• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Foreword
 Table of Contents
 The Florida school program and...
 Courses of study and instructional...
 General shop plans - organization...
 Suggested bibliography of industrial...
 Visual aids
 Classified project list














Group Title: Its Florida program for improvement of schools Bulletin
Title: Tentative source materials in industrial arts for Florida secondary schools ..
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00080769/00001
 Material Information
Title: Tentative source materials in industrial arts for Florida secondary schools ..
Series Title: Florida program for improvement of schools Bulletin
Physical Description: v, 150 p. : incl. plans, diagrs. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- State Dept. of Education
University of Florida -- Curriculum Laboratory
Publisher: State Dept. of Education
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 1940
Copyright Date: 1940
 Subjects
Subject: Industrial arts -- Study and teaching   ( lcsh )
Education -- Curricula -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Statement of Responsibility: Prepared at Florida curriculum laboratory, University of Florida. M.L. Stone, director. Jack Bohannon, consultant.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00080769
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - ADJ8711
oclc - 09276932
alephbibnum - 000658541
lccn - e 41000155

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Foreword
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
    The Florida school program and industrial arts education
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Courses of study and instructional units
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
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        Page 122
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        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
    General shop plans - organization and management
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
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        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
    Suggested bibliography of industrial art books
        Page 143
    Visual aids
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
    Classified project list
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
Full Text














































75'.001757
C r0. /3
Irf (o












UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA
LIBRARY













TENTATIVE SOURCE MATERIALS

IN

INDUSTRIAL ARTS

FOR FLORIDA SECONDARY SCHOOLS



BULLETIN NO. 12
October, 1940


Prepared at
FLORIDA CURRICULUM LABORATORY
University of Florida



M. L. STONE, Director
JACK BOHANNON, Consultant


STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
Tallahassee, Florida
M. W. CAROTHERS, Director of Instruction
COLIN ENGLISH, Superintendent



....'.... .--..

;:1 ***













FOREWORD


As is clearly shown by the chart presented ohn the preced-
ing page, the development of curriculum bulletins has now
reached the stage where source materials are being prepared
in the several special interest fields. It is important to note
at this point, however, that the several bulletins are related
and that maximum benefit cannot accrue from the use of a
single piece of material taken out of relationship to others in
the series. Ways to Better Instruction in Florida Schools and
A Guide to a Functional Program in the Secondary School con-
tain a general point of view which should be thoroughly under-
stood by:each teacher of a special interest field in Florida sec-
ondary schools.

Only .as teachers of special interest fields see the contri-
bution of the experiences which the pupil has in any particular
area to the total growth and development of adolescents can
S the true needs of each individual be met ir an adequate manner.

Tentative Source Materials in Industrial Arts for Florida
-a' Secondary Schools is designed for the use of schools which
offer general work in this area. It should prove particularly
S valuable to teachers of general shop and points to the close
relationship between industrial arts and general education.
Appreciation is hereby extended to Mr. Jack Bohannon, Assist-
ant Professor of Industrial Arts Education, University of Flori-
S da, under whose direction the manuscript was prepared. Those
participating as members of the committee include the follow-
ing: Harry Britton, E. C. Clevenger, Waynard Hickox, John
Lytjen, James McCreery, Robert Leo Moore, Joe Parrish,
-Charles Q. Payne, John N. Ross, and George Stiff.





State Superintendent of Public Instruction


iii8
i27784









CONTINUING PRODUCTION OF INSTRUCTIONAL BULLETINS
FLORIDA PROGRAM FOR IMPROVEMENT OF SCHOOLS


SERIES 1928-1938


VoL. I
STATE COURSE OF STUDY
FOR ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS
GRADES 1-6 (1933)*


VOL. II
STATE COURSE OF STUDY
S FOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS
Part 1. English
Part 2. Social Studies*
Part 3. Mathematics
Part 4. Science
Part 5. Foreign Languages
Part 6. Physical and Health
Education
Part 7. Home Economics
Part 8. Fine Artst: Music*, Artt
Part 9. Commerce
Part -. Manual Artst


SERIES BEGINNING 1938
No. 9 W No. 4. Plans for Florida's School Health
A Guide to Program (1939)
Improved t B No. 6. Planning Faculty Study (1939)
mNo. 3 Pr ~ No. 7. Narcotics and Stimulants (1939)
Preliminary aidi No. 8. Library Book List (1939)
Gtudy o tohe a n F a e No. 21. Physical Education$ (1940)
Eleuenary Sc hon r y No. 22. Source Units in Health Education
Curriculum* s (1940)
(1939) (1940) (Others are planned)
a (Others are planned)

NO. 2 Avenues of
W ay s to Understand-
Better In- ing, A Bulle-
struction
in Florida tinforParents
Schools and Lay
(1939) Groups (1940)
(9 G_____ (No. 1. Guide to Exploratory Work* (1938)
S No. 4. Plans for Florida's School Health
10 Program (1939)
N No. 5. Physical Education* (1939)
A Guide to n No. 6. Planning Faculty Study (1939)
a Function- ^ No. 7. Narcotics and Stimulants (1939)
al Program o No. 8. Library Book List (1939)
in the Sec- g No. 11. Business Education (1940)
ondary a No. 12. Industrial Arts (1940)
School(1940) 0 No. 22. Source Units in Health Education
(1940)
Elementary Technology Series
(Others are planned)


* Now out of print.
t Bulletin was not printed.
t Tentative mimeographed edition not available for general distribution.











CONTENTS
PAGE
FOREWORD .iii
SECTION

I. THE FLORIDA SCHOOL PROGRAM AND INDUSTRIAL ARTS
EDUCATION . 1
Introduction, 1; Common Types of General Shop Organi-
zation, 5; Status of the Industrial Arts Program in Flori-
da, 8; Selecting Activities for a General Shop Program, 9;
Enrichment of Instruction, 10; Qualification of Indus-
trial Arts Teachers, 10.

II. COURSES OF STUDY AND INSTRUCTIONAL UNITS 12
General Mechanical Drawing, 12; General Woodworking,
35; General Metalworking, 60; General Electrical Work,
75; General Auto Mechanics, 85; General Crafts, 94; Oc-
cupational Information in the Industrial Arts Program,
118; Occupational Survey Guide, 120.

III. GENERAL SHOP PLANS ORGANIZATION AND
MANAGEMENT 129
Teaching Problems in the General Shop, 129; Factors in
Pupil-Personnel Organization, 133; Factors in General
Shop Planning, 139; Suggested General Shop Plans, 140.

IV. SUGGESTED BIBLIOGRAPHY OF INDUSTRIAL ARTS BOOKS 143

V. VISUAL AIDS 144

VI. CLASSIFIED PROJECT LIST 147
Projects for Woodwork, 147; Projects for General Metal
Work, 148; Projects for General Electricity and Radio,
149; Projects for Foundry, 150.










SECTION ONE
,THE F LORIDA SCHOOL PROGRAM AND INDUSTIAI, ,,,,
ARTS EDUCATION


SiNTRODUCTION
TlE CONTRIBUTIONS OF INDUSTRIAL ARTS TO THE
GGENiERAL EDUCATION PROGRAM
Industrial Arts:is aj field in which many different subject.,
or phases of work are found.. Some of the subjects most commonly,
found in the secondary schools are mechanical drawing, architec-
tuiail drawing, woodwork, sheet metal, forge work, foundry, pat-
tern-nlaking, concrete work, auto-mechanics, electricity, printing,
an'd 'Vocational guidance. These courses are sometimes arranged
in codribinations of two or more and are given under the heading
of general shop.
':The majority of the students taking the above-mentioned
courses are boys'. he girls may elect these courses, if .they
so desire; recently, a great number.,of industrial arts depart-;
ments throughout the country have recognized the values of .this
type of work for the girls and have designed for them courses in,
home arts. These courses are organized to meet the general needs
of the girls iin this type of work and to give them an opportunity
in another avenue of creative expression.
In Florida, practically all the work that is offered in indus-
trial arts is given in the junior and senior high schools; however,
it should be made clear, that the appropriate, place for,industrial
arts i riot imnited to the high school'. In an up-to-date, well or-
ganized curriculum manual instruction begins in the kindergarten
and should .be found, in some, form in every grade at least until,
the completion of high school., In the kindergarten and in the
first six grades of the elementary school the work is usually car-,
ried on by the regular classroom teacher. In these grades, indus-,
trial arts activities are employed as a means of motivation and:
for encouraging the pupils to express themselves creatively in ,a
manner, which is next to impossible in the usual book subjects.
Too, this helps the student to gain a better insight into the, usual
academic subjects. .









SOURCE MATERIALS IN INDUSTRIAL ARTS


For illustration, let us take an abstract subject such as arith-
metic. It is well known that many children have difficulty in this
because they cannot visualize the meaning and use of numbers.
Nevertheless, those children may very effectively and profitably
become engaged in such activities as are commonly involved in
building a doll house, classroom store, or measuring and laying
off the necessary dimensions, and estimating the necessary quan-
tities and kinds of materials needed in the construction of small
rugs, tables, portfolios and the many other classroom projects.
Through such activities they learn the uses and applications of
numbers and computations in such a practical way that genuine
interest and achievement take the place of drudgery and discour-
agement. Students have always shown preference for subjects
that require physical as well as mental adjustment. Industrial
arts has incorporated three phases of activity: mental, manipu-
lative, and social. We believe that there is a great deal of truth
in the statement of John Dewey, the eminent educator, when he
said, "Tnformation, merely as information, implies no special train-
ing of intellectual capacity."
The next stage of industrial arts is found in about the seventh
and eighth grades; this would be, as most Florida school systems
are organized, in the junior high school. At this particular level
the pupils begin to work with tools, materials, and equipment more
closely approaching adult standards. The processes and projects
are chosen in such a way as to give a cross-section of the simpler
elements of industry and serve as a basis upon which is built a
great amount of teaching and learning activities in the industrial,
social, and economic phases of life. We realize that the great
objective in the education of children is that of preparing them
to live in an intricate, complex social and industrial life. Adjust-
ments and adaptations must be made by the pupil today as never
before. The many and varied problems of life with which the
pupil will have to cope have been and are being magnified many
times by the industrial and mechanical age in which we find our-
selves. It is, therefore, entirely fitting that the young citizen be
given some insight into life as it will actually be found. A great
number of these exploratory pursuits may be appropriately and
efficiently dealt with in an industrial arts shop or drafting room.
At this particular stage our aims are, in part, to help the









FLORIDA PROGRAM AND INDUSTRIAL ARTS EDUCATION 3


student acquire some information about tools, machines, inven-
tions, mechanical appliances, and a variety of materials and their
properties so that he may understand what is going on around him
daily. We recognize further that.the great majority of the grow-
ing boys of this age are far more interested in these things than
any other of life's activities. It is a part of his normal develop-
ment to learn how to do things and how to make things with his
hands.
The next stage or level of industrial arts in the secondary
school is designed to give a greater variety of experiences in a
somewhat more detailed form. It would be impossible to enum-
erate the specific desired objectives in the various subjects which
are given in this field. It is perfectly obvious that one of the
most dominant objectives is that of developing a certain degree
of proficiency in the proper technique and manipulation of the
tools and machines peculiar to the subject under consideration.
However, it must be kept in mind that this is only one of the
objectives, for no division of the school program is better fitted
to carry out the newer concepts of education than is the division
of industrial arts. The opportunity to think, to plan, to evaluate,
to explore and accept responsibility is very great because of its in-
herent nature. Industrial arts is socializing; it involves challeng-
ing subject matter which is taken from present and everyday life.
It affords socially valuable motor activities with equally essential,
intellectual growth. The industrial arts program is dedicated to
the service of contributing wisely and well to the general and
well-rounded education of the youth of today.
DESIRABLE STANDARDS OF ATTAINMENT IN INDUSTRIAL ARTS
The following list* of general objectives in industrial arts
is by no means all-inclusive for the various levels of the school
program. This list contains, however, those most commonly ac-
cepted and most common to all phases of industrial arts work:
1. To develop in each pupil an active interest in industrial
life and in the methods of production and distribution.
2. To develop in each pupil the ability to select wisely, care
for, and use properly the things he buys or uses.
*Roberts, William E., et al. Standards of Attainment in Industrial Arts Teach-
ing, A committee report before the Industrial Arts Section of the American Voca-
tional Association, December, 1984.








4: v:l-ISO/CROEC MATERIALS'IN INDUSTRIAL AIiTSh: i !'

3. To develop ini each pupil an appreciation of good work-
manship andl design' ;
4.* Td' deieldp iti each* pupi'! an attitude of pride or interest:
Sin hi' ability to do iseftul things. '
S5. To' develop in each pupil a feeling of self-reliance and con-
fideice". ii his ability to deal with people and to care' for'
himself ini an unusual ori unfamiliar situation.
6. To develop in each pupil the habit of an orderly method
S of procedure in the performance of any task.
,7, Toe develop rn each pupil the habit of self-discipline, which
, requires one to do,,a thing when it should be done whether
,i ,it is a pleasant task p' not.,.
.,. 8, TQ develop in ;each, pupil the habit of a.-arfui.l, thoughtful
,,':, work ,without, loiteringor :wasting time. .
:9. To develop in eachf pupil, an ,attitude of readiness, to'
'assist others when they need 'help and to join in group:
: undertakings,-. i .
S10. To develop' iri each- pui'l a thoughtful attitude in matter of
niakilg; things easy anid pleasant for others.
:11. To develop in each pupil acknowledge and understanding
f mehiianical drawinig,hthe interpretation of the conven-
n' tin i wind g a'd working diagrams, and the ability to
express his ideas by means of a drawing.
12. To develop in each pipil elementary skills in the use of the
more common fools and machines in modifying and hand-
ling materials, and an understanding of some of the more

,EkRMINtiLOGY
'The ;question 6f terminology used to designate this particular
educational area las created a great amount of confusion. In the
main, this s" perhaps due ito a lack of understanding of its
objectives. '
Industrial arts 'as a recognized school subject is but little over
fifty years old, 'ind 'durtihg that time' it has evolved through four
quite well defined 'stages "Fi 't~e past ifew years' iidustriial arts
ha~s,.been inA h,,t,hpe. ,,o, ,reorganization, and we now find that
it'"hs 'ehrif'ed in'to"a'ih6th~r ea." This' stage, we shall call for lak:









FLORIDA PROGRAM ANID INDUSTRIAL ARTS) EDUCATION 5'

of a betterterm the "Integrated 'Laboratory iof Industries Stage .'''
In order' that there may not be any confusion 'ini the' minds
of the readers, with respect to a differentiation of professional
terms, the following, distinctions, are made: :Industrial arts 'is ai
field in which are contained many areas of the practical artsi ,I ts
general: intent -and characters suchas to aid in the general and'
broad aspect 'of education. i i :
In''this billetin "Industrial 'Arts is a generic ''term whose
scspe embraces all educational ;activities concerned with 'the mnod
ern industrial world its raw materials, products, machinery arid
problems of personnel-emphasizing the. integration, exploratory
and'occupatibnal p i..i'iliti'.s. Industrial arts does not refer to
the outmoded manual training exercise of twenty-five or fifty
years ago, or even to the more recent manual arts; rather it refers
to enlarged, modernized, enriched, and vitalized forms of what was
once termed "manual trainingg" .,:,. ,

,COMMON TYPES OF GENERAL SHOP ORGANIZATION
ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF INDUSTRIAL AIRTSi,
From the time of the inception of industrial arts' in the- edtcadd-
tional system of our country, until the advent of the junior high
school arid with it'the growlit of'the general shop aid its accoim-
panying philosophy of general' education values-the' objectives 'of
the industrial arts program Were' largely centered around tie manip-
ulative processes and skills Without regard to a cultural and' ppir'e-
ciative view 6f industry.''The'' student' was give, a 1patterd 'or'
schedule 'of processes to be folli-rwe.T without deviation 'and with no
thought whatsoever of related. iiiforinationu His job'was'to con-
plete an operation, or series of operations, in which the prirlrIir
value of neatness, accuracy, and 'patience 'were 'the 'ultimndte' end
without regard for creative thinking or inventive ability.
S.01Ti.l'/.I.;)'A20 lOUlIR '10 1:'IlYT
These primary values such as developing neatness, accuracy,
patierncel; persistence, love of labor,'mainipulative skill, honesty and
character, were disciplinary in charactei ': Other values were rared'
as subordinate but not as objectives to be worked for cdisciou~slyl'
The whole cas .for; the wbrkrested upon the'. asis of i& disciplinary
psychology. -The result:was that the courses for ithe schools cbni '
sisted .almost, wholly f linanijpultive activities. largely dictated' to'










SOURCE MATERIALS IN INDUSTRIAL ARTS


pupils. The pupil had no opportunity to think or create, to invent
or experiment, or any other way to use initiative or originality.
The predominant influence that skill in manipulative processes
has played in the industrial arts program in the United States may
be attributed directly to the Russian system of tool instruction
inaugurated in the shopwork of the Imperial Technical Institute of
Moscow, Russia, in 1868, and shown for the first time in this country
at the Philadelphia Exposition in 1876. Its influence in manual
training in this country was immediate and far-reaching. In the
Russian system the course was built around models and developed
from the simple to the complex with the degree of accuracy required
increasing as the students' work progressed. In the American adap-
tation of this system projects were mostly of no economic value
and merely served as a medium for the technical instruction with
tools and machines.

