Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Significant points of view
 Suggested sequences
 Business education courses
 Facilities, physical layout, and...
 Specially designed programs
 Supervision and administration
 Youth activities
 Post-secondary business educat...
 Back Cover

Group Title: Its Bulletin
Title: A guide to business education in Florida schools
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00080776/00001
 Material Information
Title: A guide to business education in Florida schools
Series Title: Its Bulletin
Physical Description: v, 181 p. : illus. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- State Dept. of Education
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1967
Copyright Date: 1967
Subject: Business education -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Bibliography: Includes bibliographies.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00080776
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - ADZ0473
oclc - 01169567
alephbibnum - 000796233
lccn - 67009202

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page i-a
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
    Significant points of view
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Suggested sequences
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
    Business education courses
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
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        Page 80
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        Page 91
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        Page 100
        Page 101
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        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
    Facilities, physical layout, and equipment
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
    Specially designed programs
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
    Supervision and administration
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
    Youth activities
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
    Post-secondary business education
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
    Back Cover
        Page 183
        Page 184
Full Text

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a guide to




FLOYD T. CHRISTIAN, Superintendent of Public Instruction
Tallahassee, Florida

/L Q 7 PL-
75, o0 75

Tallahassee, Florida

FLOYD T. CHRISTIAN, Superintendent


THERE IS NO SINGLE prescription for those charged with
S the responsibility for the curriculum in business education.
For the field of business education, which must assume much of
/j the responsibility for preparing students for job competencies
and for developing understandings of the place of business activ-
ity in the total society, the demands for wise selection of school
experiences become critical.
We can never be satisfied until we have guaranteed that
every Florida youth and adult, who shows an interest and who
can benefit, has the opportunity to train for gainful employ-
ment-whether at the professional, technical, vocational, or
semi-skilled level. Neither can we ignore the needs of all Florida
citizens for developing a better understanding of business organi-
zation and our free enterprise system.
This guide is an effort toward helping teachers achieve
these objectives.


State Superintendent of Public Instruction


guide reflects the interest, integrity, and effort of a number
of individuals. It represents a frank appraisal of the phenomenal
expansion of business education, and a direct approach to the
imperative of providing programs which prepare men and
women for entry into the changed and changing world of
technological work.
Grateful acknowledgment is made especially to Dr. Doris H.
Crank, Director of the Curriculum Guide Workshop; Dr.
Floyd L. Crank, Special Consultant, Northern Illinois Univer-
sity, DeKalb, Illinois, and to the members of the Curriculum
Guide Revision Committee: Bernard Boyatt, Fort Myers High
School, Fort Myers; Russell Brown, Supervisor, Business Educa-
tion, Palm Beach County, West Palm Beach; Mrs. Merlease
Coons, Technical High School, Pensacola; Miss Edna Dunaway,
Northeast High School, Fort Lauderdale; Mrs. Laverta Ellis,
Fort Meade High School, Fort Meade; Mrs. Eloise Feagins,
Jones High School, Orlando; Donald Hampton, Florida Junior
College at Jacksonville, Jacksonville; Mrs. Trudie Johnson,
Lakewood High School, St. Petersburg; Mrs. Mildred Jones, Mi-
ami Senior High School, Miami; Mrs. Veda Long, Kathleen
High School, Lakeland; Mrs. Berenice Lovan, Titusville High
School, Titusville; Mrs. Gunhilde Manson, St. Petersburg Junior
College, Clearwater; Mrs. Vera Mobley, Rickards High School,
Tallahassee; Mrs. Marguerite Starford, King High School,
Tampa; Mrs. Caroline Whitehill, Alva High School, Fort Myers;
Richard Whittington, St. Johns River Junior College, Palatka;
Consultants: Donald Fry, Coordinator, Business Education,
Broward County, Fort Lauderdale; Alton Kindred, Manatee
Junior College, Bradenton; Mrs. Ena Threlkeld, Miami-Dade
Junior College, Miami; Dr. Carroll Waggoner, Supervisor, Busi-
ness Education, Dade County, Miami; Dr. John Moorman, Uni-
versity of Florida, Gainesville; the seven hundred classroom
teachers who contributed valuable time and assistance; and
the members of the Business Education Advisory Committee.
Members of the State Department of Education who assisted

with the guide and gave encouragement and support to its pub-
lication are: Dr. Carl W. Proehl, Assistant Superintendent,
Vocational, Technical and Adult Education; Dr. Joseph W.
Crenshaw, Assistant Superintendent, Curriculum and Instruc-
tion; Rex C. Toothman, former Director, Business, Distributive
and Cooperative Education; J. R. Barkley, Acting Director,
Business, Distributive and Cooperative Education; Mrs. Bess R.
Hiers, Consultant, Business Education; Donald P. LaRowe, Pro-
gram Specialist; Miss Gail Trapnell, Curriculum Specialist, Dis-
tributive Education; Miss Lucy Robinson, Curriculum Specialist,
Business Education; Mrs. Ruth Chapman, Editorial Associate,
Curriculum and Instruction; Ray O'Keefe, and Richard Sinclair,
Specialists, Graphic Arts; H. Finn Groover, Director, Publica-
tions and Textbooks and J. K. Chapman, Deputy Superintendent.

Foreword ........................................... i
Acknowledgments .................................... iii
Chapter I Significant Points of View ................ 1
Chapter II Suggested Sequences .................... 27
Chapter III Business Education Courses .............. 46
Chapter IV Facilities, Layout, and Equipment ........ 137
Chapter V Specially Designed Programs ............ 154
Chapter VI Supervision and Administration ......... 161
Chapter VII Youth Activities ........................ 169
Chapter VIII Post-secondary Business Education ....... 175


Significant Points of View

The Importance of Business in Our Society

BUSINESS EDUCATION has a proud history of flexibility
and a good record for adapting to changing social, economic,
and business needs. It provides training for vocational com-
petence in the business and office occupations. It builds definite
skills, abilities, and attitudes for business competence in the
home and community. It helps individuals to understand and
solve economic problems encountered in everyday living. It
provides background information for advanced study for the
business professions.
The private enterprise economic system in the United States
represents the most dynamic and successful system of organ-
izing economic activities that ever has been devised. The in-
stitution of business is an integral part of this economic sys-
tem. It is through business, in all its varied forms, organizations,
and agencies, that our economic system functions. Business may
be publicly owned also, and government at all levels throughout
the nation is engaged in many forms of business activity. A
large proportion of the labor force in the United States is em-
ployed in business of some nature. The major issues that con-
front the nation frequently are issues that involve business
and business activities. In fact, the world of business as it is
today, and as it will be in the future, must influence significantly
the educational programs that are designed to prepare young
people for life.

A Changing World of Work
Modern society is characterized by change that is unrelenting,
constant, and rapid. New developments in science and tech-
nology, with their applications to business and personal life,

occur with such rapidity and such certainty that all people
are faced with the necessity for adjustment and adaptation to
constantly changing situations.
New developments in science and technology also have al-
tered significantly today's world of work and will change even
more significantly the world of work of tomorrow.
The distribution of the U. S. labor force in 1960, with
projections to 1975, is shown in the following table:

Major Oc

Table I
Actual and Projected Civilian Employment
in the Major Occupations, 1960-19751
cupation Group .... 1960 1962 19'

Total ............................................... 100.0
White-collar exc. farm ............ 43.1
Professional, technical and
kindred ...............-.................. 11.2
Managers, officials and pro-
prietors, except farmers .... 10.6
Clerical and kindred ................ 14.7
Sales ............................................ 6.6
Blue-collar ...................................... 36.3
Craftsmen, foremen and
kindred .................................... 12.8
Operatives and kindred ........ 18.0
Laborers, exc. farm and mine 5.5
Service ............................................ 12.5
Private household .................... 3.3
Service, exc. private
household ................................ 9.1
Farm ................................................ 8.1
Farmers and farm managers 4.2
Farm laborers and foremen 3.9

SStatistical Abstract of the United States (Washington: U.
merce, 1965) p. 227.
n.a.-not available.

70 1975

Per Cent of Total
100.0 100.0 100.0

S. Department of

Table I indicates that white-collar workers are expected to
comprise about 48 per cent of the total labor force by 1975,
and that the largest group of white-collar workers will be in the
clerical and kindred occupations, representing about 16 per cent
of the labor force. The greatest increase in white-collar workers
is expected to be in professional, technical, and kindred occupa-
tions, although the increase in clerical workers also will be
significant. It should be noted that the percentage of the labor
force in sales occupations and the manager and proprietor
classification is not expected to increase to any significant degree
by 1975.

Table II
Number and Per Cent of Civilian Employees in White-Collar
Occupations, 1960-19752
1960 1970 1975
No. % of No. % of No. % of
in All Bus. in All Bus. in All Bus.
Millions Workers Millions Workers Millions Workers
Professional, Techni-
cal and Kindred .... 7.5 26.0 10.7 28.5 12.4 29.8
Managers, Officials,
and Proprietors ...... 7.1 24.6 8.6 22.9 9.4 22.2
Clerical and Kindred.. 9.8 34.0 12.8 34.2 14.2 33.9
Sales .............................. 4.4 15.4 5.4 14.4 5.9 14.1
Totals ........................ 28.8 100.0 37.5 100.0 41.9 100.0

Table II indicates that the number of white collar workers is
expected to increase from 29 million in 1960 to 42 million in
1975. It is evident from Table II that a large proportion of
white collar workers are engaged in business occupations. The
distribution of white-collar workers among major categories
will not change significantly from the present. As shown in the
table, clerical workers will continue to represent about one-third
of all white-collar workers, professional and technical workers
represent another one-third, and sales workers and managers
and proprietors make up the remainder of the white-collar labor

The Influence of Technology

The influence that scientific and technological achievements
will have on occupational patterns and on educational programs
is indicated by Baer and Roeber:
Some of the major trends expected to occur within the broad
grouping of white-collar worker and service-producing jobs are the
1. Technical advances, greater application of scientific findings
in industry, growth of educational and medical services, and more
research and systematic record keeping will all contribute to the
rapid expansion of white-collar fields.
2. Professional and technical work will show the largest in-
crease-particularly scientific and engineering rather than such
traditional fields as law and medicine. Teachers (at all levels)
and technicians who assist engineers and scientists are expected
to show a rapid increase in numbers in the 1960's.
3. Other white-collar groups (managers and clerical and sales
workers) are expected to grow in number during the decade."
a Op. cit., p. 228.
SMax F. Baker and Edward C. Roeber. OCCUPATIONAL INFORMATION: The Dy-
namics of Its Nature and Use. Chicago: Science Research Associates, 1964, pp. 52-53.

From the information presented here, it appears that the
number of workers in business occupations will grow as the
total labor force grows. Business jobs will continue to dominate
the world of work, and the anticipated increase in the number
of clerical workers and the professional and technical workers
indicates continuing demand for employees in these areas. The
educational programs that are designed to prepare individuals
for participation in a society dominated by business activities
must rely on business education as an integral part.

Changes in School Enrollment Patterns
Modern society also is changing in its attitudes toward
education and schooling. The traditional patterns of school en-
rollment and school attendance have been modified by the con-
stantly increasing demand for higher levels of education as
prerequisites for employment. School enrollment patterns proba-
bly will change even more in the future than they have in the
"Present predictions indicate that high school enrollment will
reach 14,110,000 by 1970, an increase of 11 per cent over the
1965 enrollment. In 1975, high school enrollments are expected to
be 15,042,000, an 18.3 per cent increase over 1965; and by 1980,
the enrollment will reach 16,385,000, an increase of 28.8 per cent
over the 1965 enrollment."'
In 1970, it is expected that about 75 per cent of all high
school age youth will be enrolled in school; in 1985, this percent-
age will increase to about 80 per cent.
The rate of retention in school is also increasing. The per-
centage of students who remain in high school to graduation,
and the percentage of high school graduates who enter college,
is advancing slowly each year. Table III shows this increased
Table III shows that about 64 per cent of the students who
were in fifth grade in 1954 actually graduated from high school,
and 34 per cent of those in grade five in 1954 entered college
in 1962. These percentages are in sharp contrast to the 52 per
cent of the 1944 fifth graders who actually graduated from high
school and the 23 per cent who entered college.
SStatistical Abstract of the United States (Washington: U. S. Department of Com-
merce, 1965) p. 108.

Table III
Retention Rate Per 1,000 Students Attending School from Fifth Grade
Through College Entrance 1924-1932 to 1956-1964'

Year of
to Fifth 5th 6th 7th
Grade Grade Grade Grade
1924 1,000 911 798
1926 1,000 919 824
1928 1,000 939 847
1930 1,000 943 872
1932 1,000 935 889
1934 1,000 953 892
1936 1,000 954 895
1938 1,000 955 908
1940 1,000 968 910
1942 1,000 954 909
1944 1,000 952 929
1946 1,000 954 945
1948 1,000 984 956
1950 1,000 981 968
1952 1,000 974 965
1954 1,000 980 979
1956 1,000 985 984

8th 9th 10th llth 12th H. S. Enter
Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade Grad. College
741 612 470 384 344 302 118
754 677 552 453 400 333 129
805 736 624 498 432 378 137
824 770 652 529 463 417 148
831 786 664 570 510 455 160
842 803 711 610 512 467 129
849 839 704 554 425 393 121
853 796 655 532 444 419 (1)
836 781 697 566 507 481 (1)
847 807 713 604 539 505 205
858 848 748 650 549 522 234
919 872 775 641 583 553 283
929 863 795 706 619 581 301
921 886 809 709 632 582 308
936 904 835 746 667 621 328
948 918 855 759 684 642 343
948 930 871 785 724 667 357

The predictions concerning school enrollments and school
population in the future point to the increased numbers of stu-
dents in high school, the increasing percentage of students who
remain in high school until graduation, and the increasing per-
centage of high school graduates who enter college. At the same
time, these predictions point out that considerably less than
70 per cent of students who begin elementary school actually
graduate from high school, and that less than one-third of these
students enter college.
It is evident that educational programs must be designed
to prepare many different groups of young people to live success-
fully in our society. Appropriate and beneficial educational ex-
periences must be provided for persons who do not complete high
school as well as for those who enter college. In a business-
oriented society, education is less than complete unless it pre-
pares young people to participate successfully in business life.

Influence of Legislation

The impact of Federal legislation on school enrollment pat-
terns and on educational curriculums is difficult to assess. It is
SOp. cit., p. 111.

certain, however, that both enrollments and curriculums will be
affected by the educational programs and opportunities that
have been legislated by the Federal Government.
Much of the Federal legislation, specifically the Vocational
Education Act of 1963, is designed to increase the number of
employable people in the United States, largely through educa-
tional programs that upgrade occupational competencies. Some
of the legislation also is aimed specifically at increasing the
numbers of professional workers, such as scientists, technicians,
and the like.
Since much of the Federal legislation requires the establish-
ment of specific educational programs as a means of upgrading
the national manpower resources, the overall effect doubtless will
be to increase the numbers of students who remain in school.
In certain instances, of course, this increase is likely to be some-
what modified by individuals who leave regular school programs
to enter special programs of occupational preparation adminis-
tered by some agency other than the school. The number of
such individuals, however, is not expected to be large.
Since some of the programs that are established through Fed-
eral legislation are designed to prevent students from dropping
out of high school, the legislation will help to increase the
percentage of students who remain in school until high school
graduation. In like manner, adult education enrollments are
expected to increase significantly in the future, due partially to
the encouragement provided through federally legislated educa-
tional programs.
The fact that certain college and university programs of
study can be subsidized, either partially or wholly, through
Federal grants will tend to augment the increasing enrollments
in colleges and universities.
For a description of Federal aid to education including busi-
ness education, teachers are referred to A Compendium of
Statutes (HEW Print 50-271 0) which may be obtained by
writing to the U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington,

Role of Education
Since business is so important in the lives of all people, edu-
cation in our society must prepare young people for successful

living in our business-oriented society. To participate in this
society, education must be devoted to the following areas of
Adaptability to Change
Education should be concerned with the increased need for
adaptability to change. Because change is such a significant
characteristic of our society at the present time, and will tend
to become more rapid in the future, education must prepare all
individuals to accept this change and to make the necessary
adjustments to meet the challenges created by change. The
need for flexibility and adaptability, particularly in all aspects
of business life, is of major importance.
Problem Solving
Education should be concerned with the development of
understandings, knowledge, and abilities necessary to solve
social and economic problems common to all persons.
Preparation for Work
Education should be concerned with the development of the
necessary understandings, knowledge, skills, and attitudes that
comprise adequate preparation for work. Such preparation may
be for immediate employment or it may be subject matter
background necessary for advanced study.
Personal Development
Education should be concerned with the development of
individuals to their fullest potential emotionally, socially, men-
tally, and physically.
Basic Skills
Education should be concerned with the development and
refinement of the basic skills of reading, writing, listening,
speaking, and computation.
Education should be concerned with the development of
the understandings, knowledge, skills, and attitudes that will
permit young people to become useful citizens in their com-
munity, their state, and their nation.

Appreciation of the American Heritage
Education should be concerned with the appreciation and
perpetuation of the inherited political, economic, and cultural
heritage that is a part of American life.
In a democratic society education must provide learning op-
portunities for all individuals-at all levels according to their
ability, their interest, and their capacity to be motivated. Every
subject discipline has a responsibility for providing learning
opportunities to meet the needs of all types of students. All
subject disciplines must meet the challenge of helping to edu-
cate both leaders and followers for our society.

Role of Business Education
Business education in the years ahead must prepare individu-
als for a rapidly changing world of business and business occu-
pations, and business education itself must be constantly chang-
ing to meet the challenges of new developments in science and
Business education helps to achieve the objectives of educa-
tion in the development of knowledge in two major areas:
1. Business education as general education is comprised of those
aspects of business that are of concern to all persons to prepare
them to live in our business-oriented society. Ordinarily, business
education as general education will be appropriate at all levels
of education.
2. Business education as specialized education is comprised of those
aspects of business that are of concern to all individuals who
have as their goal employment in business, either immediately
upon the completion of a particular program of study or after
a period of additional study. Ordinarily, business education as
specialized education will begin in the senior high school and
continue through adult and collegiate programs of education.
Business education is appropriately offered at various levels,
including the junior high school, the senior high school, adult
education programs, area vocational-technical centers, junior
and senior colleges and other specialized educational programs
designed to prepare for employment. The outcomes of business
education will vary with the instructional level at which pro-
grams are offered.

Business Education in the Junior High School
The outcomes of business education in the junior high school

will be totally related to business education as general education.
These outcomes and the courses in which the outcomes can be
achieved, are:

General Business
(1) Development of economic literacy:
understanding the organization
and operation of the economic
system; development of a vocab-
ulary of economic terminology
(2) Development of consumer knowl-
edges, skills, and attitudes
(3) Study of basic skills:
computational; oral and written
communication skills
(4) Study of career opportunities in

General Business
and Typewriting
(1) Development of
knowledge and

Business Education in the Senior High School

The outcomes of business education in the senior high
school are related to business education both as general educa-
tion and as specialized education. The outcomes to be acheived

Development of vocational
competency (specific job
skills and background in-
formation for entry and
advancement in business

Development of knowledge,
skills and attitudes in the
area of human relations

Development of economic

Development of consumer
knowledge, skills, and

Typewriting, Bookkeeping, Data
Processing, Shorthand, Clerical
Office Practice, Secretarial Of-
fice Practice, Recordkeeping, Of-
fice Machines, Business English,
Salesmanship, Advertising, Mer-
chandising, Business Organiza-
tion and Management, Vocational
Office Education, Cooperative
Business Education
In all business subjects, particu-
larly in Clerical and Secretarial
Office Practice, Salesmanship,
Vocational Office Education, Co-
operative Business Education

Economics, General Business,
Consumer Education, Economic
Geography, Bookkeeping,
Business Organization and

General Business, Consumer
Education, Business Law,
Business Mathematics

Refinement of fundamental

Development of personal-use
knowledge and skills

Study of career opportuni-
ties in business

Building of a foundation for
advanced study

Business Education in Area
in Adult Education Programs

Business English, Business
Mathematics, Bookkeeping,
General Business, Recordkeeping,
Shorthand, Secretarial Office
Practice, Clerical Office Practice

Typewriting, General Business,
Personal Shorthand, Consumer
Economics, Business Law,

General Business, Secretarial
Office Practice, Vocational
Office Education, Cooperative
Distributive Education,
Diversified Cooperative Training,
Cooperative Business Education,
Clerical Office Practice

Bookkeeping, Economics, Business
Law, Salesmanship, Merchandis-
ing, Advertising, Business Organ-
ization and Management, Data

Tocational-Technical Centers and

Ordinarily, business education in these programs will be
specialized education and will be vocational in nature. The out-
comes at these levels will be those outcomes that are closely
related to vocational competencies. The courses through which
these outcomes are developed will depend on the demands
of participating students, particularly in the adult education
program. Chapter VIII describes in more detail the purposes
and outcomes for adult education programs.

