding of his relation-
ship to disaster. The child in primary grades is not too young to
begin this concept and to become aware of the need to make the
right decisions in the event of disaster.
Many tragic deaths have occurred because of ignorance and a
lack of preparedness. The young child can be taught that disaster
can happen to anyone and that with adequate knowledge and
planning, survival is possible.
Understanding Natural And Man-Made Disaster
A common primary activity is that of keeping a calendar showing
weather conditions from day to day. This is an open door to
the discussion of windstorm -means of protection and recovery.
Introduction of these concepts on the primary level may include
discussion and observation, pictorial illustrations (film, filmstrips,
and other visuals), and dramatization. Simple experiments can be
performed such as the simulation of storm conditions using an
electric fan and water on a mock sand table village.
The child will want to know many things about the earth on which
he lives. Under the direction of a skillful teacher, he can discover
the causes of the changes over the years in the surface of the earth.
As he learns that nature both wears down and builds up the earth's
surface through wind, water, and other natural causes he can also
learn that man causes change in the earth's surface-both con-
structively and destructively. This should lead to a matter-of-fact
discussion on nuclear energy-how man can use it both to advan-
tage and disadvantage. More advanced students may investigate
the source of nuclear energy and other scientific aspects of its
origin and use.
1. Field trip to observe erosion and other kinds of natural changes
in the earth's surface.
2. Films and pictures showing dams, man-made islands, canals,
and other man-made changes in the earth.
3. Films and pictures showing the aftermath of earthquake, hur-
ricane, tornado, and other natural causes of change.
4. Experiments simulating weather conditions to study the
changes created and to determine what to do to prevent
destruction and the most effective recovery procedures to
5. Films and pictures showing nuclear blast and its effect on
Understanding Protective Measures
To Combat Effects Of Disaster
The concepts of protection and survival may be broadened
through a study of community helpers, including civil defense
workers and their role in the protection of the community.
As the primary pupil goes further into a study of community life
and the interdependence of people, a study can be made of the
local community's civil defense plan for education, preparedness,
and recovery, in case of natural disaster or nuclear attack.
Throughout the primary grades, directions to be obeyed and rules
of protection to be followed should be very simple and easily under-
stood. Then fear will be displaced with knowledge of what the
disaster really is and what to do about protecting oneself.
1. Talk by Civil Defense Director about local facilities for pro-
tection, civil defense objectives and services.
2. Field trip to view community's civil defense installations.
3. Discussion and dramatization of preparedness and recovery
measures to be used in the case of various types of disasters.
4. Investigation of services of the police department, fire depart-
ment, hospitals and Red Cross. (Field trips and classroom
Development Of Skills Necessary For Survival
Young children are interested in how we take care of ourselves
and our neighbors. They should be taught at an early age to give
accurate self-identification, telephone number, and complete address
with directions for locating their home. They must learn how to
follow directions and to accept certain responsibilities.
1. Rote drill on self-identification information.
2. Dramatization or practice drills of what to do when disaster
3. Safety games.
4. Booklet: My Family's Plan for Safety (responsibilities for each
member of the family in preparedness and survival).
5. Charts listing basic civil defense directions for preparedness
THE INTERMEDIATE GRADES
By the time a youngster has reached the intermediate grades he
is able to begin to relate himself scientifically to the world in which
he lives. He should be able to comprehend the fact that the toler-
ances between extremes contributing to human life are small. For
example, only a few degrees of heat or cold could prevent the
processes of life on earth. At the same time, man has been able to
exist and prosper because he has been able to control his environ-
ment, to adjust to it, and to overcome various types of disaster.
Within this framework teachers can proceed to discuss, in somewhat
stark realism, the danger man faces from natural and man-made
disaster, and to build a foundation or bulwark against these dangers.
1. To develop an understanding of man-made and natural dis-
asters and how they affect our lives.
2. To develop an understanding of the protective measures which
have been developed and those which can be used to prevent
and combat the effects of both man-made and natural disasters.
3. To develop an understanding of what civil defense is and its
importance to us here in Florida.
4. To develop an understanding of the child's responsibility to
(a) Interest and awareness about civil defense instead of
apathy and indifference toward it.
(b) Ideas and understandings of man's interdependence.
(c) Confidence which will offset fear, should disaster strike.
(d) A clear knowledge of what the rules of behavior are
(e) Complete understanding of one's responsibility to him-
self and others during disaster.
Concepts And Attitudes To Be Developed
And Skills To Be Acquired
1. Interest and awareness toward civil defense as well as other
good health and safety habits.
2. Basic understanding of civil defense plans for state and nation;
and a thorough understanding of the community and school
3. Knowledge of the warning systems for school and community
and how to react to them; the location of school and com-
4. Know full name, names of both parents and where each can
be reached, telephone number to call if child has an accident,
home address, and nearest route home from school.
5. Know the various kinds of man-made disasters; man's achieve-
ments in predicting and reporting the movement of hurricanes
and advance knowledge of areas where tornadoes may strike;
and protective measures which have been developed.
6. Knowledge of the effects of nuclear explosions and survival
7. An understanding and knowledge of the various agencies tak-
ing part in the community civil defense program and their
responsibilities; of the need for trained people to aid in
survival; of the need for each person to be prepared to help;
and of how each person can help prepare for survival in any
kind of emergency.
8. Understand the meaning of terms such as "interdependence,"
"shrinking world," "natural disasters," "man-made disasters,"
9. Develop an attitude and a feeling of responsibility for himself
and others in time of disaster; self-confidence and self-direction
which will help to overcome fear and the tendency to panic;
and the ability to react in the prescribed manner set up by the
school and community when disaster strikes.
Suggested Activities To Accomplish Objectives
1. Provide a variety of interesting reading material on all aspects
of disaster, including the reading aloud of stories which appeal
to children in this age group; be alert to individual interests
and encourage "reading to find out."
2. Use pictures, posters, films, slides, charts, news stories, etc.,
dealing with disaster.
3. Use provocative "did you know" questions to stimulate interest
in the facts about disaster. Encourage students to think of and
list the many ways each person depends on others at school,
at home, in the community, the state, the nation, and the world.
4. Use experiences, creative writing, creative art, songs, poems,
games, stories, etc. in programs, development of booklets,
reports, etc. Draw maps of the community showing emergency
shelters, school shelters, emergency hospitals and location of
the various agencies that will be active during disasters.