PRESENT TRENDS
In the modern program of public education, which includes
industrial arts experiences, the emphasis has been changed in this
particular educational area to meet those needs through which the
pupils may acquire for their general educational development under-
standings of and appreciations for industry as the average layman
confronts it in his everyday life. We are no longer greatly con-
cerned about the students' attainment of a high degree of specialized
proficiency in narrow vocationalized areas. Certainly is this true
until the student has reached at least the tenth grade.
In setting up a shop organization it is best that one should
know and understand the different types of shops or laboratories in
which the modern industrial arts program may be most effectively,
efficiently, and economically administered.

TYPES OF SHOP ORGANIZATIONS
The following is a brief description of the more commonly used
types of industrial arts shops that are now functioning throughout
the country.
It goes without saying that each of these plans has its merits
and demerits which should be carefully studied before attempting
to "set up" and organize a general shop. It is not necessary to use










FLORIDA PROGRAM AND INDUSTRIAL ARTS EDUCATION 7


any particular type in its entirety since adaptations and re-
arrangements of them can be effected to secure an organization in
which your objectives can best be realized.
THE LABORATORY ORGANIZATION
The interest of the students is practically the sole criterion in
ascertaining the scope of the work to be done. Projects are selected,
and organization and planning for their execution are emphasized.
Through the interest and urges of the pupil, a wide range of in-
dustrial experiences is provided.
THE BONSER ORGANIZATION
In this, the multiple-activity shop, the student is proivded a
wide scope of experiences through the use of materials of industry,
processes and tools in an industrial arts general shop.
THE ETTINGER ORGANIZATION
The individual student in this organization is directed through
a number of specialized unit shops or "unit areas" for exploratory
periods which vary in duration from three to twelve weeks.
THE GARY ORGANIZATION
Under this organization an experienced tradesman, through
productive work, guides the students in industrial experiences.
THE PITTSBURGH ORGANIZATION
Under this setup the student is engaged the first year in a
general shop, the second year in the special unit shops, and the
third year in one specialized shop for preparation for entrance into
some vocation.
MERITS OF THE GENERAL SHOP ORGANIZATION
1. Provides more information to pupil about industry and its
workers.
2. Gives opportunity for cooperative effort in groups thus
developing good work habits and attitudes.
3. Develops interest and ability in home repairs.
4. Well adapted to the organization of industrial arts content
in the light of general education, exploration, and guidance aims
of the school.
5. Greater opportunity to treat students as individuals with
respect to their differences in interests, capacities, and abilities.









.8 7'A1 A' JHb f IA'MMtMAl1# INDITsaMAWIms r; I

'- ;6. Eiinabil a student to' discover his abilities and 'aptitudes
through manipulations 'f materialss, tools, and processes.
7. Offers an economical way" to participate in many areas.
8. Makes itsuf' Ic ,plan his work'in advance.
''. : classess headed: by a more efficient teacher in organization,
ieadching material; hnd related information.
S10.' Discipline' e aier because of well planned work; pupil
never idle.
11. Satisfies the pupil's desire to' create many varied useful
projects. n / : I; a
12.' *Provides' a means to take better care of individual differ-
ences in a shorter'period of:time.: r : .
13. Enc6tizages wise use of leisure time through hobbies and
homecraft shops. %',;. a...,:,:.' :-: :. ; '
S:,14., ; Affords, contii:uous., motion ,upon, completion; of .project,
resulting in no loss of time.
15. Stimulates individual thought.
16. Permits beftpr use, of projeetmethod ,of teaching.
.17.. Tends to 'eliminate waste of time and duplication of
processes often typical of the, unit shop setup.
18. Enables pupils to, do a,great many things' in which training
is most yital to them in life without resect to their vocations.;

.STATUS. OF THEIR INDUSTRIAL .ARTS PROGRAM ,IN FLORIDA
About a decade ago a number of the larger cities and 'towns
of Florida, 1,~d 'iawal- trainingr:'i: shopss. uhese, being pYactically
all of the. unit. shop type...In. a few.of.the. larger cities there were
vocational schools whose primary purpose was to give trade., or
vocational training.. These, of course, are not properly considered
as a part of the industrial arts program.
Because industrial arts had not been firmly established' and,
in many instances, was not considered as a part of the general
education program, these "departments" were among the first to
be eliminated in the interest of economy when the depression came:
Naturally, during- this period not much was done in the field of
industrial arts in Florida.








FLORIDA YPROGRAMV AND INDUSTRIAL JARTS'EDUCATION i V9

:." Then c'cainei a sort of -educational revolution. -It became a
recognized, faet that, the; traditional studies,/ Which had been re-
tained; were entirely inadequate to meet the needs of youth in
this industrial, age: Enrichment of the school program became
necessary throughout all grades, and this proved to be a renaissance
for industrial 'arts: Industrial arts, through the medium of the
general shop, is ,beebming established in the educational program
of the state 'and is filling a very:great need in this program.
SAs more and more industrial arts work is introduced into the
schools of the :tate and as pupils transfer from one school'to
another,; it is becoiliffg evident that there is hno uniformity in the
wo:rk hbing offered.' ITn some schools a textbook is used; in others
no text is followed4 "Some, require the work for one or more years;
others make it entirely elective. Some have several unit shops,
others a diversified general, shop. In these latter, there are many
variations in the content of the courses offered. Naturally, under
such conditions, a great deal of confusion arises in the transfer
of credits from one school to another.
This condition is, gradually, being improved, and. it is hoped
that the industrial arts program of the state is headed toward
an era of growth and expansion.

SELECTING ACTIVITIES FOR A GENERAL SHOP PROGRAM
The teacher's personal interest will not serve as a satisfactory
basis for the selection of the areas in which activities are to be
given. A certain amount of research in this state has revealed
this to be the case in many instances. Neither is local application
ailone a sufficient criterion for the selection; especially is this true
with the .Ismiillr towns or communities.
In selecting the industrial arts areas for ,the school program,
a wiser plan is that of selecting the industrial arts activities from
a representative cross-section of the industrial occupations. The
selecti6fi shoi ld! be made to include broad groups of occltpations;
not all of the:-occupations with their various ramifications cl n be
included: There are large fields of closely related trade and in-
dustrial occupations in the various phases of metalworking and
woodworking. Auto mechanics, which has the element' of great
interest and value since it touches the lives of practically everyone,
is too highly specialized to be included as a separate area of work










SOURCE MATERIALS IN INDUSTRIAL ARTS


to be given as much emphasis as that of general mechanical draw-
ing or general metal working. The same could be said of electricity
in a great many instances. (See the explanation preceding the
courses of study for Internal Combustion Engines and General
Electricity.) In any event, in order to meet most satisfactorily the
philosophy and to comply with the purposes and objectives of in-
dustrial arts, especially in the junior and early senior high school
levels, it is obligatory to choose those areas of industry that will
most nearly provide opportunities for integration, correlation and
exploration in manipulative activities which are typical and which
will lend to the general education of the student. They should
also contribute the necessary motivation for job analysis study.
ENRICHMENT OF INSTRUCTION
In order to live up to the present day philosophy of general
education it will be necessary to break down all existing depart-
mental walls. We can no longer serve best by confining our activi-
ties and teaching within the department walls. In many cases it
is possible and very wise to integrate the several phases of the
industrial arts program as well as to furnish an integrative core
for other subjects in the secondary school program.
At the end of each instructional unit are listed suggestive
supplementary teaching aids to be used in the enrichment and
vitalization of the subject content. The majority of these may be
obtained free of cost. A list of visual aids has been included for
those who have the necessary facilities for their utilization. The
greater portion of these slides and films may be secured free of
charge other than that of transportation; the others listed may
be had for a very nominal rental charge. In addition, a very
comprehensive list of teaching aids and devices in this field may
be obtained from Dr. A. R. Mead, University of Florida, Gaines-
ville, Florida.
QUALIFICATION OF INDUSTRIAL ARTS TEACHERS
Many of the smaller and some of the large schools in this
state, through necessity, are forced to secure teachers capable of
instructing in several groups or combinations. Some of the more
commonly found combinations between industrial arts and other
subjects are mathematics, social studies, health and physical edu-
cation, physics and general science.










FLORIDA PROGRAM AND INDUSTRIAL ARTS EDUCATION 11


The following excerpt is taken from the Bulletin on Certifica-
tion of Teachers as issued by the State Department of Public In-
struction, Tallahassee, Florida.
a. (Certification is given in the individual subjects of this
field.) Thirty semester hours in industrial arts including credit
in methods of shop teaching, observation and practice teaching, and
twelve semester hours in the shop subject in which certification
is desired.
Note: 1. If one is eligible for certification in one shop sub-
ject, he may obtain certification in a second with nine semester
hours in that subject. The third, and additional subjects, may
be added with six semester hours in the special subject concerned.
Note 2. One may teach general shop, provided he is certified
in at least three industrial arts subjects.











SECTION TWO


COURSES OF STUDY AND INSTRUCTIONAL UNITS



GENERAL MECHANICAL DRAWING
EXPLANATION
The purpose of this course is to acquaint the student of indus-
trial arts with the universal language of industry, Mechanical
Drawing, the means by which various industrial procedures are
proposed and planned before the execution of the project. This
proposed course is exploratory in nature and in a general way tries
to cover as many as possible of the various phases of mechanical
drawing.
The types of drawing covered are mechanical, free-hand, sur-
face development, machine, architectural, and engineering.
The following source material is presented in a graduated
sequential order, starting with the simple elements of mechanical
drawing and advancing to the more difficult fields.
The course has been treated in two divisions. It is to be noted
that under each unit in both divisions is listed a typical problem
or drawing as required with one or more supplementary plates.
References are given for finding these plates in the designated
books. Along with this information, the learning activities to be
stressed are found together with related information concerning
supplementary teaching aids, devices, and instruments used.
Fundamentally, this course has been based on three books
listed as 1, 2, and 3 in the general bibliography which should con-
stitute a minimum library.
In offering this course, the needs of the State of Florida with
reference to mechanical drawing have been studied at length.
Therefore, the instructor should find this course typical and adapt-
able to any community of the state.
As has been noted, the course is divided into two parts extend-
ing over a general two-year course. The first division is recom-
mended to begin in the eighth or ninth grade and the second di-
vision in the ninth or tenth grade, assuming that drawing should










COURSES OF STUDY AND INSTRUCTIONAL UNITS 13

supplement the other shop activities throughout the two years.
Also, this material is suggested to serve as a basic outline for the
first two courses in mechanical drawing. It is offered for ser-
vice work, technical training, and the developing of a general
knowledge from which one may acquire more highly specialized
training.

DIVISION I. SCOPE OF INSTRUCTION


Unit I. Straight line drawing
1. Suggested Problems
a. Block-French and Svenson-Page 167
b. Cutting Board-Instructor to design one
chamfer and corner bevel
c. Pyramid-French and Svenson-Page 195


with


2. Learning Activities
a. Attaching paper
b. Sharpening
pencil
c. Scoring lines
3. Instruments Used
a. Triangles 45-90
and 300-60
b. Thumbtacks
c. Drawing board
d. T-square


d. Use of T-square
e. Use of triangles
f. Measuring
g. Layout Plate


e. Scale
f. Eraser pencil
g. Sand pad pointer
h. Pencil


4. Related Information
a. Place in industry
b. Manufacture and grades of paper
c. Manufacture and grades of pencils
5. References
a. French and Svenson-Mechanical Drawing for
High Schools
b. Berg and Kronquist-Mechanical Drawing Prob-
lems
c. Hoelscher and Mays-Basic Units in Mechanical
Drawing










14 SOURCE MATERIALS IN INDUSTRIAL ARTS


6. Supplementary Teaching Aids
a. Models
b. Use and Care of Drawing Instruments, Eugene
Dietzgen Co., 2425 Sheffield Avenue, Chicago,
Illinois
c. Display of Pencils in Steps of Manufacture-
Wallace Pencil Co., St. Louis, Missouri
d. How Paper Is Made: The Torchbearer of Educa-
tion-Kalamazoo Vegetable Parchment Co., Parch-
ment, Michigan
e. How Paper Is Made Whiting Paper Co.,
Fourteenth St. & Seventh Ave., New York City,
New York
f. (1) Manufacture of Paper
(2) Paper Exhibit-Hammermill Paper Co., Erie,
Pennsylvania

Unit II. Straight Line Drawing with Invisible Lines
1. Suggested Problems
a. Lap joint piece-Berg and Kronquist-Page 26
b. Notched block-Hoelscher and Mays, Book I,
Page 71
c. Grooved block-Berg and Kronquist, Page 30
2. Learning Activities
a. Scoring invisible lines
b. Orthographic procedure, with 450 triangle method
c. Planes of projection
d. Projection by compass
e. Dimensioning
f. Reading scale
3. Instruments Used
a. Same as Unit I
b. Compass
4. Related Information
a. Purpose of invisible lines
1). Purpose of dimension lines
c. Development of working drawing










COURSES OF STUDY AND INSTRUCTIONAL UNITS


5. References
a. French and Svenson-Mechanical Drawing for
High Schools
b. Berg and Kronquist-Mechanical Drawing Prob-
lems
c. Hoelscher and Mays-Basic Units in Mechanical
Drawing-Book I
6. Supplementary Teaching Aids
a. Screen
b. Models
c. Drafting Materials, Their Use and Care-Kenffel
and Esser Co., Hoboken, New Jersey
Unit III. Execution of Lettering Technique
1. Suggested Problems
a. Gothic upright and lower case-Instructor Design
Plate or French and Svenson-Page 164
b. Gothic upright and lower case
c. Gothic upright and lower case
2. Learning Activities
a. Technique and rules
b. Formation and proportion
c. Spacing
d. Guide lines
3. Instruments Used
a. Lettering triangle
4. Related Information
a. Value of neat lettering
b. Styles of alphabets
c. The History and Origin of the Alphabet
5. References
a. Bowman-Learning to Letter in Vertical Gothic
b. French and Svenson-Mechanical Drawing for
High Schools
c. Berg and Kronquist-Mechanical Drawing Prob-
lems
d. Hoelscher and Mays-Basic Units in Mechanical
Drawing










SOURCE MATERIALS IN INDUSTRIAL ARTS


e. Hunt-Mechanical Drawing
6. Supplementary Aids
a. Book of practice sheets
b. Charts
c. Transparent forms to make letters
d. Pencil Source Chart, American Lead Pencil Co.,
220 Fifth Avenue, New York City, New York.
Unit IV. Execution of Geometric Drawings
1. Suggested Problems
a. Combination plates (Bisecting lines, angles, tan-
gents and curves, etc.) Berg and Kronquist -
Page 22
2. Learning Activities
a. Bisecting-lines, angles, arcs
b. Drawing tangents
c. Construction of polygons
d. Intersection of curves
3. Instruments Used-Compass
4. Related Information
a. Kinds of polygons
b. Fillets
c. Roundings
d. Tangents
e. Study of Geometry
f. Geometry as an aid to Engineering
g. The use of geometric figures in Design and
Strength
5. References
a. Berg and Kronquist-Mechanical Drawing Prob-
lems
b. French and Svenson-Mechanical Drawing for
High Schools
c. Hunt-Mechanical Drawing
d. Crook-Simplified Mechanical Drawing
e. Broemel, L.,-Sheet Metal Worker's Manual
6. Supplementary Teaching Aids
a. Blackboard demonstration










COURSES OF STUDY AND INSTRUCTIONAL UNITS


b. Mathematics books
c. See Broemel's-Chapter XIV

Unit V. Execution of Scale Drawing'
1. Suggested Problems
a. Book rack-Berg and Kronquist, Page 66
b. Window flower box-Instructor's own design
e. Nail tray-Berg and Kronquist, Page 42
2. Learning Activities
a. Size relationships
b. Scale proportions or graduations
c. Using Dividers for spacing
3. Instruments used
a. Dividers
b. All instruments needed have been included in
previous units, so this part will be omitted in fol-
lowing units.
4. Related information
a. Practical drawings used by tradesmen
b. Reduction or enlargement in direct proportion
c. Kinds of scales
d. Proper care of scales
e. Reading different types of scales
5. References
a. French and Svenson-Mechanical Drawing for
High Schools
b. Berg and Kronquist-Mechanical Drawing Prob-
lems, Book I
c. Elwood-Problems in Architectural Drawing
6. Supplementary Teaching Aids
a. House plans
b. Machine drawings
c. Sheet metal layouts
(1) More simple types in parts A, B, & C.
Unit VI. Execution of Sectional Views
1. Suggested Problems
a. Cylindrical section-Berg and Kronquist, Page 50
b. Isolated section-Berg and Kronquist, Page 40










SOURCE MATERIALS IN INDUSTRIAL ARTS


c. Revolved section-Berg and Kronquist, Page 166
d. Broken sections
e. Half section views
f. Full section views
2. Learning Activities
a. Sectional conventions
b. Representations of materials
e. Transfer of section
d. Dross hatching
3. Related information
a. Material symbols
b. Materials and their use in industry
4. References
a. French and Svenson-Mechanical Drawing for
High Schools
b. Berg. and Kronquist-Mechanical Drawing Prob-
lems
c. Hoelscher and Mays-Basic Units in Mechanical
Drawing, Book I
d. Crook-Simplified Mechanical Drawing
5. Supplementary Teaching Aids
a. Models-(cut away type)
b. Charts
c. Blue prints
Unit VII. Auxiliary Views: Revolved, removed and other types of
sectional views.
1. Suggested Problems
a. Square prisms-Berg and Kronquist, Page 82
b. Truncated square prism-Berg and Kronquist,
Page 120
2. Learning activities
a. Axis used
b. Planes
c. Projection theory
d. True length lines
3. Related information
a. Working drawings










COURSES OF STUDY AND INSTRUCTIONAL UNITS 19


b. Visual aids
c. Sections
4. References
a. French and Svenson-Mechanical Drawing for
High Schools
b. Berg and Kronquist-Mechanical Drawing Prob-
lems
c. Crook-Simplified Mechanical Drawing
5. Supplementary teaching aids
a. Models
b. Detailed working drawings
c. Projection box

Unit VIII. Tracings and Blueprints
1. Suggested Problems
a. Working drawing on tracing paper
Instructor to select previous drawn plate to be
traced
b. Tracing a drawing
2. Learning activities
a. Use of softer pencil
b. Handling tracings
c. Placing paper on drawing
d. Tracing the drawing
e. Making the blueprint
f. Procedure in industry
g. Erasing
h. Ink
3. Related information
a. Cloth tracings f. Storage
b. Paper tracings g. "Black and
c. Blueprint process white" prints
(1) Sun method h. Blueprint papers
(2) Artificial (1) Kinds
method (2) Chemical
d. Chemical used reactions
e. Drying i. Rules for inking










20 SOURCE MATERIALS IN INDUSTRIAL ARTS


4. References
a. Hunt-Mechanical Drawing
b. Hoelscher and Mays-Basic Units in Mechanical
Drawing
c. Dalzell, McKinney, and Ritow-Blueprint Reading
d. Lewis and Dillon-Drafting
e. French-Engineering Drawing
5. Supplementary teaching aids
a. Visiting
(1) Drafting rooms
(2) Blueprint shops
(3) Chemicals, Paper, etc.
(4) Instructions for Making Blue Prints, The
C. F. Peace Co., 802 N. Franklin St., Chicago,
Ill.
(5) Pen Exhibit
Spencerian Pen Co.,
349 Broadway, New York City, New York
(6) Pen Exhibit
C. Howard Hunt Pen Co.,
Camden, New Jersey
(7) Raw Materials of Ink Exhibit
The Carter Ink Co., Boston, Mass.
(8) Ink Exhibit
Carter Ink Co.,
Cambridge C Station, Boston, Mass.