Business Education in the Junior College

Business education at the junior college level will be de-
voted to occupational preparation and to preparation for ad-
vanced study for the business profession. The outcomes for this
level are more fully developed in Chapter VIII of this Guide.

The Guidance Function

Guidance is an integral part of the total educational process

in today's schools, and the business education teacher has spe-
cific and definite responsibilities in helping to implement the
guidance function.
In accepting this responsibility, the business educator helps
to provide various guidance experiences necessary for the busi-
ness student:
Educational guidance-directs students in learning how to
study and in planning programs of study that are most suitable
for meeting the goals which students have set for themselves.
High school students need to be reminded that, even though
colleges and universities require applicants to have completed
certain specified high school courses before they can be admitted
to the university (or to various programs of study within the
university), most colleges will accept all high school credits to
meet entrance requirements. Except for specified courses, credit
from all high school courses generally can be used for this
Social and personal guidance-aids students in becoming
mature, self-directing, and well-adjusted individuals.
Vocational guidance-assists students in acquiring knowledge
of the functions, responsibilities, opportunities, and rewards of
occupations. Thus, students are encouraged to think critically
concerning various types of occupations. Even though the busi-
ness education department has the responsibility of planning
for students of all levels of ability, the interest and ability
levels of the students must be high enough to permit them to
become employable if they are to profit from the business edu-
cation courses.

Role of the Business Teacher

Business teachers, by the nature of their professional back-
ground and experience, have a unique contribution to make to
an effective guidance program.
In helping students understand the world of work:
1. The teacher should be well informed about the school program
and should know the job requirements and opportunities in our
2. The teacher should be friendly, sympathetic, and approachable
so that students will not hesitate to seek information and counsel.
3. The teacher should participate in informing students about busi-
ness education by: preparing course outlines and handbooks, pre-

senting assembly programs, preparing bulletin boards, displays,
and sponsoring clubs and organizations.
In relation to the Vocational Office Education program:
1. The teacher, under the Vocational Office Education Plan I,
has the opportunity under the block-of-time class plan to help
the student to analyze his abilities and to refine those skills,
knowledge, and attitudes that will enable him to adjust and
advance on the job.
2. The teacher, under the Vocational Office Education Plan II,
is allotted released time for the specific purpose of counseling
with those students who have decided upon a business career.
In serving as a resource person to the guidance department:
1. The teacher should inform the counselor of the knowledge,
skills, and abilities needed by students to do satisfactory work in
2. The teacher should contribute to the student's cumulative folder
in regard to skill competencies, grades, and other anecdotal in-
3. The teacher should make certain that the students' work ex-
periences are recorded in the cumulative folders.
4. The teacher should assist the guidance department in the selec-
tion and administration of appropriate prognostic tests.6


The business teacher should assume the responsibility of
working with administrators, advisory committees, employment
offices, and other agencies in the community in placing students
on jobs. Students should be referred to jobs in which they are
interested, and have a career objective, for which they have
been properly trained, and in which they are most likely to
Teachers may employ such procedures as the following in
providing placement services:
1. Teach the students proper techniques of applying for a job.
2. Arrange for students to participate in cooperative work programs.
3. Inform the students of current employment opportunities.
4. Furnish the guidance office and businessmen with information
about the employment potential of students.
5. Arrange for interviews between the students and prospective
6. Classify students according to their abilities and the types of
duties they are best able to perform. This information will serve
as a quick and easy reference when employers ask for new
Florida State Plan for the Improvement of Vocational, Technical, and Related Edu-
cational Services, Bulletin 70A-3, (Tallahassee: State Department of Education, 1965).

7. Handle employers' calls for prospective employees and help select
students for jobs to be filled.
8. Give students credentials and information to carry with them
during interviews for jobs.
9. Study the student's adjustment on the job, making notes for the
improvement of placement services or improvement of the cur-
The use of a variety of prognostic, or predictive, measures
to yield specific information concerning the probable success
of students in a specific business course or sequence should be
an integral part of the business education program. The char-
acteristics indicative of a student's future achievement include
his interests, character traits, physical condition, adjustment
to his environment, and his ability to learn. The teacher and
guidance department should give every consideration to these
factors in helping students best utilize their high school educa-
tion in preparation for vocations in which they can be successful.
The results of a battery of tests-including prognostic tests
for clerical and office occupations (which still have limited
predictive value), scholastic aptitude tests, reading ability tests,
and achievement tests-and the use of information acquired
through supplementary interest inventories, personality ques-
tionnaires, pupil personnel records, students' grades, and at-
tendance records may be used as effective prognostic devices.
In addition, selected units in certain business education courses
may be made available to students on the ninth and tenth
grade levels for an exploratory experience in the business sub-
Such units, as a device for discovering the interests and
aptitudes of students in business education, may actually offer
opportunities for students to explore subject matter such as
shorthand, recordkeeping, and selling. If exploratory or tryout
units are to be of real value, records must be kept on student
progress and must be used in counseling. Parents must be kept
informed about the student's potential for success in various
subject areas.
The information obtained through prognostic media should
be of value in helping the students obtain realistic pictures of
their strengths on which to capitalize, and the weaknesses which
they need to accept or remedy as they pursue their chosen
educational goals.


Schools providing vocational preparation for students have
not fulfilled their complete responsibility if they do not follow
these students on the job. Follow-up studies should provide a
basis for analyzing the need for new courses and for improving
present courses. The findings may result in curriculum changes
varying from partial changes in some areas to total revision in
others. The business department may also continue to render
service to former students in securing jobs or in planning for
further education and should cooperate with adult education
and vocational and technical programs in an effort to improve
the educational level of the community. The follow-up must reach
as many graduates and dropouts as possible to be of maximum
value to the individual and to the school.

The Professional Business Education Teacher
Professional growth of the business education teacher pre-
supposes an increased awareness of changing social conditions,
continued development in the understanding of youth, as well
as studied improvement in classroom methods and teaching
techniques. It necessitates understanding in depth of human
A professional business education teacher:
1. Is interested in teaching students more than subject matter.
2. Is active in professional organizations-from national to local,
from general to specialized.
3. Reads critically the professional literature that is available,
including reports of research studies.
4. Endeavors to keep professionally informed through association
with recognized authorities.
5. Is willing to adjust to changes in teaching assignments, school
schedules, curriculum development, and equipment and facilities
if the changes are more beneficial to the school system.
6. Is able to adjust viewpoints and concepts to changes and
advancements in business conditions.
7. Contributes ideas, experiences, and research findings through
professional writing.
8. Makes every effort to enhance the public image of the business
education teacher.
9. Continues education toward more advanced learning.
10. Attends workshops and participates in meetings and conferences.
11. Cooperates with requests for data concerning advanced studies,
standardizing tests, and establishing national norms on tests.
12. Recognizes the need for and builds a personal professional

13. Counsels with students.
14. Is ambitious to progress and avoids becoming set in a mold of
rote teaching.
15. Recognizes the need for recreation and for travel.
16. Is affiliated and active in civic, business, and religious organiza-
tions of the community.

Professional Organizations
Membership in educational associations is important to pro-
fessional growth. Associations which will be professionally bene-
ficial to the business teacher include the National Education
Association, Florida Education Association, National Business
Education Association (including membership in the Southern
Business Education Association), American Vocational Associa-
tion, Florida Business Education Association, Florida Vocational
Association, and the Classroom Teachers Association.

National and International Business Education Associations
The National Business Education Association is a division
of the National Education Association. NBEA is devoted to the
interests of all business educators throughout the nation. Mem-
bership in this organization entitles the teacher to receive the
monthly publication, Business Education Forum, and an annual
publication, the National Business Education Yearbook. A com-
prehensive member in the Association also receives the National
Business Education Quarterly.
The International Society of Business Education, a division
of NBEA, co-sponsors an international conference in economics
each summer. Membership in this society is not included in the
comprehensive membership in the National Business Education
Association. The publication, the International Review, is re-
ceived once a year.
Two other divisions of NBEA are: National Association for
Business Teacher Education, the business teacher education
division devoted to upgrading business teacher education; and
the Administration, Supervision, and Teaching Division devoted
to special interests of administrators, research, and secondary
The American Vocational Association is an organization for
vocational and practical arts education. Membership in this or-
ganization entitles the educators to receive each month the
official magazine, the American Vocational Journal.

State Vocational Association
The Florida Vocational Association is the state affiliate of the
parent organization, the American Vocational Association. Mem-
bers receive the official publication, the Florida Vocational
Association Newsletter, on a quarterly basis.

Regional Business Education Association
The Southern Business Education Association is one of the
five regional affiliates of the National Business Education Associ-
ation. Florida business educators who belong to NBEA are also
members of SBEA. The annual convention of SBEA is held
during the Thanksgiving holidays in one of the twelve south-
eastern states.

State Business Education Association
The Florida Business Education Association is a section of
the Florida Education Association. The annual business meeting
of the FBEA is held in conjunction with the Florida Education
Association convention in the spring. FBEA also plans the pro-
gram for a work conference held each fall and co-sponsored by
the State Department of Education.

County Business Education Association
In some counties there is a sufficient number of business
education teachers to make a county organization feasible. A
county organization may:
1. Work toward the satisfactory development of a business educa-
tion curriculum in the county.
2. Cooperate with the county administrators and institutions of
higher learning in securing in-service training for teachers.
3. Make community surveys.
4. Obtain work opportunities for teachers.
5. Establish a businessmen's advisory committee.
6. Establish uniform business efficiency certificates.
7. Visit other business departments for ideas and suggestions.
A teacher must participate actively in organizations if he is
to receive maximum benefit from his membership. Attendance
at meetings and participation in programs are privileges that
are available to all business education teachers.

Business education teachers who participate in the work of
professional organizations will profit from the help received
from the organization and will grow through the exchange of
ideas and widening of acquaintanceships.
It is especially recommended that teachers in Florida endeavor
to attend work conferences and conventions of regional and
state business education associations, as well as to attend county
meetings whenever possible.

Community Relations
The complete success of a business education program may
depend on community relationships that have been established.
Community approval or disapproval may be the result of many
years of exchanging ideas and continuing actions of school and
community. An effective public relations program for the school
will promote mutual understanding of the purposes and activities
of the business education department with parents and other
citizens, as well as with the businessmen.
Since they are in a position to measure the worth of the
business education program, local businessmen usually are eager
to cooperate with the school in promoting better business edu-
cation. Good teaching is, therefore, an essential part of molding
public opinion in favor of the school and the business education
program. Mutual understanding and concern for the purposes
and activities of the business education department is most
desirable. Sometimes it is wise for the business teacher to assume
the initiative in order to activate this interest to a maximum
The business teacher may help build or strengthen a desirable
community and school relationship through conferences, open
houses, special programs, publicity releases, service clubs (es-
pecially recommended are Administrative Management Society,
Business and Professional Women's Club, National Secretaries
Association, Chamber of Commerce), adult education programs,
public exhibits, field trips, placement services, and follow-up
studies of graduates.

Interrelationships and Articulation
There is no conflict between the general and specialized
objectives of business education. Many business skills and much

knowledge may be readily applicable either to the solution of a
personal business problem or to a job situation. Certainly, spe-
cialized business education contributes to the general education
objective of economic efficiency. Moreover, as it has been
pointed out, business education as general education is com-
prised of those aspects of business that are of concern to all
persons to prepare them to live in our business-oriented society.
A continuing problem in business education is the problem of
articulating the business program with the programs of other
departments within the school and with business education
programs in other schools in the community. Studies must be
made and experiments need to be conducted to facilitate close
coordination among the various school programs. Cooperation
and coordination are necessary in order to provide maximum
development in concepts and skills.
Articulation may be improved through efforts of guidance
counselors, through meetings of teachers, by careful planning
of department chairmen, and through the efforts of supervisors
and other administrators.
Business education programs in the junior high schools are
related to general education objectives, and the programs in the
senior high schools and junior colleges are concerned with both
the general and the specialized objectives. In the Florida junior
colleges some efforts are being made to avoid duplication of
high school programs, particularly programs in occupational
preparation. Efforts are made in the junior colleges to place the
students in that part of the program where it is believed they
will gain the greatest benefits.

Qualifications of the Business Education Teacher
The Florida State Department of Education sets up minimum
requirements for Ranks I, II, and III teaching certificates. De-
tailed requirements may be found in the publication, Florida
Requirements for Teacher Certification, State Department of
Education, Tallahassee, Florida. Minimum requirements for a
Rank III certificate are:
Business Education
1. A Bachelor's degree with a major in business education (book-
keeping and stenography)
2. A Bachelor's degree with thirty (30) semester hours in business

education including the areas specified below:
a. Six (6) semester hours in accounting or bookkeeping
b. Six (6) semester hours in economics
c. Six (6) semester hours in shorthand
d. Four (4) semester hours in typewriting
e. Two (2) semester hours in business English
f. Two (2) semester hours in business law
Bookkeeping and General Business
1. A Bachelor's degree with a major in bookkeeping
2. A Bachelor's degree with eighteen (18) semester hours in business
education including the areas specified below:
a. Six (6) semester hours in accounting or bookkeeping
b. Six (6) semester hours in economics
c. Two (2) semester hours in business law
A Bachelor's degree with eighteen (18) semester hours in business
education including the areas specified below:
a. Six (6) semester hours in shorthand
b. Four (4) semester hours in typewriting
c. Two (2) semester hours in business English
Vocational Office Education
In order to qualify for the Graduate Certificate, Rank III, covering
Vocational Office Education, the applicant shall meet the following
a. Satisfy all requirements for the Graduate Certificate covering
covering the broad field of secondary business education
b. Furnish signed statements from employers or other documen-
tary evidence verifying specific work experience of at least
one year of full-time employment in the same area to be taught
c. Present three (3) semester hours in principles or philosophy
of vocational education.'

Vocational Office Education may be shown on a Provisional
Graduate Certificate covering secondary business education
when the applicant has satisfied the requirement for work ex-
perience and furnished documented verification. (Section b.)

New Developments and New Media for Learning and Teaching

New insights into the nature of learning and the developing
complexities of the instructional task indicate that present-day
learning and teaching processes will assume new dimensions in
the future. Even with these new developments, however, it can-
not be emphasized enough that the instructor is the most im-
portant factor in the learning situation, and he will continue to
7 Requirements for Teacher Certification (Tallahassee: State Department of Educa-
tion, 1964), p. 119.

be. Auxiliary tools, such as the overhead projector, controlled
reader, team teaching, television, and programmed instruction,
will become more important. But only through careful planning
of their utilization in a specific classroom situation can there be
effective instruction and learning. Successful application and
continued development of each new device are entirely de-
pendent on the creativity of the classroom teacher in planning
for individualized learning.

The Overhead Projector
The overhead projector is a relatively new teaching-learning
aid that offers unusual possibilities for enriching the learning in
many different business education classes. The overhead pro-
jector provides opportunities to present drawings, charts, statisti-
cal tables, and similar material to the class without the necessity
of having to write these materials on the chalkboard, present
them orally, or prepare duplicated copies for the class. The
teacher also may use the overhead projector to demonstrate how
business forms should be completed, how words are spelled,
or how shorthand outlines are written, since this machine per-
mits the teacher to write directly on the material that is being
projected to the class.
The overhead projector makes use of transparencies (trans-
parent surfaces on which have been printed, typewritten, hand-
written, or drawn any material that the teacher wishes to project
on the screen). With special types of equipment, transparencies
can be prepared by machine directly from many different types
of printed material. Especially suitable for placement on trans-
parencies are such materials as tables, graphs, drawings, busi-
ness forms, arithmetic problems, and letter styles. Transparencies
may be prepared in such a way that they show the steps of
a sequence by placing one transparency on top of another (called
The overhead projector has the advantage of being used with-
out darkening the room and permits the teacher to face the
class while presenting the materials. This teaching-learning aid
is particularly good for use in such subjects as bookkeeping,
business mathematics, general business, consumer education,
recordkeeping, data processing, economics, typewriting, short-
hand, and office machines.

The Skill-Builder
The skill-builder, or controlled reader, is a teaching-learning
aid that presents materials to the students at a constant rate
and in small segments to help them to increase their rates
of response in some particular skill, such as shorthand, typewrit-
ing, arithmetic computation, and reading. The skill-builder uses
a type of filmstrip that is projected on a screen. If the material
that is projected is to be used for typewriting practice, the
students try to copy the material as rapidly as it is shown
on the screen. Typewriting stroking speeds tend to be forced to
higher levels because the materials are projected at constant
rates that can be selected by the teacher. The skill-builder
offers the same opportunities for developing increases in stu-
dent responses in any of the skills courses in business education.

Large Group Instruction
Business education teachers increasingly are being required
to administer and teach in situations where class sizes are 60,
70, and even larger. Obviously, special facilities and instruction
techniques are necessary if these situations are to produce the
best learning possible.
The business courses that are most likely to be administered
and taught in large group instruction situations are general
business and typewriting-although there is no reason to believe
that any of the business subjects are immune from this re-
latively new development.
When general business classes are taught through large group
instruction, business teachers need to make sure that there are
ample opportunities for students to meet in small groups for dis-
cussion purposes and to engage in individual project work. As a
general practice, large group instruction in general business will
entail a lecture-demonstration on one occasion, followed by
several class periods devoted to small group discussion, individual
study, and the like. Ordinarily, large group instruction in gen-
eral business will be set up on a team-teaching basis, perhaps
with clerical helpers or student aides assigned to help with the
details of classroom management.
When typewriting is taught in groups of more than 40-45
students, certain considerations and cautions should be kept in

1. The typewriting teacher should be provided with qualified assist-
ants who are able to help students with their individual typing
problems during the scheduled class periods. These assistants
should have a sound knowledge of typewriting techniques and
2. Clerical assistance should be provided to help with the details
of classroom management.
3. A modern demonstration stand, preferably one that is mounted
on a raised platform, is essential. The demonstration stand must
be placed so that all students in the room have an unobstructed
view of all demonstrations.
4. Frequently, amplifying equipment is a necessary part of the
equipment needed for large group instruction.
5. The typewriting teacher will need to demonstrate frequently the
correct techniques and procedures that students are to emulate.
6. The teacher in a large group situation will want to direct
carefully all of the practice efforts of students.
7. The typewriting teacher should recognize that such learning-
teaching aids as the overhead projector, the skill-builder or con-
trolled reader, and the tachistoscope, will help students develop
rapid responses. In addition, specially equipped rooms with in-
dividual listening stations are recommended to enhance learning
in typewriting in large group situations.
8. The classroom should be equipped with extra typewriters (stored
near the classroom) so that each student will be assured of a
machine each day.

It must be kept in mind that large group instruction is not
synonymous with team teaching. In large group instruction,
teachers share the work on the basis of large numbers of students.
In team teaching, the sharing is based on special qualifications
for teaching certain areas of subject matter.