Students can make booklets or draw up plans for civil defense
with the family in mind. These should include full directions
for each member of the family, stored supplies such as water,
food, first aid supplies, special medicines, shelter facilities for
sanitation, sleeping, recreation, radio, and possible radiation
detection equipment. (This type of activity would bring
parents into the program and aid in establishing interest and
awareness of the need for preparedness.)
5. Field trips, properly conducted, are most valuable. Visit a
weather station, fire station, civil defense headquarters. Inves-
tigate areas of destruction from natural and man-made
disasters, if such are available.
6. Bring in resource people. Invite the local Civil Defense Coor-
dinator to speak to the class. Other resource people include a
fireman, a forester, a conservationist, along with doctors,
welfare workers, Red Cross personnel, sheriff, highway patrol-
7. Practice giving different warning signals or nuclear blasts by
using some device in the school. Various drills should be con-
ducted often and at unexpected times so that children may
learn to react at a moment's notice in the prescribed manner.
8. Learn what each individual can do when disaster strikes, such
as helping younger children to find shelter, entertaining smaller
children, remaining calm, giving instant obedience to those in
authority, and being responsible citizens. Assigning responsi-
bilities to each member of the class will help them gain self-
confidence and self-direction as they assume and discharge
responsibilities assigned. Point up successes or failures of plans
in relation to how members assume or fail to assume responsi-
9. The students should be encouraged to carry at all times some
kind of identification: name and address and telephone num-
ber of person to be contacted in case of emergency. If the
student has any kind of disease, treatment and name of doctor
should always be included.
10. It is impossible to separate survival education from a good
health and safety program. Stressing safety at all times-at
school, in the home, on the playground, walking to school,
riding bicycles, and all other activities-helps children to
recognize safety hazards. Practice giving first aid to accident
victims and provide instruction in minimum first aid.
11. Elementary school children are at an impressionable age.
Teachers must attempt at all times to remain calm when
accidents occur-either minor or major-to help children
overcome fear. They should investigate reasons for fears and
help children develop emotional stability.
Integrating Civil Defense Into The Intermediate Curriculum
The creative teacher will be able to incorporate some civil defense
instruction into every subject he teaches. Some subjects, however,
lend themselves more naturally to this type of study. Science, health
and safety, and social studies are good examples, and several sug-
gestions are given below.
Provocative questions during a study of weather furnish an
excellent opportunity to arouse interest in, and desire to learn about,
causes of some of our natural disasters. Examples:
1. What causes a tornado?
(a) What is the destructive force of a tornado?
(b) Which areas of our country are subject to tornadoes?
(c) How can one protect himself against tornadoes?
2. What is a hurricane?
(a) What can we learn about the force of a full-fledged
(b) Which areas of our country are subject to hurricanes?
(c) How can one prepare for a hurricane?
3. What is a typhoon?
(a) Does it differ from a hurricane?
(b) Where do typhoons occur?
(c) How does one protect himself from a typhoon?
Science also leads into the study of atoms and atomic energy and
questions such as the following arouse interest and lead into study
of man-made disasters.
1. What is an atom?
(a) How large is an atom?
(b) How many atoms placed end to end would it take to
make an inch?
2. What is an A-bomb?
(a) How much power can a 10 megaton bomb produce?
(b) How is the force of a bomb measured?
(c) What destructive forces are released in a nuclear explo-
3. What is the difference between an A-bomb and a hydrogen
(a) What materials are used in making nuclear weapons?
4. What are some peaceful uses of atomic energy?
Health And Safety
Programs lend themselves well to an introduction to and study of
various aspects of civil defense. Examples:
1. What are some threats to safety?
(a) Natural: fire, hurricane, tornado, flood, earthquakes.
(b) Man-made: plane crashes, automobile wrecks, combus-
tions, explosions, bombs, fallout from nuclear explosions,
radiation, live wires.
2. What are some threats to health?
(a) Natural: disease, accidents causing loss of blood, shock,
infection, etc., poor nutrition, tooth decay.
(b) Man-made: water pollution, pollution of air and soil,
radiation sickness, contaminated foods, water, soil, air,
3. How can we protect ourselves should these threats become
(a) What the health department is doing now and what it is
prepared to do if disaster strikes.
(b) Functions of fire department.
(c) Functions of local, state, and national government in civil
(d) Proper procedure to follow in particular situation.
(e) How to cooperate with those in authority.
(f) To maintain positive attitudes and "keep your head."
(g) To use resource persons such as: health nurse, civil
defense coordinator, representative from power company,
policeman and highway patrolman, representative from
telephone company and radio station.
Concepts important to intermediate children can be taught
through the social studies program by means of the following
1. What is democracy? Why do we defend the American way
2. What is the meaning of freedom? Why are we obligated to
maintain it? Does freedom carry with it any responsibilities?
3. Learn the meaning of such terms as "shrinking world," "propa-
ganda," "preparedness," "communism."
4. Find examples of different kinds of propaganda: good and bad.
5. Discuss the importance of having friendly relations with other
6. Use map exercises to help children understand the term
7. Use recent space exploration to develop this idea and to help
children understand the necessity for being prepared.
Language arts includes all forms of communication: writing, spell-
ing, reading, speaking, etc.
1. Children learn correct name, parents' name and complete
2. Children learn to read and follow directions. Make map of
most direct route from school to home.
3. Write letters asking for materials on civil defense.
4. Build civil defense vocabulary.
5. Do research and reporting on various types of disasters.
6. Teach use of dictionary and encyclopedia by using vocabulary
7. Read books, newspapers, magazines, etc., which deal with
some types of disaster.
8. Use reports, letters, vocabulary as basis for writing lessons.
9. Creative writing-poems, stories, etc., about disaster.
There is a direct relationship between art and civil defense and
instruction may include:
1. Making bulletin boards
2. Making posters
3. Illustrating reports, booklets, etc.
4. Making murals (creative illustrations of some phase of civil
5. Printing and lettering correctly
6. Setting up displays.
Music could include songs about the weather, our country, original
songs written by the children. They also might learn songs that
could be used to entertain while confined to fallout shelters.
Mathematics offers numerous opportunities to work out problems
connected with civil defense.
THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL
The junior high school seems to be a most appropriate area for
the teaching of civil defense concepts. The student, at this age, is
able and often eager to relate to the world about him; he is aware
of life and death, and therefore appreciative of the dangers that
might confront him; and junior high subjects are very suitable for
the incorporation of civil defense education. However, the teacher
in each subject area must be able to recognize student interest in
civil defense, and, once this interest has been developed, be in a
position to expand in the area to the extent this interest justifies.
Basic subject areas are particularly appropriate for teaching civil
defense, and this section includes some of the educational implica-
tions of civil defense concepts in the areas of social studies, science,
English, physical education, and home economics.
The present junior high school curriculum in Florida includes
world geography, American history, and civics.
World Geography. The global aspects of a possible World
War III and of the communist advances in the world should make
many phases of geography important and interesting to the student.
Following are some of the activities a teacher should find helpful in
1. Make maps showing:
(a) Expansion of Communism
(b) Transportation facilities
(c) Density of population
(d) Agricultural land
(f) Polar projection maps
(g) Mineral deposits.
2. Projects illustrating:
(a) Ideological control of populations and races of people.
(b) Survey of the school and community with reference to
location of needed vital survival materials; evacuation
routes from classroom to school shelter area; potential
community shelter areas; and potential emergency med-
(c) Discussions pertaining to the future role of the United
States as a world power.
American History. Junior high American history has many civil
defense implications. Our foreign policy is now aimed at the con-
tainment of communist power. Communist ideology today challenges
the economic as well as many of the social, political and religious
doctrines of the democracies in a very aggressive manner. Here are
some of the questions that might be asked:
1. What is the history and development of atomic energy?
2. How can schools become a potent factor in civil defense?
3. What can schools do to create a better public understanding
of civil defense programs and goals?
Some suggested activities are as follows:
1. Read and report on historical examples of exceptional courage
displayed in critical periods of American history, such as:
(a) The voyages of Columbus
(b) The Pilgrims' first winter in New England
(c) Exploration by Marquette and Joliet
(d) The Boston Tea Party
(e) The Declaration of Independence
(f) Washington's army at Valley Forge
(g) Andrew Jackson at New Orleans
(h) Winning of the West.
2. Study of American policy toward fascist and communist im-
(a) Historic unwillingness to interfere in affairs of other
nations until safety of America is involved.
(b) Aims behind United States interference in affairs or poli-
cies of other nations.
3. Some activities suitable for charts and discussion groups
(a) Make class charts of main wars in history, indicating
(b) Schedule round table discussions of such topics as in-
ternational understanding and its defensive value, and
the increasing destructiveness of warfare from 1914 to
the present time.
(c) Schedule discussions on the destructive power of nuclear
weapons, with pupils reading widely from authoritative
sources to document the opinions expressed.
Civics. This phase of the social studies program is ideally suited
for a study aimed at understanding one of the most effective enemy
weapons-propaganda. As with totalitarian governments in the
past, the communists have employed propaganda as one of their
basic tools. The communist bases his propaganda campaign on
a thesis that is calculated to appeal to all mankind, irrespective
of race, religion, or nationality. He likes to pose as the "defender
of the oppressed," and then to point out how the capitalistic
countries are discriminating against vulnerable minority groups.
Some suggestions are as follows:
1. Study examples of the hate and distrust of the United
States fostered by communist propaganda, found in studies
of current events.
2. Discussions and debates of current events as recorded in
both the free and communist countries.
3. Study of the underlying causes or conditions that bring
about hate campaigns against the United States.
4. Study of social unrest in our own country aimed at:
(a) Understanding the causes of this unrest
(b) Making constructive suggestions for remedies.
5. Make community and school surveys with reference to civil
defense fallout shelters and dispersal routes.
6. Determine functions of local, state, and national govern-
ment in civil defense.
7. Make a comparative study of the governmental structure
of the United States and the Soviet Union.
8. Conduct round-table discussions on such topics as:
(a) International understanding and its defense value
(b) Comparing civil defense efforts in the United States
(c) Value of the United Nations' efforts in preventing
large scale nuclear conflicts
(d) Benefits of our foreign aid program.
9. Discuss economic plans for displaced people and industries.
10. Study the function of governmental agencies following a
large scale nuclear attack.
11. Study the family as a basic social group and its responsi-
bilities in civil defense.
Civil defense work, by its very nature, demands much scientific
knowledge and technical skill. The science teacher has had special
training in thinking objectively and is aware of the value of ac-
curate observation. By training and experience the science teacher
is peculiarly qualified to teach many aspects of civil defense.
Many of the civil defense understandings that the students must
get from their science classes are of a very technical nature. The
science teacher can teach the fundamentals of modern atomic,
biological, and chemical warfare. Such things as nuclear energy
and other simple manifestations of energy-such as heat, light,
sound, electricity, mechanics, and radiation-should be taught in
the science classes.
Among the areas common to both civil defense and science
education are atomic energy, air, fire, water, health and first aid,
communications, and transportation. Suggestions for the develop-
ment of these areas are presented in two sections: (1) Concepts,
and (2) Activities. Concepts will include topics common to exist-
ing science programs and civil defense education; activities will
include those activities which could be developed with a civil
Atomic Energy. An evolving concept of the structure of matter
is essential to living in an atomic age. Understandings may be
developed at any grade level by adapting the content and materials
to meet individual, school, and community conditions. Many addi-
tional demonstrations, experiments and other learning activities
may be devised to bring into focus the importance of civil defense
in relation to units already presented.
(a) Structure of matter-atom, molecule
(b) Energy-principles and types of heat, light, and nuclear
(c) Mass-energy relationships and fission
(d) Peacetime uses of atomic energy, such as power, agri-
culture, medicine, and industry
(e) Atomic warfare-fire, heat, light, blast, radiation, and
(f) Raw materials-resources and conservation.
(a) Use diagrams, models, and charts of atomic structure
(b) Perform experiments on transformation of energy
(c) Construct a flash dial
(d) Illustrate smoke clouds
(e) Demonstrate use of Geiger counters
(f) Experiment with radioactive materials
(g) Conduct field trips to study community resources.
Air. The study of air is universal in the science program at
most grade levels. Important concepts in civil defense may be
developed in this area as new terms are introduced for discussion
and study and as related learning activities are utilized.
(a) Composition of atmosphere-volume and weight
(b) Fluid mechanics
(c) Expansion and contraction of gases
(d) Blast from atomic bomb
(g) Airborne diseases
(h) Contamination-radiological, and chemical gases and
(i) Biological-protozoan and bacterial.