DIVISION II. SCOPE OF INSTRUCTION
Unit I. Freehand Sketches
1. Suggested Problems
a. Plate-Type suggested, Page 33, French and
Svenson
b. Simple blocks
2. Learning activities
a. Position for sketching
(1) Circles and arcs
(2) Vertical and horizontal lines










COURSES OF STUDY AND INSTRUCTIONAL UNITS 21


b. Correct proportions
c. Shapes
d. Styles
3. Related information
a. Shop method of pictorial sketching
b. Dimensioning
c. Preliminary engineering planning
d. Use of coordinate paper
e. Basis for practical drawings in all shop areas
f. Its possibilities and relation to the industrial world
4. References
a. French-Engineering Drawing
b. French and Svenson-Mechanical Drawing for
High Schools
c. Mathewson-Perspective Sketching
5. Supplementary teaching aids
a. Models c. Magazines
b. Sample drawings
Unit II. Pictorial Drawing
a. Oblique c. Cabinet
b. Isometric
1. Suggested Problems
a. Cube-French and Svenson, Page 102
b. Hollowblock-French and Svenson, Page 103
c. Tombstone block-French and Svenson, Page 103
2. Learning activities
a. Layout axes
b. Measurements-isometric and non-isometric lines
c. Angles
d. Circles
e. Cross and half sections
f. Freehand sketches
g. Approximate ellipse
3. Related information
a. Use of pictorial drawing relative to working
drawings
b. Use of pictorial drawing to assist in shop work










22 SOURCE MATERIALS IN INDUSTRIAL ARTS


c. Use in engineering and architectural drawing
d. Advantages and disadvantages of the cabinet iso-
metric and oblique projections
4. References
a. French and Svenson-Mechanical Drawing for
High Schools
b. French-Engineering Drawing
c. Mathewson-Perspective Drawing
d. Wyatt-Blueprint Reading
5. Supplementary teaching aids
a. Models
b. Charts and graphs
c. Trade magazines
Unit III. Pictorial Drawing-Perspective
a. Angular
b. Parallel
1. Suggested Problems
a. Small chest-French and Svenson, Page 109
b. Table-French and Svenson, Page 108
c. Footstool-Berg and Kronquist, Page 68
2. Learning Activities
a. Vanishing points
(1) Angular
(2) Parallel
b. Axes
c. Locating points
d. Locating ground lines
3. Related information
a. Architectural field
b. Shop practice
c. Fine arts drawing
4. References
a. Everett and Lawrence-Freehand and Perspec-
tive Drawing
b. French and Svenson-Mechanical Drawing for
High Schools










COURSES OF STUDY AND INSTRUCTIONAL UNITS


c. French-Engineering Drawing
d. Frederick, F. F.,-Simplified Mechanical Per-
spective
Unit IV. General Elementary Working Drawings
1. Suggested Problems
a. Nail box-Berg and Kronquist, Page 42
b. Bench hook-French and Svenson, Page 176
c. Tool post slide-Berg and Kronquist, Page 96
d. Piece of furniture
2. Learning activities
a. Dimensions
b. Detail drawing
c. Assembly drawing
d. Machine drawing
e. Machine assembly
f. Conventional representation
g. Furniture design
h. Transfer of irregular lines
3. Related information
a. Occupational information
(1) Architecture
(2) Industry
(3) Engineering
(4) Structural steel
b. Means of fastening
c. Material used in various types of construction
d. Styles of furniture
4. References
a. Berg and Kronquist-Mechanical Drawing Prob-
lems
b. Felton-Machine Drawing
e. French and Svenson-Mechanical Drawing for
High Schools
d. Varnum-Industrial Arts Design
5. Supplementary teaching aids
a. Visits to factories
b. Models
c. Projection screen










24 SOURCE MATERIALS IN INDUSTRIAL ARTS


Unit V. Assembly and Detail
1. Suggested Problems
a. Mortise and tenon jpint-Berg and Kronquist,
Page 46
b. Book rack-French and Svenson, Page 177
c. Tool tray-French and Svenson, Page 177
2. Learning activities
a. Complete object, all parts in place
b. Complete object, all parts in detail
c. Selecting views
d. Designating parts
e. Recording dimensions
f. Specifying finish
3. Related information
a. Cabinet millwork
b. Bill of materials
c. Fasteners
d. Scale drawings
e. Blueprint reading
4. Reference
a. Berg and Kronquist-Mechanical Drawing for
High Schools
b. Paull and Sgro-Applied Mechanical Drawing
c. French-Engineering Drawing
5. Supplementary teaching aids
a. Model drawings
b. Models
Unit VI. Surface Developments
1. Suggested Problems
a. Prism, truncated square-Berg and Kronquist,
Page 120
b. Cone-Simple type not truncated
c. Cylinder-truncated-Berg and Kronquist, Page
138
2. Learning activities
a. Layout
b. Half pattern or full pattern









COURSES OF STUDY AND INSTRUCTIONAL UNITS


c. Assembly
d. Projection and points of intersection
(1) Parallel
(2) Radial
e. True length lines
f. Unfolding and unrolling process of development
g. Objects revolved on axis
h. Truncation
i. Auxiliary views
3. Related information
a. Sheet metal trades
b. Manufacture of sheet metals
c. Thickness gauging
d. Air conditioning
e. The place of surface development in different types
4. References
a. Paull-I-ndustrial Sheet Metal Drawing
b. Berg and Kronquist-Mechanical Drawing Prob-
lems
c. French and Svenson-Mechanical Drawing for
High Schools
5. Supplementary teaching aids
a. Master patterns or models
b. Visit to sheet metal shops
c. Trade magazines

Unit VII. Plumbing, Electrical, and Heating Symbols
1. Suggested Problems
a. Composite plate-Introduction to Architectural
Drawing Field-Pages 28-29.
(1) Giving most common symbols used in drawing
(2) Symbols not so frequently used
2. Learning activities
a. Symbols
(1) Heating
(2) Electrical
(3) Plumbing



a.". a a'.... .... .. ..









26 SOURCE MATERIALS IN INDUSTRIAL ARTS


b. Uses and meaning
c. Value in construction
d. Making application of the conventional represen-
tations of various kinds of materials and symbols
3. Related information
a. Materials
(1) Source
(2) Manufacture
(.3) Uses
b. Specifications
4. References
a. Blueprint Reading for the Building Trades-
Dalzell, McKinney, and Ritow
b. Field-Introduction to Architectural Drawing
5. Supplementary teaching aids
a. Charts of symbols
b. Blueprints showing uses of symbols
c. Trade magazines

Unit VIII. Screw Thread Conventions
1. Suggested Problems
a. U. S. standard, showing helix and conventions-
Berg and Kronquist, Page 178,
and Basic Unit in Drawing, Book I.
b. Detail types of threads-Mechanical Drawing,
Crook, Page 112
c. Simple bolt assembly-Berg and Kronquist, Page
180


2. Learning activities
a. Types
(1) Names
(2) Uses to
industry
(3) Strength of
various
threads


b. Helix
c. Transmission i
power ..

* w
*.**'"*


d. Pitch
(1) Single
(2) Double
(3) Triple
e. Root
f. Symbols
g. Tables of threads,
rules governing
them
h. Crest


.. r ...
-
.


';


of










COURSES OF STUDY AND INSTRUCTIONAL UNITS


3. Related information
a. Steel
b. Brass
c. Bolts
(1) Kinds


d. Lag screws and
other kinds of
metal fasteners


4. References
a. Berg and Kronquist-Mechanical Drawing Prob-
lems
b. Felton-Problems in Machine Drawing
c. French and Svenson-Mechanical Drawing for
High Schools
5. Supplementary teaching aids
a. Data from manufacturers
b. Handbooks for trades
c. Models and charts

Unit IX. Gears
1. Suggested Problems
a. Gear blank-Berg and Kronquist, Page 106
b. Spur gear-Felton-Pages 93-95-97-99


2. Learning activities
a. Keyways
b. Tables for gears
c. Pitch circle
(diameter) ?
d. Pinion
e. Gear
f. Working depth
g. Addendum
h. Dedendum
i. Whole depth
3. Related information
a. Use in industry
b. Steel
e. Fibre
d. Lubrication
e. Manufacture
(1) Stamped


j. Face
k. Flank
1. Power
transmission
m. Speed ratios
n. Calculating di-
mensions for
worm, spur, and
bevel gears



(2) Cut and cast
(3) Gear
terminology
(4) Kinds and
advantages
of gears










28 SOURCE MATERIALS IN INDUSTRIAL ARTS


4. References
a. Felton-Problems in Machine Drawing
b. Berg and Kronquist-Mechanical Drawing Prob-
lems
c. Griffin and Fortman-Machine Drawing


5. Supplementary teaching aids
a. Handbooks
b. Models


c. Charts and Blue-
prints


Unit X. Floor Plan
1. Suggested Problems
a. Simple floor plan without conventions.
Student form own plan with aid of instructor
b. Floor plan in detail, showing symbols


2. Learning activities
a. General layout,
or sketch
b. Dimensions
c. Symbols and
terms for ma-
terials
d. Placing
(1) Doors
(2) Windows
(3) Closets
(4) Steps
3. Related information
a. Concrete -
forms and mix-
tures
b. Lumber
c. Electric supplies
d. Styles or types
of homes
e. Roofing materials
f. Brick
4. References
a. Field-Introduction


(5) Fireplaces
(6) Rooms
(7) Stairways
e. Scope of archi-
tecture
(1) History of
architecture
f. Types of houses
g. Pictorial plan
h. Architectural let-
tering

g. Pipe
h. Building codes
i. Thickness of
walls
j. Types of walls
and framing
k. Strength of ma-
terials


to Architectural Drawing









COURSES OF STUDY AND INSTRUCTIONAL UNITS 29


b. Dalzell, McKinney, and Ritow Architectural
Drawing and Detail
c. French and Svenson-Mechanical Drawing for
High Schools


5. Supplementary teaching aids
a. Model house
(1) Take-apart
type
b. Blueprints
c. Visits to con-
struction jobs
d. American Build-
er Magazine, etc.


e. Wall Board Ex-
hibit, The Upson
Company, Lock-
port, New York
f. Kitchen Planning
General Electric
Company, Appli-
a n c e Division,
Cleveland, Ohio


Unit XI. Elevations
1. Suggested Problems
a. Make elevations for floor plan used.
Architectural Drawing and Detailing-
Dalzell, McKinney, and Ritow, Page 37
Leave off cellar


2. Learning activities
a. Elevations
(1) Front
(2) Sides
(3) Rear
b. Foundation
(1) Footing and
walls
(2) Piers or pil-
lars
(3) Mains
(a) Gas
(b) Water
(c) Sewage


c. Convention sym-
bols
(1) Brick
(2) Concrete
(3) Wood
(framing)
(4) Stucco
(5) Shingles
(6) Stone or
rock
d. Roofs
(1) Types
e. Detail
(1) Necessary to
complete
elevation










30 SOURCE MATERIALS IN INDUSTRIAL ARTS


3. Related Information
a. Materials
(1) Kinds
b. Floor level
c. Ceiling height
d. Architectural styles or periods
e. Specifications
f. Legal procedures in building-building codes,
permits, inspection, rights, etc.
g. Orientation of houses
h. Development of aesthetic appreciations-the home
and its appointments
4. References
a. Dalzell, McKinney, and Ritow Architectural
Drawing and Detail
b. French and Svenson-Mechanical Drawing for
High Schools
c. Field, W. B. Introduction to Architectural
Drawing
5. Supplementary teaching aids
a. Models made of cardboard
b. Visits to architects offices
c. Plans
d. Visits to homes
e. Visits to buildings under construction
f. Architectural magazines and periodicals
g. American Builder Magazine
h. Zinc Shingle Exhibit, Illinois Zinc Company,
332 South Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Illinois
i. Roofing Tiles Exhibit, Ludowici-Celodon
Company, 104 South Michigan Avenue,
Chicago, Illinois
Unit XII. Architectural Details
1. Suggested Problems
a. Double hung window section
Problem in Architectural Drawing,
F. G. Elwood, Page 23
b. Vertical section through wall










COURSES OF STUDY AND INSTRUCTIONAL UNITS


Architectural Drawing and Designing,
Dalzell and McKinney, Page 13


2. Learning activities
a. Sections
(1) Sill
(2) Mullion
(3) Meeting Rail
(4) Jamb
(5) Head
3. Related information
a. Sizes
b. Lights
c. Casements


b. Pitch
c. Parts (name)
(1) Sash
(2) Frame
d. Sash weight
e. Pulleys


d. Basements
e. Relation of lights
and sash open-
ings


4. References
a. Problems in Architectural Drawing, F. G. Elwood
b. Introduction to Architectural Drawing, Field
c. Architectural Drawing and Detailing, Dalzell and
McKinney
5. Supplementary teaching aids
a. Blueprints
b. Working drawings
c. Working models or sections
d. Visit to planing mill to see construction
e. Curtiss Windows (Bulletin), Clinton, Towa

Unite XIII. Architectural Perspective
1. Suggested Problems
a. Automobile garage
Berg and Kronquist, Page 182
Note: If time does not permit, a more simple prob-
lem may be substituted


2. Learning activities
a. Vanishing point
b. Station point
c. Line of sight
d. Horizon line


e. Ground plane
f. Center of vision
g. Measuring point










SOURCE MATERIALS IN INDUSTRIAL ARTS


3. Related information
a. Perspective drawing
(1) Classes
(2) Concepts of the perspective drawing
(3) Circles in perspective
b. Illustrating what is to be made
4. References
Berg and Kronquist
French, Engineering Drawing
Perspective Sketching from Working Drawings by
Mathewson
5. Supplementary teaching aids
a. Models-
Simple to difficult
b. Charts
c. Examples-
As sighting a railroad track
Unit XIV. Topographical Drawing


1. Suggested Problems
a. Make map of school
grounds
2. Learning activities
a. Contour
b. Plotting
c. Natural features
d. Artificial
features
e. Mains
(1) Gas
(2) Water
(3) Sewage
f. Drainage
(1) Natural
(2) Artificial
g. Take class
around school


grounds or other public



for explanation
and return and
draw
h. Topographical
symbols
(1) Vegetation
(2) Culture
(3) Aviation
(4) Relief
(5) Water
i. Engineers scale,
double rule, level
rod, compass,
chain or tape










COURSES OF STUDY AND INSTRUCTIONAL UNITS


3. Related information
a. Use to: d. Profiles
(1) Architecture e. Lettering
(2) Construction f. Titles
(3) Landowners g. Engineering,
(4) Landscaping geographic,
b. Landscaping hydrographic,
c. Colored ink in and topographic
design maps
4. References
a. French-Engineering Drawing
b. Dalzell, McKinney, and Ritow Architectural
Drawing and Detail
5. Supplementary teaching aids
a. Read material
). Plots-plans

GENERAL BIBLIOGRAPHY
* 1. French, T. E., and Svenson, C. I., Mechanical Drawing for High
Schools, New York, McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1934.
* 2. Berg, Ed., and Kronquist, E. F., Mechanical Drawing Problems,
Peoria, Illinois, Manual Arts Press, 1927.
* 3. Hoelscher, R. P., and Mays, A. B., Basic Units in Mechanical
Drawing, I, New York, Wiley and Sons, 1934.
4. Hoelscher, R. P., and Mays, A. B., Basic Units in Mechanical Draw-
ing, II, New York, Wiley and Sons, 1934.
5. Felton, R. B., Problems in Machine Drawing, New York, McGraw-
Hill Book Co., 1933.
6. Williams, E. L., and Spencer, H. C., Technical Drawing, Books I and
II, College Station, Texas, Technical Book Company, 1935.
7. French, T. E., Engineering Drawing, New York, McGraw-Hill Book
Co., 1935.
8. Paull, J. H., Industrial Sheet Metal Drawing, New York, Van Nos-
trand Company, Inc., 1938.
9. Crook, Thurman C., Simplified Mechanical Drawing, New York,
McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1935.
10. Rotmans, E. A., Instruction Sheets in Mechanical Drawing, Atlanta,
Georgia, Allyn and Bacon, 1930.
11. Paull, J. H., and Sgro, C. L., Applied Mechanical Drawing, New York,
Van Nostrand Company, 1936.