Team Teaching

Team teaching is a term used to designate a method of or-
ganization for pupil learning in which two or more teachers
share in the responsibility for all aspects of teaching-planning
student learning experiences, guiding students through these
experiences, measuring student progress, and evaluating the
procedures used. The team of teachers responsible for a particu-
lar class must work closely together in planning for student
learning and must have indicated a willingness to accept this
An essential feature of team teaching, and one of its most
important strengths, is that teachers assume the responsibility
for teaching the subject matter area in which they are most

highly qualified. If teachers merely divide the instructional time
with little or no thought of the teachers who are best qualified
to organize and teach certain aspects of the subject matter,
team teaching loses much of its value.
Ordinarily in team teaching there are at least two teachers
and one or more clerical assistants who are assigned to type
and grade tests, prepare visual materials, take attendance, etc.
Teachers may share equally in the responsibility for the class
or one person may be designated as the directing teacher and
the other persons work under his supervision.
Team teaching appears to be most adaptable in business
education to the subject areas of general business, economics,
consumer economics, business organization and management, and
perhaps clerical and secretarial office practice.

Television has been used as an instructional medium for
some time, and the techniques for using it for instructional
purposes constantly are being refined. The two general classifica-
tions of television for instruction are single-room and studio
television. In addition, studio television generally operates either
as closed-circuit or as open-circuit television.
Single-room television. In business education, television pro-
jections may be more beneficial to the students if a small,
relatively inexpensive, self-contained television camera is used.
This unit serves to magnify the procedures or processes that
are being explained or demonstrated and projects this magnifica-
tion so that all students in the class are able to see the details
of the process or procedure. Single-room television is particularly
adaptable to office practice classes (where machine demonstra-
tions are essential) and typewriting.
Studio television. The most common use of television as an
instructional medium has been to use a television camera to
record lessons presented by a master teacher and transmitted
to television receivers located in separate classrooms or separate
buildings. Ordinarily, educational television has utilized closed-
circuit facilities, in which the program or lesson is transmitted
only to receivers which are connected by direct cable to the
television camera. Some educational programs, however, are
transmitted on open-circuit facilities and all persons within a
specified area are able to receive the program or lesson.

The business education subjects that are most suitable for
television instruction are typewriting, economics, and subjects
that can be learned through the lecture-demonstration method
of teaching. Some success has been reported for shorthand
classes that have been taught by television also.

Programmed Learning

This method of learning may be either a machine program
or a printed program depending upon the task to be learned.
Perceptual-motor skills lend themselves more readily to ma-
chines while purely verbal tasks may adequately use the printed
Proceeding at one's own rate is the core of programmed
learning. Such a procedure leads the student, step by step,
through explanations or bodies of information. The student is
required to make a correct response before he is permitted to
proceed to the next step in the process.
Those subjects considered most adaptable to programming
are business law, shorthand, business arithmetic, bookkeeping,
recordkeeping, and short units of office practice. Spelling,
vocabulary development, punctuation, and grammar are also
adaptable to programming.

Single-Concept Films

The 8-millimeter, single concept film is especially valuable in
classes where short demonstration or episode is needed to illus-
trate a principle or crystallize a concept.
The single-concept film is designed to be used during class
discussions, teacher demonstrations or teacher lectures, and can
be shown at the precise moment when a filmed situation best
explains an idea. Ordinarily of short duration (3 to 5 minutes),
these films offer almost limitless opportunities to enrich student
learning in business education classes.
Applications are obvious in such subjects as general business,
business law, consumer economics, business organization and
management, salesmanship, retailing, clerical and secretarial
office practice, and data processing courses.

The telelecture is a speakerphone equipped with a tiny micro-
phone and a miniature transmitter that is connected to a regular
telephone. Transmissions are directed to receiving equipment
tied to amplifiers in an assembly hall or classroom. An audience
may listen to a speaker, and even ask him questions, without
the necessity of the speaker appearing before the group.
A government official from Washington, D. C., or a financial
expert from Wall Street, or a banker from Miami, or an in-
surance broker from Jacksonville, could address a group of
students in any part of the nation (or the world) through the
use of the telelecture.
The telelecture is a new technique for enriching classes in
business law, economics, general business, consumer economics,
salesmanship, retailing, advertising, business organization and
management, and bookkeeping.
Additional information about teaching-learning aids can be
found in each course description in Chapter III of this Guide.

Featured Sequences and Programs

To focus attention upon the total business education cur-
riculum and how such a curriculum provides for the needs of
many different students with many different goals, a number of
sequences within the business education curriculum have been
suggested. These sequences, presented in Chapter II, if followed
by students in the secondary schools, will provide valuable
educational experiences for individuals whose goals range from
general education to college preparatory to occupational prepara-
The sequence that is totally general education in nature is
the basic business-economics sequence. This sequence provides
a general background of understandings in business and eco-
nomics for every student in the high school no matter what his
educational or occupational goal may be. This sequence has
an added advantage of providing the high school student with a
foundation for further study of business in colleges and univer-
The college preparatory sequences that are included in Chap-
ter II will be helpful to students, counselors, and business

teachers alike in planning high school study programs for in-
dividuals who plan to enter college and enter curricula in
secretarial (or office) administration, business administration,
or business teacher education.
The business education sequences presented in Chapter II,
Automation and Data Processing
Basic Business-Economics
Suggested College Preparatory
Manager and/or Owner
These sequences are discussed in relation to suggested
courses, student population, objectives, occupational opportuni-
ties, and evaluation procedures.
In Chapter V is presented the specially designed programs
which provide culminating office education and work experience
for melding skills and knowledge developed previously in the
suggested sequences.


Suggested Sequences

must be adapted to meet the constantly changing needs of
society. Within a local community, consideration must be given
to the mobility of the working population, the expanded em-
ployment community, the rapid developments in technological
progress, and the dynamic nature of economic opportunities.
In the development or modification of a business education
curriculum for a school, careful attention must be given to the
following factors:
1. Surveys of community needs and student interests.
2. Socio-economic and vocational characteristics of the com-
munity, including the expanded employment community.
3. Suggestions from local advisory committees.
4. Placement records and follow-up studies of graduates.
5. School size, teaching staff, facilities, and equipment.
It is unwise for any school to follow a business education
curriculum developed in another school merely because of its
apparent success in that school.
In most business education courses, learning may often be
facilitated by grouping the learners according to ability. Even in
the business classes that are offered primarily as general educa-
tion, such as General Business, ability grouping many times
will help to promote better learning.
When it is possible for a school to schedule more than one
section of a business education class, it may be wise to schedule
these sections to meet during the same class period. This
arrangement will make it possible for teachers in the department
to change students from one group to another according to the
rate at which the students progress. This regrouping of students
is particularly valuable for shorthand, typewriting, and book-
keeping classes.

A Flexible and Functional Curriculum
Every business curriculum in the past has, by design or not,
met the challenge of change. In fact, the ability to meet the
needs of business and society as they developed has been the
genius of education for business. Adaptation to new conditions
is essential for a democratic society and an economic system
based on individual or corporate enterprise. Regardless of the
size of the high school, the business curriculum should be both
flexible and functional. Recent findings of research, new concepts
in learning, new instructional media and techniques, and chang-
ing conditions in a community necessitate constant changes in
the curriculum. Continuous evaluation of the curriculum is neces-
sary for it to remain functional. It should be designed to fit the
needs of the students and the community to be served.

Typewriting for All
Typewriting is rapidly becoming a general method of com-
munication; thus, all students should be permitted to elect type-
writing. It is recommended that typewriting be offered in the
tenth grade or earlier so that students may be able to use the
skill during their high school days. A minimum of one year of
typewriting is recommended; however, seniors may be permitted
to take typewriting for one semester to meet personal-use
objectives. Summer school typewriting instruction which in-
cludes both junior and senior high school students also has
personal-use value.

Importance of Economic Education
Educators have become increasingly aware of the need for
economic literacy. Young people should be prepared to act intel-
ligently when faced with the economic issues that arise daily.
Being an intelligent consumer with an understanding of our
economic system is of value to all students.
Economic education is the responsibility of the total school
from the kindergarten through the twelfth grade.*
A number of courses are offered in the business education
A scope and sequence chart showing grade level (kindergarten through twelfth
grade) for developing economic understandings is being developed by the State Depart-
ment of Education and will be available at a later date.

curriculum which contribute to vital economic education in-
struction for all secondary school students. Some of these
courses are: general business, consumer economics, economics,
bookkeeping, and economic geography. These courses should
be made available to all students.

The Business Education Curriculum in the Small High School

The specialized sequences that follow are designed to develop
a higher degree of vocational competency than many schools
can currently afford. In balancing skill and non-skill courses,
the small high school, however, faces the problem of providing
sufficiently diversified training within the limits of its facilities
to meet the needs and desires of the students and the com-
munity. Some of these problems may be resolved by combining
subject matter from several courses and integrating such sub-
ject matter into a single course. An alternate-year program may
also help to provide a higher degree of competence than would
be possible through unvarying yearly offerings. A suggested
plan might be as follows:

Alternate-Year Program for a One-Teacher Department

First and Third Years-General Business, Typewriting I, Book-
keeping I, Clerical Office Practice
Second and Fourth Years-General Business, Typewriting I,
Shorthand I and a selection of two
or more of the following: Business
Law, Salesmanship or Retailing,
Consumer Economics, Business Or-
ganization and Management
Automation and Data Processing Sequence
Grade Suggested Courses Length
12 Data Recording Devices 1 Semester
12 Introduction to Data Processing 1 Semester
11-12 Bookkeeping I 1 Year
11-12 Office Practice, Clerical (office
machines should be included in the course) 1 Year
10-11 Typewriting I 1 Year
10 Business Mathematics* 1 Year
9-10 General Business 1 Year
The talented or above average student should elect an advanced mathematics
course if arithmetic skills are superior.

Additional Courses to Enrich the Sequence
Business English, Business Organization and Management, Office
Machines, Typewriting II, Bookkeeping II, and Advanced Mathematics.
As unit record equipment becomes available to the high school,
courses in its operation and wiring may be added to the above sequence.
Who Should Enroll in the Sequence
Students of average or above average ability, as evidenced by apti-
tude tests and by school marks,
a. whose temperament and manual dexterity give promise of de-
velopment as keypunch operators;
b. who are planning to seek clerical employment in occupations
where some familiarity with data processing practices and con-
cepts is necessary.
Students who plan to enroll in data processing classes on the post-
high school level or who wish to investigate career opportunities and
requirements should elect the two data processing courses and Type-
writing I.
Additional Considerations for Guidance Purposes
Students who enroll in this sequence should have average or above
average achievement in the language arts and arithmetic skills of
reading comprehension, numeric reasoning, spelling, writing, and speak-
ing. They should also possess self discipline and patience and tenacity
in solving problems.
Objectives of the Sequence
The data processing sequence is designed to introduce into the high
school curriculum specific data processing education which will help
provide the skills and knowledge needed in order to work successfully
in automated offices.
The sequence does not attempt to duplicate the post high school
programs or training programs offered by industry in which efforts are
made to develop proficiency in the operation of specific hardware and
to produce technicians and programmers.
This sequence provides opportunities for interested students to learn
the principles, vocabulary, career possibilities, and concepts of data
processing. Where additional equipment is available, students may gain
experience by observing and operating some of the machinery involved
in data processing.
Schools not offering this sequence may incorporate the data proces-
ing concepts in other related business courses.
Occupational Opportunities
The number of firms using data processing equipment is increasing
so rapidly that occupational opportunities are generally considered to
be unlimited. During the next decade, a half million well-trained
workers will be needed to fill positions in electronic data processing.
Nationally, there is a shortage of qualified personnel with technical
training and experience. It is advisable for business educators to
ascertain the changes that are taking place in data processing na-
tionally and to inform the students about these changes.
A realistic view of the occupational opportunities locally also should

be considered. Work in data processing generally may be divided into
three categories-professional (requiring a four-year college education
or the equivalent), technical (six months to two years of post-high
school or the equivalent), and clerical (requiring a high school education
or the equivalent). Specific information on available job opportunities
may be obtained from local employment offices, data processing equip-
ment manufacturers, businesses with data processing installations, and
local Chambers of Commerce.
Clerical positions in data processing available to high school gradu-
ates are keypunch operator, peripheral equipment operator, data typist,
coding clerk, and tape librarian. From these entry positions, with addi-
tional experience and training, advancement is possible to such positions
as computer operator, computer programmer, systems analyst, data
processing supervisor, or manager.

Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Sequence
New developments in the data processing field should be analyzed
periodically and revisions in the sequence and courses made accordingly.
A study of the evaluation of the courses should be made in deter-
mining the effectiveness of the sequence. Some factors to consider are:
1. Did the students achieve the objectives of the course?
2. Were provisions made to offer the data processing education
to all students?
3. Was proper use made of available resources-advisory commit-
tees, businesses with installations, films and other audio-visual
aids, and the like?
4. Were the classes scheduled at times during which students
might elect them?
5. Did the teachers, administrators, and guidance counselors work
together to incorporate data processing concepts into related
6. Were the course offerings practical? How may they be revised
for more effective results?
7. Were provisions made for local business men and women, local
post-high school representatives, and manufacturers to partici-
pate in the instruction?
8. Were adequate facilities available for proper instruction? If
so, was maximum use made of these facilities? If not, what
facilities were needed? (List order of priority.) Can the need
for such facilities be substantiated?
9. What can be done to improve instruction of the courses in view
of the rapid changes taking place in the field of data processing?
10. Did the sequence help to meet the vocational needs of the

Basic Business-Economics
Grade Suggested Courses Length
11 or 12 Economics 1 Semester or
1 Year
11 or 12 Consumer Economics 1 Semester or
1 Year
11 or 12 Business Law 1 Semester or
1 Year

11 or 12 Business Organization and Management 1 Semester or
1 Year
10, 11,
or 12 Personal Typewriting or Typewriting I 1 Semester or
1 Year
9 or 10 General Business 1 Semester or
1 Year
Additional Courses to Enrich the Sequence
Bookkeeping I or Recordkeeping, Economic Geography, Introduction
to Data Processing.
Who Should Enroll in the Sequence
1. Students who desire or need courses in order to become eco-
nomically literate citizens.
2. College-bound students who indicate a general rather than a
specialized interest in the offerings of colleges and universities.
3. High school students who are following a general course, but
who desire some courses in business education.
Additional Considerations for Guidance Purposes
Business education has an important contribution to make to the
economic literacy of every high school student. Since basic business
and economic education should be administered and taught as general
education, all of these courses should be available to all students who
wish to take them. Certain of these courses will be more suitable for
slow learners, while others will be more appropriate for the average
or above-average learner. For example, the course in economics prob-
ably should be recommended for those persons with average and above
average learning ability. Economics in very simplified form, as pre-
sented in Consumer Economics, can be understood by slow learners.
Objectives of Basic Business-Economic Education
1. To develop an understanding and appreciation of how our
economic system is organized and how it operates, and to under-
stand the ways in which business has contributed to the develop-
ment of the private enterprise economy.
2. To develop an economic vocabulary extensive enough to permit
intelligent reading and understanding of current economic and
social problems as reported in newspapers, magazines, and other
3. To develop the knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary for
effective planning of the management of personal financial re-
sources in order to become intelligent consumers of goods and
4. To provide guidance to young people in making occupational
choices and in planning future study programs as preparation
for entrance into these occupations.
5. To help students learn efficient and economical uses of the
services that business provides for individuals and that are
important to all individuals throughout their lives.
Evaluation of Basic Business-Economic Education
1. Are the teachers of basic business-economic education courses

qualified business teachers with special preparation in content
2. Are students of all ability levels encouraged to enroll in the
basic business-economic education courses?
3. Are the students' learning experiences associated with the stated
objectives of basic business-economic education?
4. Are the courses in basic business-economic education of the
type that meet the general education needs of students?
5. Are courses in basic business-economic education offered at both
the freshman-sophomore and junior-senior levels?


The Bookkeeping Sequence
Suggested Courses
Office Practice, Clerical
Introduction to Data Processing

11 or 12 Business Law

11 or 12 Economics

11 or 12 Bookkeeping I
10 or 11 Typewriting I
9 or 10 Business Mathematics
9 or 10 General Business

1 Year
1 Year
1 Semester or
1 Year
1 Semester or
1 Year
1 Semester or
1 Year
1 Year
1 Year
1 Year
1 Year

Additional Courses to Enrich the Sequence
Typewriting II, Business English, Consumer Economics, English and
Mathematics beyond minimum requirements, Data Recording Devices
(Grade 12, one semester).
Who Should Enroll in the Sequence
1. Students who are average or above average in ability as evidenced
by school grades and scores on academic aptitude tests.
2. Students who, after graduation from high school, plan to be
employed in bookkeeping occupations or other business occupa-
tions requiring the use of bookkeeping knowledge and skill.
3. Students who wish to enroll in business courses to obtain an
understanding of how business is organized and how it operates,
but who do not wish to specialize in occupational preparation.
4. Students who plan to attend college and to specialize in some
aspect of business administration, particularly in accounting.
5. Students who plan to attend college and prepare to become
business teachers.
Additional Considerations for Guidance Purposes
To be successful in this sequence, students should:
1. Be alert in grasping ideas.
2. Have initiative, good judgment, discretion, and the ability to
work with people.
3. Have good vision.
4. Have a good sense of figures and the ability to analyze them.
5. Be neat in keeping records and write legibly.
6. Be neat and clean in personal appearance.
7. Demonstrate good self-discipline.

Objectives of the Sequence
1. To provide students with the understandings, knowledge, atti-
tudes, and skills that will enable them to enter employment in
bookkeeping occupations, or other occupations that require book-
keeping knowledge, and to qualify for advancement in these oc-
2. To provide a technical background, or a background of under-
standing, for college-bound students who plan to enter account-
ing or business administration or to become business teachers.
3. To provide students with an understanding of how business is
organized, how it operates, and how it functions in our economy.
4. To provide students with understandings that will serve as an
introduction to the field of accounting.
5. To provide students with information about careers in book-
keeping and accounting.
6. To provide students with an understanding of the systematic
flow of financial information in a business office and the ma-
chines and equipment that facilitate this flow.
7. To provide students with opportunities for making decisions about
the operation of a business through the use of data from financial
These objectives take into account the current trends in keeping
records and the fact that an increasing number of records will likely
be made by the use of electronic equipment.
Some Bookkeeping Job Titles
General Bookkeeper (DOT 210.388) does all the work necessary to
keep a complete set of books. Usually employees in positions of this
kind are "hand" bookkeepers; they may use adding and other simple
office machines, but they do not operate bookkeeping machines. Book-
keepers record day-to-day business transactions in journals and ledgers
and on other accounting forms. At regular intervals, they prepare
summary statements for their employers showing, for example, the
amount of money taken in and paid out by the firm, from whom
it came and to whom it went, and the amounts customers owe
the firm and the amounts the firm owes to others. Often they also
do other work in filing, answering the telephone, mailing statements
to customers, and taking care of other office work.
Bookkeeping and Accounting Clerks (DOT 219.488) in beginning
jobs perform routine tasks, such as posting items by hand in accounts
payable ledgers and recording other financial transactions. They may
use adding machines to total accounts and take trial balances.
Bookkeeping Machine Operators (DOT 215.388) in entry jobs often
use comparatively simple bookkeeping machines to do similar work.
Experienced clerks and machine operators have much more varied as-
signments and greater responsibility. An accounting clerk in such a
position may not only post and balance accounts but do more difficult
work, such as preparing summary reports. Experienced machine oper-
ators sometimes use very complex equipment adapted to special busi-
ness needs. In some banks, for example, bookkeeping machine operators
add deposits and subtract withdrawals from each depositor's checking
account, calculate service charges, and draw up monthly statements
for mailing-all on one machine especially designed for bank work.1
1 Occupational Outlook Handbook (Washington: U. S. Department of Labor, 1966-67
edition) p. 288.

