Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Understanding the problem
 Suggestions for the teachers
 Suggestive materials and unit-...
 Developing and carrying out a large...
 Appendix A
 Appendix B
 Appendix C

Group Title: Bulletin Florida Program for Improvement of Schools
Title: Suggestions for teaching the actions and effects of alcohol and other narcotics
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00080767/00001
 Material Information
Title: Suggestions for teaching the actions and effects of alcohol and other narcotics
Series Title: Bulletin Florida Program for Improvement of Schools
Physical Description: xiii, 138 p. : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- State Dept. of Education
Publisher: State Dept. of Education,
State Dept. of Education
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1941
Copyright Date: 1941
Subject: Alcoholism -- Study and teaching   ( lcsh )
Drug abuse -- Study and teaching   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
General Note: "Supplement to part V of Bulletin no. 4 ... a revision and combination of Bulletins no. 7 and no. 22-K."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00080767
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - AHQ5393
oclc - 21281196
alephbibnum - 001630622

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page i
    Table of Contents
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
        Page xi
        Page xii
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
    Understanding the problem
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Suggestions for the teachers
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
    Suggestive materials and unit-projects
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
    Developing and carrying out a large unit activity
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
    Appendix A
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
    Appendix B
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
    Appendix C
        Page 137
        Page 138
Full Text


.ggestions for Teacnil. .. ,. .... cts of


A Supplement to Part V of Bulletin No. 4
Bulletins No. ( No ber, 1939)
and No. 22-k mimeographed November 1940)

N. V. CAROTHERS. Dire(/ or

.:: DECEMBER, 1941

!*' A Supplement to Part V ot Bulletin No. 4 .*''s,
Plans for Florida\' School Health Program 'r.

,", A Revision and Combination of "*
ii',." Bulletins No. 7 ( November, 1939) ,g
.*i and No. 22-k t Mimeographed November 1940) ,"

"' M. W. CAROTHERS, DirecTor .')

' --i

|f," COLIN ENGLISH, Snperintendent t>.


,, .,.

3 / 0 Oq4,5`


FOREWORD - - - - -


The Challenge - - - - - 1
The Problem in General - - - - 2
The Educational Problem - -- - 5

Time Allotment and Relationship to
Other Subjects - - - - - 7
Balanced Program - - - - - 10
Graded Program - - - - - 11
Age Level and Ability of Student - - - 14
A Desirable Approach - - - 21
Objectives- - - ---- 31

Introduction to Part III - - - - 36
A Small Florida Twelve Grade School Reports - 39
A Report From a California Junior High School 56
Suggestions for Advanced High School and
College Levels - - - - - 60
A List of Activities - - - - - 65
Evaluation and Guidance - - - - 68

ACTIVITY - - - - - 77

V. BIBLIOGRAPHIES - - - - - 113
Text Book Material for Grade Groups - - 113
Charts, Films, and Periodicals - - - 115
Supplementary Bibliography for Scientific Phase -118
Supplementary Bibliography for Social Economic,
and Historical Phases - - - - 118
APPENDIX -- - - -----120
Appendix A - - ------ 120
Report of the Development of the Program for
Narcotics and Health Education (August 15,
1941) - - - - - - 120
Suggestions for Planning a Long-Time Program ,
(October 4, 1941) - - - - 123
Proposed Florida Program for Narcotics and Health
Education (1941-1943) - - - 124
Appendix B - - -------129
Narcotics Education Functioning Through
Parent-Teacher Associations - - - 129
Appendix C - - -------137
School Laws Relating to Alcohol and
Other Narcotics - - - - - 137




Florida teachers and parents can have no higher aim than to
aid our young people in building fine character and good health,
and no evidence of character and health is more significant than
a proper understanding of what builds character and health and
what things hinder or pull down.
One of the larger fundamental objectives of education in
our state and nation is the development in boys and girls of ethi-
cal character in keeping with the ideals of Christian democratic
society. The unprecedented explosion of internal disturbances
and wars in the twentieth century are incontrovertable evidence
of the self-contradictions which exist in every phase of life and
science today. Effective character education has never been
more needed.
Alert teachers and laymen everywhere are taking more and
more recognition of the fact that health is of fundamental im-
portance to all society and to each individual in it, and that all
private and public agencies should work cooperatively toward
achieving the goals of health instruction. At the same time the
national emergency has made it painfully evident to us all that
acute unhealthful conditions exist in every state, and that our
health instructional programs are to a very large degree neither
adequate nor functional.
It is hoped that this bulletin, prepared with the idea that it
might be of assistance to teachers in dealing with the difficult
problems involved in creating a proper understanding of the
actions and effects of narcotics, will be of material assistance in
this character and health building program.
Our appreciation is extended to the Florida Cooperative

Committee, whose cooperation, unselfish service, and financial
assistance made the preparation of this bulletin possible.

State Superintendent
of Public Instruction.


In considering the use and general purposes of this bulletin,
like all the rest in the present series, it is presented to school fac-
ulties of Florida with the hope that it will provide helpful guid-
ance for them as they seek to improve instruction in the class-
rooms of our state. Inevitably much emphasis has been placed
throughout on the strategic importance of the classroom teacher.
In attacking any serious problem a cooperative plan is neces-
sary. Such cooperation in developing a plan for the larger school
health program is now in operation in our state. The school
must play well its important part if the whole plan or any of
its parts is to be successfully carried out. We must both under-
stand and be prepared to fulfill our responsibilities as teachers
before we can be in a position to make our utmost contribution
to any program in the place where that contribution will be most
Broadly speaking, this bulletin attempts to discover the
proper relationship of the whole program of the elementary
and of the secondary school to the special health area of narcotics
education, and to suggest to teachers a practical manner in which
a well-balanced program of health education can and should
utilize this relationship to its own betterment and to the im-
provement of the larger program of the school. A recent report
of the development of the program of narcotics education, is-
sued by the State Department of Education under a sub-heading
titled "Plan of Course Offerings,"* said:
In the Florida program, narcotics education is considered a part of health
education, and special effort is being made to correlate health teaching with
*See page 120 (Appendix A) for complete report.

other subjects insofar as possible. Since this is true of the whole field of health,
naturally, it is likewise true of the specific health area of narcotics education.
In, addition to this plan for general teaching, however, it is strongly
recommended in the Florida program that a special daily period be set aside
for health instruction. As a part of this period, at least one unit, the central
theme of which is narcotics education, is recommended for each grade level
throughout the public school program. School officials are urged to make
some definite provision in their programs for narcotics instruction. As has
been suggested, such instruction may be given as a special part of the school
program, as a part of the general health teaching program, or through corre-
lation with other subjects.
This bulletin suggests to Florida teachers a long-range plan
for including this special health instruction in the school pro-
gram. All the suggestions, procedures and materials utilized in
this bulletin are broadly applicable to the entire instructional
program of the school, and particularly to the phases of the
program dealing with health, safety, and character education.
As stated earlier in Bulletin 7, narcotics education begins with
the narrow, exact scientific phase, and from that point it gradu-
ally spreads and branches out to include a field as broad and as
complicated as life itself, and presenting just as many stimulat-
ing, intermingling problems.
It should be made clear that the program of narcotics edu-
cation, like the larger health program of which it is an integral
part, has been one of continuous development and that consid-
erable effort has been exercised in order to maintain consistency.
An understanding of the proper place and significance of nar-
cotics education in relation to the whole area of health and in
relation to the larger instructional program of the school is
dependent in large measure upon a grasp of the point of view
which permeates other bulletins in the present Florida series.
This likewise is true of all so-called special interest fields when
a cooperative, unified program is in process of development.
In the preface of Bulletin No. 4* this paragraph appears:
The (Florida School Health Program) plan must be translated into
action, while it is being, at the same time, continually improved. Supple-
mentary bulletins amplifying various aspects of the program, particularly

*Plans for Florida's School Health Program, Bulletin No. 4, (October, 1939) State
Department of Education, Tallahassee, Florida.

that aspect dealing with health instruction, must be developed. With a
united effort on a program which all understand, however, great advance-
ment will be made.
The first material which was prepared in this special (nar-
cotics education) area of health was published in November,
1939, as Bulletin No. 7. Many copies of this bulletin were made
available to Florida teachers, and it was used in a variety of ways
in numerous sections and schools of the state. In 1940 additional
materials of a supplementary nature were developed at the
Health Education Workshop which was conducted at Florida
State College for Women during the summer session. This ma-
terial was mimeographed and made available to teachers as Bul-
letin No. 22-k, in November, 1940. It contained further sug-
gestions for improving learning situations in regard to narcotics
education, as well as numerous practical illustrations of im-
proved practice: units and projects which had been developed in
Florida schools after individual and faculty group study of
Bulletin 7 had taken place.
The present edition of Bulletin 22-k represents an attempt
to revise and combine the best features of the two earlier pub-
lications into one practical, readily available bulletin, and at
the same time to add some worthwhile new materials that have
been developed by growing Florida teachers since September,
1940. These suggestive materials give evidence at numerous
points that the teachers concerned have a grasp of the educa-
tional principals and of the spirit which permeates Bulletins 9
and 10. 'In revising and combining Bulletins 7 and 22-k it was
necessary to arbitrarily delete some worthwhile materials from
them both. Teachers who have access to these earlier bulletins
will find them helpful if not necessary supplements to this bul-
The Florida program of narcotics education is divided into
three parts, which stated as questions, are:
1. Why teach narcotics education?
2. How teach narcotics education?
3. What to teach as narcotics education?

These three phases or parts are now developed and available
in two basic publications: this bulletin* and Bertha Rachel Palm-
er's "A Syllabus in Alcohol Education" (sixth edition-com-
pletely revised) *. In determining "what" to teach, the materi-
als of this bulletin have been based largely upon Palmer's "Syl-
labus". Much material of the "Syllabus" has been brought into
this bulletin in explaining "why and how" to teach narcotics
education, but no attempt is made herein to develop a separate
or detailed consideration of "what" to teach in this area. Teach-
ers are urged to use this bulletin in connection with the "Sylla-
bus", since the two supplement and complement each other in
such an effective manner. Both should prove helpful in plan-
ning and executing a small or a large unit of work and both will
be referred to time and again during the actual development of
a unit. Both are now available from the State Department of
Education in Tallahassee.* On the other hand, if for any reason
it is impossible to have access to, them both, each may be studied
and read separately with profit by any individual or group.
Parts III and IV of this bulletin are made up of teacher re-
ports of "units, projects or problems, and one large unit of
work", as they were carried out, for the most part, in Florida
schools. These materials are concrete illustrations of the kind
of work which is being done by the growing teacher in Florida.
The "large unit" described and explained in Part IV is just
that. Strictly speaking, however, it is not an example of a "good
large unit, properly developed". It does not grow entirely out
of the experience and needs of the group and the environment
as do the projects in Part III. It does have definitely worth-
while and positive values in what it is and what it actually does
accomplish, and as such deserves a prominent place in this bul-
letin. The unit which constitutes Part IV shows the detailed
method and technique by which one elementary teacher, with

*A limited, supply of this bulletin (No. 22-k) is now available. One copy has been sent
to every county superintendent and to every school in the State having four or more teachers.
While the supply lasts a copy will be bend free to any interested school group or to any indi-
vidual teacher, upon written request only. There should be at least one bulletin for every
three or four teachers in every school. Copies are also available to churches and other out-of-
school groups or individuals at 25c per copy, postpaid.
Copies of A Syllabus in Alcohol Education may be ordered from the State Department
of Education, Tallahassee, Florida, at 150 per copy, postpaid.

the help of her pupils, adapted the subject matter of narcotics
education to desirable and practical direct learning situations
in the areas of language arts, social studies, science, number,
practical and fine arts, and healthful living-for use with and
by her fifth-sixth grade group. It undoubtedly has many char-
acteristics of a "good large unit", but it actually is a series of
connected, related, direct and desirable learning situations con-
cerning narcotics and life. In any event, the ingenuity and skill
with which the teacher accomplished her purpose should prove
challenging to groups and to individual teachers who study this
bulletin with the purpose of improving the instructional pro-
grams in their classes.
It will be noted that some of the unit or activity materials
contained in this bulletin were developed by elementary teach-
ers and pupils to meet the needs of the elementary age-grade
level, while others have been developed by and for various sec-
ondary groups. In most cases, various grade-subject adaptations
and correlations are possible. Those who use this bulletin should
not forget that it has likewise been written upon the assumption
that teachers can, and will read critically and intelligently ma-
terials prepared especially for their use. The whole bulletin has
been written for every teacher in the elementary and the second-
ary school.
It is recommended that the interested individual teacher
or the total faculty group begin a study of this bulletin at the
beginning and continue through it in that manner. Of course
it is possible to begin study at any point which seems to be of
interest, but in the case of this special subject area, this is not
recommended. The suggestion appears in Bulletin No. 9 that
a hasty general reading of the entire bulletin done on an indi-
vidual basis, supplemented by concentrated faculty study at
certain points, would perhaps be the most desirable approach.
That suggestion is equally good for those who use this bulletin
as they attempt to improve their instruction and to help young
people develop their full possibilities.
Perhaps one other point should be mentioned. Since bev-
erage alcohol constitutes the major narcotics problem of the
United States and the world today, most emphasis has been

given to this phase of the problem. Very little attention has
been given specifically to the white drugs and marihuana (the
so-called "heavy" narcotics), but the suggestions given here are
broad enough for their inclusion. Our efforts of course can no
more than dent the surface of the whole great problem of alco-
hol and other narcotics.
Finally, the primary purpose of this bulletin, as has been
stated, is to help Florida teachers improve their health instruc-
tional programs. Although the subject matter of this bulletin
(together with that of Palmer's "Syllabus") deals with nar-
cotics and with the general health area, certain instructional
procedures have been considered in detail, and should prove es-
pecially practical and helpful to supervisors, principals and
teachers working on the general health program or any particu-
lar phase of it.
Acknowledgements are due to all who have had a part in
developing the narcotics education phase of the Florida school
health program. The preparation of this bulletin was made pos-
sible through the efforts and cooperation of numerous individu-
als and groups. Especial appreciation and recognition are here
given to those who developed and helped write this material.
The State Department is particularly indebted to Superinten-
dent John I. Leonard, and to certain elementary and secondary
classroom teachers of Palm Beach County who planned and
developed most of the units or projects used herein. Those
teachers are: Mildred Stevens, Herbert Wilkinson, Dorothy
Fletcher, Lois Moses, Margaret Walcott, Sally Spillman, and
Mabel Tuck. Nancy Lutz of Jacksonville also prepared some
valuable material which is utilized in Part III.
Among the persons from outside Florida to whom special
credit should be given for timely aid and criticism are Bertha
R. Palmer, Former State Superintendent of Public Instruction
of North Dakota, Winnie Buckels of the Mississippi State De-
partment of Education, and Howard E. Hamlin, Supervisor of
Health and Narcotics, Ohio State Department of Education.
Special appreciation is also due to the following persons who
gave freely of their time, energy and ideas: Fannie B. Shaw of

the Florida State College for Women, and the following staff
members of the State Department of Education, W. T. Edwards,
Assistant Curriculum Director; Joe Hall, Consultant in Physi-
cal and Health Education; Paul Eddy, Director of Department
Publications; and Boletha Frojen, Supervisor of Home Eco-
nomics. Acknowledgement and appreciation are also expressed
to the publishers who gave permission for use of certain ma-
terials, to Ruth Scanlan, Secretary, and to other individuals
who gave of their time in the completion of this bulletin.

Consultant in Narcotics and Health
Education, State Department of Education.

Part One

Modern civilization surrounds us with a bewildering multi-
tude of dilemmas, confusions, contradictions, and paradoxes.
In the approach to the problems of alcohol and other nar-
cotics and to our hopes of a final settlement, we owe much to
science and the objective, exact methods with which it has
solved and is solving some of the toughest specific problems of
this great issue. But the truth is that science alone can no more
completely solve the problem than could the old-time emo-
tionalism. Scientific knowledge concerning every part and
working of the motor does not necessarily keep the mechanic
from killing himself, or others, with the automobile. The doc-
tor who knows most in the realm of scientific knowledge about
the effects of narcotics on the human organism may drink him-
self to death at forty.
In its report, Implications of Social-Economic Goals for
Education, the Committee on Social-Economic Goals of Amer-
ica of the National Education Association, has this to say on
the subject of Alcohol Education:1
The neglect of this subject in recent years now makes special emphasis
desirable. Modern scientists state that alcohol is not a stimulant, as formerly
supposed, but a narcotic which depresses the higher centers and removes
inhibitions. According to a report from the Coroner of Cuyahoga County,
Ohio (including Cleveland), of 110 fatal traffic cases tested, 45 percent
showed the presence of enough alcohol to cause intoxication in most per-
sons. Psychologists now see in the use of alcohol an attempt to escape from
unpleasant realities. Recent insurance data emphasize the importance of

1Implications of Social-Economic Goals for Education (Washington: National Education
Association, 1937), p. 33.


temperance education. The excessive use of alcohol as a cause of uninsur-
ability among persons under thirty years of age applying to one insurance
company, increased 183 percent from 1932 to 1936. The sale of alcoholic
beverages is estimated to have reached almost five billion dollars per year.
Modern advertising of intoxicating drinks is considerably more skilful
than that of pre-prohibition days. The ads are brightly colored, and the
ladies and gentlemen pictured in them are the well-groomed kind. They
may well give the impression that all "smart people" drink. In many com-
munities no voice is raised to give youth the facts. While all the states have
laws requiring that the effects of alcohol be taught in the public schools,
most of these laws were originally passed between 1880 and 1890, and in
only seven states do they state that instruction must be furnished in teacher-
training schools.
The departments of education in a few states in recent years'have made
a fresh approach to the problem .... Obviously, more and better instruction
is needed on the elementary, secondary, and college levels.
Such is the challenge thrown out to the. teachers of the
land by the National Education Association. This old problem
with its ever recurring and new manifestations today consti-
tutes one of the new "frontiers of Democracy". We quote
from a recent publication of The American School of the Air:2
We hear from many quarters that our frontiers are now closed, that
with their closing youth has lost the opportunity for venturing into new
paths and opening new territories. But clearly, if we include other than
physical (geographical) problems, this is not true. There are still frontiers
and they are as difficult, as challenging, as demanding of intelligent action.
How shall we conserve our human resources? How shall we reduce
crime? How shall we plan for the education of our nation? These frontiers
call for all of the social feeling, intelligence and zest for action that we
possess. And the essence of the democratic life is that each of us can, in
some way, have a part in exploring and conquering our frontiers.
What equipment must we have for the conquest of these, our new
frontiers? First we must learn to know our problems and then seek ways,
with the methods of democracy, to solve them.