34 SOURCE MATERIALS IN INDUSTRIAL ARTS


12. Griffin, C. L., and Fortman, R. H., Machine Drawing, Chicago, Illi-
nois, American Technical Society, 1933.
13. Hunt, DeWitt, Mechanical Drawing, Oklahoma City, Okla., Harlow
Publishing Company, 1930.
14. Mathewson, F. E., Perspective Sketching From Working Drawings,
Milwaukee, Wis., Bruce Publishing Company, 1929.
15. Everett, H. E., and Lawrence, W. H., Freehand and Perspective
Drawing, Chicago, Illinois, American Technical Society, 1938.
16. Lewis, M. S., and Dillon, J. H., Drafting, New York, McGraw-Hill
Book Co., 1932.
17. Dalzell, J. R., and McKinney, James, Architectural Drawing and De-
tailing, Chicago, Illinois, American Technical Society, 1938.
*18. Elwood, F. G., Problems in Architectural Drawing, Books I and II,
Peoria, Illinois, Manual Arts Press, 1935.
19. Field, W. B., Introduction to Architectural Drawing, New York,
McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1932.
20. Givens, H. C., Reading House Plans, New York, Wiley and Sons, 1928.
21. Dalzell, J. R., McKinney, J., and Ritow, H., Blueprint Reading, Chi-
cago, Illinois, American Technical Society, 1938.
22. Castle, D. W., Problems in Blueprint Reading, Peoria, Illinois, Manual
Arts Press, 1926.
23. Hebberger, B. F., and Nicholas, C., Blueprint Reading for the Build-
ing and Machine Trades, New York, McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1937.
24. Lewis, M. S., and Dillon, J. H., Instruction Sheets for General Shop
Drafting, New York, McGraw-Hill Book Co.
25. French, T. E., and Turnbull, Lessons in Lettering, New York, Mc-
Graw-Hill Book Co.
26. McGee and Sturtevant, General Mechanical Drawing, Milwaukee,
Wis., Bruce Publishing Co.
27. Tredrick, F. F., Simplified Mechanical Perspective, Peoria, Illinois,
Manual Arts Press.
28. Varnum, Wi. E., Industrial Arts Design, Peoria, Illinois, Manual
Arts Press.

*These books are considered very essential and should constitute the minimum
working library.









COURSES OF STUDY AND INSTRUCTIONAL UNITS 35


GENERAL WOODWORKING
EXPLANATION
Under the heading of general woodworking are included
many processes whereby wood is transformed from raw material
into a finished product. It is not the purpose of these courses to
develop highly specialized skills, but to give the student experience
in the handling of all common kinds of hand tools, and to bring
him into contact with many of the processes of industry. Related
information is given in order that his range of knowledge may be
as wide as possible concerning the activities of his fellow man in
the various woodworking fields. This should develop in him an
appreciation of the work of others and will also help him to use
more wisely the things which he buys or acquires in later years.
The courses as outlined are designed to cover two years of
work in the general shop. Sufficient latitude is allowed for adapt-
ing the program to almost any school situation. The choice of
projects is such that the program may be introduced in the sev-
enth grade or any higher level desired.
It will be noted that in the second division of the work ma-
chines are introduced. This should not be construed to mean that
machines must or must not be used before that time. Various
things may affect the time of introduction of machines into the
program. The instructor will have to determine this point for
himself, according to the local situation.

DIVISION I. SCOPE OF INSTRUCTION
Unit I. Measuring, sawing and assembling to approximate
dimensions.
1. Suggested Problems References:
a. Trellis Shepardson,
b. Bench or stool pp. 32-35
c. Flower stand Roberts, p. 135
d. Match box Roberts, p. 151
holder Lukowitz, p. 19
2. Learning Activities:
a. Reading a Working Drawing.
References: Fryklund & LaBerge, pp. 81-84










36 SOURCE iIATERIALS IN INDUSTRIAL ARTS


Brown & Tustison, pp. 4-9
Douglass & Roberts, pp. 17-18
b. Planning the Procedure.
References: Fryklund & LaBerge, pp. .80-81
Brown & Tustison, pp. 1-3
Douglass & Roberts, p. 24
c. Measuring with rule, square or tape.
References: Brown & Tustison, pp. 17-22
Hjorth (Principles) pp. 2-3
Griffith, pp. 9-13
Douglass & Roberts, pp. 25-28
d. Sawing with Cross-cut and Rip Saws.
References: Hunt, pp. 1-8
Griffith, pp. 22-26
Brown & Tustison, pp. 33-38
Douglass & Roberts, pp. 29-32
e. Assembling with Nails
Instructor will advise method most suitable.
f. Finishing-Left to discretion of Instructor.
References: McGee & Brown, Instr. Units in
Wood Finishing.
3. Tools Used:
a. Rule or tape
b. Try-square
c. Saws-cross-cut, rip and back
d. Claw hammer
e. Paint brush
f. Sandpaper
4. Related Information:
a. Kinds and sizes of nails.
References: Gen. Shop W. W. by Fryklund and
LaBerge, pp. 88-90
Prevocational & Ind. Arts by Wood &
Smith, pp. 42-44
Instr. Units in Hand W. W. by Brown
& Tustison, pp. 148-155
Basic Processes in W. W. by Hjorth,
pp. 183-188










COURSES OF STUDY AND INSTRUCTIONAL UNITS 37


b. Kinds of Brushes and Care:
References: Prevocational & Ind. Arts, by Wood
& Smith, pp. 54-55
Instr. & Infor. Units in Hand W. W.
by Douglass & Roberts, pp. 111-112
Basic Processes in W. W. by Hjorth,
pp. 223-225
c. Kinds of Saws and their Uses:
References: Disston Saw Manual,
Henry Disston & Sons,
Philadelphia, Pa.
Saw Sense-E. C. Atkins & Co.,
Indianapolis, Ind.
Textbooks for Instructors
E. C. Atkins & Co., Indianapolis, Ind.
d. Rules and Squares and their Uses.
References: Instk. Units in Hand W. W. by
Brown & Tustison, pp. 17-22
Instr. and Inf. Units in Hand W. W.
by Douglass & Roberts, pp. 25-28
Gen'l. Shop Woodwork by Fryklund &
LaBerge, pp. 9-10
Basic Processes in Woodwork by
Hjorth, pp. 23-36
5. Supplementary Teaching Aids.
a. "Different Types of Nails and the Penny System."
The American Steel and Wire Company
2085 LaSalle St., Chicago, Ill.
b. "Saw Sense"
The E. C. Atkins & Co.
402 S. Illinois St., Indianapolis, Ind.
c. "The Stanley Chart"
The Stanley Rule and Level Co.,
New Britain, Conn.
d. "The Professor of the Saw"
Simmons Saw and Steel Co., Fichburg, Mass.
e. Disston Saw, Tool and File Manual-Wall charts
on hand saws, files and hack saw blades










38 SOURCE MATERIALS IN INDUSTRIAL ARTS


Henry Disston and Son, Inc., Philadelphia, Penn.
f. "Specifications for Painting and Varnishing"
Pratt & Lambert Corp., Chicago, Illinois.
g. "101 Questions about Painting and Decorating"
Lowe Bros. Paint and Varnish Co., Dayton, Ohio.
h. "A Paint Catechism"
American Paint and Varnish Association,
Philadelphia, Penn.
i. "The Captain of Industry"
David Maydale Hammer Co., Norwich, New York.

Unit II. Edge and End Grain Planing to Approximate Dimensions.
1. Suggested Problems:
a. Book end or rack References:
b. Towel rack or Roberts, p. 132
broom holder Roberts, pp. 72-7.3
c. Simple tool box Roberts, pp. 83-87
or silverware
tray.
2. Learning Activities:
a. How to use the plane. How to adjust the plane.
How to sharpen the plane.
References: Stanley charts-The Stanley Rule &
Level Co., New Britain, Conn.
Brown & Tustison, pp. 52-65
Hunt, pp. 13-17
Griffith, pp. 31-50
Hjorth (Prin.) pp. 12-15
Douglass & Roberts, pp. 33-38 (Instr.)
b. How to do Edge and End Grain Planing.
References: Stanley Charts
Hjorth (Principles), pp. 70-71
Hjorth (Basic) pp. 59-62
Douglass & Roberts, pp. 35-36
c. How to Use the Marking Gauge
References: Douglass & Roberts, p. 62 (Instr.)
Hjorth (Basic), pp. 90-91
Brown & Tustison, pp. 112-113









COURSES OF STUDY AND INSTRUCTIONAL UNITS 39


3. Tools Used: Note: Only tools not
a. Jack plane listed previously
b. Block plane will be given
c. Smooth plane for each unit.
d. Marking gauge
4. Related Information:
a. Types of planes
References: The Stanley Chart
Hjorth (Principles) pp. 11-15
b. Kinds and use of grinders.
Refeernces: Griffith & Cox, pp. 134-136
Hjorth (Principles), pp. 56-57
Griffith, pp. 67-68
c. Kinds and use of oilstones:
References: Griffith, pp. 69-70
Fryklund & LaBerge, p. 94
d. Cleaning the oilstone:
References: Brown & Tustison, p. 62
e. Forests and conservation:
References: Tustison-"Forests, Trees & Woods,"
pp. 1-24
Douglass & Roberts, pp. 10-12
Fryklund & LaBerge, pp. 101-103
U. S. Dept. of Agriculture,
Bulletins Nos. 20, 1241, 19, 863 and 475.
5. Supplementary teaching aids:
a. Stanley Rule and Level Co.
b. How to Sharpen Woodworking Tools-20 (with
small pocket stone)
Carborundum Co., Niagara Falls, N. Y.
c. How to Sharpen-Behr Manning Co., Troy, New
York
d. Abrasive Papers & Cloth-Behr Manning Co.,
Troy, New York.
Unit III, Squaring Narrow Stock 4 Inches or Less to Dimensions.
1. Suggested problems:
a. Waste Paper References:
basket Douglass & Roberts









SOURCE MATERIALS IN INDUSTRIAL ARTS


b. Magazine rack p. 40
c. Kitchen (cup and Douglass & Roberts
saucer) rack p. 34
Lukowitz, p. 23
Roberts, p. 68
2. Learning Activities:
a. Calculate Board Measure
References: Fryklund & LaBerge, pp. 84-85.
Brown & Tustison, pp. 13-16
Douglass & Roberts, p. 23
Hunt, p. 62
Hjorth (Basic Processes) pp. 22-23
b. How to test for squareness
References: Douglass & Roberts (Inst. & Inf.) p. 28
Willoughby & Chamberlain, p. 26
c. How to Square Duplicate Pieces
References: Hjorth (Basic) pp. 21-35
Hjorth (Prin.) pp. 1-7
Brown & Tustison, pp. 23-32
d. How to Sand With Block
References: Reid, pp. 71-75
Hunt, Hand W. W., pp. 46-49
Brown & Tustison, pp. 91-96
Douglass & Roberts, pp. 91-92
e. How to make a bill of material
Fryklund & LaBerge, pp. 85-86
Brown & Tustison, pp. 10-12
Douglass & Roberts, p. 23
Hunt, pp. 60-62
Hjorth (Basic Processes) pp. 21-22
3. Tools Used:
a. Tri-square b. Sandpaper
4. Related Information:
a. Kinds and Use of Abrasives
Behr Manning Co., Troy, N. Y.
b. Source Manufacture and use of Shellac
The Story of Shellac
Wm. Zinsser & Co., 516 W. 59th Street, New York









COURSES OF STUDY AND INSTRUCTIONAL UNITS 41


5. Supplementary Teaching Aids.
a. The Stanley Charts (See unit one)
b. Selection and care of Brushes
Grand Rapids, Michigan
c. Preliminary Treatment of Woods (Same as above)
d. The finishing touch-Martin Varnish Corp.,
Chicago, Illinois
e. The Forestry Primer-The American Tree Assn.,
1214 W. 16th Street, Washington, D. C.
f. How Lumber is Graded.
Guide Book for Identification of Wood,
Dept. of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.


Unit IV. Squaring Wide Stock to Dimensions.
1. Suggested Problems:
a. Taboret or Fern
Stand Roberts, pp. 150-
b. Foot Stool Roberts, p. 79
c. Shoe Shine
Cabinet Roberts, p. 88
d. Game Board Roberts, p. 63
e. Magazine or
Book Stahd Roberts, p. 141
f. Cribbage Board DeVette, p. 43
2. Learning Activities:
a. Using the steel square
References: Douglass & Roberts (Instr. &
p. 28
Brown & Tustison, pp. 23-28
Griffith, p. 13
Hjorth (Principles), p. 3
Hjorth (Basic Prog.) pp. 55-58
b. Planning stock with warp and wind.
Griffith, pp. 42-43
Fryklund & LaBerge, pp. 13-14
Brown & Tustison, pp. 66-70
Hjorth (Basic Pro.) pp. 56-57


152


Inf.)









SOURCE MATERIALS IN INDUSTRIAL ARTS


e. Testing wide surfaces for accuracy on surface
See references given in section b.
d. Testing wide stock for parallel width
See references given in section b.
e. Securing wide stock in vise.
Hjorth (Basic Prog.) pp. 58-59
f. How to Drive and Set Screws.
Fryklund and LaBerge, pp. 33-35
Hjorth (Basic Prog.) pp. 188-191
Griffith, pp. 90-93
Brown & Tustison, pp. 156-161
Wood & Smith, pp. 44-47
Douglass & Roberts, pp. 51-54
Inst. & Inf.
g. How to use the scraper.
References: Hjorth (Basic), pp. 13-15
Brown & Tustison, pp. 84-90
Reid, pp. 127-133
Douglass & Roberts, pp. 87-88
Hunt, pp. 120-123
3. Tools Used
a: Steel square c. Wind sticks
b. Planes d. Scraper
4. Related Information
a. Kinds and use of wind sticks-Griffith, pp. 42-44
b. The square in history
c. The structure, cells, and cause of growth
Griffith, pp. 162-173
Brown & Tustison, pp. 24-29
Douglass and Roberts, pp. 13-16
Hjorth (Principles), pp. 223-229
Hunt, pp. 146-148
Townsend, pp. 3-30
5. Supplementary Teaching Aids:
a. Standard Steel Squares-Sargent & Co., P. O. Box
1940, New Haven, Conn.
b. The Steel Square-Stanley Rule and Level Co.,
New Britain, Conn.










COURSES OF STUDY AND INSTRUCTIONAL UNITS 43


e. The Shrinkage and Swelling of Wood-
Relation of Moisture Content and Drying Rate-
Forests Products Lab., Madison, Wis.
d. The Book of Lawn Furniture-Long Bell Lumber
Co., Kansas City, Mo.