Work opportunities for general bookkeepers, those qualified to as-
sume responsibilities for a complete double-entry set of books, will
probably continue to be good in the near future because of the many
small businesses starting annually or expanding. This is particularly
true of most areas in Florida.
With the demand for general bookkeepers is a new demand for
a related type of worker-the bookkeeping and accounting clerk and
the bookkeeping machine operator. New jobs will probably arise each
year as a result of general economic growth and the increasing
complexity of business operations. With the large proportion of
women in this occupation, the rate of turnover is high because many
women leave and enter the labor market annually.2

Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Sequence
1. Is there a close and cooperative relationship between the de-
partment head, administration, and teachers in making changes,
planning new courses, and evaluating the sequence?
2. Are the students carefully selected so that a good standard
of work can be accomplished?
3. Are boys as well as girls encouraged to enroll in the book-
keeping sequence?
4. Are students prepared to continue with higher levels of ac-
counting study after completion of the bookkeeping sequence?
5. Are high school graduates actually being hired for bookkeeping
jobs after they complete the bookkeeping sequence?
6. Does the bookkeeping room have a modern, businesslike appear-
7. Are the machines and equipment of late models?
8. Are all machines kept in good working order?
9. Are the National Business Entrance tests (see the Clerical
Sequence for a description) or similar tests administered an-
nually and full use made of the results?
10. Do the records of achievement of the students indicate that
the students are properly selected?
11. Do the records of employment and success on the job indicate
that the content and course offerings of the sequence are

The Clerical Sequence
Grade Suggested Courses Length
12 Clerical Office Practice 1 Year
12 Office Machines (if not included in
Clerical Office Practice) 1 Year
12 Introduction to Data Processing 1 Semester
12 Data Recording Devices 1 Semester
12 Business English 1 Year
10, 11,
or 12 Bookkeeping I or Recordkeeping 1 Year
10 or 11 Typewriting I 1 Year
10 or 11 Business Mathematics 1 Semester or
1 Year
9 or 10 General Business 1 Year
a Op. Cit., pp. 287-289.

Additional Courses to Enrich the Sequence
Business Law, Consumer Economics, Economics, Typewriting II
Who Should Enroll in the Sequence
1. Students who plan to enter employment in the clerical occupa-
tions after graduation from high school.
2. Students who wish to obtain some clerical job skills to use
for part-time employment in business.
3. Students who possess adequate proficiency in the basic skills of
reading, computation, spelling, and grammar to assure success
in the courses contained in the clerical sequence and later success
on the job.
4. Students with a desire to work and willingness to perform the
tasks involved in clerical occupations.
Additional Considerations for Guidance Purposes
When students of low ability (the slow learners) express an interest
in this program, or if it seems wise to guide such a student into the
program, adaptations must be made to individual student needs and
Objectives of the Sequence
1. To provide the student with the understandings, knowledge,
skills, and attitudes necessary to be successful in obtaining a
job in the clerical occupations and advancing to jobs or positions
with higher levels of responsibilities.
2. To provide the student with the necessary understandings, knowl-
edges, and attitudes that will permit him to adapt readily to
the rapid changes in job requirements and duties in the clerical
3. To provide students with sufficient job skills of a clerical
nature that will permit them to accept employment in business
for short periods of time or as part-time workers.
4. To provide students with a knowledge of job opportunities and
job requirements, and the advantages and disadvantages of em-
ployment in the clerical occupations.
5. To provide students with human relations knowledge, skills,
and attitudes necessary to get along with other persons in job
6. To provide students with the opportunities to refine basic
skills of oral and written communication and computation.

Employment Outlook
Employment in clerical occupations is expected to rise very rapidly
during the 1965-75 decade. As employment rises to meet the needs of
an expanding economy, it is anticipated that more than 300,000 new
positions in clerical and related occupations will be added each year.
And an even greater number of clerical workers will be needed each
year to replace those who retire or leave their jobs for other reasons.
Employee turnover is especially high among clerical workers because
many young women do this kind of work for only a few years and
then leave their jobs to remain at home and care for their families.
During the 1965-75 decade, employment opportunities will be par-

ticularly numerous for workers who handle paperwork in the offices of
private and public organizations-for secretaries and stenographers,
typists, and bookkeeping and accounting clerks, for example. These
workers will be needed particularly in banks and insurance companies,
both of which are expected to continue to expand rapidly; in manu-
facturing establishments and in wholesale and retail trade; and in
government offices, educational institutions, and professional service
The number of clerical and related jobs is expected to increase
mainly because the volume of paperwork will undoubtedly expand as
business organizations grow in size and complexity. On the other hand,
more and more mechanical equipment will undoubtedly be used to
speed the process of keeping business records, particularly in large cities,
and in some of these offices, the number of clerical employees may
be reduced. For the economy as a whole, however, the new positions
created by growth are expected to far outnumber the clerical jobs
eliminated by mechanization. Furthermore, many types of clerical
workers are in jobs unlikely to be materially affected by mechaniza-
tion-for example, secretaries, receptionists, people responsible for
collecting bills and handling complaints, and others whose duties
bring them into contact with the public and require them to exercise
initiative and judgment.
Since electronic computers, bookkeeping and calculating machines,
and other mechanical devices are used in offices mainly to process
routine and repetitive work, their use can be expected to bring about
reductions in the number of clerks employed to prepare payrolls,
keep track of inventories, bill customers, sort checks in banks, and do
other routine work. But, as work of this kind is transferred from
clerks to machines, a limited number of new positions for various kinds
of machine operators will be created. This shift in type of clerical
personnel will probably occur chiefly in large business firms and in the
metropolitan areas where such firms tend to be concentrated.3
Men generally receive somewhat higher salaries than women in simi-
lar jobs. Office workers' salaries tend to be somewhat higher in manu-
facturing firms than in retail businesses and other non-manufacturing
industries. It should be remembered that in Florida small business firms
The following groups of jobs serve to illustrate initial clerical jobs
which are open to the high school graduate. The jobs in each group
show the line of promotion.

Cashier I Copyholder
Cashier II Junior Proofreader
Cashier III Senior Proofreader

Dining Room Cashier Tabulating Machine
Food Service Cashier Operator I
Tabulating Machine
Clerk I Operator II
Clerk II Tabulating Machine
Clerk III Operator III
Chief Clerk Assistant Tabulating
Administrative Clerk Machine Supervisor
s Op. cit., p. 280.

Accounting Clerk I
Accounting Clerk II

Typing Clerk I
Typing Clerk II
Typing Clerk III
Chief Clerk
Administrative Clerk

Bookstore Clerk I
Bookstore Clerk II

Inventory Clerk
Inventory Supervisor

Library Clerk I
Library Clerk II
Library Clerk III
Chief Library Clerk

Payroll Clerk I
Payroll Clerk II
Payroll Clerk III
Chief Payroll Clerk

Stores Clerk
Stores Supervisor

Clerk-Typist I
Clerk-Typist II
Clerk-Typist III
Administrative Secretary

Tabulating Machine
Assistant Director of
Statistical Service Unit

Bookkeeping Machine
Operator I
Bookkeeping Machine
Operator II
Bookkeeping Machine
Operator III

Card Punch Operator I
Card Punch Operator II
Card Punch Operator III

Digital Computer Operator I
Digital Computer Operator II

Duplicating Machine
Operator I
Duplicating Machine
Operator II
Duplicating Machine
Operator III
Duplicating Service

Office Appliance
Operator I
Office Appliance
Operator II

Vari-Typist I
Vari-Typist II

Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Sequence
An evaluation of this sequence should recognize that it is geared to
a wide range of student interest and ability. There can be great
challenges to the teacher in preparing a student for the business occu-
pation of his choice. Since this program is such a broad one, involving
a variety of jobs which are open to the high school graduate, emphasis
should be placed upon gearing the program specifically to the needs of
the student.
1. Is the clerical sequence characterized by continuity and articu-
lation of objectives, content, and activities from semester to
2. Are the teaching and supervision of equally high quality in all
3. Does the clerical sequence prepare workers for the clerical op-
portunities in the areas where graduates seek employment as
shown by employment records of graduates?
4. Is the clerical sequence coordinated with similar programs in
area vocational schools and colleges?

5. In this program is there sufficient emphasis on good work habits,
regularity in attendance, punctuality, persistence in finishing
each task?
6. Are interesting and motivating procedures used in helping stu-
dents learn in this sequence and are these procedures of such a
nature that they help the student to see application of the tasks
in school to on-the-job activities?
7. Is the student sufficiently encouraged to take active part in
school organizations and extra class activities?
8. Is the operation of the equipment sufficiently complicated to
justify in-school instruction?
9. Can the expense of the equipment used in the clerical sequence
be justified for in-school instruction?
10. Should the content of data processing include instruction on
electronic data processing equipment or should it be limited to
an introduction to the principles of data processing?
11. Should students in this sequence who wish instruction involv-
ing equipment that is unavailable in the local school be sent
(at local school expense) to other schools where such instruction
is available?
12. Are the NBE or similar tests administered annually and full
use made of the results? Comprehensive tests are available in
typewriting and filing. The scores of the local student may be
compared with national norms.
13. Does a record of student achievement and success on the job
reflect effective procedures in the selection of students for the
clerical sequence?
14. Does a record of student achievement and success on the job
indicate appropriate course offerings and content in the se-

The Manager and/or Owner Sequence
Grade Suggested Courses Length
12 Business Organization and Management 1 Semester or
1 Year
12 Economics 1 Semester or
1 Year
11 or 12 Salesmanship or Merchandising 1 Semester or
1 Year
12 Introduction to Data Processing 1 Semester
11 Office Machines or Clerical Office Practice 1 Semester or
1 Year
11 Bookkeeping I 1 Year
10 or 11 Typewriting I 1 Year
10 Business Mathematics* 1 Semester or
1 Year
Additional Courses to Enrich the Sequence
Business Law, Bookkeeping II, Business English, Advertising
Who Should Enroll in the Sequence
1. Students who are average or above average in ability as evidenced
by school grades.
The talented or above average student should elect an advanced mathematics
course if arithmetic skills are superior.

Suggested College Preparatory Sequences for Prospective Majors in:

Business Administration, Secretarial Administration, and Business Teacher Education
(Complete Course)

Business Administration Goal
9th Grade
English I
Algebra I
Science or Civics
Physical Education
Home Economics (Girls)
10th Grade
English II
Plane Geometry (choose one)
Biology or other science
Physical Education
Sl11th Grade
English III
American History
Foreign Language
Chemistry or other science
12th Grade
English IV or BUSINESS
Foreign Language
Enrichment Courses: BOOKKEEPING

* Could be taken in 10th Grade

Secretarial Administration Goal

English I
Algebra I or General Math
Science or Civics
Physical Education
Home Economics (Girls)

English II
Plane Geometry (choose one)
Biology or other science
Physical Education

English III
American History
Foreign Language


Foreign Language

Business Teacher Education Goal

English I
Algebra I
Science or Civics
Physical Education
Home Economics (Girls)

English II
Plane Geometry (choose one)
Biology or other science
Physical Education

English I
American History
Foreign Language


Foreign Language

Elective II, or BUSINESS LAW
** Could be taken in 11th or 12th Grade

2. Students who plan to become managers and/or owners of a busi-
ness after graduation from high school.
3. Students who plan to be employed in business (in non-managerial
positions) after graduation from high school and who possess
aptitudes and abilities to enable them to become successful man-
agers of business enterprises.
4. Students who plan to enter a business administration or business
management curriculum in a college or university.

Additional Considerations for Guidance Purposes
Candidates for this sequence should have leadership qualities, integ-
rity, and the ability to communicate properly. Initiative, imagination,
ingenuity, and a liking for people are desirable characteristics. Aspirants
to managerial positions must be ambitious, energetic, interested, en-
thusiastic, and be willing to work hard and to accept responsibility.

Objectives of the Sequence
1. To develop the understandings, knowledge, skills, and attitudes
necessary to enable an individual to be successful in owning and
operating a small business.
2. To develop the necessary background of subject matter that will
enable an individual to advance from initial positions in business
to management levels.
3. To develop the necessary background of subject matter to enable
a person to enter a college or university with reasonable as-
surance that he can succeed in his advanced studies.
4. To develop appropriate knowledge and skills in human relations.

Occupational Opportunities
The scope of beginning jobs with a potential of advancement to
managerial positions is unlimited.
High school graduates who have had on-the-job experience may
fill some positions of limited managerial responsibility; however, the
positions with the highest potential for rapid advancement usually
demand more education and training. In-service training programs and
post secondary-school courses supplementing the high school program
can serve to accelerate the candidate's progress toward a management
or ownership position. A college degree is necessary in some areas for
initial employment, and after satisfactory work experience the employee
may then be in line for a managerial position. Assistant managerships
in chain or syndicated enterprises provide opportunities for on-the-job
promotions to managerships in large stores or service stations.
The Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1966-67 edition, pp 22-23
(revised every two years), reports about 6.5 million men and 1.1 million
women, not counting farm owners or farm managers, were managers,
officials, or proprietors in 1965. Of these nearly 7.5 million people,
managers and officials in salaried positions accounted for almost 60
per cent. The largest group of proprietors-about half of the total
number-are owners of stores, restaurants, gasoline service stations,
or other kinds of retail establishments. In addition, large numbers
manage their own factories or construction businesses. Even though
the proprietor-managerial group as a whole is not showing the same

growth as some other white-collar occupations, its numbers are ex-
pected to increase as fast as the total labor force, and to reach almost
9.5 million by 1975.
A high school sequence of courses would tend to explore and in-
struct in basic areas of business management. Additional preparation
would be needed to develop competencies in many of the specialized
types or related areas of management. Following are some of the types
of managers found in most major industries and businesses:
Types of industrial managers:
Traffic, plant, sales, advertising, display, public relations, industrial
relations, purchasing (agent), credit, personnel, production, and re-
search and testing.
Other specialized types of managers:
Bank, branch store, restaurant or cafeteria, hotel or motel, credit,
farm, dairy, office, retail store manager and many others.
Evaluation of the Effectivensss of the Sequence
1. What evidence is available to show that the background of the
students and their individual differences are considered on all
instructional levels of this sequence to better meet their needs
as candidates for manager-owner competency?
2. Do school records indicate that the majority of the students in
the sequence are successfully completing the necessary courses?
3. Do results from follow-up studies indicate the program is pre-
paring students to handle competently management responsibili-
ties as indicated by their performance on the job?
4. Do enrollment figures in the courses and sequence indicate that
the guidance, counseling and recruitment practices are effective
in enrolling students with appropriate abilities, interests, and
potential for success?
5. Does a cooperative working relationship exist between the business
department staff and managerial representatives of the business
a. Does the business department confer with the representatives
of business firms regarding the relationship between the in-
service training programs in business (during employment) and
the breadth, depth, and achievement levels of the school train-
ing program?
b. Do the representatives of both individual business firms and
the business community cooperate with the business depart-
ment by making employment and managerial personnel avail-
able to serve on advisory committees, to serve as visiting lec-
turers, to direct groups of students on tours through plants
and offices and to provide profitable experiences for students
pursuing the work-experience program?
The Secretarial Sequence
Grade Suggested Courses Length
12 Business English 1 Year
12 Secretarial Office Practice 1 Year
12 Shorthand II 1 Year
11 Bookkeeping I 1 Year
11 Shorthand I 1 Year
10 or 11 Typewriting I 1 Year
9 or 10 General Business 1 Year

Additional Courses to Enrich the Sequence
Office Machines, Typewriting II, Economics, Consumer Economics,
Business Law, Business Organization and Management, Bookkeeping II,
Business Mathematics, Introduction to Data Processing (Grade 12, 1
semester), Data Recording Devices (Grade 12, 1 semester).
Who Should Enroll in the Sequence
1. Students who aspire to be secretaries or stenographers immedi-
ately upon graduation.
2. Students who are college bound and plan to major in business in
a secretarial training program.
3. Students who are college bound and plan to major in business
teacher education.
4. Students who are college bound and plan to work in order to
defray college expenses.
5. Students whose grades and aptitudes indicate success in the

Additional Considerations for Guidance Purposes
To be successful in this sequence, students should:
1. Exhibit personal characteristics of initiative, alertness, discretion,
perseverance, and the ability to get along with people.
2. Have a strong interest and a sincere desire to become secretaries.
Objectives of the Secretarial Sequence
A. General Objectives:
1. To qualify graduates for secretarial or stenographic jobs and
for advancement on those jobs.
2. To provide a business-oriented background and occupational
skills for the college-bound student who plans to enter busi-
ness as a professional secretary or to become a teacher.
3. To provide occupational skills for the college-bound student who
wants to work part-time to defray expenses.
4. To contribute to the general education of the high school student
so that he will have a better understanding of business.
B. Specific Objectives:
1. To introduce the student to the specific duties and responsibilities
of a secretary (office management, decision making, etc.) and
prepare the student to perform these duties and responsibilities
at the highest level of proficiency.
2. To prepare the student to perform the stenographic duties in
office occupations (proficiency in shorthand, transcription, and the
use of transcribing machines).
3. To prepare the student to perform the clerical, non-shorthand
duties in office occupations.
4. To prepare the student with related knowledge and skills neces-
sary to perform the duties in secretarial and stenographic occu-
pations and to advance in these occupations.
5. To create an awareness in the student of job opportunities and
the advantages and disadvantages of employment in stenographic
and secretarial occupations.
6. To develop good work habits and work attitudes that will make
the individual a more efficient person.

7. To meet individual needs and provide opportunities in the se-
quence for the vocational development of each student.
8. To develop knowledge and skills in human relations to enable
students to get along well with other people.

Occupational Opportunities
The Occupational Outlook Handbook reports that in 1965, almost
two million persons were employed in occupations which required steno-
graphic skills. More than 95 per cent of these workers-usually desig-
nated as stenographers or secretaries-were women.' Many thousands
of openings for stenographers and secretaries occur each year. Some
are jobs created by business expansion; others are job vacancies created
because of the large number of young women in these occupations who
stop working after a few years to become homemakers. The demand
for workers with stenographic skills has been greater than the
supply for more than a decade, and this shortage is expected to
continue for some years to come.

Over the long run, employment in stenographic and secretarial
work is expected to continue its rapid growth. The development of
new types of office equipment, new systems, and new processes will
undoubtedly continue, but such technological changes are not expected
to affect significantly the growth of employment in these occupations.
Turnover undoubtedly will remain high, particularly in the case of the
general stenographer, and will give rise to a substantial number of
additional openings for workers with stenographic skills.
Although specific duties and job titles differ considerably, depending
upon the nature of the employer's business, practically all stenographers
or secretaries record dictation and transcribe it on the typewriter.
Stenographers (DOT 202.388) take dictation from one or more per-
sons and then transcribe their notes on the typewriter. Most stenog-
raphers record their shorthand; a few use machines which print sym-
bols as different keys are pressed. Depending upon the duties, experi-
ence, and the amount of supervision they receive, they may be classified
as "junior" or "senior" stenographers.
Secretaries (DOT 201.368), in addition to doing stenographic work,
relieve their employers of numerous routine duties and often handle
a variety of business details on their own initiative. Sometimes they
also supervise other clerical personnel. Secretarial responsibilities vary,
depending on the type of job. Some secretaries, like stenographers,
specialize in legal, medical, or other technical work.
Court Reporters (DOT 202.388) are stenographers who make ver-
batim reports of proceedings in a court of law, sometimes in a difficult
technical language, from many speakers, and for several hours at a
time. These workers must be able to take notes very rapidly with a high
degree of efficiency and accuracy and transcribe them for use in a
very short period of time.

Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Sequence
1. Does the secretarial sequence prepare workers for occupational
opportunities in the areas where graduates seek employment as
shown by employment records of the students?
SOp. Cit., p. 281.

2. Does the secretarial sequence reflect consideration of and co-
ordination with area vocational schools and colleges?
3. Does selection of students reflect analyses of aptitudes, abilities,
and interests?
4. Does a record of student achievement and success on the job
indicate effective procedures in selection of students?
5. Does a record of student achievement and success on the job
indicate appropriate course offerings and course content?


Business Education Courses

mended in various sequences in Chapter II are described
in considerable detail in this chapter.