One of the serious problems confronting civilization is that
of the prevalence of the use of narcotics. Narcotic usage, in one

2The American School of the Air, Teachers Manual and Classroom Guide, Second Semes-
ter, January 30 to April 28, 1939 (New York: The Columbia Broadcasting System, 1939),
pp. 9-10.


form or another, is as old as the recorded history of the race and
its consequences have been woven into the proverbs and mores
of every people on earth.
Every country has its favorite narcotic or narcotics. Corra-
dini says that beverage alcohol is the major narcotic problem in
the world.3
Dr. Thomas Parran, Surgeon General of the United States
Public Health Service, said in a recent article that alcohol is the
least harmful of the drugs that man has always used to blunt his
senses "but it has done more harm than any others because it has
been more widely used".4 It is easy to see then why any discus-
sion of narcotics, particularly concerning the United States,
would emphasize alcohol.
It might be well to emphasize at this point the fact that
alcohol and other narcotics have many important and neces-
sary uses in the field of science and industry. Many substances
which can exert a narcotic or toxic influence upon the human
organism have an indispensable place in our life when used by or
at the direction of competent physicians. Over 100,000,000
gallons of commercial (denatured) alcohol are used annually
by commercial concerns in the United States alone. Commer-
cial alcohol may be said to constitute a "key" industry. To its
use for these legitimate purposes neither science nor education
objects. It is only when the product is diverted from these useful
purposes and sold as beverages that men and women of ethically
sensitive minds protest. That protest is based upon the nature
of alcohol and upon its psychological and physical effects upon
the user and the social consequences of its manufacture, sale, and
use upon the community. On these points there is definite and
well-authenticated data in the fields of medicine, biology, physi-
ology, psychology and economics.
Two facts about alcohol with reference to other narcotics
seem worth notice at this point: (1) Alcohol is the only nar-
cotic drug the use of which is socially acceptable or a part of

8Robert E. Corradini, Narcotics and Youth Today (New York: Foundation for Nar-
cotics Research and Information, Inc., 1934). Introduction, p. xiii.
4Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, March, 1941, Volume I. Number 4.


social custom, excluding tobacco of course; and (2) Much more
is known about alcohol than any other narcotic. Doctors, chem-
ists, and other scientists have been experimenting, making
studies and analyses with the view of learning the facts about
alcohol, for almost a hundred years. They have discovered and
authenticated much scientific information concerning the ac-
tions, effects, manifestations, and consequences of alcohol, in-
side and outside the human body, and when used in both small
and large quantities. Comparatively little scientific experi-
mentation has been carried out regarding other narcotics.
This age-old problem changes very little but in its aspects
and manifestations, like civilization itself, it is ever changing.
Within our generation we have seen changing conditions set
new purposes for the school. The status of the home has changed
greatly. Within the last decade we have seen drinking among
women and young people become widely accepted as social
custom for the first time in America. And with this change
have come inevitable concomitant social, economic and moral
issues and problems. Too often today the child cannot depend
upon the home for development of a sense of stability, security,
and refuge as he tries to adjust to life.
The machine age too, particularly with reference to the
automobile, has added to the complexity of the problem in
innumerable ways. The speed of present day movement is con-
fusing and exhausting; it often puts a strain on the senses and
the nerves and builds up tensions with no provisions for re-
leasing them.
Within the relatively recent past the problem has been
greatly intensified by the application of modern scientific meth-
ods to the manufacture and distribution of certain narcotics,
stimulants and sedatives, and by the utilization of modern ad-
vertising methods to stimulate their sale and use. An economic
system dominated by the profit motive is likely to sanctify the
development of exploitative industries and to become indiffer-
ent to the personal and social demoralization created by the use
of such a product as beverage alcohol in a highly mechanized
and closely interrelated society. The growing problems result-
ing from exploitative advertising, particularly of tobacco and


alcohol, are problems that affect young people and their future
more directly than their elders.
In attacking our problems we must have truth and under-
standing, both of which are within the realm of education. We
must discover the truth about alcoholic beverages and other
narcotics through the natural and social sciences and permit
facts to speak for themselves in the conviction that truth is the
most effective instrument for the attainment of our objectives.
In such a program it must be recognized that the problem of the
use of narcotics does not stand alone, either in its relation to the
individual user or to society, but is intimately related to such
problems as a sense of personal inadequacy, frustration, malad-
justment, poverty, disease, crime, social pressure, and the lack
of normal human satisfactions along other lines. The creation
of desirable attitudes and habits of conduct with reference to
the use of narcotics is therefore to be regarded as a part of a total
program for the achievement of a social order of justice, free-
dom, security and happiness, which after all, is the big aim of the
health program and of all education in a democracy.

Narcotics education has for a long time been considered a
task for the public schools and is certainly not an innovation
from the point of view of the principles and purposes of public
education. During the past two decades educators have worked
enthusiastically in the development of a program of education
in health and accident prevention. Narcotics instruction can
parallel such instruction or be part of it. The aims and ideals
of present day education in a democracy place it in direct con-
flict with those elements in society which seek to exploit human
weaknesses or which degrade or destroy personality, or which
prevent persons from achieving their highest development.
It is not meant that the public school alone can solve the
problems of alcohol and other narcotics, but we do insist with
Payne that no ultimate solution can be attempted or attained
without the inclusion of education among the social forces in-


evolved in the control of the production . ., the manufacture,
the distribution and use of the finished products.5
Laws to be most effective should follow public opinion
rather than attempt to create that opinion. However, we must
remember that public opinion is seldom static and can move in
either direction very quickly. Therefore, one function of edu-
cation is to create public opinion, to safeguard it, and to keep
continually re-creating it toward desirable and democratic ends.
Particularly is this true in dealing with so-called controversial
matters or with issues that are closely bound up with rich com-
mercial interests.
Education then is the most fundamental weapon with which
to fight the traffic in narcotics-with which to confine them
to their legitimate and humane purposes. In relying upon edu-
cation we are reverting to the most fundamental factor in social
control without which all other factors will prove futile.6
The trouble with narcotics education in the past has been
due to several factors which might be summarized thus:
1. The subject was largely unorganized.
2. Teachers were untrained in this field.
3. Instruction materials were scarce and difficult to under-
stand. Such studies, researches, and experiments were carried
on by doctors and scientists and were therefore technical and
dull to the lay mind.
4. The alcohol education and legislation program was pro-
moted largely by reformers whose personal zeal often exceeded
their knowledge and their understanding of what composed
a practical program.
The use of narcotics and the individual and social problems
growing out of their usage is one of the grave problems which
confronts society. In the solution of this problem our schools
must make adequate provision for assuming their part of the

5E. George Payne, The Menace of Narcotic Drugs (New York: Prentice-Hall, Inc.,
1931), pp. 232-233.
6Ibid., p. 234.

Part Two


The amount of time to be devoted specifically to narcotics
education in a separate period is an arbitrary matter dependent
upon many local factors and conditions.
Health education and health instruction today is being in-
serted and correlated with other subjects in various ways. This
is particularly true on the high school level with such subjects
as general science, biology, physiology, home economics, and
physical education.
Some schools are purposely avoiding definite periods for
health education and are making use of integrated units and
health activities instead. Narcotics education fits into any such
plan to make the whole more complete and well-balanced.
However, the State Department recommends use of a definite
health instructional period in high school. Accordingly, and
since narcotics instruction touches the whole of living, it should
be taught both incidentally and directly just as any other phase
of the health program. A regular period for presentation of
organized and progressively arranged narcotics education ma-
terials concerning habits, knowledge, and attitudes is recom-
mended and included as a part of the Florida school health
At the same time the growing tendency to make the health
program a part of an integrated and correlated larger program
can not be over-emphasized. In such a program, for example,
general science and biology units present the scientific founda-
tions of health and would include the scientific phases of nar-
cotics education. Home economics would include such topics as


food composition and values, sanitation, and infant care. In this
connection there would be considered such problems as (1) How
does alcohol affect digestion? (2) Is alcohol a food? and (3)
Does alcohol consumed by the mother affect the infant before
birth? After birth? Physical education provides big-muscle
activities and here emphasis is placed on showing the relationship
between narcotics and athletic prowess. The social studies
emphasize community health. In such studies we can seek to
discover what the results are in communities where many per-
sons drink or use other narcotics, the relationship of narcotics to
general community health, crime, and other social problems.
"A school health program should be concerned with the
whole of life-with ways of thinking, attitudes, and emotions
-quite as much as with proper habits relating to such items as
food, exercise, and sleep."7 The school's responsibility for mental
health, and for providing for personality needs and adjustments,
is greater than ever before. "Among the factors which tend
to bring about emotional stability for adults are these: an effec-
tive philosophy of life, interest and satisfaction in one's work,
right use of leisure, a hobby, the feeling of belonging in a com-
munity, and proper sex and home adjustments."8 These things
bring emotional stability to the individual and enable him to
keep it; they are in a very real sense preventatives with regard
to the use of alcohol and other narcotics. They provide whole-
some and natural substitutes for such unnatural practices as
the alcohol habit.
The important place of physical education thus becomes
apparent. We live in an industrial age of increasing sedentary
occupations and leisure; an age of speed mania; an age of
nervous overstimulation, particularly in the overcrowded urban
centers; an age where the natural opportunities for play have
been reduced on many levels; an age where the demand for
greater cooperation in most areas of adult life is pressing; and
finally, an age where the problem of overfatigue has become
acute. Therefore, only as we succeed in providing natural op-

7John Kelly Norton and M. A. Norton, Foundations of Curriculum Building, (Boston:
Ginn and Company, 1936) p. 138.
S8bid., pp. 138-139.


portunities for play on all levels and other wholesome substi-
tutes for narcotics can we hope to solve or reduce to a minimum
the personal and social problems which they produce.
Some specialists argue that the decrease in outdoor life and
vigorous muscular activity is undoubtedly one of the causes for
the recent increase in deaths due to diseases of the circulatory
system, kidneys, liver, and digestive tract. It naturally follows
that these same organs, if they are at all susceptible to disease,
will be harmed by alcohol and tobacco in proportion to the
amount used.9
It is apparent that physical education should contribute
to the development of the child's total personality and not
merely to his physique. And it is apparent also that beverage
Alcohol and other narcotics will prevent or interfere with the
achievement of both the broad and specific aims of physical
education. The alert teacher or coach will miss no opportunity
to drive home this fact.
The most effective substitutes of all would seem to be, for
a variety of reasons, those involving physical activities-the
will and the ability to take part in vigorous, well-directed mus-
cular activity. However, any activities, mental or physical,
which lead to the development of an effective philosophy and
the right use of leisure are not to be overlooked. Here are some
diverse possibilities for younger persons, chosen at random:
student government, intra-mural sports, group music, poetry
clubs, motion pictures (selected educational and entertainment
films shown in schools), and organized activity courses, such as
journalism, photography, social customs, safety driving, first
aid, dancing, outdoor or camp cooking, art crafts, art metal
work, model airplane building, penmanship and spelling, re-
medial reading, library practice, parliamentary practice, public
housing, and the standard Red Cross first-aid course.
The radio, too, has a place. Unguided, undirected listening
can sometimes be worse than harmless, but school and educa-
tional broadcasts can be meaningful for teacher as well as stu-

9See Raymond Pearl, "Tobacco Smoking and Longevity," reprinted in The Narcotic
Review, Vol. III, No. 2 (1938), p. 1.


dent. "Children are reading books because of radio dramas they
have heard. Hobby Lobby has started many a youngster on a
new leisure-time activity."10 The World Is Yours has stirred
the curiosity of thousands of youngsters.
For older youth and adults there are also many substitute
possibilities. To mention several: the establishment of semi-
professional, subtechnical, and general cultural courses such
as will be made available through the upward extension of the
high school; and the provision of more industrial training and
adult education.
The philosophy upon which the health education program
of the Springfield, Missouri, schools is based is:
Health is not a subject or a special skill; it is a way of living-mentally,
emotionally, socially and physically-and as such cannot be taught except
to a very limited extent as a special subject, but must grow out of and be a
part of all child experiences in the school, the home, and the community.11
The important problem in the health program is to develop
functional health habits. Children and young people oftimes
know what aids or injures health but such knowledge may not
be (and often is not) dynamic. It is easier to follow the line of
least resistance than to develop positive, working attitudes and
habits. Those who hold that health education should consist
of experiences in healthful living are vitally concerned with
all outside activities that have a bearing on health. Children
must be fortified with health ideals while in school (concerning
narcotics and many other things) that will be immediately func-
tional and that will carry over into later life as well.
Health is a social and economic as well as a personal and
educational problem. Economic depressions have effects on nu-
trition of children and incidence of disease. The use of beverage
alcohol likewise has similar effects. That the, use of narcotics
affects health has been noted from early times.

10I. Keith Tyler, "Radio's Function in Education," The Education Digest (March,
1939), p. 32.
11Hershel 0. Hartley, "Constructing a Health-Education Curriculum," Journal of
Health and Physical Education, 4:32-34 (September, 1933).


Health education faces a serious task, even among children
of educated parents, of eradicating common superstitions, mis-
conceptions, and unfounded beliefs concerning health.* About
alcohol there has immemorially hovered countless superstitions
and misconceptions of all degrees and types. For example,
alcohol has long been known by modern science to be a depress-
ant narcotic drug. Nevertheless, it is commonly accepted by
many persons to be a stimulant. Another is that alcohol is an
antidote for snake poison. Such unfounded beliefs have their
roots in history. It is the task of the educator to uproot super-
stitions and misconceptions and replace them with objective
appeals to intelligence and reason.

"Tentative materials and activities, designed to meet these
(health) problems, have to be selected and tried out experi-
mentally in classrooms before a graded course of study in health
education is really achieved."12 Such a project was carried
through to completion by Turner, who tested out various health-
education procedures over a ten-year period and finally de-
veloped a course of study. In his book he says:
We first familiarized ourselves with the program of general education
in the schools and with the general health problems and activities in the city.
From a knowledge and a study of the field of child hygiene, supplemented by
an investigation of such data as were available concerning causes of illness
and death in the community, a list of specific desirable habits, attitudes, and
knowledge units was developed.13
In using such an approach to a graded program the units
developed would deal with all phases of health. There should
be units having to do with narcotics on all grade levels (or such
instruction could be correlated with other units all along the
line without any specific mention being made of it in big titles
or headings). However, this instruction cannot be successfully
and satisfactorily taught in whatever manner unless the ma-

*See O. W. Caldwell and G. E. Lundeen, Do You Believe It? (New York: Doubleday,
Doran and Company, 1934).
12Norton and Norton, op. cit., p. 135.
13C. E. Turner, Principles of Health Education (New York: D. C. Heath and Com-
pany, 1932), p. 48.


trials of instruction have first been carefully gathered and
There seems to be as much confusion and as many dif-
ferences of opinion concerning a graded program of narcotics
education among teachers as there are over the most heated of
educational issues. This is due largely to ignorance or indif-
ference, or to both.
The scientific phase of alcohol education furnishes a sound
foundation upon which to build a complete and satisfactory
graded program of instruction from the first grade through
the college-a foundation of objective, unemotional facts; a
program of sustaining interest.
In the primary grades the children are led by their teacher's
conversational questions to state the things they know "here
and now" about the problem. For example, "Accidents in Our
Community" is a sure fire starting point, even for first graders.
Next through what has been observed concerning drinking and
heard at home or elsewhere, children readily make statements,
and eagerly anticipate making simple experiments which show
what alcohol is and what it does. Eye appeal is added to ear
appeal when there is something to see, something taking place.
Children now learn how plants drink by performing certain
simple experiments with celery, red ink, water, and alcohol.
They also see how water revives celery, what the alcohol does
to the delicate celery tissues. They then study the effects of
diluted alcohol on growing plants and germinating seeds. Later
they compare the effects (actions?) of alcohol and water on
bread and on meat. The children bring their own containers
and materials, thus there is generated a ready interest at home
in what the children are doing and the results they get.
As pupils pass on into the intermediate grades they make
other experiments with water and alcohol on common sub-
stances. They learn of the great value of alcohol in industry
and business and the reasons for its value. They come to know
that alcohol is alcohol because of its two characteristic and un-
chaniging actions: (1) that of a solvent, dissolving what water
will not, and (2) that of a dehydrant or "drier"; and they


understand these actions because they have seen them take place.
All the while they are learning by doing and by seeing. They
learn again that alcohol always has the same actions or effects,
but many different manifestations. "Scientific observances of
the human body have shown that, even in the greatly diluted
form in which, in the blood stream, it comes in contact with
the nerves and tissues, these two qualities of alcohol are chiefly
responsible for the effects on the body."14
The story of the elementary program is almost told. It re-
quires little time during any single year and can be correlated
easily with such subjects as health, science, safety or character
education. Some health, character, or science stories which
emphasize the desired point-of-view should be used, and a few
good ones are readily available. An occasional dramatization
or "radio program" makes for a good climax and is helpful
from the interest, habit, and attitude angles. Such ventures
should be planned and presented by the children, with only
the help and guidance of the teacher.
This sort of thing should be carried on throughout the ele-
mentary grades. Repetitions will be welcomed by the youngsters
as "reviews." A little more material and something different
may be added each year.
This kind of program has been found to be effective. With
this sort of an elementary foundation the pupils are ready for and
eager to tackle the deeper issues of the problem before they are
well out of junior high school. Instead of dogmatic "preach-
ing," they have had an objective, scientific introduction to the
subject, and they are eager to pry deeper into it; they are ready
for the "appeal to reason."
The, high school and college program is given over to a
consideration of the social and economic phases, which in turn
are built logically upon the scientific, and supplemented and
unified by the historical phases. Such material naturally falls
into the field of the social studies. Most all health material on

14Bertha Rachel Palmer, A Syllabus in Alcohol Education, Sixth Edition (Evanston,
Illinois: The National W. C. T. U. Publishing House, September, 1937), p. 21. (See foot-
note of Preface, p. X.


this advanced level is largely a consideration of the social and
economic phases of the subject.
But we must not forget the status quo. Mention should be
made at this point of the high school program as it is. Without
the previous elementary instruction on the scientific phase the
high school program is more difficult and complicated. The
social and economic phases are the important part of this period
of training, but without the scientific basis, there tends to be a
lack of interest. Social consciousness is lacking or only luke
warm. Because of the confusion in the public mind, the student
tends to consider the whole problem as controversial and a mat-
ter of different personal opinions. In.this fact lies the real value
of the scientific basis, which shows what alcohol actually does.
Therefore, high schools should include as a part of the graded
program a thorough scientific background of the problem. Some
review of this phase is generally desirable, regardless of what the
child's previous training has been.