Unit V. Irregular Line Work
1. Suggested Problems:
a. "Jiggs" broom
holder
b. Lawn ornaments
c. Door stops


d. Shoe rack


References:
DeVette, pp. 16-17
Lukowitz, p. 9
Douglass & Roberts,
(Modern Projects),
pp. 19-20
Douglass & Roberts,
(Modern Projects)
p. 20


2. Learning Activities:
a. Designing, laying out and cutting of templates and
patterns by ascending and descending scale.
References: Douglass & Roberts (Instruction &
Information Units in Hand W. W.)
p. 43
Hjorth (Basic), p. 33
Roberts, pp. 45-51
b. How to saw to a curved line with coping and
turning saw
References: Douglass & Roberts, p. 44 (Instr.)
Fryklund & LaBerge, pp. 39-45
Griffith (Essentials), pp. 27-30
Hjorth (Basic), pp. 44-47
Hunt, pp. 95-96
e. How to use the spoke-shave, draw-knife, wood file
and sandpaper on curved surfaces.
References: Hunt, pp. 97-98, 52-53 and 46
Brown & Tustison, pp. 9-96
Douglass & Roberts, pp. 45-46 (Instr.)
Fryklund & LaBerge, pp. 43-44, 46-47









SOURCE MATERIALS IN INDUSTRIAL ARTS


3. Tools Used
a. Coping saw .d. Draw-knife
b. Turning saw e. Woodfile or rasp
c. Spoke-shave f. Compass saw
4. Related Information
a. Kinds of wood files and rasps. Care of wood files.
References: Reid, pp. 125-126.
Douglass & Roberts, p. 88
Hjorth (principles) p. 22
Brown & Tustison, pp. 114-115
Griffith & Cox, pp. 55-60
Hunt, pp. 120-123
b. The template and its use.
References: Griffith & Cox, p. 306
Roberts, pp. 22-52
c. Curves. Design and correct proportion
Reference: Roberts, pp. 22-52
5. Supplementary Teaching Aids.
a. Coping saw carpentry (10c) Woolworth & Chain
Stores
b. Saws, knives and files-Simmons Saw and Steel
Co., Fitchburg, Mass.
c. File Facts-Simmons Saw and Steel Co., Fitch-
burg, Mass.
d. The Story of Wood-Nat'l. Lumber Manufacturers'
Ass'n.
The Wood Handbook and the Timber Engineering
Co., 1337 Connecticut Avenue, Washington, D. C.
e. The File in History, Henry Disston & Sons, Phila-
delphia, Pennsylvania.
f. The Unadilla Yard and Garden Furniture, Una-
dilla Silo Co., Unadilla, New York.
g. The Plan Book for Boy Builders-Western Pine
Ass'n., Portland, Oregon.
Unit VI. Cross Lap and Butt Joint
1. Suggested Problems: References:
a. Taboret Roberts p. 154










COURSES OF STUDY AND INSTRUCTIONAL UNITS 45


b. Hall tree Roberts p. 151
c. Table lamp Roberts p. 157
2. Learning Activities
a. Laying out a cross-lap joint
b. Using the back saw for making a cross-lap joint
Griffith, pp. 102-104
Fryklund & LaBerge, pp. 51-69
Douglass & Roberts, Ins. & Inf.,
pp. 59-69
Stanley Chart, p. 109
Brown & Tustison, pp. 177-181
Hjorth (Basic Processes) pp. 126-128
c. How to chisel with the grain
d. How to chisel across the grain
Hjorth (Basic Processes), pp. 87-88
Douglass & Roberts Inst. & Inf. p. 60
Griffith, pp. 61-67
Hjorth (Prin.), pp. 16-18
Fryklund & LaBerge, pp. 36-37
P. How to apply glue
Brown & Tustison, pp. 136-141
Hjorth (Basic Processes), pp. 169-172
Fryklund & LaBerge, p. 63
Griffith, p. 95
f. How to clamp stock
Brown & Tustison, pp. 127-134
Hjorth (Basic Processes), pp. 159-172
Fryklund & LaBerge, pp. 60-62
Douglass & Roberts, pp. 77-81
3. Tools Used
Back Saw Mallets
Chisels Clamps
4. Related Information
Safety precautions in using edge tools
Types of clamps and their use.
Kinds of glues-advantages and disadvantages
Kinds of chisels and their uses.










46 SOURCE MATERIALS IN INDUSTRIAL ARTS


5. Supplementary Teaching Aids:
a. Industrial Safety Education in Schools
First Aid-Metropolitan Life Ins. Co.
b. Glue Facts
Russia Cement Co., Gloucester, Mass.
Unit VII. The Mitre Joint
1. Suggested Problems
a. Serving tray Roberts, pp. 78-81
b. Picture frame DeVette, p. 69
c. Card file Roberts, p. 66
d. Glove box Roberts, p. 67
e. Window screen Wood & Smith,
frame p. 138
2. Learning Activities.
How to make a mitre joint
a. Adjusting the sliding T-bevel to 45 degree angle
Hjorth Principles of W. W., p. 3
Brown & Tustison, p. 27
Fryklund & LaBerge, pp. 25-26
Hjorth (Basic Processes), p. 35
Douglass & Roberts Inst. & Inf. p. 42
b. Laying out a 45 degree angle with steel framing
square
DeWitt Hunt Manual for Hand W. W.
p. 27
Hjorth Basic Processes, p. 34
c. Using the Mitre Square
DeWitt Hunt Manual for Hand W. W.
p. 37
See Catalogue
d. Using the Mitre Box
Hunt Manual for Hand W. W., p. 27
Hjorth Prin. of Woodwork, p. 11
Brown and Tustison, p. 168
Wood & Smith, p. 7
Hjorth (Basic Processes), p. 141
e. Choosing the Saw
Hunt-Manual for Hand W. W., p. 24









COURSES OF STUDY AND INSTRUCTIONAL UNITS


f. Assembling with Nails, Splines or Glue
Roberts, pp. 164-170
Hjorth (Basic Processes), pp. 143-147
Brown & Tustison, pp. 170-172
3. Related Information
Assembly of Mitre Joints-Steri (Homecraftsman)
pp. 212-213
Types of Mitre Joints-Townsend (Carpentry), pp.
89-92
4. Supplementary Teaching Aids:
a. Better Wood Finishing-Grand Rapids Wood
Finishing Co., Grand Rapids, Mich.
Wood Fillers-Grand Rapids Wood Finishing Co.,
Grand Rapids, Michigan.
Selecting the Finish for the Wood-Grand Rapids
Wood Finishing Co., Grand Rapids, Michigan.
Authentic Methods for Producing Popular Finishes.
b. Architectural Varnishes, Stains, Fillers, Enamels
with Specifications. The Standard Varnish Works.
Unit VIII. Edge Jointing and Gluing.
1. Suggested Problems:
References:
a. Table top (as Worst, pp. 98-99
part of project)
b. Cedar chest Windoes-text
c. Drawing board DeVette, pp. 38-39
DeVette, pp. 86-87
2. Learning Activities:
a. How to Joint two edges for gluing.
References: Hjorth (Basic), p. 60
Griffith, pp. 104-108
Douglass & Roberts, p. 71
Hjorth (Prin.) pp. 71-75
Brown & Tustison, pp. 142-144
Griffith & Cox, pp. 142-144
b. How to test edges for glue joint.
Griffith and Cox, p. 160










SOURCE MATERIALS IN INDUSTRIAL ARTS


Griffith, p. 105
Hjorth, (Basic), p. 59
c. How to glue up stock to prevent warping.
Hjorth, (Prin.), pp. 224-228
3. Tools Used
a. Jointer plane c. Hand clamp
b. Bar clamps
4. Related Information.
a. Kinds and sources of glue.
References: Brown & Tustison, pp. 136, 139
Hjorth (Basic), pp. 169, 172
Douglass & Roberts, pp. 79-80
b. Preparation and Mixing of Glue.
References: Brown & Tustison, pp. 135-141
Griffith & Cox, p. 75
Brown & Tustison, p. 169
Adams, pp. 14-17
5. Supplementary Teaching Aids.
a. Historical Uses Monite Glue Co.,
of Glue Minneapolis, Min
b. Casco project All by the Casein
book Co. of America,
Redbook on 350 Madison Ave.
Waterproof Glue
Casco Gluing Guide
Complete set of Projects for 1937 ($1.00)
c. How to Use Adjustable Clamp
Handscrews 417 N. Ashland A
d. The Story of Chicago, Illinois
Certified Glue American Glue C


S


n.
Mfg.

N.Y.



Co.,
Lve.,

3.,


Unit IX Mortise and Tenon, Dowel Joint.
1. Suggested Problems,
a. Stool
b. Table
c. Tilt-Top Table
d. Bed


e. Taboret


Boston, Mass.

References:
Roberts, p. 79
Worst, pp. 98-99
Worst, pp. 148-149
Douglass & Roberts
(More Prob, pp. 86-87)
Worst, p. 82









COURSES OF STUDY AND INSTRUCTIONAL UNITS 49


2. Learning Activities.
a. How to Make Mortise & Tenon Joint
References: Douglass & Roberts, pp. 69-70
Griffith & Cox, pp. 165-171
Brown & Tustison, pp. 201-209
1). Laying Out the Mortise and the Tenon.
Reference: Hjorth (Prin.), pp. 94-102
e. Boring and Chiseling Mortise.
References: Fryklund & LaBerge, pp. 57-59.
Griffith, pp. 110-116
d. Making the Tenon
References: Douglass & Roberts, pp. 69-70
e. How to Make Dowel Joint
References: Hjorth (Basic), pp. 131-138
Hjorth (Principles), pp. 85-89
Brown & Tustison, pp. 162-166
3. Tools Used.
a. Chisels c. Auger bits
b. Brace d. Dowel Plate
4. Related Information
a. How dowels are made-dowel plates, hollow
auger, etc.
References: Griffith (Essentials), pp. 106-107
Delta Catalogue
b. Where mortise and tenon and dowel joints are used.
c. Varieties of mortise and tenon joints
d. Furniture construction
e. Period Furniture
f. Types of Bits
Douglass & Roberts (Inst.), pp. 47-50
Brown & Tustison, pp. 117-127
Griffith (Essentials), pp. 53-60
Hjorth (Basic), pp. 95-104
5. Supplementary Teaching Aids:
a. Redbook on Casein Mfg. Co. of
Waterproof America
Glue









50 SOURCE MATERIALS IN INDUSTRIAL ARTS


b. How to Select,
Use and Care for
Bits.

c. The Mahogany
Book
d. How to Know
Period Furniture
e. Chats on Period
Styles in
Furniture.


Unit X Simple Upholstery
1. Suggested Problems:

a. Foot stool

b. Hassock

c. Chair


Irwin Auger Bit Co.,
Wilmington, Ohio.


Mahogany Association,
Inc., Chicago, Ill.
Same as c.


Yates-American
Co.,
Beloit, Wis.



References:
Devette, p. 83; Luko-
witz, p. 50
Douglass & Roberts,
(Modern), p. 33
Worst, pp. 10-11


2. Learning Activities
a. Closed seat padding
References: Douglass & Roberts, pp. 113-114
Hjorth (Prin.), pp. 196-202
Griffith & Cox, pp. 306-312
Bast, text
Johnson, text


b. Seat caning
c. Seat weaving
References: See above, and
Teaching Aids.
3. Tools Used
a. Tack hammer
b. Awl
4. Related Information
a. Upholstery
materials


Supplementary


c. Scissors



c. Upholstered
furniture









COURSES OF STUDY AND INSTRUCTIONAL UNITS


b. Types of weaving
References: See under Learning Activities and
Supplementary Teaching Aids.
5. Supplementary Teaching Aids
a. Illustrated In- H. H. Perkins Co.,
struction Book New Haven, Conn.
on Cane Weaving
b. Books on Sylvan-Yager, In-
Weaving diana State Teachers'
Materials for the College, Terre Haute,
Asking Ind.
c. It Is easy to Art Fibre Furniture
Weave Art-Fibre Weaving, Grand
Rapids Fibre Cord Co.,
Grand Rapids, Mich.
d. Cane Seat American Reed Craft
Weaving Corp., 130 Beekman
Colonial Chair St., New York.
Frames
Creative
Handicraft
Unit XI Elementary Carving
1. Suggested Problems:
References:
a. Book ends Roberts, pp. 74-75
b. Note book covers Lukowitz, pp. 30-35
c. Wall plaque
2. Learning Activities
a. Principles of Carving.
Sowers, text
Tangerman, text
b. Laying out design
Sowers, text
Tangerman, text
Lukowitz, pp. 30-35
3. Tools Used
a. Knife c. Dividers
b. Carving tools










52 SOURCE MATERIALS IN INDUSTRIAL ARTS


4. Related information on Elementary Carving
Industrial Arts and Vol. 24, pp. 261-264,
Vocational Education Sept. 1935
Vol. 24, pp. 228-231, Vol. 24, pp. 290-292,
Aug. 1935 Oct. 19.35
J. I. Sowers Vol. 24, pp. 328-331,
Nov. 1935
5. Supplementary Teaching Aids:
Wood Carving for
Pleasure
Western Pine Associa-
tion, Portland, Ore.
Chip Carving (3 cents postage)
Manual Universal School of
Handicrafts, 1270 Sixth
Ave., New York.
Things to Do With Remington Arms Co.,
a Pocket Knife Inc., Cutlery Div.,
Bridgeport, Conn.


DIVISION I
Unit I. Wide Surfaoe Work Including
Construction.
1. Suggested Problems:

a. Kneehole desk

b. Cabinet

e. Book shelves


Gluing and Dado Joint


References:
Douglass & Roberts,
p. 119
Douglass & Roberts,
p. 117
Worst, pp. 61-67
Adams, pp. 80-81


2. Learning Activities:
a. Gluing up stock
Reference: Brown & Tustison, pp. 142-147
b. How to Do Veneering
Reference: Stieri, pp. 29-61
c. How to make dado joint
References: Douglass & Roberts, p. 63
Brown & Tustison, pp. 182-192










COURSES OF STUDY AND INSTRUCTIONAL UNITS


d. Fitting hinges and locks
References: Brown & Tustison, pp. 210-218
Hunt, pp. 192-196
3. Tools Used
No new tools used
4. Related Information
a. How veneers are Reference:
made Stieri, pp. 3-61
5. Supplementary Teaching Aids
a. Hard to get Thurston Supply Co.
Materials Anoka, Minn.
(Catalog)
b. Veneered and Forests Products Lab.
Solid Furniture Madison, Wis.
Unit II. Panel and Drawer Construction


1. Suggested Problems:

a. Desk





b. Chest of Drawers

c. Wardrobe

d. Bookrack
e. Fancy Mirrors
and Drawers
f. Stationery Case


References:
Adams, p. 52
Douglass & Roberts,
p. 46
Fryklund & LaBerge
p. 115
Douglass & Roberts,
p. 55
Douglass & Roberts,
p. 88
DeVette, p. 75
Worst (More Prob.)
p. 222
Douglass & Roberts,
p. 9


2. Learning Activities:
a. Drawer Construction
References: Griffith & Cox, pp. 288-292
Griffith, pp. 124-127
b. Paneling
References: Griffith, pp. 127-128
Griffith & Cox, pp. 292-293









SOURCE MATERIALS IN INDUSTRIAL ARTS


c. Grooving
References: Brown & Tustison, p. 188
Hjorth (Basic Pro.), pp. 112-113
3. Tools Used
a. Combination Plane (Stanley No. 45 & 55).
b. Machine dado head
4. Related Information
a. Drawer Hjorth (Princ.)
Construction pp. 134-136
Hjorth (Basic Proc.)
pp. 200-202
b. Attaching locks Hjorth, (Prine.)
pp. 101-109
5. Supplementary Teaching Aids
a. Period Century Furniture Co.
Furniture Grand Rapids, Mich.
Unit III. Composite Machine Activity Problems:

NOTE: Where machinery is not available, the projects
may be built with hand tools: but the use of machines
should be taught.


1. Suggested problems:

a. Table

b. Chests




c. Bed




d. Chairs


e. Night stand


References:
Adams, pp. 52, 56, 58,
and 59
Worst, pp. 88, 96, and
98
Hunt, p. 249
Worst, p. 136
Douglass & Roberts
(Mod. Proj.) p. 86
Hunt, p. 252
Worst, p. 156
Adams, p. 68
Douglass & Roberts
(Mod. Proj.) p. 156
Worst, p. 157










COURSES OF STUDY AND INSTRUCTIONAL UNITS


2. Learning Activities:
How to Use Power Machines; Sawing, Drilling, Turn-
ing, Mortising, Tenoning, Jointing, and Squaring to
dimensions.
References: Crawshaw, Text
Hjorth, Text
Griffith & Cox, Text
Stieri, Text
Nichols, Text
3. Tools Used: 5. Drill press
Note: if available 6. Shaper
1. Lathe 7. Sander
2. Jointer 8. Saws-table saw,
3. Surfacer jig saw and band
4. Mortiser saw
4. Related Information.
Safety precautions to observe in the use of power
machines.
References:A Manual for Machine Woodwork by
DeWitt Hunt, p. 185-188
5. Supplementary Teaching Aids.
a. "The Evolution of the Lathe"
Lodge & Shipley Machine Tool Company,
Cincinnati, Ohio.
b. "Installation, Care and Operation of Oliver
Machines''
Oliver Machinery Company
Grand Rapids, Michigan.
c. "Bulletins on Machines," Yates-American Machin-
ery Co., Beloit, Wisconsin.
Unit IV. Upholstery and Caning
1. Suggested Problems:
References:
a. Chair Seats (Fib- Stieri, pp. 266-267
er, rope, cane, Wood & Smith,
reed) -pp. 63-71
b. Modern Footstool Hjorth (Princ.)
pp. 202-204









56 SOURCE MATERIALS IN INDUSTRIAL ARTS


c. Stick Furniture


Douglass & Roberts
(Mod.)


2. Learning Activities:
a. More advanced upholstering and principles of
caning. How to do webbing
Bast, pp. 13-16
How to do springing up
Bast,
Wood & Smith, pp. 16-26, 69-70
How to do padding
Bast, pp. 57-69
Hjorth (Prin.) pp. 196-203
How to roll edge
Bast, pp. 29-31
How to apply covering Material
Bast
3. Tools Used
Padded Bench Skewer
Scissors Upholsterers straight
Knife needle
Tack Hammer Upholsters curved needle
Awl and stretcher
4. Related Information
Textiles: Bast, pp. 143-153
Leathers and Substituees, Bast, pp. 153-157
Padding Materials, Bast, pp. 115-142
Manufacture of coil springs, Bast, pp. 157-160
5. Supplementary Teaching Aids:
a. Recognizing Suitable Finishing
Michigan State Col. of Agriculture,
Extension Division, Lansing, Michigan


Unit V. Surface and Contour Enrichment
1. Suggested Problems:
a. Magazine Rack
a. Magazine Rack


b. Fireside seat


References:
Douglass & Roberts
(Mod.) p. 34
Hunt, p. 239









COURSES OF STUDY AND INSTRUCTIONAL UNITS 57


c. End Table & Douglass & Roberts
Magazine Holder (Mod.) p. 80.
d. Bedside Table Douglass & Roberts
(Mod.) p. 80
e. Vanity bench Douglass & Roberts
(Mod.) p. 82
2. Learning Activities:
a. Methods of making objects more beautiful by
means of surface enrichment
b. Methods of contour enrichment
c. Inlaying
d. Overlaying References:
e. Carving Tangerman-Text
f. Routing Hjorth (Prin.) ch. XIV
g. Beading Varnum (Ind. Arts
h. Veining Design) Text
i. Veneering
j. Stenciling
k. Decalcomania
Transfers
3. Tools Used
a. Router plane b. Stencils
4. Related Information
a. Moldings and special millwork
b. Stanley "45" and "55" planes
5. Supplementary Teaching Aids
a. Simplified Inlaying of Pictures, Novelties, etc.
b. Veneering requiring little equipment
c. Catalog and 12 veneer samples (25)
All three above Art Inlayers, San Francisco, Calif.
d. Stencils
Sherwin Williams Co., Cleveland, Ohio
e. The Design Book
Kuempel Co., Guttenberg, Iowa
f. 200 Things to Be Made with Plastic Wood
A. S. Boyle Co., Cincinnati, Ohio
g. Wood and Veneer Catalog-No. 55 (250)
H. L. Wild, 510 E. 11th Street, New York, N. Y.