Advertising is a course designed to teach the use of adver-
tising as a means of getting goods into the hands of the con-
sumer. It has become a major selling technique and it reaches
and influences the lives of everyone. With the growing impor-
tance of advertising in business has come also an increasing
realization of the importance of acquiring a better understand-
ing of this selling technique as a part of the preparation for
business occupations.
The student should have had a course in salesmanship, and
should also indicate an interest in advertising and advertising
Grade Placement: 11 or 12
Length of Course: One semester
1. To develop an understanding of the history and growth of ad-
2. To develop an understanding of the prominent role of advertising
in our economy.
3. To develop the techniques of preparing advertising copy.
4. To develop an understanding of the criteria used in the selection
of advertising media.
5. To develop a critical, questioning attitude toward advertising and
develop the ability to distinguish between sensible and sensa-
tional advertising.
6. To develop a knowledge of advertising methods and practices to
help students learn to make wise purchases.

Suggestions for the Teacher
1. Examine a collection of advertisements and rate them.
2. List items that students buy which have little or no advertising
and some which are widely advertised.
3. List some products in students' homes which advertising influ-
enced parents or students to purchase.
4. Prepare merchandising charts and bring them to class for
analysis and discussion. Charts should contain the following
information for each article or merchandise: name, material
from which it is made, how it is made, uses, durability, selling
points, care and instructions, descriptive words. Students should
write an ad for each article.
5. Make a list of trade terms and describe what is meant by each
6. Measure the amount of local newspaper and school paper space
that is given to advertising.
7. Sketch an attractive layout and write copy for some local
8. Plan panel discussions and buzz sessions for identifying adver-
tising problems and what is being done at present by various
agencies to improve advertising.
9. Test products to determine whether they "live up" to claims.
10. Develop, and assist in conducting, an advertising campaign for
some school activity.
11. Conduct a survey on the influence that advertising has on stu-
dent purchases.
12. Develop a code of ethics for advertisers.
13. Develop a set of guiding principles for judging the worth of
14. Use audio-visual materials to enrich the learning activities.
15. Make a collection of the various types of headlines, illustrations,
texts, trademarks and brand names used in advertisements.
16. Arrange trips to advertising departments of large businesses.

Evaluation Suggestions
Achievement may be measured on the basis of the individual's con-
tribution to class discussions, oral and written reports, projects, and

Recommended Equipment for the Course
1. Art supplies 5. Newspapers
2. Bulletin boards 6. Magazines
3. Typewriters 7. Television
4. Table desks 8. Radio

Reference Materials for the Teacher
It is suggested that the teacher contact the publishers of business
textbooks in order to secure teaching aids and reference materials.

Bookkeeping I
The first-year bookkeeping course is designed to provide the
skills and knowledge necessary for employment in bookkeeping
occupations and other business occupations which may utilize
a systems approach. This course also makes a strong contribution
to the understanding of the organization and operation of our
private enterprise economy. It may serve as an introduction
to the field of accounting and/or data processing because it
provides background information for students who are interested
in accounting and data processing as a career. Students who
plan to take these courses in college should be urged to enroll in
high school bookkeeping.
Bookkeeping is the procedure that is used by businesses and
governments for maintaining records of financial transactions.
A study of bookkeeping involves an understanding of the basic
principles of double-entry bookkeeping as these principles apply
to the records of businesses, governments, and individuals.

Because the study of bookkeeping requires the ability to see
into processes and to see relationships, enrollment in the course
should be limited to those students who are average or above
average in ability as evidenced by scores on scholastic aptitude
tests and by school marks. Since bookkeeping subject matter is
sequential in its development, students with poor school attend-
ance records should not be enrolled in the course.

Grade Placement: 11 or 12
Length of Course: Two semesters
1. To develop an understanding of the fundamental principles and
procedures in double-entry bookkeeping as applied to the finan-
cial records of business and government.
2. To develop a knowledge of the various forms that are used for
recording the activities carried on in business and to provide
practice in making entries in these forms.
3. To develop understanding and knowledge of the common terms
used in bookkeeping and accounting.
4. To develop an understanding of the meaning of financial data
found on the business statements and develop insights into ways
these data affect business decisions.
5. To review the skills in applied arithmetic and in handwriting.

6. To develop desirable business attitudes, work habits, and ideals
necessary for success in business occupations; such as regular
attendance, neatness, wise use of time, ability to meet obliga-
tions promptly, follow instructions, accept responsibility, and get
along with others.
7. To develop understandings and attitudes related to the organiza-
tion and operation of the private-enterprise economic system.
8. To provide experiences to determine the students' interest in
and attitude for bookkeeping and accounting as a career.
9. To provide a good subject matter foundation for students who
wish to continue more advanced study in accounting and data
10. To develop understandings and skills related to the use of ma-
chines in recording financial transactions and the use of ma-
chines in the electronic processing of financial data.
11. To help students acquire concepts of the importance of accuracy
and honesty in the keeping of records.
12. To develop an understanding of the systematic flow of financial
information in a business office.

Suggestions for the Teacher
1. Suggestions for Meeting Student Reading Differences
a. The many new terms and additional meanings for formerly
learned vocabulary make it necessary to relate all new vo-
cabulary learning to the student's previous experiences rath-
er than depend on rote memorization. Student personal data
sheets, completed early in the course, will provide the teacher
with necessary information to correlate vocabulary with past
b. The teacher should be consistent in the use of terminology,
but, before the end of the course, explanation of such inter-
changeable terms as "accounting period" and "fiscal period"
should be brought to the attention of the students.
c. Special emphasis during the early stages in the bookkeep-
ing course should be devoted to the explanation and demon-
stration of how to read the text for the most meaning and
how to gain the most benefit from the chapter illustrations.
2. Suggestions for Handling Student Differences in Arithmetic
a. During the first weeks of school, it is important for the
teacher to test the students in specific fundamentals--addi-
tion, subtraction, multiplication, division, decimals, percent-
age, interest, and problem solving. With the results of these
tests the teacher can provide meaningful review and remedial
b. Review and remedial instruction should be a planned part of
the bookkeeping course. Time may be spent during the last
few minutes of a class period or an entire class period may
be used.
A planned program of review might consist of reviewing addition
of two number combinations whose sums exceed 10; drills on combina-

tions leading to higher-decade addition; developing attention span,
as adding columns of three numbers, then four numbers up to ten
numbers; drill on unequal addends, having the student practice adding
horizontally and vertically as on a payroll sheet.
c. It is important to insist that numbers be written neatly with
uniform spacing and alignment of decimal points. It is help-
ful for the students to see neatly written numbers and words
on the chalkboard.
d. For better understanding of bookkeeping and arithmetic, the
material for each topic should be presented separately. Usually
the bookkeeping topic is presented before the arithmetic pro-
e. It is important to be as realistic as possible when presenting
bookkeeping transactions. If the transaction involves receipt
of a check, present the student with a check. Do the same
for transactions involving other business forms. When pre-
senting new bookkeeping principles or when testing, round
numbers (without ciphers) should be used to prevent arith-
metic difficulties from hindering understanding of principles.
f. The booking teacher should help students learn how to lo-
cate errors in their work. Reversed figures, or transposition,
is a common error and should be explained to the students.
If the error amount is 14, 104, $1, $10, or $100 or some other
round number, an error in addition or subtraction may have
occurred. If the error amount is divisible by 9, the error
could be the result of one of three causes:
1. Two errors in addition or subtraction operating against
each other. When this occurs, the error amount will be
9, 90, 900, 999, 909.
2. The sliding of all digits one column to the right or the left
-$2,706.50 written as $27,065.00 or $270.65.
3. Transposition of figures-$64 written as $46; or $38.47
written as $83.47 or $38.74.
If the error amount is divisible by 99, a double slide might have
been the cause, that is, a shift of two columns to the right or left-
$36.00 written as $3,600.00 or as $.36.1
g. When adding long columns of figures, permit students to
use adding machines. However, be sure to teach the student
how to use the machines effectively and correctly. A teacher
might require machine tapes to be turned in as proof of
3. Suggestions for Improving Student Handwriting
a. By obtaining a sample of the student's best handwriting, the
teacher may see any pecularities in the student's hand-
writing and have a sample for future reference. It is impor-
tant to develop the student's best handwriting for success in
bookkeeping. In some cases it might be advisable for the
student to print rather than write.
1 Vernon A. Musselman and J. Marshall Hanna, Teaching Bookleeping and Ac-
counting, (Hightstown: McGraw-Hill, 1960).

b. It is important for the student to see good examples of hand-
writing, such as the numbers and words written on the
chalkboard or on wall cards which may be displayed around
the room.
c. Insist that all students have the proper tools: pen, pencil,
straight edge, and, if desired, a red pencil.
d. Emphasis can be placed on handwriting by accepting only
daily work which has been written as neatly as possible.
e. Since the use of ink in bookkeeping encourages neatness and
care in recording entries, teachers may wish to require stu-
dents to use ink for much of their work.
4. Use of the Workbook
a. Workbooks are essential to learning in bookkeeping because
of the importance of using forms for recording purposes.
b. The study guides in the workbook should be used as learning
aids rather than as achievement tests. Variations in proc-
cedures using the study guides include:
1. Suggest that students read the text and then complete the
study guide, referring to the text as necessary to recall
information or ideas. Accuracy of the student's answers
may be checked in class as a pretest.
2. After material in the text has been discussed in class, and
perhaps after problems related to the text material have
been completed, ask students to look over the study guide
to find answers to the study items (they should not write
their answers). Then ask students to complete the study
guide and check their answers to see how well they under-
stand the principles and how well they know the informa-
3. Study guides should be left in the workbooks for students
to use for review purposes.
5. Homework Assignments
a. Homework assignments in bookkeeping should give students
practice in applying the principles of bookkeeping to specific
situations and should be an extension or continuation of work
that is started in class. Thus, homework assignments should
be begun in class and should be regarded solely as practice
b. Since bookkeeping homework represents practice efforts of
students, no marks or grades should be assigned to the home-
work exercises. Teachers who want to include homework in
the final grade, are encouraged to assign a mark to the per-
centage of assigned homework exercises that are turned in.
c. Homework assignments should be checked, however, by ask-
ing students to give orally in class the entries for certain
days, the reasons for certain entries, or the bookkeeping
principles represented by certain entries.
d. In most instances, problems requiring the application of prin-
ciples that have not been discussed in class should not be
assigned as homework.

6. Use of Case Problems
At the end of each chapter, problems are included for the
student who wishes to discuss management decisions related
to the chapter material. These problems provide opportunities
for students to develop a more thorough understanding of
the importance of financial records to the entire operation
of a business.
7. Use of End-of-Chapter Material
a. The questions following each chapter should be used first as
a guide in studying the text, and then as a check to see if
the student understands the material.
b. Vocabulary lists should be included in the discussion of each
chapter, since the student must have a thorough understand-
ing of the meaning for each word before understanding the
broad concept.
c. The problems presented at the end of each chapter are in-
cluded so the student can apply what he has learned. How-
ever, all students should not work all problems. If a student
works a representative number of problems and his work
evidences a clear understanding of the material, he may con-
tinue with the management problems or with other work. If
the student does not evidence understanding after a few
applications, he should be retaught and be required to work
all problems, including the supplementary problems, until
he understands the concept involved. It is important for each
student to understand each concept before continuing the
learning activities.
8. Use of Practice Sets
a. Research studies indicate that no more than two practice
sets should be used during the first year of bookkeeping and
that, in many instances, one practice set during the year is
b. Practice sets should be regarded as the application of the
basic principles of double-entry bookkeeping in situations
that are as realistic as can be provided in the classroom.
c. Practice sets should be completed in ink, since the entries
should be entirely accurate.
d. Practice sets probably should be completed in the classroom
under careful supervision of the teacher, since accuracy in
analysis and recording is a primary objective.
e. The accuracy of each student's work should be checked at
least once each week so that errors are not permitted to
f. The practice set should be thoroughly taught in the begin-
ning stages, students should be given specific and careful
directions for opening the set of books, and basic bookkeep-
ing principles should be reviewed at intervals as students
encounter new or difficult transactions.
g. Grades on practice sets should be based on one or more of
the following:

1. The amount of assistance that the student needed. Stu-
dents should receive high marks when little assistance is
needed in completing the practice set and should be
marked down when excessive or unnecessary help has been
2. The accuracy with which the set is completed. Students
should not be marked down for making neat and accurate
corrections, except when such corrections exceed a mini-
mum number (perhaps the teacher could begin marking
down for corrections when they exceed five). To check the
accuracy of the practice sets, the teacher should require
students once each week to furnish data about selected
transactions and entries.
3. The promptness with which students meet deadlines. High-
est marks should be reserved for students who complete
the work on the practice set according to the assigned
schedule, and the students should be marked down when
work is completed after the established due date.
9. Testing and Grading
a. The types of tests used in bookkeeping will depend some-
what on the competencies that are to be measured.
b. Tests and examinations should be made up of a number
of different types of questions (true-false, multiple-choice,
best answer, etc.) in order to give all students equal oppor-
tunity for success.
c. The tests prepared by textbook authors and that accompany
the textbooks generally are good measures of the understand-
ings and knowledge that the students have acquired.
d. Short, teacher-made quizzes, particularly if they require
students to give reasons for using certain procedures, may
be helpful in measuring progress at frequent intervals.
e. Essay questions requiring students to explain the principles
of bookkeeping practices involved are helpful in measuring
degree of understanding.
f. Problem tests, in which students are required to record an
entire set of transactions, measure the student's ability to
complete an entire process. Such tests, however, are time-
consuming to check and may not be worth the amount of
time required.
g. A variation of the problem test is to give the student a group
of transactions and ask him to indicate in blanks provided
such essential items of information as the account debited
or credited, the amount of the total, whether an account is
an asset, or a liability, and the like. This form of test elim-
inates the necessity of checking an entire problem for ac-
h. Problem tests may be checked also by selecting only certain
entries or amounts to check, and assuming that the re-
mainder of the problem is correct.
i. Grades or marks in bookkeeping should reflect performance
in some or all of the following:

1. Marks on tests and final examinations (probably 30-40 per
cent of the final mark should be based on tests and exam-
2. Homework (part of a student's grade, perhaps 10-20 per
cent, should be based on the amount of homework com-
3. Practice sets (perhaps 10-20 per cent of a final grade should
reflect practice set work).
4. Class discussion and participation (about 10 per cent).
5. General attitude of neatness, promptness, cooperation, etc.,
(about 10 per cent).
10. Use of the Chalkboard
a. The chalkboard can be used most effectively if it is per-
manently ruled with journal, ledger, and worksheet forms.
Permanent ruling is achieved by etching lines with a steel-
edged ruler or nail file or by painting lines. Semi-permanent
rulings may be made by drawing lines with chalk on a wet
board. The chalk lines should be allowed to dry before the
board is used.
b. Columnar headings on heavy drawing paper, posted at the
top of the board, will serve as guides for vertical rulings in
addition to headings for the columns.
c. Colored chalk may be used effectively by using a different
color for each of the fundamental elements. Rulings also are
more distinctive if different colors are used.
d. Covering sections of a board that contain previously pre-
pared material helps the student to understand each section
separately. The teacher should uncover each section as the
presentation develops.
e. The principle of equal debits and credits may be shown
graphically by drawing connecting lines, pointing up relation-
ships between debit and credit entries.
f. Important material should be retained on the board for pur-
poses of summary and review.
11. Use of Bulletin Boards
Business forms used in local offices, especially financial
statements, and reports clipped from newspapers and maga-
zines can be used effectively on bulletin boards.
12. Use of Charts and Posters
Charts showing the fundamental equations, journals, state-
ments, and other business forms may be prepared on poster
board or on window shades. Posters showing bookkeeping
processes and relationships are particularly important as
learning aids. The sample posters illustrate their use.
13. Use of Student Aides
During student work sessions it may be advisable to ap-
point student aides to help pupils carry out routine practice
exercises which have been assigned by the teacher. Such
duties must be performed under the immediate direction and
supervision of the teacher."
2 Guidelines For Policies On the Use of Teacher Aides, State Department of Educa-
tion, Tallahassee, February 1966.

14. Use of Business Forms
Students respond favorably to up-to-date material. For this
reason, many business teachers maintain an extensive file
of business forms obtained from the local community. So that
the forms may be protected for use year after year, they
may be mounted on cardboard or some other firm surface



flow Chart Showing Purchases Procedure


4,000 nrrs400r ~ ,GsfG r 000 e
Oduas $4000o *8,000

Use colored blocks to dramatize cost of goods sold

Vernon A. Musselman and J. Marshall Hanna, Teaching Bookkeeping and Accounting,
(Hightstown: McGraw-Hill, 1960).

and covered with plastic film. These forms may be used to
advantage with the opaque projector.
15. Use of Opaque Projector
The opaque projector may be used to project forms and
pictures. Materials mounted on lightweight cardboard are most
practical. Illustrations in the textbook may also be shown on
the screen, and the projector may be used to show samples
of student work for examination by all members of the class.
The opaque projector may be used to rule forms on the black-
board. The chief advantage of the opaque projector is that
the materials may be shown in their original form. Its main
weakness is that the room must be darkened for satisfactory
16. Use of the Overhead Projector
When the overhead projector is used, the teacher may,
either standing or sitting at his desk, write on the platform
of the machine and the writing will be projected on a screen
or wall in front of the class. Commercially prepared book-
keeping forms are available for use with these machines. As
the teacher at the projector writes on the forms with a wax
pencil, the material is projected on a screen or on the wall
back of him. Advantages of these projectors are that they
save the time of drawing forms on the board, the instructor
can face the class and do all the demonstrations, and the
projections can be high enough on the front wall or screen
to permit all students to see.
17. Use of Individual Projects
To help the student relate each concept to a business situa-
tion, the student might select a business of his choice and
make an intensive study of this business, reporting his find-
ings to the class. The student may keep a manual with the
information concerning the business.
18. Use of Field Trips
The relationship between the principles and procedures
taught in the classroom and their application in business can
be shown by taking students to business offices in the com-
munity to observe how records are kept. The following list
suggests the types of activities that students can observe on
local field trips.
a. The local bank and other financial institutions
b. Offices of local doctors, dentists, and lawyers
c. Office of manufacturing company
d. Office of the local electric company
e. Local stores, service stations, or garages
19. Use of Work Experience
a. The learning situation can be improved by having students
employed in part-time bookkeeping work with the teacher
acting as the coordinator of the two activities. If only a few
members of the class are working in business, they can enrich

the classroom through the reports and comments they bring
to the classroom.
b. The Junior Achievement Program provides an opportunity
for a limited number of students to obtain practical and
valuable work experience related to bookkeeping activities.
20. Evaluation Suggestions
For comments on measuring the student's progress, testing,
and grading see Suggestions for the Teacher, Nos. 5, 8, and 9.
Recommended Equipment for the Course (see Bookkeeping room layout
in Chapter IV)
30 tables 29" or 30" in height (desk or table top 20" x 36" with
laminated plastic top)
30 straight back chairs with book racks
5 tables for adding-listing machines
5 posture chairs
5 adding-listing machines (preferably electric)
1 4-drawer filing cabinet (that can be locked)
1 teacher's desk (32" x 54") and chair
1 pencil sharpener
1 stapler
1 wastebasket
2 desk trays
1 portable chalkboard
1 overhead projector
1 portable projection screen (5' x 6')
1 opaque projector
1 film strip projector
Instructional Materials and Audio-Visual Materials
Workbooks for each
student Films
Practice sets Wall charts (Cram Bookkeeping Charts)
Journal paper Bulletin boards
Ledger paper Slides
Analysis paper Posters
Film strips Chalkboard
Transparencies (Vu-Graph, Southwestern, 3-M, teacher devised)
Reference Materials for the Teacher
Lewis D. Boynton, Methods of Teaching Bookkeeping and Account-
ing (Cincinnati: South-Western, 1955).
Doris H. Crank and Floyd L. Crank, New Perspectives in Education
for Business, (Washington: National Business Education Association,
Lloyd V. Douglas, James Blanford, and Ruth I. Anderson, Teaching
Business Subjects, Second edition, (Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall,
Vernon A. Musselman and J. Marshall Hanna, Teaching Bookkeep-
ing and Accounting, (Hightstown: McGraw-Hill, 1960).
Herbert A. Tonne, Estelle L. Popham, and M. Herbert Freeman,
Methods of Teaching Business Subjects, Third edition, (Hightstown:
McGraw-Hill, 1965).