When shall health instruction begin? "Before the child is
born" is the answer given by those who stress relation of pre-
natal care to structure of various organs. The Children's Char-
ter says:
For every child from birth through adolescence, promotion of health,
including health instruction and a health program, wholesome physical and
mental recreation, with teachers, and leaders adequately trained.15
The prevailing practice is to put most emphasis upon cor-
rect health habits and skills in the kindergarten and first grades.
Health behavior rather than health knowledge is stressed, and as
the child grows older he is given facts relative to his personal
habits, since to be effective these must ultimately be rationalized.
At a recent convention of the American Association of
School Administrators of the National Education Association
a score of teachers and school administrators, picked at random,
were questioned concerning the problem of the grade level at

15Norton and Norton, op. cit., p. 117.


which alcohol education should begin. The majority answered
that such instruction should begin in the junior high school. A
few believed that it should begin at about third grade level.
We sometimes attempt to avoid our responsibilities by as-
suming that certain instruction is above the age level and under-
standing of the pupils. The tendency, particularly in the early
elementary or foundation grades seems to be to disregard many
of the deeper issues of the health problem, such as racial hygiene,
mental and nervous hygiene, narcotics education, degenerative
diseases, and use of professional health service. Curriculum
makers and teachers quite often do so on the grounds that the
children cannot understand such problems or do not have the
vocabulary for discussing such complicated matters. The great-
er truth would seem to be that large numbers of our primary
school population need such instruction exactly because they
are faced with such problems in the home, or the neighborhood,
or through friends or relatives. To be sure, the first and second
graders are not faced with individual drink problems, but if
they have any knowledge of drinking or drunkenness, they are
faced with a problem that the school should begin to do some-
thing about at the earliest possible date. Learning is not spas-
modic, but is a gradual, developmental process, and the early
years of a child's life are most impressionable. In deciding what
to teach and where to begin the teacher needs only to find out
what the children know, what their problems are, and begin
at that point. The best way of organizing narcotics education
materials and activities is around situations with which pupils
are now face to face. From there it is a natural and gradual step
to what they will be likely to meet. The thinking of a state-wide
curriculum group* concerning the real-life problems and needs
of the child in this connection can be summarized as follows:
The average American child of today comes into contact with the prob-
lems of temperate and intemperate living early in life. He perhaps has the
experience of becoming ill from eating too much food, or he becomes overfa-
tigued from too active play. The majority of adults with whom he comes in
contact he sees at one time or another drinking alcoholic beverages or using
tobacco in one of its several forms. Beautiful and altogether pleasing pictures

SSee "The Interpretation of the Basic Instructional Policy in Temperance Education"
(Bulletin C-227, mimeographed December 5, 1940), Michigan Curriculum Program.


concerning the merits and incomparable charms of tobacco and alcohol scream
their enticing messages at him from billboards and magazines long before he
can read. Early in life he hears about or sees (inevitably if he either attends
the movies, reads the newspapers, or listens to the radio) such things as cock-
tail parties, beer advertising, accidents involving alcohol, and many other
varied evidences of our growing and confusing alcohol culture mores. By the
time he reaches school age he has too often been compelled both to observe and
to experience the effects' of intemperate living in producing strained human
relations within his immediate family group or within the families of his
relations or friends.
Lack of vocabulary need not be a problem at all, if we
start with what the child knows or has heard or seen. All we
need to do is to use the conversational approach and lead the
child to present and formulate the problem himself. In other
words, the children will furnish the vocabulary if we give them
half a chance by always starting with what they know, or where
they are "here and now."
The elementary teacher will feel an added responsibility
toward attacking such difficult and related problems if she con-
siders the high percentage of elementary pupils who drop out
of school all along the line. For one reason or another, half of
them do not get as far as junior high school. Less than half of
our adults over twenty-one years of age have had more than an
eighth-grade education.
To put the matter another way, elementary health activi-
ties that offer opportunity for acquiring health habits, atti-
tudes, skills, and knowledge about such things as washing hands
after lunch period and after going to the toilet, caring for pets,
listening to stories, taking walks, and dramatizing are not suffi-
cient; at least in the eyes of those who are "imbued with the be-
lief that it is the duty of education to exercise a more dynamic
role in influencing the advance of civilization toward desirable
Narcotics education is based on these principles:
1. Begin with what the class knows on this subject and
proceed in an orderly manner to what they should know.

16Ibid., p. 56.


2. Approach the understanding through the eye as well as
the ear.
3. Be impersonal and positive, but avoid negative, dogmatic,
and irritating words and phrases.
4. Appeal to reason and intelligence rather than emotion.
5. Lead members of class to look for and reach conclusions
for themselves and to state them in their own words.
By way of summary let it be said that the basic, underlying
scientific principle for the study of the effects of alcohol is that
the chemical actions, as solvent and dehydrant, of absolute al-
cohol (discovered in simple experiments), which make it of use
in industry, are the same which, when diluted (to 4 percent),
interfere with growth of seeds and plants, and when disguised
(in drinks) are chiefly responsible for the psychological and
physiological effects in the human organism.
With this simple approach and with these basic principles
upon which to build, experimentation has been carried on in
public schools in all parts of the country. The program finally
worked out has proven practical, attractive to teachers and
pupils alike, and acceptable to curriculum committees.
For inclusion here, there has been worked out a short out-
line for the narcotics education program in which has been indi-
cated a practical, psychological progression from primary to
college levels, with suggestions of how to carry out and get de-
sirable results from such a program. The outline is followed
with suggestions for teachers' colleges and teacher-training pro-
grams. General and specific suggestions are offered to aid teach-
ers in preparing and working out their individual plans, and
for that purpose only. The outline which follows is worthy of
very careful study, as are the explanatory remarks which follow
the outline.




To build per-
sonal attitudes
and habits in
regard to what
to eat and

To the above
add new provi-
sions to meet
new experi-
ences in ex-
panding en-

That drinking
milk, fresh fruit
juices and water
"is good for
you." Drinking
beer and wine
makes you
"sick," "talk
silly," "yell,"
"want to fight,"
"crazy," "have
These result be-
cause the
drinker "can't
hear good,"
"can't see
good," "can't
think straight

To the above is
added informa-
tion from in-
formal talks
insurance man,
business man,
traffic captain,
factory man-
airplane pilot,
athletic coach,
food expert, etc.

tion gained
by observa-
tion and
in environ-
ment of
home and

With the
above, offer
to make in-
use of addi-
and experi-
ences in
ment, in-

To be correlated with sci-
ence, safety, health, num-
bers, language, drama, char-

Experiments with celery,
red ink, alcohol; growing
plants, germinating seeds;
oil, bread, fire.

References-See Bibliogra-
phies (Part V).

Simple experiments: (1)
comparing chemical ac-
tions of absolute alcohol
and pure water on common
organic substances (oil,
resin, meat, sugar, etc.)
show solvent and dehydrat-
ing actions which make it
valuable in industry; (2)
diluted (to 4 per cent), on
living tissue, shows inter-
ference with development
of living plants and ger-
minating seeds; (3) re-
ports of laboratory experi-
ments with alcohol dis-
guised (in beer, wine, etc.)
indicate these two (previ-



Junior High-
Intelligent and
reasonable at-
titudes for, and
habits of per-
sonal absti-
nence from al-
cohol, other
narcotics, and
all harmful
substances of
human con-

Reading, radio
and motion, pic-
tures expand
experience and
raise questions
to which accu-
rate and satisfy-
ing answers
must be found.

As particular in-
formation is ac-
cumulated, per-
sonal rational-
ization of the
right kind
should result,
based on experi-
ences planned
and developed
to meet the
growing under-
standing of the

Senior High and College-

To above add:
To achieve so-
cial conscious-
ness based on
an intelligent
of the nature
and actions of
narcotics on
human be-
havior and re-
lationships in
home and

During this pe-
riod, the student
should become
able to make in-
telligent per-
sonal decisions
which are the
basis for build-
ing into social
and civic con-
duct the ideals
of a democratic
way of life con-
sistent with the
highest well-
being for all the

ously observed) actions are
chiefly responsible for its
psychological and physio-
logical actions in the hu-
man body.

References-See Part V.

"Why do
"Does it do
for them
what they
think it
and values
of passing
and perma-
nent satis-

tiorn of (1)
the psycho-
back of sat-
from emo-
the use of
and stimu-
lants; (2)

Studies from printed re-
ports of findings of profes-
sional laboratory experi-
ments; organized inter-
views and conferences; oral
and written reports of ma-
terials furnished by insur-
ance companies, safety
councils, police and hospi-
tal records.

References-See Part V.

Above activities continued
and enlarged: application
of these scientific findings
to the deeper social and
broader economic implica-
tions and issues as they re-
late to and affect life in our

The study of the influences
of drink and other narcot-
ics as they are recorded and
implicated in the pages of
history and mirrored in the
literature of all nations.
Such influences may be
readily traced through
Greek and Roman classics,


wholesome the traditions and supersti-
and socially tions of medieval writings
effective and folklore, and in the
substitutes forces of present everyday
which re- life as reflected in the news-
suit in papers, and in narrative
natural and and personal histories of
healthful such holocausts as the Chi-
mental and cago fire and the World
physical War.
The findings from the
above should culminate in
a unified presentation of
debates, themes and essays,
plays and pageants and,
most of all, specific pro-
grams for bettering un-
wholesome and costly so-
cial and civic community

References-See Part V.


Teachers tend to teach as they were taught. In order to
meet the requirements for teachers in the several states, some
definite program must be included in all teacher-training insti-
The above suggested outline is purposely flexible and adapts
itself readily to various correlations through which to build an
integrated and progressive program. Learning and grade levels
are observed in the interest of completeness and organization.
This outline also suggests practical projects or units of work
in how (and what) to teach narcotics education. Such a pro-
ject or unit may well be included (suggested and developed)
in any of several required courses for all teachers such as health,
physical education, natural or social sciences, or even English.
The outline also suggests certain specific points of value for
courses in methods, principles, and philosophy of education.
Embryo teachers in science or education courses are fre-
quently called upon to prepare and present various projects
or units of work within the realm of the natural or social sci-
ences. We must not overlook the possibilities and practical
values of utilizing such a suggested program, by the college
instructors, teachers in training, and the pupils, in the work of
the practice school. Such a project would be a definite step
toward fulfilling the spirit of the state law without additional
expenditure in program time or faculty personnel, and would
provide definite contributions to experimental learning and
Health education, along with sanitary measures and con-
trol of contagious diseases, has already had a share in lengthen-
ing the average span of human life. However, men and women
should live longer than they do today.
What the lengthening of human life means to social well-being in
dollars and cents has been estimated in billions of dollars, but this saving
is only a small part of the good resulting from increasing the span of
human life. In the United States more than a million men and women


over twenty years of age, and more or less trained, die each year. Hence
a large part of the annual educational effort has to go to "replacement
That the continual use of alcohol over a period of years,
even in "moderate amounts," is likely to have deleterious ef-
fects and thus affect length of life, is a scientific fact based
on well-authenticated data. Tobacco also should be considered
in this connection. Dr. Henry C. Link had this to say in
Reader's Digest: "From the recent studies'of Dr. Raymond
Pearl at Johns Hopkins, we know that tobacco smokers do not
live as long as non-smokers."18
Most children of high school age will probably not be
interested in this type of appeal concerning the tobacco habit.
When one is in his teens he usually is not interested very much
in adding a year or two to his life span (the economic appeal
is much stronger at this age and should be utilized). On the
other hand, the very facts of tobacco and length of life are
of vital importance to the school, to democracy, and to our
posterity. As Dr. Pearl's studies and the studies of those scien-
tists who follow him bear out the more indefinite findings of
the earlier researchers so will the educational responsibility of
the school in dealing with the tobacco problem become more
vital and pressing.

Deaths in the age group 45-64 are due primarily to functional disorders
of the heart, lungs, liver, kidneys, and stomach. These vital organs essential
to life and well-being, depend upon big-muscle activity. The industrial age
involves special strains which are reflected in the death rates of persons in
middle life.19
It is common medical knowledge that the continual use
of alcohol as a beverage causes functional disorders to suscepti-
ble vital organs.20 If the organs are not susceptible the alcohol

17Ibid., pp. 113-114.
18Henry C. Link, "So You're Going to Stop Smoking?", Your Life, as condensed in
Reader's Digest (August, 1938), p. 18. See also: Gene Tunny, "Nicotine Knockout or the
Slow Count," in The Reader's Digest (December, 1941), pp. 21-24.
19Norton and Norton, op. cit., p. 123.
20Ralph W. Webster, Legal Medicine and Toxicology (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania:
W. B. Saunders Company, 1930).


may produce no noticeable tissue changes when taken in small
amounts, even over a long period of years. However, in this
case, the "special strains of the industrial age" would probably
likewise produce no noticeable physical effects on these organs.
Therefore, it seems logical to conclude that the reduction of
consumption of alcoholic beverages would rightfully belong in
the above list of "preventatives" of death in this age-group.
Discovery of the most prevalent diseases through analysis of mortality
and morbidity statistics is only the first step in selecting health-education
content and activities. The second is in analyzing and summarizing the
causes of each of the major diseases. For example, for heart disease, which
according to the Bureau of Census, heads the list of causes of mortality,
Cairns listed general infection, faulty habits of living, and congenital defects
as the chief causes. 21
Such items should include information concerning alcohol
and general infection, the effects of alcohol on habits of living,
alcohol and congenital defects, and the relationship that al-
cohol may have to the causes, prevention, and reduction of
other prevalent diseases.
"Dublin22 points out that the enormous waste due to pre-
ventable illness and premature death is to a great extent an educa-
tional problem."23
If most of our health problems are educational problems
we should feel responsible for discovering such studies and
experiments that have been made by reputable scientists as to
the relationship of alcohol to preventable illness and premature
death. Such reports and studies are available, if limited. The
fact that additional scientific studies and experiments would
make the evidence more conclusive does not mean that we
should disregard the well-authenticated scientific data already
at our disposal.
The committee on the Cost of Medical Care reported that on any
average day of) the year about 2 per cent of the working population of the
United States are disabled by illness. Seven to nine days per year, on an

21Norton and Norton, op. cit., p. 123.
22See Louis I. Dublin and A. J. Lotka, The Money Value of Man (New York: The
Ronald Press Company, 1930), p. 120.
23Norton and Norton, op. cit., pp. 123-124.


average, are lost by male workers, and approximately eight to twelve days
per year by females. .. .24
An attempt should be made to discover what relation-
ship if any exists between drinking and loss of working days by
both men and women. Does alcohol enter into the story of
those diseases which cause the greatest amount of sickness, and
if so to what extent? What is the connection between alcohol
and disease?
"One analysis25 of twenty-four different sources made pre-
paratory to constructing a health course of study yielded one
hundred and sixteen groups of problems.26 Under each of these
divisions were scores of subtopics, a number of which had to
do with some aspect of the larger problem of narcotics. Our
task is to discover precise and influencing relationships that
narcotics have to all these problems. This calls for an integrated,
unified and comprehensive program of narcotics education to
be taught by correlations with other subjects, as well as for a
functional guidance program.

There should be recognition that basic physiological needs
and drives can be capitalized for health and safety education
through proper environment as well as teaching emphasis.
Unless there is an expressed (or unexpressed) need there can
be very little or no interest. It is true that "safety" possibly may
have more objective or immediate "appeal" to children than
"health." However, both health and safety (or considering
safety as a part of health) as ends in themselves may have very
little interest for many children or adults. Young and old
nevertheless have definite interests which are closely associated
with health and safety, or even contingent upon them. Persons
of all ages get joy from play and games. Vocational success
brings satisfaction. The girl desires to be beautiful and the boy
strong. These are interests which the teacher cannot afford to

24Norton and Norton, op. cit., p. 126.
25See Marion O. Lerrigo, Health-Problem Sources (New York: Bureau of Publications,
Teachers College, Columbia University, 1926).
26Norton and Norton, op. cit., pp. 126-127.


overlook. From childhood to adulthood keeping in condition
for worthwhile ends is one of the drives that should be made
use of inr establishing proper health and safety habits. Bulletin
Number 9 states:
When tension is built up within the child so that he is motivated to
engage in some kind of activity for release of the tension, interest is high
and learning may take place. Learning experiences should therefore be re-
lated to former experiences of the individual in order that he might have a
clear understanding of the problem and be concerned with its solution.27
Too much self-consciousness about health should be avoid-
ed. Sufficient consciousness to aid one in making intelligent
choices in new situations is a happy medium. The teacher's
interpretation of any phase of the health program can make
health a bugaboo or a factor in joyous living for the individual
and for the group.
Turner's28 investigation is an example of this approach.
He includes the following among children's incentives in health
education: desire to grow; desire for approval from one's social
group; interest in personal appearance; desire to participate in
sports and in play ground and gymnastic activities; desire to
win in competition; desire to earn membership and improve
standing in Boy Scouts, Girl Scouts, and similar organizations;
desire to improve in athletic events.
Every one of the above personal interests of children can
be utilized in a variety of ways in the promotion and develop-
ment of health habits and attitudes in regard to the use of
tobacco and alcohol, as well of course as other health ideals.
At least one negative factor should be given consideration
and made use of in regard to alcohol. This has to do with the
appearance of the drinker. Stress should be laid upon the fact
that he usually appears foolish, silly, simple, weak-willed, con-
fused, and untidy to those who see him, although he may be
quite the opposite of all these when not under the influence
of alcohol. In real life he does not get social approval when he

27A Guide to Improved Practice in Florida Elementary Schools, Bulletin No. 9, State
Department of Education, Tallahassee, Florida, October, 1940, pp. 36-37.
28See C. E. Turner, "Incentives and Interests in Health," Journal of Education, 110:
37-38 (July 8, 1929).