58 SOURCE MATERIALS IN INDUSTRIAL ARTS


BIBLIOGRAPHY

Adams, Frederick A., Projects in Furniture Making, Milwaukee, Wis.,
Bruce Publishing Co., 1924.
*Bast, Herbert, Essentials of Upholstery, Milwaukee, Wis., Bruce Publish-
Co., 1928.
*Brown & Tustison, Instructional Units in Hand Woodworking, Milwau-
kee, Wis., Bruce Publishing Co., 1930.
Bryant, Working Drawings of Colonial Furniture, Peoria, Illinois, Manual
Arts Press, 1922.
Crawshaw, Problems in Woodworking, Peoria, Illinois, Manual Arts Press,
1933.
*Crispin, F. S., Dictionary of Technical Terms, Milwaukee, Wis., Bruce
Publishing Co., 1929.
Dalzell & Sabin, Painting and Decorating, Chicago, Illinois, American
Technical Society, 1938.
DeVette, William A., 100 Problems in Woodwork, Milwaukee, Wis., Bruce
Publishing Co., 1935.
Douglass & Roberts, Instructional and Information Units for Hand
Woodworking, Wichita, Kansas, McCormick-Mathers Co., 1935.
Douglass & Roberts, Modern Projects in Woodworking, Wichita, Kansas,
McCormick-Mathers Co., 1935.
Frost and Fullerton, Furniture Inlaying, Milwaukee, Wis., Bruce Publish-
ing Co., 1928.
Fryklund, V. C., and LaBerge, A. J., General Shop Woodworking, Bloom-
ington, Ill., McKnight & McKnight, 1936.
*Griffith & Cox, Woodwork for Secondary Schools, Peoria, Ill., Manual
Arts Press, 1937.
*Griffith, Essentials of Woodworking, Peoria, Ill., Manual Arts Press, 1931.
Hjorth, Herman, Principles of Woodworking, Milwaukee, Wis., Bruce
Publishing Co., 1930.
Hjorth, Herman, Basic Woodworking Processes, Milwaukee, Wis., Bruce
Publishing Co., 1938.
Hjorth, Herman, How to Make Veneered Panels, 205 E. 42 St., New York,
Casein Mfg. Co. of America, Inc.
Hunt, DeWitt, Hand Woodworking, Oklahoma City, Harlow Publishing
Co., 1938.
Hunt, DeWitt, Manual for Machine Woodworking, Oklahoma City, Har-
low Publishing Co., 1925.
-Jeffery, Wood Finishing, Peoria, Ill., Manual Arts Press, 1924.
*McGee & Brown, Instructional Units in Wood Finishing, Milwaukee, Wis.,
Bruce Publishing Co., 1929.










COURSES OF STUDY AND INSTRUCTIONAL UNITS


Nichols, Woodworking Manual for Students, Peoria, Ill., Manual Arts
Press, 1930.
Roberts, William E., Beginning Woodwork Units, Peoria, Ill., Manual Arts
Press, 1934.
*Roberts, William E., Woodwork in the Junior High School, Peoria, Ill.,
Manual Arts Press, 1930.
Reid, John F., and Higgins, Gordon H., Fundamentals of the Woodwork-
ing Trades, New York, John Wiley and Sons, 1931.
Roehl, L. M., Household Carpentry, New York, Macmillan Co., 1927.
Schultz & Schultz, School and Home Workshop, Atlanta, Ga., Allyn and
Bacon, 1935.
*Shaver, Richard, Furniture Boys Like to Build, Milwaukee, Wis., Bruce
Publishing Co., 1931.
Shepardson, Ken F., Furnishing the Home Grounds, Milwaukee, Wis.,
Bruce Publishing Co., 1936.
*Sowers, J. I., Woodworking Through Visual Instruction, Scranton, Pa.,
International Text Book Co., 1938.
Stieri, Emanuels, Home Craftsmanship, New York, McGraw-Hill, 1935.
*Smith, Information and Operation Units in Machine Woodworking,
Wichita, Kansas, McCormick-Mathers Company.
Tangerman, E. J., Whittling and Woodcarving, New York, McGraw-Hill-
1936.
*Tustison, F. E., Forests, Trees, and Woods, Peoria, Ill., Manual Arts Press,
1936.
*Townsend, Carpentry, Chicago, Ill., American Technical Society, 1935.
Van Gaasbeek, Practical Course in Roof Framing, Chicago, Ill., Fred J.
Drake Co., 1928.
Vanderwalker, House Painting Methods, Chicago, Ill., Frederick J. Drake
Co., 1930.
Whitman, Roger B., First Aid for the Ailing House, New York, McGraw-
Hill, 1934.
Wilson and Werner, Roof Framing, New York, McGraw-Hill Book Co.,
1927.
Willoughby and Chamberlain, General Shop Handbook, Peoria, Ill.,
Manual Arts Press, 1936.
Windoes, Ralph F., Cedar Chests, Milwaukee, Wis., Bruce Publishing Co.,
1921.
Wood & Smith, Prevocational and Industrial Arts, Chicago, Ill., Mentzer-
Bush & Co., 1919.
*Worst, E. P., More Problems in Woodworking, Milwaukee, Wis., Bruce
Publishing Co., 1929.
These books are suggested as constituting a minimum working library.









SOURCE MATERIALS IN INDUSTRIAL ARTS


GENERAL METALWORKING
EXPLANATION
The purpose of this outline of general metal work is to serve
as a guide to the basic units in the field of metal work. The course
has been divided so as to cover the following units:
a. Sheet metal
b. Cold, plain, and decorative metal
c. Hot metal
-Our purpose here should be that of acquainting those taking
this division of industrial arts with the importance of metal and
its place in the industrial world of today. The course offers basic
as well as advanced problems to the extent that the student may
develop the necessary skills commensurate with the constructive
application of leisure time and with development of abilities that
may be applied to more intensive training.
This phase of general shop education is fast moving to the
foreground because of the increasing economic and industrial im-
portance of metal products. We may venture to say that no con-
struction is undertaken today without the use of metal somewhere.
Some of the world's largest and richest industries are those deal-
ing in metal. It seems that the trend of the world is to a metal age,
and all students should have at least a partial understanding of
metal and its uses, and the part that it plays in our social and
economic world.
This division of the general metal shop is perhaps one of the
least expensive from the viewpoint of installation and maintenance
cost. Materials in a large part may be salvaged from various
industries free, or for a nominal sum.
Attention is called to the fact that the units as outlined here-
with are not all inclusive; however the various units are such
as to serve the objectives of industrial arts. Ample motivation is
possible through contact with a reasonable amount of the metals
and metal working processes for the informational analysis of
various occupations in the metalworking industries.










COURSES OF STUDY AND INSTRUCTIONAL UNITS


PART I. SHEET METAL
DIVISION I. SCOPE OF INSTRUCTION

Unit I. Involving simple construction and layout-handwork
only:

1. Suggested Problems:
a. Stationery Rack-Giachino, Page 72
b. Book Ends-Giachino, Page 72


2. Learning Activities
a. Designing and
using patterns
b. Transferring
designs
c. Laying out
d. Cutting
e. Filing
f. Decorating

3. Tools
a. Scriber
b. Snips
c. Hammer
d. Square
e. File

4. Related Information:
a. Iron
1. Galvanized
2. Black
b. Designing


g. Bending
h. Cleaning
i. Finishing
j. Plan Procedure
k. Measuring
1. Scribing
m. Using Stakes



f. Mallet
g. Stakes
h. Straight edge
i. Steel rule



c. Finishing
1. Types
2. Material


5. References
a. Bench Metal Working-Giachino, J. W.
b. Essentials of Metalwork-Berg and Wing
c. Sheetmetal Manual-Broemel's
d. Industrial Arts Design-Varnum, Wm.

6. Supplementary teaching aids
a. Films University of Texas, Austin, Texas
b. Slides










SOURCE MATERIALS IN INDUSTRIAL ARTS


c. American Sheet and Tin Plate Co.,
Frick Building, Pittsburgh, Pa.
Evolution of a Tin Can
d. U. S. Steel Corp., c/o Tennessee Iron and Coal Co.,
Birmingham, Alabama
Unit II. Shaping and Forming by Hand
1. Suggested Problems:
a. Whisk Broom Holder-Butler Job No. 3
2. Learning Activities:
a. Laying out e. Flaring
b. Designing f. Filing
c. Punching g. Finishing
d. Bending or
Folding
3. Tools
a. Snips d. File
b. Square .e Mallet
c. Punch
4. Related Information:
a. Bending 1. How manu-
1. Using stakes factured
2. Using brakes 2. How sold
b. Types and 3. Uses
gauges of sheet
metal
5. References:
1. Problems in Metal Work-Butler
2. Sheet Metal Work-W. M. Newbecker
3. Materials of Industry- Mersereau
4. B~heet Metal Workers Manual-Broemel
6. Supplementary teaching aids
a. Visit sheet metal shop
b. Method of plating black iron
c. Pan-American Union, Washington, D. C.
A Talk About Tin
d. American Sheet and Tin Plate Co.,
Frick Building, Pittsburgh, Pa.
Bright Tin Plates










COURSES OF STUDY AND INSTRUCTIONAL UNITS


e. Youngsown Sheet and Tube Co.,
Youngstown, Ohio

Unit III. Layout and Construction of Projects
Hem Seam Solder
1. Suggested Projects:
a. Biscuit Cutter-Trew and Bird-Page 26
b. Dust Pan-Bollinger-Page 40
2. Learning Activities:
a. Hemming single g. Plan procedure
and double h. Cutting
b. Seaming i. Applying flux
c, Soldering j. Assembling
d. Shaping and k. Grooving
tinning soldering 1. Lighting, heating
copper unit
e. Forming m. Heating solder-
f. Laying out ing copper
3. Tools:
a. Copper e. Vise
b. Snip f. Heating unit
c. Stakes g. File
d. Steel square h. Sal Amoniac
4. Related Information:
a. Tin g. Industry
1. Source 1. Work
2. Mining 2. Salary
b. Pattern Drafting h. Fluxes
1. Parallel 1. Kinds and
2. Radial composition
c. Bar Folder 2. Uses
d. Formers i. Soldering
e. Solders Kinds coppers
and properties 1. Kinds and
f. Safety shapes
2. Transfer of
heat
5. References
1. Sheet Metal Work-Trew and Bird










SOURCE MATERIALS IN INDUSTRIAL ARTS


2. Course in Sheet Metal Work-Bollinger
3. Sheet Metal Workers Manual-Broemel
6. Supplementary teaching aids
a. Pamphlets, Kester Solder Co., Philadelphia, Pa.
b. Pamphlets, American Can Co., New York, N. Y.
c. American Sheet and Tin Plate Co.
Frick Building, Pittsburgh, Pa.
d. The New Jersey Zinc Co., 160 Front Street,
New York City, New York
Uses of Zinc
e. Eagle-Picker Lead Co.
134 N. LaSalle St., Chicago, Illinois
Lead Ore
f. Kester Solder Co., Chicago, Illinois
Facts On Soldering

DIVISION II. SCOPE OF INSTRUCTION
Unit I. Projects involving wiring and other forms of reinforcing
and fastening
1. Suggested Problems
a. Funnel-Welch-Page 43
b. Nail Box-Riveted with wire hem top
2. Learning Activities
a. Wiring hand machine
and machine i. Turning
b. Plan procedure j. Setting down
c. Assembling and crimping
d. Development k. Using riveting
-radial hammer
e. Cutting 1. Using punch,
f. Forming solid and hollow
g. Soldering m. Setting rivets
h. Grooving- n. Measuring wire
hand and o. Flexing metal
3. Tools and machines
a. Combination.Niagra (or like)
b. Hand groover h. Blow horn stake
c. Solder copper i. Scriber










COURSES OF STUDY AND INSTRUCTIONAL UNITS


d. Hawk bill snips
e. Pliers
f. Set down hammer
g. Wing dividers
4. Related Information
a. Rivets size and
kind
h. Wire size and
kind
c. Gauge or thick-
ness of tin
1. Determining
2. U. S. Standard


j. Mallet
k. Punches
1. Riveting hammer
m. Forming rolls


d. Metal coatings
1. Kinds
2. Weight
3. Effects
4. Process


5. References
a. Elements of Sheetmetal-Welch
b. General Metal-Dragoo and Dragoo
c. Slides and Films-c/o University of Texas,
Austin, Texas
6. Supplementary Teaching Aids
a. American Steel and Wire Co.
208 South LaSalle St., Chicago, Ill.
bI. Minnesota Steel Co., Morgan Park, Duluth, Minn.
How Steel and Steel Wire Products Are Made
e. Remington-Rand Business Service, Inc.
Buffalo, New York
The Age of Steel in Office Equipment
d. Aluminum Cooking Utensils Co., New
Kensington, Pa.
1. "Aluminum Exhibit"
2. "From the Mine to the Modern Kitchen"
e. Aluminum Goods Manufacturing Co.
Manitowoc, Wisconsin
1. "From Clay to Cooking Utensil"
2. "Aluminum Products Manufacturing Chart"
3. "Samples of Aluminum"
f. John A Roebling's Sons Co., Trenton, New Jersey
Why Copper










66 SOURCE MATERIALS IN INDUSTRIAL ARTS


Unit II. Time and Equipment Permitting
It may be advisable for the instructor to supplement
this unit with a continuation of Unit I, Division II, with
the following suggested projects-


1. Tin Can Scoop

2. Cake Pan
3. Pint or quart
Measure


Lukowitz & Lukowitz,
Page 33
Bollinger, Page 50
Trew & Bird, p. 47


PART n. COLD, PLAIN, AND DECORATIVE METAL (BENCH WORK)
DIVISION I. SCOPE OF INSTRUCTION

Unit I. Straight Line Projects
1. Suggested Projects
a. Bicycle carrier Butler Job Sheet 19
b. Foot scraper Instruction to Design
c. Camp seat Giachino-Page 36
2. Learning Activities
a. Laying out, measuring and marking
b. Plan procedure f. Bending and
c. Sawing and hammering
cutting g. Riveting
d. Drilling h. Using vise and
e. Fastening with clamps
small bolts and i. Grinding and
nuts filing
j. Finishing

3. Tools
a. Hack saw h. Steel square
b. Hammers i. Machine or hand
c. Scriber and drill and drills
chalk j. Files and grinder
d. Center punch k. Anvil
e. Drill 1. Wrenches, plier"
f. Rivet set m. Clamps and vises
g. Countersink n. (Bending jig)










COURSES OF STUDY AND INSTRUCTIONAL UNITS 67


4. Related information
a. Steel
1. Refining and
processes in 3
manufacture 4
b. Conservation of natural resources
c. Iron
1. Sources and


mining
Types of iron
Uses
Impurities of
iron


2. Types of steel
3. Alloys
. Uses



5. Properties of
iron
. Processes in
smelting iron
ore and manu-
facture of iron


5. References:
Problems in Metalworking-Butler
Bench Metal Work-Giachino
Cold Metalworking-Van Leuven, E. P.
General Shop Metal Work-Dragoo, A. W.
and K. L.
6. Supplementary Teaching Aids
1. Visit to Iron and Wire Works
2. Visit Blacksmith and Machine Shop
3. U. S. Steel Corporation, 71 Broadway, New York,
The Story of Steel

Unit II. Layout and Construction of Twist and Hammer Work


1. Suggested Problems
a. Fireplace poker
b. Handtwisting
2. Learning Activities
a. Laying out
b. Full size drawing
c. Figuring stock
d. Bending-on jigs
or forms
e. Drilling
f. Twisting
g. Peening


Butler Job Sheet 15
Van Leuven, Page 186

h. Flattening ends
and grinding
i. Riveting
j. Punching
k. Sawing
1. Tapping and
threading
m. Use of bending


(










68 SOURCE MATERIALS IN INDUSTRIAL ARTS


3. Tools
a. Bending jig and
fork
b. Monkey and stil-
son wrench
c. Ball peen
hammer
d. Rule
e. Center punch
f. Scriber
4. Related Information
a. Forms of metal
b. Kinds of rivets
c. Steel and wire
sizes
d. Drills, kind,
sizes, uses


forks and jigs.