Bookkeeping II

Second-year bookkeeping is designed for those students who
are interested in pursuing bookkeeping or accounting as a career
or who wish a thorough knowledge of bookkeeping as a back-
ground for advanced work in accounting or data processing.
In addition to the objectives of the first-year course, advanced
bookkeeping provides additional experiences for developing
understanding, knowledge, and skills in the kinds of records
used in business, and in the analysis and interpretation of these

A sound knowledge of first-year bookkeeping and a desire
to pursue bookkeeping or accounting as a career.

Grade Placement: 12
Length of Course: Two semesters
1. To develop a thorough understanding of records and reports of
partnerships and corporations.
2. To develop a thorough understanding of analyzing and interpret-
ing financial reports.
3. To develop an understanding of specialized systems of maintaining
and interpreting bookkeeping and accounting records.
4. To develop an understanding of advanced procedures for han-
dling sales and purchases.
5. To develop a thorough understanding of the systematic flow of
financial data in a business office and how electronic equipment
facilitates the processing of financial data for storage and re-
trieval purposes.
Suggestions for the Teacher
All the suggested learning activities described for the first-year
bookkeeping course will be applicable in some degree to advanced
bookkeeping. In addition, the advanced bookkeeping teacher will want
to consider the following:
1. Case problems for discussion are used to develop understanding
about management decision making.
2. Field trips frequently are more valuable in advanced book-
keeping than in the beginning class.
3. Work experience of bookkeeping and accounting nature provides
opportunities to develop skills and knowledge under actual work
4. Guest speakers are valuable, particularly when they can explain
data processing systems and handling of financial data by ma-

5. Individual projects will permit students to acquire information
about specialized systems of bookkeeping, such as the voucher
system and data processing systems.
6. The class may be separated into four or five heterogeneous group-
ings for working practice sets.
Evaluation Suggestions
The suggestions for evaluation described in first-year bookkeeping
all are equally applicable to advanced bookkeeping. If individual proj-
ects and case problems are used as learning activities, they should be-
come a part of the evaluation procedures.
Recommended Equipment for the Course
It is recommended that enrollment in second-year bookkeeping be
limited to twenty students in one class. It is recommended also that
the advanced bookkeeping classes be equipped with bookkeeping ma-
chines and cash registers. In other respects, the equipment and fa-
cilities for advanced bookkeeping will be the same as the first-year
Instructional Materials and Audio-Visual Materials
Practice Sets; automation practice Actual business forms
set, second semester Bulletin boards
Workbooks Chalkboards
Reference Materials for the Teacher
See the references that are listed in first-year bookkeeping.

Business English
Business English concerns itself with the entire field of oral
and written communications in business affairs. The develop-
ment of writing is based on the psychology of human relations
and aspects of business organization and policies rather than
memorization of model letter styles. Application of grammar,
vocabulary, effective expression, punctuation, proofreading, and
library research are included in the course.

It is recommended that the student be enrolled in one of
the vocational business sequences and have completed at least
one year of typewriting.
Grade Placement: 12
Length of Course: Two semesters
A comprehensive practical course in business communications is
planned for all students entering the business world regardless of the
jobs they are to fill. To meet this need, the course has as its general
objective the mastery of effective oral and written communications to-
gether with an understanding of:

Problems encountered by business in oral and written communication
Importance of good human relations-with the public, fellow em-
ployees, and management
Desirable work habits, attitudes, and personality traits necessary
for a successful business career.
The specific objectives are:
1. To review the fundamentals of grammar, stressing the impor-
tance of spelling, punctuation, sentence structure, mechanics,
diction, and euphony.
2. To stress the importance of intelligent reading as a necessary
element in developing reading comprehension.
3. To encourage the student to develop an extensive vocabulary
with emphasis on business and related terminology, and to form
habits of frequent and intelligent reference to the dictionary
and other reference books on business correspondence.
4. To acquaint the student with different types of social and busi-
ness letters, business reports, and business forms used by in-
dividuals and business concerns.
5. To develop the student's ability to express himself correctly and
forcefully in the writing of acceptable personal and business
6. To improve the student's oral expression in personal and business
7. To provide an understanding of how and why people react as
they do to oral suggestions or directions or to business letters.
8. To develop good listening habits so that students will follow
directions properly and convey information accurately to others.
9. To understand and conform to the accepted rules of business and
social etiquette.
10. To encourage legible handwriting.
Suggestions for the Teacher
1. Have the class make a collection of letterheads, business letter
styles, business correspondence and social-business correspond-
ence, memorandums, business reports, telegrams, minutes, news
releases, announcements, and application blanks. These may be
presented to the class by using the opaque projector or they
may be used as bulletin board materials.
2. Have students write letters of request to various business firms
to secure application forms to be used as instructional ma-
terials. If possible, the blanks may be secured in sufficient
quantity for all students to use. This provides a basis for com-
parison of different information requested. (The letters of request
should be signed by the instructor.)
3. Include as many proofreading assignments as possible. This
could be done by using duplicated letters containing errors and
also by evaluating letters written by the students. (Trans-
parencies may be used with the overhead projector.)
4. Ask resource persons from business to serve as guest speakers in
the classroom. These persons may be used to discuss job inter-

views, employment application forms, grooming for business, and
any other pertinent information regarding employment needs.
5. Develop economic understandings which are essential in meeting
responsibilities as participants in the American economic sys-
tem. This may be accomplished through
a. Written reports on basic economic concepts relating to the
students' experiences. (This would encourage the use of the
school library.)
b. Oral reports on economic concepts to the class to give the
students experience in thinking and speaking clearly.
6. Have students visit business firms for job interviews, which may
be arranged by telephone. This interview may also include the
submission of a letter of application and a personal data
sheet. After the interview, a follow-up letter or thank-you
letter should be written. Reference requests may be written to
7. Have students write letters of application for evaluation by
businessmen in the community. These letters may be marked by
a numerical rating, such as 1, 2, 3, or 4, or by marginal sugges-
tions for improvement. The comments of these persons may be
more impressive to the students than those of the teacher.
8. Assign a research paper on career opportunities to utilize learn-
ings in fundamentals of grammar, punctuation, spelling, sentence
structure, mechanics, and diction. The students will write let-
ters to various business firms (relating to their choice of career)
to secure information regarding the necessary preparation, du-
ties, advantages and disadvantages, typical places of employ-
ment, number of workers engaged in the occupation, methods
of job application, and other necessary data. The paper is to be
typewritten in correct manuscript form.
9. Build proper attitudes and personality traits including de-
pendability, accuracy, cooperation, and initiative. These qualities
are essential to success in business. In contacts with students,
the teacher should take every opportunity to develop these traits.
Some suggested techniques are:
a. Conference Method-Groups of 10 to 15 students who can
work mutually with a leader to resolve a problem situation
within their range of experiences.
b. Buzz Method-Class divided into small groups, each with a
chairman and a reporter, to discuss a problem within a desig-
nated number of minutes. The reporters act as spokesmen
when the groups meet to pool their ideas, recommendations,
and opinions.
c. Case Method-Individuals or groups identify the facets of a
case problem. Experience is gained in amplifying and then
pinpointing a problem. The purpose is not to come up with
answers but rather to speculate about certain unknown factors
or elements.
d. Role-playing-Students dramatize a realistic situation in
which they are forced to think and speak in terms of charac-
ters being portrayed. This characterization should help stu-

dents recognize the feelings, prejudices, and frustrations of
10. Develop a project in newspaper research, involving the analysis
of advertising (appeals, format, words used)
Evaluation Suggestions
All letters and other written work that serve as a measure of
achievement and progress should be considered.
When particular abilities are to be tested, one or several of the
following methods may be used:
1. Assignments in composing and writing business letters and re-
ports as a basis for checking students' use of words, sentence structure,
spelling, punctuation, mechanics, application of the principles of gram-
mar, and application of principles pertaining to effective business let-
2. An effective procedure is to give three separate marks for each
element of the letter-layout, content, and English usage. Predominant
consideration is given to the particular objective of the instruction.
3. When recognition of letter styles or types of letters is to be
tested, samples of actual letters illustrating these styles and types may
be presented for identification either through duplication or overhead
4. Oral expression may be measured by a simple rating scale, pre-
pared by the teacher, for checking abilities in the use of words, voice,
tone, and poise.
5. The progress of the individual in vocabulary development can be
measured by comparing the results of a test given at the beginning of
the course with the results of a similar test at the close of the course.
For this testing of vocabulary, standardized tests may be used but
teacher-made tests are an additional means of measurement.
6. Particular areas of grammar, punctuation, and capitalization
may be tested by means of diagnostic and achievement tests given at
intervals and at the end of the course. A comparison of the results
of an achievement test with the results of protests will show the
student's growth in that area. The testing may be particularized by
asking the student to write an assignment and telling him that he
is to be rated on any one or all of these attainments: (a) spelling,
(b) sentence structure, (c) grammar, (d) content, (e) layout.
Newly learned human relations practices do not readily lend them-
selves to measurement of achievement. The results are tangible but
the subject matter is not. Some suggestions for evaluation are:
1. Self-evaluation rating sheets at the beginning of the year and
repeated at various times throughout the year.
2. Role-playing.
3. Individual conferences with students to identify how he perceives
4. Individual conferences for teacher evaluation of student behavior.
Recommended Equipment for the Course
A typewriter for each student
Bulletin boards
Practice telephone sets

Vertical file (specimens and examples of writing)
Overhead and opaque projectors (part-time)
Film and filmstrip projectors (part-time)
Flannel boards

Instructional Materials and Audio-Visual Materials
1. Dictionary for each student
2. Reference library (current magazines, secretary's handbooks, etc.)
3. Film and filmstrips (when applicable, current and available)
a. Coronet Instructional Films
Coronet Building
Chicago, Illinois
Improve Your Spelling
Look It Up (Dictionary Habits)
Writing Better Business Letters
b. Business Education Films
4607 16th Avenue
Brooklyn, New York
Eight Parts of a Business Letter
c. Stenotype Company
417 South Dearborn
Chicago, Illinois
Take a Letter, Miss Brown
d. Castle Films
RCA Building
30 Rockefeller Plaza
New York, New York
Take a Letter, Please
4. Transparencies
General Aniline and Film Corporation
140 West 51st Street
New York, New York 10020
(Additional audio-visual materials are listed in the teacher's manuals.)
5. Books and pamphlets
a. Carney, Etiquette in Business, (New York: McGraw-Hill).
b. Doris H. Crank and Floyd L. Crank, New Perspectives in Edu-
cation for Business, (Washington: National Business Educa-
tion Association, 1963).
c. Crank, Crank, and Connelly, Words, Fifth edition, (New York:
d. Lorraine F. Dangle and Alice Haussman, Preparing the Re-
search Paper, Second edition, (New York: College Entrance
Publications, 1957).
e. Funk and Lewis, 30 Days to a More Powerful Vocabulary,
(New York: Washington Square Press, 1960).
f. Gavin and Hutchinson, Reference Manual for Stenographers
and Typists, Third edition, (New York: McGraw-Hill).
g. Lois Irene Hutchison, Standard Handbook for Secretaries,
Seventh edition, (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1963).

h. L. C. Janis, Business Writing, (New York: Barnes and Noble,
i. Helen J. Keily and R. G. Walters, How to Find and Apply for
a Job, Second edition, (Cincinnati) South-Western, 1960).
j. Laird and Laird, Practical Business Psychology, Third edition
(New York: McGraw-Hill).
k. Marion M. Lamb, Word Studies, Fifth edition, (Cincinnati:
South-Western, 1963).
1. Louis Leslie, 20,000 Words, Fifth edition, (New York: Mc-
Graw-Hill, 1965).
m. MacGibbon, Fitting Yourself for Business, Fourth edition,
(New York: McGraw-Hill).
n. Newton and Green, How to Improve Your Personality, Third
edition (New York: McGraw-Hill).
o. Roget's Thesaurus In Dictionary Form, (New York: G. P.
Putnam & Sons, 1965).
p. Sferra, Wright, and Rice, Personality and Human Relations,
Second edition, (New York: McGraw-Hill).
q. Kate L. Turabian, A Manual for Writers of Term Papers,
Theses, and Dissertations, (Chicago: The University of Chi-
cago Press, 1958).
r. Amy Vanderbilt, Complete Handbook of Etiquette, (New
York: Doubleday and Company).
s. Whitcomb and Lang, Charm: The Career Girl's Guide to
Business and Personal Success, (New York: McGraw-Hill).
Reference Materials for the Teacher
1. Jane F. White and Thadys J. Dewar, 200 Visual Teaching Aids,
(Portland: J. Weston Walch, 1961).
2. Buckley, How to Write Better Business Letters, Fourth edition,
(New York: McGraw-Hill, 1957).
(Good explanation and illustrations for letter writing. How
to make a letter productive.)
3. Butterfield, Common Sense in Letter Writing, (Danville: Inter-
state Press, 1956).
(Brief, practical guide to better results by mail. Business letter
writing in six steps.)
4. Smart, McKelvey, and Gerfen, Business Letters, Fourth edition,
(New York: Harpers, 1957).
(Good letter writing problems in "case" style.)
5. Williams and Ball. Effective Business Writing, Second edition,
(New York: The Ronald Press, 1953).
(Good examples of "too-wordy," "too brief bits and pieces,"
"out-dated." Very good section on letters. Examples of business

Business Law

Business Law deals with the legal foundations of our govern-
mental, business, and social systems. It is a study of basic legal

principles which are common to a broad base of everyday
business activities in which an individual is likely to become
Business Law can be useful to individuals for personal
reasons and can be valuable as background information to in-
dividuals who are entering business careers. Business Law also
can serve as a foundation course for advanced study at the
collegiate level. Business Law is particularly valuable as general
education because it is a study of contracts, buying and renting
property, bailments, installment buying, insurance of all types,
buyer and seller relationships, employer-employee relationships,
negotiable instruments, wills, and the legal relationships of one
individual to another.

Grade Placement: 11 or 12
Length of Course: One or two semesters
General Objectives
1. To familiarize students with basic principles of business law
and their applications to personal-business activities and oc-
cupational situations.
2. To provide students with an understanding and appreciation of
the development of modern law.
3. To provide students with an understanding of the organization
and functions of our system of courts.
4. To emphasize the rights and duties of individuals in our legal
Specific Objectives
1. To develop in students the ability to recognize problems which
require professional legal services.
2. To familiarize future citizens with the duties and responsibilities
imposed upon him by legal, ethical, and moral codes.
3. To teach students to withhold judgment until essential facts
have been made known.
4. To develop a working vocabulary of most-frequently-used legal
5. To teach students to read and understand the terms of written
instruments before signing.
6. To develop an understanding of contracts and their relations to
personal and business affairs.
7. To give information about the fundamental aspects of negotiable
8. To acquaint students with legal rights and obligations pertaining
to insurance contracts, social security, and workmen's compensa-
tion provisions.

9. To acquaint students with property rights and laws relating to
the acquisition and sale of real and personal property.
10. To give information about Florida statutes as they apply to
common aspects of personal and business affairs, including auto-
mobile accident liability requirements.
11. To develop a knowledge and understanding of the organization
and operation of the court systems in Florida and the federal
court system.
Suggestions for the Teacher
1. Use as many case problems as time will permit, since the solu-
tion of cases develops logical thinking skills and requires a
knowledge of legal principles.
2. Check the FLORIDA STATUTES to learn the specific application
of the principles of business law to situations in the State of
3. Arrange a class visit to a courtroom while civil court is in ses-
sion. These visits might best be made to small claims courts
because the trials are short and the students may see a case
completed. The teacher should check with the judge ahead of
time to see that the case is appropriate for high school students
to observe.
4. Use mock trials in class and permit students to participate.
5. Invite local attorneys to address the class about specific aspects
of law, devoid of political overtones.
6. Collect newspaper clippings concerning a case being tried and
reported by the press.
7. Have students collect contracts or other forms of legal documents
for examination, bulletin boards, and displays.
8. Encourage individual students or the class to prepare a scrap-
book made up of legal forms, newspaper clippings, and other
illustrative materials.
9. Make a trip to the state legislature when it is in session, a
meeting of the county commission, the city council, or follow
their activities in the newspapers, to see how the legislative
branch of government is organized and how it operates.
10. Have a special program on Law Day, for example, guest speak-
ers from a local bar association.
11. Help students plan some big expenditure, such as buying a
home, buying a car, or buying appliances. All necessary forms
to be filled out might be prepared, including those necessary
for installment buying.
12. Arrange a class visit to a law library and have the librarian
discuss the various law books.
13. Present a case, leaving out some fact. Show how the judgment
of the case should be reserved until all the facts are presented.
14. Use many illustrations when presenting any principle of law.
15. Have students keep a notebook in which they keep a record of
all the decisions in the cases listed at the end of the chapters
in the textbooks.

16. Have a bank representative talk to class and show various
types of negotiable instruments.
Evaluation Suggestions
1. Understanding and knowledge of legal principles can be meas-
ured by requiring students to solve case problems and to justify
their decisions in specific cases.
2. Understanding and factual knowledge might be determined by
administering objective tests which might include vocabulary
3. Materials prepared for scrapbooks, workbooks, or special projects
may serve as a basis for measurement.
Instructional and Audio-Visual Materials
1. Charts that show the composition, structure, and jurisdiction
of the municipal, county, state, and federal court systems.
2. Films and filmstrips that illustrate legal principles.
Reference Materials for the Teacher
The Official Florida Statutes is printed in three volumes and pub-
lished by the state of Florida every two years following the regular
session of the legislature. This publication contains current revision
of all the general statutes of the State of Florida, jurisdiction of the
court systems, federal and state constitutions, and most of the in-
formation that a person might need to know regarding legal processes
in the State of Florida.
At least one set of these volumes is available for reference in every
county courthouse in the State of Florida. It is also available in the
libraries of every state supported institution of higher learning and in
most municipal or county libraries. A person or school may acquire a
set at a nominal cost by writing the office of the Secretary of State
in Tallahassee and asking to be placed on the subscription list.

Business Mathematics

Business Mathematics is the study of the interrelationship of
mathematical processes and business problems common to all
persons-it has both specialized occupational and general educa-
tion values. The primary purpose of a course in Business Mathe-
matics is to assist students in analyzing problem situations and
to apply fundamental arithmetic processes to the solution of
business problems. This course serves as a basis for many of
the other business subjects. Expected outcomes include both
arithmetic and business concepts.
Grade Placements: 10, 11, or 12
Length of Course: One or two semesters (two semesters are recom-

The objectives of Business Mathematics are similar to the objectives
of a course in basic arithmetic with specific application to business
situations. Desirable habits of accuracy, neatness, interpretative read-
ing, and systematic procedures should be outcomes.
Desirable objectives are:
1. To develop reasoning ability to read, to interpret, and to
solve arithmetic problems.
2. To apply the learning of the principles of business and of
arithmetic to life situations.
3. To utilize previous learning of business activities in other
classes and develop their further understanding through the
arithmetic processes.
4. To assist students in developing more speed and accuracy in
performing the fundamental arithmetic processes.
5. To develop facility in performing mental computations.
6. To develop ability to estimate answers to arithmetic problems.
7. To learn the more common shortcuts that are of value in
8. To develop a business vocabulary.
Suggestions for the Teacher
1. Help students develop understandings by starting with problems
familiar to them. For instance, to introduce percentage, utilize
installment buying experiences of students or their families-
buying a car, a home, or a new refrigerator. When problems can
be applied to a familiar part of home life, they lead to better
comprehension of advantages and disadvantages of buying for
cash or credit.
2. To meet varying needs of students, use several types of prob-
lems: remedial, those involving business situations, those related
to other aspects of business education, and those that use, with
varying degrees, algebraic solutions.
3. Work toward student understanding rather then memorization.
4. Use practical shortcuts as a change-of-pace device. Shortcuts
should be presented on a rational basis rather than as exer-
cises for memorization, e.g. the 60-day, 6%, and the 6-day, 6%
methods for computing interest.
5. Review and preview should be a continuous process.
6. Give instruction in words that students will understand. Use
class time to explain exercises that were worked incorrectly by
the majority of class.
7. Explain thoroughly the new terms in each day's assignment.
Terms that are familiar to the teacher may have little meaning
for the students.
8. When remedial work is needed in the fundamental processes,
determine the reason for the lack of skill. Low achievement
levels of basic skills may be due to carelessness, lack of ability,
or lack of practice.