drinks. The boy or girl of high school age is sensitive to this
point of view, if it is impersonally and tactfully presented.
As we become interested in others-in the community,
we develop social-consciousness. One of the most commonly
known ethical facts concerning the use of narcotics is that
it tends to destroy social-consciousness in the individual. The
consequences of his acts are quite often visited upon others as
A direct result of this loss of social-consciousness. It is true
that self-centered behavior is instinctive, but since all indi-
viduals do not behave selfishly, we know that it is possible to
condition behavior. If the child is going to develop the ideal
of protecting the welfare of all, ultimately every opportunity
should be grasped to turn his attention from "me" to "we".29

As a starting point for making a course of study for a
specific situation use can be made of the health questionnaire.
The general health questionnaire can be supplemented by use
of a specific questionnaire on narcotics, which will be of much
value in determining health needs along these lines. It is im-
portant to discover what the youth in the schools actually know
about narcotics and to discover further their attitudes relating
to these drugs and their problems. Naturally, the answers to
the questionnaire are invaluable to the teacher in planning her
work. One such questionnaire or test was constructed as follows:
At the top of the first sheet, in large letters, are these words: "Do not
sign your name." Then follows a brief note of explanation addressed to the
student and specific directions for answering the questions in the test. The
student is asked to write one important fact about each item under consid-
eration, and also to express an opinion; one column of the test provides spaces
for telling where he obtained his information or how he formed his opinion.
Not all of the items in the test pertain to narcotics. A few items pertaining
to foods, stimulants, etc., are included to provide a basis for comparing know-
ledge of these substances with knowledge of narcotics.30
It is interesting and of value to notice the specific sources

29See Avis E. Edgerton, "Social Consciousness-A Major Objective of Health Educa-
tion," The Education Digest (March, 1938), p. 15 (Reprinted from Elementary School Journal.
30E. George Payne, The Menace of Narcotic Drugs (New York: Prentice-Hall, Inc.,
1931, p. 247.


from which students get their information about narcotics.
In one such survey, out of 242 sources specifically mentioned,
newspapers were mentioned most frequently. Then follow in
order of frequency: the dentist, books and pamphlets, magazines,
school sources, the home, the physician, experience with users,
movies, drug store or druggist, using or experimenting with
drugs, lecture, radio, and nurses. Such information is chal-
lenging to the teacher.
It appears that students are learning outside of school vague
half truths about all or most narcotics, and that the smaller
number of truths learned in school are of decidedly higher
quality. Let the school do the job right and see that these vague
and therefore potentially harmful impressions become specific,
entirely accurate, and very positive in attitude value.31
Since Safety is essentially a neighborhood or local program,
arising out of local conditions and problems, it should be men-
tioned here. The big problem of alcohol and accidents will not
be considered fully in this bulletin, but a word here about the
local problem of safety. The first step in building a safety pro-
gram is to make a survey of local conditions.
Analyses of children's activities involving the practice of safety at
home and at school, on the street and on the playground, together with
analyses of available material in books, magazines, and statistical reports,
are the best approaches to the selection of safety-education materials and
activities. One investigator32 in building up in an analytic way a course
in safety education to fit the actual needs of a particular community, (a)
gathered data as to the extent to which safety education is already a part of
the elementary school program, (b) analyzed statistical reports showing
the type and frequency of classified accidents and the need for safety edu-
cation, and (c) studied specific circumstances peculiar to the school situa-
tion for which the safety-education program was being developed. This
included not only a survey of the neighborhood but also a survey of pupil
experiences concerning accidents which had happened to the pupils from
the fourth grade to the eighth. A map was made of the school district,
showing where accidents occurred. It was found that the greatest number
happened from three to six in the afternoon. The things which children
were most commonly doing when vehicular accidents occurred were crossing

32See Ruth Streitz, Safety Education in the Elementary School, (New York: National
Bureau df Casualty and Surety Underwriters, 1936).


not at crossing, or at crossing, playing games in roadway, running off side-
walk into street, and stealing rides on vehicles. To meet the needs revealed
by these analyses and surveys, units of safety education were drawn from
materials found in courses of study and textbooks in general science, civics,
and home economics.33
Such a program of safety could well be spread out over
all grades. Every child of public school age has some know-
ledge of accidents and interest in safety. Units on safety could
be worked out in every grade, starting in each grade with what
they know and where they are. The units would range from
simple facts and materials in the primary grades, all the way to
the complicated social and economic consequences in senior high
and college classes.

Since alcohol is a known and important cause of accidents,
alcohol education well could (and should) be brought into the
picture right in the first grade (and the subject often is initiated
by the children). It would likewise be carried straight through
the grades, going from the simple to the more complex, from
the immediate to the far-reaching, and from the individual to
the social aspects.

1. HEALTH. "Every interest of the State whether economic, social,
or moral is dependent upon the health of its people." Comment: Does not
the problem of narcotics influence the health of the people, both directly
and indirectly, and so affect the economic, social and moral welfare of all
the people?
to perform with speed and accuracy those computations incident to the
activities of his life." Comment: What do tests show about the effects of
the use of alcohol in large and small amounts on both speed and accuracy in
the performing of both mental and physical activities?
3. VOCATIONAL EFFICIENCY. ". . This fact requires that our public
schools give some place in their program to the training for vocational
efficiency. .." Comment: How far do persons who drink get in positions
with railroad companies, bus and truck lines, air transport companies, or even
such work as operating machinery in factories?

38Norton and Norton, op. cit., pp. 141-142.


4. CITIZENSHIP. "Good citizenship depends upon both the ability and
the willingness of the individual to adjust himself to the demands which
society and the world make upon him." Comment: If the use of narcotics
is an admission of poor adjustment, has it not been proved to be a highly
artificial, passing, dangerous and harmful attempt to become better adjusted?
5. WORTHY HOME MEMBERSHIP. "The tendency toward the disinte-
gration of the American home demands that our public schools give some
direct attention in their programs to strengthening those habits and pro-
moting those activities which will make for better home life. Cooperation,
loyalty, thrift, health, child care, etc., are essential parts of the programs
of our present day public schools." Comment: Is there a connection between
the present tendency toward disintegration of the American home and the
recently grown customs of "cocktail parties" and drinking in the home?
What are the effects of the new social custom which permits youth and
women to drink with men, inside and outside the home?
6. WORTHY USE OF LEISURE. "With the increasing amount of leisure
there is demand for training our citizens to spend worthily the increasing
amounts of time at their disposal for play, recreation, and enjoyment . .
enjoyment of good literature, music, art, right social relationships, worth-
while hobbies, and wholesome amusements." Comment: Is the use of nar-
cotics a worthy use of leisure, or does it develop in the individual or the
group any one of the desirable growths that is produced through the worthy
use of leisure?
7. ETHICAL CHARACTER. "A democracy is largely dependent upon the
high moral tone of its citizens." Comment: Has the use of alcohol or
other narcotics ever been known to improve the moral tone of individuals
or of groups? Does not every generation record the case histories of literally
thousands of individuals whose moral tone was impaired and degraded
through the use of narcotics? Is not the challenge to the school and to
modern democratic education plainer than ever? How shall we meet that
If the child is to come to know and to understand life as
it is and be prepared to face its unpredictable problems, he
must participate in a wide range of experiences. The wise
teacher of course will handle all school situations in such a way
that extreme tensions, frustration, or despair will never occur
when they can be prevented through appropriate measures
under her control. With proper teacher-guidance and under-
standing such undesirable situations need almost never arise
in dealing with the normal child.
If the child tends to be maladjusted in any way, the teacher


should recognize the symptoms and provide situations that
enable the individual to develop a sense of belongness, purpose-
fullness, and adequacy. As to unit teaching, wise guidance of
the teacher in leading the misfits of any type or description to
find emotional release through appropriate activity within the
unit will prevent the development of undesirable behavior and
personality maladjustment. Such a child must not be allowed
to feel alone and at the mercy of his environment. He must be
made to feel that he is a part of the group, to experience the
feeling of being gathered up in the group.
Just as a teacher sometimes wonders how to approach the
problem of cleanliness and sanitation with certain individuals
or groups, she may also wonder just how to attack the problem
of narcotics with reference to alcohol when teaching normally
adjusted children, and particularly so when she has some pupils
(as she usually does have) who come from homes where parents
drink. Such a situation will make strong demands upon her for
skill and tact, tempered with common sense. If the teacher
properly exercises such diplomacy and judgment she need not
worry about the outcomes that the activities and experiences
may have on the children or on their parents. In beginning a
study of the problems of alcohol with a junior high school group,
one teacher said:
Suppose we decide at the beginning that we will look out for two things.
Let's not come to any decisions on these questions until we have looked into
them thoroughly and in a fair minded way; and then let us be very careful
not to mention in class what goes on in our homes (or among our friends or
personal acquaintances), so that no one will feel embarrassed during any of
this discussion.34
Through the exercise of insight and understanding the
teacher can provide situations that will give each child his or
her necessary sense of belongness and purpose, rather than de-
priving him of such stabilizing emotions. Neither the child
nor his parents must be offended or made to feel inferior in
any way by the study of any recognized serious social problem.
And yet such problems must be considered for they are bound

84Harkness and Fort: Youth Studies Alcohol, (Chicago: Benjamin H. Sanborn and
Company, 1938), pp. 14-15.


up with the fundamental purposes of all education in a democ-
A unit or activity dealing with alcohol, then, should and
must be handled in such a way as to avoid or to smooth out
possible conflicts within any individual child's mind. Embar-
rassment of children about their parent's habits or attitudes
must be eschewed. The child of parents who drink, and the
child of those who do not, must both participate and learn
from the study; and each should contribute something to the
other and to the group through discussion and other activities.
Our responsibility as teachers is to see that all social problems are
approached properly and investigated thoroughly, and in such a
manner as to help alleviate old tensions rather than to establish
new or additional ones.
One of our first statements was this: "Nothing which
would tend to break down the general aims of education or
to achieve aims which are not incorporated in the general aims
should be included in the program of health education." That
phase of health instruction which deals with narcotics must
naturally meet this acid test.
Some of the aims of narcotics education are plainly general
aims of education, others simply the aims of health instruction.
Some concern character building and social-consciousness, and
others deal with the more specific factual information and skills
of narcotics instruction. Palmer in A Syllabus in Alcohol Edu-
cation35 designates alcohol education aims as teaching objectives
and pupil outcomes, the latter being subdivided into know-
ledges, attitudes, and habits. The following lists of teaching
objectives and pupil outcomes are taken directly from A Sylla-
bus in Alcohol Education:

Teaching Objectives
1. To promote personal health and fine character.
2. To insure community health, welfare, and progress.

35Bertha Rachel Palmer, pp. 7-10. (See Preface).


3. To present practical scientific information on the subject of alco-
holic drinks.
4. To impress children and young people with the seriousness of the
drinking problem.
5. To undo the impression that drinking is clever, for the nature of
alcohol makes true cleverness impossible.
6. To inform, equip, and fortify young persons so that they will intel-
ligently avoid all alcoholic drinks.
7. To provide an educated public that will support state and national
education programs, as well as all effective social legislation.
8. To provide an influence that will spread from the classroom to the
home, that will discourage the use of patent, medicines and home-brewed
drinks or other doubtful substances used because of tradition or the impres-
sion that they are harmless.

Pupil Outcomes
1. KNOWLEDGE: that beer, ale, cider, wine, brandy, gin, rum, and
whiskey are part alcohol; that a very little alcohol in water put on a grow-
ing plant very soon interferes with its growth and development; that bread,
meat, egg and other substances will harden in alcohol; that oil, gum, resin,
the color and scent-materials in leaves and flowers, dissolve in alcohol; that
alcohol is of great value OUTSIDE but not INSIDE the body; that as a
beverage it affects the nervous system and never aids bodily functions; that
alcohol is a habit-forming drug, and that the first drink is seldom the last;
that while some people seem to use it with no apparent harm, no one tested
has been found to be more skillful, or to do more or better work, after taking
it, and untold thousands have been ruined by it in every generation; that
because of individual differences and different conditions people are affected
by it in widely different ways; of physiology and hygiene, and of the ways
in which alcohol does or may affect the mind and body; of the reasons for,
and the history of, the age-long fight against alcoholism; of the influence of
financial interests, drinking customs, and traditions, and of the deceptive
effects of alcohol itself upon the drinker; of the causes of temptation espe-
cially among young people; of some of the great scientists and how they
reached the conclusions regarding the effects of alcohol; of what wise men
and great leaders have said from their observations and experiences with
2. ATTITUDES: desire to do only those things to make one strong and
dependable in body, clear in mind; desire to eat and drink only those things
which build and strengthen the body and mind; desire to earn success by
habits of skill, good judgment, thoughtfulness; desire to keep fit by avoiding
dangerous or degrading acts, as well as by cultivating positive behavior; a
healthy ambition for leadership toward higher ideals and a better way of
doing things.


3. HABITS: of refusing drinks, powders, candies, given away on the
streets; refusing unfamiliar drinks at soda fountains or elsewhere; reading
the printed labels on bottles or packages; consulting a reputable physician
about ailments; refusing things of a questionable nature; refusing to commit
acts of questionable nature; refusing to do questionable things because others
do them; making an individual choice based upon what is believed to be right.

Although the above considerations of Palmer were formu-
lated for alcohol education many of these objectives may be
applied to a much larger teaching field. For another consid-
eration of the objectives of general narcotics education we
turn to those of Robinson who has written a "Syllabus in Nar-
cotics Education".36 Her eleven listed objectives are:
1. To promote personal health and welfare.
2. To insure community health and welfare and progress.
3. To insure through the education of individuals a body of sentiment
that will help in solution of the narcotic drug problem.
4. To present sane information, developed from a scientific basis, on
the subject of narcotics.
5. To impress upon young people the seriousness and the reality of the
problem of narcotic drugs.
6. To undo the impression on the popular mind made by the stories of
achievement of persons under the influence of narcotic drugs.
7. To inform the normal young person so that he will intelligently
avoid contact with narcotic drugs.
8. To equip the supernormal young person so that he will intelligently
help in the crusade against narcotic drugs.
9. To fortify the sub-normal young person against the perils of contact
with narcotics.
10. To provide an educational stratum upon which to erect the struc-
ture of anti-narcotic legislation.
11. To provide an influence that will extend from the school to the
home and help abolish the self-medication tendencies of American families,
such as quieting the baby with soothing syrup, putting the child to sleep
with paregoric and like compounds.
Robinson then goes ahead to suggest cumulative scales of

86Gertrude Robinson, Revised Syllabus in Narcotic Education (Los Angeles: Interna-
tional Narcotic Education Association, 1936).


attainment for the different grades. At each succeeding level
those habits, attitudes, and knowledge of the proceeding level
or levels are to be reviewed and retained. Both the lists of Palmer
and of Robinson should be given careful consideration in plan-
ning a program of narcotics instruction.
In addition to the rather complete compilations of the ob-
jectives of narcotics instruction contained in the above lists,
certain other factors seem worth consideration. One such con-
sideration concerns advertising, commercial propaganda, and
industrial pressure groups-in general and in particular. One
important objective of narcotics instruction on the secondary
and college level should be to teach students how to detect and
analyze propaganda so as to be able to understand it and judge
it intelligently for what it is. Those who sell tobacco and al-
coholic drinks, and the habits of using their products to the
general public, are among the worst offenders in this entire
Narcotics education should also aim at promoting a general
understanding among young and old concerning the latest find-
ings relative to the results and effects of small amounts of al-
cohol: small amounts and accidents; small amounts and bodily
functions (the nervous system); small amounts and over-con-
fidence. And directly in connection with this is the objective
of promoting an understanding of the importance and value
of the recently developed scientific tests for intoxication and
the illuminating facts these tests have brought to light con-
cerning alcohol and the drinking (rather than the drunk)
Other specific objectives might be mentioned, some of which
more or less overlap with some to which we have already re-
ferred. Such objectives are:
To promote an understanding of the psychological prob-
lem of narcotic usage-particularly alcohol-without disre-
garding the nature of narcotics, and to promote habits, atti-
tudes, and ideals which will help to solve the problem.

87See Committee on Tests for Intoxication, Reports for 1938, 1939, 1940, 1941. (Chi-
cago: National Safety Council).


To promote the understanding that because of individual
differences and different conditions persons are affected by al-
cohol in widely different ways, but that when proportionately
equal amounts of alcohol are concentrated in the blood streams
of different persons each is then equally removed from his nor-
mal condition, and this regardless of the different ways in which
the alcohol manifests itself.
To make studies and discover findings of the latest scien-
tific experiments with tobacco, anodynes, and caffeine, and
to understand the results of these findings and the relation that
the use of such products has to general health, length of life,
digestion, pre-natal well being, and vicious mechanical habit
To build attitudes and habits of right living; wholesome,
active recreation; and stimulating, creative hobbies.
To promote an understanding of the significance of the
fact that the student who emerges from grade school, high
school or college without the intelligent conviction that he is
the creator of his habits, rather than their victim, is educated
for defeat rather than power, for slavery rather than freedom.38

38Henry C. Link, op. cit., p. 20.