(a) Emphasize civil defense activities
(b) Study destructive effects of winds, tornadoes, and hur-
(c) Perform experiments to show changes in air pressure
(d) Study natural and man-made shelters
(e) Study protective cover, including clothing
(f) Study civil defense markers for "hot" areas
(g) Perform experiments to show oxygen depletion
(h) Demonstrate gas masks and their uses
(i) Conduct experiments of absorption.
Fire. Fire is of special importance in civil defense. It is imper-
ative to know about fires-their various causes, types, and effects.
This area offers many opportunities to make maximum use of
community resources and to promote learning activities which
cut across subject matter lines and provide extensive opportunities
for integration of a general science program with civil defense
(a) Combustion-fuel, oxygen, kindling temperature, spon-
(b) Building materials and construction
(c) Fire causes, control, and prevention
(d) Causes of fire in warfare-incendiaries, high explosives,
(e) Special types-fire storms, conflagrations
(f) Results-flash bums, smoke effects, suffocation from ox-
ygen depletion, damage to buildings.
(a) Show film, "Fire Fighting for Householders"
(b) Make a survey and report on fire hazards in school,
(c) Map or chart vulnerable areas
(d) Demonstrate use of various types of fire extinguishers
(e) Study building materials in relation to fire resistance
(f) Instruct in treatment of bums and in giving artificial
Water. The tremendous quantity of water used in the daily
life of a community under normal conditions indicates its extreme
importance in an emergency. Every pupil should become familiar
with the local water system, the watershed, and possible sources
of contamination. There are many learning activities that are useful
in developing these concepts.
(a) Source of water supply
(b) Conservation of water-watershed, water table, static
(c) Distribution system
(d) Normal water consumption-household, industrial
(e) Fluid pressure
(f) Use of water in extinguishing fires
(g) Water contamination-radiation, bacteria, toxins, chem-
(h) Diseases from use of impure water
(i) Sewage disposal
(a) Make trips to study local water supply
(b) Map all available sources
(c) Perform experiments to show methods of water purifi-
cation, testing of solutions, and tests for water hardness
(d) Demonstrate use of Geiger counter.
Health and First Aid. This area of the science program is
very broad and cuts across several related areas. The teacher is
encouraged to work with instructors of physical education, health,
home economics, agriculture, and social studies, as well as with
teachers of English in the development of reading programs. The
importance of these cooperative aspects in civil defense is that
they offer excellent opportunities to bring specially trained per-
sonnel such as the school nurse and others into the classroom to
give talks, demonstrations, and instruction. Learning activities can
be devised to develop the essential understandings, attitudes and
skills at all grade levels.
(a) Health, both physical and mental
(b) Nutrition-classes of foods, balanced diet
(c) Contamination-sewage, rodents, insects
(d) Medical services and the need for trained physicians,
nurses, and technicians
(e) First aid
(f) Biological warfare-bacteria, toxin, insect pests
(g) Physiological effects
(h) Poison gas
(a) Prepare diet charts
(b) Perform nutrition experiments with animals
(c) Test food for nutrients
(d) Plan food services for large masses of people
(e) Conduct laboratory work on blood typing
(f) Develop skills in culturing bacteria
(g) Demonstrate first aid techniques
(h) Make trips to sewage disposal plants
(i) Make microscopic examination of bacteria
(j) Perform experiments with radioactive isotopes.
Communication. In an emergency, communication services play
a very important part in community safety. The entire citizenry
must be instructed in simple but effective language on how to
interpret the various public warnings. Pupils must be taught to
observe warning signals; to use the telephone, radio and television;
and to become familiar with the streets and highways in the
community. There is opportunity to integrate much of the work
in this area with the social science program. In the high school,
basic facts, concepts and principles of communication should be
developed, not only because of their immediate use, but for the
development of future engineers and other scientists in this field.
Classroom and community facilities will determine the extent and
types of learning activities used.
(a) Light-color and color blindness
(c) Electricity and magnetism-telephone, telegraph
(d) Warning devices
(e) Electronics-radar, radio, television
(f) The press
(h) Portable power units.
(a) Study flashlights and other lights
(b) List and study shelter equipment
(c) Perform common experiments in electricity and mag-
(d) Learn civil defense special warning signals
(e) Map types of roads
(f) Perform experiments with sound
(g) Demonstrate principles of light
Transportation. The scientific aspects of transportation in re-
lation to civil defense are so important in our civilian economy
and so vital to the success of civil defense operations that it is
felt worthy of emphasis in the classroom. We must have effective
means of transportation in order to evacuate civilians and to bring
in supplies, equipment, and personnel for disaster relief. It is pos-
sible in the science classroom to center learning activities around
transportation at all grade levels.
(a) Methods of transportation, such as bicycle, motorcycle,
automobile, bus and truck
(b) Rail-passenger and freight
(h) Safe driving
(k) Road building.
(a) Perform experiments with simple machines
(b) Perform experiments with combustion
(c) Demonstrate Newton's law of motion
(d) Use CO2 cartridges to show jet propulsion
(e) Make maps to show roads and contours
(f) Practice reading and interpreting maps.
It is realized that the program for an adequate school defense
is far from complete, and that many lines of thought remain to
be developed. It has been said that science is an inescapable factor
of everyday living. It seems obvious that the role a science teacher
may be called on to play in today's civil defense program may be
both multitudinous and technical. There are many ways in which
a trained science teacher may serve in a total civil defense program,
and this broad field should be explored most carefully.
It is difficult to distinguish parts of civil defense training that
are peculiar to the field of English. English is communication;
therefore, it involves the study of propaganda uses and abuses.
History and science topics are not immune from language arts
techniques of discussion analysis, debate, and research.
A good science or historical unit involving safety would probably
carry over into the English class in papers written, seminars con-
ducted, research completed, and propaganda techniques analyzed.
Development of concepts of how agreements are reached, how
opinions based on research should be formulated, how to find and
relate information concerning almost anything-all of these are
English activities germane to the development of young citizens.
Listed below are some possibilities for English studies:
1. Discussion topics.
(a) What are dangers (and benefits) of atomic research?
(b) What is the prognosis for development of world arbi-
(c) How many viewpoints can you find reflected on the
current world situation in today's paperss?
(d) How would you build a model society?