9. Allow sufficient time during the class period for supervised
study. Help students start their homework assignments. A super-
vised study period is an excellent opportunity to give individual
help-a time to observe work habits. Look for answers to the
following questions:
a. Does the student read his problem before he starts the so-
b. Does the student read his numbers carefully? Write them
legibly? Place them in proper alignment?
c. Is he systematic in his work habits?
d. Does he estimate the answer before doing the problems?
Does he do part of his calculations mentally?
e. Does he check his work and verify his answer by comparing
with his estimate?
f. Are the shortcuts proving to be of value?
10. Make substitutions in subject matter when it seems advisable,
considering students' interests and experiences. Include supple-
mentary topics and exercises. Develop a resource file of sup-
plementary materials. Such may be obtained from local Social
Security and Internal Revenue offices, other governmental agen-
cies, banks, insurance offices, real estate dealers, and other
11. Present problems in order of difficulty; that is, use graded
problems throughout the course.
12. After a topic has been completed, give a test to determine
the need for remedial teaching.
13. Emphasize the fact that in arithmetic a computation is either
right or wrong. Be specific in giving directions to avoid con-
fusion of students.
14. Encourage field trips to see the operations carried on at local
banks, stores, and other enterprises in the community.
15. Introduce the use of adding machines and calculators to the
16. Use resource people; for example, ask a local banker to demon-
strate to the class the proper way of filling out and endorsing
a check.
17. After a teacher has analyzed the composition of the class, it may
be desirable to use a workbook correlated with the textbook.
18. Use supplementary materials, such as special drill books for slow
learners (correlated programmed materials are also available)
and a programmed course for high level ability students.
19. Tachistoscopic devices may be used for review of fundamental
arithmetic processes, or for extended drill for under achievers.
Use of the overhead projector with small groups using transpar-
encies with overlays will assist the teachers in meeting individual
Evaluation Suggestions
Diagnostic and achievement tests are used in diagnosing student
weaknesses and measuring the success of instruction. Need for remedial
teaching may be determined by tests. Printed diagnostic tests may be

obtained from several sources available through the guidance office or
some designated office within each county.
Recommended Equipment for the Course
Use of the overhead projector and controlled reader are recom-
Reference Materials for the Teacher
Business Arithmetic, Syllabus, University of the State of New
York, The State Education Department, Bureau of Business and
Distributive Education, Albany, 1963. (Includes prognostic tests).
Business Arithmetic, Director of Curriculum, Seattle Public Schools,
Seattle, 1960.
Joseph Gruber, New Perspectives In Business Education, (Washing-
ton: National Business Education Association, 1965, Chapter 6,
pp. 170-182).
NOMA Arithmetic Program, Review Problems (Recommended for
pre-testing), Local Administrative Management Society office. Free.
EDL Arithmetic Number Fact Program
EDL General Mathematics, Business Mathematics Course
EDL Mental Arithmetic Set
(Described in Business Education Programs, EDL Directions in
Learning, Educational Development Laboratories, Inc., Huntington,
Math for Business, Research and Teacher Trainer, Bureau of Busi-
ness Education, 721 Capitol Mall, Sacramento. Free.

Business Organization and Management

Business Organization and Management is designed to pro-
vide students with a practical working knowledge of the organi-
zation of business enterprises and the principles and procedures
that are essential to the success of a business enterprise. It is
designed specifically for all students who plan to work in busi-
ness, for students who wish at some time in the future to be
employed in management positions, for students who expect to
be owners of a business (particularly of a small business of
some nature), and for students who plan to enroll in post-high
school education and prepare for business management as a pro-
Grade Placement: 12
Length of Course: One year (although some schools may want to offer
the course for one semester).
1. To provide understandings and knowledge of the legal and
financial problems involved in organizing a business.

2. To learn the procedures involved in the organization of a business
3. To understand the importance and functions of the financial
records of a business and to know the procedures for maintain-
ing these records.
4. To develop further understandings of the role of money and
credit in business operations and to learn procedures for safe-
guarding the investments of the business.
5. To understand the purchasing, merchandising, and production
problems of a business and to learn procedures for solving these
6. To understand personnel and office problems.
7. To understand how businesses expand and understand the need
for constant adjustments in practices and procedures in order to
keep up to date.
8. To understand business cycles and how they affect management
9. To understand the importance of business ethics.
10. To study the career opportunities in business management and
to learn the requirements for entry and success in management

Suggestions for the Teacher
1. Learning activities, to be of the most value, must extend beyond
the textbook. Teachers should consider such approaches to
learning as unit plans, problem-solving, the case method, and
laboratory experiences.
2. The unit plan and the problem-solving approach are described
in some detail in the course, General Business. The proce-
dures suggested may be adapted to Business Organization and
3. The case method requires that all learning originate from a
case problem. This method employs a great deal of discussion,
in which various alternative solutions to the problem presented
are evaluated.
4. Laboratory experiences can be provided through on-the-job
work assignments, classroom arrangements in which the class
is organized into the decision-making centers of a business and
conferences are used as the principal means of learning, or
classroom arrangements in which written assignments are used
for the laboratory experiences.
5. The approach to business organization should be in terms of
local businesses and industries; later, comparisons with busi-
nesses in other communities and other states will enrich the
6. Trips to local business firms are essential, but each trip should
be carefully planned in advance and the active cooperation of
the firms should be assured. Information desired, questions to
be asked, and problems to be solved should be worked out by
the teacher and the class before the trip is started. A follow-up
to the trip may consist of discussion by the class, reports by

individuals in the class, or a written report of students' ob-
7. Local business managers from all types of management positions
should be invited to talk to the class on specified aspects of
business organization and operation.
8. Students may be asked to choose a particular business in which
they are interested and, from reference materials, trips, inter-
views, and conferences, compile a written report of procedures
for organizing a business. The report should include information
and principles about the selection of a location for the business,
appropriate housing facilities, possible market for the goods
and services, financial requirements for starting the business, and
problems in selecting and obtaining equipment and personnel.
Evaluation Suggestions
1. Measure student progress by written tests, either objective-type
tests or tests of case problems.
2. Evaluate oral reports and assign a grade on the accuracy, com-
pleteness, and significance of the content.
3. Include written reports in the evaluation procedures.
4. Use problem solutions for evaluation of student's knowledge of
management principles.
Instructional Materials and Audio-Visual Materials
The use of the overhead and opaque projectors is recommended,
since many different types of drawings, graphs, tables, and the like,
can be shown to advantage with these projectors. Films are essential
to adequate understanding of business management principles. The
teacher's manuals for commonly used textbooks will contain suggestions
of films that can be used.
Posters and charts must be prepared for many units in business
management. Case reports prepared by colleges and universities, or by
publishing companies, should be available for discussion.
Student references will include pamphlets and books from the
United States Chamber of Commerce, the Small Business Administra-
tion of the United States Department of Commerce, and from many
business- and industry-supported agencies and organizations.

Clerical Office Practice

Clerical office practice is designed to help students develop
understandings, knowledge, skills, and attitudes that will enable
them to enter and succeed in business office positions involving
such tasks as sorting, checking, typewriting, collating, duplicat-
ing, computing, filing, operating, and other clerical activities
related to selling, buying, and financing. This course prepares
students to produce services for business and to be responsible,
loyal, dependable, and industrious.
Clerical office practice is a finishing course for students who
plan to enter business as clerical (not stenographic or secre-

trial) workers. It should not be organized as a course in
Typewriting II nor as a center for performing jobs for the
school office or for the community.
The central core of subject matter in clerical office practice
is comprised of instruction and practices that are provided on
office machines. Other units are included as time and scheduling
The plans for organizing instruction and learning for office
machines are described in detail in the course, Office Machines.
The clerical office practice teacher, the business education de-
partment head, and the school administrator should review these
plans when consideration is being given to the organization of
the clerical office practice course.
In schools where both the clerical office practice course and
the machines courses are offered, all of the machine instruction
will be included in the office machines course. The clerical
office practice course will include the units that are not related
to the operation of office machines.
The battery plan of instruction ordinarily may be used for
all instructional units in clerical office practice, except the office
machines unit. Although the content in non-machine units may
sometimes need to be studied by a rotation or integrated plan,
the subject matter is best suited for class discussion and total
class participation.
In addition to the machine units, other units in the clerical
office practice course may include any or all of the following:
Office Organization and Routine
The Personality of the Clerical Worker
Basic Clerical Skills
Clerical Typewriting
Preparing Business Forms
Office Communications Systems
The Receptionist
Mail and Messenger Service
Automation in the Office
Seeking Employment
Prerequisites: One year of typewriting
Grade Placement: 12

Length of Course: Two semesters

The general objectives of instruction in clerical office practice are
to provide refresher training in previously learned understandings and
skills, to prepare for initial employment and advancement on the
job after graduation.
The specific objectives of the course are:
1. To integrate the fundamental skills and knowledge of arithmetic,
penmanship, English, punctuation, and spelling through projects
involving clerical tasks.
2. To develop a workable knowledge of the principles of filing and
proficiency in the systems commonly used.
3. To familiarize students with data processing procedures and
4. To develop basic skills in the operation of the office machines
commonly used by office workers.
5. To improve and maintain the student's production typewriting
rate by applying that skill to specific business-situation prob-
6. To develop the ability to recognize various business forms and
to understand their purposes.
7. To develop the ability to acquire information and select and
apply for a general office job suitable to the individual's ability
and interest.
8. To become familiar with current business terminology.
9. To develop the ability of listening to and following instructions.
10. To develop an appreciation of desirable character and personal-
ity traits which make for successful relations with others.
11. To develop an awareness of the importance of personal appear-
ance and good grooming.
12. To develop the ability to work harmoniously with classmates.
13. To aid in the development of those personality traits which
business looks for in the office worker.
14. To provide for the development of skills in the placing and
receiving of telephone calls and the sending and receiving of
Suggestions for the Teacher
1. Teaching Aids-Many teaching aids can be obtained free, or for
a small charge, from publishing companies, equipment com-
panies, business offices, and professional associations.
2. Surveys and Follow-up Studies-Valuable information can be
obtained through community surveys and follow-up studies of
graduates. The most helpful information will be related to job
opportunities, educational requirements for employment, types of
office machines that are being operated, and special information
about the graduates that might be of assistance in modifying
the business curriculum.

3. Films and Filmstrips-lilms and filmstrips sometimes can add to
or reinforce class discussions.
4. Demonstrations-Demonstrations of office machines and equip-
ment from local firms are valuable learning experiences. Busi-
ness firms sometimes will lend machines for demonstrations,
especially during evening hours. A business machine show during
career day or education week also may be sponsored.
5. Bulletin Board Displays-Bulletin boards are used to display
unusual letter styles, illustrations, business forms, statistical
reports, new equipment, and supplies. Displays must be changed
often, preferably once each week.
6. Office Visits-Each student may be assigned to visit one office
worker on the job to analyze responsibilities and duties. The
student should compose a letter requesting an interview and
should prepare an interview sheet listing the questions he in-
tends to ask. After the visit, the student should write a report,
or present the report orally in class, describing the procedures
and jobs he observed during the office visit.
7. Committee Work-Committees may be assigned to prepare post-
ers, charts, and other materials for the bulletin board. The
teacher should assign the topics around which the bulletin
board displays are developed.
8. Field Trips-Visits to modern, up-to-date offices can be of value
if students have an opportunity to see the latest equipment and
data processing installations and to observe the types of jobs
performed by office workers. The teacher should visit the offices
in advance in order to prepare the class for the activities and
equipment they will see. A follow-up discussion of the field
trips is essential. Students should be required to write a thank
you letter to the companies visited.
9. Guest Speakers-Guest speakers may provide lectures on skills,
attitudes, and abilities generally expected of an office worker.
Students are especially impressed by the comments of prominent
businessmen or women or of former students employed in office
10. Resource File-Teachers should maintain an up-to-date resource
file of reference material, such as articles, pamphlets, and the
like, that relate to office work. Students will find many uses
for such materials.
11. Interview-Local businessmen or faculty members may be asked
to interview some of the students before the other members
of the class. Students should be asked to complete application
forms and personal data sheets to submit them to the inter-
viewers. After the interview session, the interviewers should be
asked to identify students' strong and weak points.
12. Offce Experience-Local business firms, or school department
chairmen who have offices, sometimes are able to give students
on-the-job experiences as office workers.

13. Office Machines Course-The office machines course described in
this Guide contains suggestions that can be used in the clerical
office practice course.
14. General Business-The general business course described in this
Guide contains suggestions that can be used.
Evaluation Suggestions
1. Speed and accuracy tests
2. Study guides
3. Various performance and work appraisal forms
4. Objective tests
5. Civil Service examinations
6. National Business Entrance tests
7. Production tests
Standards for production tests appearing in business publications
may be helpful; but because the nature of the activities in the office
practice course varies from school to school, the problem of evalu-
ating production work is complicated and difficult. The teacher of this
course often must develop his own production tests and determine
the standards that students will be required to meet.
Recommended Equipment for the Course (see Office Practice Room
layout in Chapter IV)
The equipment and facilities needed for instruction and learning in
office machines are identified and described in detail in the course,
Office Machines. Reference should be made to this course when plan-
ning equipment for clerical office practice. Other equipment and facili-
ties in clerical office practice include:
1. Miniature filing kits or practice sets
2. Filing cabinets
3. Teletrainer
4. Copyholders
5. Mailing equipment
6. Overhead projector
Special Supplies Needed for the Course
Paper cutter; letter opener; stencils and masters; lettering guides
and styli; carbon typing paper; duplicating paper; stationery and en-
velopes; correction fluid; staples and staple remover; small office sup-
plies such as paper clips, pins, scotch tape, package labels, paste, rubber
bands, scissors, cards, ink, paper towels, pencil sharpener, type-cleaner,
type-cleaning brush, and file folders.
Instructional Materials and Audio-Visual Materials
1. Dictionaries (atlas, unabridged, synonyms and antonyms)
2. Postal guides
3. Directories
4. World Almanac
5. Roget's Thesaurus

6. Films and Filmstrips
a. Coronet Instructional Films
65 East South Water Street
Chicago, Illinois
How To Be Well Groomed
Filing Procedures In Business
b. Business Education Films
Film Center Building
Suite 409, 630 Ninth Avenue
New York, New York
Correct Telephone Usage
c. Southern Bell Telephone Company
(contact nearest office)
A Manner of Speaking
Reference Materials for the Teacher
1. Allen E. Barron and James R. Taylor, Clerical Office Training,
(Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1963).
2. Guy C. Close, Work Improvement, (New York: Wiley, 1960).
3. Ruth E. Gavin and Lillian Hutchinson, Reference Manual for
Secretaries and Typists, Second Edition, (New York: McGraw-
Hill, 1965).
4. Lois I. Hutchinson, Standard Handbook for Secretaries, Seventh
edition, (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1956).
5. Gilbert Kahn, Progressive Filing, Seventh edition, (New York:
McGraw-Hill, 1961).
6. Elizabeth Gregg MacGibbon, Fitting Yourself for Business,
Fourth edition, (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1961).
7. William Selden, Filing and Finding, (Englewood: Prentice-Hall,
8. Herbert A. Tonne, Estelle L. Popham, and M. Herbert Freeman,
Methods of Teaching Business Subjects, (New York: McGraw-
Hill, 1965).
9. Helen Hinkson Green, Activities Handbook for Business Teach-
ers, (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1958).
10. Whitcomb and Lang, Charm, (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964).
11. Handbook for Office Practice Teachers, Monographed 91, (Cin-
cinnati: South-Western).
12. Methods of Planning for Office Practice, (New York: Under-
13. Suggestions for Programs of Office Practice and Procedures,
(Cincinnati: South-Western).

Consumer Economics

(Sometimes called Consumer Education or Consumer Problems)

Consumer Economics is concerned with the intensive de-
velopment of knowledge, attitudes, and choice-making skills

useful for the consumer to get the most out of life through
optimum use of his money, time, and energy. Consumer econom-
ics is designed to develop economic understanding from a con-
sumer viewpoint and prepare students for effective consumer
Consumer Economics is of value to all students since it tends
to upgrade personal economic skill, improve choice-making, im-
prove selection and use of goods and services, and help in
money management problems.
Grade Placement: 11 or 12
Length of Course: One semester or one year
1. To develop a high degree of skill in buying goods and services.
2. To develop a scientific and critical attitude toward advertising.
3. To develop a thorough knowledge of the effective management of
personal and family income.
4. To develop in a practical way an understanding and appreciation
of our economic system.
5. To develop an understanding of the citizenship responsibilities
of consumers in a private enterprise economy.
6. To develop an understanding of the important role that educated
consumers play in giving direction to the economy.
7. To refine the fundamental processes of computation and oral
and written communication.
8. To develop an understanding of the roles and relationships be-
tween the household, business, and government in our economy.
Suggestions for the Teacher
A. Recommended Course Units
The suggested list of topics that follows is a framework of what
may be included, and represents suggestions, not requirements. It is
expected that administrators and teachers will add to, alter, eliminate,
and improve upon these suggested topics, and that they will expand
them or narrow them as the philosophy of the individual school or
instructor necessitates. This list is suggested by The Consumer Educa-
tion Study, sponsored by the National Association of Secondary School
1. The foundations of consumer education
a. The developments which have made a consumer education
necessary and purposes it may strive to serve.
b. A study of consumers-their incomes and resources, their
habits and motivations; in general, how they consume and
how their consumption might be improved.
2. The management of personal financial affairs
a. Budgeting
b. Money management

c. The use of consumer credit
d. Planning the insurance program and buying insurance
e. Investment
3. Getting the information and guidance a consumer needs
a. Using advertising
b. Using standards, specifications, and labels
c. Using the services of agencies that inform and guide con-
d. Shopping
4. Choosing, buying, and using food
5. Choosing, buying, and using clothing
6. Choosing, buying, and improving and maintaining a home
7. Using one's resources best to maintain and improve health
8. Using one's resources best for leisure time satisfactions
9. Using one's resources wisely in a lifelong program of self-
10. Understanding basic economic principles and the operation of
the business system which serves us
11. Understanding law as it affects the consumer
12. Thinking through some special social problem
a. The Consumer Movement
b. Consumer's Co-operatives
c. The Role of Government With Reference to Consumers
B. Approaches to the Organization of Student Learning
The textbook approach, the topical or unit approach, and the
problem-solving approach, as explained in detail in the Suggestions
for the Teacher Section of General Business, are also applicable to
the organization of learning activities in Consumer Economics.
Additional Suggestions to Enrich Learning
1. The learning activities in Consumer Economics should encourage
the student
a. to gather information and data about economic problems
facing the consumer,
b. to determine possible solutions to the problems,
c. to identify values that influence solutions and decisions, and
d. to arrive at a solution that is in accord with the values which
the individual holds.
2. Current magazine and newspaper articles pertaining to con-
sumer and economic problems should supplement textbook ma-
3. Students should be encouraged to write government and research
agencies, asking for reports and pamphlets on standards and
labeling of consumer goods.
4. Students should be encouraged to bring in specimen insurance
policies to analyze the policy provisions as an aid in developing
the ability to interpret and evaluate insurance.
5. Provision should be made for realistic budget-planning and
recordkeeping by the students.