Part Three

By the use of the term "suggestive" to describe the activity-
projects and units that follow, it is not meant to imply that
they are perfected. They are largely the reports of the teachers
who carried them out, in the words of the teachers themselves.
The teachers-as well as the schools in which they work-
would be described for the most part as plain, ordinary, "garden
variety public school teachers", the kind that are usually found
in Florida and elsewhere.
When over one thousand Florida teachers returned ques-
tionnaires39 to the State Department of Education in the Spring
of 1940, many interesting opinions were brought to light con-
cerning the vital problems confronting them and the under-
lying basic issues. In a group of questions concerned with the
improvement of teaching techniques and procedures, teachers
asked that they be given aid on some twenty specific or gen-
eral problems. Although it has already been made clear that
this bulletin is specifically concerned with the special area of
health instruction known as narcotics education, nevertheless,
in working on the greater health problem it seeks to help solve,
it discusses and offers suggestions which are directly or indi-
rectly applicable to most of the problems of Florida teachers
referred to above. Parts III and IV of this bulletin which deal
specifically with suggestive unit-projects should be particularly
helpful and practical in dealing with the following subjects,
all topics for which Florida teachers are asking definite aid:

'89See Bulletin No. 9, A Guide to Improved Practice In Florida Elementary Schools,
(Tallahassee, Florida, The State Department of Education, 1940), pp. 1-16.


unit teaching
selecting titles for units
relating skills to unit teaching
reading readiness
pupil time allotment
number of activities in progress at one time
judging when activities are purposeful
obtaining social values through arithmetic
choosing books for the library
adapting difficult reading material
supervised play
effect of departmentalization
lesson planning
As Bulletin 9 repeatedly makes clear, children cannot ac-
quire the attitudes and skills needed in an evolving society
merely by studying about them. On the other hand, children
can develop social attitudes and skills of a vital, usable kind
only through direct experiencing of situations that call for
critical thinking, group participation, individual responsibility,
and social vision. The providing of such situations is the chief
purpose of the school.40
It is now known that learning is a continuous process that
begins before birth and continues throughout life, and that no
learning situation should or can be an entity in itself. It is an
evolving process connected both with past experience and fu-
ture activity. "Long-time planning which is used in unit teach-
ing has merit because each experience involved in the unit has
relationship to the whole program. It is necessary that each
activity contribute to a better understanding of the total situ-
ation. Joint planning of the teacher and pupils has much value
in preserving the continuity of learning experiences for it gives
the pupils a better understanding of the activity in which they
will engage."41
Sound, up-to-date health information and purposeful
learning experiences are basic to effective health instruction
in any area. To give classroom teachers more definite assistance
in the organization of their instructional programs, the unit-

40Ibid., p. 26.
41Ibid., p. 38.


projects and source materials of Parts III and IV have been
included in this bulletin. It is intended that these materials
be used by teachers primarily as a source from which they may
select subject matter and activities appropriate for use with
pupils of all ages and grades. The interests and needs of the
pupils with whom the teacher is working will largely determine
how the materials will be adapted for classroom use.
Teachers are encouraged and urged to develop and submit
units of the general type of those included in this bulletin.
They will be carefully evaluated and, if satisfactory, made
available to other teachers in the state. Had this not been done
by interested and growing teachers in Florida during the past
two years, this bulletin in its present form would not be possible.
Before attempting to put the suggestive unit-projects and
materials included here to classroom use, it is advised that each
teacher read carefully Parts I and V of Bulletin Number 4,
Plans for Florida's School Health Program, as well as pertinent
parts of Bulletins No. 9 and 10. It is further suggested that
the unit-project suggestions be carefully studied and that needed
reference material be secured well in advance of its use. Only
when the teacher is thoroughly oriented to the subject matter
area and the teaching experiences can she effectively adapt sug-
gestive materials of this nature to her specific grade or subject
The mimeographed original (or tentative) Bulletin 22-k
contained an entire section on "Useful Content for the Teach-
er". The material of that section was for the most part scien-
tific, factual information about certain phases of the alcohol,
tobacco and marihuana problems. Since such material of this
type may be found in any of several texts and scientific books,
and since this bulletin is not concerned primarily with "what"
to teach, it is being deleted (from the present bulletin). How-
ever, the introductory statement to that section is thought-
provoking and worthy of brief consideration here. It said in
A criticism of modern education is often made that teachers today are
crammed so full of theory and method that they have no time to learn subject


matter. However, in working up a source unit on a difficult and generally
considered controversial subject such as alcohol and other narcotics, subject
matter and background material are most important, and it is too generally
true that teachers have not had the training necessary to such a background.
Teachers want and demand definite teaching materials, suggestions that are
practical and usable. On the other hand, if a teacher depends entirely upon
the content of purely factual material given here, or upon definite blue-
prints and specifications from any given source, her teaching will be flat
and ineffectual; it will fail to achieve the aims of unit teaching and will
be just another example of uninspired, rote, textbook teaching. Nor is the
material of this section intended for student use-at least not directly. It
is to be used more as a check upon students to see (1) that they are digging
into reference material, and (2) that their findings represent the latest
scientific facts and opinions, the majority opinions. But these facts and
opinions the student should find for himself. That he does just this is not
always easy or simple. Nevertheless, the student must be encouraged to find
the facts, to draw his own conclusions, and to make up his own mind.
If he is properly guided, encouraged, and stimulated to do this, the results
will be those which the teacher desires and which the instruction was meant
to achieve.

Every teacher in this particular school took part in carry-
ing out a sensible integrated program of correlated instruction in
narcotics education. Modern teaching tends more and more to
get away from specialized subject matter, and in approaching
this difficult subject the plan was to correlate it, giving only
the emphasis deserved and using it when and where it became
a part of the larger program the school was trying to promote.
Of course, some direct teaching of the subject was done, usu-
ally at such times and on such occasions as were desired or re-
quested by the students themselves.
The school attempted to teach narcotics education because
the teachers understood it as an important part of any true
study or instruction in such recognized school subjects as health,
safety, physiology, general science, biology, chemistry, and social
studies. It is necessarily related to any well balanced consid-
eration of such broad issues as propaganda, advertising, con-
sumer education, social problems, athletic fitness, automobile
and industrial accidents, economic efficiency, crime, poverty
and disease, and all other social problems. The teachers tried


to consider the subject in such a light and as it played its part
in these broader subjects and issues.
They! had to remind themselves constantly that no pro-
gram will succeed of its own volition. It was fully realized
that with narcotics education (as with all other subjects on
which there are great differences of opinion due to ignorance,
indifference or fear) it is often easier to leave it alone. The work
done by the teachers on these projects proved again that all
teaching and all subject matter, if it is to be successful, truly
educative, and is to result in better citizenship and better living,
must be attacked with sustained enthusiasm, hard work and
The reports given below, with the exception of Project 1,
are the reports of the teachers in one school, concerning their
individual grade, room or subject units (or problems), and how
they were carried out in a small Florida public elementary and
junior-senior high school. The work was begun following the
publication and distribution of Bulletin Number 7. These units
were worked out by using that bulletin, its suggestions and
references, as a guide.
During the year every teacher in the school did some work
on the general subject of narcotics education. This program
was carried out in various ways. The teachers guided the chil-
dren and helped them select material, but each unit or project
was planned jointly by the teacher and the pupils. In general
the method used was the integrated unit plan. The attack upon
the subject or the introduction to the unit came about naturally,
and usually was started after a student discussion of some re-
lated point and at the request or desire of the class. In most
instances the teachers have made some attempt to evaluate their
respective units, and at the end a short evaluation of the larger
program as made by the school principal is included. Here fol-
lows the summarized teachers' reports.

Our approach was initiated by a class discussion about acci-
dents. A first grader remarked, "My Daddy says that most
accidents are caused by drunk drivers." The teacher then asked


what makes people "drunk". Some were doubtful, but others
had the right idea. Then followed a discussion of all healthful
drinks, and how they build up our bodies and make us strong.
These were contrasted with beer and wine, the two alcoholic
drinks which had been briefly discussed in connection with
accidents. The teacher then asked what beer or wine does to
drivers of automobiles to make them have accidents. The an-
swers varied from the ridiculous to the sublime, but it was defi-
nitely made clear by the pupils that drinking drivers cannot
hear, see, or think properly. The teacher then asked what it was
in beer and wine that made it have these effects, but not one
had heard of (or could remember) the word "alcohol". This
discussion was closed for the day by the teacher's asking them
to find out from their parents what it was in wine and beer
that makes car drivers have accidents. The children were very
much interested in finding this out, and the next day a lively
discussion followed. The teacher then tried to tie up the im-
portant point here by explaining as accurately, but as simply
as possible, just how alcohol is a narcotic, and how it affects the
drinker's ability to hear, to see, and to think straight.
In connection with this project we also did some simple
experiments as a part of our primary science instruction. These
experiments were not done all at once, but were scattered out
over seven or eight weeks. The alcohol angle was not stressed
at all, but was simply one phase of the experiment, sometimes
a minor one. As with most of our little experiments, the chil-
dren were encouraged to bring the materials themselves. How-
ever, the alcohol which we used was supplied by the high school
science laboratory.
EXPERIMENT 1: How PLANTS DRINK. A stalk of celery was placed in
one-fourth inch of red ink. In an hour results were plainly visable.
wITH WATER. We found that they look alike, smell different. We already
knew that they acted differently (accidents), but we ended this experiment
with a promise of find out more about alcohol and its effects and actions.
a wet towel in the open to dry. While it was drying we talked about toasting
bread for breakfast and how this process evaporated the moisture in, the
bread. We also discussed how the sunshine was used to evaporate fruits.


Going on with this experiment, our most complicated one to date, we next
got together some celery. We placed one stick of it in a glass of water and
another stick in an olive bottle of pure alcohol. We also compared a piece
of celery in pure alcohol with a piece out in the open air, leaving both undis-
turbed for 3 or 4 days. We observed the early and very noticeable differences
having to do with evaporation.
EXPERIMENT 4: SEED GERMINATION. We planted an equal amount of
grass seed, a teaspoonful each, in two small glass sauce dishes. We pasted a
big W on one and a big A on the other. We then took two pint milk bottles
which had been brought by the pupils, and filled one with water; in the
other we put about one-half ounce (4% teaspoonsful) of pure alcohol and
filled it up with water. It was explained that we had put as much alcohol
in the pint bottle as is contained in a pint of ordinary beer. Each morning
we would "water" our seed: the dish marked W with pure water, and the
one marked A with the 4 i/ percent solution alcohol. The results were quite
obvious and taught the children more about alcohol, its effects and results,
than I could possibly teach by textbooks. Of course, the information gained
was only part of the useful scientific knowledge learned by carrying out
the experiment.
Different pupils made reports to the class on our experi-
ments, and the other members made sure that nothing was left
out or misrepresented. We read and discussed The Three Part-
ners42, and Mrs. Gray Bunny's Children43, during our story
There were other discussions concerning tobacco and alco-
hol in connection with health and safety. Most of these dis-
cussions began from and grew out of the real life experiences
of the children.
It is my belief that these children have a sound and adequate
foundation upon which to build proper attitudes, knowledge,
and understandings toward alcohol.

We were studying safety. Mention was made by a member
of the class of an accident in which drink was generally known
to have played a part. The teacher then asked, "Why do you
think that people drink?" There followed a discussion of what

42Margaret Baker, The Three Partners, R. J. James & Son, London, England. (May be
obtained from the Signal Press, Evanston, Illinois).
48Crabb, Mrs. Gray Bunny's Children, Minnie Rowe Crabb, Los Gatos, California.
(Order from Signal Press, Evanston, Illinois).


alcohol is, what it does to people, what it seems to do, and what
they think it does. Assignments were made concerning many
doubtful points. The assignments were individual oral reports,
to be prepared from (1) Boys and Girls Learninig About Alco-
hol44, (2) the Gray Bunny books45, and (3) the Baker books46.
After each oral report class discussions followed, and many oral
reports were given as we learned the story of alcohol.
As a part of our elementary science we conducted several
simple experiments involving alcohol. For this phase of our
work we used Palmer's A Syllabus in Alcohol Education as a
manual. We carried out experiments in which we compared
the actions of alcohol and water on various substances. We
poured water and a few drops of castor oil into the same con-
tainer and compared this with a combination of pure alcohol
and castor oil. From this we concluded that alcohol dissolves
what water does not. We verified this conclusion by the use
of several other common substances such as green rose leaves
(the alcohol removed the color) and pieces of gum camphor
(the alcohol dissolved the gum).
We also carried out experiments in which we compared
the action of water and of alcohol on meat and on bread. We
found that the alcohol took the moisture from these substances,
eventually made them hard and dry, or actually "preserved"
them. We studied briefly the meaning of this characteristic
of alcohol and how it was applied in industry to accomplish
many important things. We noticed that in all cases the ac-
tions of water and of alcohol were different.
Lastly, we compared the actions of water and diluted al-
cohol on germinating grass seeds. The results were convincing
in showing the effects of diluted alcohol on living cell tissues.
We also used (1) the Health Heroes47 series of the Metro-
politan Life Insurance Company (furnished free), and we (2)

44Skidmore-and Brooks, Boys and Girls Learning About Alcohol, the Abingdon Press,
New York, 1937.
45Crabb: (See Bibliography, p. 113).
46Baker: (See Bibliography, p. 114).
47Order from the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, New York, N. Y.


read and studied Baker's Inside Information48, from time to
Someone suggested that we look for and bring to class all
articles that we could find in newspapers that mentioned al-
cohol. This was done for a period of two weeks, during which
time much was learned about how alcohol affects automobile
drivers. The effects of alcohol on living tissue (alcohol and
growing plants) were reviewed at this time. This was done be-
cause of the importance of this scientific factual basis. Our
completed project resulted in the establishment of some most
desirable safety and health ideas; ideas which included sound
and basic information about alcohol.
In our discussion of alcohol and food one of the children
suggested that we make a scrap book containing pictures of
proper and improper things to eat and drink. We proceeded
to do this, getting our pictures for the most part from maga-
zines. A study was made of the advertising material that ac-
companied the pictures. The children took keen interest in this
scrap book and the study that we carried out in connection
with it. I believe that this project made every member of the
class realize for the first time that modern advertising quite
often misrepresents the truth.
It is my thought and conviction that this integrated study
of alcohol was effective and that much of it will stick. It was
easy to teach and the children enjoyed it, but they certainly
took it seriously.

We approached the study of alcohol through our correlat-
ed regular study of health and safety. At the beginning of our
study of "Safety on the Highway" someone brought a copy of
the Augusta (Georgia) Herald to class. This particular issue
contained a full page of miniature reproductions of safety post-
ers and signboards. One of these depicted a terrible motor ac-
cident and in bold letters at the top, reaching across the entire

48Baker: (See Bibliography, p. 114).


poster, was the word DRUNK. This poster drew more com-
ments than the rest and soon there was a lively discussion going
on as to how much liquor it takes to make one a danger on
the highway. Several interested persons were assigned to investi-
gate this point, while others were assigned to find out other facts
about alcohol from the reference books on the subject avail-
able in our library. All were asked to jot down any especially
important or interesting facts that they happened to stumble
on in their "research", and be prepared to report these to the
class. The very next day, while we were discussing an oral re-
port which had just been made, a child asked if at any time
liquor was good for a person. Most of the class contended that
it was good when used as a medicine.
It was necessary to settle the point properly and assignments
for oral reports on alcohol as a medicine were made in the va-
rious reference works available, which had previously been col-
lected and placed on a reference shelf. As these reports were
being given, a list of alcohol "effects" and "actions" were writ-
ten on the blackboard. In order that the children could get
an opportunity to supplement this list and make it more com-
plete, the teacher read them the story, That Awful Ethel49, and
encouraged the pupils to try to "catch" all the effects and actions
During the discussion of alcohol as a medicine one child
suggested that a doctor be written for his expert opinion. This
suggestion was followed by student letters to doctors, athletic
coaches, YMCA directors, etc. Most of the letters sent out
were answered. The replies were read to the class by the ones
who received them; they were discussed, and some points were
checked in the reference books to see if the "experts" were
keeping up with the latest scientific findings. Then these let-
ters were added to our fast growing "Alcohol Poster Board".
Clippings from newspapers and ads for whiskies and cigar-
ettes were brought in. These were discussed and thoroughly
but impersonally and scientifically debunked. The very attrac-
tive ads were analyzed, and the psychology of advertising was

49Mary Pressly, That Awful Ethel, The Signal Press, Evanston, Illinois. (Booklet, 15 ).


discussed. The children seemed to "get it" too. Several charac-
teristic and attractive ads were added to our poster board. In
the right hand upper corner of these ads were hand printed
notes explaining the fallacy of the advertisement and the im-
pression it intended to make.
One other activity should be mentioned. From the picture
facts found in the various books, posters were -made, which
constituted an attractive series on alcohol education. These
were also placed on our bulletin board, and they created interest
and comment in themselves.
At this point I will admit that I had approached this unit
with considerable misgivings. However, it has been demon-
strated to me again how eagerly children will get at a problem
and get to the bottom of it if they are properly encouraged and
guided. I, myself, learned a lot about alcohol education.

Project 4
During the course of the year tobacco, alcohol, stimulants,
and "heavy" narcotics had been considered as a regular part
of our health and science course. They had not been considered
except when they arose as a part of the regular work or in a
discussion of some phase of health or science. However, con-
siderable progress had already been made when we got to the
chapter on alcohol and other narcotics, in the text, "Living At
Our Best".* The assignment of the chapter was given, and the
next day the discussion period was quite lively. The class seemed
particularly interested in the effects of alcohol on reaction time.
There was also a discussion on what is included under alcoholic
beverages and whether or not any are harmless. Some member
seemed to think beer was not harmful, in spite of what our text
said about the effects of small amounts of alcohol. However,
for some reason all seemed to agree that any amount of alcohol
was not good for athletes.
The discussion was kept under control, but we soon agreed

*This junior high health text has since been replaced on the Florida list with Helping
the Body With Its Work; Andress et al: Ginn and Company.


that we should check the facts presented in our text, particu-
larly those about which there was such general class disagree-
ment. We decided to assign each topic heading of the chapter
to an individual for further research and checking. Notes were
to be taken on what was found and each pupil was to attempt
to find at least three references on his topic. An oral report
was to be made to the class. The topics to be reported upon
were: Effects of Alcohol on Length of Life, Alcohol and Crime,
Alcohol and Poverty, The Case of Business Against Alcohol,
Alcohol and the Law.
To this list we added the topic, "Social Driinking-Its
Dangers and How to Avoid It Gracefully". It took us three
days to complete this study. The children looked up and studied
the material. There were healthy and vigorous discussions,
and on the day we completed it I felt that every child had a
clearer, more positive, and (from my point of view) more
desirable outlook on the subject of alcohol.