(e) Why does civil defense concern you, or not concern
2. Research areas.
(a) Analysis of magazines available to determine popula-
tion for which written, kind of advertising solicited,
philosophy expressed, accuracy of reporting, etc.
(b) Comparison of writings of different centuries (or de-
cades) to show differences existing.
(c) Study of disaster problems of realistic situation and
application to student's personal situation.
3. Creative activities.
(a) Research and creative assignments can be used to pro-
duce essays dealing with disasters.
(b) Parodies of poems are popular with young people. Some
will be optimistic, some not; the object should be to
provoke thought, analysis and study-not to warp honest
Home economics in the Florida junior high schools consists
mainly of an introductory study in foods and nutrition and in
clothing and textiles. These are required subjects for all girls in
either the 8th or 9th grades. Homemaking in the schools may
include seven broad units: foods, nutrition, personal health, home
and community services, clothing and textiles, child care and de-
velopment, and home care of the sick.
Since the homemaker in a family plays a vital role in family
and community civil defense activities, these units have a wide
variety of civil defense implications. Also, a wide variety of tech-
niques can be used in their instruction.
Following is an elaboration on the importance of these seven
areas of study and some suggestions on directions that might be
pursued to make these areas useful in the total school and com-
munity civil defense program.
Foods. An emergency shelf should be designated in the home
kitchen with enough food for at least three meals. This food should
be in cans and not in packages since foods kept in packages should
not be used after exposure to radiation. Food in the refrigerator
would be usable, but all utensils and working surface would need
a thorough washing with soap and water to decontaminate the
radioactive particles after an atomic explosion. The students should
be given instruction in setting up an emergency food supply, and
in planning the menus for the three meals.
Nutrition. Sick and injured are fed mostly a liquid diet in an
emergency, but those doing heavy muscular labor need a high
caloric meal. Junior high girls should be trained to serve a balanced
diet in emergencies, and given the necessary skill training so they
could serve in food centers, emergency kitchens, hospital kitchens,
Personal Health. Good personal health is a basic essential for
civil defense. It is of primary importance that future homemakers
be taught such things as cleanliness, protection from ABC warfare,
special means of combating fatigue, the structure of the human
body as related to personal health, the importance of periodic
health examinations, and the correction of remedial defects.
Home and Community Service. The civil defense activities
that the girls have learned at school should be taken into the
home and community. If possible, members of the family, as well
as neighbors, should be encouraged to follow the same plans and
procedures as the school.
Clothing and Textiles. If an atomic attack is threatened, white
or very light colored clothing should be worn. All parts of the
body should be covered. If one is at home, he could wrap himself
in a white sheet. The clothing should fit loosely to allow an air
cushion to form between the clothing and the body as an added
protection against flash burns. Home economics students should
be instructed in types of clothing materials and their uses for
Child Care and Development. In an enemy attack, in many
families where the father and mother work away from the home
it might be several days before the parents are able to get back
to their home, and there will be many small children who must
be cared for by older sisters. Any practical courses in home eco-
nomics should include adequate instruction in child care.
Home Care of the Sick. A nuclear blast without warning in
a populated Florida area could cause 200,000 casualties. Since the
combined facilities of all the hospitals in such an area contain less
than 3,000 beds, this would leave many thousands of patients
needing hundreds of nurses. With this critical shortage of medical
and nursing personnel, there would be need for volunteer assistance
in caring for these casualties. Junior high girls should be taught
not only the general phases of nursing care during an emergency,
but should also be familiar with such things as visible symptoms
of injury or illness during a disaster period; assembly, improvisation,
and stockpiling medical supplies and equipment; assistance during
intravenous injections of plasma and whole blood; care of a person
coming out of an anesthetic; protection of casualties from additional
hazards; and preparation of injured and ill persons for transfer to
another place. Here are some suggested activities:
1. "Fatigue" relief tricks.
2. First aid kit uses.
3. Food arrangement.
4. "Dry cleaning" a person.
5. Dramatize "psycho" break-down in a group in a shelter.
6. Visit "storage" of a hospital-large group planning.
7. Doctor or nurse lecture on shock.
9. Disaster and related diseases.
SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL AND COMMUNITY COLLEGE
Students in the final two years of high school and the first two
years of college are at the "leadership development" stage. It is
at this age and at this point in their educational development that
students begin to be vitally concerned with the world in which
they live and their responsibility or possible roles in shaping or
even directing life on their planet. This desire or concern that they
possess is illustrated most dramatically in various student protest
movements, but should not be seen as limited only to this dramatic
few. Rather, this desire for action, for recognition, and to be
heard, is probably existent in all students of this age. With proper
instruction this energy and ambition can be related to civil defense
and man's desire to survive and progress in an atomic age.
The teaching of responsible leadership falls heavily on teachers
at the senior high and junior college level. Education for responsible
leadership should (1) include an understanding of the environment
and the society in which we live; (2) encompass the knowledge of
the means required to face the conditions of life; and (3) contain
the desire and will to prepare for these conditions, whether good
The senior high school and the community college should have
the same basic concepts and understandings of organization and
procedures to meet possible natural and man-made disasters as
those discussed for the lower grades and for the community at
large, with the course offerings needed by the students in order
to fill the role of leadership expected of them. Following is a list
of questions that teachers in these institutions might ask themselves:
1. What is this institution doing to train its students and staff
for personal survival in case of disaster?
2. What is this institution doing to educate and train students
for positions of leadership in preparing for disaster?
3. What can this institution do in connection with research for
civil defense and disaster preparation?
4. What are the members of this institution doing as individuals
to assist in civil defense and disaster preparation?
5. What is this institution prepared to do for itself should a
6. Has this institution a plan for early resumption of its edu-
cational programs in the event of disaster?
7. What help is this institution prepared to offer to others
should disaster strike?
8. Is this institution participating in civil defense activities and
cooperating with civil defense authorities?
It should be further pointed out that every institution will not
be able to answer each of these questions equally. However, where
possible, answers should eventually be in the affirmative. This
guide should help each institution plan for man-made and natural
In many respects civil defense is like English. All teachers know
English. All teachers should know civil defense. A good teacher
can bring in appropriate survival information at appropriate times
in an effective manner just as they bring in points of good English
The way in which an institution approaches the instruction in
civil defense will be unique to that institution. As suggested for
the lower grades, the most effective results are likely to be obtained
by the incorporation of civil defense instruction into the ongoing
curriculum. However, at this level civil defense may also be taught
as a special course, as a separate activity, or selected students may
be encouraged to enroll in the adult education civil defense course.