6. Students should have experiences in rating the quality and prices
of different brands of a commodity.
7. Laboratory experiments and demonstrations can be performed
in the testing or comparisons of some consumer goods, e.g., com-
parison of wool and rayon and linen and ramie. Provision should
be made for these desirable school experiences.
8. Teachers generally have found their students intensely interested
in this course if they are given an opportunity to participate in
problem and project work. A premium is placed upon good judg-
ment rather than upon repetition and facts alone.
9. This course can easily be adapted to team teaching. Certain de-
partments in the school can cooperate in various ways. For
example, the home economics department can aid in presenting
information in regard to foods, fabrics, and testing; the chemis-
try and physics departments can aid in conducting tests of
various products; the geography department can cooperate in
presenting information in regard to the economic aspects of
geography and world trade; the salesmanship teacher can aid
in explaining the technique of the salesperson and the technique
of analyzing products; and the bookkeeping teacher can aid in the
problem of discussing recordkeeping and the interpretation of
financial statements.
Evaluation Suggestions
The evaluation of the effectiveness of learning activities used in the
development of a topic consists of the use of
1. Teacher judgment
2. Student judgment
3. Tests to measure progress and growth
4. Oral or written reports of various types of projects in which the
student engages.
Study guides in workbooks may be used as protests, reviews, or as a
guide to the student as he reads the chapters in the textbooks.
Achievement tests may be obtained from publishing companies.
The testing program should also include essay or problem tests-
those that reveal the understanding of concepts and principles, the
identification and approach to the solving of a problem, the application
to practical situations of the facts and understandings of which the
subject matter is comprised, and the ability to express ideas and
thoughts clearly.
Open-book tests will measure the resourcefulness of the student in
applying the facts and knowledge which he has learned and in utilizing
the sources of information around him. An open-book test is one in
which the student may use his textbook, the library, or any other
resources available to him in solving a problem. Examples of problems
that could be used for the open-book part of the test are: (1) an
analysis of recent changes in the social security law, (2) an insurance
program for a specific family situation, and, (3) a study of economic
indicators to determine business and economic conditions.
Recommended Equipment for the Course
1. Demonstration desk, table, or area
2. Chalkboard, flannel board, bulletin boards

3. Simple equipment for art work, posters, displays, etc.
4. Abundance of display space
5. An overhead projector (portable) and suitable screen
6. Filmstrip, slide, and motion picture projectors
7. Tape recorder
8. Record player
9. Radio and television
10. Plenty of storage and filing space
11. Copying machines
to prepare duplicator masters directly from printed copy
to prepare transparencies for use on the overhead projector
The use of copying machines makes it possible for teachers to
present new types of material to students from a variety of sources
on a daily basis-from newspapers, magazines, and books. Materials
reproduced on a copying machine can result in greater student interest
in the subject studied and also serve to update whatever textbook is
in use.
Instructional Materials and Audio-Visual Materials
Teacher's manuals of the textbooks in consumer education give
numerous sources of instructional materials, references, and audio-
visual materials. Some of the manuals provide these sources in complete
lists while others list them at the end of each chapter. Some excellent
sources of material are found in the teacher's manuals of the following
a. Reich and Siegler, Consumer Goods, (New York: American Book
b. Fred T. Wilhelms, Ramon P. Heimerl and Herbert M. Jelley,
Consumer Economics, (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966).
c. W. Harmon Wilson and Elvin S. Eyster, Consumer Economic
Problems, (Cincinnati: South-Western, 1966).
The above-mentioned manuals give book references, current peri-
odicals for both teacher and student use, a complete list of source
bibliographies for teachers, and a very long list of pamphlet material
that can be used effectively for supplementary purposes. Numerous
audio-visual materials are also cited in the manuals.
The teacher of a course in Consumer Economics should develop
a library of books, current periodicals, and pamphlet materials to
serve as a ready reference both on economic and consumer information
and on aids for more effective classroom teaching.
It is recommended that the teacher or school acquire a reasonable
minimum library of supplementary readings. Some of these books
will be useful in making outside library assignments for some of the
special problems and projects. Helpful books for reference purposes
are those in the fields of general economics, law, marketing, retailing,
health, home management, financial management, investments, real
estate, buying, testing, estates, and other textbooks in consumer
A pamphlet entitled Choosing Free Materials for Use in the
Schools published by The American Association of School Adminis-
trators, Washington, D. C., is an aid to teachers in selecting and

using free and inexpensive materials for economic education distrib-
uted by business firms and associations.
Reference Materials for the Teacher
Teacher's manuals of the textbooks in the field of consumer
education give a wealth of references for teachers. In addition, the
following references will provide current business and economic data
in solving some of the problems that appear throughout an entire
course in consumer education:
a. Superintendent of Documents
U. S. Government Printing Office
Washington, D. C.
Economic Indicators
Survey of Current Business
Statistical Abstract of the United States
b. New York World Telegram and the Sun
135 Barclay Street
New York, New York
The World Almanac and Book of Facts

Introduction to Data Processing

This course is designed to give the student a general view of
the field of data processing. It may provide a foundation for
more specific study of data processing or provide familiarity
with data processing terminology and principles for students in
other business or college preparatory sequences. One purpose is
to acquaint the student with requirements of different occupa-
tions in data processing so that he may be guided in his choice
of a career.
The course is intended to be offered without requiring the
operation of specialized equipment. However, where punched
card, paper tape, or computer equipment is available, it should
be utilized for demonstrations and possibly for some actual
student operation. Every opportunity should be taken to acquaint
the student with methods of utilizing the equipment, types of
training required, career opportunities, and terminology.
Topics studied include history and development of data
processing, current uses of unit record equipment and computer
systems, basic machine functions, organization of problems,
storage media, input and output devices, and elementary tech-
niques of programming.
Schools not offering this course may incorporate these data
processing concepts in other related business courses.

For those in the Data Processing Sequence-Data Recording Devices
For those in other sequences-None
Grade Placement: 12 (students following a sequence other than the
Data Processing Sequence may take this course in
grade 11).

Length of Course: One semester
1. To present the terminology and concepts of data processing
2. To examine the uses of data processing in modern business
3. To consider the social impact of automation
4. To acquaint the student with careers in data processing and
the qualifications needed for these careers
5. To acquaint the student with additional training opportunities
(junior college, vocational school, others)
6. To familiarize the student with the basic functions of the unit
record machines.
7. To familiarize the student with the basic functions of computers
8. To familiarize the student with the basic procedures for pro-
gramming computers.
Suggestions for the Teacher
1. Field trips to local installations to observe machines in operation
and to see the flow of work processes through the various ma-
chines to obtain an end product
2. Visits by consultants from both manufacturers' representatives
and workers in local installations.
3. Case studies of local installations
4. Films and field trips to present a comparison of manual, mechani-
cal, electrical, and electronic methods of handling a job.
Evaluation Suggestions
Use objective and subjective tests to determine if the objectives of
the course have been met.
Recommended Equipment for the Course
None needed
Instructional Materials and Audio-Visual Materials
1. Transparencies for teaching machine functions
2. Flow charts and written procedures
3. Sample cards and forms
4. Films and filmstrips for presenting machine functions and work
5. Practice sets
Reference Materials for the Teacher
Automatic Data Processing Glossary, (Government Printing Office,

Beryl Robichaud: Understanding Modern Business Data Processing,
(New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966)
Elias M. Awad, Business Data Processing, (Prentice-Hall, 1965).
Electronic Data Processing Written for the Layman, (National Cash
Register Company, 1965), Books 1, 2, 3.
Gotlieb and Hume, High Speed Data Processing, (New York:
McGraw-Hill, 1958).
Johnson, Wadsworth, Burger, Business Automation Fundamentals,
Automation Institute, (Representative schools located in most major
cities) 1964.
Gilbert Kahn, Business Data Processing, Teacher's edition, (Hights-
town: Gregg Division, 1966).
Martin, Electronic Data Processing: An Introduction, (Irwin, 1961).
McCracken, Weiss, and Lee, Programming Business Computers,
(Wiley, 1959).
McGill, Punched Cards: Data Processing for Profit Improvement,
(New York: McGraw-Hill, 1962).
Nelson and Woods, Accounting Systems and Data Processing, (Cin-
cinnati: South-Western, 1961).
Randall, Weimer, and Greenfield, Systems and Procedures for
Automated Accounting, (Cincinnati: South-Western, 1962).
Salmon, IBM Machine Operation and Wiring, (Wadsworth, 1962).
Saunders and Luskin, Data Processing: A Practice Set, (McBee
Systems, Royal Typewriter Company, Inc., 1965).
Schmidt and Meyers, Introduction to Computer Science and Data
Processing, (Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1965).
Van Ness, Principles of Punched Card Data Processing, (The
Business Press, 1964).
Wanous and Wanous: Automation Office Practice, (Cincinnati:
South-Western, 1964).
You and the Computer, (General Electric, 1965).
IBM Publications
320-1443 through 320-1449, Punched Card Data Processing Principles
F20-0074 An Introduction to IBM Punched Card Data Processing
R29-0125 through R29-0127, Punched Card Data Processing Princi-
ples, Programmed Instruction Course
F22-6517 Introduction to IBM Data Processing Systems
A24-1010 IBM Operator's Guide
Business Automation
Journal of Data Management

Data Recording Devices

This course is designed to acquaint the student with modern
equipment and methods used to capture information in a form

that can be processed automatically by machines, to give the
student opportunities to practice the operation of the various
machines and equipment, and to keep the student up to date on
new developments in the use of such devices.
The rapidly expanding use of data processing machines in
small as well as large businesses has created a need for pre-
paring high school students (who may not have an opportunity
for further education) for entry into basic data processing jobs
upon graduation from high school. Students who will be contin-
uing their education also will find the ability to operate data
recording devices an advantage, both in progressing in advanced
courses and in obtaining employment while furthering their
1. To understand how a card holds data (organization, zones,
2. To learn the keyboard and operating features of a keypunch
machine and become proficient in its operation
3. To learn to operate the card verifier
4. To learn the use of a program card
5. To learn the features of mark-sense cards
6. To understand how paper tape holds data
7. To learn the keyboard and operating features of paper tape
punching machines and paper tape punching attachments for
adding and calculating machines. Also to learn tape/card, card/
tape conversion.
8. To learn about Port-A-Punch cards and how to use Port-A-
Punch equipment.
9. To learn about Keysort cards and how to use Keysort equip-
10. To become familiar with coding systems.
One semester of Introduction to Data Processing is recommended
upon completion of this course by the students enrolled in the Data
Processing Sequence.
One year of typewriting instruction.
Grade Placement: 12
Length of Course: One semester
Suggestions for the Teacher
1. Laboratory sessions in which the student will be given many
opportunities to practice the operation of the various machines
and equipment.
2. Field trips to local installations to see machines in an actual
business operation and to see how they fit into a total setup.

3. Case studies of those firms which have installed data processing
4. Visits to the class by both representatives of the manufacturers
of data processing machines and supplies and workers in local
5. Collections of pamphlets and booklets describing new develop-
ments in data processing equipment and systems.
Evaluation Suggestions
1. Keyboard achievement tests
2. Vocabulary tests
3. Machine functions tests
Recommended Equipment for the Course
1. Keypunch machine
2. Keypunch simulator typewriters
3. Tape Punch machines
4. Tape Controlled typewriter
5. Port-A-Punch equipment
6. Keysort equipment
7. Any new data recording devices that come on the market.
The use of typewriters with keypunch simulator keyboards or
attachments may be used in the place of keypunch machines for prac-
tice purposes. However, at least one keypunch machine should be
available and all students should be given opportunities to practice
on this machine. For further information regarding equipment, see the
data processing room layout in Chapter IV.
Instructional Materials and Audio-Visual Materials
1. Practice sets obtained from textbook publishers
2. Transparencies for teaching machine functions
3. Blown-up card layout forms
4. Sample cards and forms
5. Films and filmstrips from machine manufacturers
6. Keypunch exercise books
Reference Materials for the Teacher
IBM Publications
A24-1010 IBM Operators' Guide
A24-0520 IBM 24 Card Punch and IBM 26 Printing Card Punch
A24-1018 56 Card Verifier
R25-1627 IBM Card Punch Practice Exercises
See also listings under Introduction to Data Processing


Economics is a course involving a study of how goods and
services are produced and exchanged to satisfy the needs and
wants of consumers. A study of economics should enable students

to understand our economic system, its operation, its problems,
and its possibilities. An essential function of economic education
is to help students develop open, inquiring minds and to acquire
basic skills of problem solving. Students must learn that while
the technique of problem solving may remain the same, no
solution to an economic problem can be final.
The course in economics should include:
1. An understanding of the problem of scarcity and how
different economic systems develop to allocate the re-
sources available to meet this problem.
2. An understanding of the nature, quality, and quantity
of human, natural, and capital resources.
3. An understanding of the forms of business organization.
4. An understanding of production and exchange in the
marketing system and how price functions to control
production and exchange.
5. An understanding of how national income is measured
and how it is distributed.
6. An understanding of causes of and controls of economic
7. An understanding of the role of money, credit, and bank-
ing in our economic system.
8. An understanding of the role of government in our
9. An understanding of the importance of the consumer in
our economic system.
10. An understanding of the major characteristics of econom-
ics of local and regional communities.
11. An understanding of the importance of international
trade and of the problems involved.
Grade Placement: 12
Length of Course: One year
The major objective for the course in economics is to develop a
rationale that is based on understanding rather than emotional reason-
ing. The specific objectives will include:
1. An understanding of what an economic system is, the need for
such a system and how it develops, and how our economic system
2. An understanding of the characteristics of the private enterprise
economic system as compared with the major characteristics of
other systems.

3. An appreciation of our economic system in comparison with the
outstanding characteristics of other systems.
4. An understanding of the most important devices used in analy-
zing the functions of an economic system (supply and demand,
marginal concepts, statistical indices, and the like).
5. A critical and analytical attitude in thinking about economic
issues and problems.
When these objectives are attained, the student will be better pre-
pared to meet life as an individual and as a participating citizen in
our American economic system.

Suggestions for the Teacher
A part of the learning in economics is descriptive in nature and a
part is analytical or seeking solutions to problems.
The activities used to develop understandings are many and varied.
Some of them are:
1. Class discussion
2. Reading textbooks and supplementary materials
3. Gathering and interpreting statistical data
4. Use of reference materials
5. Use of resource people
6. Use of audio-visual equipment
7. Identifying, analyzing, and solving problems
8. Exploration of important relationships in the economic order
9. Evaluating solutions or possible solutions to problems which exist
in our present economic system.
The different approaches to learning activities, outlined in more
detail under the general business course, would also apply to economics.
Specific references that describe in detail some teaching procedures
Joint Council on Economic Education
2 West 46th Street
New York, New York 10036
A Teacher's Guide to Economics in the Business Education
Economic Education Experiences of Enterprising Teachers

Evaluation Suggestions
Evaluation should measure the student's progress in understanding
economics and his ability to think through and apply critical analysis
to problem solving.
Evaluation should include:
1. Teacher judgment of pupil participation in the learning activities
2. Tests which measure the degree of learning of facts, of problem
solving, and of the ability to use critical analysis
3. Results of individual research in the form of themes, reports,
and the results of committee activities.

Instructional Materials and Audio-Visual Materials
1. National Industrial Conference Board, Inc.
New York, New York
The Economic Almanac
2. Newspapers and Periodicals
a. Business Week
b. New York Times
c. U. S. News and World Report
d. Wall Street Journal
3. U. S. Government Printing Office
Washington, D. C.
a. Statistical Abstract of the United States
b. Survey of Current Business
c. The Economic Report of the President
4. Reference materials from the U. S. Department of Labor, U. S.
Department of Commerce (Census Bureau), and many private
organizations are essential in problem-solving activities.
5. The use of the overhead and opaque projectors is recommended
for showing statistical tables, graphs, printed charts, and the
6. A number of good films and filmstrips are available for classroom
7. Visual aids, such as the chalkboard, charts, and posters, are essen-
tial for developing a full understanding of the relationships and
processes in economics.
8. Speakers are available from governmental agencies as well as
from private organizations.
Reference Materials for the Teacher
Joint Council on Economic Education
2 West 46th Street
New York, New York
a. Annotated Bibliography of Materials in Economic Education
b. Economic Education in the School, 1961.
c. 100 Selected Films in Economic Education.
d. Study Materials for Economic Education in the Schools, 1963.
e. Suggestions for a Basic Economics Library for Secondary
Schools, Revised.

General Business

General Business is the first course in business ordinarily
available to high school students. It deals with knowledge about
business which is needed by all people, non-business persons as
well as future business workers, in order to manage their
business affairs successfully and to be intelligent citizens.
General Business includes subject matter related to the major
concepts in economics and economic education. The course may
also include a study of career opportunities in business.

Length of Course: One year recommended
Grade Placement: 9 or 10
1. To develop an understanding of the way in which our private
enterprise economic system is organized and how it operates
to satisfy the needs and wants of individuals.
2. Te develop an understanding of how the institution of business
contributes to the organization and operation of our economic
3. To develop a business and economic vocabulary that will permit
individuals to read and understand current economic and business
problems as reported in newspapers, magazines, and other
4. To develop the understandings, knowledge, skills, and attitudes
necessary for effective management of personal and family
5. To develop the knowledge and skills necessary for efficient and
economical use of the services that business provides for all
6. To learn about career opportunities, both now and in the future,
in business, and to understand how these opportunities are modi-
fied by the dynamic nature of the American economy.
7. To refine the skills of reading, writing, and computation.
Suggestions for the Teacher
Because General Business often is the introductory course to the
entire area of business education, and because the procedures used in
obtaining effective learning are completely different from the learning
procedures used in most other business education courses, an extensive
discussion of teaching methodology and techniques is presented here.
The suggestions that follow describe the three basic approaches used
to organize the classroom and the subject matter so that desired learn-
ing occurs. Specific techniques and procedures are suggested for each of
these three basic approaches.
The most-used and most appropriate approaches to the organization
for student learning in General Business are:
The textbook approach, in which the textbook and workbook are
used as the principal means of organizing content and the sequence
of the textbook that will be studied; the unit or topic plan, in which
the content and learning activities are organized around large units
of subject matter; and the problem approach, in which content and
activities are organized around a central problem that must be solved
by the students. Most business teachers have been able to use success-
fully a combination of these approaches.
The Textbook Approach
The principal procedures or considerations involved in this approach
1. Help students identify the expected outcomes of learning for a
topic that is to be studied.
2. Introduce each topic in such a way that students become inter-

ested in developing the competence required. Some appropriate
ways of introducing a topic might be:
a. Show a film
b. Give an overview of a chapter or a topic
c. Conduct class discussion
3. Make assignments that require a study of various aspects of the
unit. Some of the possible class activities are:
a. Study the textbook
b. Read reference material
c. Present oral or written reports
d. Dramatizations
e. Panel discussions
f. Committee reports
4. Use a workbook. Guidelines governing the use of a workbook are:
a. The use of workbooks is most appropriate with low-achievers.
b. Workbooks are most effective when supervised by the teacher.
c. Study guides may be used by having the students read the
questions without writing in the answers. Thereafter the study
guides might then be used as a written pretest.
5. Supplement the textbook with such activities as:
a. Reports
b. Bulletin board displays
c. Speaker on topic being studied
d. Books and pamphlets
e. Field trips
f. Discussion of community affairs of interest to the students
g. Films and filmstrips
Evaluation Suggestions When Using the Textbook Approach
a. Teacher judgment-The teacher considers the many variables
involved (type of student, facilities, time, energy, and test
results) and reaches conclusions relevant to the value of the
learning procedure used.
b. Pupil judgment-Students are asked to give their opinions
as to the value of the various procedures.
c. Test results-The amount of learning, as measured by tests,
will provide clues to the value of the various class activities.
d. Results of other measures of learning, such as individual and
committee reports, written summaries, notebooks, and work-
books will provide clues to the value of the procedures used.
The Topic or Unit Plan
1. Identifying the outcomes of the unit. These outcomes represent
the elements of the unit that the student should understand, should
know, should be able to do, and the beliefs and behavior patterns that
a student should be willing to accept. Ordinarily, the outcomes will be
stated as understandings, knowledge, skills, attitudes, and appreciations.
Precise identification is essential because the subject matter of the
unit is defined by the outcomes. Precise definition requires that under-
standing outcomes be stated as "to understand that banks help to
create and destroy money," rather than such a general statement as
"to understand the role of banks in our economy."
2. Launching the topic. Initial activities serve the functions of
arousing interest, indicating how much students know about the topic,

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