The class began its study of alcohol by reading aloud in
class the book, Youth Studies Alcohol&0, by Harkness and Fort.
The pupils seemed to be interested in this material from the
first, especially that portion of the book which is written in
the form of experiences or stories. After a warning from the
teacher the class discussed the material and offered unidentified
cases which they had known which seemed to parallel those
described in the book. This was done without references to
individuals or to specific families, which prevented any bitter
feelings among the pupils.
During the time when the book was being read at the rate
of two chapters a day, the class did library and reference work
on the background of alcohol and other narcotics: their com-
position, manufacture, etc.
As the book was being completed, we gave special consid-
eration to Chapter 10, which is devoted to conclusions: both

50See Harkness and Fort, Youth Studies Alcohol, Benjamin H. Sanborn & Co., Chicago,


in the language of the pupil and-paralleling these, in a more
scientific form-"teacher interpreted" conclusions. The class
was now ready to make plans for project work on the various
phases of narcotics which they had studied.
In a class of five, two of the girls made scrapbooks. One
was composed of pictures taken from magazines, with the pur-
pose of showing how lacking in connection are most adver-
tisements concerning beverage alcohol with the true facts con-
cerning the nature of the substance (alcohol) The other scrap-
book was filled with drawings done by the pupil which por-
trayed the known "scientific effects" of alcohol. The other
pupils made posters. One made free hand drawings, using the
illustrations in "Youth Studies Alcohol" and other materials
for his ideas. All posters were labeled with appropriate slogans.
The best poster in the group was entirely original. It depicted
a staff of music with brightly colored cocktail glasses of various
sizes and shapes as the notes on the music staff. These were
drawn at different angles and levels so as to more realistically
give the impression of being music notes. Above the staff were
these lines:
"Drinking Tunes When Practiced Over
And Over Soon Become
And Often Turn Into Funeral Marches."
The fifth member of the group wrote a one-act play, which
though it was naturally quite immature, showed a sound grasp
of the subject, a wholesome attitude toward it, and a healthy,
growing imagination.
The class was much interested in the study of this material
and their projects, often asking to be allowed to read and to
work on them. There was no trouble in introducing the sub-
ject to them or in obtaining their cooperation in working on it.
Although our study was correlated with and carried on as a
part of the regular English work, it was not begun subtly, and
no attempt was made to let it grow gradually out of some sort
of discussion. In fact, this type of approach appeared in this
case entirely unnecessary. The fact that the pupils had already


been properly introduced to the study in one or more of their
other classes probably accounts for this fact and this interest.

In our study of colonial and early American history we
learned that large quantities of beer and wine and other alco-
holic drinks were used. Here the teacher directed the discus-
sion into a consideration of drinking in early and in modern
American times. Many interesting points were brought out by
the children. It was soon settled in every mind that drinking
was potentially more dangerous in modern times than in the
early days of our nation, and the reasons were discovered, dis-
cussed, and understood.
Toward the end of the year, while we were engaged in a
study of the Constitution, a discussion arose as to why the 18th
Amendment was considered a failure and repealed. This was
a delicate subject, but we did not try to dodge the issue. The
big commercial interests in legalized whiskey were considered,
along with other possible angles. We finally decided that many
people like to drink and want to drink, even though they know
that alcohol is always dangerous to them; and, generally speak-
ing, harmful to the community and to the nation. We also
discussed in general: Why do people drink? What part does
the fear of social disapproval play in drinking today? What is
the danger of this and how can the problem be met? Should
laws be abolished because they are not completely successful?
When should laws be abolished in a democracy? When should
laws be passed and when not? What does drinking or not drink-
ing have to do with citizenship?
This discussion lasted for an entire period. A positive, defi-
nite attitude was adopted by most members of the class, and
some progress was made in the big task of stimulating children
to think and study for themselves.

We approached the study of alcohol just as we did any
other area of science. When we came to it we used our texts


and supplementary materials to discover what it is, what its
physical and chemical properties are, how it is produced, the
different kinds, etc. Before we began this study, I found a copy
of Dr. Gregg's Practical Experiments With Alcohol51 in our
library. The first eight pages of this booklet are given over to
a series of simple but interesting scientific experiments on ex-
actly what we were studying in our text about alcohol. A
portion of several laboratory periods was devoted to carrying
out these experiments, which were done as any other experi-
ments, without any reference to the moral or social issues of
drinking. However, the students were interested in carrying
out the experiments and were impressed by the results.
The science and chemistry of alcohol, as discovered in the
laboratory, was then followed up in an entirely different man-
ner. We had a general class discussion of alcohol and all or any
of its phases. A project assignment was made in which the
students could select any of the following:
1. An essay on any chosen topic concerning alcohol or other narcotics
which the student felt needed clarification in his own mind.
2. A poster, making some important fact or point concerning narcotics
clear to the class.
3. A five-minute talk before the class, with a partner, on some phase
of narcotics education. This might be in the form of a radio announcement,
an interview or a quiz program.
This project was carried out with interest and enthusiasm.
Some of the subjects chosen for essays or talks were: Alcohol,
Tobacco, and Advertising; Alcohol, Tobacco, and Athletics;
Alcohol and Accidents; Alcohol As a Narcotic; Alcohol and
Efficiency; Alcohol As a Social Problem; The Uses and Dangers
of Heavy Narcotics.
The students were then given some reference books and
other materials on narcotics and stimulants, and during part
of two class periods they were given class time in which they
organized supervised study groups to work on their respective
topics. Several effective posters were made, which incidentally

51F. M. Gregg, Practical Experiments With Alcohol, The Higley Press, Butler, Indiana.


aroused interest in other classes. A few of the essays and oral
reports were quite well done, and there was plenty of informal
discussion, all of which helped to put across the point.

This program was undertaken at the request of the ma-
jority of the class. Since each member of the group was being
taught narcotics education in some other class it had not been
my original intention to work out a unit here. We desired to
approach the subject from a classical or historical angle, so
that what we did would add to our understanding and appre-
ciation of classical history. In other words, our aim was to
throw additional light on our conceptions of the glorious civil-
izations of the past and try to understand better their great-
ness on the one hand, and on the other, the weaknesses which
finally sent them to ruinous defeat.
It was finally agreed that each pupil should write a paper
on some phase of the general subject: "Drugs, Stimulants, and
Narcotics in the Ancient World". Such titles as "Wine in An-
cient Rome", "Roman Food and Meals", and "Alcohol in An-
cient Greece and Rome" were taken. Most of them attempted
to show factually and logically how the use of alcoholic bev-
erages in Rome, although mild in comparison with some modern
alcoholic drinks, were to a degree instrumental in causing the
degeneracy of a noble people, and finally, the fall of a great
empire. One boy wrote on "Marihuana Through the Ages".
Another attempted to show how alcohol was influential in caus-
ing the degeneration and downfall of two great civilizations,
the Greek and Roman.

Because narcotics education was being taught throughout
our school and because of the negative attitude of some mem-
bers of the class who had had very little instruction on the sub-
ject and whose home environment was not altogether desir-
able, a proper approach to the problem seemed to the instructor
to be very important. It was finally decided to teach alcohol
instruction as a form of courtesy. We worked it in most appro-


privately and unobtrusively in a unit of study that we were
doing on etiquette. As the problem of smoking was already in
the general plan of this unit, the problem of alcohol logically
There followed a discussion, an investigation, and then
further discussion of the following questions:
1. How much (if any) alcohol should one drink?
2. When (if at all) should one drink?
3. What are the dangers of drinking to health, to good
manners, to society?
4. Will one or an occasional drink hurt the individual?
After investigation and discussion the class finally worked
out the following answers to these questions:
1. Any amount is too much, as proved by the National Safety Council's
statistics on accidents which occurred after drinking only "small amounts".
More important in a consideration of courtesy, small amounts of alcohol have
been proven to always effect to a degree emotional stability and personality.
2. There is never any time when a person cannot graciously refuse to
drink. A person may be teased for his refusal, but he or she will also be re-
spected as one who makes his or her own decisions.
3. Alcohol is in general and by and large injurious to health, to good
manners, and to society.
4. One drink only perhaps would not hurt a person, but one drink leads
to an occasional drink, and the occasional drink leads to more. Alcohol is
habit forming, and the occasional drink is often the beginning of the habit.

Our approach and procedure might have been different if
the members of the class had had sufficient or effective instruc-
tion in narcotics education before reaching their senior year.
However, in view of the status quo, I set up the following as
teacher objectives:
1. To supply reliable source materials of scientific information concern-
ing the actions and effects of alcohol on the human body; and to encourage
study and discussion of these materials. -


2. To change the attitude of some members of the class toward alcohol
and drinking.
Encouraged by the teacher, the class set up this as their
objective: "To ascertain the changing attitude toward the use
of various alcoholic beverages as shown by the works of eight-
eenth, nineteenth, and twentieth century writers; and to check
these various opinions and attitudes with present-day known
scientific facts concerning alcohol." With such a pupil objective
formulated and set up by the students themselves as a part of
their literature study, it was comparatively easy to lead the pupils
into such study, discussion, and activities as to at least partially
achieve the two teacher objectives mentioned above, objectives
that were unknown to the students.

1. Our homeroom period is usually taken up with some
informal consideration and discussion of some phase of health,
courtesy, safety, etc. This subject was appropriately introduced
first as a part of the health program discussion.
The teacher read to the class a report of an experiment con-
ducted at Clark University to show the effects of alcohol on
2. Study of references in "Gulliver's Travels" to intoxi-
cating beverages. The author's opinion as to effects were later
compared with scientific knowledge of today.
3. Each student kept a record of all references to drugs,
stimulants, and narcotics made in some book he was reading as an
outside or parallel reading assignment.

1. Before the program was started the attitude of about
half the class was that it is "smart" to drink or that drinking
small amounts occasionally has no harmful effects. The report
on the dogs and some of the facts which were brought out in

52See Alcohol and the Family Tree, an article by Bertha Rachel Palmer. Signal Press,
Evanston, Illinois. (2 ).


the discussions that followed did much to change the attitude
of those whoi had unsound ideas. That the girls of the class
were almost unanimously opposed to drinking, and that parallel
programs were being carried on in other classes, accounts in
part for the rapid change in attitude.

2. Several weeks elapsed between the reading of the Clark
University report concerning dogs in homeroom period, and
the study of "Gulliver's Travels". By this time the subject was
not funny or ridiculous. A chart like this was made on the

17 Brandy Induced
sleep at

28 Wine Part of a

Summary and Conclusion: The opinion of Swift as to the
effects of alcohol on the human body as shown by Gulliver's
Travels is that it is as a whole beneficial. Modern science, how-
ever, proves Gulliver and a host of other literary men to be in

3. Each pupil kept a similar chart of the book that he was
reading at the time as an outside book report. The chart and
its contents were included as a part of the regular oral report
and was turned in to the teacher afterward. Especially good
were the reports on "Gone With the Wind" and "Look Home-
ward, Angel", made by two of the boys whose attitudes needed
most changing. The books were their own selections, but the
teacher could not have picked any more suitable ones for pro-
ducing the desired results.


The following evaluative report was written by the prin-
cipal of the school a year after the above activities had been
carried out by the various teachers and class groups:
Of course it is difficult if not impossible to evaluate nar-
cotics instruction at just the time it is given. And it would
doubtless be unwise even now to attempt definitely to measure
and evaluate the program undertaken a year ago by our little
school. However, we were amazed at the interest and enthusi-
asm and spirit displayed by the students on all grade levels. The
fact that the teachers undertook to study and discuss thoroughly
the whole problem before undertaking it in their class rooms,
probably accounts to a large extent for the interest they were
able to inspire in their pupils.
We are now concerned with finding a satisfactory manner
in which to conserve and carry on with the gains of 1940. This
year we will not undertake a school-wide program of projects.
By next year, however, teachers and students will probably be
ready for "new and original" projects and enterprises, which
will, we hope, turn out to be interesting and valuable variations,
and if they are just that we will consider them genuine contri-
butions to our total school program-entirely worth while-
aside from whatever particular value they may or may not
have, in the definite area of narcotics education.
This year we will concentrate on carrying out one com-
pletely integrated unit, correlating it with every "subject" of
the grade level in which it is undertaken. This project is to serve
the entire school as an illustrative unit of what can be done in
general with whole-program correlation and with direct large
unit teaching.*
In looking back over these projects one thing stands out
that is most important. It is the noticeable fact that the gen-
eral attitude of pupils and students toward alcohol has changed
a great deal since this work was undertaken in our school. With

*See Part IV, Page 77, for complete story and record of this "illustrative large unit."


a number of individuals it has changed tremendously. This
teaching has also had some direct and a great deal of indirect
influence on the adult or outside community. Out-of-school
boys and older people no longer drink in or around school pro-
perty. They do not even come near the school grounds when
they are drinking, or if they do, we know nothing about it. In
other words, this instruction in this school, has been a definite
and material help in our community-a resort community
where drinking is "usual and accepted". We believe that our
activities in this realm have been not only a worthwhile part
of the school's contribution to total defense, but a forward step
toward the ideal of the "good life" for all.

Dorothy F. Osburn, a science teacher in a California junior
high school, in working out an experiment course for teaching
narcotics education, formulated and carried out a number of
interesting and enlightening activity-projects for the use of her
pupils. She points out that there are a number of ways to set
the stage without the teacher even expressing an opinion on
the matter. Five of her excellent, suggestive, and detailed activi-
ties follow:
1. One plan begins with a "Search for Facts" for and against
the use of alcohol and other narcotics. If possible, reserve the
school library for class use during the period. Merely ask the
students to hunt for facts, regardless of which side the fact
may support, and arrange these facts in this manner:
Facts in favor of the use of alcohol Facts against the use of alcohol and
and other narcotics other narcotics
a. a.
b. b.
Emphasize the necessity of noticing who wrote the books
or sources from which facts are quoted in order to judge their
validity. Ask the students to state the source of information
after each fact listed.
Interest grows as one column fills more rapidly than the
other and plenty of discussion will be ready when the "hunt"
is over and the time comes in class to express ideas.


2. Another activity leads out of a study of all substances
likely to be harmful to the human body, including poisons,
patent medicines, stimulants, and narcotics. Students soon dis-
cover the limitations of the Pure Food and Drug Act and readily
see that one cannot believe all that is said or printed or pictured
in advertisements designed to sell any product. They also learn
that one dangerous aspect of patent medicines is their alcohol
or other narcotic content. This naturally leads to discussion as
to why those are harmful and makes the student willing and
eager to learn more facts about all narcotics.
3. Still another plan utilizes a "Trial by Jury" in which
a court room situation is set up, with a judge, prosecuting and
defense attorneys, bailiff, court secretary to record results, etc.,
and the whole plan is made as lifelike as possible. The case on
the docket is "Science versus Narcotics" and every student is
to be a detective in search of evidence. Preliminary discussion
usually brings out many charges against alcohol or some other
member of the narcotics family which need to be either proved
or disproved, and one or more "detectives" are assigned (by
choice or chance) to search out the evidence on each "count."
Typical charges are:
a. That alcohol is often involved in traffic accidents.
b. That alcohol is a narcotic.
c. That alcohol hinders athletic achievements.
d. That alcohol ruins judgment and lessens reasoning power.
It is urged that police departments, safety councils, insur-
ance companies, athletic coaches, physicians, railroad officials,
employers of skilled labor, be asked to assist in supplying ma-
terial and information to be used in answering the charges against
alcohol and other narcotics. This is to be in addition to that
contained in books and other printed sources of authentic'in-
formation. Use as wide a variety of textbooks as possible. In-
vite special members or experts from the police department to
speak to the class concerning the "heavy" narcotics or special
phases of the problem.
When the search for evidence is over, the trial begins and


the "detectives" report their evidence (in visual form when-
ever possible), "attorneys" examine and cross-examine the wit-
nesses, the "court secretary" records the point made, and fin-
ally the whole class, by secret ballot, decides the charges upon
which alcohol and the other narcotics are found "guilty."
4. Make a study of the whole field of accident prevention
and first aid. Begin to prepare several weeks in advance by
asking students to watch the newspapers and clip all items re-
ferring to accidents. Post these on the bulletin board and let
them accumulate, without comment, until you are ready to
begin the study of accidents and their social significance. Then,
taking the record for whatever it happens to be at that time,
let the class list the common causes of these accidents and have
them suggest a set of rules by which these tragedies might have
been prevented. Sometimes it is interesting and profitable to
have the class construct a "Safety First Alphabet" with a safety
slogan for every letter in the alphabet.
Of course, many of the accidents will be listed as due to
alcohol as the primary cause, but now try to determine fairly
in what ways alcohol might have been responsible for part of
the other accidents which have occurred during the period of
observation. In order to do this it is necessary to study the ways
in which alcohol affects man both mentally and physically, and
so the subject of alcohol is introduced in a normal way.
Show slides, available from the Visual Center, based upon
the book, "What About Alcohol?"53 Use whatever textbooks
are available. Ask the local safety council and insurance com-
panies to furnish speakers who will discuss the causes and re-
sults of traffic injuries which maim or disable for life, as these
have a great economic significance. The National Safety Coun-
cil,. and the State Motor Vehicle Department, the State De-
partment of Public Safety*, local safety councils and commis-
sions, Travelers Insurance Company, and local police depart-

58Emil Bogen and L. W. S. Hisey, What About Alcohol? (Los Angeles: Angelus Press,
*Address inquiries to Hugh L. McArthur, Department of Public Safety, Tallahassee,


ments will be able to furnish information concerning total
traffic accident figures as well as the number known to have
involved the use of alcohol. The yearly booklets issued by the
Travelers Insurance Company are especially interesting and
practical as sources of information concerning the whole traffic
accident problem. The results of many surveys are also available.
An interesting and worthwhile sidelight on the subject may
be developed from the first aid angle, as the use of alcohol in-
ternally is "taboo" in any first aid treatment. In order to see
the accident problem through the eyes of a real "First Aider,"
ask the director of the local Y. M. C. A. or a Red Cross officer
to speak to your class or to give a First Aid Demonstration. He
has a wide range of first aid experience and will make clear the
things to do and not to do in connection with accidents.
As a climax to the study of alcohol and other narcotics,
it is vital to let the students express their conviction by means
of debates, panel discussions, and short plays, as well as by pre-
paring slides, cartoons, or posters on the subject.
5. Since alcohol and other narcotics are a social danger it
is possible to make or use still other methods of approach in
the various social studies classes. The question of social progress,
legislation, international relations, crime, safety, poverty, and
worthy home membership all present points of contact with
the narcotics problem. Use every available authentic source
of current information possible in order to let the students see
that it is not a static problem. Learn what other countries are
doing; progress especially worthy of note is being made in
Mexico, Germany, Russia, France, England, Japan, Turkey,
and Italy. After a study of the problem, allow students to pre-
sent their views either by writing "editorials" or by drawing car-
toons to illustrate an editorial page. Debates are also useful in
crystallizing student opinion.
As a unit or project a class can make a study of the nature
of alcohol and its effects upon the individual and upon society.
The class may be divided into committees or groups and each
group can make a careful study of scientific reports concerning
a particular phase, which it is to put into condensed, written


form and also give to the class in the form of oral reports. Sug-
gested subjects for individual committees may include: (1)
the nature and actions of alcohol, (2) the place of alcohol in
industry and science, (3) its effect upon cell structure, (4)
its effect upon the brain and nervous system, (5) its psycho-
logical effects, (6) its social effects, (7) the part its beverage
use plays in the revenue structure of the community, the state,
and the nation, and (8) its relation to crime and other social
maladjustments. The facts discovered by these committees can
form the ground-work or foundation upon which other reports
can be based and a broader program of education and activities
developed. Special reports and special books should be consulted,
as well as textbooks on hygiene, social sciences, biology, chem-
istry, psychology, and the like.