In any case it is assumed that a number of the special student
projects (science projects at the high school level, for example)
would deal with civil defense subject matter.
There are two areas of education in civil defense which appear
to be appropriate for every senior high school or community
Survival Techniques. A knowledge in this area is necessary
for self-preservation and mutual assistance in time of disaster.
There are skills which are applicable in many kinds of disasters.
Once learned, they make it possible for an individual to protect
himself and to be of assistance to others. Courses in first aid,
swimming and water safety, and health education are a part of
many institutions' curriculums and should be a part of all.
Civil Defense Concepts. One or more of the following five
concepts could be incorporated into almost every course offering
at the senior high or junior college level.
1. The understanding of world issues which involve Florida
in a survival education program (social sciences, political
sciences, public administration).
2. A scientific understanding of the dangers of wartime and
natural disasters (biology, physics, nursing).
3. An understanding of the protective measures which have been
developed to combat the effects of disasters (engineering).
4. An understanding of the individual's relationship to disaster
(psychology, sociology, education).
5. The development of the skills necessary for survival in emer-
gency circumstances (health, first aid, physical education).
Material in the following paragraphs illustrates some of the
content and some of the concepts that can be conveyed to the
students in the various course areas. At this age level students
are fully prepared to relate consequences or results to civil defense
preparation, or lack of it. Several examples illustrate how actual
examples might be used in civil defense education at this level.
Social studies classes should include current world issues in
addition to world issues of the past. Conflicting ideologies of various
nations or regions of the world could spell out our survival or
destruction. A teacher of such courses as American history, Prob-
lems of American Democracy, or Americanism versus Communism
might evaluate his success not just in terms of how many facts
his students can remember but in terms of their genuine under-
standing of beliefs and political concepts that influence aggressive
or massive action against other peoples.
What are some of the current issues that could set this world
aflame? What are some of the world issues that could result in
the destruction of millions of people about the world? Students
are constantly studying conflicts that have caused major wars in
the world. They should be able to see some of the current issues
that are important, or they should be able to see some minor issues
that could develop into great world crises. These are the things
people should understand as based on past history. A democracy
depends on an enlightened citizenry. There is a need for all students
to understand what is happening on a world scale, and to understand
some of the potentially dangerous crises that could affect our
survival as a nation and as individuals. The gaining of this ability
should be partially accomplished in social studies classes.
Social studies classes also include specific facts. These might
include the first two actual uses of atomic bombs in warfare-
dates, places, countries involved, number killed, etc. A dramatic
presentation of these facts could be obtained in a motion picture.
To a limited degree, facts on other major disasters, both man-made
and natural, could be presented.
Physics and physical science classes would cover the physics
of nuclear device, whether fusion or fission. This would include
a grasp of the many aspects of what is taking place during an
explosion. These aspects include time, temperature, alpha particle,
beta particle, gamma rays, neutron, electromagnetic radiation, fire-
ball, atom, molecule, electron, proton, roentgen, detection, mea-
surement, decay, half-life, half value thickness, distance, critical
mass, mass-energy laws, and radiation. Instruments to measure
radiation should be related to the laboratory in a practical way.
Illustration: Two people are inside a building seven miles from
an explosion. They see a very bright light. Never before has either
been in the area of an atomic explosion, so naturally they are both
very curious. Mister A goes to the window so he can see more.
His eyes are damaged by the light. Perhaps even more important
is a blast wave which is on the way and reaches him 15 or more
seconds later. This blast wave is of such intensity that it breaks
the glass into many pieces and shoots it flying across the room
and much of it into the wall on the far side. He is gravely injured
or killed from this flying glass.
On the other hand, Mister B seeks refuge under and behind his
desk, table, bookcase, or some place where he would be protected
from this flying glass which he knew would happen when the blast
Second illustration. A surface atomic blast explosion occurs seven
miles away. Radioactive dust starts settling one-half hour later.
Mister A is curious. He goes out to look over the damage. Radio-
active dust settles on his body. His brother, more cautious, goes
indoors and stays there in his average American home. Both feel
normal, and neither realizes that radiation is passing through their
bodies. Six weeks later both are dead.
In contrast, Mister B knows that he cannot allow this radioactive
dust to settle on his body, or if he does he must get it removed
immediately. He also knows that he cannot go into his average
American home and stay there even for six weeks and be secure. He
knows such would be certain death in this situation. He knows
he must be separated from this radiation by distance or by heavy
thick protecting walls.
Chemistry can also add to one's knowledge as related to chemical
warfare and radioactive elements.
Illustration: Two people are exposed to nerve gas. Mister A has
received no training for such a situation. Within 15 minutes he is
Mister B realizes the symptoms and knows that he has been
exposed to a nerve gas. He immediately gives himself an injection
of atrophine with a disposable syrette. He survives.
Second illustration: The city water supply has been sabotaged
by the enemy by the addition of a dangerous chemical. Mister A
boils the water; he uses the water; he dies.
Mister B does not use the water. He knows that boiling will likely
destroy germs and many biological agents in the water, but in the
case of chemicals those not highly volatile will be left after boiling
and will likely be just as dangerous as before boiling.
Biology and General Science
Biology students could be alerted to the effects of radiation on
plants and animals, and to particular effects on certain glands,
organs, and chromosomes. They would be interested in the effects
caused by chemicals likely to be used in chemical warfare. Instruc-
tion should also cover preventive, symptoms, and antidotes.
Home economics students would be concerned with the edibility
of foods subjected to radiation, and homemaking as related to
shelters and other temporary living quarters.
English plays a role that is self evident when one thinks of such
science fiction books as On the Beach by Neville Shute and Alas
Babylon by Pat Frank. Survival is also uppermost in Ernest Heming-
way's The Old Man and The Sea, and James Michener's Hawaii.
English teachers can help the student relate these books to current
civil defense problems and procedures.
"Duck and Cover" and other civil defense drills should be held
on school time and contained within campus boundaries. Full,
unlimited drills by families should be encouraged during non-school
time (but reported and discussed within schools on a voluntary
In addition, the community college will find other areas of respon-
sibility in meeting student needs. It is necessary that each college
prepare plans for the physical safety of the student body. In many
areas the local school community plan may be inadequate for the
college. Therefore, additional plans should be developed to supple-
ment those of the local school community. Plans involving student
housing, warning signals, evacuation, shelter, etc. should be de-
veloped and understood by all.