g. File
h. Drill
i. Anvil
j. Rivet set
k. Pipes (for
twisting)
1. Taps and dies
m. Grinder


e. Influence of auto
industry on iron
and steel
f. Enamels
g. Threading taps
and dies
1. Types
2. Construction


5. References
a. Cold Metalworking-Van Leuven
b. Problems in Metal Work-Butler
c. Essentials of Metalworking-Berg and Wing
d. General Shop Metal Work-A. W. and K. L.
Dragoo
6. Supplementary Teaching aids
Guide Metalworking Problems
A. G. Williams-Iowa State College, Ames, Iowa
Pamphlets
1. U. S. Department of Labor,
Washington, D. C.
2. American Institute of Steel Con-
struction, Inc.
285 Madison Ave., New York City
Steel Never Fails-Free Booklet
3. J. G. Brown Co., 597 W. 35th St.,
New York
Information On Ornamental Work










COURSES OF STUDY AND INSTRUCTIONAL UNITS 69


DIVISION II. SCOPE OF INSTRUCTION
Scroll and Ornamental Detail with More Advanced Projects

1. Suggested Problems for Units of Instruction
a. End table-Van Leuven-Page 104
b. Upholstered Radio Bench-Giachino-Page 60
2. Learning Activities
a. Making Orna- 1. Twisting
ments m. Finishing
b. Measuring n. Riveting
c. Scribing o. Screwing
d. Punching p. Drawing (full
e. Counter sinking size)
f. Drilling q. Raising
g. Filing r. Chasing
h. Sawing s. Polishing
i. Bending t. Etching
j. Peening u. Finishing
k. Flattening ends
3. Tools
a. Square g. Scriber
b. Ruler h. Countersink
c. Center punch i. Drill
d. Ball peen j. Hack saw
hammer k. Bending jig
e. Wrench 1. Riveting hammer
f. File
4. Related Information
a. Design d. Lacquers
b. Ornaments e. Geometric
1. Kind layouts
2. Design f. Fasteners-
c. Upholstery- Screws
Kinds
5. References:
a. Tables in Cold Metal Working-Van Leuven
b. Bench Metal Work--Tiachino
c. Decorative Wrought Iron-T. Googerty
d. Essentials of Metal Work-Berg & Wing










70 SOURCE MATERIALS IN INDUSTRIAL ARTS


6. Supplementary Teaching Aids
a. Films-Making All-Steel Body
Bureau of Mines, Pittsburgh, Pa.
b. Pamphlets-Buffalo Forge Co.
Buffalo, New York
c. U. S. Bureau of Standards
Washington, D. C.
d. Diamond Drill Carbon Co.
e. Eastern Illinois State Teachers College, Depart-
ment of Industrial Arts, Charleston, Ill.
Suggested Problems in Cold Metal Work

PART II. HOT METAL FORGE, TOOLS, AND MATERIALS
DIVISION I. SCOPE OF INSTRUCTION
Unit I. Layout and Construction of Elementary Project Involv-
ing Basic Problems
1. Suggested Problems:
a. Gate Hook-Elementary Forge Practice
Page 45-Harcourt, R.
b. Scriber c. Fire Poker


2. Learning Activities
a. Building fire
b. Heating
c. Drawing out
d. Upsetting
e. Twisting and
bending
3. Tools
a. Forge
b. Anvil
c. Hack Saw
d. Blacksmith's
hammer
e. Tongs


4. Related Information
a. Contribution of steel and
b. Fuels used in forging


f. Forming
g. Measuring and
marking
h. Hot and cold
metal cutting


f. Hot and cold
chisel
g. Punch
h. Vise
i. Hardy
j. Monkey wrench
k. Center punch

iron to civilization










COURSES OF STUDY AND INSTRUCTIONAL UNITS


c. How iron ore is mined
d. Refining iron ore
1. Bessemer process
2. Open hearth process
3. Materials added to iron for different property
e. Kinds of iron and steel
1. Low carbon 2. High carbon
steel steel
3. Wrought Iron
4. Identifying different kinds of iron and steel


ies


5. References:
a. Berg and Wing-Essentials of Metal Working
b. Burghardt-Machine Tool Operation, Book I
c. Mechanical Technology Buffalo Forge Co.,
1918 and Catalogue #30, 1926
d. Broemel, L.-Sheet Metal Workers Manual,
J. Drake & Co., Chicago, Ill.
e. Harcourt, R. H.-Elementary Forge Practice,
Manual Arts Press
6. Supplementary Teaching Aids
a. Mining and Steel Methods in Alabama
Tennessee Coal and Iron Co.,
Birmingham, Alabama
b. Making Steel-Inland Steel Co.,
First National Bank Bldg., Chicago, Ill.
c. Certified Malleable Iron-
Malleable Iron Research Institute,
Union Trust Bldg., Cleveland, Ohio.
Unit II. Involving Simple Forge Weld
1. Suggested Problems
a. Chain link. Bacon and Johnson, Page 82
b. Round link, or ring. Bacon and Johnson, Page 82
2. Learning Activities
a. Upsetting d. Scarfing
b. Forming e. Kinds and use
c. Striking and of flux
flatting f. Lap welding
g. Finishing


I










72 SOURCE MATERIALS IN INDUSTRIAL ARTS


3. Tools
a. Tongs
b. Forge
c. Hammer
d. Anvil
e. Hot chisel


f. Quenching vat
g. Swages and
swage block
h. Fuller
i. Flatter
j. Flux spoon


4. Related Information
a. Fluxes or welding compounds
1. Kinds f. Use and care of
2. Uses tools and equip-
b. Heat, tempera- ment
ture used for g. Properties of
welding blacksmith's coal
c. Treatment of h. Properties of dif-
scale ferent kinds of
d. Allowances for iron and steel
weld i. Other welding
e. Types of welds processes
5. References:
a. Bacon and Johnson-Forging
b. Burghardt-Machine Tool Operation, Book I
6. Supplementary Teaching Aids
a. Welding booklets-American Welding Society
33 West 39th St., New York
b. Bulletins-Buffalo Forge Co., Buffalo, N. Y.
c. Metallurgy and Metallography-
Ford Motor Co., Apprentice School,
Dearborn, Michigan
DIVISION II. SCOPE OF INSTRUCTION


Unit I. Project Involving Heat Treatment
1. Suggested Problems
a. Cold chisel
b. Meat cleaver
2. Learning Activities
a. Annealing
b. Tempering
c. Drawfiling


c. Butcher knife
d. Hunting knife

f. Normalizing
g. Quenching
h. Hardening area










COURSES OF STUDY AND INSTRUCTIONAL UNITS 73


d. Flattening
e. Setting
3. Tools
a. Forge
b. Anvil
c. Flatter hammer
4. Related Information
a. Tool Steel
b. Heat temperatures
1. Colors
2. Temperature
as related to
colors
c. Types of quench-
ing baths
d. Annealing
materials
1. Dry line


i. Case hardening
j. Punching


d. Tongs
e. Setting hammer
f. Punches

e. Defects
1. Refining
2. Structural
3. Physical
f. Tempering
materials
1. Oils
2. Water
3. Suet
g. Hardening
materials
1. Cyanide of
potassium


5. References:
a. Bacon and Johnson-Forging
b. Berg and Wing-Essentials of Metalworking
c. Knowlton, J. F.-Knives-How to Make Them in
the School Forge
(Bruce 25c)
6. Supplementary Teaching Aids
a. Color charts designating temper colors
b. Charts showing samples of metals
c. Bulletins-Republic Steel Corp.
Youngstown, Ohio
Optional units of work suggested for those whose time end
equipment permit.

Unit II. Composite problem, such as an aluminum handle screw
driver, fireplace set, simple andirons or tongs. The
instructor to select a project in which will be involved
as many different activities as may logically be included.










74 SOURCE MATERIALS IN INDUSTRIAL ARTS


Unit III. Welding
a. Oxy-acetylene b. Electric arc

Unit IV. Metal Turning
a. Work on the engine lathe to involve the following
types of work:
1. Plain turning 7. Sharpening,
2. Facing hardening and
3. Cutting to a tempering
shoulder lathe tool
4. Taper turning 8. Sharpening
5. Knurling drill
6. Cutting screw 9. Drilling and
threads tapping
References may be obtained from books on hand. Sug-
gestions are:
Mechanical Technology-For Tongs
Googerty-Decorative Wrought Iron-
Fireplace Set
Industrial Arts and Vocational Education Magazines

BIBLIOGRAPHY FOR GENERAL METALWORKING
PART I. SHEET METAL

*1. Daugherty, J. S., Essentials of Sheet Metal Work and Pattern Draft-
ing, Chicago, Illinois, F. J. Drake Co., 1931.
*2. Broemel, L., Sheet Metal Workers Manual, Chicago, Illinois, F. J.
Drake Co., 1938.
3. Neubecker, William, Sheet Metal Work, Chicago, Illinois, American
Tech. Society, 1938.
4. Butler John B., Metal Work Job Sheets, Peoria, Illinois, Manual Arts
Press, 1929.
5. Bollinger, J., Course in Sheet Metal, Peoria, Illinois, Manual Arts
Press, 1926.
6. Trew, M. S., and Bird, V. A., Sheet Metal Work, Peoria, Illinois,
Manual Arts Press, 1923.
7. Berg and Wing, Essentials of Metal Working, Peoria, Illinois, Manual
Arts Press, 1934.
8. Dragoo, A. W., and Dragoo, K. L., General Shop Metal Work, Bloom-
nigton, Illinois, McKhight & McKnight, 1936.
*9. Welch, R. L., Elements of Sheet Metal Work, Milwaukee, Wisconsin,
Bruce Publishing Co., 1926.










COURSES OF STUDY AND INSTRUCTIONAL UNITS


PART II. COLD METAL-PLAIN AND DECORATIVE

1. Van Leuven, E. P., Cold Metal Work, New York, McGraw-Hill Co.,
1931.
2. Giachino, J. W., Bench Metal Work, Peoria, Illinois, Manual Arts
Press, 1935.
3. Berg, E., and Wing, B. E., Essentials of Metal Work, Peoria, Illinois,
Manual Arts Press, 1934.
*4. Googerty, Thomas, Decorative Wrought Iron Work, Peoria, Illinois,
Manual Arts Press, 1937.
PART III. HOT METAL WORKING

1. Berg, E., and Wing, B., Essentials of Metal Working, Peoria, Illinois,
Manual Arts Press, 1934.
*2. Bacon, J. L., Forging, Chicago, Illinois, American Tech. Society, 1938.
3. Burghardt, H., Machine Tool Operation, Books I and II, New York,
McGraw-Hill Co., 1936.
4. Turner, Perrigo, Fairfield, Machine Shop Work, Chicago, Illinois,
American Tech. Society, 1938.
5. Barritt, J. W., Care and Operation of Machine Tools, New York, John
Wiley & Sons, 1927.
6. Harcourt, R., Elementary Forge Practice, Peoria, Illinois, Manual Arts
Press.
*7. Buffalo Forge Co., Mechanical Technology, Buffalo, New York, 1918
and 1926.
8. Knowleton, J. F., Knives, How to Make Them, Milwaukee, Wisconsin,
Bruce Publishing Co.
These books are recommended as constituting the very minimum working library.


GENERAL ELECTRICAL WORK

EXPLANATION

In harmony with the objectives of industrial arts, the aim of
this section in General Electrical Work is not to produce an "Elec-
trician," but, rather, a citizen who has some idea of the value
and uses of electricity in home and industrial life, and who under-
stands the basic principles in its application.

Safety is stressed in working with electricity through construc-
tion, wiring, and connections of household appliances. The work
is planned to cover two years of instruction in the General Shop.
Nevertheless, from the nature of the subject, a great deal of tech-









76 SOURCE MATERIALS IN INDUSTRIAL ARTS


nical information or reference work is required. Attempts have
been made to introduce projects which will stimulate interest by
giving the student a working knowledge in the practical uses of
electricity. Visits to various plants and a study of the local ap-
plications of the technical information are suggested as most valu-
able teaching aids. The growing use of electricity in our modern
life requires practical understanding of its principles and operation
-and should be given due emphasis in our educational program.
DIVISION I
Unit I. D. C. Electricity Produced Chemically
Problem: Dry Cell Storage Battery
Learning Activity
Cut discarded dry cell for sectional view as illustrated.
Draw views of exposed sections as illustrated.
Study section of storage battery
Draw sketch of grids of storage battery
Describe inner construction of storage battery when
complete for operation.
Tools and Material
Hack saw, Discarded Battery, Sketching material.
Related:
Elementary chemistry of dry cell
Common types of dry cell
Pokin uses of dry cell
Elementary chem. of storage battery
Contents and charging service
Types of storage battery
Acid and alkaline.
Prin. uses of storage battery
Unit II. Circuits and flow of D. C. Electricity
Problem:
a. Dry cell experiments with circuits
b. Application of D. C. circuits
Learning Activities:
a. Producing an Electric Arc with D. C.
b. Making a simple Electromagnet
c. Demonstrating induced current









COURSES OF STUDY AND INSTRUCTIONAL UNITS 77


d. Making and reading diagrams
e. Applying D. C. circuit to bells and buzzers,
lighting and visual signals
f. Making series circuits
g. Making parallel circuits
h. Making series and parallel circuits
Tools and Materials
Discarded dry cell carbons
Magnet wire and bell wire
Core material-soft iron and rod or bolt
Bells, buzzers, sockets (automotive) and lamps
Push buttons, switches
Screw driver, pliers, catters
Conductors and insulated materials
Unit III.
Problems: Magnets and Magnetism
Learning Activities
1. Make Electromagnet
2. Set up required circuits
Making simple electromagnet
Using iron filing to show lines of force
Comparing effects of like and unlike jobs
Showing self-induction with simple magnetic coil.
Showing effects in secondary circuit of making and
breaking primary circuit (vibrator closed).
Showing effects of vibrates in induction coil.
Tools and Materials
Magnet wire, iron core, iron filings, permanent
magnet.
Ford Coil, battery, spark gap. (spark plug).
Related Information
Kinds of permanent magnets and uses
Application of Electromagnets
Automotive Ignition
Voltage changes by means of coils.
Reference: Willoughby-Essentials of Elec. work
Esty., Millikan, McDougal-Elements of
Electricity.









SOURCE MATERIALS IN INDUSTRIAL ARTS


Supplementary Teaching Aids
Observation of automotive ignition system
Study of clock circuits, bell circuits, school
telephone circuits.
Unit IV.
Problem: Measuring instruments and measuring D. C. electricity
Measure-voltage and amperage of current.
Learning Activities
Connecting instrument for voltage measurement.
Reading volt meter.
Connecting instruments for ammeter measurement
Reading an ammeter.
Making proper connections
Tools and Materials
Volt meter and ammeter.
Batteries, wire, or connectors.
Related Information
Cautions in use of instruments
Types of measuring instruments
Importance of perfect contacts.
Reference: Willoughby-Essentials of Electrical Work
Esty, Millikan, McDougal-Elements of
Electricity.
Teaching Aids
Visit to radio shop.
Visit to auto Automotive electric shop.
Unit V. Resistance and Ohms Law
Problem:
1. Make a Resistor
2. Make up circuits using a resistor
Learning Activities
1. Conductivity of materials.
a. Using the same length in various sizes of wire and
the same size in various lengths of wire to determine
resistance values.










COURSES OF STUDY AND INSTRUCTIONAL UNITS


b. Using the volt meter and ammeter for comparing
resistance values.
c. Determining approximate values of resistance
using Ohms Law-E=R. I.

Tools and Materials
Copes wire (various sizes and lengths.)
Iron wire (various sizes and lengths.)
Resistance wire-Wates Reostat
Volt meter, ammeter
Pliers, cutters, screw drivers, panel.
Knife.

Related Information
Resistance measurement
Effects of resistance in electric circuits.
(desirable and undesirable)

Unit VI. Connectors for lighting, heating and power appliances
Problem:


Wire a lamp
Make an extension
cord

Learning Activity
Selecting switch wire
Making connections
Pulling wires
Stripping insulation
Winding with thread to prevent
Making underwriters knot.
Tools and Materials
Switch wire
Feed through
switch


Make an iron cord
Wire a feed thru
switch







ravel of insulation.



Attachment plug
Pliers, cutters
Screw drivers and
knife


Related Information
Types of wire used for radio appliances
Types of connectors used on common appliances










80 SOURCE MATERIALS IN INDUSTRIAL ARTS


Unit VII. Transformers, Principles
Problem:
Make a Transformer
(Willoughby-General

Learning Activity
Making a coil form
Winding coils
Making the core
Assembling the
parts
Making connections
Tinning soldering
copper
Cleaning wire
Applying flux
Soldering, taping
Tools and Materials
#30 magnet wire


Unit VIII.
Problem:


Electrical Work, pp. 88-90)


#19 magnet wire
(See Willoughby
specification)
Stove pipe, or core
iron
Material for coil
forms
Binding post plier
Cutters, knife,
screw driver
Soldering equip-
ment, tape spa-
ghetti
sheet insulation


Household appliance construction on repair.