Getting deeper into the social and economic aspects of the
problems created by the manufacture and use of alcohol and
other narcotics, the advanced high school or college group can
embark upon the difficult task of ascertaining the problems and
needs arising from the sale of beverage alcohol in the community.
A specific activity in this connection might be to discover the
number of boys, girls, and young women who' are employed in
places where liquor is sold or who through the conditions of
their employment are compelled to handle or sell alcoholic bev-
erages and to compare this number with other places and with
other times (prohibition and pre-prohibition days). The class
might make a study to determine to what extent social pres-
sure operates upon people in the matter of drinking. From
what source does such pressure come-clubs, fraternities, social
gatherings, business demands, or what?
Various other studies and surveys can be conducted in the
effort to determine the effects of alcoholic beverages upon the

54See The Local Church and the Liquor Problem (Chicago: The International Council
of Religious Education, 1938), pp. 11-14. All the material,used in this topic for high school
and college levels is taken directly or adapted from this booklet.


community.* Various lines of investigation might be under-
taken. Problems will doubtless be discovered growing out of
local conditions and needs. The following paragraphs call for
a wide variety of information that can be obtained with little
effort in any community.
For a copy of the state liquor law one can write the secre-
tary of state. A list of license holders in the community, to-
gether with information concerning sales, tax revenue, and
other data, can be secured from the liquor control commission
or from the county clerk. Police, crime, and traffic statistics
can be had from the police department. Statistics covering
disease and other health matters can be gotten from the local
or other health offices. Certain types of information will have
to be secured by observation and interviews.
The activities about to be outlined are challenging to the
school and to education that will not remain blind to the vital,
"dangerous" issues:
1. A study of the state or provincial liquor law or laws
and analysis of its provisions. What type of liquor law does
the area have? License? State control commission? State mo-
nopoly? What rights do local communities have with refer-
ence to control of liquor selling within their boundaries? Does
the community have the right of local option? What regula-
tions govern the sale of liquor, especially with reference to
location, hours of sale, sale to minors, sale to intoxicated per-
sons, the use of music, entertainment, etc.?
2. A listing of liquor licenses held in the community ac-
cording to name of holder, type of license, and location. If
the government monopoly or dispensary system is in effect,
find out the total monthly sales. Make a spot map of the liquor
selling places of the community. Where are they most preva-
lent? What sections of the community are most affected?
Business? Residential? Slum? Where license is held in the
name of a corporation, secure names of principal stockholders.

*See "National Defense Vs. Venereal Disease," LIFE magazine, October 13, 1941, pp.
128-138, for a consideration of the deeper economic and social connections between the liquor
traffic, prostitution, and syphilis.


(Well-known citizens have been known to hide their connection
with the liquor business under corporate devices.) How much
revenue accrues to the local, area, and national governments
from the consumption of liquor in the community? What is
the probable total expenditure for liquor by the community?
What is the probable total cost to the community of the sale
of liquor, excluding increased crime and disease costs?
3. A study of the police and crime records of the com-
munity. How many arrests were made for drunkenness during
the past year? From what section of the community do most
of them come? Do the names and locations suggest any con-
nection between the use of liquor and unwholesome social con-
ditions, lack of income, lack of socially desirable alternative?
How do the records compare with records of the prohibition
era? Are the types of offenses those commonly associated with
the use of liquor? (Drunkenness, assault and battery, fighting,
manslaughter, and so-called "crimes of passion," such as offenses
against women and children, criminal assault, and murder.)
4. A study of traffic violations for the past year. What
number or percentage of cases are of a type that are likely
to accompany the use of liquor? (Many offenses charged simply
as "speeding," "failure to stop at red light," "leaving the scene
of an accident," "driving on the wrong side of the road," etc.,
are due to the driver's being more or less under the influence
of liquor.)
5. A study of traffic deaths during the past year. How
many fatalities involved the known use of liquor by pedestrians?
(Fatalities to pedestrians in the streets or caused by walking
into the side or path of a moving car may be due to drinking.)
Care should be exercised not to draw conclusions from un-
verified data. Of course all traffic accidents are not due to the
use of liquor, though some authorities believe that alcohol is
involved in a very large percentage of the cases.55
6. Liquor-caused or liquor-associated diseases in the com-

55Harry H. Porter, "Handling the Drunken Driver-The Modern Method," address at
Art Center, Evanston, Illinois, February 24, 1938, under the auspices of The National Safety


munity. Among such diseases are acute alcoholism, alcoholic
insanity, cirrhosis of the liver, Bright's disease, syphilis, etc.
At this point the advice and testimony of a competent physician
should be sought and utilized.
7. The situation with reference to law enforcement. Are
liquor licenses refused persons with records of conviction or
of known bad repute? Are regulations (both local and state)
governing location, character of place, hours of sale, sale to
minors and intoxicated persons, observed and enforced? What
is the general character of taverns and drinking places in the
community? (Write for reports of Chicago Juvenile Protec-
tive Association for types found in one metropolitan area.)
8. Bootlegging in the community. What efforts are made
to curb the practice? What penalties do the courts inflict?
Are sentences served?
9. Substitutes in the community for the social features
that are to be found in taverns and drinking places. Are there
places where young people can congregate for sandwiches, soft
drinks, dancing and a general "good time" free from the pres-
ence of liquor? Is liquor generally served at young people's
social functions in the community? Is the "cocktail hour" a
social institution in the so-called "best" homes of the com-
munity? If so, what effect does this have on efforts toward
alcohol education?
10. The attitude manifested by civic organizations, clubs,
luncheon groups and the like, toward the use of liquor. Consult
Parent-Teacher Associations, leaders of women's clubs, leaders
of business and professional organizations, to learn what the
practice is at functions sponsored by these groups.
11. Interviews with superintendents of schools, teachers,
trustees, family welfare agencies and the like to learn how
liquor selling has affected children.
12. The extent, if any, to which the business of making
and selling liquor enters into the economic life of the com-
munity. Is there a brewery or distillery in the community?
Are there types of business that cater to the liquor trade in a


secondary capacity, such as the manufacture of glass bottles,
patent bottle-caps, bar fixtures, refrigerators?
13. Protective influences at work in the community. In
the home, to what extent do parents accept responsibility for
training their children against the use of alcohol? Are brewer
-and distiller-sponsored radio programs popular in the com-
munity? Is! the serving of liquor in the home widely practiced
in the community? (Care should be taken to avoid giving per-
sonal offense in answering this question. General facts are called
for, rather than attempting to catalog individuals or families.)
What protective influences are at work in the schools, the
churches, and through temperance groups?
Such an involved project as outlined above may be pur-
sued in a number of ways. It might be started in the junior
year and carried out during a two-year period until gradua-
tion. Or it may be divided among two or more classes or
sections of a class and completed in a month or two.
Reports should be carefully prepared, with special regard
for maintaining an unprejudiced, objective, factual point of
view. Data contained in the reports should be carefully studied
and evaluated by the group. Eliminate all statements which
do not have substantial group support. Avoid all extreme state-
ments. The purpose of the project is to furnish facts. The
needs revealed should be carefully noted. If the studies show,
for instance, that a large number of young people frequent
taverns and drinking places and that facilities for wholesome
recreation and association are limited in the community, these
facts seem to indicate a possible line of action for the group.
High ratios of drunkenness, crime, traffic accidents and fatali-
ties, suggest needs to be met. The number of class periods or
other meetings of the group or groups to analyze the studies
and plan a program of education and action will depend to a
large extent upon the amount of accurate data secured, the
care with which it is studied, and the type of program which
conditions seem to require.
The reports, together with all data gathered, should be
carefully filed away for future reference. Statements may be


called in question, figures challenged, or more detailed infor-
mation demanded. If properly classified, the reports and their
supporting data ought to be valuable source materials for the
school and for the community at large. In cases where com-
munity action develops, this material will form the basis for
further study.
For Discussion:
1. What is alcohol and what is its source?
2. Explain fermentation and distillation.
3. What are the two characteristics of alcohol and of what importance
is each?
4. Explain the four ways that alcohol has been proved to affect vision.
S. Why are vision and muscular coordination much more important
as safety factors today than they were a hundred years ago?
6. Give reasons to show why increased speed becomes more hazardous
after drinking.
7. What is the effect alcohol has upon fatigue? Explain your answer.
8. What and where are hospitals in our country that help to cure alcohol
9. What do you know about these hospitals?
10. Why is so much alcohol used industrially today?
11. Name some industrial uses of alcohol.
12. How does the use of alcohol affect sports and athletes?
13. Where is the United States Bureau of Drugs and Narcotics located?
Who is the director? What does this bureau do?
14. Do the Pure Food Laws affect the use of alcohol? Explain.
15. How is ether made? Compare its uses with those of alcohol.
16. A commercial plane pilot is not allowed to drink alcohol "in order
to keep warm". Explain why not.
17. What do patent medicines have to do with the narcotics problem?
18. What do patent medicines have to do with Consumer Education?
19. What part does modern advertising play irn selling today?
20. Explain the psychology of the modern liquor and tobacco ads.


Things to do:
1. According to your local hospitals what percentage of personal injury
accidents are due to drinking?
2. What are the opinions of your local doctors on the subject of drink-
ing and driving?
3. Write to one of the country's large metropolitan hospitals and get
their facts and figures, as well as their expert opinion, concerning alcohol
and accidents.
4. Go to your local police station and find out how many drinking drivers
there are on the average week-end. Compare these figures with the average
during the rest of the week. How do you account for the difference? How
many (or what percentage) of arrests are for drunken driving?
5. Write a letter to some private and some public hospitals which are
devoted to the cure of alcoholics and find out if the number of addicts is
increasing or decreasing, what percentage they actually cure, why most of
their patients become addicts, etc.
6. Make a survey to find what your local community is doing about
the alcohol problem.
7. What should your community do? Prepare a suggested program for
meeting the problem.
8. Find out and compare the amounts of alcohol in each of the following
drinks: beer, wine, cider, whiskey, gin, brandy, rum, cognac, absinth, and
9. Write to the National Safety Council, Chicago, for special informa-
tion concerning the various scientific tests which are used to determine
whether a person has been drinking or not. Find out which one is most
highly recommended and why.
10. Write a paper on "The Industrial Uses of Alcohol Today."
11. Relate to the class what a visit to the local insurance companies
revealed about the use of alcohol. Summarize this in a paper.
12. Write or interview your local State Attorney to find out the part
alcohol plays in his cases.
13. Write a paper on and describe to the class orally how the Bureau
of Drugs and Narcotics was created, and what it does.
14. Look up and discuss the new State Uniform Narcotic Law.
15. Write a paper on the harm, uselessness, and fraud of patent


16. Write a paper on the history and development of the pure food
laws in the United States.
17. Write to Pan-American Airways and to other commercial aviation
companies and find out just what tests their "would-be pilots" have to pass.
18. Interview a local judge and find out what he thinks about traffic
accidents and alcohol.
19. Interview a judge and local lawyers on the subject, "Factors About
Alcohol Revealed in Court."
20. Write to the United States Treasury (Bureau of Industrial Alcohol,
Washington, D. C.) for a copy of "The Uses of Alcohol as an Essential
Chemical in Arts, Sciences, and Industries." ($.10 per copy)
21. Make a class talk based on the above pamphlet.
22. Make a trip to the local bottling plants to see how the various soft
drinks are made.
23. If the breath,, saliva, or other scientific tests for drinking are used
by your local police, go and see the test given. Interview the operators of
the tests and report back to the class.
24. Go to a drug store and politely get permission to examine the labels
(it is unnecessary to touch the containers) of twelve patent medicines.
Check and record their content for alcohol and report the results to the
class for discussion.
25. Find out just what a good first aid kit for snake bite should contain
and report this to the class.
26. Using Palmer's A Syllabus in Alcohol Education as a guide, gather
materials and carry out experiments to determine and authenticate the char-
acteristic actions of alcohol.
27. Consult Gregg's "Practical Experiments With Alcohol" and work
out as many of these as possible.*
28. Consult Gregg's "Practical Experiments With Tobacco" and work
out as many of these as possible.*
29. Study and report on Gregg's "Practical Facts About Marihuana".*
30. Write to the Motion Picture Bureau, YMCA National Council, New
York City, enclosing a stamped, self-addressed reply envelope, and ask for
information concerning 16 mm films dealing with alcohol or other narcotics.
Write a similar letter to the National Safety Council, Chicago, Illinois.

*Order from the Higley Press, Butler, Indiana, (25t).


31. Make a poster showing the reaction time necessary to stop a car
widh and without a given amount of alcohol.
32. Make a series of posters depicting and debunking the "Fallacies
People Believe About Alcohol".
33. Make a series of safety posters, a series of health posters, a series of
science posters, all of' which include the facts and effects of alcohol, as well
as the benefits of alcohol "outside the body".
34. Guide and direct your older students to write, direct, and produce
an original play having to do with Alcohol Education, and your younger
children to work up a skit or pantomime.
35. Prepare a speech on "Alcohol Education" to be given at a meeting
of parents and teachers.
36. Prepare an article for your local newspaper, one of a series describing
the units studied by your class on "How We Carried Out a Successful Unit
In Alcohol or Narcotics Education".
37. Organize an Allied Youth Club in your high school (write, Execu-
tive Secretary, Allied Youth, N. E. A. Building, Washington, D. C.).
38. Organize a Student Health Council in your high school to work on
actual existing conditions needing improvement in your school and your
39. Interview your local athletic coach and directors on the subject of
sports and alcohol. Report to the class.
40. Invite local doctors, judges, engineers, and aviators to your class
and your clubs to talk on various phases of health.


Throughout this bulletin the general objectives of educa-
tion have been emphasized, as well as the particular aims of
health and narcotics instruction. Like all areas of education,
narcotics instruction must be justified on a basis of the needs
of youth and of society.

There are valid reasons why the teacher should know how
nearly the outcomes of any instruction fulfill the objectives or
reasons for an evaluation program. One obvious reason has to

*For a more detailed and general consideration of evaluation see Bulletin No. 2, Ways
to Better Instruction in Florida Schools (October, 1939), Chapter 10, pp. 272-306. State
Department of Education, Tallahassee, Florida. Much of the material used here is adapted
from Bulletin No. 2.


do with remedial instruction and the relationship of future in-
struction to present achievement. A measuring program should
help the teacher evaluate her materials and her methods, and thus
to improve her instruction from experience. However, it must
be realized at the outset that in developing a program of evalua-
tion teachers must consider a much broader range of values
than merely those concerned with pupil mastery of information
and skills. There must be a realization that teachers cannot
evaluate by simply referring to a definite list of objectives set
up wholly within a subject area. The teacher must attempt to
see the total picture. Actual past and present as well as de-
sirable future relationships must be sensed and tactfully ex-
plored. In attempting to evaluate, the first concern of the
teacher should be with social and human values. Factual infor-
mation and skill are necessary but secondary, and they become
meaningful only as they relate to higher values. Worthy evalua-
tions require thinking-critical and understanding judgment.
As Bulletin No. 2 says:* When all the test instruments which
are available at the present time have been applied and the
results tabulated, the faculty must still raise the question, "What
is the meaning of all this?"
It is evident at this point that the types of outcomes with
which the school is concerned may be classified roughly as (1)
outcomes concerned with information and skills and (2) out-
comes concerned with interests, appreciation, attitudes, ideals,
dispositions, insight, and understandings. It has been indicated
further that skills are not things apart but are rather closely
connected with and to a degree dependent upon insight and
understanding. Since the broad purpose of all education is
the development of personalities that have both skill and under-
standing, the school can not avoid its major responsibility in
either realm.
What kinds of outcomes should Florida teachers, pupils,
administrators, and laymen take into consideration when evalu-
ating the work of the narcotics education program in their
schools and communities?

*p. 292.