As heads of households, adults are usually keenly aware of their
responsibilities for protecting all members of the family from
disaster, whenever and wherever it may occur. This means they
are usually receptive to instruction in civil defense if it is presented
to them in a manner so that they can see its relevance to their
particular situation, including available financing.
To instruct adults in survival methods, the teacher must first
understand some of the reasons an adult resumes his education
and the diverse backgrounds of adult students. Second, he must
employ special teaching techniques that will ensure that student
interest is maintained.
Civil defense in the adult education program should be considered
in three areas: (1) Adult basic education at grade levels 1 through 8;
(2) general adult education for grade levels 8 through 12; and (3)
the special civil defense course designed for adult students.
Adult Basic Education
The student enrolled in adult basic education differs from other
students in adult or other areas of education in several respects:
1. He has not completed a school program adequate to admit
him to a secondary program.
2. He represents the broadest conceivable span of education and
experience background. In reading competency, for example,
he ranges from complete illiteracy to a high potential level of
3. He is enrolled in class because he is faced with insurmountable
obstacles to further progress and feels that he must learn to
read. He has a specific motive for being there, which must
be satisfied if he pursues education.
Probably the drive for learning is greater for the adult basic
education student than for any other student in our public education
structure. He may have enrolled in the program because he needs
to learn to take a written test to obtain a driver's license; perhaps he
has applied for enlistment into a branch of military service and been
refused because of inability to read; perhaps he must show certain
competencies in education to obtain employment. The teacher must
capitalize upon his felt needs and attempt to meet them. Instruction
must be geared to the student, and cannot be a program planned
In reading ability, some of the basic adult students may be
unable to recognize the simplest words in written or printed form.
However, this does not mean that they can use effectively primary
and pre-reading materials built for five and six-year olds. The con-
trary is true. These people are adults and must have adult materials
to work effectively. Oral discussion is the key to building appropriate
materials for instruction. As students talk, the critically listening
teacher selects key words which have meaning for the individual
concerned, and presents it in written form, so that idea and word
may be associated. This method takes time. Some of the activities
used to develop a recognition vocabulary suited to adult needs are:
1. Experience Charts represent stories told by students indi-
vidually or in groups, and recorded by a teacher. These are
generally recorded on large sheets of lined paper with felt pen.
It is important that the student's thought be accurately ex-
pressed (no distortion) and with dignity. If it says what he
has said, he can read it more easily.
2. Notebooks kept by individuals after the teacher has tran-
scribed his ideas, again with felt pen. These have the advantage
of traveling with the student so he can study his spoken words.
3. Sentence strips lined on oak tag whereon the teacher writes
a word at the request of the student. Students, given words of
their own to keep, learn them readily. The rate depends on
the individual, but many accumulate sizeable stacks of words
and phrases or ideas.
4. Matching ideas or words with pictures aids development of
the abstract skills necessary for reading. Copying is another
way to remember what is read.
5. Teachers' guides to published basal readers have many useful
ideas for the teacher of basic education, but the teacher must
remember that he must tailor the suggestions for his adult
Discussion stimulates interest and furthers the acquisition of
knowledge. Man first experienced, then he related his experience;
thus written communication developed. Just as talking precedes
reading skills, so discussion increases reading facility and deepens
the understanding of words and ideas, spoken or written. The basic
education teacher feels this deeply. He also knows that the student
involved in discussion wants to continue with education.
It is in this area that interest in survival can benefit basic educa-
tion. Civil defense literature published for the masses is not suitable
for the poor reader; however, his discussion techniques and grasp
of the problem area and its solution may far exceed that of average
classes. He is normally interested in this topic; it is a subject that
can involve the entire class. This is work that need not be individual:
group experience charts can be constructed, pictures labeled, etc.
Best of all, group discussion of a topic like this conveys to the student
the conviction that his problems are not unlike those of his fellows;
nor are they insoluble.
General Adult Education
One method of teaching this group would be to disperse the
course through subject areas, such as science, social studies, Ameri-
canism versus Communism, etc., as suggested in earlier sections of
this guide. However, it must be remembered that these are adults
who, at a sacrifice, are attempting a second chance at education.
They are not a captive audience. The teacher must be constantly
alert for lapse of interest and immediately regenerate enthusiasm
or move quickly to other teaching areas.
The teacher should limit lectures to as little time as is absolutely
necessary and encourage much student involvement in projects,
essays, or group activities.
Civil Defense Adult Education
Civil Defense Adult Education is, in itself, a complete unit. All
materials and certified instructors are provided, expense free, to any
group of 15 or more adults who will meet classes totaling 12 hours.
A certificate is awarded adults who complete the course.
The instructor of this course has a primary objective to bring
about attitude change, and to offset wrong or outdated information.
We now know much more about survival than we did just a few
years ago. Where there was little or no hope in the past, modern
studies reveal much hope, if properly prepared, in the future.
Also available at no cost to the public are such courses as medical
self help, radiological monitoring, shelter management, and others.
Information regarding these courses can be obtained from the
local civil defense office or the supervisor of adult education in
Adler, Irving. Atoms and Molecules. John Day, 1966. (Grades 3-5)
Adler, Irving. Fire in Your Life. John Day, 1955. (Grades 3-6)
Adler, Irving. Hurricanes and Twisters. Knopf, 1957. (Grades 3-6)
Adler, Irving. Rivers. John Day, 1961. (Grades 3-5) (Contains ma-
terials on Floods)
Adler, Irving. Storms. John Day, 1963. (Grades 3-5)
Adler, Irving. Weather in Your Life. John Day, 1959. (Grades 6-9)
Adler, Irving. Wonders of Physics. Golden Press, 1966. (Grades 6-9)
Barr, Jene. Dan the Weather Man. Whitman, 1958. (Grades K-2)
Barr, Jene. Fire Snorkel Number 7. Whitman, 1966. (Grades K-2)
Barr, Jene. What Will the Weather Be? Whitman, 1966. (Grades
Berna, Paul. Flood Warning. Pantheon, 1963. (Grades 6-8)
Bice, Clare. Hurricane Treasure. Viking, 1966. (Grades 4-6)
Bolke, Kees. Cosmic View: The Universe in 40 Jumps. John Day,
1957. (Grades 5-up)
Bradford, John. Inside the Atom. Abelard-Schuman, 1966. (Grades
Bronowski, J. Biography of an Atom. Harper and Row, 1966. (Grades
Brown, Bill. The Forest Fireman. Coward-McCann, 1954. (Grades
Bruckner, Karl. The Day of the Bomb. Van Nostrand, 1963. (Grades
Buck, Pearl S. The Big Wave. John Day, 1948. (Grades 4-6)
Caldwell, John C. Communism in Our World. John Day, 1963.