Make a toaster unit


Repair iron

Learning Activities
Winding resistance
coils for heating
Connecting wires

Tools and Materials
Mica or equivalent
Resistance wire

Related Information
Common appliances
available


(replaces elements)

(replaces terminals)


Testing units
Replacing defective
unit


Repair element or
parts


Types of heating
units










COURSES OF STUDY AND INSTRUCTIONAL UNITS


Testing Devices
Labor saving
devices


Household
appliances


DIVISION II

I. How Electricity is Generated
Problem:
Generation of Electricity by simple (low tension)
Magnets and generation

Learning Activity
Turning armature in magnetic field.
Studying effect in external circuit
Observing effect of greater speed
Observing effect of additional parts

Tools and Material


Low tension magnets
Auto generation
Wire, galvanometer, pliers, screw driver,


cutter, knife


Related Information
Types and uses of generators
A.C. Generators, types and uses
D.C. Generators, types and uses
Commutators and collectors

II. Electric Motors
Problem:
1. Make simple motor
(Willoughby-General Electrical Work, pp. 78-81)


Learning Activity
Winding field
Winding an arma-
ture
Making a commu-
tator

Tools and Materials
See list in references


Making a frame
Assembling parts
and making
connections.










82 SOURCE MATERIALS IN INDUSTRIAL ARTS


Related Information
Types of D.C.
motors
Types of A.C.
motors
Common applica-
tions
References:
Willoughby-Gen.
Teaching Aids


Care of electrical
motors
Making simple
repairs




Electrical Work.


Visit motor repair shop-armature work, etc.
III. Transmission and Distribution of Electricity
Problem:
Make study including sketches of power and light
distribution system including supply sub stations,
transformer banks, service connections.
Learning Activities
Tracing transmission lines-point of generation to
service, making sketches on results of observation.
Show common or actual voltages carried at various
points in distribution.
Tools and Materials
Map covering area studied.


Related Information
High voltage trans-
mission of power
Line lasses
High voltage
insulation
IV. Electric Meters-Reading and Operation
Problem:
Keep record of home or school
or more and figure bill.
Learning Activities
Reading dials


Protective devices
for line and home
Factors affecting
distribution costs
Safety precautions



meter for one month



Information from










COURSES OF STUDY AND INSTRUCTIONAL UNITS


Combining results power company
Using rate scales office.
Tools and Materials
Home or school electric meter
Rate scale from local power company
Related Information
Reasons for different rate scales
How meter operates Meter protection
References:
Stack, E. P., Elementary Electricity
Croft, T., Practical Electricity
Ransom, R., Electric Meters.
V. Uses of Electricity, Light, Heat and Power
Problem:
List all of the various uses of electricity in local
community.
Learning Activity
Investigating to find various uses of electricity.
Comparing efficiency of various electrical devices.
Applying knowledge to solution of home problem.
Tools and Materials
No special equipment required
Light testing equipment
Related Information
Advantages of electricity for light, heat and power.
Efficiency in lighting
Efficient heating with electricity
Labor saving devices.
References:
Croft, T., Practical Electricity
Stack, E. P., Elementary Electricity
Supplementary Teaching Aids
Light meter (see local electric
Manufacturers' dealer)
literature










84 SOURCE MATERIALS IN INDUSTRIAL ARTS


VI. Communication devices and how they operate
Problem:
Radio set Simple telegraph
Simple telephone
Learning Activities
Winding coil Construct simple
Making electro microphone
magnet Wiring circuits
Reading wiring Soldering
diagram connections
Tools and Materials
Depending on project selected
Related Information
History of Communication
Principles of radio broadcasting and reception.
Modern communication devices and systems
References:
Croft
Modern Radio Essentials-Am. Tech. Soc.
Willoughby-Gen. Electricity Work
Supplementary Teaching Aid
Visit radio station (amateur or commercial)
BIBLIOGRAPHY FOR GENERAL ELECTRICITY
*Croft, Terrel, Practical Electricity, New York, McGraw-Hill Book Co.,
1933, $3.00.
Dawes, Chester I., Industrial Electricity, Part I, New York, McGraw-Hill
Book Co., 1924, $2.25.
Dawes, Chester I., Industrial Electricity, Part II, New York, McGraw-
Hill Book Co., 1925, $2.75.
*Esty, Millikan and McDougall, Elements of Electricity, Chicago, Ill.,
American Technical Society, 1937, $2.00.
Hathaway, Kenneth A., Modern Radio Essentials, Chicago, Ill., Ameri-
can Technical Society, 1937, $200
Lewis & Dillon, Instruction Sheets for General Shop Electricity, New
York, McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1932, $.50.
Moyer & Wostrel, Industrial Electricity & Wiring, New York, McGraw-
Hill Book Co., 1937, $2.75.
Nilson & Hornung, Radio Operating Questions and Answers, New York,
McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1936, $2.50.










COURSES OF STUDY AND INSTRUCTIONAL UNITS 85


Ranson, Richard, Electric Meters, Chicago, Ill., American Tech. Society,
1933, $2.00.
Richter, H. P., Practical Electricity and House Wiring, Chicago, Illinois,
Frederick J. Drake Co,, 1927, $150
Schuhler, Albert, Electric Wiring, New York, McGraw-Hill Book Co.,
1936, $2.50.
Schultz & Schultz, School and Home Workshop for Junior High School
Grades, New York, Allyn & Bacon, 1935.
*Slack, Edgar P., Elementary Electricity, New York, McGraw-Hill Book
Co., 1931, $2.00.
Timbie, W. H., Elements of Electricity, New York, John Wiley & Sons,
1937, $3.00.
Timbie, W. H., Essentials of Electricity, New York, John Wiley & Sons,
1931, $2.00.
*Willoughby, Geo. A,, General Electricity Work, Peoria, Illinois, Manual
Arts Press, 1936, $.56.
Willoughby, Geo. A., Essentials of Electrical Work, Peoria, Illinois,
Manual Arts Press, 1927, $1.60.
Willoughby & Chamerlain, General Shop Handbook, Peoria, Illinois,
Manual Arts Press, 1936, $1.00.
Considered essential for a minimum working library.

GENERAL AUTO MECHANICS
EXPLANATION
Very few of the students who enroll in industrial arts sub-
jects embracing auto mechanics are destined to become auto me-
chanics; however, contrary to general opinion, no other area of
work in this field is more universally needed.
Our objectives should be changed from those of the past. Only
a very few students should receive attention toward specialization.
Very little technical work of a high order should be attempted.
We cannot, without being absurd, train boys to be auto mechanics
who are not to enter the profession immediately. The modern
automobile is being improved so rapidly that tools and equipment
become antiquated in a relatively short while. The school shop
cannot hope to keep such expensive and specialized equipment up
to date.
To make the course valuable, the principles of internal com-
bustion, engines-the whys and hows of the motor should first be
taught. Next the student should receive all possible knowledge from
the standpoint of the consumer. He should learn how to select, op-
erate, care for and appreciate the automobile.










86 SOURCE MATERIALS IN INDUSTRIAL ARTS


Last, but of equal importance in the light of the terrific annual
auto death toll in the United States, he should be carefully in-
structed in the item of safety in the operation of the automobile.

DIVISION I. SCOPE OF INSTRUCTION
INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES AND AUTOMOBILE MECHANICS
Scope of Instruction: Internal Combustion Engines and
Automobile Mechanics
Unit I.
1. Problems
a. Make two case studies each involving pedestrian,
bicycle and automobile traffic accidents.
2. Learning Activities
a. Precautions to pedestrians
1. Crossing traffic lanes
2. Crossing city intersections
3. Crossing rural intersections
b. Precautions to bicycle riders
1. Riding in traffic
2. Crossing intersections
c. Precautions to automobile drivers
1. Observing speed limits
2. Observing speed precautions
a. Approaching 4. Railroad cross-
1. Intersections ings
2. Other cars 5. Marked curves
3. Bridges or 6. School zones
other ob- and bus stops
structions 7. Playgrounds
3. Maintaining cars in good condition
a. Avoiding
1. Defective 3. Defective
brakes steering
2. Defective mechanism
tires
4. Requiring qualified drivers
5. Canceling driving privilege to drunken, careless,
incapable drivers









COURSES OF STUDY AND INSTRUCTIONAL UNITS


6. Maintaining alertness of mind for
a. Unexpected road situations
1. Slippery roads
2. Badly maintained spots
3. Bottle neck connections (city street to
rural road)
3. References
a. Youth at the Wheel, by J. J. Floherty, Published
by J. B. Lippincott Co.
4. Supplementary teaching aids
a. Talks by Traffic c. Playlets and
Supervisor Pageants
b. Films
Unit II. History and Modern Trends of the Internal Combustion
Engine.
1. Project
a. Report-"History and Trends of the Internal Com-
bustion Engine"
2. Learning Facts
a. Fundamental working principle
b. Early inventors: Dr. Otto and others
c. Comparing present day and early types
1. As to fuels used.
2. As to compression and combustion pressures.
3. As to ignition methods
3. References
a. Elementary Principles of Diesel Engine Con-
struction.
b. Automotive Service Vol. 1, p. 4.
c. Automotive Construction and Operation, Chapters
1 and 2.
d. The Gasoline Automobile, Chapter 2.
Unit III. Working Parts and their Function in an Internal Com-
bustion Engine.
1. Problems:
a. Sketch name and locate functioning parts in a
simple gas engine.
b. Explain function of these working parts.










88 SOURCE MATERIALS IN INDUSTRIAL ARTS

2. Learning Activity
a. Identifying and observing function of parts.
b. Sketching location of parts
c. Reporting on function of parts.
d. Explaining purpose of construction features found
in the different kinds of pistons, piston rings, crank
shafts, valves, spark plugs, cam shafts, and the
T-head, L-head, Valve-in-head motor.
3. Related Information
a. Metal alloys d. Provisions for
1. Kinds cor- cooling
only used e. Speed ratios of
2. Where used in parts. Effects of
motors overload and ex-
b. Bearings cessive speeds
c. Provisions for
lubrication
4. References
a. Automotive Essentials by Kuns, Chapter 3.
b. Automotive Service by Kuns, pp. 41-52.
c. Automotive Construction and Operation, pp. 35-52
5. Supplementary Teaching aids
a. Section model of gas engine
b. Manufacturers catalogs
Unit IV. The Two and Four Cycle Engine
1. Problems:
a. Draw sketches illustrating:
1. Functioning strokes of the four-stroke-cycle
engine
2. Functioning strokes of the two-stroke-cycle
engine
b. Explanation of term "cycle."
2. Learning Activities
a. Operating function of each stroke of the piston in
the so-called:
1. Four-stroke-cycle engine
2. Two-stroke-cycle engine
b. Advantages or disadvantages of these types in
operation










COURSES OF STUDY AND INSTRUCTIONAL UNITS 89


c. Distinguishing construction features of two and
four cycle engines
3. Related Information
a. Common installations and uses of these types of
engines
4. References
a. Automotive Service, by Kuns, Vol. 2, pp. 26-30
b. Automotive Essentials, by Kuns, p. 84
c. Elementary Principles of Diesel Engine Construct-
ing, pp. 9-12
d. Automotive Construction and Operation, pp. 28-35
e. The Gasoline Automobile, pp. 26-35
5. Supplementary Teaching Aids
a. Engine with section cut-away
b. Sectional views of engines
e. Engines with head removed
d. Outboard motor
e. Visiting power plant
Unit V. Elementary Principles of Ignition
1. Problems:
a. Draw diagram of low tension ignition system using
"make and break" igniter, simple coil, and six dry
cells as current supply
b. Draw diagram of high tension ignition system using
spark plug, vibrator coil and six dry cells and
circuit interrupter
c. Draw diagram of ignition system used in one of
the light modern cars.
Note: Show generator, battery, coil, condenser,
circuit breaker, distributor, and spark plugs
2. Learning Activities
a. Locating and determining function of:
1. Dry cells, simple coil, and igniter
2. Vibrator coil, spark plugs, and circuit
interrupter
3. Generator, battery, coil, condenser, circuit
breaker and points, distributor, and spark plugs
b. Comparing simple and high tension coils










SOURCE MATERIALS IN INDUSTRIAL ARTS


c. Comparing high and low tension current. Volt-
ages, insulation required and action in coils to
produce same
d. Comparing timing of spark in various ignition
systems
3. Related Information
a. Construction of all ignition parts
b. Common insulation materials used
c. Characteristics of various ignition systems for easy
identification
d. Function of the condenser and what happens
when it becomes damaged
e. Common ignition troubles and how they are
located
4. References
a. Automotive Essentials by Kuns
b. Automotive Service by Kuns
5. Supplementary Teaching Aids
a. Parts for setting up various ignition circuits
b. Parts sectioned out or otherwise set up to show
necessary construction features
Unit VI. Lubrication and Lubricants
1. Problems
a. Report on theory of lubrication.
b. Report on origin and processing of finished lubri-
cating oils
c. Chart characteristics of three automobile motor
oils as indicated in standard tests and specifications
d. List special qualities desired in two or more trans-
mission and differential greases, pump grease,
steam engine oil, gun oil, clock and watch oil
2. Learning Activity
a. Making standard tests on oils
b. Comparing oils on basis of standard tests
c. Gaining information from charts and from re-
liably informed men on oils
d. Examining oil company charts for oils recom-
mended for various cars
3. Related Information










COURSES OF STUDY AND INSTRUCTIONAL UNITS


a. Reasons why a motor may use excessive amounts
of oil
1. Condition of 3. Load on motor
motor 4. Unwise choice
2. Speed of of oil
driving 5. Cooling
a. Frictional imperfect
heat in b. Lubricat-
pistons ing systems
b. Combustion used in
heat motors
4. References
a. Robertson, Burton. An Investigation of Motor
Oils, University of Minnesota Engineering Experi-
ment Station Bulletin No. 10, 1935 ,Minneapolis,
Minnesota
5. Supplementary Teaching Aids
a. Samples of oils and greases
b. Talks by competent oil salesmen
Unit VII. Fuels and Carburetion
1. Problems:
a. Report characteristics and processing of fuels
commonly used in internal combustion engines
b. Describe carburetion of these fuels in engines for
which they are satisfactory fuels
c. Report proportions of air and fuel for most desir-
able mixtures of various petroleum fuels
2. Learning Activities
a. Charting characteristics of fuels according to
standard tests
1. Comparing volatility, odor and other easily dis-
tinguished characteristics for identification
c. Comparing the mixing valve and compensating
carburetor
d. Comparing the compensating carburetor and in-
jector type of fuel charging systems
e. Trying effects of rich and lean mixtures and notic-
ing effect on engine and exhaust appearance
f. Adjusting simple compensating carburetor










92 SOURCE MATERIALS IN INDUSTRIAL ARTS


3. Related Information:
a. Explosive mixtures in fuels
b. Manufactured motor fuels other than petroleum
fuels
c. Natural and manufactured gas as fuels
4. References:
a. The Gasoline Automobile, Elliott and Consoliver,
Chapter 8
5. Supplementary Teaching Aids
a. Sectioned carburetor
b. Samples of fuels
c. Small internal combustion engine
d. Visit to small power plant, (pumping, etc.)
e. The Story of Gasoline, Rothbacker Film Corpora-
tion, 7510 North Ashland Avenue, Chicago, Illinois.
Film free except transportation
Unit VIII.
1. Problems:
a. Report on history of Diesel engine
b. Describe low compression fuel oil engine
c. Describe semi-Diesel engine
d. Describe the high compression Diesel engine
e. Explain efficiency of Diesel engine
2. Learning Activities:
a. Comparing compression pressures of the low com-
pression, semi-Diesel and Diesel engines
b. Comparing combustion pressures of the low com-
pression, semi-Diesel and Diesel engines
c. Comparing ignition systems used on the three
types of fuel oil engines studies
d. Comparing fuel costs on the three types of fuel
oil engines studies
3. Related Information:
a. Common installations of the three types of fuel
oil engines
b. Characteristics of some of the common fuel oils
used
4. References:
a. Elementary Principles of Diesel Engine Construe-










COURSES OF STUDY AND INSTRUCTIONAL UNITS 93


tion, Chapter 3
b. The Gasoline Automobile, Page 35
c. Automotive Construction and Operation, pp. 77-79.
5. Supplementary Teaching Aids
a. Visits to power plants
b. Visits to tractor and truck sales agencies who sell
Diesel equipped tractors and trucks
c. Secure manufacturers' literature on Diesel power
plants
d. Visit Diesel powered boats and ships
DIVISION II. SCOPE OF INSTRUCTION
AUTO-MECHANICS
The following units are suggested for Division II or the sec-
ond year, for those whose time and equipment permit:
Unit I. Power Measurement and Economy
Unit II. Care and Simple Repairs of the Auto Engine
Unit III. The Automobile Transmission
Unit IV. The Automobile Differential
Unit V. The Brakes and Tire Care
Unit VI. The Cooling System
Unit VII. The Chassis and Springs
Unit VIII. The Ignition System and Lighting
Unit IX. The Fuel Supply and Carburetion
Unit X. Body Care
Unit XI. Competent Driving
BIBLIOGRAPHY
*Kuns, Ray F., Automotive Service, Volume I, Milwaukee, Wisconsin,
Bruce Publishing Co., 1938.
*Kuns, Ray F., Automotive Service, Volume II, Milwaukee, Wisconsin,
Bruce Publishing Co., 1938.
Wright and Smith, Automotive Construction and Operation, New York,
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1933.
*Kuns, Ray F., Automotive Essentials, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, Bruce Pub-
lishing Co., 1937.
Brown and Ziegenhagen, Elementary Principles Diesel Engine Construc-
tion, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, Bruce Publishing Co., 1936.
*Elliott and Consoliver, The Gasoline Automobile, New York, McGraw-
-Hill Book Co., 1932.
Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc., Dykes Automobile Encyclopedia, 2009 S.
Michigan Ave., Chicago, Ill., 1935.
*Considered essential for minimum working library.




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