Before attempting to get to the heart of this question a
brief consideration about outcomes concerned with informa-
tion and skills is in order. It must be fully realized that pen
and pencil tests will not reveal all that is happening or has hap-
pened to the child, and that definite measurements of skill and
informational outcomes are inadequate at best. Nevertheless,
the teacher must use them, -and by wise and careful use she may
secure valuable help for teaching. Each of the general types of
tests (standard, essay type, new type, and observational tests)
has advantages peculiar to itself and occasions arise in most
teaching for the use of all types. In this connection, there is
an apparent need for some standard tests concerning narcotics
as well as other health education areas at the present time.
Let us consider briefly now the many phases of personality
growth that can be caught, explored, and properly directed
only through conscious observation and skillful guidance on
the part of the teacher or some other interested and trained
person. Worthwhile evaluation of narcotics instruction (or of
any area of the larger health program) is simply one phase of
evaluating, recording, and influencing social behavior of pupils.
Florida teachers are today interested in doing something signifi-
cant concerning the evaluation of pupil behavior both in and
out of school. Any such evaluations must be made in the light
of the total behavior exhibited and felt. What the child does,
what he makes, what he says, even facial expressions or man-
nerisms may be significant and revealing. Bulletin No. 2 lists
three general factors which must be checked upon before the
teacher makes a final judgment and sets to work to plan in
cooperation with the pupil experiences to remedy the situation.
The teacher must observe the various and specific aspects of
behavior along three general lines. They are:
1. GENERAL HEALTH: sickness due to organic troubles
or to body toxins, poor digestion or elimination, food, sleep and
recreation, or high tension living.
2. PERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS: home environment, rela-
tionship to individuals, family or community groups.
3. IMMEDIATE EMOTIONAL STATUS: dominant purpose,


emotional tension due to up-sets in routine or personality
We must not neglect the need for reflective thinking if
we hope to develop mature behavior in a changing democratic
society. There is universal need to understand and be able to
use the scientific method in many areas of living as changing
social and personal problems arise. The ability and will to do
reflective thinking is much more important than simply ar-
riving at the right answer, and it functions in the development
of real character. This results in the child knowing not only
what is good, but also why it is good. The right answer may
be fundamentally no better than the wrong one unless the pupil
senses its meaning, is able to defend it, and controls his conduct
Constructive evaluation may be done in connection with
the abilities of students to see the nature of proof, to question
basic assumptions, and finally to generalize upon available data.
Reflective thinking and the scientific method belong to all fields
and subject areas. Problems exist everywhere and there is no
holiday for intelligence.
Guidance* is itself a phase of evaluation, perhaps the most
important phase of all. In guidance as in evaluation problems
must first be identified and understood. Then comes the stage
in which existing or potential problems are corrected, prevented
or resolved by the functioning of the school program.
Many problems (such as the various social and personal
problems connected with the manufacture, sale and use of
alcohol and other narcotics) which arise through custom, habit,
personal dissatisfaction or maladjustment; or from a lack of
understanding of certain aspects of contemporary life or of
their importance, will tend to decrease as such problems be-
come an integral part of the curriculum. So-called disciplinary
problems (including those connected with the use of tobacco
or alcohol, and other related, undesirable leisure time activi-

*See Bulletin No. 2, Ways to Better Instruction in Florida Schools, (October, 1939),
Chapter 7, pp. 155-189, for the more detailed discussion of guidance from which this material
is adapted.


ties) will tend to disappear when worth-while experiences which
are meaningful to pupils and related to their special needs are
Guidance does not mean to do things or to make decisions
for students, but rather to help them do these things well for
themselves. At the present time most schools are doing far too
little to help their students make wise decisions in the problems
which face them as individuals.
Many of the facts and factors which create personal and
individual problems concerning alcohol and other narcotics,
should be considered and explored in a variety of courses or sub-
ject areas, as has been adequately illustrated in proceeding pages
of this bulletin. This however is too often not done. Where
this is the case it is even more important that group and per-
sonal guidance work concerning alcohol and related personal
problems fill the gap. Where adequate, well-planned course
work is provided, the guidance program should supplement
and otherwise help make the school program functional in the
lives of its boys and girls. In discussing personal and group
guidance Bulletin No. 2 states:
While guidance is essentially personal and each student must receive
individual help on his own problems, many questions are common to so many
children and young people that it would seem to be more economical to
supply some form of group guidance to help students with these problems
and to limit individual guidance work to the problems not solved in the
group work. The impersonal nature of the group might also make it
effective with pupils who are reluctant to reveal their personal problems in
the counsel room, but could use some of the suggestions given to the group.*
A few schools offer courses in vocational guidance, and
in such areas as personality development, home making, citizen-
ship, school adjustments, and other phases of life in which
many young people need guidance. Such courses potentially
have real value, but if not capably handled and integrated with
the rest of the school program, they will prove to be mere arti-
ficialities. What is needed is more actual, functional, personal
and group guidance, rather than more or "new" courses. Unit
teaching in particular as interpreted and illustrated in this bul-

"p. 160.


letin offers teachers an opportunity to provide group guidance
in a natural and effective way, since it is concerned primarily
with real life problems, rather than with merely abstract intel-
lectual situations.
If a school sets up a formal program of guidance greatest
care must be taken that it does not become a mere taking of
notes and keeping of records, an empty form, rather than a liv-
ing means of guiding boys and girls.*
Personal guidance is concerned with such problems as
health, friendships, and leisure activities; it includes good school
and out-of-school citizenship and other personal aspects of the
pupil's life which he may to a large degree control. In connec-
tion with such problems and among other things certain re-
lated questions concerning smoking and drinking are bound
to arise. Does smoking and drinking affect health and safety?
If so, to what degree and how? Why shouldn't high school
"kids" go cooking? What else can they do to have as much fun?
Our friends all drink, so why shouldn't we? What does drink-
ing and smoking have to do with courtesy and good manners?
It is readily seen that there is a pressing and growing need
of guidance in personal affairs among our young people today.
Many parents are unable to supervise the activities of their
children because either they or the children (or both) are away
from home a great deal of the time. The old fixed moral code
is inadequate if not actually incompatible with the social ideals
of democracy. Commercialized amusements and organized vice
are making extravagant and successful bids for much of the
expanding leisure time of modern young people. To prevent
a general cultural and moral breakdown, youth must be guided
into wholesome and constructive activities, activities which
among other things preclude the use or the sanction of bev-
erage alcohol.
The press, the radio, stage and screen, and modern methods
of transportation furnish our young people with all kinds of
education and miseducation-propaganda and information

*Bulletin No. 2, p. 161.


which they must learn to detect, analyze and evaluate, if they
are to act intelligently.
American democracy, if it is to endure, must grow and
improve. Mere factual knowledge concerning social, economic,
and political affairs is no longer enough. Our schools must
generate in our children intelligent and active interest in na-
tional and inter-national affairs, in affairs of government and
of social improvement. Since such intelligence and such inter-
est should concern all health and social problems, the innum-
erable and confused individual and social problems of alcohol
and other narcotics must be considered.
The health and general welfare of young people is particu-
larly endangered today due to such factors as crowded neigh-
borhoods, sedentary habits, artificial foods, and harmful leisure
activities, thus making it not only desirable but actually neces-
sary for each person to take an active interest in his own health.
Due to crowded populations and fast transportation mod-
ern young people usually have a wide range of acquaintances
from which to choose their friends and life partners. Many
of them need guidance in making wise choices. Young people
in most cases are anxious to receive this guidance which they
so badly need. They sense a need for the counsel and com-
panionship of adults.
The problems that have just been mentioned, the failure
of youth to solve them, and the failure of our educational sys-
tems and our parents and teachers to do their part to help
youth solve them properly, lies at the root of nearly all our
national and local ills. As such personal problems mount or
remain unsolved the individuals concerned too often turn to
drinking and commercial amusements, and thence to divorce,
cynicism, flights from reality, vice, or even crime.
Those who fail to find an accepted place among their fel-
lows (perhaps the most pressing self-felt need of all) through
pleasing personality, unselfishness, personal achievement, or
other desirable means will go to almost any extreme to achieve
it or to compensate for its loss. In high school and college, as


well as in adult life, this struggle often appears in the form of
drinking, showing off, bragging, bullying, or cheating for those
who take a positive approach; and in drinking, withdrawal,
day-dreaming, truancy, and running away for those who react
The choosing of a mate preparatory to establishing a home
is one of the most absorbing phases of life to young people of
high school and college age. The enlarged freedom in relations
among the sexes has correspondingly increased the need for
guidance. If the school or school system has the skilled staff
personnel that is capable and willing to do the job, it can-
working always within the limits of current local community
opinion-provide its students with accurate sex information and
an awareness of the dangers of promiscuous sex activity. Bev-
erage alcohol usually if not inevitably is in one way or another
related to the problems of promiscuity and social diseases, as
any doctor or psychologist will readily testify.
It must not be inferred from what has been said or what
is to follow that well adjusted students do not need or have
a right to expect guidance and counsel. Guidance is for every-
body, is by no means limited to maladjusted and problem
children. Bulletin No. 2 states:
It is an important function of the modern school to acquaint its students
with forms of recreation which will really refresh them and restore their
energy. No amount of preaching on the evils of alcohol, tobacco, and late
hours can be as effective in guiding youth aright as a positive program of
desirable and enjoyable recreation. School games, parties, picnics, trips, dances,
entertainments, sports events, and special interests activities will direct into
beneficial channels much of the time and energy which might otherwise be
It is evident that guidance problems must be solved in a
positive way. Good habits must be substituted for bad. Bad
companions may not be dropped until more pleasant and useful
relations are established with new ones. It may be valuable for
a person to know what caused his trouble and that it is not
really serious but the final and effective remedy consists of new
interests and activities to replace the old fears and doubts.

*p. 166.


Finally, and most important, one's habits, his daily activi-
ties, and the many decisions he must make are significant in the
last analysis chiefly as they bear on his central goals in life. If
the individual has no such goals one course may seem as good
as another. In any event his final choice is likely to be based
upon the immediate attractiveness of one or more alternatives.
All individuals need such life goals-particularly those who live
in a democracy. An increasing number of people are adapting
as a central goal the benefitting of humanity in general or along
some particular line such as health or economic and social
welfare. Bulletin No. 2' in discussing this phase of personal
guidance, concludes:
In the choice of such life goals and plans for achieving them, pupils
should naturally look to their teachers for leadership. In furnishing wise and
effective guidance in this very important aspect of life, it is possible that
teachers may make their greatest contributions both to their individual pupils
and to society as a whole.*
The real and important test of the effectiveness of narcotics
education, like the final test of all education, comes during the
period after the student has left his school days behind. The
progress of our civilization toward the ideal of the good life
for all is the great objective that should become the final out-

*p. 174.

Part Four


Report of
JUNE, 1941

An illustrative unit, developed and built around
a "language arts-social studies core", and cor-
related with all subject areas in the program.
And being specifically, a study of ethyl alcohol
and its effects upon the individual and upon the
social world, as carried out by a fifth-sixth grade

John I. Leonard,
Superintendent of Public Instruction
Mildred H. Stevens,

*As explained in the preface of this bulletin (page X) this "large unit activity" is not
a "true unit" in the sense that it grew entirely out of "pupil needs." For illustrations of such
"true units" see Part III of this bulletin (pp. 36-65); also Chapter 9 of Bulletin No. 2; and
pp. 279-289 of Bulletin No. 9, in the Florida series.



1. The Fifth-Sixth Grade Child-His characteristics
2. Some Real Needs of This Age-Grade Group
3. Some Desirable General Teaching Objectives


1. Aim of the Group
2. General Aim
3. General Unit Objectives
4. Specific Unit Objectives


1. Language Arts
a. Art Appreciation and Social Understanding
b. Word Study and Reading
c. Letter Writing
d. Verb Study
e. Expression and Art
f. Spelling
2. Science
a-g. Experiment 1 Through 7
3. Social Studies
a. Health and Safety
b. History
c. Geography
4. Arithmetic



1. Pupil Growth and Development
2. Why Evaluate?
3. The Unit and the Broad Aims of Education
4. Concerning Beverage Alcohol and Other Narcotics



The physical, mental, social, and emotional nature of the child requires
many interpretative experiences. The school should provide activities which
stimulate and develop intellectual curiosity, critical thinking, keenness of
observation, a sense of fair play, and an appreciation of the beautiful. The
child should have opportunity for contact with other children and adults,
of sharing responsibilities, as well as of enjoying people and friends; and in
participating in activities which will tend to make an appeal to his ideals,
aspirations, and beliefs in order that, his outlook on life may be elevated and
that he may experience to the fullest extent, abundant living.*-(73)

Florida elementary schools should be organized to provide for well-
rounded development of the child, taking into account the problems of both
the child and society. Neither can be considered apart from the other in work-
ing out a satisfactory curriculum. To provide proper learning experiences for
the development of the whole child, the school program will probably be or-
ganized in such a way as to provide for three types of phases of instruction
the integrated, the direct-teaching, and the individual.--(47)
It is desirable that a schedule make provision for at least\ the following:
(1) a general planning period, (2) a general activity and discussion period,
(3) a period for physical activities involving plays, rhythms, music, etc.,
(4) a special practice period for work in skills, (5) a period devoted to indi-
vidual reading and creative work, and (6) a period devoted to conference and
evaluation.- (67)

Within the average child of fifth or sixth grade age, as with
his younger or older brothers, various phases of physical, mental
and emotional growth are taking place, and each phase is inter-
woven with the others. The larger muscles of the child of this
age are beginning to mature. In order to develop coordination
his accessory muscles need activity and conditioning. He (like

*Bulletin No. 9: A Guide to Improved Practice in Florida Elementary Schools. October,
1940. State Department of Education, Tallahassee, Florida.
*Many of the various introductory statements used in this unit come from Bulletin 9.
Such material as has been taken verbatem or adapted directly from this source will be itali-
cized and the page reference number will appear in parenthesis at the end of each quotation.
"*For a more detailed account of the growing child of elementary school age, see Chapter
2, of Bulletin No. 9, A Guide to Improved Practice in Florida Elementary Schools (October,
1940), pp. 17-45, from which most of this section was adapted.


his younger brother) will overexert himself if not restrained
and guided but he should not be required to sit still for more
than thirty minutes at a time. In addition to organized games
and sports, other (more complex) leisure time activities should
be encouraged, such as drawing and playing musical instru-
ments. His mental and emotional status will influence motor
development and determine the self-confidence with which he
attempts to participate in such activities.
Individual differences must be recognized. Boys often are
found to have reached a higher level of maturity than girls of
the same chronological age. And the physical misfits (the thin,
fat, tall, short, lame, or unwell child) must be directed to find
emotional release through appropriate activities. Today Intel-
ligence Quotients are known not to be necessarily fixed. With
some individuals wide variations occur over a period of years.
Each child has his own general pattern but this may vary great-
ly according to certain physical or environmental factors. Defi-
nite academic recommendations should never be made on the
basis of one or even several tests. There may be limits to envi-
ronmental development but if they exist we do not know what
they are. And so for us as teachers they do not exist. The teach-
er's task is to provide experiences which are suited to several
levels of maturity and intelligence. Under such circumstances
the child will ordinarily seek activities which fit his level of de-
The normal child (as well as the adult) desires to be like
others in the group. At the same time he wants to become a
leader. This is one of the basic conflicts of human life-this
desire to follow and to conform. Again the problem of the
school is to provide many types of experiences and necessary
individual guidance. The gang idea (sometimes very strong at
this period) may have great value if properly directed. The
exercise of the gang spirit will make the approval of the group
highly desirable. Children have fine opportunities to learn the
give and take of leadership. In all this they need adult guidance
(counsel that is not interference) as they learn for themselves
to respect the rights of others. Opportunities should not be lost
to utilize the gang spirit through activities within the class room.


The child matures as he progressively widens his feeling of be-
longing from the family to the play group, to the class, and
finally to clubs and other groups.

1. To be studied carefully as an individual different from
all others.
2. To experience a sense of security and affection.
3: To feel that he is one of the group, that he is like the
4. To have opportunities to be active in learning things.
5. To have opportunities to express himself in writing, con-
struction, music, art, dramatics, and in other ways.
6. To have his school work closely related to his experiences
and understandings.
7. To be faced with situations that require critical, creative
thinking and to be able to meet such situations.
8. To understand differences in patterns of living-varia-
tions in attitudes toward different phases of life.
9. To have a well-rounded personality.
10. To have his environment in the school and community
a happy, stimulating one.
11. To have good health, both physically and mentally.
12. To have sympathetic, helpful guidance on his difficult
13. To have an intelligent respect for proper authority.
14. To acquire a sense of responsibility for his own actions
and for participating in group activity.
15. To develop a firm, functional basis for making sound

*Adapted from pp. 84-85 of Bulletin No. 2, Ways to Better Instruction in Florida Schools
(October, 1939), State Department of Education, Tallahassee, Florida.


decisions, and to become increasingly capable of intelligent self-

1. To develop the understanding of how man has constantly
endeavored to improve his living conditions.
2. To develop the understanding that life is dependant upon
the generation of energy.
3. To develop the understanding of the scientific facts and
factors that contribute to happy and effective personal and
social living.
4. To develop an inclination and desire to use materials
wisely and save for the future, based on a real understanding of
this need.
5. To develop an attitude of responsibility for group in-
6. To develop a favorable attitude toward the wholesome
use of leisure time to meet physical and social needs.
7. To develop an attitude that the use of safety precautions
is socially commendable and personally necessary.
8. To develop the attitude of applying the scientific facts
of hygiene in taking care of one's body, and to use this as a basis
for building habits.
9. To develop the attitude of always dealing honestly with
self and with others.
10. To develop habits of speaking and writing correctly
and thoughtfully.
11. To develop good reading habits.
12. To develop the habit of keen and critical observation.
13. To develop a questioning attitude toward much that
is today a generally accepted part of social life and business


practice; an honest, sincere desire to know what lies beneath the
surface of things.
The fifth and sixth grades were studying the newspaper in
connection with language work. They were searching for mis-
printed words, poorly constructed sentences, various kinds of
type, commercial advertising and classified "ads", cost, and the
circulation of the local papers.
A magazine salesman was conducted to our room by our
principal during our discussion of advertising. The salesman
outlined his plan, of how the pupils might earn valuable books
for their class room library by simply selling a few subscriptions
to a nationally known magazine. His offer sounded too good to
at least one keen little boy who bravely spoke up and asked how
the company could afford to print and sell magazines at or below
cost, and still give books as premiums for subscriptions. "But",
he added skeptically, "if they can't make money I don't believe
they would do it."
This attitude pleased the salesman who explained how maga-
zine profits depend upon advertising. He showed the class full
page advertisements from his magazine, and made it clear that
profit or loss for his company ultimately depended almost en-
tirely upon the number of magazines they could sell, by sub-
scription, or otherwise.
After some discussion the group finally, at the suggestion
of the teacher, voted on the matter, and without pressure of
any sort, decided for themselves to carry out a magazine sub-
scription campaign in our town. Incidentally, this campaign
was carried out very successfully and resulted in forty-six ex-
cellent new books for the fifth-sixth grade room "library".
Every person in the room except one took active part in the
outside campaign work, and the pride they felt was incalculable
when the books finally arrived.
After the salesman had left we talked about why "ads"
appeal to people and which ones have most "appeal". We dis-
cussed how advertisements often cause many people to buy re-


gardless of whether the thing for sale is good, harmless, or actu-
ally "bad" for them. Since the children were definitely not
ready to leave the subject, the teacher asked them to bring to
class the next day as many types and sorts of "ads" as possible.
The following morning most of the children came to school
with parts of papers and magazines. They all wanted to talk
and we soon decided that we should classify them according to
the product they were trying to sell.
This activity created much interest. It consisted of placing
each advertisement in one of three groups: "good", "harmless",
or "bad". The "ads" (products) that we were uncertain about
usually went into the "harmless" group, at least until we could
learn more about them.
Up to this time I had purposely not mentioned whiskey,
beer, or alcohol, but I now picked up an "ad" from the "bad"
pile, which pictured very attractive bottles of whiskey beauti-
fully wrapped for the Christmas season. I feigned surprise that
they had placed the pretty picture in the "bad" group. This
precipitated a heated discussion, and I found out definitely what
I already strongly suspected-that the group was already critical
toward or "against" whiskey.
This audacious interest and the expressed desire of the class
to learn the facts back of the "ads", led logically into, the field
of alcohol. I suddenly realized that our unit was already well
under way.
In anticipating this unit I had been studying, planning, and
gathering materials (printed) for over two weeks. My prepa-
ration was invaluable, but even so, the unit was more or less
formulated from day to day by the class as new questions and
problems would arise. I soon realized that we were incorporat-
ing many subjects that had been unthought of by me, into our
study. At about this point we decided to call our unit Alcohol
and Society.
These children had participated in working out a unit in
alcohol education the year before. At that time they had learned

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