Carmer, Carl Lamson. Hurricane Luck. Aladdin Books, 1949.
Cooke, David C. Better Physical Fitness for Boys. Dodd-Mead,
1961. (Grades 5-8)
DeOries, Leonard. The Book of the Atom. Collier-Macmillan, 1955.
Dolson, Hildegard. Disaster At Johnstown: The Great Flood. Ran-
dom House, 1964. (Grades 6-8)
Epstein, Sam. All About Engines and Power. Random House, 1962.
Epstein, Sam. Hurricane Guest. Random House, 1964. (Grades 4-5)
Fermi, Laura. The Story of Atomic Energy. Random House, 1961.
Flakkeberg, Ardo. The Sea Broke Through. Knopf, 1965. (Grades
Freeman, Ira M. All About Light and Radiation. Random House,
1965. (Grades 6-8)
Freeman, Ira M. All About the Atom. Random House, 1955. (Grades
Freeman, Mae. The Story of the Atom. Random House, 1960.
Gallant, Roy A. Exploring the Weather. Doubleday, 1957. (Grades
Haber, Heinz. Walt Disney Story of Our Friend the Atom. Simon &
Schuster, 1956. (Grades 3-6)
Halacy, D. S., Jr. Fabulous Fireball. Collier-Macmillan, 1965.
Harrison, George R. The First Book of Energy. Watts, 1965. (Grades
Hays, Wilma Pitchford. Little Hurricane Happy. Little/Brown,
1966. (Grades 1-3)
Hitte, Kathryn. Hurricanes, Tornadoes, and Blizzards. Random
House, 1960. (Grades 3-4)
Hogben, Lancelot. The Wonderful World of Energy. Doubleday,
1956. (Grades 6-8)
Hyde, Margaret O. Atoms Today and Tomorrow. McGraw-Hill,
1959. (Grades 5-7)
Irving, Robert. Electromagnetic Waves. Knopf, 1960. (Grades 6-8)
Irving, Robert. Hurricanes and Twisters. Knopf, 1955. (Grades 5-6)
Irving, Robert. Volcanoes and Earthquakes. Knopf, 1962. (Grades
Jacobs, Helen Hull. Better Physical Fitness for Girls. Dodd, Mead,
1964. (Grades 4-6)
Judge, Frances. Forest Fire. Knopf, 1962. (Grades 6-8)
Jukes, John. Man-Made the Sun: The Story of Zeta. Abelard-Schu-
man, 1959. (Grades 5-8)
Kohn, Bernice. The Peaceful Atom. Prentice-Hall, 1963. (Grades
Landin, L. Atoms for Junior. Children Press, 1961. (Grades 2-5)
Larrick, Nancy. Junior Science Book of Rain, Hail, Sleet, and Snow.
Garrard, 1961. (Grades 2-4)
Larson, Egon. Atoms and Atomic Energy. John Day, 1963. (Grades
Leeds, Roslyn. Explaining the Atom. Harper & Row, 1965. (Grades
Lehr, Paul. Storms. Golden Press, 1966. (Grades 5-8)
Lehr, Paul E. Weather. Simon & Schuster, 1957. (Grades 5-8)
Lenski, Lois. Flood Friday. Lippincott, 1956. (Grades 3-5)
Levinger, Joseph S. Forces, Fusion and Fission. McGraw-Hill/Whit-
ney House, 1965. (Grades 6-8)
Lewellen, John. The Mighty Atom. Knopf, 1955. (Grades 4-6)
Lewellen, John. You and Atomic Energy. Children Press, 1949.
Liss, Howard. Heat (Radiation). Coward-McCann, 1966. (Grades
McCormick, Jack. Atoms, Energy and Machines. Creative Educa-
tional Society, 1965. (Grades 6-8)
Medler, James V. Mountains and Volcanoes. Maxton Pub., 1954.
Neurath, Marie. Exploring the Atom. Lothrop, Lee & Sheppard,
1958. (Grades 4-6)
Potter, Robert D. Young Peoples Book of Atomic Energy. Dodd,
Mead, 1966. (Grades 5-7)
Pough, Frederick H. All About Volcanoes and Earthquakes. Random
House, 1953. (Grades 5-6)
Radlauer, E. Atomic Power for People. Children Press, 1960.
Radlauer, E. Atoms Afloat: The Nuclear Ship "Savannah." Abelard-
Schuman, 1957. (Grades 5-7)
Reidman, Sarah R. Men and Women Behind the Atom. Abelard-
Schuman, 1958. (Grades 6-8)
Rosenfield, Sam. Ask Me a Question About the Weather. Harvey,
1966. (Grades K-3)
Schneider, Herman. Everyday Weather and How It Works. Revised
Edition. McGraw-Hill, 1961. (Grades 4-6)
Sebastian, Lee. A Book to Begin on Rivers. Holt, Rinehart & Win-
ston, 1966. (Grades K-3)
Silverberg, Robert. The Man Who Mapped the Atom. Putnam, 1965.
Simak, Clifford D., ed. From Atoms to Infinity. Harper & Row, 1965.
Stoddard, Edward. The Story of Power. Doubleday, 1956. (Grades
Surany, Anico. The Burning Mountain. Holiday, 1965. (Grades K-3)
Tannerhill, Ivan Ray. All About the Weather. Random House, 1953.
Victor, Edward. Molecules and Atoms. Follett, 1963. (Grades 2-6)
Williams, Jay. Danny Dunn and the Heat Ray. McGraw-Hill, 1962.
Williams, Jay. Danny Dunn and the Weather Machine. McGraw-
Hill, 1959. (Grades 4-6)
Witty, P. Freedom and Our U. S. Family. Children Press, 1956.
Woodbury, David. The New World of the Atom. Dodd, Mead, 1966.